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Sample records for developmentally-regulated promoters distinguish

  1. Developmental Regulation of the Collagenase-3 Promoter in Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Yang, Y.; DAlonzo, R. C.; Winchester, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that collagenase-3 MRNA is developmentally expressed in normal, differentiating rat osteoblasts. In vivo, the gene is expressed in a tissue-specific fashion in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts and developmentally regulated. Our studies aim at determining the promoter elements and proteins binding to the promoter responsible for tissue and developmental regulation of collagenase-3.

  2. REN: a novel, developmentally regulated gene that promotes neural cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Rita; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Alesse, Edoardo; Mincione, Claudia; Borello, Ugo; Buanne, Pasquale; D'Eugenio, Roberta; Mackay, Andrew R; Argenti, Beatrice; Gradini, Roberto; Russo, Matteo A; Maroder, Marella; Cossu, Giulio; Frati, Luigi; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto

    2002-08-19

    Expansion and fate choice of pluripotent stem cells along the neuroectodermal lineage is regulated by a number of signals, including EGF, retinoic acid, and NGF, which also control the proliferation and differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) neural progenitor cells. We report here the identification of a novel gene, REN, upregulated by neurogenic signals (retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF) in pluripotent embryonal stem (ES) cells and neural progenitor cell lines in association with neurotypic differentiation. Consistent with a role in neural promotion, REN overexpression induced neuronal differentiation as well as growth arrest and p27Kip1 expression in CNS and PNS neural progenitor cell lines, and its inhibition impaired retinoic acid induction of neurogenin-1 and NeuroD expression. REN expression is developmentally regulated, initially detected in the neural fold epithelium of the mouse embryo during gastrulation, and subsequently throughout the ventral neural tube, the outer layer of the ventricular encephalic neuroepithelium and in neural crest derivatives including dorsal root ganglia. We propose that REN represents a novel component of the neurogenic signaling cascade induced by retinoic acid, EGF, and NGF, and is both a marker and a regulator of neuronal differentiation.

  3. The beta 1 integrin distal promoter is developmentally regulated in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, E; Balzac, F; Pastore, C; Tarone, G; Silengo, L; Altruda, F

    1993-12-01

    Transgenic mice harbouring 5' flanking sequences of the human beta 1 integrin gene linked to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene have been generated to examine spatial and temporal distribution of the promoter activity during development. Our previous data showed that this regulatory region is composed by two promoters, called distal and proximal, located closely on the human genome. To determine the role of each promoter region during development we generated transgenic mice using these two sequences linked to the lacZ reporter gene. Their analysis shows that these two sequences, as determined by in vitro studies, have different efficiencies in promoting transcription. Actually mice carrying the proximal promoter region exhibit a weak lacZ expression resulting in an undetectable beta-galactosidase activity in both embryonic and adult tissues. On the other hand, transgenic mice carrying the distal promoter express beta-galactosidase at high efficiency during embryonic development. The pattern of transgene expression is consistent with the localization of beta 1 protein on mouse embryos evidenced by immunohistochemistry. Moreover the distal promoter is subjected to a temporal modulation since in adult transgenic mice lacZ expression decreases to a level detected only by RT-PCR analysis. We have determined a similar down-regulation analysing by Northern blot beta 1 mRNA in adult and embryonic organs such as heart and gut.

  4. Developmentally regulated promoter-switch transcriptionally controls Runx1 function during embryonic hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pozner, Amir; Lotem, Joseph; Xiao, Cuiying; Goldenberg, Dalia; Brenner, Ori; Negreanu, Varda; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternative promoters usage is an important paradigm in transcriptional control of mammalian gene expression. However, despite the growing interest in alternative promoters and their role in genome diversification, very little is known about how and on what occasions those promoters are differentially regulated. Runx1 transcription factor is a key regulator of early hematopoiesis and a frequent target of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias. Mice deficient in Runx1 lack definitive hematopoiesis and die in mid-gestation. Expression of Runx1 is regulated by two functionally distinct promoters designated P1 and P2. Differential usage of these two promoters creates diversity in distribution and protein-coding potential of the mRNA transcripts. While the alternative usage of P1 and P2 likely plays an important role in Runx1 biology, very little is known about the function of the P1/P2 switch in mediating tissue and stage specific expression of Runx1 during development. Results We employed mice bearing a hypomorphic Runx1 allele, with a largely diminished P2 activity, to investigate the biological role of alternative P1/P2 usage. Mice homozygous for the hypomorphic allele developed to term, but died within a few days after birth. During embryogenesis the P1/P2 activity is spatially and temporally modulated. P2 activity is required in early hematopoiesis and when attenuated, development of liver hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) was impaired. Early thymus development and thymopoiesis were also abrogated as reflected by thymic hypocellularity and loss of corticomedullary demarcation. Differentiation of CD4/CD8 thymocytes was impaired and their apoptosis was enhanced due to altered expression of T-cell receptors. Conclusion The data delineate the activity of P1 and P2 in embryogenesis and describe previously unknown functions of Runx1. The findings show unequivocally that the role of P1/P2 during development is non redundant and underscore the

  5. The promoter of the CD11b gene directs myeloid-specific and developmentally regulated expression.

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, C S; Arnaout, M A

    1991-01-01

    Human CD11b/CD18 (complement receptor type 3) is a member of the beta 2 integrin subfamily which also includes the heterodimers CD11a/CD18 and CD11c/CD18. The CD11 molecules and the common CD18 are the products of different genes that exhibit distinct though overlapping patterns of tissue- and developmental-specific expression. Whereas expression of CD11b and CD11c is almost exclusively restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage, that of CD11a and CD18 is panleukocytic. To begin to understand the mechanisms by which expression of these gene products is restricted to leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations and to elucidate the mechanisms by which their expression is coordinated, we have cloned and characterized the promoter region of the CD11b gene. A single transcription initiation site has been identified and the region extending 242 base pairs upstream and 71 base pairs downstream of this site has been shown to be sufficient to direct tissue-, cell-, and development-specific expression in vitro, which mimics that of the CD11b gene in vivo. Within this region there are potential binding sites for transcription factors known to be involved in hematopoietic-specific and phorbol ester-inducible gene expression. Further analysis of this region of the CD11b gene and comparison with the promoters of the CD11a, CD11c, and CD18 genes should lead to significant insights into the molecular mechanisms by which these genes are regulated during hematopoietic development and upon activation. Images PMID:1683702

  6. The Transcriptional Modulator Interferon-Related Developmental Regulator 1 in Osteoblasts Suppresses Bone Formation and Promotes Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Ozaki, Kakeru; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yukari; Fujikawa, Koichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio; Yamashita, Yui; Shioi, Go; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Although interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) has been identified as a transcriptional coactivator/repressor in various cells, little attention has been paid to its role in osteoblastogenesis and bone homeostasis thus far. Here, we show that Ifrd1 is a critical mediator of both the cell-autonomous regulation of osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast-dependent regulation of osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblast-specific deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, causing high bone mass. Ifrd1 deficiency enhanced osteoblast differentiation and maturation along with increased expression of Runx2 and osterix (Osx). Mechanistically, Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation status of p65, a component of NF-κB, at residues K122 and K123 via the attenuation of the interaction between p65 and histone deacetylase (HDAC). This led to the nuclear export of p65 and a decrease in NF-κB-dependent Smad7 expression and the subsequent enhancement of Smad1/Smad5/Smad8-dependent transcription. Moreover, a high bone mass phenotype in the osteoblast-specific deletion of Ifrd1 was markedly rescued by the introduction of one Osx-floxed allele but not of Runx2-floxed allele. Coculture experiments revealed that Ifrd1-deficient osteoblasts have a higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression and a lower ability to support osteoclastogenesis. Ifrd1 deficiency attenuated the interaction between β-catenin and HDAC, subsequently increasing the acetylation of β-catenin at K49, leading to its nuclear accumulation and the activation of the β-catenin-dependent transcription of OPG. Collectively, the expression of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts repressed osteoblastogenesis and activated osteoclastogenesis through modulating the NF-κB/Smad/Osx and β-catenin/OPG pathways, respectively. These findings suggest that Ifrd1 has a pivotal role in bone

  7. Developmentally Regulated Linker Histone H1c Promotes Heterochromatin Condensation and Mediates Structural Integrity of Rod Photoreceptors in Mouse Retina*

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.; Fan, Yuhong; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Zhang, Samuel S.; Barnstable, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Mature rod photoreceptor cells contain very small nuclei with tightly condensed heterochromatin. We observed that during mouse rod maturation, the nucleosomal repeat length increases from 190 bp at postnatal day 1 to 206 bp in the adult retina. At the same time, the total level of linker histone H1 increased reaching the ratio of 1.3 molecules of total H1 per nucleosome, mostly via a dramatic increase in H1c. Genetic elimination of the histone H1c gene is functionally compensated by other histone variants. However, retinas in H1c/H1e/H10 triple knock-outs have photoreceptors with bigger nuclei, decreased heterochromatin area, and notable morphological changes suggesting that the process of chromatin condensation and rod cell structural integrity are partly impaired. In triple knock-outs, nuclear chromatin exposed several epigenetic histone modification marks masked in the wild type chromatin. Dramatic changes in exposure of a repressive chromatin mark, H3K9me2, indicate that during development linker histone plays a role in establishing the facultative heterochromatin territory and architecture in the nucleus. During retina development, the H1c gene and its promoter acquired epigenetic patterns typical of rod-specific genes. Our data suggest that histone H1c gene expression is developmentally up-regulated to promote facultative heterochromatin in mature rod photoreceptors. PMID:23645681

  8. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species.

  9. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  10. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  11. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  12. Endocytosis of cholera toxin by human enterocytes is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Khan, Sameer; Lencer, Wayne; Walker, W Allan

    2005-08-01

    Many secretory diarrheas including cholera are more prevalent and fulminant in young infants than in older children and adults. Cholera toxin (CT) elicits a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response in intestinal epithelia, which accounts for the fundamental pathogenesis of this toxigenic diarrhea. We have previously reported that the action of this bacterial enterotoxin is excessive in immature enterocytes and under developmental regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced endocytosis by immature human enterocytes may, in part, account for the excessive secretory response to CT noted in the immature intestine and that enterocyte endocytosis of CT is developmentally regulated. To test this hypothesis, we used specific inhibitors to define endocytic pathways in mature and immature cell lines. We showed that internalization of CT in adult enterocytes is less and occurs via the caveolae/raft-mediated pathway in contrast to an enhanced immature human enterocyte CT uptake that occurs via a clathrin pathway. We also present evidence that this clathrin pathway is developmentally regulated as demonstrated by its response to corticosteroids, a known maturation factor that causes a decreased CT endocytosis by this pathway.

  13. New tools for the identification of developmentally regulated enhancer regions in embryonic and adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Mitchell P; Krauss, Jana; Koehler, Carla; Boden, Cindy; Harris, Matthew P

    2013-03-01

    We have conducted a screen to identify developmentally regulated enhancers that drive tissue-specific Gal4 expression in zebrafish. We obtained 63 stable transgenic lines with expression patterns in embryonic or adult zebrafish. The use of a newly identified minimal promoter from the medaka edar locus resulted in a relatively unbiased set of expression patterns representing many tissue types derived from all germ layers. Subsequent detailed characterization of selected lines showed strong and reproducible Gal4-driven GFP expression in diverse tissues, including neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems, pigment cells, erythrocytes, and peridermal cells. By screening adults for GFP expression, we also isolated lines expressed in tissues of the adult zebrafish, including scales, fin rays, and joints. The new and efficient minimal promoter and large number of transactivating driver-lines we identified will provide the zebrafish community with a useful resource for further enhancer trap screening, as well as precise investigation of tissue-specific processes in vivo.

  14. Developmental regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shoba, L; An, M R; Frank, S J; Lowe, W L

    1999-06-25

    promoter of the rat IGF-I gene and is important for basal promoter activity in vitro, was examined. Gel shift analyses using a 34-base pair oligonucleotide that contained IGFI-FP1 did not demonstrate changes in protein binding that paralleled those in IGF-I gene expression, suggesting that protein binding to IGFI-FP1 does not contribute to the developmental regulation of IGF-I gene expression, at least in brain and liver. In summary, the present studies demonstrate coordinate expression of the IGF-I gene and GH receptor during development and suggest that GH receptor expression contributes to the tissue specific expression of the IGF-I gene during development.

  15. Light-independent developmental regulation of cab gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Brusslan, J A; Tobin, E M

    1992-01-01

    We found a transient increase in the amount of mRNA for four nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins during early development of Arabidopsis thaliana. This increase began soon after germination as cotyledons emerged from the seed coat; it occurred in total darkness and was not affected by external factors, such as gibberellins or light treatments used to stimulate germination. Three members of the cab gene family and the rbcS-1A gene exhibited this expression pattern. Because timing of the increase coincided with cotyledon emergence and because it occurred independently of external stimuli, we suggest that this increase represents developmental regulation of these genes. Further, 1.34 kilobases of the cab1 promoter was sufficient to confer this expression pattern on a reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. The ability of the cab genes to respond to phytochrome preceded this developmental increase, showing that these two types of regulation are independent. Images PMID:1380166

  16. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  17. The developmentally regulated avian protein IFAPa-400 is transitin.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Charron, F; Cole, G J; Savard, P E; Vincent, M

    1998-07-01

    Transitin and IFAPa-400 are developmentally regulated high M(r) proteins expressed transiently in early chick embryogenesis. Both are associated with radially oriented fibers in the developing CNS and with various neural and myogenic tissues before their down-regulation at later stages. Previous studies have shown that IFAPa-400 colocalized and copurified with intermediate filament proteins and recent molecular cloning has indicated that transitin is a member of this family of cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we provide evidence that IFAPa-400 and transitin are the same protein. The sequence of a composite cDNA corresponding to more than 700 amino acids of IFAPa-400 carboxy-terminal extremity is identical to that of transitin. Both proteins exhibit identical apparent M(r) and isoelectric point. Immunopurified IFAPa-400 reacts with different antibodies to transitin and vice-versa. The patterns of expression of both proteins show a perfect coincidence at the tissue level. At the subcellular level, most antibodies to IFAPa-400/transitin decorate a typical intermediate filament network. However, monoclonal antibody A2B11, at the origin of transitin identification, exhibits a staining more typical of a cortical component, suggesting that different populations of transitin exist within the cell.

  18. Developmental regulation of calcium-dependent feedback in Xenopus rods

    PubMed Central

    Solessio, Eduardo; Mani, Shobana S.; Cuenca, Nicolas; Engbretson, Gustav A.; Barlow, Robert B.; Knox, Barry E.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of activation and inactivation in the phototransduction pathway of developing Xenopus rods were studied. The gain of the activation steps in transduction (amplification) increased and photoresponses became more rapid as the rods matured from the larval to the adult stage. The time to peak was significantly shorter in adults (1.3 s) than tadpoles (2 s). Moreover, adult rods recovered twice as fast from saturating flashes than did larval rods without changes of the dominant time constant (2.5 s). Guanylate cyclase (GC) activity, determined using IBMX steps, increased in adult rods from ∼1.1 s−1 to 3.7 s−1 5 s after a saturating flash delivering 6,000 photoisomerizations. In larval rods, it increased from 1.8 s−1 to 4.0 s−1 9 s after an equivalent flash. However, the ratio of amplification to the measured dark phosphodiesterase activity was constant. Guanylate cyclase–activating protein (GCAP1) levels and normalized Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger currents were increased in adults compared with tadpoles. Together, these results are consistent with the acceleration of the recovery phase in adult rods via developmental regulation of calcium homeostasis. Despite these large changes, the single photon response amplitude was ∼0.6 pA throughout development. Reduction of calcium feedback with BAPTA increased adult single photon response amplitudes threefold and reduced its cutoff frequency to that observed with tadpole rods. Linear mathematical modeling suggests that calcium-dependent feedback can account for the observed differences in the power spectra of larval and adult rods. We conclude that larval Xenopus maximize sensitivity at the expense of slower response kinetics while adults maximize response kinetics at the expense of sensitivity. PMID:15504902

  19. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system.

  20. Composite response elements mediate hormonal and developmental regulation of milk protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J M; Zahnow, C; Kazansky, A; Raught, B

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has been studying the mechanisms by which hormones regulate the expression of differentiated function in the normal mammary gland and how these regulatory mechanisms have deviated in breast cancer. Two rat milk protein genes, encoding beta-casein and whey acidic protein, have been employed as molecular markers of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Composite response elements containing multiple binding sites for several transcription factors mediate the hormonal and developmental regulation of milk protein gene expression. In the whey protein gene promoters, these include binding sites for nuclear factor (NF)-I, as well as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat5). In the casein promoters, these include binding sites for Stat5, Yin Yang 1 (YY1), GR and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). The C/EBP family of DNA binding proteins may play a pivotal role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in mammary epithelial cells. During normal mammary gland development, expression of LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein, a dominant-negative isoform of C/EBP beta) is hormonally regulated and correlates with cell proliferation during pregnancy. LIP can form heterodimers with other C/EBP family members and suppress their transcriptional activity. In contrast, C/EBP alpha is predominantly expressed during lactation following terminal differentiation. Elevated LIP levels have been detected in mouse, rat and human breast tumours of different aetiologies. This provides a mechanism, therefore, to block terminal differentiation and facilitate continued proliferation.

  1. Approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay to distinguish initiating agents (incomplete carcinogens), promoting agents, complete carcinogens, and noncarcinogens in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsworthy, T.L.; Pitot, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Utilizing data obtained from the published literature as well as further observations, the experimental findings reported in this paper serve to indicate an approach to the development of a short-term whole-animal bioassay capable of distinguishing agents that act at one or the other or both of the stages of initiation and promotion in rat liver. Because of the tissue specificity for both complete carcinogens and promoting agents, this bioassay system is not likely to identify the initiating and promoting capabilities of all carcinogenic agents and, thus, at present is not designed to replace the standard chronic bioassay systems. However, in view of the diverse metabolic capabilities of hepatic tissue, the system proposed may represent a model capable of distinguishing the stages of carcinogenesis at which many, if not most, specific carcinogenic chemicals exert their primary action. Test agents included diethylnitrosamine, dimethylbenzanthracene, proflavin, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and red beet betalain pigments.

  2. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Luccioli, Stefano; Bonifazi, Paolo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in developing neuronal circuits, typically composed of only excitatory cells, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally regulated constraints on single neuron excitability and connectivity leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity. This work is part of the activity of the Joint Italian-Israeli Laboratory on Integrative Network Neuroscience supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  3. CRTR-1, a developmentally regulated transcriptional repressor related to the CP2 family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Rodda, S; Sharma, S; Scherer, M; Chapman, G; Rathjen, P

    2001-02-02

    CP2-related proteins comprise a family of DNA-binding transcription factors that are generally activators of transcription and expressed ubiquitously. We reported a differential display polymerase chain reaction fragment, Psc2, which was expressed in a regulated fashion in mouse pluripotent cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report further characterization of the Psc2 cDNA and function. The Psc2 cDNA contained an open reading frame homologous to CP2 family proteins. Regions implicated in DNA binding and oligomeric complex formation, but not transcription activation, were conserved. Psc2 expression in vivo during embryogenesis and in the adult mouse demonstrated tight spatial and temporal regulation, with the highest levels of expression in the epithelial lining of distal convoluted tubules in embryonic and adult kidneys. Functional analysis demonstrated that PSC2 repressed transcription 2.5-15-fold when bound to a heterologous promoter in ES, 293T, and COS-1 cells. The N-terminal 52 amino acids of PSC2 were shown to be necessary and sufficient for this activity and did not share obvious homology with reported repressor motifs. These results represent the first report of a CP2 family member that is expressed in a developmentally regulated fashion in vivo and that acts as a direct repressor of transcription. Accordingly, the protein has been named CP2-Related Transcriptional Repressor-1 (CRTR-1).

  4. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult…

  5. Reduced Il17a expression distinguishes a Ly6c(lo)MHCII(hi) macrophage population promoting wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rodero, Mathieu P; Hodgson, Samantha S; Hollier, Brett; Combadiere, Christophe; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2013-03-01

    Macrophages are the main components of inflammation during skin wound healing. They are critical in wound closure and in excessive inflammation, resulting in defective healing observed in chronic wounds. Given the heterogeneity of macrophage phenotypes and functions, we here hypothesized that different subpopulations of macrophages would have different and sometimes opposing effects on wound healing. Using multimarker flow cytometry and RNA expression array analyses on macrophage subpopulations from wound granulation tissue, we identified a Ly6c(lo)MHCII(hi) "noninflammatory" subset that increased both in absolute number and proportion during normal wound healing and was missing in Ob/Ob and MYD88-/- models of delayed healing. We also identified IL17 as the main cytokine distinguishing this population from proinflammatory macrophages and demonstrated that inhibition of IL17 by blocking Ab or in IL17A-/- mice accelerated normal and delayed healing. These findings dissect the complexity of the role and activity of the macrophages during wound inflammation and may contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches to restore healing in chronic wounds.

  6. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  7. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  8. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  9. The mouse Crx 5'-upstream transgene sequence directs cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression in retinal photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akiko; Koike, Chieko; Lippincott, Pia; Cepko, Constance L; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2002-03-01

    Crx, an Otx-like homeobox gene, is expressed primarily in the photoreceptors of the retina and in the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. The CRX homeodomain protein is a transactivator of many photoreceptor/pineal-specific genes in vivo, such as rhodopsin and the cone opsins. Mutations in Crx are associated with the retinal diseases, cone-rod dystrophy-2, retinitis pigmentosa, and Leber's congenital amaurosis, which lead to loss of vision. We have generated transgenic mice, using 5'- and/or 3'-flanking sequences from the mouse Crx homeobox gene fused to the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene, and we have investigated the promoter function of the cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression of Crx. All of the independent transgenic lines commonly showed lacZ expression in the photoreceptor cells of the retina and in the pinealocytes of the pineal gland. We characterized the transgenic lines in detail for cell-specific lacZ expression patterns by 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside staining and lacZ immunostaining. The lacZ expression was observed in developing and developed photoreceptor cells. This observation was confirmed by coimmunostaining of dissociated retinal cells with the lacZ and opsin antibodies. The ontogeny analysis indicated that the lacZ expression completely agrees with a temporal expression pattern of Crx during retinal development. This study demonstrates that the mouse Crx 5'-upstream genomic sequence is capable of directing a cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression of Crx in photoreceptor cells.

  10. A developmentally regulated Myb domain protein regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M.; Hackney, Jason A.; Singh, Upinder

    2012-01-01

    Summary Conversion between a cyst and trophozoite stage is essential to disease transmission and pathogenesis in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica. A transcriptomic analysis of E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites has recently been accomplished, but the molecular basis of the regulation of encystation is not known. We have now identified a developmentally regulated Myb protein (belonging to the SHAQKY family of Myb proteins), which controls expression of a subset of amebic stage-specific genes. Overexpression of the nuclear localized Myb protein resulted in a transcriptome that overlapped significantly with the expression profile of amebic cysts. Analysis of promoters from genes regulated by the Myb protein identified a CCCCCC promoter motif to which amebic nuclear protein(s) bind in a sequence-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the E. histolytica Myb protein binds directly to promoters of genes which contain the CCCCCC motif and which are regulated by the Myb protein. This work is the first identification of a transcription factor, which regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in E. histolytica. Identification of transcriptional regulatory networks that control developmental pathways will provide novel insights into the biology of this important human pathogen. PMID:19239479

  11. A developmentally regulated Myb domain protein regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Ehrenkaufer, Gretchen M; Hackney, Jason A; Singh, Upinder

    2009-06-01

    Conversion between a cyst and trophozoite stage is essential to disease transmission and pathogenesis in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica. A transcriptomic analysis of E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites has recently been accomplished, but the molecular basis of the regulation of encystation is not known. We have now identified a developmentally regulated Myb protein (belonging to the SHAQKY family of Myb proteins), which controls expression of a subset of amoebic stage-specific genes. Overexpression of the nuclear localized Myb protein resulted in a transcriptome that overlapped significantly with the expression profile of amoebic cysts. Analysis of promoters from genes regulated by the Myb protein identified a CCCCCC promoter motif to which amoebic nuclear protein(s) bind in a sequence-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that the E. histolytica Myb protein binds to promoters of genes which contain the CCCCCC motif and which are regulated by the Myb protein. This work is the first identification of a transcription factor, which regulates expression of a subset of stage-specific genes in E. histolytica. Identification of transcriptional regulatory networks that control developmental pathways will provide novel insights into the biology of this important human pathogen.

  12. Developmentally regulated ceramide synthase 6 increases mitochondrial Ca2+ loading capacity and promotes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, Sergei A; Chudakova, Daria A; Wheeler, Brian W; Bielawski, Jacek; Kindy, Mark S; Obeid, Lina M; Gudz, Tatyana I

    2011-02-11

    Ceramides, which are membrane sphingolipids and key mediators of cell-stress responses, are generated by a family of (dihydro) ceramide synthases (Lass1-6/CerS1-6). Here, we report that brain development features significant increases in sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and most ceramide species. In contrast, C(16:0)-ceramide was gradually reduced and CerS6 was down-regulated in mitochondria, thereby implicating CerS6 as a primary ceramide synthase generating C(16:0)-ceramide. Investigations into the role of CerS6 in mitochondria revealed that ceramide synthase down-regulation is associated with dramatically decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+)-loading capacity, which could be rescued by addition of ceramide. Selective CerS6 complexing with the inner membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore was detected by immunoprecipitation. This suggests that CerS6-generated ceramide could prevent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, leading to increased Ca(2+) accumulation in the mitochondrial matrix. We examined the effect of high CerS6 expression on cell survival in primary oligodendrocyte (OL) precursor cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death during early postnatal brain development. Exposure of OLs to glutamate resulted in apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, myriocin and fumonisin B1. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA reduced glutamate-triggered OL apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CerS5 had no effect: the pro-apoptotic role of CerS6 was not stimulus-specific. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA improved cell survival in response to nerve growth factor-induced OL apoptosis. Also, blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake or decreasing Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain activity with specific inhibitors prevented OL apoptosis. Finally, knocking down CerS6 decreased calpain activation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role for CerS6 in the regulation of both mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and calpain, which appears to be important in OL apoptosis during brain development.

  13. Arabidopsis CYP98A3 Mediating Aromatic 3-Hydroxylation. Developmental Regulation of the Gene, and Expression in Yeast1

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ramesh B.; Xia, Qun; Kartha, Cyril J.; Kurylo, Eugen; Hirji, Rozina N.; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2002-01-01

    The general phenylpropanoid pathways generate a wide array of aromatic secondary metabolites that range from monolignols, which are ubiquitous in all plants, to sinapine, which is confined to crucifer seeds. The biosynthesis of these compounds involves hydroxylated and methoxylated cinnamyl acid, aldehyde, or alcohol intermediates. Of the three enzymes originally proposed to hydroxylate the 4-, 3-, and 5-positions of the aromatic ring, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which converts trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, is the best characterized and is also the archetypal plant P450 monooxygenase. Ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase (F5H), a P450 that catalyzes 5-hydroxylation, has also been studied, but the presumptive 3-hydroxylase converting p-coumarate to caffeate has been elusive. We have found that Arabidopsis CYP98A3, also a P450, could hydroxylate p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid in vivo when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, albeit very slowly. CYP98A3 transcript was found in Arabidopsis stem and silique, resembling both C4H and F5H in this respect. CYP98A3 showed further resemblance to C4H in being highly active in root, but differed from F5H in this regard. In transgenic Arabidopsis, the promoters of CYP98A3 and C4H showed wound inducibility and a comparable developmental regulation throughout the life cycle, except in seeds, where the CYP98A3 promoter construct was inactive while remaining active in silique walls. Within stem and root tissue, the gene product and the promoter activity of CYP98A3 were most abundant in lignifying cells. Collectively, these studies show involvement of CYP98A3 in the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, and suggest a downstream function for CYP98A3 relative to the broader and upstream role of C4H. PMID:12226501

  14. Insertion of an imprinted insulator into the IgH locus reveals developmentally regulated, transcription-dependent control of V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Puget, Nadine; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Hu, Ngoc-Sa Nguyen; Laviolette-Malirat, Nathalie; Feil, Robert; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of antigen receptor loci requires a developmentally regulated and lineage-specific recombination between variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments through V(D)J recombination. The process is regulated by accessibility control elements, including promoters, insulators, and enhancers. The IgH locus undergoes two recombination steps, D-J(H) and then V(H)-DJ(H), but it is unclear how the availability of the DJ(H) substrate could influence the subsequent V(H)-DJ(H) recombination step. The Eμ enhancer plays a critical role in V(D)J recombination and controls a set of sense and antisense transcripts. We epigenetically perturbed the early events at the IgH locus by inserting the imprinting control region (ICR) of the Igf2/H19 locus or a transcriptional insulator devoid of the imprinting function upstream of the Eμ enhancer. The insertions recapitulated the main epigenetic features of their endogenous counterparts, including differential DNA methylation and binding of CTCF/cohesins. Whereas the D-J(H) recombination step was unaffected, both the insulator insertions led to a severe impairment of V(H)-DJ(H) recombination. Strikingly, the inhibition of V(H)-DJ(H) recombination correlated consistently with a strong reduction of DJ(H) transcription and incomplete demethylation. Thus, developmentally regulated transcription following D-J(H) recombination emerges as an important mechanism through which the Eμ enhancer controls V(H)-DJ(H) recombination.

  15. Developmental regulation of a proinsulin messenger RNA generated by intron retention

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Carmen; de la Rosa, Enrique J; García-Martínez, Virginio; Martínez-Salas, Encarna; de Pablo, Flora; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina

    2005-01-01

    Proinsulin gene expression regulation and function during early embryonic development differ remarkably from those found in postnatal organisms. The embryonic proinsulin protein content decreased from gastrulation to neurulation in contrast with the overall proinsulin messenger RNA increase. This is due to increasing levels of a proinsulin mRNA variant generated by intron 1 retention in the 5′ untranslated region. Inclusion of intron 1 inhibited proinsulin translation almost completely without affecting nuclear export or cytoplasmic decay. The novel proinsulin mRNA isoform expression was developmentally regulated and tissue specific. The proportion of intron retention increased from gastrulation to organogenesis, was highest in the heart tube and presomitic region, and could not be detected in the pancreas. Notably, proinsulin addition induced cardiac marker gene expression in the early embryonic stages when the translationally active transcript was expressed. We propose that regulated unproductive splicing and translation is a mechanism that regulates proinsulin expression in accordance with specific requirements in developing vertebrates. PMID:16179943

  16. Developmental regulation of transcription by a tissue-specific TAF homolog

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Mark A.; Lin, Ting-Yi; Wood, Cricket; Fuller, Margaret T.

    2001-01-01

    Alternate forms of the general transcription machinery have been described in several tissues or cell types. However, the role of tissue-specific TBP-associated factors (TAFIIs) and other tissue-specific transcription components in regulating differential gene expression during development was not clear. Here we show that the cannonball gene of Drosophila encodes a cell type-specific homolog of a more ubiquitously expressed component of the general transcription factor TFIID. cannonball is required in vivo for high level transcription of a set of stage- and tissue-specific target genes during male gametogenesis. Regulation of transcription by cannonball is absolutely required for spermatogenesis, as null mutations block meiotic cell cycle progression and result in a complete failure of spermatid differentiation. Our results demonstrate that cell type-specific TAFIIs play an important role in developmental regulation of gene expression. PMID:11316795

  17. Developmental regulation of transcription by a tissue-specific TAF homolog.

    PubMed

    Hiller, M A; Lin, T Y; Wood, C; Fuller, M T

    2001-04-15

    Alternate forms of the general transcription machinery have been described in several tissues or cell types. However, the role of tissue-specific TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s) and other tissue-specific transcription components in regulating differential gene expression during development was not clear. Here we show that the cannonball gene of Drosophila encodes a cell type-specific homolog of a more ubiquitously expressed component of the general transcription factor TFIID. cannonball is required in vivo for high level transcription of a set of stage- and tissue-specific target genes during male gametogenesis. Regulation of transcription by cannonball is absolutely required for spermatogenesis, as null mutations block meiotic cell cycle progression and result in a complete failure of spermatid differentiation. Our results demonstrate that cell type-specific TAF(II)s play an important role in developmental regulation of gene expression.

  18. Developmentally regulated localization of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in different tissue layers of coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-06-01

    In adult cnidarians, symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium are usually located in the gastrodermis. However, the onset of this endosymbiotic association and its regulation during larval development are unclear. This study examined the distribution of the Symbiodinium population in tissue layers of planula larvae released from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens. Symbiodinium were redistributed from the epidermis to the gastrodermis, at a rate that was fastest during early planulation and then decreased prior to metamorphosis. This process indicates that the endosymbiotic activity of coral tissues is developmentally regulated. During the early larval stage, both the epidermis and gastrodermis contained Symbiodinium; then, as the larvae developed toward metamorphosis, the numbers in the epidermis gradually diminished until they were only found in the gastrodermis. The mechanism of redistribution remains unknown, but may be due to a direct translocation and/or change in the proliferation of symbionts in different tissue layers.

  19. The Developmental Regulator SEEDSTICK Controls Structural and Mechanical Properties of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat.

    PubMed

    Ezquer, Ignacio; Mizzotti, Chiara; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Gotté, Maxime; Beauzamy, Léna; Viana, Vivian Ebeling; Dubrulle, Nelly; Costa de Oliveira, Antonio; Caporali, Elisabetta; Koroney, Abdoul-Salam; Boudaoud, Arezki; Driouich, Azeddine; Colombo, Lucia

    2016-10-01

    Although many transcription factors involved in cell wall morphogenesis have been identified and studied, it is still unknown how genetic and molecular regulation of cell wall biosynthesis is integrated into developmental programs. We demonstrate by molecular genetic studies that SEEDSTICK (STK), a transcription factor controlling ovule and seed integument identity, directly regulates PMEI6 and other genes involved in the biogenesis of the cellulose-pectin matrix of the cell wall. Based on atomic force microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and chemical analyses, we propose that structural modifications of the cell wall matrix in the stk mutant contribute to defects in mucilage release and seed germination under water-stress conditions. Our studies reveal a molecular network controlled by STK that regulates cell wall properties of the seed coat, demonstrating that developmental regulators controlling organ identity also coordinate specific aspects of cell wall characteristics.

  20. A developmentally regulated switch directs regenerative growth of Schwann cells through cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Kim, H A; Pomeroy, S L; Whoriskey, W; Pawlitzky, I; Benowitz, L I; Sicinski, P; Stiles, C D; Roberts, T M

    2000-05-01

    Sciatic nerve axons in cyclin D1 knockout mice develop normally, become properly ensheathed by Schwann cells, and appear to function normally. However, in the Wallerian degeneration model of nerve injury, the mitotic response of Schwann cells is completely inhibited. The mitotic block is Schwann cell autonomous and developmentally regulated. Rescue analysis (by "knockin" of cyclin E) indicates that D1 protein, rather than regulatory elements of the D1 gene, provides the essential Schwann cell function. Genetic inhibition of the Schwann cell cycle shows that neuronal responses to nerve injury are surprisingly independent of Schwann cell mitotic responses. Even axonal regrowth into the distal zone of a nerve crush injury is not markedly impaired in cyclin D1-/- mice.

  1. A developmentally regulated MAP kinase activated by hydration in tobacco pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Voronin, V; Touraev, A; Vicente, O; Heberle-Bors, E

    1997-01-01

    A novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway has been identified in tobacco. This pathway is developmentally regulated during pollen maturation and is activated by hydration during pollen germination. Analysis of different stages of pollen development showed that transcriptional and translational induction of MAP kinase synthesis occurs at the mid-bicellular stage of pollen maturation. However, the MAP kinase is stored in an inactive form in the mature, dry pollen grain. Kinase activation is very rapid after hydration of the dry pollen, peaking at approximately 5 min and decreasing thereafter. Immunoprecipitation of the kinase activity by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody is consistent with the activation of a MAP kinase. The kinetics of activation suggest that the MAP kinase plays a role in the activation of the pollen grain after hydration rather than in pollen tube growth. PMID:9401129

  2. Cyclic AMP stabilizes a class of developmentally regulated Dictyostelium discoideum mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, G; Ceccarelli, A; Lodish, H F

    The stability of mRNA is an important facet of the regulation of protein synthesis. In mammalian cells most mRNAs have long half-lives (5-15 hours) but a substantial fraction are much less stable. There are few examples where the stability of a particular mRNA or class of mRNAs is specifically affected by environmental or developmental stimuli. Certain hormones cause specific stabilization of mRNAs species and preferential mRNA stability is important in the accumulation of globin and myosin mRNAs during the terminal stages of erythropoesis or myogenesis, respectively. Disaggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates induces the specific destabilization of a large class of developmentally regulated mRNAs; thus, this system is an excellent one in which to determine how such controls are effected. Here we show that addition of cyclic AMP to disaggregated cells specifically prevents the destabilization of these mRNAs.

  3. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated. Images PMID:1438194

  4. Retinoic acid is enriched in Hensen's node and is developmentally regulated in the early chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Huang, L; Russo, A F; Solursh, M

    1992-11-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) has been considered as a potential morphogen in the chicken limb and has also been suggested to be involved in early embryonic development. On the basis of biological activity, previous reports suggest that Hensen's node, the anatomical equivalent in the chicken of the Spemann's organizer, may contain RA. Here, by using a molecular assay system, we demonstrate that Hensen's node contains retinoids in a concentration approximately 20 times more than that in the neighboring tissues. Furthermore, stage 6 Hensen's node contains approximately 3 times more retinoid than that of stage 4 embryos. These endogenous retinoids may establish a concentration gradient from Hensen's node to adjacent tissues and play a role in establishing the primary embryonic axis in the vertebrate. The results also suggest that the retinoid concentration in Hensen's node is developmentally regulated.

  5. Identification of a novel microtubule binding and assembly domain in the developmentally regulated inter-repeat region of tau.

    PubMed

    Goode, B L; Feinstein, S C

    1994-03-01

    Tau is a developmentally regulated microtubule-associated protein that influences microtubule behavior by directly associating with tubulin. The carboxyl terminus of tau contains multiple 18-amino acid repeats that bind microtubules and are separated by 13-14-amino acid inter-repeat (IR) regions previously thought to function as "linkers." Here, we have performed a high resolution deletion analysis of tau and identified the IR region located between repeats 1 and 2 (the R1-R2 IR) as a unique microtubule binding site with more than twice the binding affinity of any individual repeat. Truncation analyses and site-directed mutagenesis reveal that the binding activity of this site is derived primarily from lys265 and lys272, with a lesser contribution from lys271. These results predict strong, discrete electrostatic interactions between the R1-R2 IR and tubulin, in contrast to the distributed array of weak interactions thought to underlie the association between 18-amino acid repeats and microtubules (Butner, K. A., and M. W. Kirschner. J. Cell Biol. 115:717-730). Moreover, competition assays suggest that the R1-R2 IR associates with microtubules at tubulin site(s) distinct from those bound by the repeats. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to just 10 amino acids of the R1-R2 IR is sufficient to promote tubulin polymerization in a sequence-dependent manner. Since the R1-R2 IR is specifically expressed in adult tau, its action may underlie some of the developmental transitions observed in neuronal microtubule organization. We suggest that the R1-R2 IR may establish an adult-specific, high affinity anchor that tethers the otherwise mobile tau molecule to the tubulin lattice, thereby increasing microtubule stability. Moreover, the absence of R1-R2 IR expression during early development may allow for the cytoskeletal plasticity required of immature neurons.

  6. Identification of a novel microtubule binding and assembly domain in the developmentally regulated inter-repeat region of tau

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Tau is a developmentally regulated microtubule-associated protein that influences microtubule behavior by directly associating with tubulin. The carboxyl terminus of tau contains multiple 18-amino acid repeats that bind microtubules and are separated by 13-14-amino acid inter- repeat (IR) regions previously thought to function as "linkers." Here, we have performed a high resolution deletion analysis of tau and identified the IR region located between repeats 1 and 2 (the R1-R2 IR) as a unique microtubule binding site with more than twice the binding affinity of any individual repeat. Truncation analyses and site- directed mutagenesis reveal that the binding activity of this site is derived primarily from lys265 and lys272, with a lesser contribution from lys271. These results predict strong, discrete electrostatic interactions between the R1-R2 IR and tubulin, in contrast to the distributed array of weak interactions thought to underlie the association between 18-amino acid repeats and microtubules (Butner, K. A., and M. W. Kirschner. J. Cell Biol. 115:717-730). Moreover, competition assays suggest that the R1-R2 IR associates with microtubules at tubulin site(s) distinct from those bound by the repeats. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to just 10 amino acids of the R1-R2 IR is sufficient to promote tubulin polymerization in a sequence-dependent manner. Since the R1-R2 IR is specifically expressed in adult tau, its action may underlie some of the developmental transitions observed in neuronal microtubule organization. We suggest that the R1-R2 IR may establish an adult- specific, high affinity anchor that tethers the otherwise mobile tau molecule to the tubulin lattice, thereby increasing microtubule stability. Moreover, the absence of R1-R2 IR expression during early development may allow for the cytoskeletal plasticity required of immature neurons. PMID:8120098

  7. Two Subclasses of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycle Promoters Distinguished by Open Reading Frame 50 Mutant Proteins That Are Deficient in Binding to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-01-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jκ in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jκ protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jκ cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein. PMID:15994769

  8. Two subclasses of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycle promoters distinguished by open reading frame 50 mutant proteins that are deficient in binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-07-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jkappa in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jkappa protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jkappa cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein.

  9. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. ); Olsen, N.J. ); Siminovitch, K.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  10. Calmodulin-binding proteins are developmentally regulated in gametes and embryos of fucoid algae

    SciTech Connect

    Brawley, S.H.; Roberts, D.M.

    1989-02-01

    Calcium-binding proteins and calmodulin-binding proteins were identified in gametes and zygotes of the marine brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus distichus, and Pelvetia fastigiata using gel (SDS-PAGE) overlay techniques. A calcium current appears to be important during cell polarization in fucoid zygotes, but there are no biochemical data on calcium-binding proteins in these algae. By using a sensitive 45Ca2+ overlay method designed to detect high-affinity calcium-binding proteins, at least 9-11 polypeptides were detected in extracts of fucoid gametes and zygotes. All samples had calcium-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of about 17 and 30 kDa. A 17-kDa calcium-binding protein was purified by calcium-dependent hydrophobic chromatography and was identified as calmodulin by immunological and enzyme activator criteria. A 125I-calmodulin overlay assay was used to identify potential targets of calmodulin action. Sperm contained one major calmodulin-binding protein of about 45 kDa. Eggs lacked major calmodulin-binding activity. A 72-kDa calmodulin-binding protein was prominent in zygotes from 1-65 hr postfertilization. Both calmodulin-binding proteins showed calcium-dependent binding activity. Overall, the data suggest that the appearance and distribution of certain calcium-binding and calmodulin-binding proteins are under developmental regulation, and may reflect the different roles of calcium during fertilization and early embryogenesis.

  11. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J B; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V

    2014-02-27

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  12. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  13. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J.B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun1, Yves V.

    2014-01-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? While bacteria display a myriad of morphologies1, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk2,3. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct sub-cellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the Caulobacter genus, and sub-polar or bi-lateral in the Asticcacaulis genus4. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX5, was co-opted in the Asticcacaulis genus to specify stalk synthesis at either the sub-polar or bi-lateral positions. We show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that evolution of protein function, co-option, and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24463524

  14. Expression of cell surface and cytoskeleton developmentally regulated proteins in adult centronuclear myopathies.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, D; Calore, E E; Boucraut, J; Bianco, N; Rougon, G; Pellissier, J F

    1992-05-01

    In order to evaluate the developmental status of myofibers in 3 cases of adult centronuclear myopathies (CNM) with type I predominance, we searched for the expression of (a) developmentally regulated cytoskeleton proteins (myosin heavy chains (MHC), vimentin, desmin), and (b) cell surface molecules (neural cell adhesion molecules isoforms, NCAM). Desmin intermediate filaments were overexpressed in some fibers with centrally located nuclei and radially organized. Muscle fibers do not express vimentin. These findings were not observed in muscle biopsies from disease controls with numerous central nuclei. Few myofibers (less than 5%) expressed developmental MHC together with either embryonic NCAM or adult NCAM and rare fibers only expressed adult NCAM. Most of the remaining fibers neither expressed NCAM nor developmental MHC but were slow MHC positive. These features do not favor the hypothesis of a general arrest of muscle fiber maturation in adult CNM. It is more likely that fibers undergo a very slow developmental process with a long delay of innervation as shown by some fibers with NCAM expression. Nevertheless, innervation appears to be successful, as suggested by the large number of NCAM negative fibers. Moreover, the abnormal myofiber distribution could be related to this functional disturbance of innervation.

  15. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  16. The SUMO pathway is developmentally regulated and required for programmed DNA elimination in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Forney, James D

    2006-05-01

    Extensive genome-wide remodeling occurs during the formation of the somatic macronuclei from the germ line micronuclei in ciliated protozoa. This process is limited to sexual reproduction and includes DNA amplification, chromosome fragmentation, and the elimination of internal segments of DNA. Our efforts to define the pathways regulating these events revealed a gene encoding a homologue of ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (UBA2) that is upregulated at the onset of macronuclear development in Paramecium tetraurelia. Uba2 enzymes are known to activate the protein called small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) that is covalently attached to target proteins. Consistent with this relationship, Northern analysis showed increased abundance of SUMO transcripts during sexual reproduction in Paramecium. RNA interference (RNAi) against UBA2 or SUMO during vegetative growth had little effect on cell survival or fission rates. In contrast, RNAi of mating cells resulted in failure to form a functional macronucleus. Despite normal amplification of the genome, excision of internal eliminated sequences was completely blocked. Additional experiments showed that the homologous UBA2 and SUMO genes in Tetrahymena thermophila are also upregulated during conjugation. These results provide evidence for the developmental regulation of the SUMO pathway in ciliates and suggest a key role for the pathway in controlling genome remodeling.

  17. The SUMO Pathway Is Developmentally Regulated and Required for Programmed DNA Elimination in Paramecium tetraurelia† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Forney, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive genome-wide remodeling occurs during the formation of the somatic macronuclei from the germ line micronuclei in ciliated protozoa. This process is limited to sexual reproduction and includes DNA amplification, chromosome fragmentation, and the elimination of internal segments of DNA. Our efforts to define the pathways regulating these events revealed a gene encoding a homologue of ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (UBA2) that is upregulated at the onset of macronuclear development in Paramecium tetraurelia. Uba2 enzymes are known to activate the protein called small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) that is covalently attached to target proteins. Consistent with this relationship, Northern analysis showed increased abundance of SUMO transcripts during sexual reproduction in Paramecium. RNA interference (RNAi) against UBA2 or SUMO during vegetative growth had little effect on cell survival or fission rates. In contrast, RNAi of mating cells resulted in failure to form a functional macronucleus. Despite normal amplification of the genome, excision of internal eliminated sequences was completely blocked. Additional experiments showed that the homologous UBA2 and SUMO genes in Tetrahymena thermophila are also upregulated during conjugation. These results provide evidence for the developmental regulation of the SUMO pathway in ciliates and suggest a key role for the pathway in controlling genome remodeling. PMID:16682458

  18. Mitochondria Are Linked to Calcium Stores in Striated Muscle by Developmentally Regulated Tethering Structures

    PubMed Central

    Boncompagni, Simona; Rossi, Ann E.; Micaroni, Massimo; Beznoussenko, Galina V.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional calcium (Ca2+) signaling between mitochondria and intracellular stores (endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum) underlies important cellular functions, including oxidative ATP production. In striated muscle, this coupling is achieved by mitochondria being located adjacent to Ca2+ stores (sarcoplasmic reticulum [SR]) and in proximity of release sites (Ca2+ release units [CRUs]). However, limited information is available with regard to the mechanisms of mitochondrial-SR coupling. Using electron microscopy and electron tomography, we identified small bridges, or tethers, that link the outer mitochondrial membrane to the intracellular Ca2+ stores of muscle. This association is sufficiently strong that treatment with hypotonic solution results in stretching of the SR membrane in correspondence of tethers. We also show that the association of mitochondria to the SR is 1) developmentally regulated, 2) involves a progressive shift from a longitudinal clustering at birth to a specific CRU-coupled transversal orientation in adult, and 3) results in a change in the mitochondrial polarization state, as shown by confocal imaging after JC1 staining. Our results suggest that tethers 1) establish and maintain SR–mitochondrial association during postnatal maturation and in adult muscle and 2) likely provide a structural framework for bi-directional signaling between the two organelles in striated muscle. PMID:19037102

  19. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  20. A developmentally regulated translational control pathway establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Berchowitz, Luke E.; Gajadhar, Aaron S.; van Werven, Folkert J.; De Rosa, Alexandra A.; Samoylova, Mariya L.; Brar, Gloria A.; Xu, Yifeng; Xiao, Che; Futcher, Bruce; Weissman, Jonathan S.; White, Forest M.; Amon, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Production of haploid gametes from diploid progenitor cells is mediated by a specialized cell division, meiosis, where two divisions, meiosis I and II, follow a single S phase. Errors in progression from meiosis I to meiosis II lead to aneuploid and polyploid gametes, but the regulatory mechanisms controlling this transition are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the conserved kinase Ime2 regulates the timing and order of the meiotic divisions by controlling translation. Ime2 coordinates translational activation of a cluster of genes at the meiosis I–meiosis II transition, including the critical determinant of the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern CLB3. We further show that Ime2 mediates translational control through the meiosis-specific RNA-binding protein Rim4. Rim4 inhibits translation of CLB3 during meiosis I by interacting with the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of CLB3. At the onset of meiosis II, Ime2 kinase activity rises and triggers a decrease in Rim4 protein levels, thereby alleviating translational repression. Our results elucidate a novel developmentally regulated translational control pathway that establishes the meiotic chromosome segregation pattern. PMID:24115771

  1. A novel partner for Dictyostelium filamin is an alpha-helical developmentally regulated protein.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Monika; Khaire, Nandkumar; Kuspa, Adam; Lu, Si Jie; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2004-10-01

    The filamins are a family of highly homologous actin-crosslinking proteins that stabilize three-dimensional actin networks, link them to membrane proteins and direct intracellular signaling reactions to the actin scaffold through interaction with various binding partners. Here, we describe the first Dictyostelium filamin-interacting protein to be isolated--FIP, a 229.8 kDa protein with two alpha-helical coiled coil domains. FIP was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using the rod domain of filamin as bait. FIP can also be coimmunoprecipitated with filamin from cellular extracts. Deletion analysis located the interaction domain of FIP to a C-terminal region; by contrast, in filamin rods, repeats 2-4 interacted with the recombinant FIP protein. The 7 kb transcript of FIP is upregulated during early development. Monoclonal antibodies raised against a bacterially expressed FIP polypeptide recognize a 230 kDa developmentally regulated protein in western blots. Immunofluorescence analysis shows a punctate staining pattern in the cytosol and, in cell fractionation experiments, FIP is mainly found in the cytosolic fraction. A fusion protein composed of GFP and the C-terminal part localizes to the plasma membrane and is associated with the cytoskeleton. Expression of the fusion protein affects development and influences the size of the multicellular aggregates and the phototactic behavior of slugs. Thus, FIP might provide a candidate link between the dynamic actin cytoskeleton and signal transduction events during the multicellular stages of Dictyostelium amoebae.

  2. Isolation and analysis of a new developmentally regulated gene from amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Zinker, S; Argüello, C; Salgado, L M

    2000-02-01

    Leishmania differentiates from the promastigote to the amastigote stage during its digenetic life cycle. Characterization of the developmentally regulated genes during that process would help to elucidate the mechanisms of gene regulation. In this study, specific fragments of mRNAs from the amastigote stage of L. mexicana mexicana were discriminated from those of the promastigote and metacyclic stages by differential display. This technique combined with spliced-leader polymerase chain reaction allowed isolation of the complete gene VG7A5. The sequence of this gene did not align with any published L. mexicana sequence. More than one copy of this gene was identified in the genome by Southern-blot analysis and was transcribed exclusively in the amastigote stage. At 20 bp upstream from the splice AG site it has a trans-splicing polypyrimidine tract. The gene encodes the subcellular localization motifs 5'-GGACT and AAGCT-3' in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. The open reading frame of the gene VG7A5 predicts a polypeptide of 587 amino acid residues that has a KGRR amidation motif near its carboxyl terminus, suggesting that in the mammalian host this protein may be involved in the process of acute inflammation.

  3. Developmentally Regulated Production of meso-Zeaxanthin in Chicken Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Choroid and Retina

    PubMed Central

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Subhani, Yumna K.; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose meso-Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is rarely encountered in nature outside of the vertebrate eye. It is not a constituent of a normal human diet, yet this carotenoid comprises one-third of the primate macular pigment. In the current study, we undertook a systematic approach to biochemically characterize the production of meso-zeaxanthin in the vertebrate eye. Methods Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs were analyzed for the presence of carotenoids during development. Yolk, liver, brain, serum, retina, and RPE/choroid were isolated, and carotenoids were extracted. The samples were analyzed on C-30 or chiral HPLC columns to determine the carotenoid composition. Results Lutein and zeaxanthin were found in all studied nonocular tissues, but no meso-zeaxanthin was ever detected. Among the ocular tissues, the presence of meso-zeaxanthin was consistently observed starting at embryonic day 17 (E17) in the RPE/choroid, several days before its consistent detection in the retina. If RPE/choroid of an embryo was devoid of meso-zeaxanthin, the corresponding retina was always negative as well. Conclusions This is the first report of developmentally regulated synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin in a vertebrate system. Our observations suggest that the RPE/choroid is the primary site of meso-zeaxanthin synthesis. Identification of meso-zeaxanthin isomerase enzyme in the developing chicken embryo will facilitate our ability to determine the biochemical mechanisms responsible for production of this unique carotenoid in other higher vertebrates, such as humans. PMID:27082300

  4. Developmentally-regulated subnuclear genome reorganization restricts neural progenitor competence in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kohwi, Minoree; Lupton, Joshua R.; Lai, Sen-Lin; Miller, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells often generate distinct cell types in a stereotyped birth order, and over time lose competence to specify earlier-born fates by unknown mechanisms. In Drosophila, the Hunchback transcription factor acts in neural progenitors (neuroblasts) to specify early-born neurons, in part by indirectly inducing the neuronal transcription of its target genes, including the hunchback gene. We used in vivo immuno-DNA FISH and found that the hunchback gene moves to the neuroblast nuclear periphery, a repressive subnuclear compartment, precisely when competence to specify early-born fate is lost, and several hours and cell divisions following termination of its transcription. hunchback movement to the lamina correlated with downregulation of the neuroblast nuclear protein, Distal antenna (Dan). Either prolonging Dan expression or disrupting lamina interfered with hunchback repositioning and extended neuroblast competence. We propose that neuroblasts undergo a developmentally-regulated subnuclear genome reorganization to permanently silence Hunchback target genes that results in loss of progenitor competence. PMID:23332748

  5. Mitochondria are linked to calcium stores in striated muscle by developmentally regulated tethering structures.

    PubMed

    Boncompagni, Simona; Rossi, Ann E; Micaroni, Massimo; Beznoussenko, Galina V; Polishchuk, Roman S; Dirksen, Robert T; Protasi, Feliciano

    2009-02-01

    Bi-directional calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling between mitochondria and intracellular stores (endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum) underlies important cellular functions, including oxidative ATP production. In striated muscle, this coupling is achieved by mitochondria being located adjacent to Ca(2+) stores (sarcoplasmic reticulum [SR]) and in proximity of release sites (Ca(2+) release units [CRUs]). However, limited information is available with regard to the mechanisms of mitochondrial-SR coupling. Using electron microscopy and electron tomography, we identified small bridges, or tethers, that link the outer mitochondrial membrane to the intracellular Ca(2+) stores of muscle. This association is sufficiently strong that treatment with hypotonic solution results in stretching of the SR membrane in correspondence of tethers. We also show that the association of mitochondria to the SR is 1) developmentally regulated, 2) involves a progressive shift from a longitudinal clustering at birth to a specific CRU-coupled transversal orientation in adult, and 3) results in a change in the mitochondrial polarization state, as shown by confocal imaging after JC1 staining. Our results suggest that tethers 1) establish and maintain SR-mitochondrial association during postnatal maturation and in adult muscle and 2) likely provide a structural framework for bi-directional signaling between the two organelles in striated muscle.

  6. Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  7. Tandemly repeated exons encode 81-base repeats in multiple, developmentally regulated Schistosoma mansoni transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R E; Davis, A H; Carroll, S M; Rajkovic, A; Rottman, F M

    1988-01-01

    The adult Schistosoma mansoni cDNA clone 10-3 encodes an antigen that is recognized by sera from infected humans. We characterized multiple developmentally regulated transcripts homologous to the 10-3 cDNA and portions of the complex genomic loci encoding those transcripts. Transcripts of approximately 950, 870, and 780 nucleotides were expressed in adults, whereas only the 780-nucleotide transcript was observed in the larval stage. These transcripts were highly similar, containing variable numbers of identical direct tandem repeats of 81 bases. Although the sequence of the repeating elements and sequences 3' to them were identical in all the transcripts, sequences 5' of the repeating elements exhibited variations, including a 27-base insertion, alternative start sites for transcription, and alternate 5' exon usage. These transcripts appeared to be derived in part by the developmentally controlled alternative splicing of small exons and the use of alternative transcription initiation sites from the one or two complex loci of at least 40 kilobase pairs. Each 81-base repeat in the transcripts was encoded by three dispersed 27-base-pair exons. These 27-base-pair exons were contained within highly conserved, reiterated 3-kilobase-pair genomic tandem arrays. Images PMID:3211127

  8. The early embryo response to intracellular reactive oxygen species is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh; Betts, Dean H

    2011-01-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) suffers from excessive developmental failure. Its inefficiency is linked, in part, to reactive oxygen species (ROS) brought on by high ex vivo oxygen (O(2)) tensions. To further delineate the effects of ROS on IVP, the intracellular ROS levels of early bovine embryos were modulated by: (1) varying O(2) tension; (2) exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment; and (3) antioxidant supplementation. Although O(2) tension did not significantly affect blastocyst frequencies (P>0.05), 20% O(2) accelerated the rate of first cleavage division and significantly decreased and increased the proportion of permanently arrested 2- to 4-cell embryos and apoptotic 9- to 16-cell embryos, respectively, compared with embryos cultured in 5% O(2) tension. Treatment with H(2)O(2), when applied separately to oocytes, zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos or 9- to 16-cell embryos, resulted in a significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in blastocyst development in conjunction with a corresponding increase in the induction of either permanent embryo arrest or apoptosis in a stage-dependent manner. Polyethylene glycol-catalase supplementation reduced ROS-induced embryo arrest and/or death, resulting in a significant (P<0.05) increase in blastocyst frequencies under high O(2) culture conditions. Together, these results indicate that intracellular ROS may be signalling molecules that, outside an optimal range, result in various developmentally regulated modes of embryo demise.

  9. Selection and analysis of cloned developmentally-regulated Dictyostelium discoideum genes by hybridization-competition.

    PubMed Central

    Mangiarotti, G; Chung, S; Zuker, C; Lodish, H F

    1981-01-01

    We describe a new technique for selection of cloned gene segments which are expressed preferentially at one developmental stage but at a relatively low level. A nitrocellulose filter replica of plaques of lambda phage which contain approximately 8 KB inserts of genomic DNA is prepared; it is hybridized with a small amount of [32p] labeled mRNA prepared from one developmental stage, in the presence of a several-hundred fold excess of competitor RNA from a different stage. We show that clones of Dictyostelium nuclear DNA which form hybrids under these conditions indeed encode developmentally regulated mRNAs. Our previous analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum differentiation indicated that transcripts from about 12% of the genome appear in mRNA at one defined stage of differentiation - the formation of cell-cell aggregates. A number of our new clones are novel, in that they encode multiple discrete mRNA species all of which accumulate only at the cell aggregate stages; others encode one or more mRNAs which appear at the tight aggregate stage and also one or more which are present throughout differentiation. These latter clones, in particular, would be difficult to identify using other selection techniques. Images PMID:7232208

  10. Identification of a developmentally regulated iron superoxide dismutase of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Kabiri, M; Steverding, D

    2001-01-01

    An iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD) gene of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned and its gene product functionally characterized. The gene encodes a protein of 198 residues which shows 80% identity with FeSODs from other trypanosomatids. Inhibitor studies with purified recombinant FeSOD expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed that the enzyme is an iron-containing SOD. The FeSOD is developmentally regulated in the parasite, expression being lowest in the cell-cycle-arrested, short stumpy bloodstream forms. Differential expression of the FeSOD protein contrasts with only minor quantitative changes in the FeSOD mRNA, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of the enzyme. As the level of FeSOD increases during differentiation of cell-cycle-arrested short stumpy into dividing procyclic forms, it is suggested that the enzyme is only required in proliferating stages of the parasite for the elimination of superoxide radicals which are released during the generation of the iron-tyrosyl free-radical centre in the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:11696005

  11. Unusual organization of a developmentally regulated mitochondrial RNA polymerase (TBMTRNAP) gene in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sandra L.; Koslowsky, Donna J.

    2009-01-01

    We report here the characterization of a developmentally regulated mitochondrial RNA polymerase transcript in the parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. The 3822 bp protein-coding region of the T. brucei mitochondrial RNA polymerase (TBMTRNAP) gene is predicted to encode a 1274 amino acid polypeptide, the carboxyl-terminal domain of which exhibits 29–37% identity with the mitochondrial RNA polymerases from other organisms in the molecular databases. Interestingly, the TBMTRNAP mRNA is one of several mature mRNA species post-transcriptionally processed from a stable, polycistronic precursor. Alternative polyadenylation of the TBMTRNAP mRNA produces two mature transcripts that differ by 500 nt and that show stage-specific differences in abundance during the T. brucei life cycle. This alternative polyadenylation event appears to be accompanied by the alternative splicing of a high abundance, non-coding downstream transcript of unknown function. Our finding that the TBMTRNAP gene is transcribed into two distinct mRNAs subject to differential regulation during the T. brucei life cycle suggests that mitochondrial differentiation might be achieved in part through the regulated expression of this gene. PMID:11470527

  12. Analysis of genes developmentally regulated during storage root formation of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Takahata, Yasuhiro; Nakatani, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in storage root formation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we performed a simplified differential display analysis on adventitious roots at different developmental stages of the storage root. The expression patterns were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses. As a result, 10 genes were identified as being developmentally regulated and were named SRF1-SRF10. The expression of SRF1, SRF2, SRF3, SRF5, SRF6, SRF7, and SRF9 increased during storage root formation, whereas the expression of SRF4, SRF8, and SRF10 decreased. For further characterization, a full-length cDNA of SRF6 was isolated from the cDNA library of the storage root. SRF6 encoded a receptor-like kinase (RLK), which was structurally similar to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) II RLK family of Arabidopsis thaliana. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was most abundantly expressed in the storage roots, although a certain amount of expression was also observed in other vegetative organs. Tissue print mRNA blot analysis of the storage root showed that the mRNA of SRF6 was localized around the primary cambium and meristems in the xylem, which consist of actively dividing cells and cause the thickening of the storage root.

  13. N6-methyladenosine modification destabilizes developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Yue; Toth, Julia I; Petroski, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2014-02-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA in eukaryotes. m(6)A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast and embryo development in plants. Its mammalian function remains unknown but thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m(6)A modification and m(6)A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility. We identify two proteins, the putative m(6)A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3; ref. ), and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, that function synergistically to control m(6)A formation in mammalian cells. Knockdown of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) led to similar phenotypes, characterized by lack of m(6)A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. A large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, exhibit m(6)A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. The human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways were linked to these effects. This gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m(6)A methylation is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types.

  14. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  15. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  16. Developmental Regulation of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Marie E.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpene production in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) glandular trichomes is determined by the rate of biosynthesis, as determined by 14CO2 incorporation, and is restricted to leaves 12 to 20 d of age. Using oil glands isolated from peppermint leaves of different ages, in vitro assay of the eight sequential enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the principal monoterpene (−)-menthol indicated that all but one biosynthetic enzyme had a very similar developmental profile. Activities were highest in leaves 12 to 20 d of age, with a sharp peak centered at 15 d. The exception, (−)-menthone reductase, the last enzyme of the pathway, exhibited a later peak of activity, which was centered at approximately 21 d. The correlation between in vitro enzyme activity and the rate of biosynthesis measured in vivo suggests that monoterpene formation is controlled mainly by the coordinately regulated activity of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes. Developmental immunoblotting of limonene synthase, which catalyzes the committed step of the pathway, demonstrated a direct correlation between enzyme activity and enzyme protein, suggesting that the dynamic time course for the remaining pathway enzyme activities also reflects the corresponding protein levels. RNA-blot analyses indicated that the genes encoding enzymes of the early pathway steps are transcriptionally activated in a coordinated fashion, with a time course superimposible with activity measurements and immunoblot data. These results demonstrating coincidental temporal changes in enzyme activities, enzyme protein level, and steady-state transcript abundances indicate that most of the monoterpene biosynthetic enzymes in peppermint are developmentally regulated at the level of gene expression. PMID:10631265

  17. Developmental regulation of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ross, F M; Cassidy, J; Wilson, M; Davies, S N

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were, to use agonists selective for the 3 mGlu receptor groups to identify developmental changes in their effects, and to assess the usefulness of proposed selective antagonists as pharmacological tools.Hippocampal slices (400 μm) were prepared from neonate (9–14 days) and young adult (5–7 weeks) Sprague-Dawley rats. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded from CA1.DHPG (100 μM), a group I agonist, produced a slowly developing enhancement of fEPSP slope in slices from adults. In slices from neonates, DHPG (75 μM) depressed fEPSP slope.DCG-IV (500 nM), a group II agonist, did not affect the fEPSP recorded from slices from adults whereas perfusion in neonate slices produced a sustained depression.The group III agonist L-AP4 (50 μM) was ineffective in adult slices but depressed fEPSP slope in slices prepared from neonates.DHPG-induced depression of fEPSP slope was inhibited by 4-CPG (400 μM), a group I antagonist, but was unaffected by MCCG (500 μM) and MAP4 (500 μM), group II and III receptor antagonists respectively. MCCG but not MAP4 antagonized the effects of DCG-IV with 4-CPG producing variable effects. The effect of L-AP4 was unaffected by MCCG, blocked by MAP4, and enhanced by 4-CPG.The results show that the effects of the agonists for all groups of mGlu receptors are developmentally regulated. Furthermore, MCCG and MAP4 behave as effective and selective antagonists for group II and group III mGlu receptors respectively, whereas the usefulness of 4-CPG as a group I antagonist may be limited. PMID:11015295

  18. Developmental regulation of membrane excitability in rat spinal lamina I projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Baccei, Mark L

    2012-05-01

    It is now universally recognized that neonates can experience considerable pain. While spinal lamina I neurons projecting to the brain contribute to the generation of hyperalgesia, nothing is known about their electrophysiological properties during early life. Here we have used in vitro whole cell patch-clamp recordings in rat spinal cord slices to determine whether the intrinsic membrane properties of lamina I projection neurons, as well as their synaptic inputs, are developmentally regulated during the early postnatal period. Projection neurons were identified via retrograde transport of DiI injected into the parabrachial nucleus (PB) or periaqueductal gray (PAG) and characterized at postnatal days (P)2-5, P10-12, P19-23, and P30-32. Both spino-PB and spino-PAG neurons demonstrated an age-dependent reduction in spike threshold and duration at room temperature, which was accompanied by a developmental increase in the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Notably, in both groups, age-dependent changes in the passive membrane properties or rheobase only occurred after the third postnatal week. However, spontaneous activity was significantly more prevalent within the developing spino-PB population and was dominated by an irregular pattern of discharge. In addition, while the instantaneous firing frequency remained unaltered in spino-PB neurons during the first weeks of life, spino-PAG cells fired at a higher rate at P19-23 compared with younger groups, suggesting that the gain of parallel ascending nociceptive pathways may be independently regulated during development. Overall, these results demonstrate that intrinsic membrane excitability is modulated in a cell type-specific manner within developing spinal nociceptive circuits.

  19. Myosin Va is developmentally regulated and expressed in the human cerebellum from birth to old age

    PubMed Central

    Souza, C.C.R.; Dombroski, T.C.D.; Machado, H.R.; Oliveira, R.S.; Rocha, L.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.A.; Neder, L.; Chimelli, L.; Corrêa, V.M.A.; Larson, R.E.; Martins, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL). In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence. PMID:23558932

  20. Roles of the Developmental Regulator unc-62/Homothorax in Limiting Longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Van Nostrand, Eric L.; Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Wu, Beijing; Nguyen, Andy; Kim, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    The normal aging process is associated with stereotyped changes in gene expression, but the regulators responsible for these age-dependent changes are poorly understood. Using a novel genomics approach, we identified HOX co-factor unc-62 (Homothorax) as a developmental regulator that binds proximal to age-regulated genes and modulates lifespan. Although unc-62 is expressed in diverse tissues, its functions in the intestine play a particularly important role in modulating lifespan, as intestine-specific knockdown of unc-62 by RNAi increases lifespan. An alternatively-spliced, tissue-specific isoform of unc-62 is expressed exclusively in the intestine and declines with age. Through analysis of the downstream consequences of unc-62 knockdown, we identify multiple effects linked to aging. First, unc-62 RNAi decreases the expression of yolk proteins (vitellogenins) that aggregate in the body cavity in old age. Second, unc-62 RNAi results in a broad increase in expression of intestinal genes that typically decrease expression with age, suggesting that unc-62 activity balances intestinal resource allocation between yolk protein expression and fertility on the one hand and somatic functions on the other. Finally, in old age, the intestine shows increased expression of several aberrant genes; these UNC-62 targets are expressed predominantly in neuronal cells in developing animals, but surprisingly show increased expression in the intestine of old animals. Intestinal expression of some of these genes during aging is detrimental for longevity; notably, increased expression of insulin ins-7 limits lifespan by repressing activity of insulin pathway response factor DAF-16/FOXO in aged animals. These results illustrate how unc-62 regulation of intestinal gene expression is responsible for limiting lifespan during the normal aging process. PMID:23468654

  1. Identity of the NMDA receptor coagonist is synapse specific and developmentally regulated in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Le Bail, Matildé; Martineau, Magalie; Sacchi, Silvia; Yatsenko, Natalia; Radzishevsky, Inna; Conrod, Sandrine; Ait Ouares, Karima; Wolosker, Herman; Pollegioni, Loredano; Billard, Jean-Marie; Mothet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-13

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) require the coagonists D-serine or glycine for their activation, but whether the identity of the coagonist could be synapse specific and developmentally regulated remains elusive. We therefore investigated the contribution of D-serine and glycine by recording NMDAR-mediated responses at hippocampal Schaffer collaterals (SC)-CA1 and medial perforant path-dentate gyrus (mPP-DG) synapses in juvenile and adult rats. Selective depletion of endogenous coagonists with enzymatic scavengers as well as pharmacological inhibition of endogenous D-amino acid oxidase activity revealed that D-serine is the preferred coagonist at SC-CA1 mature synapses, whereas, unexpectedly, glycine is mainly involved at mPP-DG synapses. Nevertheless, both coagonist functions are driven by the levels of synaptic activity as inferred by recording long-term potentiation generated at both connections. This regional compartmentalization in the coagonist identity is associated to different GluN1/GluN2A to GluN1/GluN2B subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs. During postnatal development, the replacement of GluN2B- by GluN2A-containing NMDARs at SC-CA1 synapses parallels a change in the identity of the coagonist from glycine to D-serine. In contrast, NMDARs subunit composition at mPP-DG synapses is not altered and glycine remains the main coagonist throughout postnatal development. Altogether, our observations disclose an unprecedented relationship in the identity of the coagonist not only with the GluN2 subunit composition at synaptic NMDARs but also with astrocyte activity in the developing and mature hippocampus that reconciles the complementary functions of D-serine And Glycine In Modulating Nmdars During The Maturation Of Tripartite Glutamatergic Synapses.

  2. Evidence that developmentally regulated control of gene expression by a parvoviral allotropic determinant is particle mediated.

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, E M; Tattersall, P

    1988-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of the immunosuppressive strain of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice [MVM(i)] was constructed deriving left-hand terminal sequences from a rare encapsidated plus strand. Progeny virus was shown to package the same proportions of plus and minus strands as did authentic MVM(i) virions. Rescue of virus from this clone also resulted in the repair of a 21-base truncation at the junction between the right-hand end of the viral insert and the vector and generated the same heterogeneous 5' end as is present in standard MVM(i) DNA. Progeny virus rescued by transfection of this clone into mouse cell lines displayed the lymphotropic phenotype characteristic of the parental MVM(i) virus from which it was derived. However, analysis of viral RNA from transfected mouse fibroblasts revealed that the MVM(i) and MVM(p) genomic clones are transcribed at the same low level. Furthermore, transfected fibroblasts yielded similar numbers of infectious centers regardless of which MVM clone was introduced. These results contrast markedly with the different infectivities of MVM(i) and MVM(p) particles and with the observation that viral transcription in fibroblasts productively infected with MVM(p) virions is 100-fold greater than that seen in the restrictive MVM(i) particle-mediated infection. These results suggest that the developmentally regulated intracellular factors controlling host cell susceptibility at the level of viral transcription interact with a component of the incoming viral capsid, rather than with a sequence within the viral DNA. Images PMID:3357208

  3. Developmental regulation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The developmental regulation of the voltage-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel in rat skeletal muscle was studied in vivo and in vitro. In triceps surae muscle developing in vivo the development of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel occurred primarily during the first three postnatal weeks as determined by the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)saxitoxin. This development proceeded in two separate phases. The first phase occurs independently of continuing motor neuron innervation and accounts for 60% of the adult density of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channels. The second phase, which begins about day 11, requires innervation. Muscle cells in primary culture were found to have both TTX-sensitive and insensitive Na/sup +/ channels. The development of the TTX-sensitive channel, in vitro, paralleled the initial innervation-independent phase of development observed in vivo. The density of TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channels in cultured muscle cells was regulated by electrical activity and cytosolic Ca/sup + +/ levels. Pharmacological blockade of the spontaneous electrical activity present in these cells lead to a nearly 2-fold increase in the surface density of TTX-sensitive channels. The turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel was measured by blocking the incorporation of newly synthesized channels with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked protein glycosylation. The regulation of channel density by electrical activity, cytosolic Ca/sup + +/levels, and agents affecting cyclic neucleotide levels had no effect on the turnover time of the TTX-sensitive Na/sup +/ channel, indicating that these regulatory agents instead affect the synthesis of the channel.

  4. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-08-14

    The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner.

  5. A Developmentally Regulated Gene Cluster Involved in Conidial Pigment Biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huei-Fung; Wheeler, Michael H.; Chang, Yun C.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungus producing bluish-green conidia, is an important opportunistic pathogen that primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Conidial pigmentation of A. fumigatus significantly influences its virulence in a murine model. In the present study, six genes, forming a gene cluster spanning 19 kb, were identified as involved in conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. Northern blot analyses showed the six genes to be developmentally regulated and expressed during conidiation. The gene products of alb1 (for “albino 1”), arp1 (for “aspergillus reddish-pink 1”), and arp2 have high similarity to polyketide synthases, scytalone dehydratases, and hydroxynaphthalene reductases, respectively, found in the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin pathway of brown and black fungi. The abr1 gene (for “aspergillus brown 1”) encodes a putative protein possessing two signatures of multicopper oxidases. The abr2 gene product has homology to the laccase encoded by the yA gene of Aspergillus nidulans. The function of ayg1 (for “aspergillus yellowish-green 1”) remains unknown. Involvement of the six genes in conidial pigmentation was confirmed by the altered conidial color phenotypes that resulted from disruption of each gene in A. fumigatus. The presence of a DHN-melanin pathway in A. fumigatus was supported by the accumulation of scytalone and flaviolin in the arp1 deletant, whereas only flaviolin was accumulated in the arp2 deletants. Scytalone and flaviolin are well-known signature metabolites of the DHN-melanin pathway. Based on DNA sequence similarity, gene disruption results, and biochemical analyses, we conclude that the 19-kb DNA fragment contains a six-gene cluster which is required for conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. However, the presence of abr1, abr2, and ayg1 in addition to alb1, arp1, and arp2 suggests that conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus is more complex than the known DHN-melanin pathway

  6. Developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein and susceptibility to cell death in B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Merino, R; Ding, L; Veis, D J; Korsmeyer, S J; Nuñez, G

    1994-01-01

    Cell death is a prominent feature of B cell development. For example, a large population of B cells dies at the pre-B cell stage presumably due to the failure to express a functional immunoglobulin receptor. In addition, developing B cells expressing antigen receptors for self are selectively eliminated at the immature B cell stage. The molecular signals that control B cell survival are largely unknown. The product of the bcl-2 proto-oncogene may be involved as its overexpression inhibits apoptotic cell death in a variety of biological systems. However, the physiological role of the endogenous Bcl-2 protein during B cell development is undetermined. Here we show a striking developmental regulation of the Bcl-2 protein in B lymphocytes. Bcl-2 is highly expressed in CD43+ B cell precursors (pro-B cells) and mature B cells but downregulated at the pre-B and immature B cell stages of development. We found that Bcl-2 expressed by B cells is a long-lived protein with a half-life of approximately 10 h. Importantly, susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone is stage-dependent in developing B cells and correlates with the levels of Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, expression of a bcl-2 transgene rescued pre-B and immature B cells from dexamethasone-induced cell death, indicating that Bcl-2 can inhibit the apoptotic cell death of progenitors and early B cells. Taken together, these findings argue that Bcl-2 is a physiological signal controlling cell death during B cell development. Images PMID:8313913

  7. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental Regulation of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Family Gene Expression in Tung Tree Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Shockey, Jay M.; Klasson, K. Thomas; Chapital, Dorselyn C.; Mason, Catherine B.; Scheffler, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes. We previously cloned DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes of tung tree (Vernicia fordii), whose novel seed TAGs are useful in a wide range of industrial applications. The objective of this study was to understand the developmental regulation of DGAT family gene expression in tung tree. To this end, we first cloned a tung tree gene encoding DGAT3, a putatively soluble form of DGAT that possesses 11 completely conserved amino acid residues shared among 27 DGAT3s from 19 plant species. Unlike DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, DGAT3 is absent from animals. We then used TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrate that 1) all three isoforms of DGAT genes are expressed in developing seeds, leaves and flowers; 2) DGAT2 is the major DGAT mRNA in tung seeds, whose expression profile is well-coordinated with the oil profile in developing tung seeds; and 3) DGAT3 is the major form of DGAT mRNA in tung leaves, flowers and immature seeds prior to active tung oil biosynthesis. These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. Therefore, DGAT2 should be a primary target for tung oil engineering in transgenic organisms. PMID:24146944

  9. N6-methyladenosine modification destabilizes developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Li, Yue; Toth, Julia I.; Petroski, Matthew D.; Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Historically, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) in eukaryotes 1. Its mammalian function remained unknown until recently, when it was reported that thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m6A modification 2,3 and that m6A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility 4,5. As yet, the identity of m6A methyltransferases (MTase) and the molecular mechanisms regulated by m6A remains unclear. Here, we show that two proteins, the putative m6A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3) 6, and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, function synergistically to control m6A formation in mammalian cells. Since m6A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast 7,8 and embryo development in plant 9,10, we knocked down Mettl3 and Mettl14, respectively, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). The resulting cells displayed equivalent phenotypes characterized by lack of m6A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. We also observed that a large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, showed m6A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. Further analysis suggested that some of these effects were mediated through Human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways. Overall our work provides first experimental evidence of mammalian m6A MTases and reveals a previously unknown gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m6A methylation. This mechanism is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types. PMID:24394384

  10. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  11. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  12. Torpedo electromotor system development: developmentally regulated neuronotrophic activities of electric organ tissue.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G P; Rinschen, B; Fox, G Q

    1985-01-15

    Explant cultures of electric lobe from 45-60 mm stage Torpedo embryos and both ganglionic and dissociated cell cultures prepared from 8-day chick ciliary ganglia have been used to determine whether the electric organs of Torpedo marmorata contain developmentally regulated neuronotrophic activity. Electric lobe explants were evaluated by measuring their neurone density, choline acetyltransferase (CAT0, and low salt, Triton X-100-soluble protein contents. Addition of soluble extracts prepared from the electric organs of late stage embryos (85-105 mm) to standard medium results in the maintenance of nearly theoretical neurone densities in electric lobe explants during a 7-day culture period. Soluble electric organ extracts from early embryonic stages (42-59 mm) do not increase neurone density relative to control cultures but cause an elevation in the CAT content of the explants over control values. On the basis of this analysis it is concluded (1) that late embryonic stage and adult electric organs contain neuronotrophic activity that allows electromotor neurones to survive in vitro and (2) that activity increases rapidly in the electric organs between the 59 nd 72 mm stages of development at a time when rapid increases in postsynaptic membrane markers in the electric organs occur and when peripheral synaptogenesis begins. The activity of late stage embryonic electric organs is heat stable and lost on dialysis. Using ciliary ganglion explants and evaluating both the initial fibre outgrowth and the CAT content after 4 days in vitro, trophic activity is found to be maximal at early embryonic stages (45-55 mm) and to decline thereafter. It is shown that the decline in activity is not due to an increase in toxicity. Using established dissociated ganglionic cell survival assays the specific activity of neuronotrophic factors allowing survival is constant between the 45 and 73 mm stages in the electric organs and then rapidly declines, but activity per electric organ

  13. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'.

  14. The inducible tissue-specific expression of the human IL-3/GM-CSF locus is controlled by a complex array of developmentally regulated enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Euan W.; Mirabella, Fabio; Bowers, Sarion R.; James, Sally R.; Bonavita, Aude-Marine; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Hawwari, Abbas; Bert, Andrew G.; de Arce, Andrea Gonzalez; West, Adam G.; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    The closely linked human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes are tightly regulated and are expressed in activated T cells and mast cells. Here we used transgenic mice to study the developmental regulation of this locus and to identify DNA elements required for its correct activity in vivo. Because these two genes are separated by a CTCF-dependent insulator, and the GM-CSF gene is regulated primarily by its own upstream enhancer, the main aim was to identify regions of the locus required for correct IL-3 gene expression. We initially found that the previously identified proximal upstream IL-3 enhancers were insufficient to account for the in vivo activity of the IL-3 gene. However, an extended analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) spanning the entire upstream IL-3 intergenic region revealed the existence of a complex cluster of both constitutive and inducible DHSs spanning the −34 to −40 kb region. The tissue specificity of these DHSs mirrored the activity of the IL-3 gene, and included a highly inducible CyclosporinA-sensitive enhancer at −37 kb which increased IL-3 promoter activity 40 fold. Significantly, inclusion of this region enabled correct in vivo regulation of IL-3 gene expression in T cells, mast cells and myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:23024272

  15. The laminin-binding activity of the alpha 7 integrin receptor is defined by developmentally regulated splicing in the extracellular domain.

    PubMed Central

    Ziober, B L; Chen, Y; Kramer, R H

    1997-01-01

    The expression pattern of the laminin-binding alpha 7 beta 1 integrin is developmentally regulated in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. The X1/X2 alternative splicing in the extracellular domain of alpha 7 is found in the variable region between conserved alpha-chain homology repeat domains III and IV, a site implicated in ligand binding. To assess differences in X1/X2 isoform activity, we generated MCF-7 cell lines transfected with alpha 7-X1/X2 cDNAs. Transfectants expressing the alpha 7-X2 variant adhered rapidly to laminin 1, whereas those expressing alpha 7-X1 failed to attach. That alpha 7-X1 exists in an inactive state was established in assays using an activating beta 1 antibody that induced X1-dependent cell adhesion and spreading. Furthermore, the activation of alpha 7-X1 was cell type specific, and when expressed in HT1080 cells, the integrin was converted into a fully functional receptor capable of promoting adhesion. Thus, the expression of the alpha 7-X1/X2 integrin is a novel mechanism that regulates receptor affinity states in a cell-specific context and may modulate integrin-dependent events during muscle development and repair. Images PMID:9307969

  16. A Companion Cell–Dominant and Developmentally Regulated H3K4 Demethylase Controls Flowering Time in Arabidopsis via the Repression of FLC Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongchun; Han, Zhifu; Cao, Ying; Fan, Di; Li, Hong; Mo, Huixian; Feng, Yi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Yue, Yanling; Cui, Sujuan; Chen, She; Chai, Jijie; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Flowering time relies on the integration of intrinsic developmental cues and environmental signals. FLC and its downstream target FT are key players in the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Here, we characterized the expression pattern and function of JMJ18, a novel JmjC domain-containing histone H3K4 demethylase gene in Arabidopsis. JMJ18 was dominantly expressed in companion cells; its temporal expression pattern was negatively and positively correlated with that of FLC and FT, respectively, during vegetative development. Mutations in JMJ18 resulted in a weak late-flowering phenotype, while JMJ18 overexpressors exhibited an obvious early-flowering phenotype. JMJ18 displayed demethylase activity toward H3K4me3 and H3K4me2, and bound FLC chromatin directly. The levels of H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 in chromatins of FLC clade genes and the expression of FLC clade genes were reduced, whereas FT expression was induced and the protein expression of FT increased in JMJ18 overexpressor lines. The early-flowering phenotype caused by the overexpression of JMJ18 was mainly dependent on the functional FT. Our findings suggest that the companion cell–dominant and developmentally regulated JMJ18 binds directly to the FLC locus, reducing the level of H3K4 methylation in FLC chromatin and repressing the expression of FLC, thereby promoting the expression of FT in companion cells to stimulate flowering. PMID:22536163

  17. Reciprocity in the developmental regulation of aquaporins 1, 3 and 5 during pregnancy and lactation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, Sasan; Rahbek, Mette; Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Babamoradi, Hamid; Mehrdana, Foojan; Klærke, Dan Arne; Knight, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion involves significant flux of water, driven largely by synthesis of lactose within the Golgi apparatus. It has not been determined whether this flux is simply a passive consequence of the osmotic potential between cytosol and Golgi, or whether it involves regulated flow. Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane water channels that regulate water flux. AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 have previously been detected in mammary tissue, but evidence of developmental regulation (altered expression according to the developmental and physiological state of the mammary gland) is lacking and their cellular/subcellular location is not well understood. In this paper we present evidence of developmental regulation of all three of these AQPs. Further, there was evidence of reciprocity since expression of the rather abundant AQP3 and less abundant AQP1 increased significantly from pregnancy into lactation, whereas expression of the least abundant AQP5 decreased. It would be tempting to suggest that AQP3 and AQP1 are involved in the secretion of water into milk. Paradoxically, however, it was AQP5 that demonstrated most evidence of expression located at the apical (secretory) membrane. The possibility is discussed that AQP5 is synthesized during pregnancy as a stable protein that functions to regulate water secretion during lactation. AQP3 was identified primarily at the basal and lateral membranes of the secretory cells, suggesting a possible involvement in regulated uptake of water and glycerol. AQP1 was identified primarily at the capillary and secretory cell cytoplasmic level and may again be more concerned with uptake and hence milk synthesis, rather than secretion. The fact that expression was developmentally regulated supports, but does not prove, a regulatory involvement of AQPs in water flux through the milk secretory cell.

  18. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kruszka, Katarzyna; Pacak, Andrzej; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Stefaniak, Agnieszka K; Kaja, Elzbieta; Sierocka, Izabela; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2013-01-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3' UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes characterized in this study contain

  19. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19). However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the eight barley miRNA genes

  20. Developmental regulation and partial-length cloning of tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen of murine metanephros.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Ota, K; Wada, J; Wallner, E I; Charonis, A S; Carone, F A; Kanwar, Y S

    1997-09-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that has been recently isolated and cloned from the rabbit kidney. It is an integral component of the basal lamina, and unlike other basement membrane proteins it is exclusively expressed in the tubular basement membranes (TBMs). Since other ECM glycoproteins have been shown to regulate development of various organ systems, studies were initiated to ascertain its developmental regulation in renal tubulogenesis and glomerulogenesis. Embryonic (day-13 and -17 of gestation), newborn and one-week-old mice kidneys were harvested for expression of TIN-ag as well as cDNA cloning studies. Immunostaining with polyclonal anti-TIN-ag antibody revealed its localization to the basal lamina of ureteric bud branches and epithelial elements of developing nephrons in day-13 embryonic kidneys. Interestingly, it was heavily expressed at the tips of the ureteric bud branches, and was not expressed in the distal convolutions of the S-shaped body stage of the nephrons, the region which forms the future glomerulus. At day-17, TIN-ag expression was less, and the immuno-reactivity was mainly localized to the cortex. In the newborn and one-week-old mice kidneys, the cortical expression of TIN-ag increased progressively, but was absent in the glomeruli. The TIN-ag expression was confined to the cortical TBMs, while absent in the medullary tubules, the latter included segments of the collecting ducts and loop of Henle. Immunoprecipitation studies on [35S]methionine-labeled metanephroi revealed a single band of approximately 58 kDa at day-13, and the incorporated radioactivity decreased at day-17. No high molecular weight isoforms were observed. A partial-length mouse TIN-ag cDNA of approximately 530 bp PCR product was generated, and it had approximately 88% and approximately 93% nucleotide and amino acid sequence homolgy, respectively, with rabbit TIN-ag. Utilizing this cDNA, Northern blot analyses

  1. Differential protein-DNA interactions at the promoter and enhancer regions of developmentally regulated U4 snRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Miyake, J H; Botros, I W; Stumph, W E

    1992-01-01

    In the chicken genome there are two closely-linked genes, U4B and U4X, that code for different sequence variants of U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Both genes are expressed with nearly equal efficiency in the early embryo, but U4X gene expression is specifically down-regulated relative to U4B as development proceeds. At the present time, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate differential expression of snRNA genes. We have now identified a novel chicken factor, PPBF, that binds sequence-specifically in vitro to the proximal regulatory region of the U4X gene, but not to the proximal region of the U4B gene. PPBF is itself regulated during development and may therefore be a key factor involved in differentially regulating U4X gene transcription relative to U4B. The U4X and U4B enhancers contain distinct sequence variants of two essential motifs (octamer and SPH). The Oct-1 transcription factor binds with similar affinities to both the U4X and U4B octamer motifs. However, a second essential snRNA enhancer-binding protein, SBF, has a 20- to 30-fold lower affinity for the SPH motif in the U4X enhancer than for the homologous SPH motif in the U4B enhancer. A potential role therefore exists for SBF, as well as PPBF, in the preferential down-regulation of the U4X RNA gene during chicken development.

  2. A large-scale gene-trap screen for insertional mutations in developmentally regulated genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Wurst, W; Rossant, J; Prideaux, V; Kownacka, M; Joyner, A; Hill, D P; Guillemot, F; Gasca, S; Cado, D; Auerbach, A

    1995-02-01

    We have used a gene-trap vector and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to screen for insertional mutations in genes developmentally regulated at 8.5 days of embryogenesis (dpc). From 38,730 cell lines with vector insertions, 393 clonal integrations had disrupted active transcription units, as assayed by beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression. From these lines, 290 clones were recovered and injected into blastocysts to assay for reporter gene expression in 8.5-dpc chimeric mouse embryos. Of these, 279 clones provided a sufficient number of chimeric embryos for analysis. Thirty-six (13%) showed restricted patterns of reporter-gene expression, 88 (32%) showed widespread expression and 155 (55%) failed to show detectable levels of expression. Further analysis showed that approximately one-third of the clones that did not express detectable levels of the reporter gene at 8.5 dpc displayed reporter gene activity at 12.5 dpc. Thus, a large proportion of the genes that are expressed in ES cells are either temporally or spatially regulated during embryogenesis. These results indicate that gene-trap mutageneses in embryonic stem cells provide an effective approach for isolating mutations in a large number of developmentally regulated genes.

  3. A Large-Scale Gene-Trap Screen for Insertional Mutations in Developmentally Regulated Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, W.; Rossant, J.; Prideaux, V.; Kownacka, M.; Joyner, A.; Hill, D. P.; Guillemot, F.; Gasca, S.; Cado, D.; Auerbach, A.; Ang, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a gene-trap vector and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to screen for insertional mutations in genes developmentally regulated at 8.5 days of embryogenesis (dpc). From 38,730 cell lines with vector insertions, 393 clonal integrations had disrupted active transcription units, as assayed by β-galactosidase reporter gene expression. From these lines, 290 clones were recovered and injected into blastocysts to assay for reporter gene expression in 8.5-dpc chimeric mouse embryos. Of these, 279 clones provided a sufficient number of chimeric embryos for analysis. Thirty-six (13%) showed restricted patterns of reporter-gene expression, 88 (32%) showed widespread expression and 155 (55%) failed to show detectable levels of expression. Further analysis showed that approximately one-third of the clones that did not express detectable levels of the reporter gene at 8.5 dpc displayed reporter gene activity at 12.5 dpc. Thus, a large proportion of the genes that are expressed in ES cells are either temporally or spatially regulated during embryogenesis. These results indicate that gene-trap mutageneses in embryonic stem cells provide an effective approach for isolating mutations in a large number of developmentally regulated genes. PMID:7713439

  4. Caudal, a key developmental regulator, is a DPE-specific transcriptional factor.

    PubMed

    Juven-Gershon, Tamar; Hsu, Jer-Yuan; Kadonaga, James T

    2008-10-15

    The regulation of gene transcription is critical for the proper development and growth of an organism. The transcription of protein-coding genes initiates at the RNA polymerase II core promoter, which is a diverse module that can be controlled by many different elements such as the TATA box and downstream core promoter element (DPE). To understand the basis for core promoter diversity, we explored potential biological functions of the DPE. We found that nearly all of the Drosophila homeotic (Hox) gene promoters, which lack TATA-box elements, contain functionally important DPE motifs that are conserved from Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila virilis. We then discovered that Caudal, a sequence-specific transcription factor and key regulator of the Hox gene network, activates transcription with a distinct preference for the DPE relative to the TATA box. The specificity of Caudal activation for the DPE is particularly striking when a BRE(u) core promoter motif is associated with the TATA box. These findings show that Caudal is a DPE-specific activator and exemplify how core promoter diversity can be used to establish complex regulatory networks.

  5. Cold adaptation overrides developmental regulation of sarcolipin expression in mice skeletal muscle: SOS for muscle-based thermogenesis?

    PubMed

    Pant, Meghna; Bal, Naresh C; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal mice have a greater thermogenic need than adult mice and may require additional means of heat production, other than the established mechanism of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We and others recently discovered a novel mediator of skeletal muscle-based thermogenesis called sarcolipin (SLN) that acts by uncoupling sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In addition, we have shown that SLN expression is downregulated during neonatal development in rats. In this study we probed two questions: (1) is SLN expression developmentally regulated in neonatal mice?; and (2) if so, will cold adaptation override this? Our data show that SLN expression is higher during early neonatal stages and is gradually downregulated in fast twitch skeletal muscles. Interestingly, we demonstrate that cold acclimation of neonatal mice can prevent downregulation of SLN expression. This observation suggests that SLN-mediated thermogenesis can be recruited to a greater extent during extreme physiological need, in addition to BAT.

  6. The developmentally regulated expression of Menkes protein ATP7A suggests a role in axon extension and synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, Rajaâ; Cline, Laura B; Eipper, Betty A; Ronnett, Gabriele V

    2005-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutation of the copper transporter ATP7A. While several enzymes expressed in mature neurons require copper, MD neurodegenerative changes cannot be explained by known requirements for ATP7A in neuronal development. To investigate additional roles for ATP7A during development, we characterized its pattern of expression using the olfactory system as a neurodevelopmental model. ATP7A expression in neurons was developmentally regulated rather than constitutively. Initially expressed in the cell bodies of developing neurons, ATP7A protein later shifted to extending axons, peaking prior to synaptogenesis. Similarly, after injury-stimulated neurogenesis, ATP7A expression increased in neurons and axons preceding synaptogenesis. Interestingly, copper-transport-deficient ATP7A still exhibits axonal localization. These results support a role for ATP7A in axon extension, which may contribute to the severe neurodegeneration characteristic of MD.

  7. Drosophila Med6 Is Required for Elevated Expression of a Large but Distinct Set of Developmentally Regulated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Byung Soo; Park, Jin Mo; Yoon, Jeong Ho; Kang, Changwon; Kim, Young-Joon

    2001-01-01

    Mediator is the evolutionarily conserved coactivator required for the integration and recruitment of diverse regulatory signals to basal transcription machinery. To elucidate the functions of metazoan Mediator, we isolated Drosophila melanogaster Med6 mutants. dMed6 is essential for viability and/or proliferation of most cells. dMed6 mutants failed to pupate and died in the third larval instar with severe proliferation defects in imaginal discs and other larval mitotic cells. cDNA microarray, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and in situ expression analyses of developmentally regulated genes in dMed6 mutants showed that transcriptional activation of many, but not all, genes was affected. Among the genes found to be affected were some that play a role in cell proliferation and metabolism. Therefore, dMed6 is required in most cells for transcriptional regulation of many genes important for diverse aspects of Drosophila development. PMID:11438678

  8. A developmentally regulated membrane protein gene in Dictyostelium discoideum is also induced by heat shock and cold shock.

    PubMed Central

    Maniak, M; Nellen, W

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the expression of the Dictyostelium gene P8A7 which had been isolated as a cDNA clone from an early developmentally regulated gene. The single genomic copy generated two mRNAs which were subject to different control mechanisms: while one mRNA (P8A7S) was regulated like the cell-type-nonspecific late genes, the other one (P8A7L) was induced during development, when cells were allowed to attach to a substrate, and when cells were subjected to stress, such as heat shock and cadmium. Interestingly the same induction was also observed with cold shock. RNA processing was inhibited by heat and cold shock, leading to nuclear accumulation of a precursor. The translated region of the cDNA was common to both mRNAs and encoded an unusually hydrophobic peptide with the characteristics of a membrane protein. Images PMID:3336356

  9. Developmental regulation of neuraminidase-sensitive lectin-binding glycoproteins during myogenesis of rat L6 myoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, P C; Pena, S D; Guerin, C W

    1984-01-01

    Intact monolayers of L6 myoblasts were treated with neuraminidase, with the aim of selectively removing sialic acid residues of cell-surface glycoproteins. Neuraminidase treatment unmasked binding sites for Ricinus communis agglutinin I and peanut agglutinin, thus allowing the identification of the major binding proteins for these lectins. For Ricinus communis agglutinin I these neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins had apparent Mr values of 136000, 115000, 87000, 83000 and 49000. For peanut agglutinin the major neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins had apparent Mr values of 200000, 136000, 87000 and 83000. We found highly reproducible, developmentally regulated, changes in the lectin-binding capacity of certain of these glycoproteins as L6 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. Coincident with myoblast fusion there was a co-ordinate decrease in Ricinus communis agglutinin I binding by glycoproteins of apparent Mr of 136000 and 49000. There was also a co-ordinate shift in mobility of the broad band of glycoprotein, centred at an apparent Mr of 115000 in myoblasts, to a new average apparent Mr of 107000 in mid-fusion cultures and myotube cultures. Peanut agglutinin binding by the major protein of apparent Mr 136000 also decreased at the mid-fusion stage of myogenesis, and was barely detectable in 7-day-old fused cultures. These developmentally regulated changes in neuraminidase-sensitive glycoproteins were all inhibited by growth of myoblasts in 6.4 microM-5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that they are associated with myoblast differentiation. In contrast, an increase in fibronectin was seen in mid-fusion cultures, which was not inhibited by growth of myoblasts in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. This initial increase in fibronectin is, therefore, unlikely to be directly related to myoblast fusion or differentiation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6712625

  10. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  11. Developmental regulation of transcription initiation: more than just changing the actors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ferenc; Zaucker, Andreas; Tora, Làszlò

    2010-10-01

    The traditional model of transcription initiation nucleated by the TFIID complex has suffered significant erosion in the last decade. The discovery of cell-specific paralogs of TFIID subunits and a variety of complexes that replace TFIID in transcription initiation of protein coding genes have been paralleled by the description of diverse core promoter sequences. These observations suggest an additional level of regulation of developmental and tissue-specific gene expression at the core promoter level. Recent work suggests that this regulation may function through specific roles of distinct TBP-type factors and TBP-associated factors (TAFs), however the picture emerging is still far from complete. Here we summarize the proposed models of transcription initiation by alternative initiation complexes in distinct stages of developmental specialization during vertebrate ontogeny.

  12. MAP5: a novel brain microtubule-associated protein under strong developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Riederer, B; Cohen, R; Matus, A

    1986-12-01

    A novel microtubule-associated protein, MAP5, is described, whose chemical properties and cytological distribution distinguish it from other known microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Its status as a MAP is indicated by the observations that (i) it co-assembles efficiently with microtubules in vitro, (ii) it is localized on microtubules in brain sections by immunogold staining with monoclonal antibody against MAP5 and (iii) immunoaffinity purified MAP5 stimulates tubulin polymerization. Immunoperoxidase staining of brain sections showed that MAP5 is present in neurons throughout the brain and that in them it is evenly distributed throughout axons, dendrites and cell bodies. In this respect it differs from previously described MAPs (1, 2, 3 and tau) which are differentially compartmentalized in brain neurons. MAP5 is not present in axon terminals, dendritic spines or other synaptic elements. It is present at substantially higher levels in neonatal brain than adult and it is more abundant than either MAP1 or MAP2a up to postnatal day 10. The fall in amount of MAP5, from juvenile to adult levels, is completed between postnatal days 10 and 20. This suggests that MAP5 is particularly important in modulating microtubule function during the formation of neuronal processes.

  13. Stochastic Local Distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roy, Anirban; Walgate, Jonathan

    2007-03-01

    We pose the question, ``when is globally available information is also locally available?'', formally as the problem of local state discrimination, and show that the deep qualitative link between local distinguishability and entanglement lies at the level of stochastic rather than deterministic local protocols. We restrict our attention to sets of mutually orthogonal pure quantum states. We define a set of states |ψi> as beingstochastically locally distinguishable if and only if there is a LOCC protocol whereby the parties can conclusively identify a member of the set with some nonzero probability. If a set is stochastically locally distinguishable, then the complete global information is potentially locally available. If not, the physical information encoded by the system can never be completely locally exposed. Our results are proved true for all orthogonal quantum states regardless of their dimensionality or multipartiality. First, we prove that entanglement is a necessary property of any system whose total global information can never be locally accessed. Second, entangled states that form part of an orthogonal basis can never be locally singled out. Completely entangled bases are, always stochastically locally indistinguishable. Third, we prove that any set of three orthogonal states, is stochastically locally distinguishable.

  14. Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago State Univ., IL.

    The Distinguished Cooperating Teacher Program at Chicago State University was developed to train cooperating teachers to supervise student teachers. The program departs from traditional practice by changing the roles of the classroom teacher and the university field supervisor. The supervisor's role becomes that of coordinator while the teacher…

  15. Inducibility by pathogen attack and developmental regulation of the rice Ltp1 gene.

    PubMed

    Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Cordero, Maria José; Vignols, Florence; Garcia-Garrido, José Manuel; Lescot, Magali; Tharreau, Didier; Meynard, Donaldo; Ferrière, Nicole; Notteghem, Jean-Loup; Delseny, Michel

    2002-08-01

    Using a genomic clone encoding a rice lipid transfer protein, LTP1, we analysed the activity of the 5' region of the Ltp1 gene in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) during plant development and under pathogen attack. The -1176/+13, -556/+13 and -284/+13 regions of the promoter were fused upstream from the uidA reporter gene and nos 3' polyadenylation signal, resulting in the pdelta1176Gus, pdelta556Gus and pdelta284Gus constructs which were transferred to rice by microprojectile bombardment. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays and in situ detection of uidA transcripts in transgenic homozygous lines harbouring the pdelta1176Gus construct demonstrated that the Ltp1 promoter is preferentially active in aerial vegetative and reproductive organs and that both specificity and level of expression are regulated during organ development. In leaf sheath, GUS activity which is initially strictly localized in the epidermis of growing tissue, becomes restricted to the vascular system in mature tissues. In expanded leaf blade, expression of the uidA gene was restricted to the cutting level suggesting inducibility by wounding. Strong activity was detected in lemma and palea, sterile glumes, and immature anther walls and microspores but not in female reproductive organs. No GUS activity was detected during seed embryo maturation whereas the uidA gene was strongly expressed at early stages of somatic embryogenesis in scutellum tissue. The Ltp1 transcripts were found to strongly accumulate in response to inoculation with the fungal agent of the blast disease, Magnaporthe grisea, in two rice cultivars exhibiting compatible or incompatible host-pathogen interactions. Analysis of pdelta1176Gus leaf samples inoculated with the blast fungus demonstrated that the Ltp1 promoter is induced in all cell types of tissues surrounding the lesion and notably in stomata guard cells. In plants harbouring the Ltp1 promoter deletion construct pdelta556Gus, activity was solely detected in the

  16. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  17. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a ‘poised’ state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a ‘TCCCC’ sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. PMID:26582124

  18. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-11-19

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a 'poised' state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a 'TCCCC' sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development.

  19. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Luccioli, Stefano; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari; Bonifazi, Paolo; Torcini, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in neuronal circuits, at an early stage of development, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally inspired constraints and correlations in the distribution of the neuronal connectivities and excitabilities leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity.

  20. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. Copyright © 2015 Traeger and Nowrousian.

  1. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  2. A Grapevine Gene Encoding a Guard Cell K+ Channel Displays Developmental Regulation in the Grapevine Berry

    PubMed Central

    Pratelli, Réjane; Lacombe, Benoît; Torregrosa, Laurent; Gaymard, Frédéric; Romieu, Charles; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Sentenac, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    SIRK is a K+ channel identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), belonging to the so-called Shaker family. The highest sequence similarities it shares with the members of this family are found with channels of the KAT type, although SIRK displays a small ankyrin domain. This atypical feature provides a key to understand the evolution of the plant Shaker family. Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that SIRK is an inwardly rectifying channel displaying functional properties very similar to those of KAT2. The activity of SIRK promoter region fused to the GUS reporter gene was analyzed in both grapevine and Arabidopsis. Like other KAT-like channels, SIRK is expressed in guard cells. In Arabidopsis, the construct is also expressed in xylem parenchyma. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments indicated that SIRK transcript was present at low levels in the berry, during the first stages of berry growth. After veraison, the period of berry development that corresponds to the inception of ripening and that is associated with large biochemical and structural modifications, such as evolution of stomata in nonfunctional lenticels and degeneration of xylem vasculature, the transcript was no longer detected. The whole set of data suggests that in the berries SIRK is expressed in guard cells and, possibly, in xylem tissues. The encoded channel polypeptide could therefore play a role in the regulation of transpiration and water fluxes in grapevine fruits. PMID:11842160

  3. SUMOylation Is Developmentally Regulated and Required for Cell Pairing during Conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Amjad M.; Yang, Qianyi

    2014-01-01

    The covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins regulates numerous nuclear events in eukaryotes, including transcription, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA repair. Despite extensive interest in nuclear pathways within the field of ciliate molecular biology, there have been no investigations of the SUMO pathway in Tetrahymena. The developmental program of sexual reproduction of this organism includes cell pairing, micronuclear meiosis, and the formation of a new somatic macronucleus. We identified the Tetrahymena thermophila SMT3 (SUMO) and UBA2 (SUMO-activating enzyme) genes and demonstrated that the corresponding green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged gene products are found predominantly in the somatic macronucleus during vegetative growth. Use of an anti-Smt3p antibody to perform immunoblot assays with whole-cell lysates during conjugation revealed a large increase in SUMOylation that peaked during formation of the new macronucleus. Immunofluorescence using the same antibody showed that the increase was localized primarily within the new macronucleus. To initiate functional analysis of the SUMO pathway, we created germ line knockout cell lines for both the SMT3 and UBA2 genes and found both are essential for cell viability. Conditional Smt3p and Uba2p cell lines were constructed by incorporation of the cadmium-inducible metallothionein promoter. Withdrawal of cadmium resulted in reduced cell growth and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, Smt3p and Uba2p conditional cell lines were unable to pair during sexual reproduction in the absence of cadmium, consistent with a function early in conjugation. Our studies are consistent with multiple roles for SUMOylation in Tetrahymena, including a dynamic regulation associated with the sexual life cycle. PMID:25527524

  4. Developmentally regulated plant genes: the nucleotide sequence of a wheat gliadin genomic clone.

    PubMed Central

    Rafalski, J A; Scheets, K; Metzler, M; Peterson, D M; Hedgcoth, C; Söll, D G

    1984-01-01

    Gliadins, the major wheat seed storage proteins, are encoded by a multigene family. Northern blot analysis shows that gliadin genes are transcribed in endosperm tissue into two classes of poly(A)+ mRNA, 1400 bases (class I) and 1600 bases (class II) in length. Using poly(A)+ RNA from developing wheat endosperm we constructed a cDNA library from which a number of clones coding for alpha/beta and gamma gliadins were identified by hybrid-selected mRNA translation and DNA sequencing. These cDNA clones were used as probes for the isolation of genomic gliadin clones from a wheat genomic library. One such genomic clone was characterized in detail and its DNA sequence determined. It contains a gene for a 33-kd alpha/beta gliadin protein (a 20 amino acid signal peptide and a 266 amino acid mature protein) which is very rich in glutamine (33.8%) and proline (15.4%). The gene sequence does not contain introns. A typical eukaryotic promoter sequence is present at -104 (relative to the translation initiation codon) and there are two normal polyadenylation signals 77 and 134 bases downstream from the translation termination codon. The coding sequence contains some internal sequence repetition, and is highly homologous to several alpha/beta gliadin cDNA clones. Homology to a gamma-gliadin cDNA clone is low, and there is no homology with known glutenin or zein cDNA sequences. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6204862

  5. Structural and Functional Features of a Developmentally Regulated Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Krasity, Benjamin C.; Troll, Joshua V.; Lehnert, Erik M.; Hackett, Kathleen T.; Dillard, Joseph P.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) occur mainly in extracellular fluids and promote LPS delivery to specific host cell receptors. The function of LBPs has been studied principally in the context of host defense; the possible role of LBPs in nonpathogenic host-microbe interactions has not been well characterized. Using the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri model, we analyzed the structure and function of an LBP family protein, E. scolopes LBP1 (EsLBP1), and provide evidence for its role in triggering a symbiont-induced host developmental program. Previous studies showed that, during initial host colonization, the LPS of V. fischeri synergizes with peptidoglycan (PGN) monomer to induce morphogenesis of epithelial tissues of the host animal. Computationally modeled EsLBP1 shares some but not all structural features of mammalian LBPs that are thought important for LPS binding. Similar to human LBP, recombinant EsLBP1 expressed in insect cells bound V. fischeri LPS and Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with nanomolar or greater affinity but bound Francisella tularensis LPS only weakly and did not bind PGN monomer. Unlike human LBP, EsLBP1 did not bind N. meningitidis LOS:CD14 complexes. The eslbp1 transcript was upregulated ~22-fold by V. fischeri at 24 h postinoculation. Surprisingly, this upregulation was not induced by exposure to LPS but, rather, to the PGN monomer alone. Hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) localized eslbp1 transcript and protein in crypt epithelia, where V. fischeri induces morphogenesis. The data presented here provide a window into the evolution of LBPs and the scope of their roles in animal symbioses. PMID:26463160

  6. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  7. The Conserved Splicing Factor SUA Controls Alternative Splicing of the Developmental Regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sugliani, Matteo; Brambilla, Vittoria; Clerkx, Emile J.M.; Koornneef, Maarten; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3-α and ABI3-β, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-β transcript accumulates at the end of seed maturation. The two ABI3 transcripts differ by the presence of a cryptic intron in ABI3-α, which is spliced out in ABI3-β. The suppressor of abi3-5 (sua) mutant consistently restores wild-type seed features in the frameshift mutant abi3-5 but does not suppress other abi3 mutant alleles. SUA is a conserved splicing factor, homologous to the human protein RBM5, and reduces splicing of the cryptic ABI3 intron, leading to a decrease in ABI3-β transcript. In the abi3-5 mutant, ABI3-β codes for a functional ABI3 protein due to frameshift restoration. PMID:20525852

  8. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  9. Developmental regulation of an snRNP core protein epitope during pig embryogenesis and after nuclear transfer for cloning.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S; Rickords, L F

    1992-10-01

    The appearance and stabilization of a core protein epitope of the snRNP is developmentally regulated during pig embryogenesis. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody Y12 is present in the germinal vesicle of mature oocytes and interphase nuclei of late 4-cell stage (24 to 30 hours post cleavage to the 4-cell stage) to blastocyst stage embryos. There was no antibody localization within pronuclei, or nuclei of 2-cell or early 4-cell stage embryos. Zygotes or 2-cell stage embryos cultured in the presence of alpha-amanitin to the late 4-cell stage showed no immunoreactivity, whereas control embryos had immunoreactivity. Thus antibody localization was correlated with RNA synthesis and RNA processing that begins by 24 hours post cleavage to the 4-cell stage. A final experiment showed no detectable immunoreactivity in 16-cell stage nuclei that had been transferred to enucleated activated meiotic metaphase II oocytes. Since immunoreactivity is associated with active RNA synthesis and RNA processing, it suggests that the 16-cell stage nucleus, which is RNA synthetically active, does not process RNA after nuclear transfer to an enucleated activated meiotic metaphase II oocyte.

  10. Differential Accumulation of Sunflower Tetraubiquitin mRNAs during Zygotic Embryogenesis and Developmental Regulation of Their Heat-Shock Response.

    PubMed Central

    Almoguera, C.; Coca, M. A.; Jordano, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced Ha UbiS, a cDNA for a dry-seed-stored mRNA that encodes tetraubiquitin. We have observed differential accumulation of tetraubiquitin mRNAs during sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) zygotic embryogenesis. These mRNAs were up-regulated during late embryogenesis and reached higher prevalence in the dry seed, where they were found to be associated mainly with provascular tissue. UbiS mRNA, as confirmed by Rnase A protection experiments, accumulated also in response to heat shock, but only in leaves and later during postgerminative development. These novel observations demonstrate expression during seed maturation of specific plant polyubiquitin transcripts and developmental regulation of their heat-shock response. Using ubiquitin antibodies we also detected discrete, seed-specific proteins with distinct temporal expression patterns during zygotic embryogenesis. Some of these patterns were concurrent with UbiS mRNA accumulation in seeds. The most abundant ubiquitin-reacting proteins found in mature seeds were small (16-22 kD) and acidic (isoelectric points of 6.1-7.4). Possible functional implications for UbiS expression elicited from these observations are discussed. PMID:12228401

  11. Developmental regulation and extracellular release of a VSG expression-site-associated gene product from Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, Eleanor M; van Deursen, Frederick J; Jeacock, Laura; Smith, Katherine A; Maizels, Rick M; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Matthews, Keith

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosomes evade host immunity by exchanging variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coats. VSG genes are transcribed from telomeric expression sites, which contain a diverse family of expression-site-associated genes (ESAGs). We have discovered that the mRNAs for one ESAG family, ESAG9, are strongly developmentally regulated, being enriched in stumpy forms, a life-cycle stage in the mammalian bloodstream that is important for the maintenance of chronic parasite infections and for tsetse transmission. ESAG9 gene sequences are highly diverse in the genome and encode proteins with weak similarity to the massively diverse MASP proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi. We demonstrate that ESAG9 proteins are modified by N-glycosylation and can be shed to the external milieu, this being dependent upon coexpression with at least one other family member. The expression profile and extracellular release of ESAG9 proteins represents a novel and unexpected aspect of the transmission biology of trypanosomes in their mammalian host. We suggest that these molecules might interact with the external environment, with possible implications for infection chronicity or parasite transmission.

  12. Quantitative proteomics identify DAB2 as a cardiac developmental regulator that inhibits WNT/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hofsteen, Peter; Robitaille, Aaron M; Chapman, Daniel Patrick; Moon, Randall T; Murry, Charles E

    2016-01-26

    To reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac lineage determination and differentiation, we quantified the proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and cardiomyocytes during a time course of directed differentiation by label-free quantitative proteomics. This approach correctly identified known stage-specific markers of cardiomyocyte differentiation, including SRY-box2 (SOX2), GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), and myosin heavy chain 6 (MYH6). This led us to determine whether our proteomic screen could reveal previously unidentified mediators of heart development. We identified Disabled 2 (DAB2) as one of the most dynamically expressed proteins in hESCs, CPCs, and cardiomyocytes. We used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis in zebrafish to assess whether DAB2 plays a functional role during cardiomyocyte differentiation. We found that deletion of Dab2 in zebrafish embryos led to a significant reduction in cardiomyocyte number and increased endogenous WNT/β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, the Dab2-deficient defects in cardiomyocyte number could be suppressed by overexpression of dickkopf 1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling. Thus, inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling by DAB2 is essential for establishing the correct number of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. Our work demonstrates that quantifying the proteome of human stem cells can identify previously unknown developmental regulators.

  13. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  14. Developmentally regulated enzymes and cyclic AMP-binding sites in Dictyostelium discoideum cells blocked during development by alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Stirling, J L

    1982-01-01

    When cells of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum are allowed to starve in the presence of alpha-chymotrypsin, they are blocked in development at the stage where tight aggregates form tips. Analysis of developmentally regulated enzymes has shown that alpha-mannosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, threonine deaminase, tyrosine aminotransferase, beta-glucosidase and the carbohydrate-binding protein discoidin are unaffected, but enzymes that show an increase in specific activity during post-aggregative development, namely glycogen phosphorylase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, UDP-galactose polysaccharide transferase and alkaline phosphatase, did not show the characteristic increase when development was blocked by alpha-chymotrypsin. Recovery of cells from the effects of alpha-chymotrypsin was accompanied by the formation of fruiting bodies and a concomitant increase in the specific activity of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Uptake or efflux of 45Ca2+ was not altered in the presence of alpha-chymotrypsin. Cells allowed to develop in alpha-chymotrypsin, or treated with the enzyme for 15 min, had a markedly reduced ability to bind cyclic AMP with low affinity; high-affinity binding was unaffected. Pronase had a similar effect on cyclic AMP binding, but trypsin, which does not alter developmental processes, has no effect on cyclic AMP binding to D. discoideum cells. PMID:7150239

  15. The interferon-related developmental regulator 1 is used by human papillomavirus to suppress NFκB activation

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, Bart; Goedemans, Renske; Pelascini, Laetitia P. L.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; van Esch, Edith M. G.; Meyers, Craig; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Boer, Judith M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) infect keratinocytes and successfully evade host immunity despite the fact that keratinocytes are well equipped to respond to innate and adaptive immune signals. Using non-infected and freshly established or persistent hrHPV-infected keratinocytes we show that hrHPV impairs the acetylation of NFκB/RelA K310 in keratinocytes. As a consequence, keratinocytes display a decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immune cell attraction in response to stimuli of the innate or adaptive immune pathways. HPV accomplishes this by augmenting the expression of interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) in an EGFR-dependent manner. Restoration of NFκB/RelA acetylation by IFRD1 shRNA, cetuximab treatment or the HDAC1/3 inhibitor entinostat increases basal and induced cytokine expression. Similar observations are made in IFRD1-overexpressing HPV-induced cancer cells. Thus, our study reveals an EGFR–IFRD1-mediated viral immune evasion mechanism, which can also be exploited by cancer cells. PMID:26055519

  16. Characterization of RBP9 and RBP10, two developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Kelly, Steve; de Freitas Nascimento, Janaina; Sunter, Jack; Carrington, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The fate of an mRNA is determined by its interaction with proteins and small RNAs within dynamic complexes called ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs). In Trypanosoma brucei and related kinetoplastids, responses to internal and external signals are mainly mediated by post-transcriptional processes. Here, we used proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) combined with RNA-seq to investigate the changes resulting from ectopic expression of RBP10 and RBP9, two developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Both RBPs have reduced expression in insect procyclic forms (PCFs) compared with bloodstream forms (BSFs). Upon overexpression in PCFs, both proteins were recruited to cytoplasmic foci, co-localizing with the processing body marker SCD6. Further, both RBPs altered the transcriptome from a PCF- to a BSF-like pattern. Notably, upon expression of BirA*-RBP9 and BirA*-RBP10, BioID yielded more than 200 high confidence protein interactors (more than 10-fold enriched); 45 (RBP9) and 31 (RBP10) were directly related to mRNA metabolism. This study validates the use of BioID for investigating mRNP components but also illustrates the complexity of mRNP function.

  17. The Developmentally Regulated alb1 Gene of Aspergillus fumigatus: Its Role in Modulation of Conidial Morphology and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Huei-Fung; Chang, Yun C.; Washburn, Ronald G.; Wheeler, Michael H.; Kwon-Chung, K. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an important opportunistic pathogen which commonly affects neutropenic patients, produces conidia with a bluish-green color. We identified a gene, alb1, which is required for conidial pigmentation. The alb1 gene encodes a putative polyketide synthase, and disruption of alb1 resulted in an albino conidial phenotype. Expression of alb1 is developmentally regulated, and the 7-kb transcript is detected only during the conidiation stage. The alb1 mutation was found to block 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene production, indicating that alb1 is involved in dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin biosynthesis. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the alb1 disruptant exhibited a smooth conidial surface, whereas complementation of the alb1 deletion restored the echinulate wild-type surface. Disruption of alb1 resulted in a significant increase in C3 binding on conidial surfaces, and the conidia of the alb1 disruptant were ingested by human neutrophils at a higher rate than were those of the wild type. The alb1-complemented strain producing bluish-green conidia exhibited inefficient C3 binding and neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis quantitatively similar to those of the wild type. Importantly, the alb1 disruptant had a statistically significant loss of virulence compared to the wild-type and alb1-complemented strains in a murine model. These results suggest that disruption of alb1 causes pleiotropic effects on conidial morphology and fungal virulence. PMID:9620950

  18. Expression and Developmental Regulation of Oxytocin (OT) and Oxytocin Receptors (OTR) in the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) and Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Martha G.; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J.; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in ~1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology. PMID:19003903

  19. Developmentally Regulated SCN5A Splice Variant Potentiates Dysfunction of a Novel Mutation Associated with Severe Fetal Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Lisa L.; Moon-Grady, Anita J.; Cuneo, Bettina F.; Wakai, Ronald T.; Yu, Suhong; Kunic, Jennifer D.; Benson, D. Woodrow; George, Alfred L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) may present during fetal development and can be life-threatening. The molecular mechanism for the unusual early onset of LQTS during fetal development is unknown. Objective We sought to elucidate the molecular basis for severe fetal LQTS presenting at 19-weeks gestation, the earliest known presentation of this disease. Methods Fetal magnetocardiography was used to demonstrated torsade de pointes and a prolonged rate-corrected QT interval. In vitro electrophysiological studies were performed to determine functional consequences of a novel SCN5A mutation found in the fetus. Results The fetus presented with episodes of ventricular ectopy progressing to incessant ventricular tachycardia and hydrops fetalis. Genetic analysis disclosed a novel, de novo heterozygous mutation in SCN5A (L409P) and a homozygous common variant (R558). In vitro electrophysiological studies demonstrated that the mutation in combination with R558 caused significant depolarized shifts in voltage-dependence of inactivation and activation, faster recovery from inactivation and a 7-fold greater level of persistent current. When the mutation was engineered in a fetal-expressed SCN5A splice isoform, channel dysfunction was markedly potentiated. Also, R558 alone in the fetal splice isoform evoked a large persistent current, hence both alleles were dysfunctional. Conclusion We report the earliest confirmed diagnosis of symptomatic LQTS, and present evidence that mutant cardiac sodium channel dysfunction is potentiated by a developmentally regulated alternative splicing event in SCN5A. Our findings provide a plausible mechanism for the unusual severity and early onset of cardiac arrhythmia in fetal LQTS. PMID:22064211

  20. Decreased expression of Flightless I, a gelsolin family member and developmental regulator, in early-gestation fetal wounds improves healing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Hung; Waters, James M; Powell, Barry C; Arkell, Ruth M; Cowin, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    Up until late in the third trimester of gestation and through to adulthood, the healing response acts more to regenerate than to repair a wound. The mechanisms underlying this "scar-free" healing remain unknown although the actin cytoskeleton has a major role. Flightless I (Flii), an actin-remodelling protein and essential developmental regulator, negatively affects wound repair but its effect on scar-free fetal healing is unknown. Using fetal skin explants from E17 (regenerate) and E19 (repair) rats, the function of Flii in fetal wound repair was determined. Expression of Flii increased between E17 and E19 days of gestation and wounding transiently increased Flii expression in E17 but not E19 wounds. However, both confocal and immunofluorescent analysis showed E17 keratinocytes immediately adjacent to the wounds downregulated Flii. As a nuclear coactivator and inhibitor of proliferation and migration, the absence of Flii in cells at the edge of the wound could be instrumental in allowing these cells to proliferate and migrate into the wound deficit. In contrast, Flii was strongly expressed within the cytoplasm and nucleus of keratinocytes within epidermal cells at the leading edge of E19 wounded fetal skin explants. This increase in Flii expression in E19 wounds could affect the way these cells migrate into the wound space and contribute to impaired wound healing. Neutralising Flii protein improved healing of early- but not late-gestation wounds. Flii did not colocalise with actin cables formed around E17 wounds suggesting an independent mechanism of action distinct from its actin-binding function in scar-free wound repair.

  1. Identification of a developmentally-regulated and psychostimulant-inducible novel rat gene mrt3 in the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Muraoka, Shin-ichiro; Kajii, Yasushi; Umino, Asami; Nishikawa, Toru

    2014-10-01

    The psychotomimetic effects of stimulant drugs including amphetamines and cocaine are known to change during the postnatal development in humans and experimental animals. To obtain an insight into the molecular basis of the onset of stimulant-induced psychosis, we have explored the gene transcripts that differentially respond to methamphetamine (MAP) in the developing rat brains using a differential cloning technique, the RNA arbitrarily-primed PCR. We identified from the rat neocortex a novel and developmentally regulated MAP-inducible gene mrt3 (MAP responsive transcript 3) that is transcribed to a presumable non-coding RNA of 3.8kb and is located on the reverse strand of the F-box/LRR-repeat protein 17-like gene mapped on the rat chromosome Xq12. The mrt3 mRNAs are predominantly expressed in the brain and lung. Acute MAP injection upregulated the mrt3 expression in the neocortex at postnatal day 50, but not days 8, 15 and 23, in a D1 receptor antagonist-sensitive manner. This upregulation was mimicked by another stimulant, cocaine, whereas pentobarbital and D1 antagonist failed to alter the mrt3 expression. Moreover, repeated treatment with MAP for 5 days inhibited the ability of the challenge dose of MAP or cocaine to increase the neocortical mrt3 expression without affecting the basal mrt3 mRNA levels on day 14 of withdrawal. These late-developing, cocaine-cross reactive, D1 antagonist-sensitive and long-term regulations of mrt3 by MAP are similar to those of stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, a model of the onset and relapse of stimulant-induced psychosis and schizophrenia, and therefore may be associated with the pathophysiology of the model.

  2. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity. As observed in FASD phenotypes, 5-azaC exposure was able to induce microcephaly and craniofacial cartilage deformities in Japanese rice fish. Moreover, we have observed that expression of DNMTs (dnmt1, dnmt3aa, and dnmt3bb.1) are developmentally regulated; high mRNA copies were found in early stages (1-2day-post-fertilization, dpf), followed by gradual reduction until hatched. In ethanol-treated embryos, compared to controls, dnmt1 mRNA is in reduced level in 2dpf and in enhanced level in 6dpf embryos. While dnmt3aa and 3bb.1 remained unaltered. In contrast, embryos exposed to 5-azaC have an enhanced level of dnmt1 and dnmt3bb.1 mRNAs both in 2 and 6dpf embryos while dnmt3aa is enhanced only in 6dpf embryos. Moreover, endocannabinoid receptor 1a (cnr1a) mRNA which was found to be reduced by ethanol remained unaltered and cnr1b and cnr2 mRNAs, which were remained unaltered by ethanol, were increased significantly by 5-azaC in 6dpf embryos. This study indicates that the craniofacial defects observed in FASD phenotypes are the results of dysregulations in DNMT expressions.

  3. Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Subramanium, Sathiyamoorty; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2010-10-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. A putative novel gene encoding PGIP was isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and Arabidopsis PGIPs. The RACE PCR was preformed to isolate the full-length PGIP cDNA from Panax ginseng. Sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA of PgPGIP is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing ORF encodes for a polypeptide of 366 amino acids. Domain analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of PgPGIP have a typical PGIP topology. The transcription level of PgPGIP was up-regulated in ginseng in response to wounding and infection with phytopathogenic fungi i.e., Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythium ultimum, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cylindrocarpon destructans, which causes drastic damage in ginseng plants. The constitutive PgPGIP expression of 4 years old plant, showed elevated transcript level, especially roots, showed maximum then buds, stems and leaves, indicating that the gene is developmentally regulated. The crude PGIP extracts derived from the fungal infected plants directly reduces the aggressive potential of PGs from diverse group of fungi. Like other PGIPs, PgPGIP also possess board spectrum of inhibitory activity. Thus, the presence of PgPGIP gene and their active role in defense mechanism was proved. The structural model of PgPGIP was predicted based on the alignment generated by EBI-Align, the program "MOODELLER" and the predicted structure showed 10 β-strands and 10 α-helixes region.

  4. Expression and developmental regulation of oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptors (OTR) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Tamir, Hadassah; Gross, Kara J; Chen, Jason; Anwar, Muhammad; Gershon, Michael D

    2009-01-10

    Although oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) are known for roles in parturition and milk let-down, they are not hypothalamus-restricted. OT is important in nurturing and opposition to stress. Transcripts encoding OT and OTR have been reported in adult human gut, and OT affects intestinal motility. We tested the hypotheses that OT is endogenous to the enteric nervous system (ENS) and that OTR signaling may participate in enteric neurophysiology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed OT and OTR transcripts in adult mouse and rat gut and in precursors of enteric neurons immunoselected from fetal rats. Enteric OT and OTR expression continued through adulthood but was developmentally regulated, peaking at postnatal day 7. Coincidence of the immunoreactivities of OTR and the neural marker Hu was 100% in the P3 and 71% in the adult myenteric plexus, when submucosal neurons were also OTR-immunoreactive. Co-localization with NeuN established that intrinsic primary afferent neurons are OTR-expressing. Because OTR transcripts and protein were detected in the nodose ganglia, OT signaling might also affect extrinsic primary afferent neurons. Although OT immunoreactivity was found only in approximately 1% of myenteric neurons, extensive OT-immunoreactive varicosities surrounded many others. Villus enterocytes were OTR-immunoreactive through postnatal day 17; however, by postnatal day 19, immunoreactivity waned to become restricted to crypts and concentrated at crypt-villus junctions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed plasmalemmal OTR at enterocyte adherens junctions. We suggest that OT and OTR signaling might be important in ENS development and function and might play roles in visceral sensory perception and neural modulation of epithelial biology.

  5. Developmental regulation of G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/KIR3) channel subunits in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alacid, Laura; Watanabe, Masahiko; Molnár, Elek; Wickman, Kevin; Luján, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK/family 3 of inwardly-rectifying K+) channels are coupled to neurotransmitter action and can play important roles in modulating neuronal excitability. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression of GIRK1, GIRK2 and GIRK3 subunits in the developing and adult rodent brain using biochemical, immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic techniques. At all ages analysed, the overall distribution patterns of GIRK1-3 were very similar, with high expression levels in the neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus. Focusing on the hippocampus, histoblotting and immunohistochemistry showed that GIRK1-3 protein levels increased with age, and this was accompanied by a shift in the subcellular localization of the subunits. Early in development (postnatal day 5), GIRK subunits were predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in the pyramidal cells, but by postnatal day 60 they were mostly found along the plasma membrane. During development, GIRK1 and GIRK2 were found primarily at postsynaptic sites, whereas GIRK3 was predominantly detected at presynaptic sites. In addition, GIRK1 and GIRK2 expression on the spine plasma membrane showed identical proximal-to-distal gradients that differed from GIRK3 distribution. Furthermore, although GIRK1 was never found within the postsynaptic density (PSD), the level of GIRK2 in the PSD progressively increased and GIRK3 did not change in the PSD during development. Together, these findings shed new light on the developmental regulation and subcellular diversity of neuronal GIRK channels, and support the contention that distinct subpopulations of GIRK channels exert separable influences on neuronal excitability. The ability to selectively target specific subpopulations of GIRK channels may prove effective in the treatment of disorders of excitability. PMID:22098295

  6. Developmental regulation and modulation of apoptotic genes expression in sheep oocytes and embryos cultured in vitro with L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Reddy, I J; Gupta, Psp; Mondal, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of L-carnitine (10 mM) on developmental regulation of preimplantation sheep embryos cultured in vitro when supplemented in maturation medium and post-fertilization medium separately. Subsequent objective was to observe the L-carnitine-mediated alteration in expression of apoptotic genes (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with L-carnitine showed significantly (p < .05) higher cleavage (67.23% vs 43.12%), morula (47.65% vs 28.58%) and blastocysts (32.12% vs 13.24%) percentage as compared to presumptive zygotes cultured with L-carnitine during post-fertilization period. So it is suggested to use L-carnitine during maturation than post-fertilization period. Antiapoptotic and proliferative effects of L-carnitine were confirmed by inducing culture medium with actinomycin D (apoptotic agent) and TNFα (antiproliferative agent), respectively, with and without L-carnitine. Oocytes and embryos cultured with actinomycin D and TNFα showed developmental arrest with significant (p < .05) decrease in morula and blastocysts percentage but supplementation of L-carnitine to actinomycin D and TNFα induced culture medium showed similar result as that of control. L-carnitine supplementation during IVM significantly (p < .05) upregulated the expression of Bcl2 and PCNA genes in majority of the developmental stages. Although L-carnitine upregulated the expression of Bax in initial developmental stages but downregulated at latter part, whereas the expression of Casp3 was upregulated upto 16-cell stage but after that there was no difference in expression. Expression of GAPDH gene was not affected by L-carnitine supplementation. In conclusion, L-carnitine acted as an antiapoptotic and proliferative compound during embryo development and supplementation of L-carnitine during IVM altered the expression of apoptotic genes in the developmental stages of embryos.

  7. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T. G.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that are determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  8. Identification of Developmentally Regulated PCP-Responsive Non-Coding RNA, prt6, in the Rat Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Umino, Asami; Nishikawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and similar psychoses induced by NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, usually develop after adolescence. Moreover, adult-type behavioral disturbance following NMDA receptor antagonist application in rodents is observed after a critical period at around 3 postnatal weeks. These observations suggest that the schizophrenic symptoms caused by and psychotomimetic effects of NMDA antagonists require the maturation of certain brain neuron circuits and molecular networks, which differentially respond to NMDA receptor antagonists across adolescence and the critical period. From this viewpoint, we have identified a novel developmentally regulated phencyclidine-responsive transcript from the rat thalamus, designated as prt6, as a candidate molecule involved in the above schizophrenia-related systems using a DNA microarray technique. The transcript is a non-coding RNA that includes sequences of at least two microRNAs, miR132 and miR212, and is expressed strongly in the brain and testis, with trace or non-detectable levels in the spleen, heart, liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle, as revealed by Northern blot analysis. The systemic administration of PCP (7.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) significantly elevated the expression of prt6 mRNA in the thalamus at postnatal days (PD) 32 and 50, but not at PD 8, 13, 20, or 24 as compared to saline-treated controls. At PD 50, another NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), and a schizophrenomimetic dopamine agonist, methamphetamine (4.8 mg/kg, s.c.), mimicked a significant increase in the levels of thalamic prt6 mRNAs, while a D2 dopmamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, partly inhibited the increasing influence of PCP on thalamic prt6 expression without its own effects. These data indicate that prt6 may be involved in the pathophysiology of the onset of drug-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms and schizophrenia through the possible dysregulation of

  9. Female-specific gene expression in dioecious liverwort Pellia endiviifolia is developmentally regulated and connected to archegonia production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    developmentally regulated. The contribution of the identified genes may be crucial for successful liverwort sexual reproduction. PMID:24939387

  10. Isolation of two novel ras genes in Dictyostelium discoideum; evidence for a complex, developmentally regulated ras gene subfamily.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J; Bush, J; Cardelli, J; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    1994-02-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, three ras genes (rasD, rasG and rasB) and one ras-related gene (rap1) have been previously isolated and characterized, and the deduced amino acid sequence of their predicted protein products share at least 50% sequence identity with the human H-Ras protein. We have now cloned and characterized two additional members of the ras gene subfamily in Dictyostelium, rasC and rasS. These genes are developmentally regulated and unlike the previously isolated Dictyostelium ras genes, maximum levels of their transcripts were detected during aggregation, suggesting that the encoded proteins have distinct functions during aggregation. The rasC cDNA encodes a 189 amino acid protein that is 65% identical to the Dictyostelium RasD and RasG proteins and 56% identical to the human H-Ras protein. The predicted 194 amino acid gene product encoded by rasS is 60% identical to the Dictyostelium RasD and RasG proteins and 54% identical to the human H-Ras protein. Whereas RasD, RasG, RasB and Rap1 are totally conserved in their putative effector domains relative to H-Ras, RasC and RasS have single amino acid substitutions in their effector domains, consistent with the idea that they have unique functions. In RasC, aspartic acid-38 has been replaced by asparagine (D38N), and in RasS, isoleucine-36 has been replaced by leucine (I36L). In addition, both proteins have several differences in the effector-proximal domain, a domain which is believed to play a role in Ras target activation. In RasC, there is a single conservative amino acid change in the canonical sequence of the binding site for the Ras-specific monoclonal antibody Y13-259, and consequently, RasC is less immunoreactive with the antibody than either of the Dictyostelium RasD or RasG proteins. In contrast, RasS, which has three substitutions in the Y13-259 binding site, does not react with the Y13-259 antibody.

  11. Distinguishability of black hole microstates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ning; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2017-09-01

    We use the Holevo information to estimate distinguishability of microstates of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space by measurements one can perform on a subregion of a Cauchy surface of the dual conformal field theory. We find that microstates are not distinguishable at all until the subregion reaches a certain size and that perfect distinguishability can be achieved before the subregion covers the entire Cauchy surface. We will compare our results with expectations from the entanglement wedge reconstruction, tensor network models, and the bit threads interpretation of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula.

  12. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures.

  13. Entanglement of distinguishable quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittorini, G.; Hucul, D.; Inlek, I. V.; Crocker, C.; Monroe, C.

    2014-10-01

    Time-resolved photon detection can be used to generate entanglement between distinguishable photons. This technique can be extended to entangle quantum memories that emit photons with different frequencies and identical temporal profiles without the loss of entanglement rate or fidelity. We experimentally realize this process using remotely trapped 171Yb+ ions where heralded entanglement is generated by interfering distinguishable photons. This technique may be necessary for future modular quantum systems and networks that are composed of heterogeneous qubits.

  14. The functional expression of mu opioid receptors on sensory neurons is developmentally regulated; morphine analgesia is less selective in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Reema; Beacham, Daniel; Middleton, Jacqueta; Koltzenburg, Martin; Howard, Richard F; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2004-09-01

    Opioid requirements in neonatal patients are reported to be lower than older infants and this may be a reflection of the developmental regulation of opioid receptors. In this study we have investigated the postnatal regulation of Mu opioid receptor (MOR) function in both rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures and behavioural mechanical and thermal reflex tests in rat pups. Immunostaining with MOR and selective neurofilament (NF200) antibodies was combined with calcium imaging of MOR function in cultured neonatal and adult rat dorsal root ganglion cells. Calcium imaging showed that a significantly greater number of neonatal DRG neurons expressed functional MOR compared to adult (56.5+/-3.4 versus 39.9+/-1.5%, n=8, mean+/-SEM, P<0.001). This expression is confined to the large, neurofilament positive sensory neurons, while expression in small, nociceptive, neurofilament negative neurons remains unchanged. Sensory threshold testing in rat pups showed that the analgesic potency of systemic morphine to mechanical stimulation is significantly greater in the neonate and declines with postnatal age. Morphine analgesic potency in thermal nociceptive tests did not change with postnatal age. These experiments show that the MOR expressed on large DRG neurons in neonates are functional and are subject to postnatal developmental regulation. This changing functional receptor profile is consistent with greater morphine potency in mechanical, but not thermal, sensory tests in young animals. These results have important clinical implications for the use of morphine in neonates and provide a possible explanation for the differences in morphine requirements observed in the youngest patients.

  15. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J.; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S.; Morris, Huw R.; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J.; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T.; Bushell, Trevor J.; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J.; Fox, Nick C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC–neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  16. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  17. Distinguishing cellulitis from its mimics.

    PubMed

    Keller, Emily C; Tomecki, Kenneth J; Alraies, M Chadi

    2012-08-01

    Distinguishing true cellulitis from its many imitators is challenging but critical if we are to avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics and delays in treatment. Common imitators of cellulitis are stasis dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, contact dermatitis, lymphedema, eosinophilic cellulitis, and papular urticaria. Specific criteria do not exist for the diagnosis of cellulitis, but the alert physician can find clues in the history and physical examination that point toward cellulitis.

  18. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner's dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players mu can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal mu decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  19. Restricted connections among distinguished players support cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György

    2008-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation within the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game on a square lattice where a fraction of players μ can spread their strategy more easily than the rest due to a predetermined larger teaching capability. In addition, players characterized by the larger teaching capability are allowed to temporarily link with distant opponents of the same kind with probability p , thus introducing shortcut connections among the distinguished players. We show that these additional temporary connections are able to sustain cooperation throughout the whole range of the temptation to defect. Remarkably, we observe that, as the temptation to defect increases the optimal μ decreases, and moreover only minute values of p warrant the best promotion of cooperation. Our study thus indicates that influential individuals must be few and sparsely connected in order for cooperation to thrive in a defection-prone environment.

  20. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  1. Developmentally regulated expression of the novel cancer anti-apoptosis gene survivin in human and mouse differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Adida, C.; Crotty, P. L.; McGrath, J.; Berrebi, D.; Diebold, J.; Altieri, D. C.

    1998-01-01

    Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis) may regulate tissue differentiation and aberrantly promote cell survival in neoplasia. A novel apoptosis inhibitor of the IAP gene family, designated survivin, was recently found in all of the most common human cancers but not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated strong expression of survivin in several apoptosis-regulated fetal tissues, including the stem cell layer of stratified epithelia, endocrine pancreas, and thymic medulla, with a pattern that did not overlap with that of another apoptosis inhibitor, bcl-2. A sequence-specific antibody to survivin immunoblotted a single approximately 16.5-kd survivin band in human fetal lung, liver, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In mouse embryo, prominent and nearly ubiquitous distribution of survivin was found at embryonic day (E)11.5, whereas at E15 to -21, survivin expression was restricted to the distal bronchiolar epithelium of the lung and neural-crest-derived cells, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, hypophysis, and the choroid plexus. These data suggest that expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development may contribute to tissue homeostasis and differentiation independently of bcl-2. Aberrations of this developmental pathway may result in prominent re-expression of survivin in neoplasia and abnormally prolonged cell viability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9422522

  2. Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in the mammalian ovary is developmentally regulated: changes at the time of folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dissen, G A; Hirshfield, A N; Malamed, S; Ojeda, S R

    1995-10-01

    An emerging body of evidence suggests that neurotrophins not only promote neuronal survival and differentiation, but can also target nonneuronal cells for their actions. Neurotrophins initiate their biological effects by binding to cell membrane tyrosine kinase receptors of the trk protooncogene family. In addition, all neurotrophins recognize with similar affinity a different receptor molecule known as p75 nerve growth factor receptor (p75 NGFR) or low affinity NGFR, which appears to interact with the trk receptors to potentiate their response to neurotrophins. The mature mammalian ovary has been shown to synthesize several neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin 4/5 (NT-4/5). The ovary also expresses some of the neurotrophin receptors, including p75 NGFR, trkB [the receptor for NT-4/5 and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)], and trkA (the NGF receptor). The present experiments were undertaken to determine whether neurotrophins and their receptors are expressed at the time of definitive ovarian histogenesis, and whether any of them exhibit a developmental pattern of expression related to the completion of folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical identification of p75 NGFR in rat embryonic ovaries revealed that the receptor is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal cells. By gestational day 18, these cells have formed pockets that enclose presumptive pregranulosa cells and groups of oocytes into ovigerous cords. Immediately after birth, the ovigerous cords are subdivided, resulting in the abrupt formation of primordial follicles between 24-48 h after birth. Consistent with these observations, the p75 NGFR messenger RNA (mRNA) content increased after birth and remained elevated at the time of follicular assembly. The NGF and trkA genes showed a different pattern of expression, as the ovarian content of both NGF and trkA mRNA decreased at the time of folliculogenesis. In contrast to the drop in NGF and trkA m

  3. Murine fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) gene is disrupted by a neonatally lethal albino deletion that defines the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Homozygous deletion of the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus in mouse chromosome 7 results in perinatal death and a pleiotropic syndrome characterized by ultrastructural abnormalities of the liver and kidney, failure of induction of a number of specific transcription units in the liver and kidney during late gestation, and marked overexpression of an enzyme that defends against oxidative stress. Previously, the breakpoints of two albino (c) deletions (c{sup 14CoS} and c{sup IFAFyh}) that genetically define hsdr-1 were localized, on a long-range map, in the vicinity of the distal breakpoint of a viable albino deletion (c{sup 24R75M}) that breaks proximally within the c locus. Here the authors report the use of a probe derived from a deletion breakpoint fusion fragment cloned from c{sup 24R75M}/c{sup 24R75M} DNA to clone a breakpoint fusion fragment caused by the c{sup 14CoS} deletion. The proximal breakpoint of the c{sup 14CoS} deletion was discovered to disrupt a gene (Fah) encoding fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine degradation pathway. These mouse mutants may also provide models for the human genetic disorder hereditary tyrosinemia, which is associated with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency and liver and kidney dysfunction.

  4. A myelin proteolipid protein-LacZ fusion protein is developmentally regulated and targeted to the myelin membrane in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with a fusion gene carrying a portion of the murine myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) gene, including the first intron, fused to the E. coli LacZ gene. Three transgenic lines were derived and all lines expressed the transgene in central nervous system white matter as measured by a histochemical assay for the detection of beta-galactosidase activity. PLP-LacZ transgene expression was regulated in both a spatial and temporal manner, consistent with endogenous PLP expression. Moreover, the transgene was expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes from primary mixed glial cultures prepared from transgenic mouse brains and appeared to be developmentally regulated in vitro as well. Transgene expression occurred in embryos, presumably in pre- or nonmyelinating cells, rather extensively throughout the peripheral nervous system and within very discrete regions of the central nervous system. Surprisingly, beta- galactosidase activity was localized predominantly in the myelin in these transgenic animals, suggesting that the NH2-terminal 13 amino acids of PLP, which were present in the PLP-LacZ gene product, were sufficient to target the protein to the myelin membrane. Thus, the first half of the PLP gene contains sequences sufficient to direct both spatial and temporal gene regulation and to encode amino acids important in targeting the protein to the myelin membrane. PMID:8408224

  5. Developmental regulation of elongation factor-1 delta in sea urchin suggests appearance of a mechanism for alternative poly(A) site selection in gastrulae.

    PubMed

    Delalande, C; Monnier, A; Minella, O; Genevière, A M; Mulner-Lorillon, O; Bellé, R; Cormier, P

    1998-07-10

    Elongation factor-1 delta gene expression was analyzed during sea urchin development. EF-1 delta mRNA is present as a single 2.7-kb transcript in unfertilized eggs and in rapidly dividing cleavage stage embryos. It decreases rapidly 6 h after fertilization and then reappears at the gastrula stage as two transcripts of 2.7 and 2.0 kb. cDNA clones encoding the 2.7- and 2.0-kb transcripts were isolated from a sea urchin embryos library. The two cDNAs originate from alternative poly(A) site selection from a unique precursor. Both cDNAs are terminated by a poly(A) tail and were shown to encode for the same protein identified as EF-1 delta. Thus, EF-1 delta gene expression undergoes developmental regulation in early embryos leading to the presence of two poly(A) forms of the transcript. Since the 2.0-kb polyadenylated form of the EF-1 delta transcript appears at gastrula stage, our results suggest that a mechanism for alternative poly(A) site selection of the EF-1 delta transcript appears during embryonic development.

  6. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Induction of Defense-Related Responses in Cf9 Tomato Cells by the AVR9 Elicitor Peptide of Cladosporium fulvum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    PubMed Central

    Honée, Guy; Buitink, Julia; Jabs, Thorsten; De Kloe, José; Sijbolts, Fred; Apotheker, Marion; Weide, Rob; Sijen, Titia; Stuiver, Maarten; De Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The AVR9 elicitor from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum induces defense-related responses, including cell death, specifically in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene. To study biochemical mechanisms of resistance in detail, suspension cultures of tomato cells that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene were initiated. Treatment of cells with various elicitors, except AVR9, induced an oxidative burst, ion fluxes, and expression of defense-related genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cf9 tomato leaf discs with Avr9-containing constructs resulted efficiently in transgenic callus formation. Although transgenic callus tissue showed normal regeneration capacity, transgenic plants expressing both the Cf-9 and the Avr9 genes were never obtained. Transgenic F1 seedlings that were generated from crosses between tomato plants expressing the Avr9 gene and wild-type Cf9 plants died within a few weeks. However, callus cultures that were initiated on cotyledons from these seedlings could be maintained for at least 3 months and developed similarly to callus cultures that contained only the Cf-9 or the Avr9 gene. It is concluded, therefore, that induction of defense responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor is developmentally regulated and is absent in callus tissue and cell-suspension cultures, which consists of undifferentiated cells. These results are significant for the use of suspension-cultured cells to investigate signal transduction cascades. PMID:9662523

  8. Developmental regulation of neuroligin genes in Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis maintains the rhythm during ethanol-induced fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Haron, Mona H; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal alcohol exposure is the potential cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in humans, the molecular mechanism(s) of FASD is yet unknown. We have used Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis as an animal model of FASD and reported that this model has effectively generated several phenotypic features in the cardiovasculature and neurocranial cartilages by developmental ethanol exposure which is analogous to human FASD phenotypes. As FASD is a neurobehavioral disorder, we are searching for a molecular target of ethanol that alters neurological functions. In this communication, we have focused on neuroligin genes (nlgn) which are known to be active at the postsynaptic side of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses of the central nervous system. There are six human NLGN homologs of Japanese ricefish reported in public data bases. We have partially cloned these genes and analyzed their expression pattern during normal development and also after exposing the embryos to ethanol. Our data indicate that the expression of all six nlgn genes in Japanese ricefish embryos is developmentally regulated. Although ethanol is able to induce developmental abnormalities in Japanese ricefish embryogenesis comparable to the FASD phenotypes, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of nlgn mRNAs indicate unresponsiveness of these genes to ethanol. We conclude that the disruption of the developmental rhythm of Japanese ricefish embryogenesis by ethanol that leads to FASD may not affect the nlgn gene expression at the message level.

  9. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  10. A conserved C-terminal domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus developmental regulator MedA is required for nuclear localization, adhesion and virulence.

    PubMed

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Lee, Mark J; Sheppard, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA(346-557), that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA(346-557) alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA(346-557) domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function.

  11. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus Developmental Regulator MedA Is Required for Nuclear Localization, Adhesion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Lee, Mark J.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA346–557, that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA346–557 alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA346–557 domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function. PMID:23185496

  13. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhengkun; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses.

  14. Characterization of a female-specific cDNA derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Bobek, L; Rekosh, D M; van Keulen, H; LoVerde, P T

    1986-08-01

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone that is derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA found only in mature female schistosomes. The mRNA is approximately 950 nucleotides in length and is not detectable in immature female schistosomes isolated from single-sex infections, in male worms, or in eggs. During normal bisexual infections, the mRNA species is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing) and increases to a high level 35 days after infection, coinciding with the start of egg production. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA shows two large open reading frames in the coding strand. Several features of the clone, including the deduced sequence of the polypeptide encoded by one of the reading frames, suggest a relationship to the silk moth chorion (egg shell) gene family. The isolation of this clone provides us with a probe for further studies of female schistosome development and is a first step toward a detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level.

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the chicken cysteine-rich protein, a developmentally regulated LIM-domain protein that is associated with the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Crawford, A W; Pino, J D; Beckerle, M C

    1994-01-01

    LIM domains are present in a number of proteins including transcription factors, a proto-oncogene product, and the adhesion plaque protein zyxin. The LIM domain exhibits a characteristic arrangement of cysteine and histidine residues and represents a novel zinc binding sequence (Michelsen et al., 1993). Previously, we reported the identification of a 23-kD protein that interacts with zyxin in vitro (Sadler et al., 1992). In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of this 23-kD zyxin-binding protein from avian smooth muscle. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the 23-kD protein has revealed that it consists of 192 amino acids and exhibits two copies of the LIM motif. The 23-kD protein is 91% identical to the human cysteine-rich protein (hCRP); therefore we refer to it as the chicken cysteine-rich protein (cCRP). Examination of a number of chick embryonic tissues by Western immunoblot analysis reveals that cCRP exhibits tissue-specific expression. cCRP is most prominent in tissues that are enriched in smooth muscle cells, such as gizzard, stomach, and intestine. In primary cell cultures derived from embryonic gizzard, differentiated smooth muscle cells exhibit the most striking staining with anti-cCRP antibodies. We have performed quantitative Western immunoblot analysis of cCRP, zyxin, and alpha-actinin levels during embryogenesis. By this approach, we have demonstrated that the expression of cCRP is developmentally regulated.

  16. MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 Encodes a Putative Pectin Biosynthetic Enzyme Developmentally Regulated by APETALA2, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, and GLABRA2 in the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Young, Diana S.; Dean, Gillian H.; Tan, Wei Ling; Samuels, A. Lacey; Haughn, George W.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat epidermis undergoes a complex process of differentiation that includes the biosynthesis and secretion of large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage, cytoplasmic rearrangement, and secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Mutations in MUM4 (MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4) lead to a decrease in seed coat mucilage and incomplete cytoplasmic rearrangement. We show that MUM4 encodes a putative NDP-l-rhamnose synthase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I, the major component of Arabidopsis mucilage. This result suggests that the synthesis of monosaccharide substrates is a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of pectinaceous seed coat mucilage. In addition, the reduced cytoplasmic rearrangement observed in the absence of a key enzyme in pectin biosynthesis in mum4 mutants establishes a causal link between mucilage production and cellular morphogenesis. The cellular phenotype seen in mum4 mutants is similar to that of several transcription factors (AP2 [APETALA2], TTG1 [TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1], TTG2 MYB61, and GL2 [GLABRA2]). Expression studies suggest that MUM4 is developmentally regulated in the seed coat by AP2, TTG1, and GL2, whereas TTG2 and MYB61 appear to be regulating mucilage production through alternate pathway(s). Our results provide a framework for the regulation of mucilage production and secretory cell differentiation. PMID:14701918

  17. Partial polarization by quantum distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Hochrainer, Armin; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-03-01

    We establish that a connection exists between wave-particle duality of photons and partial polarization of a light beam. We perform a two-path lowest-order (single photon) interference experiment and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the degree of polarization of the light beam emerging from an output of the interferometer depends on path distinguishability. In our experiment, we are able to change the quantum state of the emerging photon from a pure state to a fully mixed state without any direct interaction with the photon. Although most lowest-order interference experiments can be explained by classical theory, our experiment has no genuine classical analog. Our results show that a case exists where the cause of partial polarization is beyond the scope of classical theory.

  18. Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    needed for screening. The protocol was optimized using reverse transfection of citrine fluorescent reporters into HeLa cells stably expressing AR (HeLa...libraries. Of 124 primary hits (1.62% hit rate) (Step 1), 109 showed dose dependent inhibition of cARE- citrine (Step 2). 15 of the 109 compounds did...not inhibit sARE- citrine , indicating selectivity (Step 3), for a screen hit rate of 0.2% (15/7612 compounds). One hit is a topoisomerase I inhibitor

  19. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations.

    PubMed

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K L

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an "implicit punishment" mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  20. Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    drugs , resistance arises and AR regains control. An innovative approach to deter resistance is to identify selective AR modulators (SARMs) that...modification would be needed to improve its drug features. Thus rather than perform more screening and characterization of new compounds (Task 2, c...e, of the original SOW), we decided to focus on doxorubicin, which has been well studied and is a FDA approved drug already used in prostate

  1. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  2. Distinguishing ordinal and disordinal interactions.

    PubMed

    Widaman, Keith F; Helm, Jonathan L; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Pluess, Michael; Stallings, Michael C; Belsky, Jay

    2012-12-01

    Re-parameterized regression models may enable tests of crucial theoretical predictions involving interactive effects of predictors that cannot be tested directly using standard approaches. First, we present a re-parameterized regression model for the Linear × Linear interaction of 2 quantitative predictors that yields point and interval estimates of 1 key parameter-the crossover point of predicted values-and leaves certain other parameters unchanged. We explain how resulting parameter estimates provide direct evidence for distinguishing ordinal from disordinal interactions. We generalize the re-parameterized model to Linear × Qualitative interactions, where the qualitative variable may have 2 or 3 categories, and then describe how to modify the re-parameterized model to test moderating effects. To illustrate our new approach, we fit alternate models to social skills data on 438 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. The re-parameterized regression model had point and interval estimates of the crossover point that fell near the mean on the continuous environment measure. The disordinal form of the interaction supported 1 theoretical model-differential-susceptibility-over a competing model that predicted an ordinal interaction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  4. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  5. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the chicken cysteine-rich protein, a developmentally regulated LIM-domain protein that is associated with the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    LIM domains are present in a number of proteins including transcription factors, a proto-oncogene product, and the adhesion plaque protein zyxin. The LIM domain exhibits a characteristic arrangement of cysteine and histidine residues and represents a novel zinc binding sequence (Michelsen et al., 1993). Previously, we reported the identification of a 23-kD protein that interacts with zyxin in vitro (Sadler et al., 1992). In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of this 23-kD zyxin-binding protein from avian smooth muscle. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the 23-kD protein has revealed that it consists of 192 amino acids and exhibits two copies of the LIM motif. The 23-kD protein is 91% identical to the human cysteine-rich protein (hCRP); therefore we refer to it as the chicken cysteine-rich protein (cCRP). Examination of a number of chick embryonic tissues by Western immunoblot analysis reveals that cCRP exhibits tissue-specific expression. cCRP is most prominent in tissues that are enriched in smooth muscle cells, such as gizzard, stomach, and intestine. In primary cell cultures derived from embryonic gizzard, differentiated smooth muscle cells exhibit the most striking staining with anti-cCRP antibodies. We have performed quantitative Western immunoblot analysis of cCRP, zyxin, and alpha-actinin levels during embryogenesis. By this approach, we have demonstrated that the expression of cCRP is developmentally regulated. PMID:8294495

  6. Developmentally regulated expression, alternative splicing and distinct sub-groupings in members of the Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVAL) gene family

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Iain W; McArdle, Andrew J; Coulson, Richard MR; Wagner, Marissa A; Schmid, Ralf; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hoffmann, Karl F

    2008-01-01

    Background The Sperm-coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) domain is found across phyla and is a major structural feature of insect allergens, mammalian sperm proteins and parasitic nematode secreted molecules. Proteins containing this domain are implicated in diverse biological activities and may be important for chronic host/parasite interactions. Results We report the first description of an SCP/TAPS gene family (Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVALs)) in the medically important Platyhelminthes (class Trematoda) and describe individual members' phylogenetic relationships, genomic organization and life cycle expression profiles. Twenty-eight SmVALs with complete SCP/TAPS domains were identified and comparison of their predicted protein features and gene structures indicated the presence of two distinct sub-families (group 1 & group 2). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this group 1/group 2 split is zoologically widespread as it exists across the metazoan sub-kingdom. Chromosomal localisation and PCR analysis, coupled to inspection of the current S. mansoni genomic assembly, revealed that many of the SmVAL genes are spatially linked throughout the genome. Quantitative lifecycle expression profiling demonstrated distinct SmVAL expression patterns, including transcripts specifically associated with lifestages involved in definitive host invasion, transcripts restricted to lifestages involved in the invasion of the intermediate host and transcripts ubiquitously expressed. Analysis of SmVAL6 transcript diversity demonstrated statistically significant, developmentally regulated, alternative splicing. Conclusion Our results highlight the existence of two distinct SCP/TAPS protein types within the Platyhelminthes and across taxa. The extensive lifecycle expression analysis indicates several SmVAL transcripts are upregulated in infective stages of the parasite, suggesting that these particular protein products may be linked to the establishment of

  7. Matrix Gla Protein Is a Developmental Regulator of Chondrocyte Mineralization And, When Constitutively Expressed, Blocks Endochondral and Intramembranous Ossification in the Limb

    PubMed Central

    Yagami, Kimitoshi; Suh, Jo-Young; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Abrams, William R.; Shapiro, Irving M.; Pacifici, Maurizio; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    1999-01-01

    Matrix GLA protein (MGP), a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)–rich, vitamin K–dependent and apatite-binding protein, is a regulator of hypertrophic cartilage mineralization during development. However, MGP is produced by both hypertrophic and immature chondrocytes, suggesting that MGP's role in mineralization is cell stage–dependent, and that MGP may have other roles in immature cells. It is also unclear whether MGP regulates the quantity of mineral or mineral nature and quality as well. To address these issues, we determined the effects of manipulations of MGP synthesis and expression in (a) immature and hypertrophic chondrocyte cultures and (b) the chick limb bud in vivo. The two chondrocyte cultures displayed comparable levels of MGP gene expression. Yet, treatment with warfarin, a γ-carboxylase inhibitor and vitamin K antagonist, triggered mineralization in hypertrophic but not immature cultures. Warfarin effects on mineralization were highly selective, were accompanied by no appreciable changes in MGP expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, or cell number, and were counteracted by vitamin K cotreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that mineral forming in control and warfarin-treated hypertrophic cell cultures was similar and represented stoichiometric apatite. Virally driven MGP overexpression in cultured chondrocytes greatly decreased mineralization. Surprisingly, MGP overexpression in the developing limb not only inhibited cartilage mineralization, but also delayed chondrocyte maturation and blocked endochondral ossification and formation of a diaphyseal intramembranous bone collar. The results show that MGP is a powerful but developmentally regulated inhibitor of cartilage mineralization, controls mineral quantity but not type, and appears to have a previously unsuspected role in regulating chondrocyte maturation and ossification processes. PMID:10579728

  8. Developmentally regulated Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is involved in BDNF secretion and is associated with autism susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2009-09-01

    The postnatal development of the cerebellum is accomplished via a series of cytogenetic and morphogenetic events encoded in the genome. To decipher the underlying genetic basis of these events we have systematized the spatio-temporal gene expression profiles during mouse cerebellar development in the Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database (CDT-DB). Using the CDT-DB, Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2 or CADPS2) was identified as a developmentally regulated gene that is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells (GCs) with an expression peak around the first or second postnatal week. CAPS2 protein is concentrated in parallel fiber (PF) terminals and is associated with secretory vesicles containing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). CAPS2 enhances release of BDNF and NT-3, both of which are essential for normal cerebellar development. CAPS2-deficient (CAPS2(-/-)) mice show reduced secretion of BDNF and NT-3; consequently, the cerebella of these mice exhibit developmental deficits, such as delayed development and increased cell death in GCs, fewer branched dendrites on Purkinje cells (PCs), and loss of the intercrural fissure. The PF-PC synapses have aberrant cytoarchitectures and electrophysiological properties. These abnormal cellular and morphological phenotypes are more severe around the cerebellar vermis, in which hypoplasia has been reported in autism patients. Moreover, CAPS2(-/-) mice had fewer cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons and some autistic-like behavioral phenotypes. In the CAPS2 genes of some autistic patients an aberrant splicing variant and non-synonymous SNPs have been identified. These recent studies implicate CAPS2 in autism susceptibility. Therefore, CAPS2(-/-) mice will be a useful model animal in which to study aspects of the neuropathology and behaviors characteristic of developmental disorders.

  9. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana contributes to potyvirus movement and transports to plasmodesmata via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin system.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5'-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement.

  10. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Tsetlin, Victor; Klein, Anders Bue; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-11-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic compartments. We further estimate the amount of Lynx1 in the rat cortex using known amounts of a heterologously expressed soluble Lynx1 variant (ws-Lynx1) to be approximately 8.6 ng/μg total protein, which is in line with the concentrations of ws-Lynx1 required to affect nAChR function. In addition, we demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus at the mRNA and protein level, and that this is paralleled to some degree by the expression of the nAChR subunits α2, α4, α7 and β2. Our results demonstrate a developmental pattern, localization, and concentration of Ly-6 proteins in the brain, which support a role for these proteins in the modulation of signaling at synaptic membranes.

  11. Developmentally regulated HEART STOPPER, a mitochondrially targeted L18 ribosomal protein gene, is required for cell division, differentiation, and seed development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Luo, Ming; Day, Robert C.; Talbot, Mark J.; Ivanova, Aneta; Ashton, Anthony R.; Chaudhury, Abed M.; Macknight, Richard C.; Hrmova, Maria; Koltunow, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the role of a mitochondrial ribosomal (mitoribosomal) L18 protein in cell division, differentiation, and seed development after the characterization of a recessive mutant, heart stopper (hes). The hes mutant produced uncellularized endosperm and embryos arrested at the late globular stage. The mutant embryos differentiated partially on rescue medium with some forming callus. HES (At1g08845) encodes a mitochondrially targeted member of a highly diverged L18 ribosomal protein family. The substitution of a conserved amino residue in the hes mutant potentially perturbs mitoribosomal function via altered binding of 5S rRNA and/or influences the stability of the 50S ribosomal subunit, affecting mRNA binding and translation. Consistent with this, marker genes for mitochondrial dysfunction were up-regulated in the mutant. The slow growth of the endosperm and embryo indicates a defect in cell cycle progression, which is evidenced by the down-regulation of cell cycle genes. The down-regulation of other genes such as EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes links the mitochondria to the regulation of many aspects of seed development. HES expression is developmentally regulated, being preferentially expressed in tissues with active cell division and differentiation, including developing embryos and the root tips. The divergence of the L18 family, the tissue type restricted expression of HES, and the failure of other L18 members to complement the hes phenotype suggest that the L18 proteins are involved in modulating development. This is likely via heterogeneous mitoribosomes containing different L18 members, which may result in differential mitochondrial functions in response to different physiological situations during development. PMID:26105995

  12. One of the Two Genes Encoding Nucleoid-Associated HU Proteins in Streptomyces coelicolor Is Developmentally Regulated and Specifically Involved in Spore Maturation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Paola; Larsson, Jessica; Bucca, Giselda; Laing, Emma; Smith, Colin P.; Flärdh, Klas

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces genomes encode two homologs of the nucleoid-associated HU proteins. One of them, here designated HupA, is of a conventional type similar to E. coli HUα and HUβ, while the other, HupS, is a two-domain protein. In addition to the N-terminal part that is similar to that of HU proteins, it has a C-terminal domain that is similar to the alanine- and lysine-rich C termini of eukaryotic linker histones. Such two-domain HU proteins are found only among Actinobacteria. In this phylum some organisms have only a single HU protein of the type with a C-terminal histone H1-like domain (e.g., Hlp in Mycobacterium smegmatis), while others have only a single conventional HU. Yet others, including the streptomycetes, produce both types of HU proteins. We show here that the two HU genes in Streptomyces coelicolor are differentially regulated and that hupS is specifically expressed during sporulation, while hupA is expressed in vegetative hyphae. The developmental upregulation of hupS occurred in sporogenic aerial hyphal compartments and was dependent on the developmental regulators whiA, whiG, and whiI. HupS was found to be nucleoid associated in spores, and a hupS deletion mutant had an average nucleoid size in spores larger than that in the parent strain. The mutant spores were also defective in heat resistance and spore pigmentation, although they possessed apparently normal spore walls and displayed no increased sensitivity to detergents. Overall, the results show that HupS is specifically involved in sporulation and may affect nucleoid architecture and protection in spores of S. coelicolor. PMID:19717607

  13. Expression of developmentally regulated plasma membrane polypeptide (DREPP2) in rice root tip and interaction with Ca(2+)/CaM complex and microtubule.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Kageyama, Hakuto; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    The cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) could play an important role for salt tolerance in rice root (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we compared the expression profiles of two putative developmentally regulated plasma membrane polypeptides (DREPP1 and DREPP2) in rice roots of salt-tolerant cv. Pokkali and salt-sensitive cv. IR29. The messenger RNA (mRNA) for OsDREPP1 could be detected in all parts of root and did not change upon salt stress, whereas the mRNA for OsDREPP2 was detected only in root tips. The transcript level of OsDREPP2 first disappeared upon salt stress, then recovered in Pokkali, but not recovered in IR29. The gene-encoding OsDREPP2 was cloned from cv. Pokkali and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its biochemical properties were studied. It was found that OsDREPP2 is a Ca(2+)-binding protein and binds also to calmodulin (CaM) as well as microtubules. The mutation of Trp4 and Phe16 in OsDREPP2 to Ala decreased the binding of DREPP2 to Ca(2+)/CaM complex, indicating the N-terminal basic domain is involved for the binding. The binding of OsDREPP2 to microtubules was inhibited by Ca(2+)/CaM complex, while the binding of double-mutant OsDREPP2 protein to microtubules was not inhibited by Ca(2+)/CaM complex. We propose that CaM inhibits the binding of DREPP2 to cortical microtubules, causes the inhibition of microtubule depolymerization, and enhances the cell elongation.

  14. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana Contributes to Potyvirus Movement and Transports to Plasmodesmata via the Early Secretory Pathway and the Actomyosin System1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5′-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement. PMID:25540331

  15. Developmental regulation of the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and metaplasticity in hippocampal area CA1 of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guan

    2012-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to underlie memory; thus knowing its developmental profile is fundamental to understanding function. Like memory, LTP has multiple phases with distinct timing and mechanisms. The late phase of LTP (L-LTP), lasting longer than 3 h, is protein synthesis dependent and involves changes in the structure and content of dendritic spines, the major sites of excitatory synapses. In previous work, tetanic stimulation first produced L-LTP at postnatal day 15 (P15) in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. Here we used a more robust induction paradigm involving theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in acute slices and found the developmental onset of L-LTP to be 3 days earlier at P12. In contrast, at P8–11, TBS only reversed the synaptic depression that occurs from test-pulse stimulation in developing (P8–15) hippocampus. A second bout of TBS delivered 30–180 min later produced L-LTP at P10–11 but not at P8–9 and enhanced L-LTP at P12–15. Both the developmental onset and the enhanced L-LTP produced by repeated bouts of TBS were blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. Thus the developmental onset age is P12 for L-LTP induced by the more robust and perhaps more naturalistic TBS induction paradigm. Metaplasticity produced by repeated bouts of TBS is developmentally regulated, advancing the capacity for L-LTP from P12 to P10, but not to younger ages. Together these findings provide a new basis from which to investigate mechanisms that regulate the developmental onset of this important form of synaptic plasticity. PMID:22114158

  16. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Meireles-Filho, Antonio C. A.; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  17. A Preliminary Analysis of the Kentucky Distinguished Education Initiative: A New Approach to Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mimi Mitchell; And Others

    The goal of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 was that all schools would be successful as measured by the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The Kentucky Distinguished Educator Program was created to promote the goal. The program sought to create a pool of distinguished educators who would serve in School…

  18. The multicoloured world of promoter recognition complexes

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ferenc; Tora, Làszlò

    2004-01-01

    The expression pattern of regulated genes changes dynamically depending on the developmental stage and the differentiation state of the cell. Transcription factors regulate cellular events at the gene expression level by communicating signals to the general transcription machinery that forms a preinitiation complex (PIC) at class II core promoters. Recent data strongly suggest that PICs are composed of different sets of factors at distinct promoters, reflecting the spatiotemporal profile of gene expression in multicellular organisms. Thus, today it is important to ask the question: how universal are the promoter recognition factors? This review will focus on findings that support the new idea that core promoter recognition by distinct factors is an additional level of transcriptional regulation and that this step is developmentally regulated. PMID:14685269

  19. Polysialic acid of the neural cell adhesion molecule distinguishes small cell lung carcinoma from carcinoids.

    PubMed Central

    Komminoth, P.; Roth, J.; Lackie, P. M.; Bitter-Suermann, D.; Heitz, P. U.

    1991-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) exists in various types of neuroendocrine cells and their tumors. A typical feature of NCAM is polysialic acid, of which the chain length is developmentally regulated. The authors have performed a comparative immunohistochemical study on small cell lung carcinomas and bronchial as well as gastrointestinal carcinoids with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) 735 reactive with the long-chain form of polysialic acid. The small cell lung carcinomas, irrespective of their histological type, were positive for polysialic acid. Metastatic tumor cell complexes also exhibited immunostaining. The tumor cell-surface-associated immunostaining for polysialic acid was sensitive to endoneuraminidase. The mature and atypical bronchial and gastrointestinal carcinoids were not immunoreactive for polysialic acid. Cytoplasmic staining in groups of cells of carcinoids (2 of 28 cases) was due to nonspecific antibody binding, which could be prevented by increased ion strength. These data indicate that neuroendocrine tumors of the lung can be distinguished by their content of highly sialylated NCAM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1651057

  20. Distinguishing quantum operations: LOCC versus separable operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Indrani; Sarkar, Debasis

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issue of distinguishing a pair of quantum operation in general. We use Krause theorem for representing the operations in unitary form. This supports the existence of pair of quantum operations that are not locally distinguishable, but distinguishable in asymptotic sense in some higher dimensional system. The process can even be successful without any use of the entangled initial state.

  1. The tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of two nuclear genes encoding rat mitochondrial proteins. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Gordon, J I; Alpers, R; Strauss, A W

    1989-11-15

    To study the regulation of nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism, absolute levels of mRNA encoding rat medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) were determined in developing and adult male rat tissues. MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of adult male tissues with highest steady state levels in heart, adrenal, and skeletal muscle and lowest levels in brain, lung, and testes. In comparison, steady state levels of mMDH mRNA in adult male rat tissues were similar to those of MCAD mRNA in heart, small intestine, adrenal, and skeletal muscle but markedly different in brain, stomach, and testes. Thus, the steady-state levels of MCAD and mMDH mRNA are highest in adult tissues with high energy requirements. Dot blot analysis of RNA prepared from late fetal, suckling, and weaning rat heart, liver, and brain demonstrated the presence of MCAD and mMDH mRNA during the fetal period in all three tissues. Both MCAD and mMDH mRNA levels increased 2-2.5-fold at birth followed by a decline during the first postnatal week in heart and liver. The patterns of accumulation of these mRNAs in heart and liver during the weaning and early adult periods were also similar, although the absolute levels were significantly different. Brain MCAD mRNA levels were consistently low (less than 0.1 pg/micrograms total cellular RNA) throughout the developmental stages. However, brain mMDH mRNA levels exhibited a marked increase during the weaning period, reaching a peak concentration which is higher than the level of mMDH mRNA in heart and liver at any point during development. These results indicate that the level of expression of the nuclear genes encoding MCAD and mMDH is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. The patterns of MCAD and mMDH mRNA accumulation parallel the changes in energy metabolism which occur during development and among adult tissues.

  2. Disruption of the developmentally-regulated Col2a1 pre-mRNA alternative splicing switch in a transgenic knock-in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Renate; Ravindran, Soumya; Wirthlin, Louisa; Traeger, Geoffrey; Fernandes, Russell J.; McAlinden, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the generation of a knock-in mouse model to address the role of type II procollagen (Col2a1) alternative splicing in skeletal development and maintenance. Alternative splicing of Col2a1 precursor mRNA is a developmentally-regulated event that only occurs in chondrogenic tissue. Normally, chondroprogenitor cells synthesize predominantly exon 2-containing mRNA isoforms (type IIA and IID) while Col2a1 mRNA devoid of exon 2 (type IIB) is the major isoform produced by differentiated chondrocytes. Another isoform, IIC, has also been identified that contains a truncated exon 2 and is not translated into protein. The biological significance of this IIA/IID to IIB splicing switch is not known. Utilizing a splice site targeting knock-in approach, a 4 nucleotide mutation was created to convert the 5 splice site of Col2a1 exon 2 from a weak, non-consensus sequence to a strong, consensus splice site. This resulted in apparent expression of only the IIA mRNA isoform, as confirmed in vitro by splicing of a type II procollagen mini-gene containing the 5′ splice site mutation. To test the splice site targeting approach in vivo, homozygote mice engineered to retain IIA exon 2 (Col2a1+ex2) were generated. Chondrocytes from hindlimb epiphyseal cartilage of homozygote mice were shown to express only IIA mRNA and protein at all pre- and post-natal developmental stages analyzed (E12.5, E16.5, P0, P3, P7, P14, P28 and P70). As expected, type IIB procollagen was the major isoform produced in wild type cartilage at all post-natal time points. Col2a1+ex2 homozygote mice are viable, appear healthy and display no overt phenotype to date. However, research is currently underway to investigate the biological consequence of persistent expression of the exon 2-encoded conserved cysteine-rich domain in post-natal skeletal tissues. PMID:22248926

  3. Precerebellin-related genes and precerebellin 1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat: expression pattern, localization, developmental regulation and effects on corticosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-03-01

    , the present study provided precise data on expression of the Cbln-related genes and Cbln1 peptide in the adrenal gland of the rat and on their developmental regulation. We also found that, contrary to the human adrenal, in the rat adrenal gland, the Cbln4 gene was not expressed at the mRNA level.

  4. How do recovery definitions distinguish recovering individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Grella, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Six percent of American adults say they are “in recovery” from an alcohol or drug problem yet only a scant emergent literature has begun to ask how they define “recovery” or explored whether there is heterogeneity among their definitions. Methods Secondary analysis of the What Is Recovery? online survey employed Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify typologies of study participants based on their actual endorsement of 39 recovery elements and to compare the composition of these typologies in terms of distinguishing personal characteristics. Results A 5-class solution provided the best fit and conceptual representation for the recovery definitions. Classes were labeled 12-Step Traditionalist (n=4912); 12-Step Enthusiast (n=2014); Secular (n=980); Self-Reliant (n=1040); and Atypical (n=382) based on patterns of endorsement of the recovery elements. Abstinence, spiritual, and social interaction elements differentiated the classes most (as did age and recovery duration but to a lesser extent). Although levels and patterns of endorsement to the elements varied by class, a rank-ordering of the top 10 elements indicated that four elements were endorsed by all five classes: being honest with myself, handling negative feelings without using, being able to enjoy life, and process of growth and development. Conclusions The results of the LCA demonstrate the diversity of meanings, and varying degrees of identification with, specific elements of recovery. As others have found, multiple constituents are invested in how recovery is defined and this has ramifications for professional, personal, and cultural processes related to how strategies to promote recovery are implemented. PMID:25630961

  5. The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C

    2005-12-24

    To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Retrospective survey. The UK. 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas.

  6. The wealth of distinguished doctors: retrospective survey

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess changes in the wealth of distinguished doctors in the United Kingdom between 1860 and 2001. Design Retrospective survey. Setting The UK. Participants 980 doctors of sufficient distinction to be included in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and who died between 1860 and 2001. Main outcome measures Wealth at death, based on probate records and adjusted relative to average earnings in 2002. Results The wealth of distinguished doctors declined substantially between 1860 and 2001, and paralleled a decline in the relative income of doctors in general. The wealth of distinguished doctors also declined relative to other groups of distinguished individuals. Conclusions In the 19th century, distinction in doctors was accompanied by substantial wealth, whereas by the end of the 20th century, the most distinguished doctors were less wealthy than their contemporaries who had achieved national distinction in other areas. PMID:16373738

  7. Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongmei; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao; Wu, Qiong; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Yongzhen; Steinmetz, André; Chen, Shilin

    2010-09-21

    -time PCR analysis. Four unique putative CYP450 transcripts (Hs01891, Hs04010, Hs13557 and Hs00093) which are the most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids were selected based on a phylogenetic analysis. Approximately 115 H. serrata and 98 P. carinatus unique putative transcripts associated with the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, alkaloids and flavones/flavonoids were located in the 454-EST datasets. Transcripts related to phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as transcription factors were also obtained. In addition, we discovered 2,729 and 1,573 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci in the H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs, respectively. The 454-EST resource allowed for the first large-scale acquisition of ESTs from H. serrata and P. carinatus, which are representative members of the Huperziaceae family. We discovered many genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and transcriptional regulation as well as a large number of potential microsatellite markers. These results constitute an essential resource for understanding the molecular basis of developmental regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis (especially that of lycopodium alkaloids) in the Huperziaceae, and they provide an overview of the genetic diversity of this family.

  8. Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    454-ESTs and real-time PCR analysis. Four unique putative CYP450 transcripts (Hs01891, Hs04010, Hs13557 and Hs00093) which are the most likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids were selected based on a phylogenetic analysis. Approximately 115 H. serrata and 98 P. carinatus unique putative transcripts associated with the biosynthesis of triterpenoids, alkaloids and flavones/flavonoids were located in the 454-EST datasets. Transcripts related to phytohormone biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as transcription factors were also obtained. In addition, we discovered 2,729 and 1,573 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci in the H. serrata and P. carinatus 454-ESTs, respectively. Conclusions The 454-EST resource allowed for the first large-scale acquisition of ESTs from H. serrata and P. carinatus, which are representative members of the Huperziaceae family. We discovered many genes likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and transcriptional regulation as well as a large number of potential microsatellite markers. These results constitute an essential resource for understanding the molecular basis of developmental regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis (especially that of lycopodium alkaloids) in the Huperziaceae, and they provide an overview of the genetic diversity of this family. PMID:20854695

  9. Wootters' distance revisited: a new distinguishability criterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majtey, A.; Lamberti, P. W.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.

    2005-03-01

    The notion of distinguishability between quantum states has shown to be fundamental in the frame of quantum information theory. In this paper we present a new distinguishability criterium by using a information theoretic quantity: the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD). This quantity has several interesting properties, both from a conceptual and a formal point of view. Previous to define this distinguishability criterium, we review some of the most frequently used distances defined over quantum mechanics’ Hilbert space. In this point our main claim is that the JSD can be taken as a unifying distance between quantum states.

  10. Expanding the principle of local distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The principle of local distinguishability states that an arbitrary physical state of a bipartite system can be determined by the combined statistics of local measurements performed on the subsystems. A necessary and sufficient requirement for the local measurements is that each one must be able to distinguish between all pairs of states of the respective subsystems. We show that, if the task is changed into the determination of an arbitrary bipartite pure state, then at least in certain cases it is possible to restrict to local measurements which can distinguish all pure states but not all states. Moreover, we show that, if the local measurements are such that the purity of the bipartite state can be verified from the statistics without any prior assumption, then in these special cases also this property is carried over to the composite measurement. These surprising facts give evidence that the principle of local distinguishability may be expanded beyond its usual applicability.

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Dedre Gentner.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2016 award winners is Dedre Gentner, who received this award for her "achievements in research and theory in cognitive psychology and cognitive development, especially for developing the structure-mapping theory of analogy and similarity." Her award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Distinguishing Marks of Simply-Connected Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebouças, M. J.; Dolgov, A.

    A statistical quantity suitable for distinguishing simply-connected Robertson-Walker (RW) universes is introduced, and its explicit expressions for the three possible classes of simply-connected RW universes with an uniform distribution of matter are determined. Graphs of the distinguishing mark for each class of RW universes are presented and analyzed. There sprout from our results an improvement on the procedure to extract the topological signature of multiply-connected RW universes, and a refined understanding of that topological signature of these universes studied in previous works.

  13. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  14. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  15. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  16. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  17. Distinguishing Features of Critical Thinking Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, M. Neil; Freeman, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Proposes that classrooms that encourage critical thinking possess distinguishing features that can assess whether critical thinking is a regular occurrence. Suggests that a critical thinking classroom commonly reflects the following attributes: frequent questions, developmental tension, fascination with the contingency of conclusions, and active…

  18. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  19. Career Patterns of Distinguished Male Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Seventy-four male eminent social scientists provided career stage data by which adult development theory was tested. All were born between 1893 and 1903 and met the criteria of a distinguished (and for several still active) scholarly career. The subjects were separated into four groups on the basis of their degree of productivity as of age 60.…

  20. Distinguishing the Spending Preferences of Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Chappell, Neena L.

    1996-01-01

    The consumer spending preferences of 1,406 senior Canadians were surveyed. Age distinguished those who had product-specific preferences. Income and health status separated those interested in recreational spending from those more interested in basic needs. Diversity of health and social characteristics in this population extends to their…

  1. Repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes

    PubMed Central

    Eller, C. Daniel; Regelson, Moira; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stan; Horvath, Steve; Marahrens, York

    2007-01-01

    Housekeeping genes are expressed across a wide variety of tissues. Since repetitive sequences have been reported to influence the expression of individual genes, we employed a novel approach to determine whether housekeeping genes can be distinguished from tissue-specific genes their repetitive sequence context. We show that Alu elements are more highly concentrated around housekeeping genes while various longer (>400-bp) repetitive sequences ("repeats"), including Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) elements, are excluded from these regions. We further show that isochore membership does not distinguish housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes and that repetitive sequence environment distinguishes housekeeping genes from tissue-specific genes in every isochore. The distinct repetitive sequence environment, in combination with other previously published sequence properties of housekeeping genes, were used to develop a method of predicting housekeeping genes on the basis of DNA sequence alone. Using expression across tissue types as a measure of success, we demonstrate that repetitive sequence environment is by far the most important sequence feature identified to date for distinguishing housekeeping genes. PMID:17141428

  2. The Humanity of English. 1972 Distinguished Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL.

    This is a collection of lectures by distinguished members of the English profession who were invited to lecture to schools located far from large urban and cultural centers. Included are papers by: John H. Fisher, "Truth Versus Beauty: An Inquiry into the Function of Language and Literature in an Articulate Society"; Walter Loban, "The Green…

  3. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  4. Distinguishing Recent Admixture from Ancestral Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-01-01

    We develop and test two methods for distinguishing between recent admixture and ancestral population structure as explanations for greater similarity of one of two populations to an outgroup population. This problem arose when Neanderthals were found to be slightly more similar to nonAfrican than to African populations. The excess similarity is consistent with both recent admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of nonAfricans and subdivision in the ancestral population. Although later studies showed that there had been recent admixture, distinguishing between these two classes of models will be important in other situations, particularly when high-coverage genomes cannot be obtained for all populations. One of our two methods is based on the properties of the doubly conditioned frequency spectrum combined with the unconditional frequency spectrum. This method does not require a linkage map and can be used when there is relatively low coverage. The second method uses the extent of linkage disequilibrium among closely linked markers. PMID:28186554

  5. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  6. The ambiguity of "distinguishability" in statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2015-06-01

    Differences of opinion concerning fundamental issues in statistical mechanics directly related to the thermodynamic entropy have persisted through more than a century of debate. One reason is the lack of consensus on the definitions of key terms, especially the terms "distinguishable," "indistinguishable," and "identical." Several definitions occur in the literature, but are not always made explicit. The multiplicity of definitions has created confusion about the basic conditions under which entropy is to be defined. In this paper, I present an overview of definitions in current use for terms associated with distinguishability and relate them to various definitions that have been suggested for entropy. My hope is that consensus will be achievable if the definitions are clarified and agreed upon.

  7. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  8. Distinguishing juvenile homicide from violent juvenile offending.

    PubMed

    DiCataldo, Frank; Everett, Meghan

    2008-04-01

    Juvenile homicide is a social problem that has remained a central focus within juvenile justice research in recent years. The term juvenile murderer describes a legal category, but it is purported to have significant scientific meaning. Research has attempted to conceptualize adolescent murderers as a clinical category that can be reliably distinguished from their nonhomicidal counterparts. This study examined 33 adolescents adjudicated delinquent or awaiting trial for murder and 38 adolescents who committed violent, nonhomicidal offenses to determine whether the two groups differed significantly on family history, early development, delinquency history, mental health, and weapon possession variables. The nonhomicide group proved more problematic on many of these measures. Two key factors did distinguish the homicide group: These adolescents endorsed the greater availability of guns and substance abuse at the time of their commitment offenses. The significance of this finding is discussed, and the implications for risk management and policy are reviewed.

  9. Kinetically Distinguishable Populations of Phytochrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Purves, William K.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1968-01-01

    Two or more kinetically distinguishable populations of phytochrome molecules were observed in living tissues of oat, pea, maize, and cauliflower, as well as in extracts of oat. At least 3 different populations occurred in cauliflower florets, while 2 were observed in each of the other species. In extracted oat phytochrome, the relative proportions of the 2 forms remained constant during successive stages of purification. The physiological significance of this multiplicity of forms remains unclear. PMID:16656909

  10. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  11. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  12. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2016 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2015 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2015 Education and Training Awards Committee were Sharon L. Berry, PhD (Chair); Arthur C. Graesser, PhD; and Thomas R. Kratochwill, PhD; Erica Wise, PhD (Chair-Elect); Ron Rozensky, PhD; and Jane Halonen, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Obesity and Leptin Resistance: Distinguishing Cause from Effect

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Martin G.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Seeley, Randy J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Because leptin reduces food intake and body weight, the coexistence of elevated leptin levels with obesity is widely interpreted as evidence of “leptin resistance.” Indeed, obesity promotes multiple cellular processes that attenuate leptin signaling (referred to here as “cellular leptin resistance”), and which amplify the extent of weight gain induced by genetic and environmental factors. As commonly employed, however, the term “leptin resistance” embraces a range of phenomena that are distinct with respect both to underlying mechanisms and pathophysiological implications. Moreover, the induction of cellular leptin resistance by obesity complicates efforts to distinguish the mechanisms that predispose to weight gain from those that result from it. We suggest a framework for approaching these issues and important avenues for future investigation. PMID:20846876

  14. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  15. Neuroendocrine factors distinguish juvenile psychopathy variants.

    PubMed

    Kimonis, Eva R; Goulter, Natalie; Hawes, David J; Wilbur, Rhonda R; Groer, Maureen W

    2017-03-01

    The characteristic pattern of emotional hypo-reactivity observed in primary psychopathy is not evident in secondary psychopathy, which is thought to originate from childhood adversity and co-occurring anxiety. The main aim of this study was to test whether salivary afternoon cortisol, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol-to-DHEA concentrations, which at high levels indicate risk for chronic stress and poor mental health, distinguished secondary from primary variants of callous-unemotional (CU) traits-the affective component of psychopathy. This aim was achieved by first identifying psychopathy variants using latent profile analysis of CU, anxiety, and aggression scores among 232 incarcerated adolescent boys (M age = 16.75). Based on a subset with neuroendocrine data (n = 201), aggressive secondary CU variants had lower afternoon DHEA concentrations and higher cortisol-to-DHEA ratios and comorbid psychopathology compared with all other groups. In contrast, two primary CU variants (aggressive and non-aggressive types) emerged with profiles characterized by low to average psychopathology and high DHEA levels. Findings contribute to a growing literature base suggesting that biomarkers may distinguish youth on separable developmental pathways to psychopathy.

  16. IMPACT is a developmentally regulated protein in neurons that opposes the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase GCN2 in the modulation of neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Azevedo, Hátylas F; Alves, Viviane S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2013-04-12

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system.

  17. Hepatic deficiency of the pioneer transcription factor FoxA restricts hepatitis B virus biosynthesis by the developmental regulation of viral DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Rasha E.; Iram, Saira; Oropeza, Claudia E.; Landolfi, Jennifer A.; Lyubimov, Alexander V.; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2017-01-01

    The FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors regulates hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription, and hence viral replication. Hepatocyte-specific FoxA-deficiency in the HBV transgenic mouse model of chronic infection prevents the transcription of the viral DNA genome as a result of the failure of the developmentally controlled conversion of 5-methylcytosine residues to cytosine during postnatal hepatic maturation. These observations suggest that pioneer transcription factors such as FoxA, which mark genes for expression at subsequent developmental steps in the cellular differentiation program, mediate their effects by reversing the DNA methylation status of their target genes to permit their ensuing expression when the appropriate tissue-specific transcription factor combinations arise during development. Furthermore, as the FoxA-deficient HBV transgenic mice are viable, the specific developmental timing, abundance and isoform type of pioneer factor expression must permit all essential liver gene expression to occur at a level sufficient to support adequate liver function. This implies that pioneer transcription factors can recognize and mark their target genes in distinct developmental manners dependent upon, at least in part, the concentration and affinity of FoxA for its binding sites within enhancer and promoter regulatory sequence elements. This selective marking of cellular genes for expression by the FoxA pioneer factor compared to HBV may offer the opportunity for the specific silencing of HBV gene expression and hence the resolution of chronic HBV infections which are responsible for approximately one million deaths worldwide annually due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28235042

  18. The developmental regulator protein Gon4l associates with protein YY1, co-repressor Sin3a, and histone deacetylase 1 and mediates transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Hankel, Isaiah L; Hostager, Bruce S; Swartzendruber, Julie A; Friedman, Ann D; Brenton, Janet L; Rothman, Paul B; Colgan, John D

    2011-05-20

    Genetic studies involving zebrafish and mice have demonstrated that the protein Gon4l (Gon4-like) is essential for hematopoiesis. These studies also suggested that Gon4l regulates gene expression during hematopoietic development, yet the biochemical function of Gon4l has not been defined. Here, we describe the identification of factors that interact with Gon4l and may cooperate with this protein to regulate gene expression. As predicted by polypeptide sequence conservation, Gon4l interacted and co-localized with the DNA-binding protein YY1 (Yin Yang 1). Density gradient sedimentation analysis of protein lysates from mouse M12 B cells showed that Gon4l and YY1 co-sediment with the transcriptional co-repressor Sin3a and its functional partner histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1. Consistent with these results, immunoprecipitation studies showed that Gon4l associates with Sin3a, HDAC1, and YY1 as a part of complexes that form in M12 cells. Sequential immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that Gon4l, YY1, Sin3a, and HDAC1 could all associate as components of a single complex and that a conserved domain spanning the central portion of Gon4l was required for formation of this complex. When targeted to DNA, Gon4l repressed the activity of a nearby promoter, which correlated with the ability to interact with Sin3a and HDAC1. Our data suggest that Sin3a, HDAC1, and YY1 are co-factors for Gon4l and that Gon4l may function as a platform for the assembly of complexes that regulate gene expression.

  19. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  20. Distinguishing treatment from research: a functional approach

    PubMed Central

    Lewens, T

    2006-01-01

    The best way to distinguish treatment from research is by their functions. This mode of distinction fits well with the basic ethical work that needs to be carried out. The distinction needs to serve as an ethical flag, highlighting areas in which the goals of doctors and patients are more likely than usual to diverge. The distinction also allows us to illuminate and understand some otherwise puzzling elements of debates on research ethics: it shows the peculiarity of exclusive conceptions of the distinction between research and treatment; it allows us to frame questions about therapeutic obligations in the research context, and it allows us to consider whether there may be research obligations in the therapeutic context. PMID:16816045

  1. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  2. Distinguishing Susac's syndrome from multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Buzzard, Katherine A; Reddel, Stephen W; Yiannikas, Con; Sean Riminton, D; Barnett, Michael H; Hardy, Todd A

    2015-07-01

    Susac's syndrome is considered a rare differential diagnosis in the work-up of suspected multiple sclerosis. Over the last decade or so, significant advances in our understanding of Susac's syndrome mean that it can now be readily distinguished from multiple sclerosis in the majority of cases with a careful history and close attention to MR imaging. Supporting investigations such as CSF examination, fluorescein angiogram, visual field perimetry and audiology often yield important clues. In milder cases, however, diagnostic uncertainty can exist, and forme frustes of the disease are recognised. In this article, we discuss the clinical features of Susac's syndrome with emphasis on the findings and investigations that help to differentiate it from MS.

  3. Defining disruptive coloration and distinguishing its functions

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Disruptive coloration breaks up the shape and destroys the outline of an object, hindering detection. The principle was first suggested approximately a century ago, but, although research has significantly increased, the field remains conceptually unstructured and no unambiguous definition exists. This has resulted in variable use of the term, making it difficult to formulate testable hypotheses that are comparable between studies, slowing down advancement in this field. Related to this, a range of studies do not effectively distinguish between disruption and other forms of camouflage. Here, we give a formal definition of disruptive coloration, reorganize a range of sub-principles involved in camouflage and argue that five in particular are specifically related to disruption: differential blending; maximum disruptive contrast; disruption of surface through false edges; disruptive marginal patterns; and coincident disruptive coloration. We discuss how disruptive coloration can be optimized, how it can relate to other forms of camouflage markings and where future work is particularly needed. PMID:18990673

  4. Distinguishing causal interactions in neural populations.

    PubMed

    Seth, Anil K; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-04-01

    We describe a theoretical network analysis that can distinguish statistically causal interactions in population neural activity leading to a specific output. We introduce the concept of a causal core to refer to the set of neuronal interactions that are causally significant for the output, as assessed by Granger causality. Because our approach requires extensive knowledge of neuronal connectivity and dynamics, an illustrative example is provided by analysis of Darwin X, a brain-based device that allows precise recording of the activity of neuronal units during behavior. In Darwin X, a simulated neuronal model of the hippocampus and surrounding cortical areas supports learning of a spatial navigation task in a real environment. Analysis of Darwin X reveals that large repertoires of neuronal interactions contain comparatively small causal cores and that these causal cores become smaller during learning, a finding that may reflect the selection of specific causal pathways from diverse neuronal repertoires.

  5. Do open clusters have distinguishable chemical signatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Heiter, U.

    2014-07-01

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  6. Distinguishing XY from Ising electron nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, S.; Carlson, E. W.

    2017-08-01

    At low temperatures in ultraclean GaAs-AlGaAs heterojunctions, high Landau levels near half-integral filling break rotational symmetry, leading to increasingly anisotropic transport properties as temperature is lowered below ˜150 mK . While the onset of transport anisotropy is well described by an XY model of an electron nematic in the presence of a weak uniform symmetry-breaking term, the low-temperature behavior deviates significantly from this model. We find that inclusion of interactions between the electron nematic and the underlying crystalline lattice in the form of a fourfold symmetry-breaking term is sufficient to describe the entire temperature dependence of the transport anisotropy at ν =9 /2 . This implies that this electron nematic is in the Ising universality class. We propose new experimental tests that can distinguish whether any two-dimensional electron nematic is in the XY or Ising universality class.

  7. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Tathyana R. P.; Aleixo, Aline C.; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Nunes, Francis M. F.; Bitondi, Márcia M. G.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R.; Simões, Zilá L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect. PMID:25566327

  8. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Mello, Tathyana R P; Aleixo, Aline C; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Nunes, Francis M F; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R; Simões, Zilá L P

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A(+) transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  9. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Anneliese A. Singh.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Anneliese A. Singh. Dr. Singh's scholarship "has promoted major advancements in LBGT studies and intersectionality of multiple identities." Singh's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. ETL, a novel seven-transmembrane receptor that is developmentally regulated in the heart. ETL is a member of the secretin family and belongs to the epidermal growth factor-seven-transmembrane subfamily.

    PubMed

    Nechiporuk, T; Urness, L D; Keating, M T

    2001-02-09

    Using differential display of rat fetal and postnatal cardiomyocytes, we have identified a novel seven-transmembrane receptor, ETL. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence of ETL indicated that it encodes a 738-aa protein composed of a large extracellular domain with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a seven-transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. ETL belongs to the secretin family of G-protein-coupled peptide hormone receptors and the EGF-TM7 subfamily of receptors. The latter are characterized by a variable number of extracellular EGF and cell surface domains and conserved seven transmembrane-spanning regions. ETL mRNA expression is up-regulated in the adult rat and human heart. In situ hybridization analyses revealed expression in rat cardiomyocytes and abundant expression in vascular and bronchiolar smooth muscle cells. In COS-7 cells transfected with Myc-tagged rat ETL, rat ETL exists as a stable dimer and undergoes endoproteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. The proteolytic activity can be abolished by a specific mutation, T455A, in this domain. In transfected mammalian cells, ETL is associated with cell membranes and is also observed in cytoplasmic vesicles. ETL is the first seven-transmembrane receptor containing EGF-like repeats that is developmentally regulated in the heart.

  11. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22... Department auditoriums, official presentation rooms, hearing rooms, lobbies, public document rooms, and...

  12. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  13. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  14. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  15. 10 CFR 1002.22 - Use of distinguishing flag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Secretarial officers, Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and heads of field locations... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of distinguishing flag. 1002.22 Section 1002.22 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG Distinguishing Flag § 1002.22...

  16. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    PubMed

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repressive BMP2 gene regulatory elements near the BMP2 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shan; Chandler, Ronald L.; Fritz, David T.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.

    2010-02-05

    The level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) profoundly influences essential cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. The spatial and temporal pattern of BMP2 synthesis, particular in diverse embryonic cells, is highly varied and dynamic. We have identified GC-rich sequences within the BMP2 promoter region that strongly repress gene expression. These elements block the activity of a highly conserved, osteoblast enhancer in response to FGF2 treatment. Both positive and negative gene regulatory elements control BMP2 synthesis. Detecting and mapping the repressive motifs is essential because they impede the identification of developmentally regulated enhancers necessary for normal BMP2 patterns and concentration.

  18. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  19. A Mutation in cnot8, Component of the Ccr4-Not Complex Regulating Transcript Stability, Affects Expression Levels of Developmental Regulators and Reveals a Role of Fgf3 in Development of Caudal Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  20. Developmentally Regulated RNA-binding Protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding Motif Protein 45 (RBM45), a Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Trafficking Protein, Forms TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 (TDP-43)-mediated Cytoplasmic Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takafumi; Sakashita, Eiji; Kasashima, Katsumi; Tominaga, Kaoru; Kuroiwa, Kenji; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Matsuura, Tohru; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Hitoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cytoplasmic protein aggregates are one of the pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Several RNA-binding proteins have been identified as components of inclusion bodies. Developmentally regulated RNA-binding protein 1 (Drb1)/RNA-binding motif protein 45 is an RNA-binding protein that was recently described as a component in ALS- and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying cytoplasmic Drb1 aggregation remains unclear. Here, using an in vitro cellular model, we demonstrated that Drb1 co-localizes with cytoplasmic aggregates mediated by TAR DNA-binding protein 43, a major component of ALS and FTLD-related inclusion bodies. We also defined the domains involved in the subcellular localization of Drb1 to clarify the role of Drb1 in the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in ALS and FTLD. Drb1 predominantly localized in the nucleus via a classical nuclear localization signal in its carboxyl terminus and is a shuttling protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identify a double leucine motif serving as a nuclear export signal. The Drb1 mutant, presenting mutations in both nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal, is prone to aggregate in the cytoplasm. The mutant Drb1-induced cytoplasmic aggregates not only recruit TAR DNA-binding protein 43 but also decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential. Taken together, these results indicate that perturbation of Drb1 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking induces toxic cytoplasmic aggregates, suggesting that mislocalization of Drb1 is involved in the cause of cytotoxicity in neuronal cells.

  1. A mutation in cnot8, component of the Ccr4-not complex regulating transcript stability, affects expression levels of developmental regulators and reveals a role of Fgf3 in development of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  2. Distinguishing four fundamental approaches to the evolution of helping.

    PubMed

    Bshary, R; Bergmüller, R

    2008-03-01

    The evolution and stability of helping behaviour has attracted great research efforts across disciplines. However, the field is also characterized by a great confusion over terminology and a number of disagreements, often between disciplines but also along taxonomic boundaries. In an attempt to clarify several issues, we identify four distinct research fields concerning the evolution of helping: (1) basic social evolution theory that studies helping within the framework of Hamilton's inclusive fitness concept, i.e. direct and indirect benefits, (2) an ecological approach that identifies settings that promote life histories or interaction patterns that favour unconditional cooperative and altruistic behaviour, e.g. conditions that lead to interdependency or interactions among kin, (3) the game theoretic approach that identifies strategies that provide feedback and control mechanisms (protecting from cheaters) favouring cooperative behaviour (e.g. pseudo-reciprocity, reciprocity), and (4) the social scientists' approach that particularly emphasizes the special cognitive requirements necessary for human cooperative strategies. The four fields differ with respect to the 'mechanisms' and the 'conditions' favouring helping they investigate. Other major differences concern a focus on either the life-time fitness consequences or the immediate payoff consequences of behaviour, and whether the behaviour of an individual or a whole interaction is considered. We suggest that distinguishing between these four separate fields and their complementary approaches will reduce misunderstandings, facilitating further integration of concepts within and across disciplines.

  3. In vivo Imaging Method to Distinguish Acute and Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Kung, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a fundamental aspect of many human diseases. In this video report, we demonstrate non-invasive bioluminescence imaging techniques that distinguish acute and chronic inflammation in mouse models. With tissue damage or pathogen invasion, neutrophils are the first line of defense, playing a major role in mediating the acute inflammatory response. As the inflammatory reaction progresses, circulating monocytes gradually migrate into the site of injury and differentiate into mature macrophages, which mediate chronic inflammation and promote tissue repair by removing tissue debris and producing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Intraperitoneal injection of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione, sodium salt) enables detection of acute inflammation largely mediated by tissue-infiltrating neutrophils. Luminol specifically reacts with the superoxide generated within the phagosomes of neutrophils since bioluminescence results from a myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated reaction. Lucigenin (bis-N-methylacridinium nitrate) also reacts with superoxide in order to generate bioluminescence. However, lucigenin bioluminescence is independent of MPO and it solely relies on phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Phox) in macrophages during chronic inflammation. Together, luminol and lucigenin allow non-invasive visualization and longitudinal assessment of different phagocyte populations across both acute and chronic inflammatory phases. Given the important role of inflammation in a variety of human diseases, we believe this non-invasive imaging method can help investigate the differential roles of neutrophils and macrophages in a variety of pathological conditions. PMID:23978851

  4. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  5. Developmental regulation of X-chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Payer, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    With the emergence of sex-determination by sex chromosomes, which differ in composition and number between males and females, appeared the need to equalize X-chromosomal gene dosage between the sexes. Mammals have devised the strategy of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), in which one of the two X-chromosomes is rendered transcriptionally silent in females. In the mouse, the best-studied model organism with respect to XCI, this inactivation process occurs in different forms, imprinted and random, interspersed by periods of X-chromosome reactivation (XCR), which is needed to switch between the different modes of XCI. In this review, I describe the recent advances with respect to the developmental control of XCI and XCR and in particular their link to differentiation and pluripotency. Furthermore, I review the mechanisms, which influence the timing and choice, with which one of the two X-chromosomes is chosen for inactivation during random XCI. This has an impact on how females are mosaics with regard to which X-chromosome is active in different cells, which has implications on the severity of diseases caused by X-linked mutations.

  6. Developmentally Regulated Sphingolipid Synthesis in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutterwala, Shaheen S.; Hsu, Fong Fu; Sevova, Elitza S.; Schwartz, Kevin J.; Zhang, Kai; Key, Phillip; Turk, John; Beverley, Stephen M.; Bangs, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, and many unicellular eukaryotes, including kinetoplastid protozoa, are thought to synthesize exclusively inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC). Here we characterize sphingolipids from Trypanosoma brucei, and a trypanosome sphingolipid synthase gene family (TbSLS1-4) that is orthologous to Leishmania IPC synthase. Procyclic trypanosomes contain IPC, but also sphingomyelin, while surprisingly bloodstream stage parasites contain sphingomyelin and ethanolamine phosphorylceramide (EPC), but no detectable IPC. In vivo fluorescent ceramide labeling confirmed stage specific biosynthesis of both sphingomyelin and IPC. Expression of TbSLS4 in Leishmania resulted in production of sphingomyelin and EPC suggesting that the TbSLS gene family has bi-functional synthase activity. RNAi silencing of TbSLS1-4 in bloodstream trypanosomes led to rapid growth arrest and eventual cell death. Ceramide levels were increased >3-fold by silencing suggesting a toxic downstream effect mediated by this potent intracellular messenger. Topology predictions support a revised six transmembrane domain model for the kinetoplastid sphingolipid synthases consistent with the proposed mammalian SM synthase structure. This work reveals novel diversity and regulation in sphingolipid metabolism in this important group of human parasites. PMID:18699867

  7. The local distinguishability of any three generalized Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Mao-Sheng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun

    2017-05-01

    We study the problem of distinguishing maximally entangled quantum states by using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A question of fundamental interest is whether any three maximally entangled states in C^d⊗ C^d (d≥4) are distinguishable by LOCC. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to consider the generalized Bell states. And we prove that any three generalized Bell states in C^d⊗ C^d (d≥4) are locally distinguishable.

  8. The polycomb complex protein mes-2/E(z) promotes the transition from developmental plasticity to differentiation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuzyuk, T; Fakhouri, T H I; Kiefer, J; Mango, S E

    2009-05-01

    We have used expression profiling and in vivo imaging to characterize Caenorhabditis elegans embryos as they transit from a developmentally plastic state to the onset of differentiation. Normally, this transition is accompanied by activation of developmental regulators and differentiation genes, downregulation of early-expressed genes, and large-scale reorganization of chromatin. We find that loss of plasticity and differentiation onset depends on the Polycomb complex protein mes-2/E(Z). mes-2 mutants display prolonged developmental plasticity in response to heterologous developmental regulators. Early-expressed genes remain active, differentiation genes fail to reach wild-type levels, and chromatin retains a decompacted morphology in mes-2 mutants. By contrast, loss of the developmental regulators pha-4/FoxA or end-1/GATA does not prolong plasticity. This study establishes a model by which to analyze developmental plasticity within an intact embryo. mes-2 orchestrates large-scale changes in chromatin organization and gene expression to promote the timely loss of developmental plasticity. Our findings indicate that loss of plasticity can be uncoupled from cell fate specification.

  9. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  10. 32 CFR 22.215 - Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appropriate Instrument § 22.215 Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements. (a) Once a grants officer... appropriate instrument, the grants officer shall distinguish between the two instruments as follows: (1... solely to obtain the stricter controls typical of a contract. (b) In judging whether...

  11. 32 CFR 22.215 - Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appropriate Instrument § 22.215 Distinguishing grants and cooperative agreements. (a) Once a grants officer... appropriate instrument, the grants officer shall distinguish between the two instruments as follows: (1... solely to obtain the stricter controls typical of a contract. (b) In judging whether...

  12. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  13. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  14. Distinguishing between Knowledge and Beliefs: Students' Epistemic Criteria for Differentiating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldrin, Angela; Mason, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    "I believe that he/she is telling the truth", "I know about the solar system": what epistemic criteria do students use to distinguish between knowledge and beliefs? If knowing and believing are conceptually distinguishable, do students of different grade levels use the same criteria to differentiate the two constructs? How do students understand…

  15. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1973 Distinguished Achievement Awards Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The State University of New York College of Cortland received the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for its Project Change, a performance-based early childhood teacher education program. Also cited for distinguished achievement were a) Teachers College of Ball State University, Indiana for an experimental program designed to include…

  16. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.318 Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated...

  17. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.318 Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated...

  18. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  19. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard recieves the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy in May 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight (31387); Alan Shepard and his wife wave to the crowd after Shepard received the NASA Distinguished Service Award from President John F. Kennedy (31388).

  20. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants...

  1. Distinguishing between Knowledge and Beliefs: Students' Epistemic Criteria for Differentiating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldrin, Angela; Mason, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    "I believe that he/she is telling the truth", "I know about the solar system": what epistemic criteria do students use to distinguish between knowledge and beliefs? If knowing and believing are conceptually distinguishable, do students of different grade levels use the same criteria to differentiate the two constructs? How do students understand…

  2. Liberating the Publications of a Distinguished Scholar: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many distinguished scholars published the primary corpus of their work before the advent of online journals, which makes it more challenging to access. Upon being approached by a distinguished Emeritus Professor seeking advice about getting his work posted online, librarians at the University of Minnesota worked to gain copyright permissions to…

  3. Allosteric mechanisms can be distinguished using structural mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dyachenko, Andrey; Gruber, Ranit; Shimon, Liat; Horovitz, Amnon; Sharon, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The activity of many proteins, including metabolic enzymes, molecular machines, and ion channels, is often regulated by conformational changes that are induced or stabilized by ligand binding. In cases of multimeric proteins, such allosteric regulation has often been described by the concerted Monod–Wyman–Changeux and sequential Koshland–Némethy–Filmer classic models of cooperativity. Despite the important functional implications of the mechanism of cooperativity, it has been impossible in many cases to distinguish between these various allosteric models using ensemble measurements of ligand binding in bulk protein solutions. Here, we demonstrate that structural MS offers a way to break this impasse by providing the full distribution of ligand-bound states of a protein complex. Given this distribution, it is possible to determine all the binding constants of a ligand to a highly multimeric cooperative system, and thereby infer its allosteric mechanism. Our approach to the dissection of allosteric mechanisms relies on advances in MS—which provide the required resolution of ligand-bound states—and in data analysis. We validated our approach using the well-characterized Escherichia coli chaperone GroEL, a double-heptameric ring containing 14 ATP binding sites, which has become a paradigm for molecular machines. The values of the 14 binding constants of ATP to GroEL were determined, and the ATP-loading pathway of the chaperone was characterized. The methodology and analyses presented here are directly applicable to numerous other cooperative systems and are therefore expected to promote further research on allosteric systems. PMID:23589876

  4. Distinguishing Biotic from Abiotic Phosphate Oxygen Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R.; Moyer, C.; Colman, A.; Liang, Y.; Dogru, D.

    2006-05-01

    On earth, phosphate has a strong biological oxygen isotope signature due to its concentration and intense cycling by living organisms as an essential nutrient. Phosphate does not undergo oxygen isotope exchange with water at low temperature without enzymatic catalysis, making the oxygen isotope ratio (18O/16O) of phosphate, δ18OP, an attractive biosignature in the search for early and extraterrestrial life. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the δ18OP value of dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO4) records specific microbial activity and enzymatic reaction pathways in both laboratory cultures and natural waters/sediments (Blake et al., 2005; Colman et al 2005; Liang and Blake, 2005). Phosphate oxygen isotope biosignatures may be distinguished from abiotic signatures by: (1) evaluating the degree of temperature-dependent PO4-water oxygen isotope exchange in aqueous systems and deviation from equilibrium; and (2) evolution from an abiotic P reservoir signature towards a biotic P reservoir signature. Important abiotic processes potentially affecting phosphate δ18OP values include dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, recrystallization of PO4 mineral phases, diagenesis and metamorphism. For most of these processes, the recording, retention and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures have not been evaluated. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are an ideal system in which to study the preservation and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures, as well as potential look-alikes produced by heat-promoted PO4 -water oxygen isotope exchange. Results from recent studies of δ18OP biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits near 9 and 21 degrees N. EPR and at Loihi seamount will be presented.

  5. Enhancer-core-promoter specificity separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Zabidi, Muhammad A; Arnold, Cosmas D; Schernhuber, Katharina; Pagani, Michaela; Rath, Martina; Frank, Olga; Stark, Alexander

    2015-02-26

    Gene transcription in animals involves the assembly of RNA polymerase II at core promoters and its cell-type-specific activation by enhancers that can be located more distally. However, how ubiquitous expression of housekeeping genes is achieved has been less clear. In particular, it is unknown whether ubiquitously active enhancers exist and how developmental and housekeeping gene regulation is separated. An attractive hypothesis is that different core promoters might exhibit an intrinsic specificity to certain enhancers. This is conceivable, as various core promoter sequence elements are differentially distributed between genes of different functions, including elements that are predominantly found at either developmentally regulated or at housekeeping genes. Here we show that thousands of enhancers in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and ovarian somatic cells (OSCs) exhibit a marked specificity to one of two core promoters--one derived from a ubiquitously expressed ribosomal protein gene and another from a developmentally regulated transcription factor--and confirm the existence of these two classes for five additional core promoters from genes with diverse functions. Housekeeping enhancers are active across the two cell types, while developmental enhancers exhibit strong cell-type specificity. Both enhancer classes differ in their genomic distribution, the functions of neighbouring genes, and the core promoter elements of these neighbouring genes. In addition, we identify two transcription factors--Dref and Trl--that bind and activate housekeeping versus developmental enhancers, respectively. Our results provide evidence for a sequence-encoded enhancer-core-promoter specificity that separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulatory programs for thousands of enhancers and their target genes across the entire genome.

  6. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training and Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training awards are given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education…

  7. Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-28

    drug deterrence program were raised from 300 ng/ml to 4000 ng/ml for morphine and 2000 ng/ml for codeine in an attempt to distinguish between poppy seed ...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6512 Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use r- I- FCTE DAVID...Options to Distinguish Heroin and Poppy Seed Use 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kidwell. D.A. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 113b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year

  8. The Gibbs paradox and the distinguishability of identical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Dieks, Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Identical classical particles are distinguishable. This distinguishability affects the number of ways W a macrostate can be realized on the microlevel, and from the relation S =k ln W leads to a nonextensive expression for the entropy. This result is usually considered incorrect because of its inconsistency with thermodynamics. It is sometimes concluded from this inconsistency that identical particles are fundamentally indistinguishable and that quantum mechanics is indispensable for making sense of this inconsistency. In contrast, we argue that the classical statistics of distinguishable particles and the resulting nonextensive entropy function are perfectly acceptable from both a theoretical and an experimental perspective. The inconsistency with thermodynamics can be removed by taking into account that the entropy concept in statistical mechanics is not completely identical to the thermodynamical one. We observe that even identical quantum particles are in some cases distinguishable, and conclude that quantum mechanics is irrelevant to the Gibbs paradox.

  9. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  10. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164087.html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages ... difficult for doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say ...

  11. Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony.

    PubMed

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M

    2010-03-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand the non-literal meanings of sarcastic speakers and ironic speakers but did not distinguish ironic and sarcastic speakers' intentions. Nine- to ten-year-olds were more accurate at understanding sarcastic and ironic speakers and they distinguished these speakers' intentions, rating sarcastic criticisms as more 'mean' than ironic criticisms. These results show that children can determine the non-literal meanings of sarcasm and irony by six years of age but do not distinguish the pragmatic purposes of these speech acts until later in middle childhood.

  12. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    lipids in test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  13. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0169 PC110361P1 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0169 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  15. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  16. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  17. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  18. DNA-based assays to distinguish date palm (Arecaceae) gender.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahmoud, Maryam E; Al-Dous, Eman K; Al-Azwani, Eman K; Malek, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is critical to the development of arid land. The date palm is a dioecious monocot with separate male and female trees. This presents a challenge in development as it is impossible to distinguish trees until they flower approximately five to eight years after planting. We have developed PCR-based assays capable of sex differentiation in multiple date palm cultivars. The primers are designed across gender-specific polymorphisms and demonstrated greater than 90% accuracy in distinguishing date palm gender across multiple varieties. These results indicate that the primers should be helpful in rapidly distinguishing date palm gender from the earliest stages that DNA can safely be collected. This is a vast savings in time over present approaches.

  19. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  20. Distinguishability and cloning of entangled states by LOCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Guruprasad

    2006-11-01

    There exist sets of multipartite orthogonal states which can not be distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC). The simplest example is the set of four Bell states. The problem of characterizing a set in terms of distinguishability is a hard problem in general. For maximally entangled states, some results are known. Local cloning of entangled states by supplying necessary entanglement in the blank state is another idea that was introduced very recently. Interestingly there are sets of orthogonal entangled states which can be distinguished locally but can not be copied by local operation (even if necessary entanglement is supplied in the blank state) contrary to the fact that happens in the case of global operation.

  1. Promoter Decommissioning by the NuRD Chromatin Remodeling Complex Triggers Synaptic Connectivity in the Mammalian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomoko; Yang, Yue; Hemberg, Martin; Yoshida, Toshimi; Cho, Ha Young; Murphy, J. Patrick; Fioravante, Diasynou; Regehr, Wade G.; Gygi, Steven P.; Georgopoulos, Katia; Bonni, Azad

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Precise control of gene expression plays fundamental roles in brain development, but the roles of chromatin regulators in neuronal connectivity have remained poorly understood. We report that depletion of the NuRD complex by in vivo RNAi and conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 profoundly impairs the establishment of granule neuron parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. By interfacing genome-wide sequencing of transcripts and ChIP-Seq analyses, we uncover a network of repressed genes and distinct histone modifications at target gene promoters that are developmentally regulated by the NuRD complex in the cerebellum in vivo. Finally, in a targeted in vivo RNAi screen of NuRD target genes, we identify a program of NuRD-repressed genes that operate as critical regulators of presynaptic differentiation in the cerebellar cortex. Our findings define NuRD-dependent promoter decommissioning as a developmentally-regulated programming mechanism that drives synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain. PMID:24991957

  2. Promoter decommissioning by the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex triggers synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoko; Yang, Yue; Hemberg, Martin; Yoshida, Toshimi; Cho, Ha Young; Murphy, J Patrick; Fioravante, Diasynou; Regehr, Wade G; Gygi, Steven P; Georgopoulos, Katia; Bonni, Azad

    2014-07-02

    Precise control of gene expression plays fundamental roles in brain development, but the roles of chromatin regulators in neuronal connectivity have remained poorly understood. We report that depletion of the NuRD complex by in vivo RNAi and conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 profoundly impairs the establishment of granule neuron parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. By interfacing genome-wide sequencing of transcripts and ChIP-seq analyses, we uncover a network of repressed genes and distinct histone modifications at target gene promoters that are developmentally regulated by the NuRD complex in the cerebellum in vivo. Finally, in a targeted in vivo RNAi screen of NuRD target genes, we identify a program of NuRD-repressed genes that operate as critical regulators of presynaptic differentiation in the cerebellar cortex. Our findings define NuRD-dependent promoter decommissioning as a developmentally regulated programming mechanism that drives synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  4. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction.

  5. Accurate thermochemistry from explicitly correlated distinguishable cluster approximation.

    PubMed

    Kats, Daniel; Kreplin, David; Werner, Hans-Joachim; Manby, Frederick R

    2015-02-14

    An explicitly correlated version of the distinguishable-cluster approximation is presented and extensively benchmarked. It is shown that the usual F12-type explicitly correlated approaches are applicable to distinguishable-cluster theory with single and double excitations, and the results show a significant improvement compared to coupled-cluster theory with singles and doubles for closed and open-shell systems. The resulting method can be applied in a black-box manner to systems with single- and multireference character. Most noticeably, optimized geometries are of coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples quality or even better.

  6. G. Terence Wilson: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. The 2014 recipient is G. Terence Wilson, who received the award for "his outstanding contributions to the nature and theory of behavior therapy." Wilson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  8. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  9. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  10. Functional dissection of the murine Ick distal promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Wildin, R.S.; Wang, H.U.; Forbush, K.A.

    1995-08-01

    The lymphocyte-specific proto-oncogene Ick is transcribed from two developmentally regulated, independently functioning promoters. The proximal promoter is used in thymocytes, but not in peripheral T lymphocytes. The distal promoter operates in all stages of T cell development, but predominates in more mature cells. Both promoters lack a TATAA element and they share little sequence similarity with each other. Using transgenic mice to locate in vivo functional cis-acting regions of the murine distal promoter, we defined a region from -1786 to -2913 that is essential for consistent insertion site-independent expression of a heterologous cDNA reporter. The transgene is lymphoid specific and expressed predominantly in T cells. One of four transgenic mice bearing a shortened distal promoter (-886 to +41) expressed the reporter in the expected developmental pattern, suggesting that important regulatory elements that require favorable flanking sequences for expression are present nearer the transcription start site. The DNA sequence from -4032 to +623 contains few consensus binding sites for previously described T lymphocyte-specific trans-acting factors, and their locations do not correlate well with the functional data. However, the locations of tissue-specific modifications of chromatin structure in the promoter region, manifest as sites of DNase hypersensitivity, correlated with these two functional regions in normal mice. The identification of Ick distal promoter regulatory regions provides a useful control element for deliberate expression of transgenes in mature T lymphocytes. In addition, these regulatory regions should assist in defining T cell-specific trans-acting factors.

  11. [Cluster Analysis of Medication Laws for Treating Coronary Heart Disease by Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Min-zhou; Guo, Li-heng; He, De-ying

    2016-04-01

    To provide inspiration and ideas for clinical treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) by data mining technology based frequency analysis and cluster analysis of medical records, prescriptions and herbs in treating CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of traditional Chinese Dedicine (TCM). Totally 386 medical cases were retrieved from Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP medical information resources system, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Typical Collections of Medical Cases by Contemporary Distinguished Veteran Doctors of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They input into database trimmed after unified standard. Medication laws of CHD by distinguished veteran doctors of TCM were analyzed using frequency analysis and cluster analysis, and so on. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM frequently used top ten herbs in treatment of C D as Salvia miltiorrhiz , Ligusticum wallichii, Trichosanthes kirilowi, Pinellia ternat, Angelica sinensis, Poria coco stragalu , Panax ginseng, Allium macrostemon, and Radix Ophiopogonis. Cluster analysis summarized that there were 16 herb pairs commonly used, 7drug assemblies consisting of 3 herbs and 5 drug assemblies consisting of multiple herbs. Distinguished veteran doctors of TCM mainly used herbs assemblies capable for invigorating Pi to resolve phlegm, and promoting qi and activating blood circulation in treating CHD. Meanwhile, they concurrently used herbs combination of nourishing Xin and tranquilization, and regulating yin and yang.

  12. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  13. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  14. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  15. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  16. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  17. Richard M. Shiffrin: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Provides the biography of Richard M. Shiffrin and announces that he has received the APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2004) for his brilliant development of formal models of memory and forgetting; for his ingenious empirical investigations into the nature of memory and attention; and for his unified accounts of attention and…

  18. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  19. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... instrument, in accordance with 31 U.S.C. chapter 63 (“Using Procurement Contracts and Grant and Cooperative... research and development, the appropriate use of grants and cooperative agreements therefore is...

  20. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented here.

  1. The Hues of English. NCTE Distinguished Lectures 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    The third volume in the NCTE Distinguished Lectures Series, this collection of papers includes (1) William Stafford on poetry and the language of everyday life, (2) Fred Stocking linking Shakespeare to his time and all time by analysing "temperance" in Sonnet 18, (3) Alan Downer discussing the nature of comedy in drama and the universal…

  2. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  3. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  4. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  5. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  6. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  8. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  9. Marcia K. Johnson: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation to Marcia K. Johnson, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for raising and illuminating fundamental questions about the cognitive and neural processes that constitute the subjective experience of mental life." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Johnson's award address, entitled Memory and Reality, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  11. Putting science first: distinguishing visualizations from pretty pictures.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    How do we tell whether a proposed visualization is a valid pictorial representation of the truth or just an accidental but appealing image? Art and science can work brilliantly together in visualization science, but we must know when, and how, to distinguish them.

  12. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  13. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  14. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  15. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  16. John P. Campbell: award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for John P. Campbell who received Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology "for his many different contributions to the field of industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  18. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  19. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  20. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.6 Unprotected activities distinguished. (a) Actions... Manufacturing, 302 F. 2d 152 (5th Cir., 1962). Ultimately, the issue as to whether a discharge was because of...

  1. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.6 Unprotected activities distinguished. (a) Actions... Manufacturing, 302 F. 2d 152 (5th Cir., 1962). Ultimately, the issue as to whether a discharge was because of...

  2. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  3. Distinguishing Proactive and Reactive Aggression in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined proactive and reactive aggression and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in three samples (N = 767, 368 girls, M age = 10.03) of Chinese school age children. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model which distinguished both proactive and reactive aggression fit the data reasonably well, and also fit…

  4. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  5. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  6. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  7. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  8. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  10. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  12. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  13. Astronaut Alan Shepard recieves NASA Distinguished Service Award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-07

    S67-19572 (8 May 1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. receives the NASA Distinguished Service Award from United States President John F. Kennedy May 8, 1961, days after his history making MR-3 flight. Shepard's wife and mother on left and the other six Mercury astronauts are in background. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  15. 5 CFR 838.612 - Distinguishing between annuities and contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distinguishing between annuities and contributions. 838.612 Section 838.612 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Terminology Used in...

  16. Using DNA Markers to Distinguish Among Chestnut Species and Hybrids

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1999-01-01

    Identification of American chestnut trees in the wild for inclusion in breeding programs is currently done using morphological traits. Distinguishing traits include leafshape, stipule size, presence or absence of leaf and stem trichomes, and stem color. Application of these traits is reasonably clear if the trees are pure American chestnut, but identitication of...

  17. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  18. On the distinguishability of HRF models in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paulo N.; Figueiredo, Patricia; Silvestre, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) is a critical step in fMRI studies of brain activity, and it is often desirable to estimate HRF parameters with physiological interpretability. A biophysically informed model of the HRF can be described by a non-linear time-invariant dynamic system. However, the identification of this dynamic system may leave much uncertainty on the exact values of the parameters. Moreover, the high noise levels in the data may hinder the model estimation task. In this context, the estimation of the HRF may be seen as a problem of model falsification or invalidation, where we are interested in distinguishing among a set of eligible models of dynamic systems. Here, we propose a systematic tool to determine the distinguishability among a set of physiologically plausible HRF models. The concept of absolutely input-distinguishable systems is introduced and applied to a biophysically informed HRF model, by exploiting the structure of the underlying non-linear dynamic system. A strategy to model uncertainty in the input time-delay and magnitude is developed and its impact on the distinguishability of two physiologically plausible HRF models is assessed, in terms of the maximum noise amplitude above which it is not possible to guarantee the falsification of one model in relation to another. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the choice of the input sequence, or experimental paradigm, that maximizes the distinguishability of the HRF models under investigation. The proposed approach may be used to evaluate the performance of HRF model estimation techniques from fMRI data. PMID:26106322

  19. Cloning and characterization of the murine pkd2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Li, L; Cai, Y; Hayashi, T; Dong, F; Maeda, Y; Rubin, C; Somlo, S; Wu, G

    2000-06-15

    Pkd2, the mouse homologue of PKD2, the gene responsible for the second form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, is highly expressed in fetal and adult mouse tissues. The expression of Pkd2 is developmentally regulated. To begin to dissect out the regulatory mechanism of Pkd2 expression, we characterized the basic features of the gene structure and identified potential cis-regulatory elements of Pkd2 transcription. Pkd2 spans 42 kb with a transcription start site 165 bp upstream of the translation start codon. Exon 1 of Pkd2 is 755 bp long, and the full-length transcript is 5215 bp. The Pkd2 promoter region is GC-rich and lacks a consensus TATA or CCAAT box. Consensus binding sites for the transcription factors Sp-1, NF-1, and Ap-2 lie in the 5' upstream region of Pkd2. The Sp-1 binding site is conserved in 5' upstream sequences of both the mouse and the human genes. The CAT activity of a series of upstream segments from +178 to -2749 was assessed in MDCK, LLCPK1, COS-7, and HEK293 cells. Deletion analysis identified a 409-bp fragment from position -221 to +178 responsible for basal promoter activity. A 922-bp fragment from -744 to +178 showed the highest level of CAT activity in the cell lines tested. These data define a functional promoter candidate region for Pkd2.

  20. Trevor W. Robbins: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Trevor W. Robbins, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions."For distinguished theoretical and empirical contributions to basic research in experimental psychology and neuroscience. Trevor W. Robbins has made innovative and landmark contributions to understanding monoaminergic and glutamatergic regulation of cortico-striatal-limbic function and its involvement in psychological processes and pathological states such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. His pioneering accomplishments have included the development of methodologies for parallel sophisticated behavioral assessments in humans, rodents, and monkeys combined with psychopharmacological and imaging studies across species. His vigor and dedication to research, exemplary leadership, scholarship, and stellar productivity have advanced our knowledge of brain function and inspired several generations of cognitive neuroscientists." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  2. Mastomys (rodentia: muridae) species distinguished by hemoglobin pattern differences.

    PubMed

    Robbins, C B; Krebs, J W; Johnson, K M

    1983-05-01

    Hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns were found to be reliable markers for distinguishing two species of Mastomys in Sierra Leone having 32 and 38 chromosomes. All 32-chromosome animals exhibited a single hemoglobin pattern, whereas those with 38-chromosomes had four distinguishable patterns. Both karyotypes were present throughout Sierra Leone. The 38-chromosome species was more prevalent in the Guinea savanna zone to the north, while the 32-chromosome species was most dominant in human-modified high forest areas of the eastern and southern parts of the country. In almost all situations the 32-chromosome species was more common in houses than in bush habitats; the reverse was true for Mastomys having 38 chromosomes. Analysis of hemoglobin patterns thus becomes useful for species identification, and is necessary to understand the roles of the different Mastomys forms as reservoirs of human diseases, such as Lassa fever in West Africa.

  3. Hand stereotypies distinguish Rett syndrome from autism disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Sylvie; Temudo, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) and autism disorder (AD) are 2 neurodevelopmental disorders of early life that share phenotypic features, one being hand stereotypies. Distinguishing RTT from AD often represents a challenge, and given their distinct long-term prognoses, this issue may have far-reaching implications. With the advances in genetic testing, the contribution of clinical manifestations in distinguishing RTT from AD has been overlooked. A comparison of hand stereotypies in 20 children with RTT and 20 with AD was performed using detailed analyses of videotaped standardized observations. Striking differences are observed between RTT and AD children. In RTT, hand stereotypies are predominantly complex, continuous, localized to the body midline, and involving mouthing. Conversely, in AD children, hand stereotypies are simple, bilateral, intermittent, and often involving objects. These results provide important clinical signs useful to the differential diagnosis of RTT versus AD, especially when genetic testing for RTT is not an option. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Quantum scheme for secret sharing based on local distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite entangled states under restricted local operation and classical communication. Based on this local distinguishability analysis, we propose a quantum secret sharing scheme (which we call LOCC-QSS). Our LOCC-QSS scheme is quite general and cost efficient compared to other schemes. In our scheme, no joint quantum operation is needed to reconstruct the secret. We also present an interesting (2 ,n ) -threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, where any two cooperating players, one from each of two disjoint groups of players, can always reconstruct the secret. This LOCC-QSS scheme is quite uncommon, as most (k ,n ) -threshold quantum secret sharing schemes have the restriction k ≥⌈n/2 ⌉ .

  5. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, Miroslav; Celechovska, Lucie; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim; Soubusta, Jan

    2011-04-15

    We investigate how the distinguishability of a 'noise' particle degrades interference of the 'signal' particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on a beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the signal photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between the signal and noise photons. When the photons are completely distinguishable in principle but technically indistinguishable, the visibility drops to the value 1/{radical}(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable, the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using a setup with a fiber-optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  6. Distinguishing different fictional worlds during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanism of distinguishing reality from fiction has been explored recently. While people only represent one real world, they are likely to have representations for multiple fictional worlds. This study used event-related potentials to investigate how different fictional events were distinguished during sentence comprehension. Participants read fictional events involving real people (e.g., President Bush) or unreal characters (e.g., Lord Voldemort). Inconsistency of reality was created by introducing real people into the events involving unreal characters or introducing unreal characters into the events involving real people. The results indicated that inconsistency in reality in both types of fictional events elicited a late positive effect, and an interaction between event type and consistency effect was found in medial sites. These results suggested that reality information is important for the construction and updating of situation models. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Distinguishing Indirect Signatures Arising From New Physics at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    1999-07-14

    Many sources of new physics can lead to shifts in the Standard Model predictions for cross sections and asymmetries at the NLC below their direct production thresholds. In this talk we discuss some of the tools that are useful for distinguishing amongst these new physics scenarios. R-parity violation and extensions of the Standard Model gauge structure are two typical non-minimal realizations of supersymmetry which provide us with an important test case to examine.

  8. Astronaut Alan Shepard receives MASA Distinguished Service award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-07

    S88-31387 (8 May 1961) --- President John F. Kennedy (left) congratulates NASA's Distinguished Service Medal Award recipient astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. in a Rose Garden ceremony on May 8, 1961, at the White House. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson, NASA Administrator James E. Webb and several NASA astronauts are in the background. Three days earlier, Shepard made history with a 15-minute suborbital space mission in the Freedom 7, Mercury-Redstone 3 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Distinguishing quasiperiodic dynamics from chaos in short-time series.

    PubMed

    Zou, Y; Pazó, D; Romano, M C; Thiel, M; Kurths, J

    2007-07-01

    We propose a procedure to distinguish quasiperiodic from chaotic orbits in short-time series, which is based on the recurrence properties in phase space. The histogram of the return times in a recurrence plot is introduced to disclose the recurrence property consisting of only three peaks imposed by Slater's theorem. Noise effects on the statistics are studied. Our approach is demonstrated to be efficient in recognizing regular and chaotic trajectories of a Hamiltonian system with mixed phase space.

  10. Distinguishing cancer-associated missense mutations from common polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Kaminker, Joshua S; Zhang, Yan; Waugh, Allison; Haverty, Peter M; Peters, Brock; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Stinson, Jeremy; Forrest, William F; Bazan, J Fernando; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Zhang, Zemin

    2007-01-15

    Missense variants are commonly identified in genomic sequence but only a small fraction directly contribute to oncogenesis. The ability to distinguish those missense changes that contribute to cancer progression from those that do not is a difficult problem usually only accomplished through functional in vivo analyses. Using two computational algorithms, Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) and the Pfam-based LogR.E-value method, we have identified features that distinguish cancer-associated missense mutations from other classes of missense change. Our data reveal that cancer mutants behave similarly to Mendelian disease mutations, but are clearly distinct from either complex disease mutations or common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that both activating and inactivating oncogenic mutations are predicted to be deleterious, although activating changes are likely to increase protein activity. Using the Gene Ontology and data from the SIFT and LogR.E-value metrics, a classifier was built that predicts cancer-associated missense mutations with a very low false-positive rate. The classifier does remarkably well in a number of different experiments designed to distinguish polymorphisms from true cancer-associated mutations. We also show that recurrently observed mutations are much more likely to be predicted to be cancer-associated than rare mutations, suggesting that our classifier will be useful in distinguishing causal from passenger mutations. In addition, from an expressed sequence tag-based screen, we identified a previously unknown germ line change (P1104A) in tumor tissues that is predicted to disrupt the function of the TYK2 protein. The data presented here show that this novel bioinformatics approach to classifying cancer-associated variants is robust and can be used for large-scale analyses.

  11. Complementarity and path distinguishability: Some recent results concerning photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimony, Abner; Jaeger, Gregg

    1994-01-01

    Two results concerning photon pairs, one previously reported and one new, are summarized. It was previously shown that if the two photons are prepared in a quantum state formed from bar-A and bar-A' for photon 1 and bar-B and bar-B' for photon 2, then both one- and two-particle interferometry can be studied. If upsilon(sub i) is the visibility of one-photon interference fringes (i = 1,2) and upsilon(sub 12) is the visibility of two-photon fringes (a concept which we explicitly define), then upsilon(sub i) squared + upsilon(sub 12) squared is less than or equal to 1. The second result concerns the distinguishability of the paths of photon 2, using the known 2-photon state. A proposed measure E for path distinguishability is based upon finding an optimum strategy for betting on the outcome of a path measurement. Mandel has also proposed a measure of distinguishability P(sub D), defined in terms of the density operator rho of photon 2. We show that E is greater than or equal to P(sub D) and that upsilon(sub 2) = (1 - E(exp 2))exp 1/2.

  12. Distinguishing between poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-10-01

    This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child emotional maltreatment, with a primary focus on the parent-child relationship context (rather than abnormal parent behavior alone). Numerous factors that impinge on the distinction between these acts were considered, such as the child's age, the frequency, and severity of behavior shown by caregivers, cultural norms, and parental beliefs and goals in childrearing. The literature on child emotional maltreatment has advanced beyond the descriptive phase of scientific understanding, and principles and practical criteria for distinguishing such behavior from poor parenting are presented. Recommendations focus on practical guidelines for assessing risk and activating appropriate prevention and intervention: (1) parental actions and relative risk of harm to the child are both important ingredients in defining and distinguishing child emotional maltreatment from other forms of poor parenting; (2) poor parenting methods fall along a broad continuum and fit within a population health mandate aimed at reducing incidence of all forms of negative parenting methods; (3) child emotional maltreatment can be defined categorically based on qualitatively more extreme and potentially more harmful behaviors (than poor parenting), which requires a focused intervention response. Additional recommendations for training, research, and community-based public health initiatives are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinguishing wear and creep in clinically retrieved polyethylene inserts.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M D; Bloebaum, R D

    1995-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the clinical problems associated with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear and failure in orthopedics. To better understand the reasons for wear and failure, methods were developed using polarized light microscopic analysis and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging with correlated elemental analysis to distinguish the contributions of wear, creep, and third-body particulate. This study determined that microscopic metal particles (< 10 microns) previously not observed with the stereomicroscope could be easily observed with the BSE technique. BSE imaging identified embedded metal in 5/5 of the tibial and 2/4 of the acetabular inserts, which were thought to be free of metal debris after stereoscopic examination. Correlated elemental analysis showed that the microscopic particles could be traced to the elements known to be present in the porous coatings of the retrieved uncemented implants. Creep was distinguished from wear in the total hip and total knee inserts by using polarized light microscopic techniques. Continued development of polarized light microscopic techniques applied in this investigation should assist biomaterials experts in the future to better distinguish wear and creep in retrieved clinical inserts. The correlated BSE and elemental analysis will assist in determining the roll of microscopic third-body particular in wear and osteolysis in total joint replacement.

  14. Can Routine Histopathology Distinguish Between Vulvar Cutaneous Candidosis and Dermatophytosis?

    PubMed

    Day, Tania; Borbolla Foster, Ailsa; Phillips, Samuel; Pagano, Ross; Dyall-Smith, Delwyn; Scurry, James; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine if vulvar cutaneous candidosis and dermatophytosis can be distinguished by routine histopathology. Twenty-four cases of periodic acid-Schiff-stained vulvar biopsies with a diagnosis of cutaneous mycosis were reviewed and histopathological characteristics on both periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin and eosin were recorded. Data were collected on age, clinical impression, microbiological results, and treatment, and all specimens underwent multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis. The mean age was 60 years, and all but 3 women had at least 1 risk factor for mycosis including 15 (62.5%) with lichen sclerosus and/or planus managed with topical corticosteroids. A clinical suspicion of tinea or candidosis was documented in 12 (50%) of the cases. Vulvovaginal swabs showed Candida species in 9 women; one skin scraping was positive for Trichophyton rubrum. Microbiology was not obtained in 8 patients, 5 had a negative swab, and 1 had negative skin scrapings. No histopathological or morphological features distinguished Candida species from dermatophytes. Organisms appeared as basophilic structures in the stratum corneum in 15 (62.5%) hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Polymerase chain reaction results were positive for Candida species in 5 (21%) and for dermatophytes in 3 (13%), negative in 13, and unassessable in 3 cases. Vulvar cutaneous candidosis and dermatophytosis cannot be reliably distinguished by routine histopathology or specific polymerase chain reaction. A high index of suspicion combined with adequate microbiological testing remains the best approach to differentiating between the 2, which impacts on counseling, treatment, and prognosis.

  15. Increased epigenetic alterations at the promoters of transcriptional regulators following inadequate maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yamada, Takahiro; Abe, Kosei; Okamura, Kohji; Kamura, Hiromi; Akaishi, Rina; Minakami, Hisanori; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are thought to serve as a memory of exposure to in utero environments. However, few human studies have investigated the associations between maternal nutritional conditions during pregnancy and epigenetic alterations in offspring. In this study, we report genome-wide methylation profiles for 33 postpartum placentas from pregnancies of normal and foetal growth restriction with various extents of maternal gestational weight gain. Epigenetic alterations accumulate in the placenta under adverse in utero environments, as shown by application of Smirnov-Grubbs’ outlier test. Moreover, hypermethylation occurs frequently at the promoter regions of transcriptional regulator genes, including polycomb targets and zinc-finger genes, as shown by annotations of the genomic and functional features of loci with altered DNA methylation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications at such developmental regulator loci, if occurring in foetuses as well, will elevate the risk of developing various diseases, including metabolic and mental disorders, later in life. PMID:26415774

  16. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Dan Olweus: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Dan Olweus, the 2011 winner for the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. "For his lifelong commitment to understand bullying among children and create safe and humane school settings. Dan Olweus led the education of the global public about the nature and prevalence of bullying, its often serious consequences, and the behavior of adults that allows bullying to occur. He has done so as a careful researcher, a thoughtful theoretician, a creative program developer, and a tireless advocate. He uncovered the problem and created and evaluated a comprehensive solution. Throughout his career, he has been guided by a concern for careful psychological inquiry and a commitment to the promotion of human rights." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Proteins that mediate protein aggregation and cytotoxicity distinguish Alzheimer's hippocampus from normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Parcon, Paul A; Barger, Steven W; Griffin, W Sue T; Alla, Ramani; Tackett, Alan J; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Petricoin, Emanuel; Zhou, Weidong; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are distinguished by characteristic protein aggregates initiated by disease-specific 'seed' proteins; however, roles of other co-aggregated proteins remain largely unexplored. Compact hippocampal aggregates were purified from Alzheimer's and control-subject pools using magnetic-bead immunoaffinity pulldowns. Their components were fractionated by electrophoretic mobility and analyzed by high-resolution proteomics. Although total detergent-insoluble aggregates from Alzheimer's and controls had similar protein content, within the fractions isolated by tau or Aβ1-42 pulldown, the protein constituents of Alzheimer-derived aggregates were more abundant, diverse, and post-translationally modified than those from controls. Tau- and Aβ-containing aggregates were distinguished by multiple components, and yet shared >90% of their protein constituents, implying similar accretion mechanisms. Alzheimer-specific protein enrichment in tau-containing aggregates was corroborated for individuals by three analyses. Five proteins inferred to co-aggregate with tau were confirmed by precise in situ methods, including proximity ligation amplification that requires co-localization within 40 nm. Nematode orthologs of 21 proteins, which showed Alzheimer-specific enrichment in tau-containing aggregates, were assessed for aggregation-promoting roles in C. elegans by RNA-interference 'knockdown'. Fifteen knockdowns (71%) rescued paralysis of worms expressing muscle Aβ, and 12 (57%) rescued chemotaxis disrupted by neuronal Aβ expression. Proteins identified in compact human aggregates, bound by antibody to total tau, were thus shown to play causal roles in aggregation based on nematode models triggered by Aβ1-42 . These observations imply shared mechanisms driving both types of aggregation, and/or aggregate-mediated cross-talk between tau and Aβ. Knowledge of protein components that promote protein accrual in diverse aggregate types implicates common

  20. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    How physicians address issues of disease prevention and health promotion is discussed and current standards of screening for disease and counseling practices are reviewed. Collaboration among all health professionals is necessary if preventive medicine is to be effective. PMID:21221259

  1. Identifying Distinguishing Characteristics of Secondary Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, S. L.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel down the slopes of erupting volcanoes. The combination of high velocities, high bulk densities (due to particles in the current) and high temperatures make PDCs the most dangerous and deadly hazard associated with explosive volcanism. Secondary explosive phenomenon associated with PDCs, such as inland-directed surges (e.g., Montserrat, 2003) and phreatic explosions (e.g., Mt St Helens 1980) can increase the area affected and duration of the hazard. However, little work has been done on distinguishing the deposits of secondary explosive phenomenon from primary phenomenon. Samples have been acquired from the 1980 Mt St Helens phreatic explosion crater deposits and the 2003 eruptive event at Montserrat where a PDC flowed into the ocean, causing an inland-directed surge (Edmonds and Herd, 2005. Geology 33.4:245-248). The samples will be analyzed via depositional characteristics, granulometry, componentry, microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. We hypothesize that thermal cracking or vesicle distortion (e.g., compression or hindered expansion) may occur in hot pyroclasts that enter a body of water, leading to a difference between the ash textures of primary PDCs, phreatic surges and inland-directed surge deposits. Analyzing granulometry and componentry from parent flows and secondary flows may also reveal distinguishing characteristics that will allow us to constrain differences in segregation mechanisms of particles for each phenomenon. Determining distinguishing depositional characteristics of these secondary phenomena is important for assessing their occurrence during past eruptions and identifying conditions conducive to the formation of secondary explosions. This will result in the ability to make more accurate hazard maps for volcanoes prone to explosive activity.

  2. Efficacy of Sonoelastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Breast Masses

    PubMed Central

    Balçık, Adile; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Polat, Ayfer Kamalı

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the influence of sonoelastographic strain ratio in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses. Materials and Methods Patients who were referred for diagnostic biopsy of a breast mass were examined by ultrasound and sonoelastography prior to percutaneous biopsy. Sonoelastography was performed twice by the same observer in the same session. The strain ratios (SR) were calculated for both measurements as well as the mean strain ratio. Results were compared with histopathologic findings. For each strain ratio, a threshold value was determined using a ROC analysis for the differentiation of benign and malignant masses. Results After histopathological examination of 135 mass lesions in 132 female patients (mean age 48±12 years), 65 masses were diagnosed as benign and 70 as malignant. According to the Tsukuba classification with 5 scores; 44 of 65 benign masses had scores of either 1 or 2 while 56 of 70 malignant lesions had scores of either 4 or 5. No benign lesion was classified as score 5, and no malignant lesion as score 1. The mean cut-off in the two ROC measurements in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions was calculated as 4.52. When a threshold value of 4.52 was used for the mean strain ratio: the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy rates were determined as 85.5%, 84.8%, 85.5%, 84.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Conclusion The threshold value for strain ratio in the differentiation of benign and malignant masses was detected as 4.52, and a significant intra-observer difference was not observed in this study. The diagnostic value of sonoelastograghy in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses was higher in comparison to conventional ultrasound. PMID:28331729

  3. Local distinguishability of Dicke states in quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Tao; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2017-03-01

    We comprehensively investigate the local distinguishability of orthogonal Dicke states under local operations and classical communication (LOCC) from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Based on our work, defects in the LOCC-quantum secret sharing (QSS) scheme can be complemented, and the information leakage can be quantified. For (k1 ,k2 , k , n)-threshold LOCC-QSS scheme, more intuitive formulas for unambiguous probability and guessing probability were established, which can be used for determining the parameter k1 and k2 directly.

  4. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  5. Distinguishing Between Supra-Arcade Downflows and Plasmoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) observed above flaring active regions during long-duration events are theorized to be signatures of magnetic reconnection. Observations of SADs strongly indicate an association with shrinking reconnected flux tubes characterized by a specific magnetic topology. Plasmoids comprise another proposed group of observational reconnection signatures. While some plasmoids occur under nearly the same conditions as SADs, the magnetic configuration of the two phenomena are quite incongruous, yet they are often categorized together. We present distinguishing characteristics between SADs and plasmoids and indicate how their respective observations may yield insight into the conditions within the current sheet above eruptive active regions.

  6. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    PubMed Central

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  7. The distinguishability of interacting dark energy from modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clemson, Timothy; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-01-01

    We study the observational viability of coupled quintessence models with their expansion and growth histories matched to modified gravity cosmologies. We find that for a Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model which has been fitted to observations, the matched interacting dark energy models are observationally disfavoured. We also study the distinguishability of interacting dark energy models matched to scalar-tensor theory cosmologies and show that it is not always possible to find a physical interacting dark energy model which shares their expansion and growth histories.

  8. Distinguishing characteristics in underwater images of Northern and Eurasian watermilfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Karen T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a simple scheme for distinguishing between two very similar watermilfoils, Eurasian or Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Northern or Myriophyllum exalbescens. Leaf images were isolated from underwater images of the plants. Characteristic features consisting of the ratio of black to white pixels within the convex hull of an edge-mapped leaf, the eccentricity of the ellipse surrounding the leaf and a spatial-dependency analysis, measuring the frequency of change of pixel intensity of an edge-mapped leaf were combined to provide a measure which could be used to determine whether a leaf was Northern or Eurasian.

  9. Possible Observational Criteria for Distinguishing Brown Dwarfs From Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The difference in formation process between binary stars and planetary systems is reflected in their composition, as well as orbital architecture, particularly in their orbital eccentricity as a function of orbital period. It is suggested here that this difference can be used as an observational criterion to distinguish between brown dwarfs and planets. Application of the orbital criterion suggests that, with three possible exceptions, all of the recently discovered substellar companions may be brown dwarfs and not planets. These criterion may be used as a guide for interpretation of the nature of substellar-mass companions to stars in the future.

  10. The increasing importance of distinguishing among plant nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-06-01

    Many studies of plant nitrogen relations assess only the total amount of the element available from the soil and the total amount of the element within the plant. Nitrogen, however, is a constituent of diverse compounds that participate in some of the most energy-intensive reactions in the biosphere. The following characterizes some of these reactions, especially those that involve ammonium and nitrate, and highlights the importance of distinguishing both among the nitrogen sources available to plants and among the nitrogen forms within plants when considering plant responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  11. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  12. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    PubMed

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  13. Nonlocality free wirings and the distinguishability between Bell boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Rodrigo; Aolita, Leandro

    2017-03-01

    Bell nonlocality can be formulated in terms of a resource theory with local-hidden variable models as resourceless objects. Two such theories are known, one built upon local operations assisted by shared randomness (LOSRs) and the other one allowing, in addition, for prior-to-input classical communication. We show that prior communication, although unable to create nonlocality, leads to wirings not only beyond LOSRs but also not contained in a much broader class of (nonlocality-generating) global wirings. Technically, this is shown by proving that it can improve the statistical distinguishability between Bell correlations optimized over all fixed measurement choices. This has implications in nonlocality quantification, and leads us to a natural universal definition of Bell nonlocality measures. To end up with, we also consider the statistical strength of nonlocality proofs. We point out some issues of its standard definition in the resource-theoretic operational framework, and suggest simple fixes for them. Our findings reveal nontrivial features of the geometry of the set of wirings and may have implications in the operational distinguishability of nonlocal behaviors.

  14. Distinguishing Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita From Bullous Pemphigoid Without Direct Immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kerry M; Crawford, Richard I

    2017-07-01

    It has been postulated that periodic acid-Schiff staining of basement membrane can predict direct immunofluorescence patterns seen in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous pemphigoid. It has also been suggested that the type of inflammatory infiltrate or presence of fraying of basal keratinocytes may differentiate these two conditions. In this study, we aimed to confirm these observations. We reviewed 13 cases of direct immunofluorescence-confirmed epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and 19 cases of direct immunofluorescence-confirmed bullous pemphigoid, all with a subepidermal blister in the routinely processed specimen. The gold standard for diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita vs bullous pemphigoid was taken to be identification of immune deposits on the dermal side ('floor' for epidermolysis bullosa acquisita) or the epidermal side ('roof' for bullous pemphigoid) of the salt-split direct immunofluorescence specimen. Our tests to distinguish epidermolysis bullosa acquisita from bullous pemphigoid on the routinely processed biopsy included periodic acid-Schiff basement membrane on the blister roof, neutrophilic infiltrate, lack of eosinophilic infiltrate, and absence of keratinocyte fraying. Sensitivity and specificity for each test were as follows: periodic acid-Schiff staining of roof (sensitivity 25%, specificity 95%), neutrophilic infiltrate (sensitivity 54%, specificity 74%), lack of eosinophilic infiltrate (sensitivity 92%, specificity 68%), and absence of keratinocyte fraying (sensitivity 62%, specificity 58%). Features in the routinely processed biopsy were unable to reliably distinguish between epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous pemphigoid. Direct immunofluorescence on salt-split skin remains the standard for differentiation.

  15. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  16. Distinguishing suspicious actions in long-distance surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebe, Guy; Chen, Eli; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2014-10-01

    Human action classification distinguishes different human behaviors at a video signal. Suspicious behavior can be defined by the user, and in long distance imaging it may include bending the body during walking or crawling, in contrast to regular walking for instance. When imaging is performed through relatively long distance, some difficulties occur which affect the performances regular action recognition tasks. The degradation sources that include turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere cause blur and spatiotemporal-varying distortions (image dancing). These effects become more significant as the imaging distance increases and as the sizes of the objects of interest in the image are smaller. The process of action recognition is usually a part of surveillance system that naturally includes a detection of the moving objects as a first step, followed by tracking them in the video sequence. In this study, we first detect and track moving objects in long-distance horizontal imaging, and then we examine dynamic spatio-temporal (motion and shape) characteristics of correctly detected moving objects. According to such characteristics. We construct features that characterize different actions for such imaging conditions, and distinguish suspicious from non-suspicious actions, based on these characteristics.

  17. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Mundel, Trevor; Milton, John G; Dimitrov, Alexander; Wilson, Hugh W; Pelizzari, Charles; Uftring, Stephen; Torres, Ivan; Erickson, Robert K; Spire, Jean-Paul; Towle, Vernon L

    2003-04-01

    It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all faces looked the same"). A cortical region located posterior to the epileptic focus was identified that exhibited a maximum evoked response to the presentation of facial images (N165), but not to objects, scenes, or character strings. Evoked potentials elicited by a variety of visual images indicated that any perturbation away from novel whole-face stimuli produced submaximal responses from this region of the right temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation of this region resulted in an impairment of face discrimination. It was found that presentation of familiar faces (grandmother, treating physician) produced a different response from that observed for novel faces. These observations demonstrate that within 165 msec of face presentation, and before the conscious precept of face familiarity has formed, this cortical region has already begun to distinguish between a familiar and an unfamiliar face.

  18. Distinguishing Selection Bias and Confounding Bias in Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Haneuse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide patients and physicians with evidence-based guidance on treatment decisions. As researchers conduct CER they face myriad challenges. Although inadequate control of confounding is the most-often cited source of potential bias, selection bias that arises when patients are differentially excluded from analyses is a distinct phenomenon with distinct consequences: confounding bias compromises internal validity, whereas selection bias compromises external validity. Despite this distinction, however, the label "treatment-selection bias" is being used in the CER literature to denote the phenomenon of confounding bias. Motivated by an ongoing study of treatment choice for depression on weight change over time, this paper formally distinguishes selection and confounding bias in CER. By formally distinguishing selection and confounding bias, this paper clarifies important scientific, design, and analysis issues relevant to ensuring validity. First is that the 2 types of biases may arise simultaneously in any given study; even if confounding bias is completely controlled, a study may nevertheless suffer from selection bias so that the results are not generalizable to the patient population of interest. Second is that the statistical methods used to mitigate the 2 biases are themselves distinct; methods developed to control one type of bias should not be expected to address the other. Finally, the control of selection and confounding bias will often require distinct covariate information. Consequently, as researchers plan future studies of comparative effectiveness, care must be taken to ensure that all data elements relevant to both confounding and selection bias are collected.

  19. Shifts of the psychometric function: distinguishing bias from perceptual effects.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Morgan, Dillenburger, Raphael, and Solomon have shown that observers can use different response strategies when unsure of their answer, and, thus, they can voluntarily shift the location of the psychometric function estimated with the method of single stimuli (MSS; sometimes also referred to as the single-interval, two-alternative method). They wondered whether MSS could distinguish response bias from a true perceptual effect that would also shift the location of the psychometric function. We demonstrate theoretically that the inability to distinguish response bias from perceptual effects is an inherent shortcoming of MSS, although a three-response format including also an "undecided" response option may solve the problem under restrictive assumptions whose validity cannot be tested with MSS data. We also show that a proper two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task with the three-response format is free of all these problems so that bias and perceptual effects can easily be separated out. The use of a three-response 2AFC format is essential to eliminate a confound (response bias) in studies of perceptual effects and, hence, to eliminate a threat to the internal validity of research in this area.

  20. Useful tests on pleural fluid that distinguish transudates from exudates.

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Vives, M; Vicente de Vera, M C; Cao, G; Rubio, M; Rivas, M C

    2001-11-01

    We aimed to compare the classic Light's criteria with different testing strategies in an effort to improve the accuracy of pleural fluid (PF) categorization. Thirty-two patients with transudates and 140 with exudates on the basis of their clinical diagnosis were entered into the study. We examined the discriminative properties of 10 analytes in the identification of PF, both singly and in combination with an 'or' rule, to see which was best in distinguishing a transudate from an exudate. A combination of PF lactate dehydrogenase (LD) > 307 U/L (two-thirds of the upper limit of the serum LD reference range) with either PF cholesterol > 1.55 mmol/L or PF to serum protein ratio > 0.5 had a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of Light's criteria. We suggest the use of PF LD and cholesterol in combination as an alternative method for distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates. This test combination avoids the need for venepuncture and the simultaneous collection of a blood sample.

  1. A statistical approach for distinguishing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2009-08-01

    The extent and evolutionary significance of hybridization is difficult to evaluate because of the difficulty in distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting. Here we present a novel parametric approach for statistically distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting based on minimum genetic distances of a nonrecombining locus. It is based on the idea that the expected minimum genetic distance between sequences from two species is smaller for some hybridization events than for incomplete lineage sorting scenarios. When applied to empirical data sets, distributions can be generated for the minimum interspecies distances expected under incomplete lineage sorting using coalescent simulations. If the observed distance between sequences from two species is smaller than its predicted distribution, incomplete lineage sorting can be rejected and hybridization inferred. We demonstrate the power of the method using simulations and illustrate its application on New Zealand alpine buttercups (Ranunculus). The method is robust and complements existing approaches. Thus it should allow biologists to assess with greater accuracy the importance of hybridization in evolution.

  2. Gene Transcript Abundance Profiles Distinguish Kawasaki Disease from Adenovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Popper, Stephen J.; Watson, Virginia E.; Shimizu, Chisato; Kanegaye, John T.; Burns, Jane C.; Relman, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute Kawasaki disease (KD) is difficult to distinguish from other illnesses that involve acute rash or fever, in part because the etiologic agent(s) and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. As a result, diagnosis and critical therapies may be delayed. Methods We used DNA microarrays to identify possible diagnostic features of KD. We compared gene expression patterns in the blood of 23 children with acute KD and 18 age-matched febrile children with 3 illnesses that resemble KD. Results Genes associated with platelet and neutrophil activation were expressed at higher levels in patients with KD than in patients with acute adenovirus infections or systemic adverse drug reactions, but levels in patients with KD were not higher than those in patients with scarlet fever. Genes associated with B cell activation were also expressed at higher levels in patients with KD than in control subjects. A striking absence of interferon-stimulated gene expression in patients with KD was confirmed in an independent cohort of patients with KD. Using a set of 38 gene transcripts, we successfully predicted the diagnosis for 21 of 23 patients with KD and 7 of 8 patients with adenovirus infection. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the molecular features that distinguish KD from other febrile illnesses and support the feasibility of developing novel diagnostic reagents for KD based on the host response. PMID:19583510

  3. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  4. The chimpanzee-specific pericentric inversions that distinguish humans and chimpanzees have identical breakpoints in Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Szamalek, Justyna M; Goidts, Violaine; Searle, Jeremy B; Cooper, David N; Hameister, Horst; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2006-01-01

    Seven of nine pericentric inversions that distinguish human (HSA) and chimpanzee karyotypes are chimpanzee-specific. In this study we investigated whether the two extant chimpanzee species, Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) and Pan paniscus (bonobo), share exactly the same pericentric inversions. The methods applied were FISH with breakpoint-spanning BAC/PAC clones and PCR analyses of the breakpoint junction sequences. Our findings for the homologues to HSA 4, 5, 9, 12, 16, and 17 confirm for the first time at the sequence level that these pericentric inversions have identical breakpoints in the common chimpanzee and the bonobo. Therefore, these inversions predate the separation of the two chimpanzee species 0.86-2 Mya. Further, the inversions distinguishing human and chimpanzee karyotypes may be regarded as early acquisitions, such that they are likely to have been present at the time of human/chimpanzee divergence. According to the chromosomal speciation theory the inversions themselves could have promoted human speciation.

  5. Promoting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  6. Functional activity of the two promoters of the myosin alkali light chain gene in primary muscle cell cultures: comparison with other muscle gene promoters and other culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Daubas, P; Klarsfeld, A; Garner, I; Pinset, C; Cox, R; Buckingham, M

    1988-01-01

    Proximal upstream flanking sequences of the mouse myosin alkali light chain gene encoding MLC1F and MLC3F, the mouse alpha-cardiac actin gene and the chicken gene for the alpha-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor were linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene and transfected into primary cultures derived from mouse skeletal muscle or into myogenic cell lines. We demonstrate that the mouse MLC1F/MLC3F gene has two functional promoters. In primary muscle cultures, a 1200 bp sequence flanking exon 1 (MLC1F) and a 438 bp sequence flanking exon 2 (MLC3F) direct CAT activity in myotubes, but not in myoblasts or in non myogenic 3T6 and CV1 cells. Developmentally regulated expression is also seen with the alpha-cardiac actin (320 bp) and acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit (850 bp) upstream sequences in the primary culture system. Transfection experiments with myogenic cell lines show different results with a given promoter construct, reflecting possible differences in the levels of regulatory factors between lines. Different muscle gene promoters behave differently in a given cell line, suggesting different regulatory factor requirements between these promoters. Images PMID:2894633

  7. Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Karmali-Rawji, Shameela; Kassim-Lakha, Shaheen; Taylor, Karmel

    1992-01-01

    Perceived lack or loss of control, stress, a rapidly again population and rising costs of health care necessitate effective health promotion and disease prevention in the elderly. In a collaborative health promotion effort, the private sector, public sector, and community partners have joined to increase the South Asian elders' sense of control over the decisions and circumstances that affect their everyday lives. The project was designed to help elders come to terms with the fragmentation of their extended families, cultural alienation, decreased autonomy, need for information, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Imagesp622-a

  8. Distinguishing standard model extensions using monotop chirality at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar; Flórez, Andrés; Gao, Yu; Kamon, Teruki; Kolev, Nikolay; Mueller, Ryan; Segura, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    We present two minimal extensions of the standard model, each giving rise to baryogenesis. They include heavy color-triplet scalars interacting with a light Majorana fermion that can be the dark matter (DM) candidate. The electroweak charges of the new scalars govern their couplings to quarks of different chirality, which leads to different collider signals. These models predict monotop events at the LHC and the energy spectrum of decay products of highly polarized top quarks can be used to establish the chiral nature of the interactions involving the heavy scalars and the DM. Detailed simulation of signal and standard model background events is performed, showing that top quark chirality can be distinguished in hadronic and leptonic decays of the top quarks.

  9. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  10. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  11. Distinguishing Between Legally and Illegally Produced Gold in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard J; Dixon, Roger D; Merkle, Roland K W

    2016-01-01

    The identification of gold-bearing material is essential for combating the theft of gold in South Africa. Material seized in police operations is generally a mixture of gold from different mines, and as such cannot be traced back to a single location. ICP-OES analysis of material dissolved by acid dissolution provided a database of gold compositions comprising gold from South African mines, illegal gold stolen from the mines, and commercial gold alloys and jewelery. Discrimination between legal and illegal gold was possible due to the presence of Pb, As, Sb, Sn, Se, and Te in the stolen material, elements which are not present in legally produced gold. The presence of these elements is a quick and simple way to distinguish between gold alloys based on refined gold, such as in commercially manufactured jewelery, and gold alloys containing a proportion of unrefined and therefore illegally obtained gold.

  12. Distinguishing nanowire and nanotube formation by the deposition current transients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High aspect ratio Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) were electrodeposited inside ordered arrays of self-assembled pores (approximately 50 nm in diameter and approximately 50 μm in length) in anodic alumina templates by a potentiostatic method. The current transients monitored during each process allowed us to distinguish between NW and NT formation. The depositions were long enough for the deposited metal to reach the top of the template and form a continuous Ni film. The overfilling process was found to occur in two steps when depositing NWs and in a single step in the case of NTs. A comparative study of the morphological, structural, and magnetic properties of the Ni NWs and NTs was performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. PMID:22650765

  13. Interference in the Mott Insulator State of Distinguishable Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Fujiwara, Fumitaka; Byrnes, Tim; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2008-03-01

    Particle statistics plays a crucial role in strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. Here, we study the Hubbard model for distinguishable particles at unit filling. We show that when on-site repulsive interaction dominates over tunneling, the ground state is a Mott insulator state with higher order coherence between the particles. This result can be experimentally confirmed by the recovery of the interference pattern in the density correlation functions and is robust against non- uniformity of the interaction and tunneling parameters. We also show that this state is a maximally entangled state, in contrast to its bosonic counterpart. L. Tian, F. Fujiwara, T. Byrnes, and Y. Yamamoto, preprint, arXiv/0705.2023.

  14. Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion.

    PubMed

    Takesue, Hiroki

    2008-10-24

    The frequency distinguishability of two single photons was successfully erased using single photon frequency up-conversion. A frequency nondegenerate photon pair generated via spontaneous four-wave mixing in a dispersion shifted fiber was used to emulate two telecom-band single photons that were in the same temporal mode but in different frequency modes. The frequencies of these photons were converted to the same frequency by using the sum-frequency generation process in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides, while maintaining their temporal indistinguishability. As a result, the two converted photons exhibited a nonclassical dip in a Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference experiment. The present scheme will add flexibility to networking quantum information systems that use photons with various wavelengths.

  15. Mathematically guided approaches to distinguish models of periodic patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Tom W.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    How periodic patterns are generated is an open question. A number of mechanisms have been proposed – most famously, Turing's reaction-diffusion model. However, many theoretical and experimental studies focus on the Turing mechanism while ignoring other possible mechanisms. Here, we use a general model of periodic patterning to show that different types of mechanism (molecular, cellular, mechanical) can generate qualitatively similar final patterns. Observation of final patterns is therefore not sufficient to favour one mechanism over others. However, we propose that a mathematical approach can help to guide the design of experiments that can distinguish between different mechanisms, and illustrate the potential value of this approach with specific biological examples. PMID:25605777

  16. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  17. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H

    2003-01-01

    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  18. Distinguishing dark matter stabilization symmetries at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doojin

    2016-06-01

    We study ways of distinguishing models with Z2-stabilized dark matter (DM) from models where the DM becomes stable by other symmetries, employing the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The idea is based on the observation that a Z3-charged mother particle can decay into one or two DM particles together with Standard Model particle(s), whereas a Z2-charged one (typically) decays into a single DM particle. As main toolkits, we employ four kinematic variables such as the invariant mass variable, the MT2 variable, the energy spectrum of visible particles, and the M2 variables. We emphasize that all those observables are complementary to one another, i.e., (almost) all potential scenarios arising in Z2 and Z3 models can be addressed by the strategies associated with them. Results from Monte Carlo simulation are presented to show the viability of the proposed techniques.

  19. Alan E. Kazdin: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Alan E. Kazdin, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology. "For outstanding and pathbreaking contributions to the understanding of the development, assessment, and treatment of psychopathology. Alan E. Kazdin's theoretically innovative, methodologically rigorous, and scientifically informed research has significantly advanced knowledge of child and adolescent psychopathologies such as depression and conduct problems. His writings on research strategies and methods have set a high standard for rigor in the field. His work and his ideas have had an enormous impact on the science, practice, and teaching of psychology, and his research has strengthened assessment and treatment of children and adolescents in scientific and clinical settings. His passion, energy, wisdom, and wit have inspired countless colleagues and students over the years, and his work will no doubt continue to do so for many generations to come." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in the field, Kelly D. Brownell has been a persuasive proponent of the view that the surge in obesity is attributable to a 'toxic food environment' that includes easy access to abundant but energy-dense and aggressively marketed food. An exemplary leader, he has inspired students and colleagues alike through his tenacious advocacy of the social and behavioral sciences in the public interest. Brownwell's Award citation and a selected bibliography are also presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  2. The usefulness of distinguishing types of aggression by function.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J Martín

    2010-01-01

    Far from being a universally defined notion, aggression is a changing and multifaceted phenomenon encompassing various concepts. There is no consensus as to how different types of aggression should be classified: multiple ways of doing so using a variety of criteria exist in the scientific literature. Some scientists categorise aggressive acts according to how they are expressed, while others prefer to look at motive, function, purpose and objective. Despite the claim of some authors that distinguishing between different types of aggressive acts is not always productive, categorising these according to different purposes and objectives can be very useful, both for developing theory and because such an approach serves forensic practice as well as preventive and therapeutic interventions, as these focus on the propensities and personality of the individual. Furthermore, given that the main functional classifications analysed show a common tendency to dichotomise, it would seem appropriate for their terminology and some of their measurement instruments to be standardised.

  3. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  4. Security against jamming in imaging with partially-distinguishable photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roga, Wojciech; Jeffers, John

    2016-10-01

    We describe a protocol in which we detect intercept-resend jamming of imaging and can reverse its effects. The security is based on control of the polarization states of photons that are sent to interrogate an object and form an image at a camera. The scheme presented here is a particular implementation of a general anti-jamming protocol established by Roga and Jeffers in Ref. 5. It is applied here to imaging by photons with partially distinguishable polarisation states. The protocol in this version is easily applicable as only single photon states are involved, however the efficiency is traded off against the intrusion detectability because of a leak of information to the intruder.

  5. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2016 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2015 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2015 CIRP were Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD (Chair); Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Silvia S. Canetto, PhD; Amanda Clinton, PhD; Melissa L. Morgan Consoli, PhD; Chryse G. Hatzichristou, PhD; Arpana G. Inman, PhD; Lori Foster Thompson, PhD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Abdulrehman, Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Thompson, and Dr. Wedding were members of the subcommittee for the 2016 award. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Mathematically guided approaches to distinguish models of periodic patterning.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Tom W; Megason, Sean G

    2015-02-01

    How periodic patterns are generated is an open question. A number of mechanisms have been proposed--most famously, Turing's reaction-diffusion model. However, many theoretical and experimental studies focus on the Turing mechanism while ignoring other possible mechanisms. Here, we use a general model of periodic patterning to show that different types of mechanism (molecular, cellular, mechanical) can generate qualitatively similar final patterns. Observation of final patterns is therefore not sufficient to favour one mechanism over others. However, we propose that a mathematical approach can help to guide the design of experiments that can distinguish between different mechanisms, and illustrate the potential value of this approach with specific biological examples. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Distinguishing potential sources of genotoxic exposure via HPRT mutations.

    PubMed

    Molholt, B; Finette, B A

    2000-01-01

    We utilize T-cell HPRT mutations to monitor exposure to environmental mutagens in siblings of children who have developed cancer at a persistently high rate in Toms River, New Jersey, U.S.A. A preliminary epidemiological study has found a statistically-significant association between drinking public water (by pregnant mother or infant) and subsequent risk for childhood cancer. Three potential sources of mutagenic exposures in Toms River may have increased the rate of carcinogenic initiation significantly in children: 1. Benzidine-based, other azo dye and anthraquinone dye wastes released by Ciba-Geigy, 2. Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer and other plastic wastes of Union Carbide, and 3. Radium-224, present in unusually high concentrations in the Cohansey aquifer. Specific patterns of HPRT mutations are utilized to distinguish these various potential sources of carcinogenic exposures in the drinking water of families with childhood cancer and to differentiate chemically or radiologically induced cancers from those which occur spontaneously.

  8. Clinical and Laboratory Features Distinguishing Juvenile Polymyositis and Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    MAMYROVA, GULNARA; KATZ, JAMES D.; JONES, ROBERT V.; TARGOFF, IRA N.; LACHENBRUCH, PETER A.; JONES, OLCAY Y.; MILLER, FREDERICK W.; RIDER, LISA G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To differentiate juvenile polymyositis (PM) and muscular dystrophy, both of which may present with chronic muscle weakness and inflammation. Methods We studied 39 patients with probable or definite juvenile PM and 9 patients with muscular dystrophies who were initially misdiagnosed as having juvenile PM. Differences in demographic, clinical, and laboratory results; outcomes; and treatment responses were evaluated by Fisher’s exact and rank sum tests. Random forests classification analysis and logistic regression were performed to examine significant differences in multivariable models. Results Clinical features and serum muscle enzyme levels were similar between juvenile PM and dystrophy patients, except 89% of dystrophy patients had muscle atrophy compared with 46% of juvenile PM patients. Dystrophy patients had a longer delay to diagnosis (median 12 versus 4 months) and were less frequently hospitalized than juvenile PM patients (22% versus 74%). No dystrophy patients, but 54% of juvenile PM patients, had a myositis autoantibody. Dystrophy patients more frequently had myopathic features on muscle biopsy, including diffuse variation of myofiber size, fiber hypertrophy, and myofiber fibrosis (44–100% versus 8–53%). Juvenile PM patients more frequently had complex repetitive discharges on electromyography and a complete response to treatment with prednisone or other immunosuppressive agents than dystrophy patients (44% versus 0%). Random forests analysis revealed that the most important features in distinguishing juvenile PM from dystrophies were myositis autoantibodies, clinical muscle atrophy, and myofiber size variation on biopsy. Logistic regression confirmed muscle atrophy, myofiber fibrosis, and hospitalization as significant predictors. Conclusion Muscular dystrophy can present similarly to juvenile PM. Selected clinical and laboratory features are helpful in combination in distinguishing these conditions. PMID:23925923

  9. PAX8 reliably distinguishes ovarian serous tumors from malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Laury, Anna R; Hornick, Jason L; Perets, Ruth; Krane, Jeffrey F; Corson, Joseph; Drapkin, Ronny; Hirsch, Michelle S

    2010-05-01

    Ovarian serous neoplasms can have morphologic overlap with malignant mesothelioma. The distinction is clinically important, yet most studies have failed to identify immunostains that reliably distinguish these 2 tumor types. Recently, transcription factor PAX8 was shown to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for Müllerian tumors. In addition, some studies suggest that h-caldesmon is sensitive and specific for mesothelioma when compared with serous ovarian tumors. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether PAX8 and h-caldesmon expression can successfully distinguish mesothelioma from serous ovarian tumors. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using PAX8 and h-caldesmon antibodies on archival tissue from 254 ovarian serous tumors and 50 mesothelial tumors. Nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity were considered positive for PAX8 and h-caldesmon, respectively. PAX8 staining was present in 99% of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and all (100%) low-grade ovarian carcinomas and serous borderline tumors; however, only 74% of these cases (188/254) were diffusely positive in more than 50% of tumors cells, and intensity ranged from strong to weak. None of the pleural malignant mesotheliomas were reactive with PAX8. However, 2/23 (9%) peritoneal malignant mesotheliomas showed focal and/or weak staining for PAX8; the remaining cases were negative. Two well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas and 1 multicystic mesothelioma each showed some staining for PAX8. h-caldesmon was negative in all serous neoplasms and all mesothelial neoplasms, except 1 pleural malignant mesothelioma which showed patchy immunoreactivity. Strong PAX8 staining is highly specific (P<0.00001) for ovarian serous tumors when compared with malignant mesotheliomas of the peritoneum and pleura. The presence of weak staining for PAX8 in the 3 "noninvasive" mesotheliomas questions the use for PAX8 in this differential diagnosis. On the basis of this study, h-caldesmon is not a useful marker

  10. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  11. Distinguishing selection bias and confounding bias in comparative effectiveness research

    PubMed Central

    Haneuse, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide patients and physicians with evidence-based guidance on treatment decisions. As researchers conduct CER they face myriad challenges. While inadequate control of confounding is the most-often cited source of potential bias, selection bias which arises when patients are differentially excluded from analyses is a distinct phenomenon with distinct consequences: confounding bias compromises internal validity while selection bias compromises external validity. Despite this distinction, however, the label “treatment-selection bias” is being used in the CER literature to denote the phenomenon of confounding bias. Motivated by an on-going study of treatment choice for depression on weight change over time, we formally distinguish confounding and selection bias in CER. By formally distinguishing selection and confounding bias we clarify important scientific, design and analysis issues relevant to ensuring validity. First is that the two types of bias may arise simultaneously in any given study; even if confounding bias is completely controlled, a study may nevertheless suffer from selection bias so that the results are not generalizable to the patient population of interest. Second is that statistical methods used to mitigate the two biases are themselves distinct; methods developed to control one type of bias should not be expected to address the other. Finally, the control of selection and confounding bias will often require distinct covariate information. Consequently, as researchers plan future studies of comparative effectiveness, care must be taken to ensure that all data elements relevant to both confounding and selection bias are collected. PMID:24309675

  12. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    SciTech Connect

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2016-07-14

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  13. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Walker, Devin G. E.; Zhu, Lijun

    2011-09-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z2) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of MT2-type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  14. Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no ‘caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were ‘caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

  15. Comparing and distinguishing the structure of biological branching.

    PubMed

    Lamberton, Timothy O; Lefevre, James; Short, Kieran M; Smyth, Ian M; Hamilton, Nicholas A

    2015-01-21

    Bifurcating developmental branching morphogenesis gives rise to complex organs such as the lung and the ureteric tree of the kidney. However, a few quantitative methods or tools exist to compare and distinguish, at a structural level, the critical features of these important biological systems. Here we develop novel graph alignment techniques to quantify the structural differences of rooted bifurcating trees and demonstrate their application in the analysis of developing kidneys from in normal and mutant mice. We have developed two graph based metrics: graph discordance, which measures how well the graphs representing the branching structures of distinct trees graphs can be aligned or overlayed; and graph inclusion, which measures the degree of containment of a tree graph within another. To demonstrate the application of these approaches we first benchmark the discordance metric on a data set of 32 normal and 28Tgfβ(+/-) mutant mouse ureteric trees. We find that the discordance metric better distinguishes control and mutant mouse kidneys than alternative metrics based on graph size and fingerprints - the distribution of tip depths. Using this metric we then show that the structure of the mutant trees follows the same pattern as the normal kidneys, but undergo a major delay in elaboration at later stages. Analysis of both controls and mutants using the inclusion metric gives strong support to the hypothesis that ureteric tree growth is stereotypic. Additionally, we present a new generalised multi-tree alignment algorithm that minimises the sum of pairwise graph discordance and which can be used to generate maximum consensus trees that represent the archetype for fixed developmental stages. These tools represent an advance in the analysis and quantification of branching patterns and will be invaluable in gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that drive development. All code is being made available with documentation and example data with this publication.

  16. Promoting Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechanic, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…

  17. Distinguishing nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 80% of the world’s almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the ...

  18. Global Citizenship: A Typology for Distinguishing its Multiple Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of "Global Citizenship" (GC) has emerged as a goal of schooling in many countries, symbolising a shift away from national towards more global conceptions of citizenship. It currently incorporates a proliferation of approaches and terminologies, mirroring both the diverse conceptions of its nature and the socio-politico…

  19. Health Promotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-11

    Dependents Schools and Section 6 schools. (4) Information on the health consequences of smoking shall be incorporated with the information on alcohol...departments. 2. A Health Promotion Coordinating Committee shall be established to enhance communication among the Military Services, recommend joint policy...about the patient’s tobacco use, including use of smokeless tobacco products; to advise him or her of the risks associated with use, the health bcnefits

  20. Neurodevelopment for syntactic processing distinguishes childhood stuttering recovery versus persistence.

    PubMed

    Usler, Evan; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Characterized by the presence of involuntary speech disfluencies, developmental stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder of atypical speech-motor coordination. Although the etiology of stuttering is multifactorial, language development during early childhood may influence both the onset of the disorder and the likelihood of recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in neural indices mediating language processing are associated with persistence or recovery in school-age children who stutter. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 31 6-7-year-olds, including nine children who do not stutter (CWNS), 11 children who had recovered from stuttering (CWS-Rec), and 11 children who persisted in stuttering (CWS-Per), matched for age, and all with similar socioeconomic status, nonverbal intelligence, and language ability. We examined ERPs elicited by semantic and syntactic (phrase structure) violations within an auditory narrative consisting of English and Jabberwocky sentences. In Jabberwocky sentences, content words were replaced with pseudowords to limit semantic context. A mixed effects repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was computed for ERP components with four within-subject factors, including condition, hemisphere, anterior/posterior distribution, and laterality. During the comprehension of English sentences, ERP activity mediating semantic and syntactic (phrase structure) processing did not distinguish CWS-Per, CWS-Rec, and CWNS. Semantic violations elicited a qualitatively similar N400 component across groups. Phrase structure violations within English sentences also elicited a similar P600 component in all groups. However, identical phrase structure violations within Jabberwocky sentences elicited a P600 in CWNS and CWS-Rec, but an N400-like effect in CWS-Per. The distinguishing neural patterns mediating syntactic, but not semantic, processing provide evidence that specific brain functions for some

  1. Distinguishing Failure to Cure From Complication After Penile Prosthesis Implantation.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L

    2017-05-01

    A successful penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) surgery can be defined by outcomes beyond the absence of complications. To introduce the concept of failure to cure (FTC) in the context of PPI to more accurately gauge postoperative outcomes after PPI. Consecutive patients from our sexual function registry who underwent PPI from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed. Demographics, previous treatment of erectile dysfunction, comorbidities, social history, postoperative problems (POPs), and surgical outcomes were tabulated. Patients completed the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaires. We defined a complication, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, as any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not constitute an FTC. FTC was defined as a POP that was not a complication. The χ(2) tests, t-tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used. Patient-reported and objective outcomes after PPI. Our enrollment consisted of 185 patients, and we contacted 124 (67%). Of these, 16 (12.9%) had a POP requiring reoperation. Eight patients developed surgical complications (three infections, four erosions, and one chronic pain). Eight patients had FTC (four malpositions and four malfunctions). Factors that correlated with POPs were previous PPI, body mass index higher than 30 kg/m(2), and previous treatment with intracorporal injections (P < .05 for all comparisons). Patients who had POPs scored significantly lower on the IIEF erectile function and intercourse satisfaction domains (P < .05 for the two comparisons), but not on the orgasmic function, sexual desire, and overall satisfaction domains (P > .05 for all comparisons). POPs after PPI surgery can be more accurately categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications to more clearly distinguish surgical complications from FTC. Limitations of our study

  2. Metabolic sugar signal promotes Arabidopsis meristematic proliferation via G2

    PubMed Central

    Skylar, Anna; Sung, Frances; Hong, Fangxin; Chory, Joanne; Wu, Xuelin

    2011-01-01

    Most organs in higher plants are generated postembryonically from the meristems, which harbor continuously dividing stem cells throughout a plant's life cycle. In addition to developmental regulations, mitotic activities in the meristematic tissues are modulated by nutritional cues, including carbon source availability. Here we further analyze the relationship between the sugar signal and seedling meristem establishment, taking advantage of our previous observation that exogenously supplied metabolic sugars can rescue the meristem growth arrest phenotype of the Arabidopsis stip mutant seedlings. Our results show that metabolic sugars reactivate the stip meristems by activating the expression of key cell cycle regulators, and therefore, promoting G2 to M transition in Arabidopsis meristematic tissues. One of the early events in this process is the transcriptional repression of TSS, a genetic suppressor of the stip mutations, by sugar signals, suggesting that TSS may act as an integrator of developmental and nutritional signals in regulating meristematic proliferation. We also present evidence that metabolic sugar signals are required for the activation of mitotic entry during de novo meristem formation from G2 arrested cells. Our observations, together with the recent findings that nutrient deprivation leads to G2 arrest of animal germline stem cells, suggest that carbohydrate availability-regulated G2 to M transition may represent a common mechanism in stem cell division regulation in multicellular organisms. PMID:21185286

  3. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  4. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  5. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  6. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  7. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  8. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  9. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  10. The Mll2 branch of the COMPASS family regulates bivalent promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Deqing; Garruss, Alexander S; Gao, Xin; Morgan, Marc A; Cook, Malcolm; Smith, Edwin R; Shilatifard, Ali

    2013-09-01

    Promoters of many developmentally regulated genes, in the embryonic stem cell state, have a bivalent mark of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, proposed to confer precise temporal activation upon differentiation. Although Polycomb repressive complex 2 is known to implement H3K27 trimethylation, the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 at bivalently marked promoters was previously unknown. Here, we identify Mll2 (KMT2b) as the enzyme catalyzing H3K4 trimethylation at bivalentlymarked promoters in embryonic stem cells. Although H3K4me3 at bivalent genes is proposed to prime future activation, we detected no substantial defect in rapid transcriptional induction after retinoic acid treatment in Mll2-depleted cells. Our identification of the Mll2 complex as the COMPASS family member responsible for H3K4me3 marking bivalent promoters provides an opportunity to reevaluate and experimentally test models for the function of bivalency in the embryonic stem cell state and in differentiation.

  11. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  12. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Clinical decision rules to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, F; Lamotte, B; Bibi‐Triki, F; Moulin, F; Raymond, J; Gendrel, D; Bréart, G; Chalumeau, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Clinical decision rules have been derived to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in the emergency room to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. Aims To evaluate the reproducibility and to compare the diagnostic performance of five clinical decision rules. Methods All children hospitalised for bacterial meningitis between 1995 and 2004 or aseptic meningitis between 2000 and 2004 have been included in a retrospective cohort study. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by applying each rule to the patients. The best rule was a priori defined as the one yielding 100% sensitivity for bacterial meningitis, the highest specificity, and the greatest simplicity for a bedside application. Results Among the 166 patients included, 20 had bacterial meningitis and 146 had aseptic meningitis. Although three rules achieved 100% sensitivity (95% CI 84–100), one had a significantly lower specificity (13%, 95% CI 8–19) than those of the other two rules (57%, 95% CI 48–65; and 66%, 95% CI 57–73), which were not statistically different. The ease of manual computation of the rule developed by Nigrovic et al (a simple list of five items: seizure, blood neutrophil count, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein, CSF neutrophil count) was higher than the one developed by Bonsu and Harper. Conclusion On our population, the rule derived by Nigrovic et al had the best balance between accuracy and simplicity of manual computation and could help to avoid two thirds of unnecessary antibiotic treatments and hospitalisations. PMID:16595647

  14. Remotely distinguishing and mapping endogenic water on the Moon.

    PubMed

    Klima, Rachel L; Petro, Noah E

    2017-05-28

    Water and/or hydroxyl detected remotely on the lunar surface originates from several sources: (i) comets and other exogenous debris; (ii) solar-wind implantation; (iii) the lunar interior. While each of these sources is interesting in its own right, distinguishing among them is critical for testing hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Moon and our Solar System. Existing spacecraft observations are not of high enough spectral resolution to uniquely characterize the bonding energies of the hydroxyl molecules that have been detected. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution and associations of H, OH(-) or H2O with specific lunar lithologies provide some insight into the origin of lunar hydrous materials. The global distribution of OH(-)/H2O as detected using infrared spectroscopic measurements from orbit is here examined, with particular focus on regional geological features that exhibit OH(-)/H2O absorption band strengths that differ from their immediate surroundings.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Adaptive inference for distinguishing credible from incredible patterns in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holling, Crawford S.; Allen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Strong inference is a powerful and rapid tool that can be used to identify and explain patterns in molecular biology, cell biology, and physiology. It is effective where causes are single and separable and where discrimination between pairwise alternative hypotheses can be determined experimentally by a simple yes or no answer. But causes in ecological systems are multiple and overlapping and are not entirely separable. Frequently, competing hypotheses cannot be distinguished by a single unambiguous test, but only by a suite of tests of different kinds, that produce a body of evidence to support one line of argument and not others. We call this process "adaptive inference". Instead of pitting each member of a pair of hypotheses against each other, adaptive inference relies on the exuberant invention of multiple, competing hypotheses, after which carefully structured comparative data are used to explore the logical consequences of each. Herein we present an example that demonstrates the attributes of adaptive inference that have developed out of a 30-year study of the resilience of ecosystems.

  16. Establishing trauma: the difficulty distinguishing between memories and fantasies.

    PubMed

    Person, E S; Klar, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper is intended as a contribution to understanding why, up until recently, there have been so few case reports of actual abuse and its sequelae in the psychoanalytic literature. We suggest that psychoanalytic insights into the nature of psychic reality, while indispensable to the evolution of psychoanalytic thinking, have nonetheless had the adverse effect of collapsing any distinction between unconscious fantasies and repressed memories. Moreover, the idea that knowledge of external reality is itself mentally constructed also has diminished interest in uncovering trauma and "real" history. We present a report of an adult analysis that illustrates the recovery of a dissociated memory of sexual abuse that occurred during adolescence, as a springboard to discuss problems analysts have had in dealing with trauma theoretically. We hypothesize that repressed memories and conscious fantasies can often be distinguished insofar as they may be "stored" or encoded differently, and that consequently the sequelae of trauma and fantasy often, but not always, can be disentangled. We describe some different modes of encoding trauma and some different ways of remembering, reexperiencing, and reenacting it. And, finally, we suggest why traumatic memories are increasingly accessible to patients today.

  17. Distinguishing k-defects from their canonical twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    We study k-defects—topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion—and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of Dirac-Born-Infeld instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub “doppelgängers,” that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelgänger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgängers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonical walls they mimic. We search for doppelgängers for cosmic strings by numerically constructing solutions of Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical scalar field theories. Despite investigating several examples, we are unable to find doppelgänger cosmic strings, hence the existence of doppelgängers for defects with codimension >1 remains an open question.

  18. Limestones distinguished by magnetic hysteresis in three-dimensional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, G. J.; Hamilton, Tom

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic hysteresis data determine the suitability of rocks for paleomagnetic work, provide clues to paleo-environment and paleo-climate and they may characterize depositional environments for limestones. However, the variables chosen for conventional two-dimensional hysteresis plots, such as that of Day et al. [1977], are not always suitable to discriminate between samples. Distinguishing samples by their regression surfaces in 3D hysteresis space may be more successful in some cases [Borradaile and Lagroix, 2000] but a 2D projection with a less arbitrary viewing axis is preferable for routine reporting. We show that limestone samples are simply discriminated in a new 2D projection produced by projecting hysteresis data from three dimensions (x, y, z = Mr/Ms, Bcr, Bc) onto a plane containing the Mr/Ms axis. The orientation of the plane is controlled by its x-axis that is defined by a suitably selected Bcr/Bc ratio, most often in the magnetite PSD range, 2< (Bcr/Bc) < 4.

  19. Prospects for distinguishing dark matter models using annual modulation

    DOE PAGES

    Witte, Samuel J.; Gluscevic, Vera; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2017-02-24

    It has recently been demonstrated that, in the event of a putative signal in dark matter direct detection experiments, properly identifying the underlying dark matter-nuclei interaction promises to be a challenging task. Given the most optimistic expectations for the number counts of recoil events in the forthcoming Generation 2 experiments, differentiating between interactions that produce distinct features in the recoil energy spectra will only be possible if a strong signal is observed simultaneously on a variety of complementary targets. However, there is a wide range of viable theories that give rise to virtually identical energy spectra, and may only differmore » by the dependence of the recoil rate on the dark matter velocity. In this work, we investigate how degeneracy between such competing models may be broken by analyzing the time dependence of nuclear recoils, i.e. the annual modulation of the rate. For this purpose, we simulate dark matter events for a variety of interactions and experiments, and perform a Bayesian model-selection analysis on all simulated data sets, evaluating the chance of correctly identifying the input model for a given experimental setup. Lastly, we find that including information on the annual modulation of the rate may significantly enhance the ability of a single target to distinguish dark matter models with nearly degenerate recoil spectra, but only with exposures beyond the expectations of Generation 2 experiments.« less

  20. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  1. Remotely distinguishing and mapping endogenic water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Rachel L.; Petro, Noah E.

    2017-04-01

    Water and/or hydroxyl detected remotely on the lunar surface originates from several sources: (i) comets and other exogenous debris; (ii) solar-wind implantation; (iii) the lunar interior. While each of these sources is interesting in its own right, distinguishing among them is critical for testing hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Moon and our Solar System. Existing spacecraft observations are not of high enough spectral resolution to uniquely characterize the bonding energies of the hydroxyl molecules that have been detected. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution and associations of H, OH- or H2O with specific lunar lithologies provide some insight into the origin of lunar hydrous materials. The global distribution of OH-/H2O as detected using infrared spectroscopic measurements from orbit is here examined, with particular focus on regional geological features that exhibit OH-/H2O absorption band strengths that differ from their immediate surroundings. This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'.

  2. Boston naming performance distinguishes between Lewy body and Alzheimer's dementias.

    PubMed

    Williams, Vanessa G; Bruce, Jared M; Westervelt, Holly James; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Grace, Janet; Malloy, Paul F; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2007-11-01

    Although naming impairment is common among persons with dementia, little is known about how specific error types on naming tasks may differ between dementias. Recent research has suggested that persons with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have more visuospatial/visuoperceptual dysfunction than those with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which may impact their ability to correctly perceive and name objects. Our retrospective study evaluated the presence and frequency of error types among patients with DLB and AD on the Boston Naming Test (BNT). Errors on the BNT were classified into five types (i.e., visuoperceptual, semantic, phonemic, no response, and other), and performance was compared among 31 probable DLB patients and 31 probable AD patients matched for age, gender, education, and overall dementia severity. AD patients' overall performance on the BNT was significantly worse than DLB patients (p<.05). In terms of error types, DLB patients made significantly more visuoperceptual errors (p<.05) while AD patients made significantly more semantic errors (p<.001). Logistic regression revealed that the number of visuoperceptual and semantic errors significantly predicted group membership (p<.005), with an accuracy of up to 85%. Results suggest that error analysis of BNT responses may be useful in distinguishing between patients with DLB and AD.

  3. Symptom patterns can distinguish diverticular disease from irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Barbara, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paolo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Casetti, Tino; Grassini, Mario; Ierardi, Enzo; Maconi, Giovanni; Marchi, Santino; Sarnelli, Giovanni; Savarino, Vincenzo; Usai, Paolo; Vozzella, Letizia; Annibale, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Diverticular disease (DD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) share a similar symptom pattern. However, comparative studies are flawed by different age at onset of symptoms. We aimed to verify whether clinical features distinguish DD from IBS. Patients with DD or IBS, matched for age and gender (1/1) were consecutively recruited. Data on demographic parameters, voluptuary habits, inheritance of disease and symptoms were collected. Moreover, the association between pain > 24 h, and clinical parameters were evaluated. Ninety patients with DD and 90 patients with IBS (DD: F/M: 46/44; age: 50.9 years; IBS: 46/44; 50.4) were selected from an overall population of 1275 patients. Only nine patients with DD (10%) fulfilled the criteria for IBS diagnosis. Abdominal pain > 24 h was more prevalent in SDD than in patients with IBS (20 vs. 6 patients; P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with IBS, patients with DD showed more episodes of pain > 24 h requiring medical attention (80% vs. 33%; P < 0.01). Abdominal pain lasting for more than 24 h discriminates patients with DD compared with those with IBS. Identifying this symptom could be an appropriate strategy to define the diagnosis and management. © 2013 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Statistical Method to Distinguish Functional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Fujita, André; Vidal, Maciel C; Takahashi, Daniel Y

    2017-01-01

    One major problem in neuroscience is the comparison of functional brain networks of different populations, e.g., distinguishing the networks of controls and patients. Traditional algorithms are based on search for isomorphism between networks, assuming that they are deterministic. However, biological networks present randomness that cannot be well modeled by those algorithms. For instance, functional brain networks of distinct subjects of the same population can be different due to individual characteristics. Moreover, networks of subjects from different populations can be generated through the same stochastic process. Thus, a better hypothesis is that networks are generated by random processes. In this case, subjects from the same group are samples from the same random process, whereas subjects from different groups are generated by distinct processes. Using this idea, we developed a statistical test called ANOGVA to test whether two or more populations of graphs are generated by the same random graph model. Our simulations' results demonstrate that we can precisely control the rate of false positives and that the test is powerful to discriminate random graphs generated by different models and parameters. The method also showed to be robust for unbalanced data. As an example, we applied ANOGVA to an fMRI dataset composed of controls and patients diagnosed with autism or Asperger. ANOGVA identified the cerebellar functional sub-network as statistically different between controls and autism (p < 0.001).

  5. Frontoparietal Activation Distinguishes Face and Space from Artifact Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Hua; Zeki, Semir

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and theoretical studies suggest that human knowledge is partly based on innate concepts that are experience-independent. We can, therefore, consider concepts underlying our knowledge as being broadly divided into inherited and acquired ones. Using fMRI, we studied the brain reaction in 20 subjects to violation of face, space (inherited), and artifact (acquired) concepts by presenting them with deformed faces, impossible figures (i.e., impossible chairs), and deformed planes, respectively, as well as their normal counterparts. Violation of the inherited concepts of face and space led to significant activation in frontoparietal cortex, whereas artifacts did not, thus distinguishing neurologically between the two categories. Participants were further exposed to these deformities daily for 1 month to test the supposition that inherited concepts are not modifiable, hence that prolonged exposure would not change the brain circuits that are engaged when viewing them. Consistent with this supposition, our results showed no significant change in activation for both categories, suggesting that such concepts are stable at the neural level at least within a time frame of 1 month. Finally, we investigated the regions of the brain that are critical for object representation. Our results show distinct and overlapping areas in the ventral visual cortex for all three categories, with faces activating the ventral visual cortex inferiorly, especially centered on right fusiform gyrus, and chairs and planes activating more diffuse regions, overlapping with the superior part of face region and mainly located in middle occipital cortex and parietal areas. PMID:21254806

  6. Distinguishing two Population Processes with Identical Equilibrium Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, E.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Matthews, J. O.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the relationship between the evolution of simple population processes and the rate of emigration of individuals. An external monitoring scheme is defined by counting the number leaving the population in fixed time intervals. This is the analogue of photon counting in quantum optics. It is a reasonable measurement in many situations of interest and also has the merit of being analytically tractable. The formalism we develop is used to investigate the statistical and correlation properties of two stochastic population models that give rise to identical first order probability densities. The first is the birth-death- immigration process for which many well-known results can be found in the literature. The second is based on a population sustained by multiple immigration. This model is a generalization of the pair process investigated previously [1]. It can be used to generate populations with a range of equilibrium densities including those with power law tails to be described in a companion paper. Here we show that, in the case of a geometric distribution of multiples, the equilibrium density is negative binomial and higher order joint statistical properties must be used to distinguish the model from the conventional birth-death-immigration process. Formulae characterizing the integrated counting statistics of the two models are derived and it is shown how they may be exploited to achieve this objective.

  7. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Research leadership: should clinical directors be distinguished researchers?

    PubMed

    Allison, Stephen; Goodall, Amanda H; Bastiampillai, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Clinical directors established research-led healthcare by combining research, teaching and clinical excellence within the teaching hospitals. This research culture created high clinical standards, which benefited patients, the workforce and healthcare organisations. The current paper explores this research leadership role for clinical directors. It reviews studies arising from the theory of expert leadership, which focuses on the relationship between a leader's core knowledge and organisational performance. More specifically, we examine the expert leader's research track record, the associations with their organisation's performance, and the influence of research activity on clinical excellence. Distinguished researchers still lead the most prestigious teaching hospitals and the most trusted departments of psychiatry in the United States where the clinical directorate structure originated. It is also known that good scholars can improve research output when appointed to leadership positions. This suggests that the clinical director's research track record should be a consideration at a time when research is being embedded in Australia's local health networks. A clinical director's leadership may influence the research performance of their department and contribute to the quality of mental healthcare. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher’s experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements—some newly created, others previously published–and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others. PMID:28594831

  10. On Making a Distinguished Vertex Minimum Degree by Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Nadja; Bredereck, Robert; Niedermeier, Rolf; Uhlmann, Johannes

    For directed and undirected graphs, we study the problem to make a distinguished vertex the unique minimum-(in)degree vertex through deletion of a minimum number of vertices. The corresponding NP-hard optimization problems are motivated by applications concerning control in elections and social network analysis. Continuing previous work for the directed case, we show that the problem is W[2]-hard when parameterized by the graph's feedback arc set number, whereas it becomes fixed-parameter tractable when combining the parameters "feedback vertex set number" and "number of vertices to delete". For the so far unstudied undirected case, we show that the problem is NP-hard and W[1]-hard when parameterized by the "number of vertices to delete". On the positive side, we show fixed-parameter tractability for several parameterizations measuring tree-likeness, including a vertex-linear problem kernel with respect to the parameter "feedback edge set number". On the contrary, we show a non-existence result concerning polynomial-size problem kernels for the combined parameter "vertex cover number and number of vertices to delete", implying corresponding nonexistence results when replacing vertex cover number by treewidth or feedback vertex set number.

  11. Noble gas excess air applied to distinguish groundwater recharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard G S; Hiscock, Kevin M; Dennis, Paul F

    2007-03-15

    The application of geochemical tracers in groundwater studies can provide valuable insights into the rates and sources of groundwater recharge, residence times, and flow dynamics that are of significant value in the management of this important natural resource. This paper demonstrates the application of noble gas excess air to distinguish groundwater bodies with different recharge histories in a layered sandstone aquifer system in the east of England. The sampled groundwaters are all supersaturated with respect to neon, indicating the presence of excess air. The lowest excess air concentrations occur where the aquifer is unconfined (deltaNe, the proportion of neon in excess of saturation, = 12-26%) and recharge occurs directly to the outcrop. Groundwater in the confined part of the aquifer can be divided into two hydrochemical types based upon the dissolved ion chemistry: Type 1 groundwaters contain more excess air (deltaNe = 115-120%) than Type 2(deltaNe = 22-62%). The difference in excess air concentrations confirms that groundwater enters the confined aquifer along two discrete pathways. Furthermore, excess neon concentrations predicted from the magnitude of annual water table fluctuation observed in the different recharge areas are in good agreement with those measured in the corresponding groundwaters. We therefore recommend that excess air may be usefully employed as a direct indicator of the volume of long-term net annual groundwater recharge.

  12. Distinguishing k-defects from their canonical twins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-11-15

    We study k-defects--topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion--and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of Dirac-Born-Infeld instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub ''doppelgaengers,'' that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelgaenger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgaengers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonical walls they mimic. We search for doppelgaengers for cosmic strings by numerically constructing solutions of Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical scalar field theories. Despite investigating several examples, we are unable to find doppelgaenger cosmic strings, hence the existence of doppelgaengers for defects with codimension >1 remains an open question.

  13. Words matter: distinguishing "personalized medicine" and "biologically personalized therapeutics".

    PubMed

    Cherny, Nathan I; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Emanuel, Linda; Fallowfield, Lesley; Francis, Prudence A; Gabizon, Alberto; Piccart, Martine J; Sidransky, David; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2014-12-01

    "Personalized medicine" has become a generic term referring to techniques that evaluate either the host or the disease to enhance the likelihood of beneficial patient outcomes from treatment interventions. There is, however, much more to personalization of care than just identifying the biotherapeutic strategy with the highest likelihood of benefit. In its new meaning, "personalized medicine" could overshadow the individually tailored, whole-person care that is at the bedrock of what people need and want when they are ill. Since names and definitional terms set the scope of the discourse, they have the power to define what personalized medicine includes or does not include, thus influencing the scope of the professional purview regarding the delivery of personalized care. Taxonomic accuracy is important in understanding the differences between therapeutic interventions that are distinguishable in their aims, indications, scope, benefits, and risks. In order to restore the due emphasis to the patient and his or her needs, we assert that it is necessary, albeit belated, to deconflate the contemporary term "personalized medicine" by taxonomizing this therapeutic strategy more accurately as "biologically personalized therapeutics" (BPT). The scope of truly personalized medicine and its relationship to biologically personalized therapeutics is described, emphasizing that the best of care must give due recognition and emphasis to both BPT and truly personalized medicine.

  14. A Statistical Method to Distinguish Functional Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, André; Vidal, Maciel C.; Takahashi, Daniel Y.

    2017-01-01

    One major problem in neuroscience is the comparison of functional brain networks of different populations, e.g., distinguishing the networks of controls and patients. Traditional algorithms are based on search for isomorphism between networks, assuming that they are deterministic. However, biological networks present randomness that cannot be well modeled by those algorithms. For instance, functional brain networks of distinct subjects of the same population can be different due to individual characteristics. Moreover, networks of subjects from different populations can be generated through the same stochastic process. Thus, a better hypothesis is that networks are generated by random processes. In this case, subjects from the same group are samples from the same random process, whereas subjects from different groups are generated by distinct processes. Using this idea, we developed a statistical test called ANOGVA to test whether two or more populations of graphs are generated by the same random graph model. Our simulations' results demonstrate that we can precisely control the rate of false positives and that the test is powerful to discriminate random graphs generated by different models and parameters. The method also showed to be robust for unbalanced data. As an example, we applied ANOGVA to an fMRI dataset composed of controls and patients diagnosed with autism or Asperger. ANOGVA identified the cerebellar functional sub-network as statistically different between controls and autism (p < 0.001). PMID:28261045

  15. Psychogenic Tremor: A Video Guide to Its Distinguishing Features

    PubMed Central

    Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychogenic tremor is the most common psychogenic movement disorder. It has characteristic clinical features that can help distinguish it from other tremor disorders. There is no diagnostic gold standard and the diagnosis is based primarily on clinical history and examination. Despite proposed diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor can be challenging. While there are numerous studies evaluating psychogenic tremor in the literature, there are no publications that provide a video/visual guide that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of psychogenic tremor. Educating clinicians about psychogenic tremor will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Methods We selected videos from the database at the Parkinson’s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine that illustrate classic findings supporting the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor. Results We include 10 clinical vignettes with accompanying videos that highlight characteristic clinical signs of psychogenic tremor including distractibility, variability, entrainability, suggestibility, and coherence. Discussion Psychogenic tremor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tremor, particularly if it is of abrupt onset, intermittent, variable and not congruous with organic tremor. The diagnosis of psychogenic tremor, however, should not be simply based on exclusion of organic tremor, such as essential, parkinsonian, or cerebellar tremor, but on positive criteria demonstrating characteristic features. Early recognition and management are critical for good long-term outcome. PMID:25243097

  16. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2017-08-15

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  17. Distinguishing Mast Cell Progenitors from Mature Mast Cells in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Ding, Zhoujie; Hallgren, Jenny

    2015-07-15

    Mast cells originate from the bone marrow and develop into c-kit(+) FcɛRI(+) cells. Both mast cell progenitors (MCp) and mature mast cells express these cell surface markers, and ways validated to distinguish between the two maturation forms with flow cytometry have been lacking. Here, we show that primary peritoneal MCp from naïve mice expressed high levels of integrin β7 and had a low side scatter (SSC) light profile; whereas mature mast cells expressed lower levels of integrin β7 and had a high SSC light profile. The maturation statuses of the cells were confirmed using three main strategies: (1) MCp, but not mature mast cells, were shown to be depleted by sublethal whole-body γ-irradiation. (2) The MCp were small and immature in terms of granule formation, whereas the mature mast cells were larger and had fully developed metachromatic granules. (3) The MCp had fewer transcripts of mast cell-specific proteases and the enzyme responsible for sulfation of heparin than mature mast cells. Moreover, isolated peritoneal MCp gave rise to mast cells when cultured in vitro. To summarize, we have defined MCp and mature mast cells in naïve mice by flow cytometry. Using this strategy, mast cell maturation can be studied in vivo.

  18. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  19. Croatian postage stamps featuring distinguished medical events and personalities.

    PubMed

    Salopek, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Modern Croatian history of postal services started with the first postage stamp issued as a sign of sovereignty and statehood after the Declaration of independence in 1991. A review of recent catalogues and theme collections has shown that of 654 definitive and commemorative stamps issued from 1991 to early 2008, sixteen were dedicated to medicine.Two stamps show health care institutions: ZRC Lipik, and health resort VaraZdinske Toplice; two commemorative stamps call attention to blindness-related issues, and one dedicated to disability is entitled "Mines". A series of three stamps entitled "Flora: Medicinal Herbs" recalls traditional folk medicine. In 2001, a stamp was issued on the occasion of the International Non-smoking Day to warn about the adverse effects of smoking on the development of cardiovascular diseases. The most common medicine-related subject on postage stamps were distinguished physicians and scientists: Ante Sercer, Stjepan Betleheim, Julije Domac, Dr agutin Gorjanović-Kramberger, and Duro Baglivi. Indispensable in medical philately are the semi-postal (charity) stamps issued by nonpostal institutions such as the Red Cross, Tuberculosis Week, the Croatian Anti-Cancer League, and the Croatian Diabetic Association. These postage stamps not only remind the public of the rich Croatian healthcare history, but they are also powerful tools to convey messages about public health and disease prevention.

  20. Readers’ Eye Movements Distinguish Anomalies of Form and Content

    PubMed Central

    Braze, David; Shankweiler, Donald; Ni, Weijia; Palumbo, Laura Conway

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented that eye-movement patterns during reading distinguish costs associated with the syntactic processing of sentences from costs associated with relating sentence meaning to real world probabilities. Participants (N=30) read matching sets of sentences that differed by a single word, making the sentence syntactically anomalous (but understandable), pragmatically anomalous, or non-anomalous. Syntactic and pragmatic anomaly each caused perturbations in eye-movements. Subsequent to the anomaly, the patterns diverged. Syntactic anomaly generated many regressions initially, with rapid return to baseline. Pragmatic anomaly resulted in lengthened reading times, followed by a gradual increase in regressions that reached a maximum at the end of the sentence. Evidence of rapid sensitivity to pragmatic information supports the use of timing data in resolving the debate over the autonomy of linguistic processing. The divergent patterns of eye-movements support indications from neuro-cognitive studies of a principled distinction between syntactic and pragmatic processing procedures within the language processing mechanism. PMID:11924838

  1. Distinguishing between healthy and sick preschools by chemical classification

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, J.C.; Berglund, B.; Berglund, U.; Nicander-Bredberg, H.; Noma, E.

    1987-01-01

    The Swedish building code of 1975 emphasizes energy conservation and encourages the construction of tightly insulated structures with adequate ventilation systems. Some of the new buildings constructed along these guidelines have been labeled sick, because people working in them report an unusual number of health problems - e.g., eye irritation, skin rashes, and fatigue. One possible indicator of whether a building is healthy or sick may exist in the pattern of chemicals present in the air. This article outlines an approach designed to find sets of chemicals that can be used to separate buildings according to their designation as sick and healthy. Air samples were taken from a healthy and sick preschool and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The prevalence of different chemical substances was determined and compared across 16 different locations from which air samples were obtained, including outdoor, supply, room, and exhaust air. In all, 158 different chemical substances were found; more in the healthy building than in the sick one. Cluster analysis, based on the pattern of presence and absence of chemicals, was able to separate locations within and between the two types of building. A large number of chemicals (approx. one-half the total) were effective in distinguishing among locations. The ten most critical chemicals in this respect were subjected to more complete statistical analysis in order to highlight further possible differences between the buildings. The general approach described may prove useful in recognizing the environmental conditions associated with the sick building syndrome.

  2. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  3. Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.

  4. T regulatory cells distinguish two types of primary hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    Mirocha, S; Elagin, R B; Salamat, S; Jaume, J C

    2009-03-01

    Numerous cases of primary hypophysitis have been described over the past 25 years with, however, little insight into the cause(s) of this disease. In order to guide treatment, a better understanding of the pathogenesis is needed. We studied the pathogenesis of primary hypophysitis by analysing systematically the immune response at the pituitary tissue level of consecutive cases of 'lymphocytic' hypophysitis who underwent pituitary biopsy. In order to investigate further the pathogenesis of their diseases we characterized two cases at clinical, cellular and molecular levels. We show here, for the first time, that lymphocytic hypophysitis probably encompasses at least two separate entities. One entity, in agreement with the classical description of lymphocytic hypophysitis, demonstrates an autoimmune process with T helper 17 cell dominance and lack of T regulatory cells. The other entity represents a process in which T regulatory cells seem to control the immune response, which may not be self- but foreign-targeted. Our data suggest that it may be necessary to biopsy suspected primary hypophysitis and to analyse pituitary tissue with immune markers to guide treatment. Based on our results, hypophysitis driven by an immune homeostatic process should not be treated with immunosuppression, while autoimmune-defined hypophysitis may benefit from it. We show here for the first time two different pathogenic processes classified under one disease type and how to distinguish them. Because of our findings, changes in current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches may need to be considered.

  5. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A 16-Gene Signature Distinguishes Anaplastic Astrocytoma from Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Soumya Alige Mahabala; Srinivasan, Sujaya; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Hegde, Alangar Sathyaranjandas; Chandramouli, Bangalore Ashwathnarayanara; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Santosh, Vani; Kondaiah, Paturu; Rao, Manchanahalli R. Sathyanarayana; Somasundaram, Kumaravel

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; Grade III) and glioblastoma (GBM; Grade IV) are diffusely infiltrating tumors and are called malignant astrocytomas. The treatment regimen and prognosis are distinctly different between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma patients. Although histopathology based current grading system is well accepted and largely reproducible, intratumoral histologic variations often lead to difficulties in classification of malignant astrocytoma samples. In order to obtain a more robust molecular classifier, we analysed RT-qPCR expression data of 175 differentially regulated genes across astrocytoma using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) and found the most discriminatory 16-gene expression signature for the classification of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma. The 16-gene signature obtained in the training set was validated in the test set with diagnostic accuracy of 89%. Additionally, validation of the 16-gene signature in multiple independent cohorts revealed that the signature predicted anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples with accuracy rates of 99%, 88%, and 92% in TCGA, GSE1993 and GSE4422 datasets, respectively. The protein-protein interaction network and pathway analysis suggested that the 16-genes of the signature identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway as the most differentially regulated pathway in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma. In addition to identifying 16 gene classification signature, we also demonstrated that genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in distinguishing glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma. PMID:24475040

  7. The role of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S B; Pistilli, M; Livingston, K G; Gold, D R; Volpe, N J; Shindler, K S; Liu, G T; Tamhankar, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity and specificity of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients. Methods The records of all adult patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology service who underwent orbital ultrasonography for the evaluation of suspected papilledema were reviewed. The details of history, ophthalmologic examination, and results of ancillary testing including orbital ultrasonography, MRI, and lumbar puncture were recorded. Results of orbital ultrasonography were correlated with the final diagnosis of papilledema or pseudopapilledema on the basis of the clinical impression of the neuro-ophthalmologist. Ultrasound was considered positive when the optic nerve sheath diameter was ≥3.3 mm along with a positive 30° test. Results The sensitivity of orbital ultrasonography for detection of papilledema was 90% (CI: 80.2–99.3%) and the specificity in detecting pseudopapilledema was 79% (CI: 67.7–90.7%). Conclusions Orbital ultrasonography is a rapid and noninvasive test that is highly sensitive, but less specific in differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients, and can be useful in guiding further management of patients in whom the diagnosis is initially uncertain. PMID:25190532

  8. Prospects for distinguishing dark matter models using annual modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Samuel J.; Gluscevic, Vera; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2017-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that, in the event of a putative signal in dark matter direct detection experiments, properly identifying the underlying dark matter-nuclei interaction promises to be a challenging task. Given the most optimistic expectations for the number counts of recoil events in the forthcoming Generation 2 experiments, differentiating between interactions that produce distinct features in the recoil energy spectra will only be possible if a strong signal is observed simultaneously on a variety of complementary targets. However, there is a wide range of viable theories that give rise to virtually identical energy spectra, and may only differ by the dependence of the recoil rate on the dark matter velocity. In this work, we investigate how degeneracy between such competing models may be broken by analyzing the time dependence of nuclear recoils, i.e. the annual modulation of the rate. For this purpose, we simulate dark matter events for a variety of interactions and experiments, and perform a Bayesian model-selection analysis on all simulated data sets, evaluating the chance of correctly identifying the input model for a given experimental setup. We find that including information on the annual modulation of the rate may significantly enhance the ability of a single target to distinguish dark matter models with nearly degenerate recoil spectra, but only with exposures beyond the expectations of Generation 2 experiments.

  9. Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.

    PubMed

    Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single molecular marker to distinguish between species of Dioscorea.

    PubMed

    Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-03-01

    Yams are species of the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae), which consists of approximately 630 species. The majority of the world production of yams occurs in Africa with 58.8 million t annually, but they are also produced in the Americas and Asia. The saponins in yams have been reported to possess various properties to improve health. The tuber and aerial parts of various species often share morphological similarities, which can cause problems in the proper identification of sample material. For example, the rootstocks and aerial parts of Dioscorea villosa L. share similarities with Dioscorea polystachia Turcz. Dioscorea bulbifera L. may be mistaken for Dioscorea alata L. owing to similar morphologies. Various molecular analyses have been published to help with the identification of species and varieties within the genus Dioscorea. The multi-loci or single-locus analysis has resulted in varying success, some with only a limited discrimination rate. In the present study, a single nuclear genomic region, biparentally inherited, was analyzed for its usefulness as a molecular marker for species identification and discrimination between D. bulbifera, D. villosa, D. nipponica, D. alata, D. caucasica, and D. deltoidea samples. The results of this study show that the LFY genomic region can be useful as a molecular marker to distinguish between samples.

  11. Distinguishing African and European honeybee matrilines using amplified mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H G; Smith, D R

    1991-01-01

    Previous DNA studies have revealed that feral neotropical African bees have largely retained an African genetic integrity. Additional DNA testing is needed to confirm these findings, to understand the processes responsible, and to follow African bee spread into the temperate United States. To facilitate surveys, the polymerase chain reaction was utilized. African and European honeybee mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was identified through amplified segments that carry informative restriction site and length polymorphisms. The ability to discriminate among honeybee subspecies was established by testing a total of 129 colonies from Africa and Europe. Matriline identities could thus be determined for imported New World bees. Among 41 managed and feral colonies in the United States and north Mexico, two European lineages (west and east) were distinguished. From neotropical regions, 72 feral colonies had African mtDNA and 4 had European mtDNA. The results support earlier conclusions that neotropical African bees have spread as unbroken African maternal lineages. Old and New World African honeybee populations exhibit different frequencies of a mtDNA length polymorphism. Through standard analyses, a north African mtDNA type that may have been imported previously from Spain or Portugal was not detected among neotropical African bees. Images PMID:1674608

  12. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  13. Value of distinguishing differentiated thyroid carcinoma by miRNA

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIANLIN; ZHANG, DING; NIU, QIAN; NAN, YONGGANG; SHI, CHANGBEI; ZHAO, HUA; LIANG, XIAOYAN

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma are time consuming or expensive. Thus, alternative approaches are required. In the present study, microRNAs (miRNAs) with higher sensitivity and specificity were screened while distinguishing between differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and subtype papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 120 cases suspected of having thyroid carcinoma were selected and examined using clinical color Doppler ultrasound, and computed tomography scan at the same time. The tissue specimens were obtained with fine needle aspiration, multiphase biopsy and surgical resection. The expression of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was detected uisng the RT-quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to obtain the cut-off value. Pathological examination identified 8 cases of normal thyroid tissue; 9 cases of hyperplastic nodules; 12 cases of thyroid adenoma; and 91 cases of thyroid carcinoma, of which 59 cases were DTC, 15 cases were follicular carcinoma and 17 cases were undifferentiated carcinoma. In the thyroid carcinoma, the expression levels of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 were significantly higher than those of other tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of these miRNAs in the differentiated type were also significantly higher than those in the undifferentiated type (P<0.05). A comparison of the differentiated subunit identified no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Following diagnosis of DTC, the area under curve (AUC) of miR146b, miR221 and miR222 was 0.832, 0.806 and 0.745, respectively; the cut-off values were 1.346, 1.213 and 1.425, respectively; susceptibility was 72.8, 71.5 and 68.7%, respectively; and specificity was 62.3, 60.9 and 59.3%, respectively. The AUC of the combined miR-146b and −221 following diagnosis of PTC was 0.695; the cut-off values were 1.506 and 1.462, respectively; susceptibility was 78.9%; and specificity was 68.5%. The AUC of the combined mi

  14. Distinguishing Screening from Diagnostic Mammograms using Medicare Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Joshua J.; Zhu, Weiwei; Balch, Steven; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Fishman, Paul; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicare claims data may be a fruitful data source for research or quality measurement in mammography. However, it is uncertain whether claims data can accurately distinguish screening from diagnostic mammograms, particularly when claims are not linked with cancer registry data. Objectives To validate claims-based algorithms that can identify screening mammograms with high positive predictive value (PPV) in claims data with and without cancer registry linkage. Research Design Development of claims-derived algorithms using classification and regression tree analyses within a random half-sample of bilateral mammogram claims with validation in the remaining half-sample. Subjects Female fee-for-service Medicare enrollees age 66 years and older who underwent bilateral mammography from 1999 to 2005 within Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registries in four states (CA, NC, NH, and VT), enabling linkage of claims and BCSC mammography data (N=383,730 mammograms obtained by 146,346 women). Measures Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of algorithmic designation of a “screening” purpose of the mammogram using a BCSC-derived reference standard. Results In claims data without cancer registry linkage, a three-step claims derived algorithm identified screening mammograms with 97.1% sensitivity, 69.4% specificity, and a PPV of 94.9%. In claims that are linked to cancer registry data, a similar three-step algorithm had higher sensitivity (99.7%), similar specificity (62.7%), and higher PPV (97.4%). Conclusions Simple algorithms can identify Medicare claims for screening mammography with high predictive values in Medicare claims alone and in claims linked with cancer registry data. PMID:22922433

  15. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. PMID:25146574

  16. Cytokines and clinical predictors in distinguishing pulmonary transfusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Roubinian, Nareg H; Looney, Mark R; Kor, Daryl J; Lowell, Clifford A; Gajic, Ognjen; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gropper, Michael A; Koenigsberg, Monique; Wilson, Gregory A; Matthay, Michael A; Toy, Pearl; Murphy, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary transfusion reactions are important complications of blood transfusion, yet differentiating these clinical syndromes is diagnostically challenging. We hypothesized that biologic markers of inflammation could be used in conjunction with clinical predictors to distinguish transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), and possible TRALI. In a nested case-control study performed at the University of California at San Francisco and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, we evaluated clinical data and blood samples drawn before and after transfusion in patients with TRALI (n = 70), possible TRALI (n = 48), TACO (n = 29), and controls (n = 147). Cytokines measured included granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to determine the accuracy of clinical predictors and laboratory markers in differentiating TACO, TRALI, and possible TRALI. Before and after transfusion, IL-6 and IL-8 were elevated in patients with TRALI and possible TRALI relative to controls, and IL-10 was elevated in patients with TACO and possible TRALI relative to that of TRALI and controls. For all pulmonary transfusion reactions, the combination of clinical variables and cytokine measurements displayed optimal diagnostic performance, and the model comparing TACO and TRALI correctly classified 92% of cases relative to expert panel diagnoses. Before transfusion, there is evidence of systemic inflammation in patients who develop TRALI and possible TRALI but not TACO. A predictive model incorporating readily available clinical and cytokine data effectively differentiated transfusion-related respiratory complications such as TRALI and TACO. © 2015 AABB.

  17. T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657

  18. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another

  19. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel L.; Gainsbury, Sally M.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., “gambling-like game”) may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities. PMID:26690615

  20. Distinguishing screening from diagnostic mammograms using Medicare claims data.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Joshua J; Zhu, Weiwei; Balch, Steven; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Fishman, Paul; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Medicare claims data may be a fruitful data source for research or quality measurement in mammography. However, it is uncertain whether claims data can accurately distinguish screening from diagnostic mammograms, particularly when claims are not linked with cancer registry data. To validate claims-based algorithms that can identify screening mammograms with high positive predictive value (PPV) in claims data with and without cancer registry linkage. Development of claims-derived algorithms using classification and regression tree analyses within a random half-sample of bilateral mammogram claims with validation in the remaining half-sample. Female fee-for-service Medicare enrollees aged 66 years and older, who underwent bilateral mammography from 1999 to 2005 within Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registries in 4 states (CA, NC, NH, and VT), enabling linkage of claims and BCSC mammography data (N=383,730 mammograms obtained from 146,346 women). Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of algorithmic designation of a "screening" purpose of the mammogram using a BCSC-derived reference standard. In claims data without cancer registry linkage, a 3-step claims-derived algorithm identified screening mammograms with 97.1% sensitivity, 69.4% specificity, and a PPV of 94.9%. In claims that are linked to cancer registry data, a similar 3-step algorithm had higher sensitivity (99.7%), similar specificity (62.7%), and higher PPV (97.4%). Simple algorithms can identify Medicare claims for screening mammography with high predictive values in Medicare claims alone and in claims linked with cancer registry data.