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Sample records for developmentally-regulated promoters distinguish

  1. Epigenetic and developmental regulation in plant polyploids.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and promote adaptation in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids.

  2. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species.

  3. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  4. Functional analysis of developmentally regulated chromatin-hypersensitive domains carrying the alpha 1-fetoprotein gene promoter and the albumin/alpha 1-fetoprotein intergenic enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, D; Thomassin, H; Allard, D; Guertin, M; Hamel, D; Blaquière, M; Beauchemin, M; LaRue, H; Estable-Puig, M; Bélanger, L

    1993-01-01

    During liver development, the tandem alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP)/albumin locus is triggered at the AFP end and then asymmetrically enhanced; this is followed by autonomous repression of the AFP-encoding gene. To understand this regulation better, we characterized the two early developmental stage-specific DNase I-hypersensitive (DH) sites so far identified in rat liver AFP/albumin chromatin: an intergenic DH-enhancer site and the AFP DH-promoter site. Mutation-transfection analyses circumscribed the DH-enhancer domain to a 200-bp DNA segment stringently conserved among species. Targeted mutations, DNA-protein-binding assays, and coexpression experiments pinpointed C/EBP as the major activatory component of the intergenic enhancer. Structure-function relationships at the AFP DH-promoter site defined a discrete glucocorticoid-regulated domain activated cooperatively by HNF1 and a highly specific AFP transcription factor, FTF, which binds to a steroid receptor recognition motif. The HNF1/FTF/DNA complex is deactivated by glucocorticoid receptors or by the ubiquitous factor NF1, which eliminates HNF1 by competition at an overlapping, high-affinity binding site. We propose that the HNF1-NF1 site might serve as a developmental switch to direct autonomous AFP gene repression in late liver development. We also conclude that the intergenic enhancer is driven by C/EBP alpha primarily to fulfill albumin gene activation functions at early developmental stages. Factor FTF seems to be the key regulator of AFP gene-specific functions in carcinoembryonic states. Images PMID:7680097

  5. A method for the identification of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase containing a particular sigma factor: cloning of a developmentally regulated promoter and corresponding gene directed by the Streptomyces aureofaciens sigma factor RpoZ.

    PubMed

    Nováková, R; Sevcíková, B; Kormanec, J

    1998-02-16

    We have developed a method for the identification of promoters recognized by a particular sigma factor of RNA polymerase, based on a two-compatible plasmid system in Escherichia coli (Ec). Using the method, a DNA fragment containing the promoter, PREN40, recognized by sporulation-specific Streptomyces aureofaciens (Sa) sigma factor RpoZ, was cloned. High-resolution S1 nuclease mapping using RNA prepared from Ec, and Sa from various developmental stages has shown a high degree of similarity of PREN40 to consensus sequence of flagellar and chemotaxis promoters. The promoter was induced at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and was off in the Sa strain with the rpoZ-disrupted gene. A promoter-bearing DNA fragment was inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pARC1 to give expression patterns consistent with the results of direct RNA analysis. The region downstream of the promoter was cloned in Sa. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 283 amino acids (Mr 30006), encoding a highly basic (pI 12.35) protein with high percentage of serine, threonine and alanine (41.8%). PMID:9479043

  6. Nucleosome Stability Distinguishes Two Different Promoter Types at All Protein-Coding Genes in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Slawomir; Bruzzone, Maria Jessica; Jacquet, Philippe; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Rougemont, Jacques; Shore, David

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that eukaryotic promoters display a stereotypical chromatin landscape characterized by a well-positioned +1 nucleosome near the transcription start site and an upstream -1 nucleosome that together demarcate a nucleosome-free (or -depleted) region. Here we present evidence that there are two distinct types of promoters distinguished by the resistance of the -1 nucleosome to micrococcal nuclease digestion. These different architectures are characterized by two sequence motifs that are broadly deployed at one set of promoters where a nuclease-sensitive ("fragile") nucleosome forms, but concentrated in a narrower, nucleosome-free region at all other promoters. The RSC nucleosome remodeler acts through the motifs to establish stable +1 and -1 nucleosome positions, while binding of a small set of general regulatory (pioneer) factors at fragile nucleosome promoters plays a key role in their destabilization. We propose that the fragile nucleosome promoter architecture is adapted for regulation of highly expressed, growth-related genes.

  7. Epigenetic and developmental regulation in plant polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qingxin; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication occurs in some animals and many flowering plants, including many important crops such as wheat, cotton and oilseed rape. The prevalence of polyploidy in the plant kingdom suggests it as an important evolutionary feature for plant speciation and crop domestication. Studies of natural and synthetic polyploids have revealed rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression after polyploid formation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetic modifications can alter homoeologous gene expression and reprogram gene expression networks, which allows polyploids to establish new cytotypes, grow vigorously and adapt in local environments. Sequence and gene expression changes in polyploids have been well documented and reviewed elsewhere. This review is focused on developmental regulation and epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in polyploids. PMID:25765928

  8. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  9. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  10. New tools for the identification of developmentally regulated enhancer regions in embryonic and adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Mitchell P; Krauss, Jana; Koehler, Carla; Boden, Cindy; Harris, Matthew P

    2013-03-01

    We have conducted a screen to identify developmentally regulated enhancers that drive tissue-specific Gal4 expression in zebrafish. We obtained 63 stable transgenic lines with expression patterns in embryonic or adult zebrafish. The use of a newly identified minimal promoter from the medaka edar locus resulted in a relatively unbiased set of expression patterns representing many tissue types derived from all germ layers. Subsequent detailed characterization of selected lines showed strong and reproducible Gal4-driven GFP expression in diverse tissues, including neurons from the central and peripheral nervous systems, pigment cells, erythrocytes, and peridermal cells. By screening adults for GFP expression, we also isolated lines expressed in tissues of the adult zebrafish, including scales, fin rays, and joints. The new and efficient minimal promoter and large number of transactivating driver-lines we identified will provide the zebrafish community with a useful resource for further enhancer trap screening, as well as precise investigation of tissue-specific processes in vivo.

  11. DNA Methylation is Developmentally Regulated for Genes Essential for Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Alyssa A.; Lin, Mingyan; Lister, Rolanda L.; Maslov, Alex A.; Wang, Yidong; Suzuki, Masako; Wu, Bingruo; Greally, John M.; Zheng, Deyou; Zhou, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism altering gene expression in development and disease. However, its role in the regulation of gene expression during heart development is incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to reveal DNA methylation in mouse embryonic hearts and its role in regulating gene expression during heart development. Methods and Results We performed the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiling of mouse embryonic hearts using methyl‐sensitive, tiny fragment enrichment/massively parallel sequencing to determine methylation levels at ACGT sites. The results showed that while global methylation of 1.64 million ACGT sites in developing hearts remains stable between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E14.5, a small fraction (2901) of them exhibit differential methylation. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these sites are enriched at genes involved in heart development. Quantitative real‐time PCR analysis of 350 genes with differential DNA methylation showed that the expression of 181 genes is developmentally regulated, and 79 genes have correlative changes between methylation and expression, including hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2). Required for heart valve formation, Has2 expression in the developing heart valves is downregulated at E14.5, accompanied with increased DNA methylation in its enhancer. Genetic knockout further showed that the downregulation of Has2 expression is dependent on DNA methyltransferase 3b, which is co‐expressed with Has2 in the forming heart valve region, indicating that the DNA methylation change may contribute to the Has2 enhancer's regulating function. Conclusions DNA methylation is developmentally regulated for genes essential to heart development, and abnormal DNA methylation may contribute to congenital heart disease. PMID:24947998

  12. VEGF expression is developmentally regulated during human brain angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Virgintino, Daniela; Errede, Mariella; Robertson, David; Girolamo, Francesco; Masciandaro, Antonio; Bertossi, Mirella

    2003-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor working as an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and exerting a trophic effect on neurons and glial cells, both these activities being essential during central nervous system vascularisation, development and repair. The vascularisation of human telencephalon takes place by means of an angiogenic mechanism, which starts at the beginning of corticogenesis and actively proceeds up to the last neuronal migration, when the basic scheme of the vascular network has been drawn. Our study focused on VEGF during this critical developmental period with the aim of identifying the cells that express VEGF and of correlating the events of angiogenesis with the main events of cerebral cortex formation. The results show that in fetal human brain VEGF protein is located on multiple cell types, cells proper to the nervous tissue, neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and radial glia cells, and non-neuronal cells, endothelial and periendothelial cells. In these cells VEGF expression appears developmentally regulated and is correlated with angiogenesis, which in turn responds to the high metabolic demands of the differentiating neocortex.

  13. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system.

  14. Inflammatory and Immune Activation in Intestinal Myofibroblasts Is Developmentally Regulated

    PubMed Central

    Zawahir, Sharmila; Li, Guanghui; Banerjee, Aditi; Shiu, Jessica; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intestinal myofibroblasts from immature tissue produce excessive IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared to cells from mature tissue. However, it is unknown whether other cytokines and TLR agonists contribute to this developmentally regulated response. The aim of this study was to further characterize differences in inflammatory signaling in human primary intestinal fibroblasts from fetal (FIF) and infant (IIF) tissue and examine their potential to activate the adaptive immune response in vitro. Cytokine profiles of LPS-stimulated FIF and IIF were assessed by cytokine profile array. IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 production in response to TLR2, TLR2/6, TLR4, and TLR5 agonists was determined by quantitative ELISA. The potential of activated myofibroblasts to activate adaptive immunity was determined by measuring surface class II MHC expression using flow cytometry. LPS-stimulated FIF produced a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile consisting of MCP-1, GRO-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 expression. FIF produced significant IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 agonist. IIF produced significant levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in the presence of TLR5 and TLR2 agonists. IFN-γ-treated FIF expressed greater HLA-DR levels compared to unstimulated controls and IFN-γ- and LPS-treated IIF. Activated FIF produce a more diverse inflammatory cytokine profile and greater levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to TLR4 stimulation compared to IIF. FIF express class II MHC proteins associated with activation of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest that FIF may contribute to bacterial-associated gut inflammation in the immature intestine. PMID:26101946

  15. Leptin receptors are developmentally regulated in rat pituitary and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Morash, Barbara A; Imran, Ali; Wilkinson, Diane; Ur, Ehud; Wilkinson, Michael

    2003-11-28

    We have previously reported that leptin is expressed in adult rat brain and pituitary gland, though the role of leptin in these sites has not been determined. Leptin mRNA is developmentally regulated in the brain and pituitary of male and female rats during early postnatal development, suggesting a role in the maturation of the brain-pituitary system. Here, we sought to extend our previous studies by evaluating (1) the ontogeny of leptin receptor mRNA levels in rat brain and pituitary and (2) pituitary leptin protein levels in neonatal and pre-pubertal rats. Pituitary leptin concentration was highest shortly after birth (postnatal day (PD) 4, 25 ng/mg protein) and fell significantly throughout postnatal development and into adulthood (PD 60, 3.5 ng/mg protein; P<0.005) coincident with a decline in pituitary leptin mRNA levels. Significant age-related effects on leptin receptor mRNA levels were also observed in the pituitary and the hypothalamus of male and female rats using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In the pituitary, the short form (OBRa) mRNA levels were highest in neonatal rats (PD 4) but declined throughout postnatal development (PD 4-22) paralleling the fall in pituitary leptin mRNA and protein levels. The long form (OBRb) mRNA levels were unaffected by age between PD 4 and 22. In contrast, hypothalamic, levels of OBRb mRNA were very low to undetectable shortly after birth (PD 4) and rose significantly between PD 4 and 14/22 while levels of OBRa mRNA were not significantly different between PD 4 and 22. Immunohistochemical detection of leptin receptor immunoreactivity (all forms) revealed the presence of OBR-like protein in pituitary and hypothalamus as early as PD 4. Cortical leptin receptor mRNA levels were similar throughout early postnatal development. No gender-related differences in leptin receptor mRNA levels were noted in brain or pituitary. In conclusion, these data, together with our previous work, indicate that the neonatal pituitary gland

  16. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, Alessandro; Luccioli, Stefano; Bonifazi, Paolo; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in developing neuronal circuits, typically composed of only excitatory cells, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally regulated constraints on single neuron excitability and connectivity leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity. This work is part of the activity of the Joint Italian-Israeli Laboratory on Integrative Network Neuroscience supported by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  17. Developmental regulation of chromatin conformation by Hox proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Agelopoulos, Marios; McKay, Daniel J.; Mann, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present a strategy to examine the chromatin conformation of individual loci in specific cell types during Drosophila embryogenesis. Regulatory DNA is tagged with binding sites (lacO) for LacI, which is used to immunopreciptiate the tagged chromatin from specific cell types. We applied this approach to Distalless (Dll), a gene required for limb development in Drosophila. We show that the local chromatin conformation at Dll depends on the cell type: in cells that express Dll, the 5’ regulatory region is in close proximity to the Dll promoter. In Dll nonexpressing cells this DNA is in a more extended configuration. In addition, transcriptional activators and repressors are bound to Dll regulatory DNA in a cell type specific manner. The pattern of binding by GAGA factor and the variant histone H2Av suggest that they play a role in the regulation of Dll chromatin conformation in expressing and non-expressing cell types, respectively. PMID:22523743

  18. Cell-Cycle Control of Developmentally Regulated Transcription Factors Accounts for Heterogeneity in Human Pluripotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amar M.; Chappell, James; Trost, Robert; Lin, Li; Wang, Tao; Tang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Shaying; Jin, Peng; Dalton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Summary Heterogeneity within pluripotent stem cell (PSC) populations is indicative of dynamic changes that occur when cells drift between different states. Although the role of metastability in PSCs is unclear, it appears to reflect heterogeneity in cell signaling. Using the Fucci cell-cycle indicator system, we show that elevated expression of developmental regulators in G1 is a major determinant of heterogeneity in human embryonic stem cells. Although signaling pathways remain active throughout the cell cycle, their contribution to heterogeneous gene expression is restricted to G1. Surprisingly, we identify dramatic changes in the levels of global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an unanticipated source of epigenetic heterogeneity that is tightly linked to cell-cycle progression and the expression of developmental regulators. When we evaluated gene expression in differentiating cells, we found that cell-cycle regulation of developmental regulators was maintained during lineage specification. Cell-cycle regulation of developmentally regulated transcription factors is therefore an inherent feature of the mechanisms underpinning differentiation. PMID:24371808

  19. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  20. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  1. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers"; "Bestsellers of 1998"; and "Literary Prizes, 1998." (AEF)

  2. Identification of new developmentally regulated genes involved in Streptomyces coelicolor sporulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The sporulation of aerial hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor is a complex developmental process. Only a limited number of the genes involved in this intriguing morphological differentiation programme are known, including some key regulatory genes. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the gene repertoire involved in S. coelicolor sporulation. Results We report a DNA microarray-based investigation of developmentally controlled gene expression in S. coelicolor. By comparing global transcription patterns of the wild-type parent and two mutants lacking key regulators of aerial hyphal sporulation, we found a total of 114 genes that had significantly different expression in at least one of the two mutants compared to the wild-type during sporulation. A whiA mutant showed the largest effects on gene expression, while only a few genes were specifically affected by whiH mutation. Seven new sporulation loci were investigated in more detail with respect to expression patterns and mutant phenotypes. These included SCO7449-7451 that affect spore pigment biogenesis; SCO1773-1774 that encode an L-alanine dehydrogenase and a regulator-like protein and are required for maturation of spores; SCO3857 that encodes a protein highly similar to a nosiheptide resistance regulator and affects spore maturation; and four additional loci (SCO4421, SCO4157, SCO0934, SCO1195) that show developmental regulation but no overt mutant phenotype. Furthermore, we describe a new promoter-probe vector that takes advantage of the red fluorescent protein mCherry as a reporter of cell type-specific promoter activity. Conclusion Aerial hyphal sporulation in S. coelicolor is a technically challenging process for global transcriptomic investigations since it occurs only as a small fraction of the colony biomass and is not highly synchronized. Here we show that by comparing a wild-type to mutants lacking regulators that are specifically affecting processes in aerial hypha, it is

  3. Chromatin states of developmentally-regulated genes revealed by DNA and histone methylation patterns in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Leif C; Winata, Cecilia L; Aanes, Hvard; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Alestrom, Peter; Collas, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Embryo development proceeds from a cascade of gene activation and repression events controlled by epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones. Little is known about epigenetic states in the developing zebrafish, despite its importance as a model organism. We report here DNA methylation and histone modification profiles of promoters of developmentally-regulated genes (pou5f1, sox2, sox3, klf4, nnr, otx1b, nes, vasa), as well as tert and bactin2, in zebrafish embryos at the mid-late blastula transition, shortly after embryonic genome activation. We identify four classes of promoters based on the following profiles: (i) those enriched in marks of active genes (H3K9ac, H4ac, H3K4me3) without transcriptionally repressing H3K9me3 or H3K27me3; (ii) those enriched in H3K9ac, H4ac and H3K27me3, without H3K9me3; one such gene was klf4, shown by in situ hybridization to be mosaically expressed, likely accounting for the detection of both activating and repressive marks on its promoter; (iii) those enriched in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 without acetylation; and (iv) those enriched in all histone modifications examined. Culture of embryo-derived cells under differentiation conditions leads to H3K9 and H4 deacetylation and H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation on genes that are inactivated, yielding an epigenetic profile similar to those of fibroblasts or muscle. All promoters however retain H3K4me3, indicating an uncoupling of H3K4me3 occupancy and gene expression. All non-CpG island developmentally-regulated promoters are DNA unmethylated in embryos, but hypermethylated in fibroblasts. Our results suggest that differentially expressed embryonic genes are regulated by various patterns of histone modifications on unmethylated DNA, which create a developmentally permissive chromatin state. PMID:20336603

  4. Negative-ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Microarray Analyses of Developmentally-regulated Antigens Based on Type 1 and Type 2 Backbone Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yibing; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Chai, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 (Galβ1-3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) sequences are constituents of the backbones of a large family of glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids whose branching and peripheral substitutions are developmentally-regulated. It is highly desirable to have micro-sequencing methods that can be used to precisely identify and monitor these oligosaccharide sequences with high sensitivity. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation has been used for characterization of branching points, peripheral substitutions and partial assignment of linkages in reducing oligosaccharides. We now extend this method to characterizing entire sequences of linear type 1 and type 2 chain-based glycans, focusing on the type 1 and -2 units in the internal regions including the linkages connecting type 1 and type 2 disaccharide units. We apply the principles to sequence analysis of closely related isomeric oligosaccharides and demonstrate by microarray analyses distinct binding activities of antibodies and a lectin toward various combinations of type 1 and 2 units joined by 1,3- and 1,6-linkages. These sequence-specific carbohydrate-binding proteins are in turn valuable tools for detecting and distinguishing the type 1 and type 2-based developmentally-regulated glycan sequences. PMID:26530895

  5. Insertion of an imprinted insulator into the IgH locus reveals developmentally regulated, transcription-dependent control of V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    Puget, Nadine; Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Hu, Ngoc-Sa Nguyen; Laviolette-Malirat, Nathalie; Feil, Robert; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine

    2015-02-01

    The assembly of antigen receptor loci requires a developmentally regulated and lineage-specific recombination between variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments through V(D)J recombination. The process is regulated by accessibility control elements, including promoters, insulators, and enhancers. The IgH locus undergoes two recombination steps, D-J(H) and then V(H)-DJ(H), but it is unclear how the availability of the DJ(H) substrate could influence the subsequent V(H)-DJ(H) recombination step. The Eμ enhancer plays a critical role in V(D)J recombination and controls a set of sense and antisense transcripts. We epigenetically perturbed the early events at the IgH locus by inserting the imprinting control region (ICR) of the Igf2/H19 locus or a transcriptional insulator devoid of the imprinting function upstream of the Eμ enhancer. The insertions recapitulated the main epigenetic features of their endogenous counterparts, including differential DNA methylation and binding of CTCF/cohesins. Whereas the D-J(H) recombination step was unaffected, both the insulator insertions led to a severe impairment of V(H)-DJ(H) recombination. Strikingly, the inhibition of V(H)-DJ(H) recombination correlated consistently with a strong reduction of DJ(H) transcription and incomplete demethylation. Thus, developmentally regulated transcription following D-J(H) recombination emerges as an important mechanism through which the Eμ enhancer controls V(H)-DJ(H) recombination.

  6. Genomic organization, chromosomal localization, and developmentally regulated expression of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Mensa-Wilmot, K; Hereld, D; Englund, P T

    1990-02-01

    The surface of the bloodstream form of the African trypanosome, Trypansoma brucei, is covered with about 10(7) molecules of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), a protein tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor. This anchor is cleavable by an endogenous GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC). GPI-PLC activity is down regulated when trypanosomes differentiate from the bloodstream form to the procyclic form found in the tsetse fly vector. We have mapped the GPI-PLC locus in the trypanosome genome and have examined the mechanism for this developmental regulation in T. brucei. Southern blot analysis indicates a single-copy gene for GPI-PLC, with two allelic variants distinguishable by two NcoI restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The gene was localized solely to a chromosome in the two-megabase compression region by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis. No rearrangement of the GPI-PLC gene occurs during differentiation to procyclic forms, which could potentially silence GPI-PLC gene expression. Enzymological studies give no indication of a diffusible inhibitor of GPI-PLC activity in procyclic forms, and Western immunoblot analysis reveals no detectable GPI-PLC polypeptide in these forms. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that the absence of GPI-PLC activity in procyclic forms is due to posttranslational control. Northern (RNA) blot analysis reveals barely detectable levels of GPI-PLC mRNA in procyclic forms; therefore, regulation of GPI-PLC activity in these forms correlates with the steady-state mRNA level.

  7. Developmentally regulated localization of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in different tissue layers of coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-06-01

    In adult cnidarians, symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium are usually located in the gastrodermis. However, the onset of this endosymbiotic association and its regulation during larval development are unclear. This study examined the distribution of the Symbiodinium population in tissue layers of planula larvae released from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens. Symbiodinium were redistributed from the epidermis to the gastrodermis, at a rate that was fastest during early planulation and then decreased prior to metamorphosis. This process indicates that the endosymbiotic activity of coral tissues is developmentally regulated. During the early larval stage, both the epidermis and gastrodermis contained Symbiodinium; then, as the larvae developed toward metamorphosis, the numbers in the epidermis gradually diminished until they were only found in the gastrodermis. The mechanism of redistribution remains unknown, but may be due to a direct translocation and/or change in the proliferation of symbionts in different tissue layers.

  8. Developmental regulation of a proinsulin messenger RNA generated by intron retention

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, Alicia; López-Sánchez, Carmen; de la Rosa, Enrique J; García-Martínez, Virginio; Martínez-Salas, Encarna; de Pablo, Flora; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina

    2005-01-01

    Proinsulin gene expression regulation and function during early embryonic development differ remarkably from those found in postnatal organisms. The embryonic proinsulin protein content decreased from gastrulation to neurulation in contrast with the overall proinsulin messenger RNA increase. This is due to increasing levels of a proinsulin mRNA variant generated by intron 1 retention in the 5′ untranslated region. Inclusion of intron 1 inhibited proinsulin translation almost completely without affecting nuclear export or cytoplasmic decay. The novel proinsulin mRNA isoform expression was developmentally regulated and tissue specific. The proportion of intron retention increased from gastrulation to organogenesis, was highest in the heart tube and presomitic region, and could not be detected in the pancreas. Notably, proinsulin addition induced cardiac marker gene expression in the early embryonic stages when the translationally active transcript was expressed. We propose that regulated unproductive splicing and translation is a mechanism that regulates proinsulin expression in accordance with specific requirements in developing vertebrates. PMID:16179943

  9. Subcellular Profiling Reveals Distinct and Developmentally Regulated Repertoire of Growth Cone mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zivraj, Krishna H.; Tung, Yi Chun Loraine; Piper, Michael; Gumy, Laura; Fawcett, James W.; Yeo, Giles S. H.; Holt, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Cue-directed axon guidance depends partly on local translation in growth cones. Many mRNA transcripts are known to reside in developing axons, yet little is known about their subcellular distribution or, specifically, which transcripts are in growth cones. Here laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate the growth cones of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of two vertebrate species, mouse and Xenopus, coupled with unbiased genomewide microarray profiling. An unexpectedly large pool of mRNAs defined predominant pathways in protein synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, cancer, neurological disease, and signaling. Comparative profiling of “young” (pathfinding) versus “old” (target-arriving) Xenopus growth cones revealed that the number and complexity of transcripts increases dramatically with age. Many presynaptic protein mRNAs are present exclusively in old growth cones, suggesting that functionally related sets of mRNAs are targeted to growth cones in a developmentally regulated way. Remarkably, a subset of mRNAs was significantly enriched in the growth cone compared with the axon compartment, indicating that mechanisms exist to localize mRNAs selectively to the growth cone. Furthermore, some receptor transcripts (e.g., EphB4), present exclusively in old growth cones, were equally abundant in young and old cell bodies, indicating that RNA trafficking from the soma is developmentally regulated. Our findings show that the mRNA repertoire in growth cones is regulated dynamically with age and suggest that mRNA localization is tailored to match the functional demands of the growing axon tip as it transforms into the presynaptic terminal. PMID:21084603

  10. Established epigenetic modifications determine the expression of developmentally regulated globin genes in somatic cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Stanworth, S J; Roberts, N A; Sharpe, J A; Sloane-Stanley, J A; Wood, W G

    1995-01-01

    Somatic cell hybrids generated from transgenic mouse cells have been used to examine the developmental regulation of human gamma-to-beta-globin gene switching. In hybrids between mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and transgenic erythroblasts taken at various stages of development, there was regulated expression of the human fetal gamma and adult beta genes, reproducing the in vivo pattern prior to fusion. Hybrids formed from embryonic blood cells produced predominantly gamma mRNA, whereas beta gene expression was observed in adult hybrids and a complete range of intermediate patterns was found in fetal liver hybrids. The adult environment of the MEL cells, therefore, did not appear to influence selective transcription from this gene complex. Irradiation of the embryonic erythroid cells prior to fusion resulted in hybrids containing only small fragments of donor chromosomes, but the pattern of gene expression did not differ from that of unirradiated hybrids. This finding suggests that continued expression of trans-acting factors from the donor erythroblasts is not necessary for continued expression of the human gamma gene in MEL cells. These results contrast with the lack of developmental regulation of the cluster after transfection of naked DNA into MEL cells and suggest that epigenetic processes established during normal development result in the gene cluster adopting a developmental stage-specific, stable conformation which is maintained through multiple rounds of replication and transcription in the MEL cell hybrids. On prolonged culture, hybrids that initially expressed only the gamma transgene switched to beta gene expression. The time period of switching, from approximately 10 to > 40 weeks, was similar to that seen previously in human fetal erythroblast x MEL cell hybrids but in this case bore no relationship to the time of in vivo switching. It seems unlikely, therefore, that switching in these hybrids is regulated by a developmental clock. PMID:7623793

  11. Developmentally Regulated Production of meso-Zeaxanthin in Chicken Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Choroid and Retina

    PubMed Central

    Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Subhani, Yumna K.; Nelson, Kelly; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose meso-Zeaxanthin is a carotenoid that is rarely encountered in nature outside of the vertebrate eye. It is not a constituent of a normal human diet, yet this carotenoid comprises one-third of the primate macular pigment. In the current study, we undertook a systematic approach to biochemically characterize the production of meso-zeaxanthin in the vertebrate eye. Methods Fertilized White Leghorn chicken eggs were analyzed for the presence of carotenoids during development. Yolk, liver, brain, serum, retina, and RPE/choroid were isolated, and carotenoids were extracted. The samples were analyzed on C-30 or chiral HPLC columns to determine the carotenoid composition. Results Lutein and zeaxanthin were found in all studied nonocular tissues, but no meso-zeaxanthin was ever detected. Among the ocular tissues, the presence of meso-zeaxanthin was consistently observed starting at embryonic day 17 (E17) in the RPE/choroid, several days before its consistent detection in the retina. If RPE/choroid of an embryo was devoid of meso-zeaxanthin, the corresponding retina was always negative as well. Conclusions This is the first report of developmentally regulated synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin in a vertebrate system. Our observations suggest that the RPE/choroid is the primary site of meso-zeaxanthin synthesis. Identification of meso-zeaxanthin isomerase enzyme in the developing chicken embryo will facilitate our ability to determine the biochemical mechanisms responsible for production of this unique carotenoid in other higher vertebrates, such as humans. PMID:27082300

  12. An Organizational Hub of Developmentally Regulated Chromatin Loops in the Drosophila Antennapedia Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Ma, Zhibo; Liu, Jiayang K; Roy, Sharmila; Patel, Sapna K; Lane, Derrick C; Cai, Haini N

    2015-12-01

    Chromatin boundary elements (CBEs) are widely distributed in the genome and mediate formation of chromatin loops, but their roles in gene regulation remain poorly understood. The complex expression pattern of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) is directed by an unusually long regulatory sequence harboring diverse cis elements and an intervening neighbor gene fushi tarazu (ftz). Here we report the presence of a multitude of CBEs in the Scr regulatory region. Selective and dynamic pairing among these CBEs mediates developmentally regulated chromatin loops. In particular, the SF1 boundary plays a central role in organizing two subsets of chromatin loops: one subset encloses ftz, limiting its access by the surrounding Scr enhancers and compartmentalizing distinct histone modifications, and the other subset subdivides the Scr regulatory sequences into independent enhancer access domains. We show that these CBEs exhibit diverse enhancer-blocking activities that vary in strength and tissue distribution. Tandem pairing of SF1 and SF2, two strong CBEs that flank the ftz domain, allows the distal enhancers to bypass their block in transgenic Drosophila, providing a mechanism for the endogenous Scr enhancer to circumvent the ftz domain. Our study demonstrates how an endogenous CBE network, centrally orchestrated by SF1, could remodel the genomic environment to facilitate gene regulation during development.

  13. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  14. Are there major developmentally regulated H4 gene classes in Xenopus?

    PubMed Central

    Woodland, H R; Warmington, J R; Ballantine, J E; Turner, P C

    1984-01-01

    Primer extension analysis has been used to study the principal H4 mRNAs present at different developmental stages and in several adult tissues of Xenopus borealis and X. laevis. In X. borealis a single sequence class predominates in oocytes, tadpoles and cultured fibroblasts. There is also a polymorphic minor type which shows no developmental regulation. The primer extension bands obtained from adult liver and kidney RNA appear to be the same as ovary and therefore these tissues almost certainly contain the same major H4 mRNA species. This is confirmed by S1 mapping of the 3' end of the mRNA. Thus for H4 genes in X. borealis there is no evidence of the kind of switches in histone gene expression seen in sea urchins or certain protostomes. The situation in X. laevis is complicated by considerably higher gene variability both within and between individuals. Nevertheless, in this species, as in X. borealis, there seems to be no major developmental switch in the regulation of H4 gene expression, a conclusion that also holds for an H1C and an H3 gene. Images PMID:6330691

  15. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. ); Olsen, N.J. ); Siminovitch, K.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  16. Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  17. Developmental regulation of spatio-temporal patterns of cortical circuit activation

    PubMed Central

    Griffen, Trevor C.; Wang, Lang; Fontanini, Alfredo; Maffei, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Neural circuits are refined in an experience-dependent manner during early postnatal development. How development modulates the spatio-temporal propagation of activity through cortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we use voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to show that there are significant changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical signals in primary visual cortex (V1) from postnatal day 13 (P13), eye opening, to P28, the peak of the critical period for rodent visual cortical plasticity. Upon direct stimulation of layer 4 (L4), activity spreads to L2/3 and to L5 at all ages. However, while from eye opening to the peak of the critical period, the amplitude and persistence of the voltage signal decrease, peak activation is reached more quickly and the interlaminar gain increases with age. The lateral spread of activation within layers remains unchanged throughout the time window under analysis. These developmental changes in spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical circuit activation are mediated by differences in the contributions of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components. Our results demonstrate that after eye opening the circuit in V1 is refined through a progression of changes that shape the spatio-temporal patterns of circuit activation. Signals become more efficiently propagated across layers through developmentally regulated changes in interlaminar gain. PMID:23316135

  18. Prospore membrane formation defines a developmentally regulated branch of the secretory pathway in yeast.

    PubMed

    Neiman, A M

    1998-01-12

    Spore formation in yeast is an unusual form of cell division in which the daughter cells are formed within the mother cell cytoplasm. This division requires the de novo synthesis of a membrane compartment, termed the prospore membrane, which engulfs the daughter nuclei. The effect of mutations in late-acting genes on sporulation was investigated. Mutation of SEC1, SEC4, or SEC8 blocked spore formation, and electron microscopic analysis of the sec4-8 mutant indicated that this inability to produce spores was caused by a failure to form the prospore membrane. The soluble NSF attachment protein 25 (SNAP-25) homologue SEC9, by contrast, was not required for sporulation. The absence of a requirement for SEC9 was shown to be due to the sporulation-specific induction of a second, previously undescribed, SNAP-25 homologue, termed SPO20. These results define a developmentally regulated branch of the secretory pathway and suggest that spore morphogenesis in yeast proceeds by the targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to form new plasma membranes in the interior of the mother cell. Consistent with this model, the extracellular proteins Gas1p and Cts1p were localized to an internal compartment in sporulating cells. Spore formation in yeast may be a useful model for understanding secretion-driven cell division events in a variety of plant and animal systems.

  19. N6-methyladenosine modification destabilizes developmental regulators in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Li, Yue; Toth, Julia I; Petroski, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhaolei; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2014-02-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) has been identified as the most abundant internal modification of messenger RNA in eukaryotes. m(6)A modification is involved in cell fate determination in yeast and embryo development in plants. Its mammalian function remains unknown but thousands of mammalian mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) show m(6)A modification and m(6)A demethylases are required for mammalian energy homeostasis and fertility. We identify two proteins, the putative m(6)A MTase, methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3; ref. ), and a related but uncharacterized protein Mettl14, that function synergistically to control m(6)A formation in mammalian cells. Knockdown of Mettl3 and Mettl14 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) led to similar phenotypes, characterized by lack of m(6)A RNA methylation and lost self-renewal capability. A large number of transcripts, including many encoding developmental regulators, exhibit m(6)A methylation inversely correlated with mRNA stability and gene expression. The human antigen R (HuR) and microRNA pathways were linked to these effects. This gene regulatory mechanism operating in mESCs through m(6)A methylation is required to keep mESCs at their ground state and may be relevant to thousands of mRNAs and lncRNAs in various cell types. PMID:24394384

  20. The SUMO pathway is developmentally regulated and required for programmed DNA elimination in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Forney, James D

    2006-05-01

    Extensive genome-wide remodeling occurs during the formation of the somatic macronuclei from the germ line micronuclei in ciliated protozoa. This process is limited to sexual reproduction and includes DNA amplification, chromosome fragmentation, and the elimination of internal segments of DNA. Our efforts to define the pathways regulating these events revealed a gene encoding a homologue of ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (UBA2) that is upregulated at the onset of macronuclear development in Paramecium tetraurelia. Uba2 enzymes are known to activate the protein called small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) that is covalently attached to target proteins. Consistent with this relationship, Northern analysis showed increased abundance of SUMO transcripts during sexual reproduction in Paramecium. RNA interference (RNAi) against UBA2 or SUMO during vegetative growth had little effect on cell survival or fission rates. In contrast, RNAi of mating cells resulted in failure to form a functional macronucleus. Despite normal amplification of the genome, excision of internal eliminated sequences was completely blocked. Additional experiments showed that the homologous UBA2 and SUMO genes in Tetrahymena thermophila are also upregulated during conjugation. These results provide evidence for the developmental regulation of the SUMO pathway in ciliates and suggest a key role for the pathway in controlling genome remodeling. PMID:16682458

  1. RNA editing of the Drosophila para Na(+) channel transcript. Evolutionary conservation and developmental regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, C J; Palladino, M J; Ganetzky, B; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    Post-transcriptional editing of pre-mRNAs through the action of dsRNA adenosine deaminases results in the modification of particular adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I), which can alter the coding potential of the modified transcripts. We describe here three sites in the para transcript, which encodes the major voltage-activated Na(+) channel polypeptide in Drosophila, where RNA editing occurs. The occurrence of RNA editing at the three sites was found to be developmentally regulated. Editing at two of these sites was also conserved across species between the D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In each case, a highly conserved region was found in the intron downstream of the editing site and this region was shown to be complementary to the region of the exonic editing site. Thus, editing at these sites would appear to involve a mechanism whereby the edited exon forms a base-paired secondary structure with the distant conserved noncoding sequences located in adjacent downstream introns, similar to the mechanism shown for A-to-I RNA editing of mammalian glutamate receptor subunits (GluRs). For the third site, neither RNA editing nor the predicted RNA secondary structures were evolutionarily conserved. Transcripts from transgenic Drosophila expressing a minimal editing site construct for this site were shown to faithfully undergo RNA editing. These results demonstrate that Na(+) channel diversity in Drosophila is increased by RNA editing via a mechanism analogous to that described for transcripts encoding mammalian GluRs. PMID:10880477

  2. Developmentally regulated IL6-type cytokines signal to germ cells in the human fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Eddie, Sharon L; Childs, Andrew J; Jabbour, Henry N; Anderson, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Fetal ovarian development and primordial follicle formation are imperative for adult fertility in the female. Data suggest the interleukin (IL)6-type cytokines, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), IL6, oncostatin M (OSM) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), are able to regulate the survival, proliferation and differentiation of fetal murine germ cells (GCs) in vivo and in vitro. We postulated that these factors may play a similar role during early human GC development and primordial follicle formation. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the expression and regulation of IL6-type cytokines, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Expression of transcripts encoding OSM increased significantly across the gestational range examined (8-20 weeks), while expression of IL6 increased specifically between the first (8-11 weeks) and early second (12-16 weeks) trimesters, co-incident with the initiation of meiosis. LIF and CNTF expression remained unchanged. Expression of the genes encoding the LIF and IL6 receptors, and their common signalling subunit gp130, was also found to be developmentally regulated, with expression increasing significantly with increasing gestation. LIF receptor and gp130 proteins localized exclusively to GCs, including oocytes in primordial follicles, indicating this cell type to be the sole target of IL6-type cytokine signalling in the human fetal ovary. These data establish that IL6-type cytokines and their receptors are expressed in the human fetal ovary and may directly influence GC development at multiple stages of maturation. PMID:21965347

  3. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 coordinates Rab5 activity and transferrin recycling

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Seol, Wongi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Lee, Byung Ju; Moon, Chang Hoon; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 regulates the early endocytic pathway of transferrin (Tfn), and Rab5 deactivation is required for Tfn recycling. Rab5 deactivation is achieved by RabGAP5, a GTPase-activating protein, on the endosomes. Here we report that recruitment of RabGAP5 is insufficient to deactivate Rab5 and that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is required for Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. DRG2 was associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate–containing endosomes. It colocalized and interacted with EEA1 and Rab5 on endosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–dependent manner. DRG2 depletion did not affect Tfn uptake and recruitment of RabGAP5 and Rac1 to Rab5 endosomes. However, it resulted in impairment of interaction between Rab5 and RabGAP5, Rab5 deactivation on endosomes, and Tfn recycling. Ectopic expression of shRNA-resistant DRG2 rescued Tfn recycling in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results demonstrate that DRG2 is an endosomal protein and a key regulator of Rab5 deactivation and Tfn recycling. PMID:26582392

  4. Developmentally regulated loss of ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins during pollen maturation in maize.

    PubMed

    Callis, J; Bedinger, P

    1994-06-21

    Eukaryotic cells typically contain 0.2-1.0% of their total protein as the highly conserved protein ubiquitin, which exists both free and covalently attached to cellular proteins. The attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins occurs posttranslationally by a three-enzyme pathway and results in a peptide linkage of the C terminus of ubiquitin either to a lysyl epsilon-amino group of a substrate protein or to a lysyl epsilon-amino group of a previously linked ubiquitin molecule. The multiple conjugation of ubiquitin to substrate proteins via ubiquitin-ubiquitin linkages is thought to be necessary, but not sufficient, for recognition and degradation by a ubiquitin-dependent protease. In higher plant cells the steady-state level of ubiquitinated proteins is generally constant and can be readily detected in all somatic tissues. In contrast, we have found that a developmentally regulated loss of free ubiquitin and ubiquitinated proteins occurs during maize (Zea mays L.) pollen maturation. This dramatic loss of ubiquitin correlates temporally with commitment to the gametophytic developmental program. Northern blot analysis indicates that the loss of ubiquitin is not due to low levels of ubiquitin mRNA, suggesting that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism is responsible. PMID:7517039

  5. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  6. Enhancer of zeste acts as a major developmental regulator of Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Emilie; Martinand-Mari, Camille; Martin, Marianne; Feuillard, Jérôme; Boublik, Yvan; Godefroy, Nelly; Mangeat, Paul; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paradigm of developmental regulation by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins posits that they maintain silencing outside the spatial expression domains of their target genes, particularly of Hox genes, starting from mid embryogenesis. The Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] PcG protein is the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 complex, which silences its targets via deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. Here, we studied the ascidian Ciona intestinalis counterpart of E(z). Ci-E(z) is detected by immunohistochemistry as soon as the 2- and 4-cell stages as a cytoplasmic form and becomes exclusively nuclear thereafter, whereas the H3K27me3 mark is detected starting from the gastrula stage and later. Morpholino invalidation of Ci-E(z) leads to the total disappearance of both Ci-E(z) protein and its H3K27me3 mark. Ci-E(z) morphants display a severe phenotype. Strikingly, the earliest defects occur at the 4-cell stage with the dysregulation of cell positioning and mitotic impairment. At later stages, Ci-E(z)-deficient embryos are affected by terminal differentiation defects of neural, epidermal and muscle tissues, by the failure to form a notochord and by the absence of caudal nerve. These major phenotypic defects are specifically rescued by injection of a morpholino-resistant Ci-E(z) mRNA, which restores expression of Ci-E(z) protein and re-deposition of the H3K27me3 mark. As observed by qPCR analyses, Ci-E(z) invalidation leads to the early derepression of tissue-specific developmental genes, whereas late-acting developmental genes are generally down-regulated. Altogether, our results suggest that Ci-E(z) plays a major role during embryonic development in Ciona intestinalis by silencing early-acting developmental genes in a Hox-independent manner. PMID:26276097

  7. S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nadine M; Galandi, Stephanie L; Summer, Suzanne S; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E; King, Eileen C; Setchell, Kenneth D R

    2014-05-01

    S-(-)7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(-)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(-)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow's milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(-)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(-)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(-)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow's milk formula-fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(-)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(-)equol. In conclusion, S-(-)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(-)equol production.

  8. Developmental regulation of protein kinase A expression and activity in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewski, Brett E.; Davies, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    c-AMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) are the main transducers of cAMP signaling in eukaryotic cells. Recently we reported the identification and characterization of a PKA catalytic subunit (SmPKA-C) in Schistosoma mansoni that is required for adult schistosome viability in vitro. To gain further insights into the role of SmPKA-C in biological processes during the schistosome life cycle, we undertook a quantitative analysis of SmPKA-C mRNA expression in different life cycle stages. Our data shows that SmPKA-C mRNA expression is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels of expression in cercariae and adult female worms. To evaluate the biological role of SmPKA-C in these developmental stages, cercariae and adult worms were treated with various concentrations of PKA inhibitors. Treatment of cercariae with H-89 or PKI 14-22 amide resulted in loss of viability suggesting that, as in adults, PKA is an essential enzyme activity in this infectious larval stage. In adult worms, in vitro exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of H-89 or PKI 14-22 amide resulted in inhibition of egg production in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a murine model of schistosome infection where S. mansoni fecundity is impaired, we show that reduced rates of egg production in vivo correlate with significant reductions in SmPKA-C mRNA expression and PKA activity. Finally, restoration of parasite egg production in vivo also resulted in normalization of SmPKA-C mRNA expression and PKA activity. Taken together, our data suggest that PKA signaling is required for cercarial viability and may play a specific role in the reproductive activity of adult worms. PMID:20097200

  9. S-(–)equol production is developmentally regulated and related to early diet composition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nadine M.; Galandi, Stephanie L.; Summer, Suzanne S.; Zhao, Xueheng; Heubi, James E.; King, Eileen C.; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.

    2016-01-01

    S-(−)7-hydroxy-3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman, or S-(−)equol, a biologically active intestinally derived bacterial metabolite of the soy isoflavones daidzin/daidzein, is not produced in neonatal life. Because its synthesis is dependent on equol-producing bacteria, we hypothesized that early nutrition may influence equol production. This prospective 2.5-year study determined the frequency of S-(−)equol production in healthy infants (n = 90) fed breast milk, soy infant formula, or cow’s milk formula in their first year. Urinary S-(−)equol and daidzein were quantified by mass spectrometry after a standardized 3.5-day soy isoflavone challenge. Infants were tested at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age, and 3-day diet records were obtained at each visit to explore the effect of early and postweaning (>12 months) macronutrient and micronutrient dietary composition and S-(−)equol production. Use of antibiotics was also recorded. At age 6 months, none of the breast-fed infants produced S-(−)equol, whereas 3.8% and 6.0%, respectively, of soy and cow’s milk formula–fed infants were equol producers. By age 3 years, 50% of the formula-fed infants were equol producers, compared with 25% of breast-fed infants. Use of antibiotics was prevalent among infants and may have impacted the stability of S-(−)equol production. No significant differences among the groups were observed in postweaning dietary intakes of total energy, carbohydrate, fiber, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the propensity to make S-(−)equol. In conclusion, S-(−)equol production is developmentally regulated and initially related to diet composition with the proportion of equol producers increasing over the first 3 years of life, with a trend for formula feeding favoring S-(−)equol production. PMID:24916553

  10. Developmental Regulation of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Family Gene Expression in Tung Tree Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Heping; Shockey, Jay M.; Klasson, K. Thomas; Chapital, Dorselyn C.; Mason, Catherine B.; Scheffler, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes. We previously cloned DGAT1 and DGAT2 genes of tung tree (Vernicia fordii), whose novel seed TAGs are useful in a wide range of industrial applications. The objective of this study was to understand the developmental regulation of DGAT family gene expression in tung tree. To this end, we first cloned a tung tree gene encoding DGAT3, a putatively soluble form of DGAT that possesses 11 completely conserved amino acid residues shared among 27 DGAT3s from 19 plant species. Unlike DGAT1 and DGAT2 subfamilies, DGAT3 is absent from animals. We then used TaqMan and SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR, along with northern and western blotting, to study the expression patterns of the three DGAT genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrate that 1) all three isoforms of DGAT genes are expressed in developing seeds, leaves and flowers; 2) DGAT2 is the major DGAT mRNA in tung seeds, whose expression profile is well-coordinated with the oil profile in developing tung seeds; and 3) DGAT3 is the major form of DGAT mRNA in tung leaves, flowers and immature seeds prior to active tung oil biosynthesis. These results suggest that DGAT2 is probably the major TAG biosynthetic isoform in tung seeds and that DGAT3 gene likely plays a significant role in TAG metabolism in other tissues. Therefore, DGAT2 should be a primary target for tung oil engineering in transgenic organisms. PMID:24146944

  11. Lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase mRNA tissue specific expression, developmental regulation, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Semenkovich, C F; Chen, S H; Wims, M; Luo, C C; Li, W H; Chan, L

    1989-03-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) enzyme activities were previously reported to be regulated during development, but the underlying molecular events are unknown. In addition, little is known about LPL evolution. We cloned and sequenced a complete mouse LPL cDNA. Comparison of sequences from mouse, human, bovine, and guinea pig cDNAs indicated that the rates of evolution of mouse, human, and bovine LPL are quite low, but guinea pig LPL has evolved several times faster than the others. 32P-Labeled mouse LPL and rat HL cDNAs were used to study lipase mRNA tissue distribution and developmental regulation in the rat. Northern gel analysis revealed the presence of a single 1.87 kb HL mRNA species in liver, but not in other tissues including adrenal and ovary. A single 4.0 kb LPL mRNA species was detected in epididymal fat, heart, psoas muscle, lactating mammary gland, adrenal, lung, and ovary, but not in adult kidney, liver, intestine, or brain. Quantitative slot-blot hybridization analysis demonstrated the following relative amounts of LPL mRNA in rat tissues: adipose, 100%; heart, 94%; adrenal, 6.6%; muscle, 3.8%; lung, 3.0%; kidney, 0%; adult liver, 0%. The same quantitative analysis was used to study lipase mRNA levels during development. There was little postnatal variation in LPL mRNA in adipose tissue; maximal levels were detected at the earliest time points studied for both inguinal and epididymal fat. In heart, however, LPL mRNA was detected at low levels 6 days before birth and increased 278-fold as the animals grew to adulthood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Identity of the NMDA receptor coagonist is synapse specific and developmentally regulated in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Le Bail, Matildé; Martineau, Magalie; Sacchi, Silvia; Yatsenko, Natalia; Radzishevsky, Inna; Conrod, Sandrine; Ait Ouares, Karima; Wolosker, Herman; Pollegioni, Loredano; Billard, Jean-Marie; Mothet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) require the coagonists d-serine or glycine for their activation, but whether the identity of the coagonist could be synapse specific and developmentally regulated remains elusive. We therefore investigated the contribution of d-serine and glycine by recording NMDAR-mediated responses at hippocampal Schaffer collaterals (SC)–CA1 and medial perforant path–dentate gyrus (mPP–DG) synapses in juvenile and adult rats. Selective depletion of endogenous coagonists with enzymatic scavengers as well as pharmacological inhibition of endogenous d-amino acid oxidase activity revealed that d-serine is the preferred coagonist at SC–CA1 mature synapses, whereas, unexpectedly, glycine is mainly involved at mPP–DG synapses. Nevertheless, both coagonist functions are driven by the levels of synaptic activity as inferred by recording long-term potentiation generated at both connections. This regional compartmentalization in the coagonist identity is associated to different GluN1/GluN2A to GluN1/GluN2B subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs. During postnatal development, the replacement of GluN2B- by GluN2A-containing NMDARs at SC–CA1 synapses parallels a change in the identity of the coagonist from glycine to d-serine. In contrast, NMDARs subunit composition at mPP–DG synapses is not altered and glycine remains the main coagonist throughout postnatal development. Altogether, our observations disclose an unprecedented relationship in the identity of the coagonist not only with the GluN2 subunit composition at synaptic NMDARs but also with astrocyte activity in the developing and mature hippocampus that reconciles the complementary functions of d-serine and glycine in modulating NMDARs during the maturation of tripartite glutamatergic synapses. PMID:25550512

  13. Aaknox1, a kn1-like homeobox gene in Acetabularia acetabulum, undergoes developmentally regulated subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, K A; Mandoli, D F

    1999-12-01

    Homeobox-containing genes play developmentally important roles in a wide variety of plants, animals and fungi. As a way of studying how development is controlled in the unicellular green macroalga Acetabularia acetabulum, we used degenerate PCR to clone a knotted1-like (kn1-like) homeobox gene, Aaknox1 (Acetabularia acetabulum kn1-like homeobox 1). Aaknorx1 is the first knotted1-like homeobox gene to be cloned from a non-vascular plant and shows strong conservation with kn1-like genes from the vascular plants (ca. 56% amino acid identity within the homeodomain). Sequencing of cDNA clones indicates that Aaknor1 possesses at least two distinct polyadenylation sites spaced ca. 600 bp apart. Southern analysis suggests that several other kn1-like homeobox genes exist in the Acetabularia genome. Northern analyses demonstrate that expression of Aaknox1 is developmentally regulated, with peak levels of expression during early reproductive phase. Northern analyses further demonstrate that Aaknox1 mRNA undergoes a change in its subcellular localization pattern during the progression from late vegetative to early reproductive phase. In late adult phase, Aaknox1 is distributed uniformly throughout the alga; in early reproductive phase, Aaknox1 is present in a gradient with the highest concentration of the mRNA at the base of the stalk, near the single nucleus. These data suggest that Aaknox1 may have a role during early reproductive development and that mRNA localization may be one mechanism by which A. acetabulum regulates gene expression posttranscriptionally.

  14. Developmental regulation of collagenase-3 mRNA in normal, differentiating osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 and the runt domain binding sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, S. K.; Selvamurugan, N.; D'Alonzo, R. C.; Partridge, N. C.

    2000-01-01

    Collagenase-3 mRNA is initially detectable when osteoblasts cease proliferation, increasing during differentiation and mineralization. We showed that this developmental expression is due to an increase in collagenase-3 gene transcription. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site decreased collagenase-3 promoter activity, demonstrating that these sites are responsible for collagenase-3 gene transcription. The activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites bind members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor family of transcription factors, respectively. We identified core-binding factor a1 binding to the runt domain binding site and JunD in addition to a Fos-related antigen binding to the activator protein-1 site. Overexpression of both c-Fos and c-Jun in osteoblasts or core-binding factor a1 increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Furthermore, overexpression of c-Fos, c-Jun, and core-binding factor a1 synergistically increased collagenase-3 promoter activity. Mutation of either the activator protein-1 or the runt domain binding site resulted in the inability of c-Fos and c-Jun or core-binding factor a1 to increase collagenase-3 promoter activity, suggesting that there is cooperative interaction between the sites and the proteins. Overexpression of Fra-2 and JunD repressed core-binding factor a1-induced collagenase-3 promoter activity. Our results suggest that members of the activator protein-1 and core-binding factor families, binding to the activator protein-1 and runt domain binding sites are responsible for the developmental regulation of collagenase-3 gene expression in osteoblasts.

  15. A co-expression gene network associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2015-08-01

    Apple fruit acidity, which affects the fruit's overall taste and flavor to a large extent, is primarily determined by the concentration of malic acid. Previous studies demonstrated that the major QTL malic acid (Ma) on chromosome 16 is largely responsible for fruit acidity variations in apple. Recent advances suggested that a natural mutation that gives rise to a premature stop codon in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT)-like genes (called Ma1) is the genetic causal element underlying Ma. However, the natural mutation does not explain the developmental changes of fruit malate levels in a given genotype. Using RNA-seq data from the fruit of 'Golden Delicious' taken at 14 developmental stages from 1 week after full-bloom (WAF01) to harvest (WAF20), we characterized their transcriptomes in groups of high (12.2 ± 1.6 mg/g fw, WAF03-WAF08), mid (7.4 ± 0.5 mg/g fw, WAF01-WAF02 and WAF10-WAF14) and low (5.4 ± 0.4 mg/g fw, WAF16-WAF20) malate concentrations. Detailed analyses showed that a set of 3,066 genes (including Ma1) were expressed not only differentially (P FDR < 0.05) between the high and low malate groups (or between the early and late developmental stages) but also in significant (P < 0.05) correlation with malate concentrations. The 3,066 genes fell in 648 MapMan (sub-) bins or functional classes, and 19 of them were significantly (P FDR < 0.05) co-enriched or co-suppressed in a malate dependent manner. Network inferring using the 363 genes encompassed in the 19 (sub-) bins, identified a major co-expression network of 239 genes. Since the 239 genes were also differentially expressed between the early (WAF03-WAF08) and late (WAF16-WAF20) developmental stages, the major network was considered to be associated with developmental regulation of apple fruit acidity in 'Golden Delicious'.

  16. Developmental regulation of molecular signalling in fetal and neonatal diaphragm protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; Pillow, J Jane

    2013-08-01

    -κB signal transduction. The finding provides new insights into developmental regulation of protein metabolism within development. The implication of these postnatal events for diaphragm adaptation to the ex utero environment needs further investigation. PMID:23828585

  17. Developmental regulation and partial-length cloning of tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen of murine metanephros.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Ota, K; Wada, J; Wallner, E I; Charonis, A S; Carone, F A; Kanwar, Y S

    1997-09-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein that has been recently isolated and cloned from the rabbit kidney. It is an integral component of the basal lamina, and unlike other basement membrane proteins it is exclusively expressed in the tubular basement membranes (TBMs). Since other ECM glycoproteins have been shown to regulate development of various organ systems, studies were initiated to ascertain its developmental regulation in renal tubulogenesis and glomerulogenesis. Embryonic (day-13 and -17 of gestation), newborn and one-week-old mice kidneys were harvested for expression of TIN-ag as well as cDNA cloning studies. Immunostaining with polyclonal anti-TIN-ag antibody revealed its localization to the basal lamina of ureteric bud branches and epithelial elements of developing nephrons in day-13 embryonic kidneys. Interestingly, it was heavily expressed at the tips of the ureteric bud branches, and was not expressed in the distal convolutions of the S-shaped body stage of the nephrons, the region which forms the future glomerulus. At day-17, TIN-ag expression was less, and the immuno-reactivity was mainly localized to the cortex. In the newborn and one-week-old mice kidneys, the cortical expression of TIN-ag increased progressively, but was absent in the glomeruli. The TIN-ag expression was confined to the cortical TBMs, while absent in the medullary tubules, the latter included segments of the collecting ducts and loop of Henle. Immunoprecipitation studies on [35S]methionine-labeled metanephroi revealed a single band of approximately 58 kDa at day-13, and the incorporated radioactivity decreased at day-17. No high molecular weight isoforms were observed. A partial-length mouse TIN-ag cDNA of approximately 530 bp PCR product was generated, and it had approximately 88% and approximately 93% nucleotide and amino acid sequence homolgy, respectively, with rabbit TIN-ag. Utilizing this cDNA, Northern blot analyses

  18. Cold adaptation overrides developmental regulation of sarcolipin expression in mice skeletal muscle: SOS for muscle-based thermogenesis?

    PubMed

    Pant, Meghna; Bal, Naresh C; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal mice have a greater thermogenic need than adult mice and may require additional means of heat production, other than the established mechanism of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We and others recently discovered a novel mediator of skeletal muscle-based thermogenesis called sarcolipin (SLN) that acts by uncoupling sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In addition, we have shown that SLN expression is downregulated during neonatal development in rats. In this study we probed two questions: (1) is SLN expression developmentally regulated in neonatal mice?; and (2) if so, will cold adaptation override this? Our data show that SLN expression is higher during early neonatal stages and is gradually downregulated in fast twitch skeletal muscles. Interestingly, we demonstrate that cold acclimation of neonatal mice can prevent downregulation of SLN expression. This observation suggests that SLN-mediated thermogenesis can be recruited to a greater extent during extreme physiological need, in addition to BAT.

  19. The subcellular localization of Otx2 is cell-type specific and developmentally regulated in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Baas, D; Bumsted, K M; Martinez, J A; Vaccarino, F M; Wikler, K C; Barnstable, C J

    2000-05-31

    Recent evidence implicates homeodomain-containing proteins in the specification of cell fates in the central nervous system. Here we report that in the embryonic mouse eye Otx2, a paired homeodomain transcription factor, was found in retinal pigment epithelial cells and a restricted subset of retinal neurons, including ganglion cells. In the postnatal and adult eye, however, both the cellular and subcellular distribution of the Otx2 protein were cell type-specific. Otx2 was detected only in the nuclei of retinal pigment epithelial and bipolar cells, but was present in the cytoplasm of rod photoreceptors. Immunohistochemical studies of retinal explants and transfected cell lines both suggested that the retention of Otx2 in the cytoplasm of immature rods is a developmentally regulated process. The differential distribution of Otx2 in the cytoplasm of rods and the nucleus of other cell types, suggests that subcellular localization of this transcription factor may participate cell fate determination during specific phases of retinal development.

  20. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  1. Isolation of developmentally regulated genes from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    De Groot, P W; Schaap, P J; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J

    1997-06-01

    From a cDNA library, constructed from mushroom primordia, nine cDNAs were isolated which were either induced or specifically expressed during fruit body development and maturation of the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. These cDNAs varied in size from 372 to 1019 bp and hybridized to transcripts of 400-1600 nt. Four of the cDNAs were only expressed in the generative phase of the life cycle while the other five cDNAs were strongly induced but had low steady-state mRNA levels in vegetatively grown mycelium of the hybrid strain Horst U1. An apparent full-length cDNA could be identified by sequence analysis and specified a putative protein homologous to the delta-subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. For one of the partial cDNAs, significant homology was found with a family of cell division control proteins, while another partial cDNA appeared to encode a cytochrome P450. All cDNAs, except the presumed cytochrome-P450-specifying cDNA (cypA), hybridized with single copy genes scattered over the Agaricus genome. For the cypA gene, the presence of several additional copies was shown by heterologous hybridizations. Based on changes in expression levels of the fruit-body-induced genes during development coinciding with alterations in morphological appearance of mushrooms, four stages of development were distinguished during growth and maturation of A. bisporus fruit bodies. PMID:9202475

  2. Developmentally Regulated RNA Transcripts Coding for Alcohol Dehydrogenase in DROSOPHILA AFFINIDISJUNCTA

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Robert G.; Brennan, Mark D.; Dickinson, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The organization of the gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in Drosophila affinidisjuncta has been determined by physically mapping Adh RNA transcripts to cloned genomic DNA. Two distinct transcript types accumulate with developmental specificity. Because only a single genomic Adh locus is detected in D. affinidisjuncta , and since all Adh transcripts appear to be identical except at their termini, the two Adh RNA types are products of the same gene. One type of transcript, abundant in adults, contains a small 5' terminal exon that is completely lacking in the other type of transcript, which accumulates in larvae. This 5' end difference suggests that the D. affinidisjuncta Adh gene, like the homologous gene from the distantly related species D. melanogaster, is expressed from two promoters. According to the transcription map, these D. affinidisjuncta promoters are separated by approximately 560 base pairs of genomic DNA sequence. D. affinidisjuncta Adh transcripts also resemble D. melanogaster Adh transcripts in both their overall organization and their developmental distribution. Multiple 3' ends are responsible for the size heterogeneity of both types of D. affinidisjuncta Adh RNA, and some of these also appear with stage specificity. PMID:2429897

  3. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  4. The fibronectin receptor on mammalian erythroid precursor cells: characterization and developmental regulation

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The plasma membrane of murine erythro-leukemia (MEL) cells contains a 140-kD protein that binds specifically to fibronectin. A 125I-labeled 140-kD protein from surface-labeled uninduced MEL cells was specifically bound by an affinity matrix that contained the 115-kD cell binding fragment of fibronectin, and specifically eluted by a synthetic peptide that has cell attachment-promoting activity. The loss of this protein during erythroid differentiation was correlated with loss of cellular adhesion to fibronectin. Both MEL cells and reticulocytes attached to the same site on fibronectin as do fibroblasts since adhesion of erythroid cells to fibronectin was specifically blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the cell-binding fragment of fibronectin and by a synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser sequence found in the cell-binding fragment of fibronectin. Erythroid cells attached specifically to surfaces coated either with the 115-kD cell-binding fragment of fibronectin or with the synthetic peptide- albumin complex. Thus, the erythroid 140-kD protein exhibits several properties in common with those described for the fibronectin receptor of fibroblasts. We propose that loss or modification of this protein at the cell surface is responsible for the loss of cellular adhesion to fibronectin during erythroid differentiation. PMID:2935541

  5. Developmentally regulated switch in alternatively spliced SNAP-25 isoforms alters facilitation of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Bark, Christina; Bellinger, Frederick P; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Mathews, James R; Partridge, L Donald; Wilson, Michael C

    2004-10-01

    Although the basic molecular components that promote regulated neurotransmitter release are well established, the contribution of these proteins as regulators of the plasticity of neurotransmission and refinement of synaptic connectivity during development is elaborated less fully. For example, during the period of synaptic growth and maturation in brain, the expression of synaptosomal protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a neuronal t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) essential for action potential-dependent neuroexocytosis, is altered through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts. We addressed the role of the two splice-variant isoforms of SNAP-25 with a targeted mouse mutation that impairs the shift from SNAP-25a to SNAP-25b. Most of these mutant mice die between 3 and 5 weeks of age, which coincides with the time when SNAP-25b expression normally reaches mature levels in brain and synapse formation is essentially completed. The altered expression of these SNAP-25 isoforms influences short-term synaptic function by affecting facilitation but not the initial probability of release. This suggests that mechanisms controlling alternative splicing between SNAP-25 isoforms contribute to a molecular switch important for survival that helps to guide the transition from immature to mature synaptic connections, as well as synapse regrowth and remodeling after neural injury.

  6. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development.

  7. Riboflavin transporter-2 (rft-2) of Caenorhabditis elegans: Adaptive and developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Gandhimathi, Krishnan; Karthi, Sellamuthu; Manimaran, Paramasivam; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2015-06-01

    Riboflavin transporters (rft-1 and rft-2), orthologous to human riboflavin transporter-3 (hRVFT-3), are identified and characterized in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, studies pertaining to functional contribution of rft-2 in maintaining body homeostatic riboflavin levels and its regulation are very limited. In this study, the expression pattern of rft-2 at different life stages of C. elegans was studied through real-time PCR, and found to be consistent from larval to adult stages that demonstrate its involvement in maintaining the body homeostatic riboflavin levels at whole animal level all through its life. A possible regulation of rft-2 expression at mRNA levels at whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. Abundance of rft-2 transcript was upregulated in riboflavin-deficient conditions (10 nM), while it was downregulated with riboflavin-supplemented conditions (2 mM) as compared with control (10 meu M). Further, the 5'-regulatory region of the rft-2 gene was cloned, and transgenic nematodes expressing transcriptional rft-2 promoter::GFP fusion constructs were generated. The expression of rft-2 was found to be adaptively regulated in vivo when transgenic worms were maintained under different extracellular riboflavin levels, which was also mediated partly via changes in the rft-2 levels that directs towards the possible involvement of transcriptional regulatory events.

  8. nanos gene control DNA mediates developmentally regulated transposition in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Zach N; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Onal, Sedef; Juhn, Jennifer; Ashikyan, Aurora; Salampessy, Michael; MacCauley, Todd; James, Anthony A

    2007-06-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are proposed as a basis for developing drive systems to spread pathogen resistance genes through vector mosquito populations. The use of transcriptional and translational control DNA elements from genes expressed specifically in the insect germ line to mediate transposition offers possibilities for mitigating some of the concerns about transgene behavior in the target vector species and eliminating effects on nontarget organisms. Here, we describe the successful use of the promoter and untranslated regions from the nanos (nos) orthologous gene of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to control sex- and tissue-specific expression of exogenously derived mariner MosI transposase-encoding DNA. Transgenic mosquitoes expressed transposase mRNA in abundance near or equal to the endogenous nos transcript and exclusively in the female germ cells. In addition, MosI mRNA was deposited in developing oocytes and localized and maintained at the posterior pole during early embryonic development. Importantly, four of five transgenic lines examined were capable of mobilizing a second MosI transgene into the mosquito genome, indicating that functional transposase was being produced. Thus, the nos control sequences show promise as part of a TE-based gene drive system.

  9. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-01-01

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. PMID:25873638

  10. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a ‘poised’ state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a ‘TCCCC’ sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. PMID:26582124

  11. Structure, organization and evolution of developmentally regulated chorion genes in a silkmoth.

    PubMed

    Jones, C W; Kafatos, F C

    1980-12-01

    We describe in detail two cloned chromosomal DNA segments from Antheraea polyphemus, each bearing multiple chorion genes. Two types of genes are found per segment, each in two or three copies: they belong to both major chorion multigene families (A and B), but are expressed during the same developmental period (middle choriongenesis in one segment, late in the other). A and B genes alternate and are paired, lie in divergent transcriptional orientation and are in very close proximity to each other (mRNA cap sites are separated by a 5' flanking sequence 264 or 325 bp long). Each AB pair is embedded within a large, tandemly repeating unit. Within that unit, the homologous 3' flanking sequences that separate gene pairs evolve rapidly and are frequently interrupted by long segments representing inserts (or deletions). These segments would decrease unequal crossing-over, facilitating rapid evolution of the chorion multigene families. A total of 10.4 kb of DNA has been sequenced, permitting detailed comparisons of genes, their introns, 5' flanking and immediately 3' flanking regions. Genes range over two orders of sequence similarity, from highly releated to very disparate (gene copies; members of the same multigene family; members of different families). Among their universal features are a common cap-site sequence, a single intron invariably located at the same position within the signal peptide-encoding region, and a Hogness box 21 to 23 nucleotides upstream from the cap site. Features of possible paired promoters occupying the short 5' flanking region are discussed. Genes evolve both by base substitutions and by segmental mutations, which are almost invariably deletions/insertions related to small, direct repeats.

  12. Structural and Functional Features of a Developmentally Regulated Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Krasity, Benjamin C.; Troll, Joshua V.; Lehnert, Erik M.; Hackett, Kathleen T.; Dillard, Joseph P.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding proteins (LBPs) occur mainly in extracellular fluids and promote LPS delivery to specific host cell receptors. The function of LBPs has been studied principally in the context of host defense; the possible role of LBPs in nonpathogenic host-microbe interactions has not been well characterized. Using the Euprymna scolopes-Vibrio fischeri model, we analyzed the structure and function of an LBP family protein, E. scolopes LBP1 (EsLBP1), and provide evidence for its role in triggering a symbiont-induced host developmental program. Previous studies showed that, during initial host colonization, the LPS of V. fischeri synergizes with peptidoglycan (PGN) monomer to induce morphogenesis of epithelial tissues of the host animal. Computationally modeled EsLBP1 shares some but not all structural features of mammalian LBPs that are thought important for LPS binding. Similar to human LBP, recombinant EsLBP1 expressed in insect cells bound V. fischeri LPS and Neisseria meningitidis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with nanomolar or greater affinity but bound Francisella tularensis LPS only weakly and did not bind PGN monomer. Unlike human LBP, EsLBP1 did not bind N. meningitidis LOS:CD14 complexes. The eslbp1 transcript was upregulated ~22-fold by V. fischeri at 24 h postinoculation. Surprisingly, this upregulation was not induced by exposure to LPS but, rather, to the PGN monomer alone. Hybridization chain reaction-fluorescent in situ hybridization (HCR-FISH) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) localized eslbp1 transcript and protein in crypt epithelia, where V. fischeri induces morphogenesis. The data presented here provide a window into the evolution of LBPs and the scope of their roles in animal symbioses. PMID:26463160

  13. SUMOylation is developmentally regulated and required for cell pairing during conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Amjad M; Yang, Qianyi; Chalker, Douglas L; Forney, James D

    2015-02-01

    The covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins regulates numerous nuclear events in eukaryotes, including transcription, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA repair. Despite extensive interest in nuclear pathways within the field of ciliate molecular biology, there have been no investigations of the SUMO pathway in Tetrahymena. The developmental program of sexual reproduction of this organism includes cell pairing, micronuclear meiosis, and the formation of a new somatic macronucleus. We identified the Tetrahymena thermophila SMT3 (SUMO) and UBA2 (SUMO-activating enzyme) genes and demonstrated that the corresponding green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged gene products are found predominantly in the somatic macronucleus during vegetative growth. Use of an anti-Smt3p antibody to perform immunoblot assays with whole-cell lysates during conjugation revealed a large increase in SUMOylation that peaked during formation of the new macronucleus. Immunofluorescence using the same antibody showed that the increase was localized primarily within the new macronucleus. To initiate functional analysis of the SUMO pathway, we created germ line knockout cell lines for both the SMT3 and UBA2 genes and found both are essential for cell viability. Conditional Smt3p and Uba2p cell lines were constructed by incorporation of the cadmium-inducible metallothionein promoter. Withdrawal of cadmium resulted in reduced cell growth and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, Smt3p and Uba2p conditional cell lines were unable to pair during sexual reproduction in the absence of cadmium, consistent with a function early in conjugation. Our studies are consistent with multiple roles for SUMOylation in Tetrahymena, including a dynamic regulation associated with the sexual life cycle.

  14. SUMOylation Is Developmentally Regulated and Required for Cell Pairing during Conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Amjad M.; Yang, Qianyi

    2014-01-01

    The covalent attachment of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to target proteins regulates numerous nuclear events in eukaryotes, including transcription, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA repair. Despite extensive interest in nuclear pathways within the field of ciliate molecular biology, there have been no investigations of the SUMO pathway in Tetrahymena. The developmental program of sexual reproduction of this organism includes cell pairing, micronuclear meiosis, and the formation of a new somatic macronucleus. We identified the Tetrahymena thermophila SMT3 (SUMO) and UBA2 (SUMO-activating enzyme) genes and demonstrated that the corresponding green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged gene products are found predominantly in the somatic macronucleus during vegetative growth. Use of an anti-Smt3p antibody to perform immunoblot assays with whole-cell lysates during conjugation revealed a large increase in SUMOylation that peaked during formation of the new macronucleus. Immunofluorescence using the same antibody showed that the increase was localized primarily within the new macronucleus. To initiate functional analysis of the SUMO pathway, we created germ line knockout cell lines for both the SMT3 and UBA2 genes and found both are essential for cell viability. Conditional Smt3p and Uba2p cell lines were constructed by incorporation of the cadmium-inducible metallothionein promoter. Withdrawal of cadmium resulted in reduced cell growth and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, Smt3p and Uba2p conditional cell lines were unable to pair during sexual reproduction in the absence of cadmium, consistent with a function early in conjugation. Our studies are consistent with multiple roles for SUMOylation in Tetrahymena, including a dynamic regulation associated with the sexual life cycle. PMID:25527524

  15. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  16. A role for pectin de-methylesterification in a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Sandra; Van Orden, Jürgen; Wolf, Sebastian; Vissenberg, Kris; Delacourt, Julien; Ndong, Yves Assoumou; Pelloux, Jérôme; Bischoff, Volker; Urbain, Aurélie; Mouille, Grégory; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Höfte, Herman

    2010-11-01

    • We focused on a developmentally regulated growth acceleration in the dark-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl to study the role of changes in cell wall metabolism in the control of cell elongation. • To this end, precise transcriptome analysis on dissected dark-grown hypocotyls, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and kinematic analysis were used. • Using a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, we showed that the growth acceleration marks a developmental transition during which growth becomes uncoupled from cellulose synthesis. We next investigated the cellular changes that take place during this transition. FT-IR microspectroscopy revealed significant changes in cell wall composition during, but not after, the growth acceleration. Transcriptome analysis suggested a role for cell wall remodeling, in particular pectin modification, in this growth acceleration. This was confirmed by the overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor, which caused a delay in the growth acceleration. • This study shows that the acceleration of cell elongation marks a developmental transition in dark-grown hypocotyl cells and supports a role for pectin de-methylesterification in the timing of this event.

  17. The Conserved Splicing Factor SUA Controls Alternative Splicing of the Developmental Regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sugliani, Matteo; Brambilla, Vittoria; Clerkx, Emile J.M.; Koornneef, Maarten; Soppe, Wim J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3-α and ABI3-β, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-β transcript accumulates at the end of seed maturation. The two ABI3 transcripts differ by the presence of a cryptic intron in ABI3-α, which is spliced out in ABI3-β. The suppressor of abi3-5 (sua) mutant consistently restores wild-type seed features in the frameshift mutant abi3-5 but does not suppress other abi3 mutant alleles. SUA is a conserved splicing factor, homologous to the human protein RBM5, and reduces splicing of the cryptic ABI3 intron, leading to a decrease in ABI3-β transcript. In the abi3-5 mutant, ABI3-β codes for a functional ABI3 protein due to frameshift restoration. PMID:20525852

  18. The interferon-related developmental regulator 1 is used by human papillomavirus to suppress NFκB activation

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, Bart; Goedemans, Renske; Pelascini, Laetitia P. L.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; van Esch, Edith M. G.; Meyers, Craig; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Boer, Judith M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) infect keratinocytes and successfully evade host immunity despite the fact that keratinocytes are well equipped to respond to innate and adaptive immune signals. Using non-infected and freshly established or persistent hrHPV-infected keratinocytes we show that hrHPV impairs the acetylation of NFκB/RelA K310 in keratinocytes. As a consequence, keratinocytes display a decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immune cell attraction in response to stimuli of the innate or adaptive immune pathways. HPV accomplishes this by augmenting the expression of interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) in an EGFR-dependent manner. Restoration of NFκB/RelA acetylation by IFRD1 shRNA, cetuximab treatment or the HDAC1/3 inhibitor entinostat increases basal and induced cytokine expression. Similar observations are made in IFRD1-overexpressing HPV-induced cancer cells. Thus, our study reveals an EGFR–IFRD1-mediated viral immune evasion mechanism, which can also be exploited by cancer cells. PMID:26055519

  19. QTL identification and microphenotype characterisation of the developmentally regulated yellow rust resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian.

    PubMed

    Melichar, J P E; Berry, S; Newell, C; MacCormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2008-08-01

    Yellow rust (causal agent: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) resistance in the UK wheat cultivar Guardian is developmentally regulated, resistance increasing as the plant matures. Yellow rust resistance was assessed under field conditions on plants after ear emergence to ensure maximum expression of resistance. Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance were identified, being located on chromosomes 1B (QPst.jic-1B), 2D (QPst.jic-2D) and 4B (QPst.jic-4B). The largest resistance effect, QPst.jic-1B located to the same position on the long arm of chromosome 1B as the known durable source of yellow rust resistance, Yr29. Microscopic studies were carried out to determine what effect the resistance in Guardian had on the development of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. While the adult plant resistance in Guardian did not prevent germinated urediniospores from establishing an effective infection site, the growth of hyphae within flag leaf tissue was significantly inhibited, slowing the development of microcolonies. 3,3-diaminabenzadine (DAB) and trypan blue staining indicated that this inhibition of hyphal growth was not associated with hydrogen peroxide accumulation or extensive plant cell death.

  20. Distinguishing Radiculopathies from Mononeuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Jennifer; Katzberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Identifying “where is the lesion” is particularly important in the approach to the patient with focal dysfunction where a peripheral localization is suspected. This article outlines a methodical approach to the neuromuscular patient in distinguishing focal neuropathies versus radiculopathies, both of which are common presentations to the neurology clinic. This approach begins with evaluation of the sensory examination to determine whether there are irritative or negative sensory signs in a peripheral nerve or dermatomal distribution. This is followed by evaluation of deep tendon reflexes to evaluate if differential hyporeflexia can assist in the two localizations. Finally, identification of weak muscle groups unique to a nerve or myotomal pattern in the proximal and distal extremities can most reliably assist in a precise localization. The article concludes with an application of the described method to the common scenario of distinguishing radial neuropathy versus C7 radiculopathy in the setting of a wrist drop and provides additional examples for self-evaluation and reference. PMID:27468275

  1. Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or α (adult) and 17 or β (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5′ end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3′ exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5′ flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

  2. Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Larrondo, H. A.; Martin, M. T.; Plastino, A.; Fuentes, M. A.

    2007-10-01

    Chaotic systems share with stochastic processes several properties that make them almost undistinguishable. In this communication we introduce a representation space, to be called the complexity-entropy causality plane. Its horizontal and vertical axis are suitable functionals of the pertinent probability distribution, namely, the entropy of the system and an appropriate statistical complexity measure, respectively. These two functionals are evaluated using the Bandt-Pompe recipe to assign a probability distribution function to the time series generated by the system. Several well-known model-generated time series, usually regarded as being of either stochastic or chaotic nature, are analyzed so as to illustrate the approach. The main achievement of this communication is the possibility of clearly distinguishing between them in our representation space, something that is rather difficult otherwise.

  3. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity. As observed in FASD phenotypes, 5-azaC exposure was able to induce microcephaly and craniofacial cartilage deformities in Japanese rice fish. Moreover, we have observed that expression of DNMTs (dnmt1, dnmt3aa, and dnmt3bb.1) are developmentally regulated; high mRNA copies were found in early stages (1-2day-post-fertilization, dpf), followed by gradual reduction until hatched. In ethanol-treated embryos, compared to controls, dnmt1 mRNA is in reduced level in 2dpf and in enhanced level in 6dpf embryos. While dnmt3aa and 3bb.1 remained unaltered. In contrast, embryos exposed to 5-azaC have an enhanced level of dnmt1 and dnmt3bb.1 mRNAs both in 2 and 6dpf embryos while dnmt3aa is enhanced only in 6dpf embryos. Moreover, endocannabinoid receptor 1a (cnr1a) mRNA which was found to be reduced by ethanol remained unaltered and cnr1b and cnr2 mRNAs, which were remained unaltered by ethanol, were increased significantly by 5-azaC in 6dpf embryos. This study indicates that the craniofacial defects observed in FASD phenotypes are the results of dysregulations in DNMT expressions.

  4. Identification of developmentally-regulated proteins in Leishmania panamensis by proteome profiling of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes.

    PubMed

    Walker, John; Vasquez, Juan-José; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Drummelsmith, Jolyne; Burchmore, Richard; Girard, Isabelle; Ouellette, Marc

    2006-05-01

    We have employed proteomics to identify proteins upregulated in the amastigote life-stage of Leishmaniapanamensis, using axenically-differentiated forms as models of authentic intracellular parasites. Resolution of the soluble proteomes of axenic amastigotes and promastigotes by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in the neutral pI range (5-7) revealed equivalent numbers of protein spots in both life-stages (644-682 using Coomassie Blue and 851-863 by silver staining). Although representing a relatively low proportion (8.1-10.8%) of the predicted 8000 gene products of Leishmania, these proteome maps enabled the reproducible detection of 75 differentially-regulated protein spots in amastigotes, comprising 24 spots "uniquely" expressed in this life-stage and 51 over-expressed by 1.2-5.7-fold compared to promastigotes. Of the 11 amastigote-specific spots analysed by mass spectrometry (MS), 5 yielded peptide sequences with no orthologues in Leishmania major, and the remaining 6 were identified as 7 distinct proteins (some of which were truncated isoforms) representing several functional classes: carbohydrate/energy metabolism (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase), stress response (heat shock protein [HSP] 83), cell membrane/cytoskeleton (beta-tubulin), amino acid metabolism (cysteine synthase) and cell-cycle (ran-binding protein). Four additional over-expressed spots were tentatively identified as HSPs 60 and 70 and HSP 70-related proteins -1 and -4 by positional analogy with these landmark proteins in the Leishmania guyanensis proteome. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify novel developmentally-regulated proteins linked to Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival, while simultaneously pinpointing therapeutic targets. In particular, the amastigote-specific expression of cysteine synthase underlines the importance of de novo cysteine synthesis both as a

  5. Down regulation by p60v-src of genes specifically expressed and developmentally regulated in postmitotic quail neuroretina cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guermah, M; Gillet, G; Michel, D; Laugier, D; Brun, G; Calothy, G

    1990-01-01

    The avian neuroretina (NR) is composed of photoreceptors and different neurons that are derived from proliferating precursor cells. Neuronal differentiation takes place after terminal mitosis. We have previously shown that differentiating NR cells can be induced to proliferate by infection with Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and that cell multiplication requires expression of a functional v-src gene. We speculated that the quiescence of NR cells could be determined by specific genes. Cell proliferation could then result from the negative regulation of these genes by the v-src protein. By differential hybridization of a cDNA library, we isolated eight clones corresponding to genes expressed in postmitotic NR cells from 13-day-old quail embryos, transcriptional levels of which are significantly reduced in NR cells induced to proliferate by tsNY68, an RSV mutant with temperature-sensitive mitogenic activity. Partial sequencing analysis indicated that one RNA encoded the calmodulin gene, whereas the other seven showed no similarity to known sequences. By using v-src mutants that induce NR cell proliferation in the absence of transformation, we showed that transcription of six genes was negatively regulated by the v-src protein and that of four genes was correlated with NR cell quiescence. We also report that a subset of genes are specifically transcribed in neural cells and developmentally regulated in the NR. These results indicate that the v-src protein regulates expression of genes likely to play a role in the control of neural cell growth or differentiation. Images PMID:2162475

  6. Synaptic commitment: developmentally regulated reciprocal changes in hippocampal granule cell NMDA and AMPA receptors over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Krause, Michael; Rao, Geeta; McNaughton, Bruce L; Barnes, C A

    2008-06-01

    Synaptic transmission in hippocampal field CA1 is largely N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA(R)) dependent during the early postnatal period. It becomes increasingly mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors until an adult ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors is achieved. It is shown here that increases in the AMPA receptor (AMPA(R))-mediated field potential response continue over the life span of the F-344 rat at the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, the NMDA(R)-dependent component of the response decreases with age between 1 and 27 mo, leading to an increase of AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio with age. One possible explanation of this age difference is that the AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio can be modified by experience. To test the idea that the changed ratio is caused by the old rats' longer lives, an intensive 10-mo period of enrichment treatment was given to a group of animals, beginning at 3 mo of age. Compared with animals housed in standard cages, the enrichment treatment did not alter the glutamatergic response ratio measured with field potential recording methods. These data provide support for the conclusion that the observed change with age is developmentally regulated rather than experience dependent. Given the role of the NMDA(R) in synaptic plasticity, these changes suggest a progressive commitment of perforant path synapses to particular weights over the life span. One possible implication of this effect includes preservation of selected memories, ultimately at the expense of a reduced capacity to store new information.

  7. Have studies of the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes revealed the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. Scott; Perona, Maria T. G.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses the recent convergence of our long-standing knowledge of the regulation of behavioral phenotypes by developmental experience with recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating gene expression. This review supports a particular perspective on the developmental regulation of behavioral phenotypes: That the role of common developmental experiences (e.g. maternal interactions, peer interactions, exposure to a complex environment, etc.) is to fit individuals to the circumstances of their lives within bounds determined by long-standing (evolutionary) mechanisms that have shaped responses to critical and fundamental types of experience via those aspects of gene structure that regulate gene expression. The phenotype of a given species is not absolute for a given genotype but rather variable within bounds that are determined by mechanisms regulated by experience (e.g. epigenetic mechanisms). This phenotypic variation is not necessarily random, or evenly distributed along a continuum of description or measurement, but often highly disjointed, producing distinct, even opposing, phenotypes. The potentiality for these varying phenotypes is itself the product of evolution, the potential for alternative phenotypes itself conveying evolutionary advantage. Examples of such phenotypic variation, resulting from environmental or experiential influences, have a long history of study in neurobiology, and a number of these will be discussed in this review: neurodevelopmental experiences that produce phenotypic variation in visual perception, cognitive function, and emotional behavior. Although other examples will be discussed, particular emphasis will be made on the role of social behavior on neurodevelopment and phenotypic determination. It will be argued that an important purpose of some aspects of social behavior is regulation of neurobehavioral phenotypes by experience via genetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22643448

  8. Female-specific gene expression in dioecious liverwort Pellia endiviifolia is developmentally regulated and connected to archegonia production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    developmentally regulated. The contribution of the identified genes may be crucial for successful liverwort sexual reproduction. PMID:24939387

  9. The neurofilament antibody RT97 recognises a developmentally regulated phosphorylation epitope on microtubule-associated protein 1B

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSTONE, MANDY; GOOLD, ROBERT G.; FISCHER, ITZHAK; GORDON-WEEKS, PHILLIP R.

    1997-01-01

    Microtubules are important for the growth and maintenance of stable neuronal processes and their organisation is controlled partly by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). MAP 1B is the first MAP to be expressed in neurons and plays an important role in neurite outgrowth. MAP 1B is phosphorylated at multiple sites and it is believed that the function of the protein is regulated by its phosphorylation state. We have shown that the monoclonal antibody (mAb) RT97, which recognises phosphorylated epitopes on neurofilament proteins, fetal tau, and on Alzheimer's paired helical filament-tau, also recognises a developmentally regulated phosphorylation epitope on MAP 1B. In the rat cerebellum, Western blot analysis shows that mAb RT97 recognises the upper band of the MAP 1B doublet and that the amount of this epitope peaks very early postnatally and decreases with increasing age so that it is absent in the adult, despite the continued expression of MAP 1B in the adult. We confirmed that mAb RT97 binds to MAP 1B by showing that it recognises MAP 1B immunoprecipitated from postnatal rat cerebellum using polyclonal antibodies to recombinant MAP 1B proteins. We established that the RT97 epitope on MAP 1B is phosphorylated by showing that antibody binding was abolished by alkaline phosphatase treatment of immunoblots. Epitope mapping experiments suggest that the mAb RT97 site on MAP 1B is near the N-terminus of the molecule. Despite our immunoblotting data, immunostaining of sections of postnatal rat cerebellum with mAb RT97 shows a staining pattern typical of neurofilaments with no apparent staining of MAP 1B. For instance, basket cell axons and axons in the granule cell layer and white matter stained, whereas parallel fibres did not. These results suggest that the MAP 1B epitope is masked or lost under the immunocytochemical conditions in which the cerebellar sections are prepared. The upper band of the MAP 1B doublet is believed to be predominantly phosphorylated by

  10. Developmentally regulated effects of severe hemorrhage on cardiovascular homeostasis and the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate

    PubMed Central

    Samhan, Mohamed; Qi, Wei; Smith, Francine G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in developing animals, the cardiovascular responses to severe hemorrhage at which compensatory mechanisms fail and when blood pressure remains decreased after blood loss. Two groups of conscious lambs (Group I: one to two weeks, N = 7; group II: six to seven weeks, N = 7) were studied. Mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic pressures, and heart rate were measured for 20 min before (Control, C) and for 60 min after a fixed hemorrhage of 30% of blood volume. The arterial baroreflex control of heart rate was assessed before (C), and at 30 and 60 min intervals after hemorrhage. Mean arterial pressure decreased for up to 60 min after hemorrhage in both groups of lambs. In group I, heart rate decreased from 200 ± 29 (C) to 164 ± 24 beat min−1 at 30 min then increased to 232 ± 45 beat min−1 at 60 min, whereas heart rate remained unaltered in group II. With respect to the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate, by 30 min after hemorrhage in group I, there was a decrease in the heart rate range over which the baroreflex operates (P1) from 192 ± 13 (C) to 102 ± 9 beats min−1; by 60 min after hemorrhage, there was a decrease in minimum heart rate (P4) from 72 ± 10 (C) to 32 ± 25 beats min−1. In group II, P1 decreased to a lesser extent than group I from 134 ± 21 (C) to 82 ± 10 beats min−1 at 30 min; minimum heart rate (P4) decreased from 40 ± 15 (C) to 24 ± 9 and 20 ± 13 beats min−1 at 30 and 60 min, respectively. These results provide the first assessment of the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate following blood loss and new evidence that the cardiovascular responses to severe hemorrhage are developmentally regulated. PMID:26197929

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation revives a form of developmentally regulated synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of post-critical period rats.

    PubMed

    Shaffery, James P; Lopez, Jorge; Bissette, Garth; Roffwarg, Howard P

    2006-01-01

    The critical period for observing a developmentally regulated form of synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of young rats normally ends at about postnatal day 30. This developmentally regulated form of in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) can be reliably induced in layers II-III by aiming high frequency, theta burst stimulation (TBS) at the white matter situated directly below visual cortex (LTPWM-III). Previous work has demonstrated that suppression of sensory activation of visual cortex, achieved by rearing young rats in total darkness from birth, delays termination of the critical period for inducing LTPWM-III. Subsequent data also demonstrated that when rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is suppressed, thereby reducing REMS cortical activation, just prior to the end of the critical period, termination of this developmental phase is delayed, and LTPWM-III can still be reliably produced in the usual post-critical period. Here, we report that for approximately 3 weeks immediately following the usual end of the critical period, suppression of REMS disrupts the maturational processes that close the critical period, and LTPWM-III is readily induced in brain slices taken from these somewhat older animals. Insofar as in vitro LTP is a model for the cellular and molecular changes that underlie developmental synaptic plasticity, these results suggest that mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, which participate in brain development and perhaps also in learning and memory processes, remain susceptible to the effects of REMS deprivation during the general period of adolescence in the rat.

  12. Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT

    PubMed Central

    Sposito, Teresa; Preza, Elisavet; Mahoney, Colin J.; Setó-Salvia, Núria; Ryan, Natalie S.; Morris, Huw R.; Arber, Charles; Devine, Michael J.; Houlden, Henry; Warner, Thomas T.; Bushell, Trevor J.; Zagnoni, Michele; Kunath, Tilo; Livesey, Frederick J.; Fox, Nick C.; Rossor, Martin N.; Hardy, John; Wray, Selina

    2015-01-01

    The alternative splicing of the tau gene, MAPT, generates six protein isoforms in the adult human central nervous system (CNS). Tau splicing is developmentally regulated and dysregulated in disease. Mutations in MAPT that alter tau splicing cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau pathology, providing evidence for a causal link between altered tau splicing and disease. The use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons has revolutionized the way we model neurological disease in vitro. However, as most tau mutations are located within or around the alternatively spliced exon 10, it is important that iPSC–neurons splice tau appropriately in order to be used as disease models. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and splicing of tau in iPSC-derived cortical neurons from control patients and FTD patients with the 10 + 16 intronic mutation in MAPT. We show that control neurons only express the fetal tau isoform (0N3R), even at extended time points of 100 days in vitro. Neurons from FTD patients with the 10 + 16 mutation in MAPT express both 0N3R and 0N4R tau isoforms, demonstrating that this mutation overrides the developmental regulation of exon 10 inclusion in our in vitro model. Further, at extended time points of 365 days in vitro, we observe a switch in tau splicing to include six tau isoforms as seen in the adult human CNS. Our results demonstrate the importance of neuronal maturity for use in in vitro modeling and provide a system that will be important for understanding the functional consequences of altered tau splicing. PMID:26136155

  13. EMA: a developmentally regulated cell-surface glycoprotein of CNS neurons that is concentrated at the leading edge of growth cones.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, N L; Parkinson, D; Wayne, D B; Heuser, J E; Pearlman, A L

    1992-08-01

    To identify cell-surface molecules that mediate interactions between neurons and their environment during neural development, we used monoclonal antibody techniques to define a developmentally regulated antigen in the central nervous system of the mouse. The antibody we produced (2A1) immunolabels cells throughout the central nervous system; we analyzed its distribution in the developing cerebral cortex, where it is expressed on cells very soon after they complete mitosis and leave the periventricular proliferative zone. Expression continues into adult life. The antibody also labels the epithelium of the choroid plexus and the renal proximal tubules, but does not label neurons of the peripheral nervous system in the dorsal root ganglia. In dissociated cell culture of embryonic cerebral cortex, 2A1 labels the surface of neurons but not glia. Immunolabeling of neurons in tissue culture is particularly prominent on the edge of growth cones, including filopodia and the leading edge of lamellipodia, when observed with either immunofluorescence or freeze-etch immunoelectron microscopy. Immunopurification with 2A1 of a CHAPS-extracted membrane preparation from brains of neonatal mice produces a broad (32-36 kD) electrophoretic band and a less prominent 70 kD band that are sensitive to N-glycosidase but not endoglycosidase H. Thus the 2A1 antibody recognizes a developmentally regulated, neuronal cell surface glycoprotein (or glycoproteins) with complex N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. We have termed the glycoprotein antigen EMA because of its prominence on the edge membrane of growth cones. EMA is similar to the M6 antigen (Lagenaur et al: J. Neurobiol. 23:71-88, 1992) in apparent molecular weight, distribution in tissue sections, and immunoreactivity on Western blots, suggesting that the two antigens are similar or identical. Expression of EMA is a very early manifestation of neuronal differentiation; its distribution on growth cones suggests a role in mediating the

  14. Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene.

    PubMed

    Sharon-Asa, Liat; Shalit, Moshe; Frydman, Ahuva; Bar, Einat; Holland, Doron; Or, Etti; Lavi, Uri; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Eyal, Yoram

    2003-12-01

    Citrus fruits possess unique aromas rarely found in other fruit species. While fruit flavor is composed of complex combinations of soluble and volatile compounds, several low-abundance sesquiterpenes, such as valencene, nootkatone, alpha-sinensal, and beta-sinensal, stand out in citrus as important flavor and aroma compounds. The profile of terpenoid volatiles in various citrus species and their importance as aroma compounds have been studied in detail, but much is still lacking in our understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and genetic regulation of their production. Here, we report on the isolation, functional expression, and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a sesquiterpene synthase-encoding gene, involved in citrus aroma formation. The recombinant enzyme encoded by Cstps1 was shown to convert farnesyl diphosphate to a single sesquiterpene product identified as valencene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phylogenetic analysis of plant terpene synthase genes localized Cstps1 to the group of angiosperm sesquiterpene synthases. Within this group, Cstps1 belongs to a subgroup of citrus sesquiterpene synthases. Cstps1 was found to be developmentally regulated: transcript was found to accumulate only towards fruit maturation, corresponding well with the timing of valencene accumulation in fruit. Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric, valencene accumulation and Cstps1 expression were found to be responsive to ethylene, providing further evidence for the role of ethylene in the final stages of citrus fruit ripening. Isolation of the gene encoding valencene synthase provides a tool for an in-depth study of the regulation of aroma compound biosynthesis in citrus and for metabolic engineering for fruit flavor characteristics. PMID:14617067

  15. Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

    PubMed

    Givens, Marjory L; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E; Swan, Christo H; Rubenstein, John L R; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L

    2005-05-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development.

  16. Distinguishing among electron injection types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

  17. Developmentally regulated expression of pleiotrophin, a novel heparin binding growth factor, in the nervous system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wanaka, A; Carroll, S L; Milbrandt, J

    1993-03-19

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a newly identified heparin-binding growth factor which is closely related to the retinoic acid-inducible MK protein. PTN is expressed at high levels in perinatal brain and promotes neurite outgrowth from embryonic brain neurons and mitogenesis in fibroblasts, suggesting that it may play an important role in the development of the nervous system. We have used in situ hybridization to examine PTN expression in the developing and adult rat nervous systems. During embryogenesis, PTN mRNA is primarily expressed by neuroglial progenitor cells in the subependymal layer of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas during the perinatal period high levels of PTN transcripts are found in neurons as well as glial elements (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). In the adult brain, PTN expression is markedly decreased relative to early postnatal brain and, in contrast to the neuronal and glial expression observed in young animals, is confined to specific neuronal subpopulations (especially hippocampal CA1-3 regions, cerebral cortex laminae II-IV). PTN is also expressed in the developing spinal cord and eye. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), PTN mRNA is present in ganglionic neurons during embryogenesis. In adult ganglia, however, PTN expression becomes localized to the satellite cells of the ganglia. The developmental pattern of PTN expression in the CNS and the 'switch' in expression from neurons to satellite cells in the PNS suggests that it has important functions not only in the developing nervous system, but also in the adult CNS and PNS and that the functions performed by this growth factor change during ontogeny. We have also found that levels of PTN mRNA are dramatically but transiently elevated in neurons of the hippocampus, piriform cortex and parietal cortex following a chemically induced seizure, indicating that neuronal PTN mRNA expression is increased by intense physiological stimuli and may play a role in the response to these stimuli.

  18. Distinguishing Schemes and Tasks in Children's Development of Multiplicative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzur, Ron; Johnson, Heather L.; McClintock, Evan; Kenney, Rachael H.; Xin, Yan P.; Si, Luo; Woordward, Jerry; Hord, Casey; Jin, Xianyan

    2013-01-01

    We present a synthesis of findings from constructivist teaching experiments regarding six schemes children construct for reasoning multiplicatively and tasks to promote them. We provide a task-generating platform game, depictions of each scheme, and supporting tasks. Tasks must be distinguished from children's thinking, and learning situations…

  19. Developmental regulation of the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 and 1-octanol on neuronogenesis: implications for a hypothesis relating to mitogen-antimitogen opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goto, T.; Takahashi, T.; Miyama, S.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Bhide, P. G.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2002-01-01

    Neocortical neurons arise from a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that lies within the ventricular zone (VZ) at the margins of the embryonic cerebral ventricles. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and 1-octanol on cell output behavior of the PVE in explants of the embryonic mouse cerebral wall. FGF-2 is mitogenic and 1-octanol antimitogenic in the PVE. Whereas all postmitotic cells migrate out of the VZ in vivo, in the explants some postmitotic cells remain within the VZ. We refer to these cells as the indeterminate or I fraction, because they neither exit from the VZ nor reenter S phase as part of the proliferative (P) fraction. They are considered to be either in an extremely prolonged G(1) phase, unable to pass the G(1)/S transition, or in the G(0) state. The I fate choice is modulated by both FGF-2 and 1-octanol. FGF-2 decreased the I fraction and increased the P fraction. In contrast, 1-octanol increased the I fraction and nearly eliminated the P fraction. The effects of FGF-2 and 1-octanol were developmentally regulated, in that they were observed in the developmentally advanced lateral region of the cerebral wall but not in the medial region. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The Tomato Hoffman's Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhengkun; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  1. Developmental regulation of neuroligin genes in Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis maintains the rhythm during ethanol-induced fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Haron, Mona H; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2014-01-01

    Although prenatal alcohol exposure is the potential cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in humans, the molecular mechanism(s) of FASD is yet unknown. We have used Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis as an animal model of FASD and reported that this model has effectively generated several phenotypic features in the cardiovasculature and neurocranial cartilages by developmental ethanol exposure which is analogous to human FASD phenotypes. As FASD is a neurobehavioral disorder, we are searching for a molecular target of ethanol that alters neurological functions. In this communication, we have focused on neuroligin genes (nlgn) which are known to be active at the postsynaptic side of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses of the central nervous system. There are six human NLGN homologs of Japanese ricefish reported in public data bases. We have partially cloned these genes and analyzed their expression pattern during normal development and also after exposing the embryos to ethanol. Our data indicate that the expression of all six nlgn genes in Japanese ricefish embryos is developmentally regulated. Although ethanol is able to induce developmental abnormalities in Japanese ricefish embryogenesis comparable to the FASD phenotypes, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of nlgn mRNAs indicate unresponsiveness of these genes to ethanol. We conclude that the disruption of the developmental rhythm of Japanese ricefish embryogenesis by ethanol that leads to FASD may not affect the nlgn gene expression at the message level.

  2. The Tomato Hoffman’s Anthocyaninless Gene Encodes a bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis That Is Developmentally Regulated and Induced by Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Huang, Zejun; Du, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments play many roles in plants, including providing protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of the genes that mediate anthocyanin accumulation have been identified through studies of flowers and fruits; however, the mechanisms of genes involved in anthocyanin regulation in seedlings under low-temperature stimulus are less well understood. Genetic characterization of a tomato inbred line, FMTT271, which showed no anthocyanin pigmentation, revealed a mutation in a bHLH transcription factor (TF) gene, which corresponds to the ah (Hoffman's anthocyaninless) locus, and so the gene in FMTT271 at that locus was named ah. Overexpression of the wild type allele of AH in FMTT271 resulted in greater anthocyanin accumulation and increased expression of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of AH and anthocyanin accumulation in seedlings was shown to be developmentally regulated and induced by low-temperature stress. Additionally, transcriptome analyses of hypocotyls and leaves from the near-isogenic lines seedlings revealed that AH not only influences the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, but also genes associated with responses to abiotic stress. Furthermore, the ah mutation was shown to cause accumulation of reactive oxidative species and the constitutive activation of defense responses under cold conditions. These results suggest that AH regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis, thereby playing a protective role, and that this function is particularly important in young seedlings that are particularly vulnerable to abiotic stresses. PMID:26943362

  3. A Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus Developmental Regulator MedA Is Required for Nuclear Localization, Adhesion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Lee, Mark J.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA346–557, that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA346–557 alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA346–557 domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function. PMID:23185496

  4. The Toll-like receptor-4 in human and mouse colonic epithelium is developmentally regulated: a possible role in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Di; Zhu, Weishu; Shi, Hai Ning; Lu, Lei; Wijendran, Vasuki; Xu, Winber; Walker, W. Allan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an immature intestinal condition resulting in devastating intestinal inflammation due to unknown mechanisms. Evidence has suggested that intestinal maturation attenuates the severity of NEC and TLR4 has been suggested to play a critical role in its pathogenesis. We investigated whether maturational effects of TLR4 expression in immature colon might contribute to the development of NEC. METHODS TLR4 colonocyte expression was detected by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS TLR4 expression was high in fetal colonic epithelium in human and mouse, with earlier gestation having a higher surface/cytoplasm distribution. TLR4 remained high in mouse postnatal day 1 but the surface/cytoplasm distribution was reduced. TLR4 decreased in amount and then was expressed in crypts in the mature human and mouse colon. Hydrocortisone (HC) reduced the surface/cytoplasm distribution of TLR4 in human fetal colon. Elevated IL-6 levels in immature colon after LPS was attenuated by HC in human and mouse. CONCLUSION Expression, localization and signaling of TLR4 in colonic epithelium may be developmentally regulated. HC may accelerate the TLR developmental pathway change to an adult type which may account for its impact on TLR4 signaling. PMID:25521917

  5. Murine fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) gene is disrupted by a neonatally lethal albino deletion that defines the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. )

    1992-02-15

    Homozygous deletion of the hepatocyte-specific developmental regulation 1 (hsdr-1) locus in mouse chromosome 7 results in perinatal death and a pleiotropic syndrome characterized by ultrastructural abnormalities of the liver and kidney, failure of induction of a number of specific transcription units in the liver and kidney during late gestation, and marked overexpression of an enzyme that defends against oxidative stress. Previously, the breakpoints of two albino (c) deletions (c{sup 14CoS} and c{sup IFAFyh}) that genetically define hsdr-1 were localized, on a long-range map, in the vicinity of the distal breakpoint of a viable albino deletion (c{sup 24R75M}) that breaks proximally within the c locus. Here the authors report the use of a probe derived from a deletion breakpoint fusion fragment cloned from c{sup 24R75M}/c{sup 24R75M} DNA to clone a breakpoint fusion fragment caused by the c{sup 14CoS} deletion. The proximal breakpoint of the c{sup 14CoS} deletion was discovered to disrupt a gene (Fah) encoding fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the last enzyme in the tyrosine degradation pathway. These mouse mutants may also provide models for the human genetic disorder hereditary tyrosinemia, which is associated with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency and liver and kidney dysfunction.

  6. Novel rice MAP kinases OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 involved in encountering diverse environmental stresses and developmental regulation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh K; Agrawal, Shyam K; Shibato, Junko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2003-01-17

    We report isolation of two novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), OsMSRMK3 (multiple stress responsive) and OsWJUMK1 (wound- and JA-uninducible) that most likely exist as single copy genes in its genome. OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 encode 369 and 569 amino acid polypeptides having the MAPK family signature and phosphorylation activation motifs TEY and TDY, respectively. Steady state mRNA analyses of these MAPKs with constitutive expression in leaves of two-week-old seedlings revealed that OsMSRMK3 was up-regulated upon wounding (by cut), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), protein phosphatase inhibitors, chitosan, high salt/sugar, and heavy metals, whereas OsWJUMK1 not induced by either wounding, JA or SA, showed up-regulation only by H(2)O(2), heavy metals, and cold stress (12 degrees C). Moreover, these MAPKs were developmentally regulated. These results strongly suggest a role for OsMSRMK3 and OsWJUMK1 in both stress-signalling pathways and development in rice. PMID:12507518

  7. Occurrence of poly(alpha2,8-deaminoneuraminic acid) in mammalian tissues: widespread and developmentally regulated but highly selective expression on glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ziak, M; Qu, B; Zuo, X; Zuber, C; Kanamori, A; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Roth, J

    1996-01-01

    In tissues of higher organisms homopolymers of alpha2,8-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid can be found as a posttranslational modification on selected proteins. We report here the discovery of homopolymers of alpha2,8-linked deaminoneuraminic acid [poly(alpha2,8-KDN)] in various tissues derived from all three germ layers in vertebrates including mammals. The monoclonal antibody kdn8kdn in conjunction with a bacterial KDNase permitted the detection of poly(alpha2,8-KDN) by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Further evidence for the existence of poly(alpha2,8-KDN) was obtained by gas/liquid chromatography. The poly(alpha2,8-KDN) glycan was detectable in all tissues studied with the exception of mucus-producing cells present in various organs, the extracellular matrix, and basement membranes. However, in certain organs such as muscle, kidney, lung, and brain its expression was developmentally regulated. Despite its widespread tissue distribution, the poly(alpha2,8-KDN) glycan was detected on a single 150-kDa glycoprotein except for a single >350-kDa glycoprotein in kidney, which makes it most distinctive among polysialic acids. The ubiquitous yet selective expression may be indicative of a general function of the poly(alpha2,8-KDN)-bearing glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8610115

  8. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  9. Distinguishing ichthyoses by protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Rice, Robert H; Bradshaw, Katie M; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Schmuth, Matthias; Gruber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.

  10. Cardiac ventricular chambers are epigenetically distinguishable.

    PubMed

    Mathiyalagan, Prabhu; Chang, Lisa; Du, Xiao-Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-02-01

    The left and right ventricles are muscular chambers of the heart that differ significantly in the extent of pressure work-load. The regional and differential distribution of gene expression patterns is critical not only for heart development, but, also in the establishment of cardiac hypertrophy phenotypes. the cells of the myocardium employ elaborate regulatory mechanisms to establish changes in chromatin structure and function, yet, the role of epigenetic modifications and specific gene expression patterns in cardiac ventricles remains poorly understood. We have examined gene expression changes and studied histone H3 and H4 acetylation as well as dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 on promoters of alpha-Myosin heavy chain gene (alpha-MHC), beta-Myosin heavy chain gene (beta-MHC), Atrial natriuretic peptide gene (ANp), B-type natriuretic peptide gene (BNP) and Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene (SERCA2a). The recruitment of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzyme p300, which is a transcriptional coactivator, was also studied on the hyperacetylated promoters using immunopurification of soluble chromatin in the left and right ventricles of the mouse. We present evidence for the first time that the pattern of gene expression is closely linked with histone modifications and propose the left and right chambers of the heart are epigenetically distinguishable. PMID:20090419

  11. Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem on distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2006-08-15

    The presence of an additive-conserved quantity imposes a limitation on the measurement process. According to the Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem, perfect repeatability and distinguishability of the apparatus cannot be attained simultaneously. Instead of repeatability, in this paper, the distinguishability in both systems is examined. We derive a trade-off inequality between the distinguishability of the final states on the system and the one on the apparatus. An inequality shows that perfect distinguishability of both systems cannot be attained simultaneously.

  12. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  13. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  14. Developmentally regulated HEART STOPPER, a mitochondrially targeted L18 ribosomal protein gene, is required for cell division, differentiation, and seed development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyu; Luo, Ming; Day, Robert C.; Talbot, Mark J.; Ivanova, Aneta; Ashton, Anthony R.; Chaudhury, Abed M.; Macknight, Richard C.; Hrmova, Maria; Koltunow, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the role of a mitochondrial ribosomal (mitoribosomal) L18 protein in cell division, differentiation, and seed development after the characterization of a recessive mutant, heart stopper (hes). The hes mutant produced uncellularized endosperm and embryos arrested at the late globular stage. The mutant embryos differentiated partially on rescue medium with some forming callus. HES (At1g08845) encodes a mitochondrially targeted member of a highly diverged L18 ribosomal protein family. The substitution of a conserved amino residue in the hes mutant potentially perturbs mitoribosomal function via altered binding of 5S rRNA and/or influences the stability of the 50S ribosomal subunit, affecting mRNA binding and translation. Consistent with this, marker genes for mitochondrial dysfunction were up-regulated in the mutant. The slow growth of the endosperm and embryo indicates a defect in cell cycle progression, which is evidenced by the down-regulation of cell cycle genes. The down-regulation of other genes such as EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes links the mitochondria to the regulation of many aspects of seed development. HES expression is developmentally regulated, being preferentially expressed in tissues with active cell division and differentiation, including developing embryos and the root tips. The divergence of the L18 family, the tissue type restricted expression of HES, and the failure of other L18 members to complement the hes phenotype suggest that the L18 proteins are involved in modulating development. This is likely via heterogeneous mitoribosomes containing different L18 members, which may result in differential mitochondrial functions in response to different physiological situations during development. PMID:26105995

  15. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Meireles-Filho, Antonio C. A.; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  16. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana contributes to potyvirus movement and transports to plasmodesmata via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin system.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5'-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement.

  17. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Yarker, Joanne L.; Emelianov, Vladimir N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Scarpa, Julie A.; Chambon, Pierre; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Fessing, Michael Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin structural states and their remodelling, including higher-order chromatin folding and three-dimensional (3D) genome organisation, play an important role in the control of gene expression. The role of 3D genome organisation in the control and execution of lineage-specific transcription programmes during the development and differentiation of multipotent stem cells into specialised cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we show that substantial remodelling of the higher-order chromatin structure of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC), a keratinocyte lineage-specific gene locus on mouse chromosome 3, occurs during epidermal morphogenesis. During epidermal development, the locus relocates away from the nuclear periphery towards the nuclear interior into a compartment enriched in SC35-positive nuclear speckles. Relocation of the EDC locus occurs prior to the full activation of EDC genes involved in controlling terminal keratinocyte differentiation and is a lineage-specific, developmentally regulated event controlled by transcription factor p63, a master regulator of epidermal development. We also show that, in epidermal progenitor cells, p63 directly regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Brg1, which binds to distinct domains within the EDC and is required for relocation of the EDC towards the nuclear interior. Furthermore, Brg1 also regulates gene expression within the EDC locus during epidermal morphogenesis. Thus, p63 and its direct target Brg1 play an essential role in remodelling the higher-order chromatin structure of the EDC and in the specific positioning of this locus within the landscape of the 3D nuclear space, as required for the efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal progenitor cells during skin development. PMID:24346698

  18. Genome-Wide Ultrabithorax Binding Analysis Reveals Highly Targeted Genomic Loci at Developmental Regulators and a Potential Connection to Polycomb-Mediated Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shlyueva, Daria; Meireles-Filho, Antonio C A; Pagani, Michaela; Stark, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Hox homeodomain transcription factors are key regulators of animal development. They specify the identity of segments along the anterior-posterior body axis in metazoans by controlling the expression of diverse downstream targets, including transcription factors and signaling pathway components. The Drosophila melanogaster Hox factor Ultrabithorax (Ubx) directs the development of thoracic and abdominal segments and appendages, and loss of Ubx function can lead for example to the transformation of third thoracic segment appendages (e.g. halters) into second thoracic segment appendages (e.g. wings), resulting in a characteristic four-wing phenotype. Here we present a Drosophila melanogaster strain with a V5-epitope tagged Ubx allele, which we employed to obtain a high quality genome-wide map of Ubx binding sites using ChIP-seq. We confirm the sensitivity of the V5 ChIP-seq by recovering 7/8 of well-studied Ubx-dependent cis-regulatory regions. Moreover, we show that Ubx binding is predictive of enhancer activity as suggested by comparison with a genome-scale resource of in vivo tested enhancer candidates. We observed densely clustered Ubx binding sites at 12 extended genomic loci that included ANTP-C, BX-C, Polycomb complex genes, and other regulators and the clustered binding sites were frequently active enhancers. Furthermore, Ubx binding was detected at known Polycomb response elements (PREs) and was associated with significant enrichments of Pc and Pho ChIP signals in contrast to binding sites of other developmental TFs. Together, our results show that Ubx targets developmental regulators via strongly clustered binding sites and allow us to hypothesize that regulation by Ubx might involve Polycomb group proteins to maintain specific regulatory states in cooperative or mutually exclusive fashion, an attractive model that combines two groups of proteins with prominent gene regulatory roles during animal development. PMID:27575958

  19. The plasma membrane NADPH oxidase OsRbohA plays a crucial role in developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Wang, Ya-Jing; Gao, Yin-Tao; Li, Ri; Wang, Gang-Feng; Li, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. In the present study the total activity of rice NADPH oxidases and the transcription of OsRbohA, which encodes an Oryza sativa plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, were stimulated by drought. OsRbohA was expressed in all tissues examined throughout development. Its mRNA was upregulated by a number of factors, including heat, drought, salt, oxidative stress and methyl jasmonate treatment. Compared with wild-type (WT), the OsRbohA-knockout mutant osrbohA exhibited upregulated expression of other respiratory burst oxidase homolog genes and multiple abnormal agronomic traits, including reduced biomass, low germination rate and decreased pollen viability and seed fertility. However, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants showed no differences in these traits compared with WT. Although osrbohA leaves and roots produced more ROS than WT, the mutant had lesser intracellular ROS. In contrast, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher ROS production at the intracellular level and in tissues. Ablation of OsRbohA impaired the tolerance of plants to various water stresses, whereas its overexpression enhanced the tolerance. In addition, a number of genes related to energy supply, substrate transport, stress response and transcriptional regulation were differentially expressed in osrbohA plants even under normal growth conditions, suggesting that OsRbohA has fundamental and broad functions in rice. These results indicate that OsRbohA-mediated processes are governed by complex signaling pathways that function during the developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice. PMID:26400148

  20. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Tsetlin, Victor; Klein, Anders Bue; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-11-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic compartments. We further estimate the amount of Lynx1 in the rat cortex using known amounts of a heterologously expressed soluble Lynx1 variant (ws-Lynx1) to be approximately 8.6 ng/μg total protein, which is in line with the concentrations of ws-Lynx1 required to affect nAChR function. In addition, we demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus at the mRNA and protein level, and that this is paralleled to some degree by the expression of the nAChR subunits α2, α4, α7 and β2. Our results demonstrate a developmental pattern, localization, and concentration of Ly-6 proteins in the brain, which support a role for these proteins in the modulation of signaling at synaptic membranes.

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of the Kentucky Distinguished Education Initiative: A New Approach to Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mimi Mitchell; And Others

    The goal of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA) of 1990 was that all schools would be successful as measured by the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS). The Kentucky Distinguished Educator Program was created to promote the goal. The program sought to create a pool of distinguished educators who would serve in School…

  2. Orthogonality and distinguishability: Criterion for local distinguishability of arbitrary orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2003-12-01

    We consider the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multipartite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

  3. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris.

  4. Beyond Benford's Law: Distinguishing Noise from Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglei; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2015-01-01

    Determinism and randomness are two inherent aspects of all physical processes. Time series from chaotic systems share several features identical with those generated from stochastic processes, which makes them almost undistinguishable. In this paper, a new method based on Benford's law is designed in order to distinguish noise from chaos by only information from the first digit of considered series. By applying this method to discrete data, we confirm that chaotic data indeed can be distinguished from noise data, quantitatively and clearly. PMID:26030809

  5. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  6. Distinguishing Disability: Parents, Privilege, and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong-Dean, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing Disability"…

  7. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  8. Characteristics of Distinguished Programs of Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenholz, Robert J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic program rankings are highly anticipated by many university administrators, faculty, and alumni. This study analyzed the perceptions of agricultural education departmental contact persons to identify esteemed post-secondary agricultural education programs and the distinguishing characteristics of each program. The ten most distinguished…

  9. Can Values Be Distinguished from Prejudices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoyte, Robert L.; Sikula, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Using case studies, the authors demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing an act influenced by a person's prejudice from an act influenced by a person's values. Social studies teachers are urged to deal with controversial topics to help students clarify their feelings about issues such as abortion, drug use, religion, and politics. (AV)

  10. Distinguishing Provenance Equivalence of Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt; Yesha, Ye; Halem, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reproducibility of scientific research relies on accurate and precise citation of data and the provenance of that data. Earth science data are often the result of applying complex data transformation and analysis workflows to vast quantities of data. Provenance information of data processing is used for a variety of purposes, including understanding the process and auditing as well as reproducibility. Certain provenance information is essential for producing scientifically equivalent data. Capturing and representing that provenance information and assigning identifiers suitable for precisely distinguishing data granules and datasets is needed for accurate comparisons. This paper discusses scientific equivalence and essential provenance for scientific reproducibility. We use the example of an operational earth science data processing system to illustrate the application of the technique of cascading digital signatures or hash chains to precisely identify sets of granules and as provenance equivalence identifiers to distinguish data made in an an equivalent manner.

  11. Kinetically Distinguishable Populations of Phytochrome 1

    PubMed Central

    Purves, William K.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1968-01-01

    Two or more kinetically distinguishable populations of phytochrome molecules were observed in living tissues of oat, pea, maize, and cauliflower, as well as in extracts of oat. At least 3 different populations occurred in cauliflower florets, while 2 were observed in each of the other species. In extracted oat phytochrome, the relative proportions of the 2 forms remained constant during successive stages of purification. The physiological significance of this multiplicity of forms remains unclear. PMID:16656909

  12. Familial Identification: Population Structure and Relationship Distinguishability

    PubMed Central

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758

  13. Enriched Expression and Developmental Regulation of the Middle-Weight Neurofilament (NF-M) Gene in Song Control Nuclei of the Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    VELHO, TARCISO A.F.; LOVELL, PETER; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

    2014-01-01

    Songbirds evolved a complex set of dimorphic telencephalic nuclei that are essential for the learning and production of song. These nuclei, which together make up the oscine song control system, present several neurochemical properties that distinguish them from the rest of the telencephalon. Here we show that the expression of the gene encoding the middle-weight neurofilament (NF-M), an important component of the neuronal cytoskeleton and a useful tool for studying the cytarchitectonic organization of mammalian cortical areas, is highly enriched in large neurons within pallial song control nuclei (nucleus HVC, robustus nucleus of the arcopallium, and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium) of male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We also show that this transcript is highly expressed in large neurons in the medulla, pons, midbrain, and thalamus. Moreover, we demonstrate that NF-M expression in song control nuclei changes during postembryonic development, peaking during an early phase of the song-learning period that coincides with the maturation of the song system. We did not observe changes in NF-M expression in auditory areas or in song control nuclei in the contexts of hearing song or singing, although these contexts result in marked induction of the transcription factor ZENK. This observation suggests that NF-M might not be under the regulatory control of ZENK in auditory areas or in song control nuclei. Overall, our data indicate that NF-M is a neurochemical marker for pallial song control nuclei and provide suggestive evidence of an involvement of NF-M in the development and/or maturation of the oscine song control system. PMID:17120287

  14. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  15. Characteristics that distinguish types of epithermal deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayba, D.O.; Foley, N.K.; Heald-Wetlaufer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three distinctive groupings of epithermal deposits were recognized from a literature study of fifteen well-described precious- and base-metal epithermal districts, supplemented by L. J. Buchanan's 1981 compilation of data from 47 less completely documented deposits. The three groups are distinguished primarily by the type of alteration and the sulfur fugacity indicated by the vein mineral assemblage. Additional discriminating criteria include composition of the host rock, timing of ore deposition relative to emplacement of the host, and relative abundances of gold, silver, and base metals.

  16. Techniques to Distinguish Apoptosis from Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Feoktistova, Maria; Wallberg, Fredrik; Tenev, Tencho; Geserick, Peter; Leverkus, Martin; Meier, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The processes by which cells die are as tightly regulated as those that govern cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies of the molecular pathways that regulate and execute cell death have uncovered a plethora of signaling cascades that lead to distinct modes of cell death, including "apoptosis," "necrosis," "autophagic cell death," and "mitotic catastrophe." Cells can readily switch from one form of death to another; therefore, it is vital to have the ability to monitor the form of death that cells are undergoing. A number of techniques are available that allow the detection of cell death and when combined with either knockdown approaches or inhibitors of specific signaling pathways, such as caspase or RIP kinase pathways, they allow the rapid dissection of divergent cell death pathways. However, techniques that reveal the end point of cell death cannot reconstruct the sequence of events that have led to death; therefore, they need to be complemented with methods that can distinguish all forms of cell death. Apoptotic cells frequently undergo secondary necrosis under in vitro culture conditions; therefore, novel methods relying on high-throughput time-lapse fluorescence video microscopy are necessary to provide temporal resolution to cell death events. Further, visualizing the assembly of multiprotein signaling hubs that can execute apoptosis or necroptosis helps to explore the underlying processes. Here we introduce a suite of techniques that reliably distinguish necrosis from apoptosis and secondary necrosis, and that enable investigation of signaling platforms capable of instructing apoptosis or necroptosis. PMID:27037077

  17. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Mello, Tathyana R P; Aleixo, Aline C; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Nunes, Francis M F; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R; Simões, Zilá L P

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A(+) transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  18. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Tathyana R. P.; Aleixo, Aline C.; Pinheiro, Daniel G.; Nunes, Francis M. F.; Bitondi, Márcia M. G.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Barchuk, Angel R.; Simões, Zilá L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH), control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1). EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g., miR-133 and miR-375), as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g., miR-3745 and miR-3761). Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect. PMID:25566327

  19. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  20. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  1. Comparative minicolumnar morphometry of three distinguished scientists.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; Switala, Andrew E; Trippe, Juan; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-11-01

    It has been suggested that the cell minicolumn is the smallest module capable of information processing within the brain. In this case series, photomicrographs of six regions of interests (Brodmann areas 4, 9, 17, 21, 22, and 40) were analyzed by computerized image analysis for minicolumnar morphometry in the brains of three distinguished scientists and six normative controls. Overall, there were significant differences (p < 0.001) between the comparison groups in both minicolumnar width (CW) and mean cell spacing (MCS). Although our scientists did not exhibit deficits in communication or interpersonal skills, the resultant minicolumnar phenotype bears similarity to that described for both autism and Asperger's syndrome. Computer modeling has shown that smaller columns account for discrimination among signals during information processing. A minicolumnar phenotype that provides for discrimination and/or focused attention may help explain the savant abilities observed in some autistic people and the intellectually gifted.

  2. Distinguishing Solar Cycle Effects in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    As solar radiation decreases with distance from the Sun, other sources of energy, such as ionization from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), assume a greater relative importance than at the terrestrial planets. Charged particle effects could therefore be more relevant to the formation of clouds and haze at the outer planets. The long-term solar modulation of Neptune's albedo is thought to be caused by either ion-induced nucleation of cloud-forming particles, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the colour of the clouds. On the basis of the 11 year solar cycle, the statistical evidence was slightly in favour of the UV mechanism, however distinguishing unambiguously between the two mechanisms will require more than the solar cycle variation alone. A 1.68 year quasi-periodicity, uniquely present at some times from heliospheric modulation of GCR, has previously been used to discriminate between solar UV and GCR effects in terrestrial data. The cosmic ray proton monitor data from both the Voyager spacecraft show this 1.68 year modulation during the 1980s when the spacecraft were close to the outer planets, indicating the possibility for applying a similar technique as far out as Neptune.

  3. Developmental changes in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects.

    PubMed

    Alain, Claude; Theunissen, Eef L; Chevalier, Hélène; Batty, Magali; Taylor, Margot J

    2003-04-01

    Children have considerable difficulties in identifying speech in noise. In the present study, we examined age-related differences in central auditory functions that are crucial for parsing co-occurring auditory events using behavioral and event-related brain potential measures. Seventeen pre-adolescent children and 17 adults were presented with complex sounds containing multiple harmonics, one of which could be 'mistuned' so that it was no longer an integer multiple of the fundamental. Both children and adults were more likely to report hearing the mistuned harmonic as a separate sound with an increase in mistuning. However, children were less sensitive in detecting mistuning across all levels as revealed by lower d' scores than adults. The perception of two concurrent auditory events was accompanied by a negative wave that peaked at about 160 ms after sound onset. In both age groups, the negative wave, referred to as the 'object-related negativity' (ORN), increased in amplitude with mistuning. The ORN was larger in children than in adults despite a lower d' score. Together, the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that concurrent sound segregation is probably adult-like in pre-adolescent children, but that children are inefficient in processing the information following the detection of mistuning. These findings also suggest that processes involved in distinguishing concurrent auditory objects continue to mature during adolescence.

  4. Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, Robert

    2004-11-23

    Realistic studies of plumage color need to consider that many birds can see near-UV light, which normal humans cannot perceive. Although previous investigations have revealed that UV-based plumage reflectance is an important component of various intraspecific social signals, the contribution of UV signals to inter-specific divergence and speciation in birds remains largely unexplored. I describe an avian example of an interspecific phenomenon in which related sympatric species that appear similar to humans (sibling species) differ dramatically in the UV. Both UV video images and physical reflectance spectra indicate that the dorsal plumage of the tanager Anisognathus notabilis has a strong UV-limited reflectance band that readily distinguishes this species from its sibling congener Anisognathus flavinuchus. The main human-visible distinction between A. notabilis (olive back) and coexisting A. flavinuchus (black back) also occurs among different geographic populations of A. flavinuchus. Notably, however, olive- and black-backed taxa interbreed (differentiated populations of A. flavinuchus) unless the additional UV distinction is present (A. notabilis vs. A. flavinuchus). Thus, UV-based reflectance can be an essential component of plumage divergence that relates to reproductive isolation, a key attribute of biological species.

  5. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-07-15

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter {gamma}. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  6. Repressive BMP2 gene regulatory elements near the BMP2 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shan; Chandler, Ronald L.; Fritz, David T.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.

    2010-02-05

    The level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) profoundly influences essential cell behaviors such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. The spatial and temporal pattern of BMP2 synthesis, particular in diverse embryonic cells, is highly varied and dynamic. We have identified GC-rich sequences within the BMP2 promoter region that strongly repress gene expression. These elements block the activity of a highly conserved, osteoblast enhancer in response to FGF2 treatment. Both positive and negative gene regulatory elements control BMP2 synthesis. Detecting and mapping the repressive motifs is essential because they impede the identification of developmentally regulated enhancers necessary for normal BMP2 patterns and concentration.

  7. Distinguishing dynamical dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2012-09-01

    Dynamical dark matter (DDM) is a new framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises an ensemble of individual component fields which collectively conspire to act in ways that transcend those normally associated with dark matter. Because of its nontrivial structure, this DDM ensemble—unlike most traditional dark-matter candidates—cannot be characterized in terms of a single mass, decay width, or set of scattering cross sections, but must instead be described by parameters which describe the collective behavior of its constituents. Likewise, the components of such an ensemble need not be stable so long as lifetimes are balanced against cosmological abundances across the ensemble as a whole. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for identifying a DDM ensemble at the LHC and for distinguishing such a dark-matter candidate from the candidates characteristic of traditional dark-matter models. In particular, we focus on DDM scenarios in which the component fields of the ensemble are produced at colliders alongside some number of standard-model particles via the decays of additional heavy fields. The invariant-mass distributions of these standard-model particles turn out to possess several unique features that cannot be replicated in most traditional dark-matter models. We demonstrate that in many situations it is possible to differentiate between a DDM ensemble and a traditional dark-matter candidate on the basis of such distributions. Moreover, many of our results also apply more generally to a variety of other extensions of the standard model which involve multiple stable or metastable neutral particles.

  8. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  9. Alexander Hollaender Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program:

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Based on the information provided by the laboratories, ORAU developed and distributed program literature. The program brochure includes a brief program description, eligibility and selection criteria, program benefits and obligations, programs and research areas of OHER, participating laboratories, and other application information. The program description booklet gives more detail on these areas and also includes a biography of Dr. Hollaender and the laboratory descriptions submitted by the participating laboratories. Copies of the brochure and booklet are given in Appendix A. Appendix B includes a listing of promotional activities as well as some examples of program advertisements, press releases, and journal or newspaper articles. Program promotion resulted in the submission of 93 applications during the first cycle of program operation. The 93 applicants received their doctoral degrees from 53 universities in 28 states and from eight universities in six foreign countries. All but three applicants held or expected to receive a PhD degree;two had MDs;one had a DVM degree. The applicants, with more than 40 different academic majors, represent the full range of disciplines in the life, biomedical, and environmental sciences. Appendix C gives detailed information about each applicant.

  10. Developmental regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor subunit expression in forebrain and relationship to regional susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic injury. I. Rodent cerebral white matter and cortex.

    PubMed

    Talos, Delia M; Fishman, Rachel E; Park, Hyunkyung; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Follett, Pamela L; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

    2006-07-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study to investigate the cellular distribution and temporal regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits in the developing white matter and cortex in rat (part I) and human (part II). Western blot and immunocytochemistry were used to evaluate the differential expression of AMPAR subunits on glial and neuronal subtypes during the first 3 postnatal weeks in the Long Evans and Sprague Dawley rat strains. In Long Evans rats during the first postnatal week, GluR2-lacking AMPARs were expressed predominantly on white matter cells, including radial glia, premyelinating oligodendrocytes, and subplate neurons, whereas, during the second postnatal week, these AMPARs were highly expressed on cortical neurons, coincident with decreased expression on white matter cells. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that cell-specific developmental changes in AMPAR expression occurred 2-3 days earlier by chronological age in Sprague Dawley rats compared with Long Evans rats, despite overall similar temporal sequencing. In both white and gray matter, the periods of high GluR2 deficiency correspond to those of regional susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic injury in each of the two rat strains, supporting prior studies suggesting a critical role for Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in excitotoxic cellular injury and epileptogenesis. The developmental regulation of these receptor subunits strongly suggests that Ca2+ influx through GluR2-lacking AMPARs may play an important role in neuronal and glial development and injury in the immature brain. Moreover, as demonstrated in part II, there are striking similarities between rat and human in the regional and temporal maturational regulation of neuronal and glial AMPAR expression.

  11. Developmental regulation of X-chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Payer, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    With the emergence of sex-determination by sex chromosomes, which differ in composition and number between males and females, appeared the need to equalize X-chromosomal gene dosage between the sexes. Mammals have devised the strategy of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), in which one of the two X-chromosomes is rendered transcriptionally silent in females. In the mouse, the best-studied model organism with respect to XCI, this inactivation process occurs in different forms, imprinted and random, interspersed by periods of X-chromosome reactivation (XCR), which is needed to switch between the different modes of XCI. In this review, I describe the recent advances with respect to the developmental control of XCI and XCR and in particular their link to differentiation and pluripotency. Furthermore, I review the mechanisms, which influence the timing and choice, with which one of the two X-chromosomes is chosen for inactivation during random XCI. This has an impact on how females are mosaics with regard to which X-chromosome is active in different cells, which has implications on the severity of diseases caused by X-linked mutations.

  12. Evolutionarily conserved replication timing profiles predict long-range chromatin interactions and distinguish closely related cell types.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Tyrone; Hiratani, Ichiro; Lu, Junjie; Itoh, Mari; Kulik, Michael; Zhang, Jinfeng; Schulz, Thomas C; Robins, Allan J; Dalton, Stephen; Gilbert, David M

    2010-06-01

    To identify evolutionarily conserved features of replication timing and their relationship to epigenetic properties, we profiled replication timing genome-wide in four human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, hESC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), lymphoblastoid cells, and two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs), and compared them with related mouse cell types. Results confirm the conservation of coordinately replicated megabase-sized "replication domains" punctuated by origin-suppressed regions. Differentiation-induced replication timing changes in both species occur in 400- to 800-kb units and are similarly coordinated with transcription changes. A surprising degree of cell-type-specific conservation in replication timing was observed across regions of conserved synteny, despite considerable species variation in the alignment of replication timing to isochore GC/LINE-1 content. Notably, hESC replication timing profiles were significantly more aligned to mouse epiblast-derived stem cells (mEpiSCs) than to mouse ESCs. Comparison with epigenetic marks revealed a signature of chromatin modifications at the boundaries of early replicating domains and a remarkably strong link between replication timing and spatial proximity of chromatin as measured by Hi-C analysis. Thus, early and late initiation of replication occurs in spatially separate nuclear compartments, but rarely within the intervening chromatin. Moreover, cell-type-specific conservation of the replication program implies conserved developmental changes in spatial organization of chromatin. Together, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved aspects of developmentally regulated replication programs in mammals, demonstrate the power of replication profiling to distinguish closely related cell types, and strongly support the hypothesis that replication timing domains are spatially compartmentalized structural and functional units of three-dimensional chromosomal architecture. PMID:20430782

  13. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  14. Creating staff confidence in distinguishing between performance improvement and research studies: a user-friendly worksheet.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Marybeth; Rosario, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    In an era when emphasis is placed on implementing quality improvement and research initiatives promoting quality patient care, confusion often exists about the differences between research and performance improvement. The authors discuss the construction of a performance improvement/research differentiation form, a decision-making tool designed to assist nurses distinguish between these processes and inform them about the regulatory requirements to protect the rights and interests of patients.

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa) and tissue specific and developmental expression of the CaMV 35S promoter in transgenic tomatillo plants.

    PubMed

    Assad-García, N; Ochoa-Alejo, N; García-Hernández, E; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-10-01

    A protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomatillo was developed. Up to 40 transgenic plants could be obtained in experiments using 60 cotyledon expiants. The transformed nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by NPT II and Southern blot hybridization analysis. Using the b-glucuronidase system the tissue specific and developmental patterns of expression of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter were determined in transgenic tomatillo plants. It was found that this promoter is developmentally regulated during fruit and seed formation. PMID:24213286

  16. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  17. 28 CFR 301.318 - Civilian compensation laws distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian compensation laws distinguished... Civilian compensation laws distinguished. The Inmate Accident Compensation system is not obligated to... under civilian workmen's compensation laws in that hospitalization is usually completed prior to...

  18. Liberating the Publications of a Distinguished Scholar: A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many distinguished scholars published the primary corpus of their work before the advent of online journals, which makes it more challenging to access. Upon being approached by a distinguished Emeritus Professor seeking advice about getting his work posted online, librarians at the University of Minnesota worked to gain copyright permissions to…

  19. John Glenn: Presented with NASA Distinguished Service Medal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    John Glenn tours with his family, meets JFK and is presented with the NASA distinguished Service Medal. From: The John Glenn Story: Summary of astronaut John Glenn's flying career, from naval aviation training to space flight. The Mercury project is featured as John Glenn flies the Friendship 7 spacecraft. President John F. Kennedy presents the NASA Distinguished service Medal to Astronaut John Glenn.

  20. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22... Instrument § 22.205 Distinguishing assistance from procurement. Before using a grant or cooperative agreement... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The...

  1. Excellence in Teacher Education. 1973 Distinguished Achievement Awards Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, DC.

    The State University of New York College of Cortland received the 1973 Distinguished Achievement Award for its Project Change, a performance-based early childhood teacher education program. Also cited for distinguished achievement were a) Teachers College of Ball State University, Indiana for an experimental program designed to include…

  2. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  3. A constitutive promoter directs expression of the nerve growth factor receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sehgal, A.; Patil, N.; Chao, M.

    1988-08-01

    Expression of nerve growth factor receptor is normally restricted to cells derived from the neural crest in a developmentally regulated manner. The authors analyzed promoter sequences for the human nerve growth factor receptor gene and found that the receptor promoter resembles others which are associated with constitutively expressed genes that have housekeeping and growth-related functions. Unlike these other genes, the initiation of transcription occurred at one major site rather than at multiple sites. The constitutive nature of the nerve growth factor receptor promoter may account for the ability of this gene to be transcribed in a diverse number of heterologous cells after gene transfer. The intron-exon structure of the receptor gene indicated that structural features are precisely divided into discrete domains.

  4. Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training and Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training awards are given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education…

  5. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed.

  6. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  7. Strain gage network distinguishes between thermal and mechanical deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepollina, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Strain gage network measures the thermal coefficient of linear expansion of composite metal structures. The network consists of a test gage and two dummy gages arranged to distinguish thermally induced deformation from mechanical strain.

  8. Distinguishability in EIT using a hypothesis-testing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Andy; Gaggero, Pascal; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel formulation for the distinguishability of conductivity targets in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). It is formulated in terms of a classic hypothesis test to make it directly applicable to experimental configurations. We test to distinguish conductivity distributions σ2 from σ1, from which EIT measurements are obtained with added white Gaussian noise with covariance Σn. In order to distinguish the distributions, we must reject the null hypothesis , which has a probability based on the z-score: . This result shows that distinguishability is a product of the impedance change amplitude, the measurement strategy and the inverse of the noise amplitude. This approach is used to explore different current stimulation strategies.

  9. Edna B. Foa: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Edna B. Foa, who received this award for "her outstanding and innovative research on the nature, measurement, and treatment of anxiety." Foa's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Promoter Decommissioning by the NuRD Chromatin Remodeling Complex Triggers Synaptic Connectivity in the Mammalian Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tomoko; Yang, Yue; Hemberg, Martin; Yoshida, Toshimi; Cho, Ha Young; Murphy, J. Patrick; Fioravante, Diasynou; Regehr, Wade G.; Gygi, Steven P.; Georgopoulos, Katia; Bonni, Azad

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Precise control of gene expression plays fundamental roles in brain development, but the roles of chromatin regulators in neuronal connectivity have remained poorly understood. We report that depletion of the NuRD complex by in vivo RNAi and conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 profoundly impairs the establishment of granule neuron parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. By interfacing genome-wide sequencing of transcripts and ChIP-Seq analyses, we uncover a network of repressed genes and distinct histone modifications at target gene promoters that are developmentally regulated by the NuRD complex in the cerebellum in vivo. Finally, in a targeted in vivo RNAi screen of NuRD target genes, we identify a program of NuRD-repressed genes that operate as critical regulators of presynaptic differentiation in the cerebellar cortex. Our findings define NuRD-dependent promoter decommissioning as a developmentally-regulated programming mechanism that drives synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain. PMID:24991957

  11. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  12. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  13. How to observe duality in entanglement of two distinguishable particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczewski, Marcin; Kurzyński, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    The entanglement between two bosons or fermions can be accessed if there exists an auxiliary degree of freedom which can be used to label and effectively distinguish the two particles. For some types of entanglement between two indistinguishable particles one can observe a duality, i.e., if the entanglement is present in a Hilbert space H and an auxiliary Hilbert space H' is used to label the particles, then if we use H as a label, entanglement will be present in H'. For distinguishable particles this effect does not occur because of superselection rules which prevent superpositions of different types of particles. However, it is known that superselection rules can be bypassed if one uses special auxiliary states that are known as reference frames. Here we study properties of reference frames which allow for the observation of a duality in entanglement between two distinguishable particles. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this result from a resource-theoretic point of view.

  14. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  15. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  16. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  17. On the distinguishability of downconverted modes with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Geraldo Alexandre

    2008-09-15

    Assuming two quantum states of spontaneous parametric downconversion carrying orbital angular momentum, one may ask the question what is the minimum probability of error in identifying between two of these biphoton states by an arbitrary physical measurement over the biphoton state generated. While correctly chosen geometries may lead to perfect distinguishability of modes, it is worth noticing that experimental subtleties may lead to a poor mode distinguishability. We discuss the case where a restricted range instead of the needed range of wave vectors is collected by the experimental setup. These considerations may be useful for some applications, e.g., cryptography. PMID:18794950

  18. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  19. A Tribute to My Ag Teacher: 2011 AAAE Distinguished Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, R. Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The author is a product of school-based agricultural education. In a way, this distinguished lecture could also be called a tribute to his high school ag teacher, John Stimpert. Mr. Stimpert was a true professional and an excellent teacher. He changed and he changed the program with the changing school and community. The more the author became…

  20. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  1. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  2. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  3. Martin E. P. Seligman: 2006 award for distinguished scientific contributions.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Martin E. P. Seligman, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions "for a career spent charging creatively ahead of his field and then pulling his colleagues along." A brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as the award address, Positive Psychotherapy, accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  5. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  6. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  7. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  8. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  10. Michael J. Meaney: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Michael J. Meaney as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Michael J. Meaney has taken the phenomenon of "handling" of newborn rats and opened a new area of investigation that has given new meaning to epigenetics via his work demonstrating transgenerational…

  11. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  13. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22.205 Section 22.205 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT..., the grants officer shall make a positive judgment that an assistance instrument, rather than...

  14. Recent Detrimental and Distinguished Books about Hispanic People and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1981-01-01

    The article discusses nine detrimental and six distinguished books about Hispanic people and cultures, published since 1979 for young readers. It is suggested that many recent books that depict Hispanic people and cultures repeat the same stereotypes, misconceptions and insensibilities that were prevalent in books published in the 1960s and early…

  15. 29 CFR 1977.6 - Unprotected activities distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unprotected activities distinguished. 1977.6 Section 1977.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST EMPLOYEES EXERCISING RIGHTS UNDER THE...

  16. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  17. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  18. Distinguishing Grammatical Constructions with fMRI Pattern Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kachina; Pereira, Francisco; Botvinick, Matthew; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2012-01-01

    All linguistic and psycholinguistic theories aim to provide psychologically valid analyses of particular grammatical patterns and the relationships that hold among them. Until recently, no tools were available to distinguish neural correlates of particular grammatical constructions that shared the same content words, propositional meaning, and…

  19. A Conceptual and Psychometric Framework for Distinguishing Categories and Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G. Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or…

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Susan E. Carey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Susan E. Carey, winner of the 2009 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for groundbreaking studies of the nature of concepts and conceptual change. Her research deepens understanding of the development of concepts, and of the belief systems in which they are embedded, over human childhood, over the history of science, and…

  1. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  2. Edward F. Diener: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Edward F. Diener as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Edward F. Diener has been a leader in every aspect of well-being research. He provided an influential conception of well-being as consisting of cognitive and emotional elements. A citation, biography,…

  3. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  4. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which is recognized in an industry as the subject of a retail sale. Quantities which are materially in... industry is such that a discount from the normal retail price is not regarded in the industry as... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section...

  5. On the distinguishability of HRF models in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paulo N.; Figueiredo, Patricia; Silvestre, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) is a critical step in fMRI studies of brain activity, and it is often desirable to estimate HRF parameters with physiological interpretability. A biophysically informed model of the HRF can be described by a non-linear time-invariant dynamic system. However, the identification of this dynamic system may leave much uncertainty on the exact values of the parameters. Moreover, the high noise levels in the data may hinder the model estimation task. In this context, the estimation of the HRF may be seen as a problem of model falsification or invalidation, where we are interested in distinguishing among a set of eligible models of dynamic systems. Here, we propose a systematic tool to determine the distinguishability among a set of physiologically plausible HRF models. The concept of absolutely input-distinguishable systems is introduced and applied to a biophysically informed HRF model, by exploiting the structure of the underlying non-linear dynamic system. A strategy to model uncertainty in the input time-delay and magnitude is developed and its impact on the distinguishability of two physiologically plausible HRF models is assessed, in terms of the maximum noise amplitude above which it is not possible to guarantee the falsification of one model in relation to another. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the choice of the input sequence, or experimental paradigm, that maximizes the distinguishability of the HRF models under investigation. The proposed approach may be used to evaluate the performance of HRF model estimation techniques from fMRI data. PMID:26106322

  6. Distinguishing different fictional worlds during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Xue, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The neural mechanism of distinguishing reality from fiction has been explored recently. While people only represent one real world, they are likely to have representations for multiple fictional worlds. This study used event-related potentials to investigate how different fictional events were distinguished during sentence comprehension. Participants read fictional events involving real people (e.g., President Bush) or unreal characters (e.g., Lord Voldemort). Inconsistency of reality was created by introducing real people into the events involving unreal characters or introducing unreal characters into the events involving real people. The results indicated that inconsistency in reality in both types of fictional events elicited a late positive effect, and an interaction between event type and consistency effect was found in medial sites. These results suggested that reality information is important for the construction and updating of situation models.

  7. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  8. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  9. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology is Richard L. Miller. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  10. Distinguishing short-term memory from working memory.

    PubMed

    Kail, R; Hall, L K

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether short-term memory and working memory could be distinguished. In two studies, 7- to 13-year-olds (N = 155, N = 132) were administered tasks thought to assess short-term memory as well as tasks thought to assess working memory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses distinguished short-term memory tasks from working memory tasks. In addition, performance on working memory tasks was related to word decoding skill but performance on short-term memory tasks was not. Finally, performance on both short-term memory and working memory tasks were associated with age-related increases in processing speed. Results are discussed in relation to models of short-term and working memory.

  11. Eliminating spectral distinguishability in ultrafast spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Poh, Hou Shun; Lim, Jiaqing; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Marcikic, Ivan

    2009-10-15

    Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs with a precise timing through down-conversion of femtosecond pulses is often faced with a degraded polarization entanglement quality. In a previous experiment, we have shown that this degradation is induced by spectral distinguishability between the two decay paths, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Here, we present an experimental study of the spectral compensation scheme proposed and first implemented by Kim and Grice [J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309 (2002)]. By measuring the joint spectral properties of the polarization correlations of the photon pairs, we show that the spectral distinguishability between the down-converted components is eliminated. This scheme results in a polarization visibility of 97.9{+-}0.5% without any spectral filtering.

  12. Advantages and distinguishing features of focus point supersymmetry [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Wilczek, Frank

    2005-12-01

    Diverse experimental constraints now motivate models of supersymmetry breaking in which some superpartners have masses well above the weak scale. Three alternatives are focus point supersymmetry and inverted hierarchy models, which embody a naturalness constraint, and the more recent framework of split supersymmetry, which relaxes that constraint. Many aspects of their phenomenology are very similar. They can be distinguished, however, through detailed study of superoblique parameters, the Higgs potential and other observables.

  13. Distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands with Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A flight line in Starr County, Texas, was used to test the feasibility of distinguishing saline from nonsaline rangelands using very small scale (1:3,000,000), Skylab satellite imagery. Film optical density readings were made on six different films (four black-and-white, one conventional, and one infrared color) using various film/filter combinations. Differentiating between saline and nonsaline rangelands was possible by using microdensitometry on black-and-white Skylab imagery.

  14. Primary structure -- An important concept to distinguish primary stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Mingwan |; Li Jianguo

    1996-12-01

    A new Chinese design code JB 4732-95, Steel Pressure Vessels -- Design by Analysis, was issued in March 1995. In this paper the authors discuss some concepts and ideas which formed in the introduction and application of the design by analysis approach in China. They are: multi-possibility of stress decomposition, self-limiting stress, classification of constraints, and finally an important concept to distinguish primary stress -- primary structures.

  15. Criteria for two distinguishable fermions to form a boson

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Chuan, Tan Kok; Kurzynski, Pawel; Santos, Marcelo F.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2011-09-15

    We study the necessary conditions for systems composed of two distinguishable fermions to exhibit bosonic behavior. We base our analysis on tools of quantum information theory such as entanglement, local operations and classical communication and the majorization criterion for probability distributions. Introduction of these tools yields new insights into the old and important problem of identifying the conditions for existence of composite bosons. We precisely identify the role entanglement plays in the formation and behavior of such composite particles.

  16. Increased epigenetic alterations at the promoters of transcriptional regulators following inadequate maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Tomoko; Yamada, Takahiro; Abe, Kosei; Okamura, Kohji; Kamura, Hiromi; Akaishi, Rina; Minakami, Hisanori; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Hata, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are thought to serve as a memory of exposure to in utero environments. However, few human studies have investigated the associations between maternal nutritional conditions during pregnancy and epigenetic alterations in offspring. In this study, we report genome-wide methylation profiles for 33 postpartum placentas from pregnancies of normal and foetal growth restriction with various extents of maternal gestational weight gain. Epigenetic alterations accumulate in the placenta under adverse in utero environments, as shown by application of Smirnov-Grubbs’ outlier test. Moreover, hypermethylation occurs frequently at the promoter regions of transcriptional regulator genes, including polycomb targets and zinc-finger genes, as shown by annotations of the genomic and functional features of loci with altered DNA methylation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications at such developmental regulator loci, if occurring in foetuses as well, will elevate the risk of developing various diseases, including metabolic and mental disorders, later in life. PMID:26415774

  17. Allie Abrahamson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Allie Abrahamson's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  18. Rebeccah A. Bernard: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. A qualified candidate must demonstrate exemplary performance in working with an underserved population in an applied setting or have developed an innovative method for delivering health services to an underserved population. This year there are joint recipients of the award, Allie Abrahamson and Rebeccah A. Bernard. Their vision, creativity, courage, and dedication led them to create the Human Rights Forum at Chestnut Hill College to promote human rights education, awareness, and community service opportunities for doctoral students. Rebeccah A. Bernard's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  19. Identifying Distinguishing Characteristics of Secondary Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isom, S. L.; Brand, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of volcanic particles and gas that travel down the slopes of erupting volcanoes. The combination of high velocities, high bulk densities (due to particles in the current) and high temperatures make PDCs the most dangerous and deadly hazard associated with explosive volcanism. Secondary explosive phenomenon associated with PDCs, such as inland-directed surges (e.g., Montserrat, 2003) and phreatic explosions (e.g., Mt St Helens 1980) can increase the area affected and duration of the hazard. However, little work has been done on distinguishing the deposits of secondary explosive phenomenon from primary phenomenon. Samples have been acquired from the 1980 Mt St Helens phreatic explosion crater deposits and the 2003 eruptive event at Montserrat where a PDC flowed into the ocean, causing an inland-directed surge (Edmonds and Herd, 2005. Geology 33.4:245-248). The samples will be analyzed via depositional characteristics, granulometry, componentry, microscopic analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. We hypothesize that thermal cracking or vesicle distortion (e.g., compression or hindered expansion) may occur in hot pyroclasts that enter a body of water, leading to a difference between the ash textures of primary PDCs, phreatic surges and inland-directed surge deposits. Analyzing granulometry and componentry from parent flows and secondary flows may also reveal distinguishing characteristics that will allow us to constrain differences in segregation mechanisms of particles for each phenomenon. Determining distinguishing depositional characteristics of these secondary phenomena is important for assessing their occurrence during past eruptions and identifying conditions conducive to the formation of secondary explosions. This will result in the ability to make more accurate hazard maps for volcanoes prone to explosive activity.

  20. Proteins that mediate protein aggregation and cytotoxicity distinguish Alzheimer's hippocampus from normal controls.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Parcon, Paul A; Barger, Steven W; Griffin, W Sue T; Alla, Ramani; Tackett, Alan J; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Petricoin, Emanuel; Zhou, Weidong; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are distinguished by characteristic protein aggregates initiated by disease-specific 'seed' proteins; however, roles of other co-aggregated proteins remain largely unexplored. Compact hippocampal aggregates were purified from Alzheimer's and control-subject pools using magnetic-bead immunoaffinity pulldowns. Their components were fractionated by electrophoretic mobility and analyzed by high-resolution proteomics. Although total detergent-insoluble aggregates from Alzheimer's and controls had similar protein content, within the fractions isolated by tau or Aβ1-42 pulldown, the protein constituents of Alzheimer-derived aggregates were more abundant, diverse, and post-translationally modified than those from controls. Tau- and Aβ-containing aggregates were distinguished by multiple components, and yet shared >90% of their protein constituents, implying similar accretion mechanisms. Alzheimer-specific protein enrichment in tau-containing aggregates was corroborated for individuals by three analyses. Five proteins inferred to co-aggregate with tau were confirmed by precise in situ methods, including proximity ligation amplification that requires co-localization within 40 nm. Nematode orthologs of 21 proteins, which showed Alzheimer-specific enrichment in tau-containing aggregates, were assessed for aggregation-promoting roles in C. elegans by RNA-interference 'knockdown'. Fifteen knockdowns (71%) rescued paralysis of worms expressing muscle Aβ, and 12 (57%) rescued chemotaxis disrupted by neuronal Aβ expression. Proteins identified in compact human aggregates, bound by antibody to total tau, were thus shown to play causal roles in aggregation based on nematode models triggered by Aβ1-42 . These observations imply shared mechanisms driving both types of aggregation, and/or aggregate-mediated cross-talk between tau and Aβ. Knowledge of protein components that promote protein accrual in diverse aggregate types implicates common

  1. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  2. Defining and distinguishing treatment abandonment in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Howard, Scott C; Lam, Catherine G

    2015-05-01

    Cancer management requires accurate identification of the causes of treatment failure followed by cause-specific interventions. One cause of treatment failure that has received too little attention is abandonment of treatment. Abandonment includes 2 key elements: (1) failing to complete therapy for a disease that could be cured or definitively controlled, and (2) missing all treatment for a sustained time period to an extent that impacts the ability to cure or definitively control the disease. In this Historical Insight paper, we analyze historic and current terminology used to describe treatment abandonment in patients and provide a framework to distinguish it from nonadherence and loss to follow-up.

  3. Possible Observational Criteria for Distinguishing Brown Dwarfs From Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1997-01-01

    The difference in formation process between binary stars and planetary systems is reflected in their composition, as well as orbital architecture, particularly in their orbital eccentricity as a function of orbital period. It is suggested here that this difference can be used as an observational criterion to distinguish between brown dwarfs and planets. Application of the orbital criterion suggests that, with three possible exceptions, all of the recently discovered substellar companions may be brown dwarfs and not planets. These criterion may be used as a guide for interpretation of the nature of substellar-mass companions to stars in the future.

  4. Ratios of Biogenic Elements for Distinguishing Recent from Fossil Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish possible microfossils from recent biological contaminants is of great importance to Astrobiology. In this paper we discuss the application of the ratios of life critical biogenic elements (C/O; C/N; and C/S) as determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to this problem. Biogenic element ratios will be provided for a wide variety of living cyanobacteria and other microbial extremophiles, preserved herbarium materials, and ancient biota from the Antarctic Ice Cores and Siberian and Alaskan Permafrost for comparison with megafossils and microfossils in ancient terrestrial rocks and carbonaceous meteorites.

  5. HIC1 Expression Distinguishes Intestinal Carcinomas Sensitive to Chemotherapy12

    PubMed Central

    Janeckova, Lucie; Kolar, Michal; Svec, Jiri; Lanikova, Lucie; Pospichalova, Vendula; Baloghova, Nikol; Vojtechova, Martina; Sloncova, Eva; Strnad, Hynek; Korinek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is frequently associated with genomic DNA methylation that causes transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. We used a collection of colorectal polyps and carcinomas in combination with bioinformatics analysis of large datasets to study the expression and methylation of Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1), a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many neoplasms. In premalignant stages, HIC1 expression was decreased, and the decrease was linked to methylation of a specific region in the HIC1 locus. However, in carcinomas, the HIC1 expression was variable and, in some specimens, comparable to healthy tissue. Importantly, high HIC1 production distinguished a specific type of chemotherapy-responsive tumors. PMID:27084425

  6. Explaining group-level traits requires distinguishing process from product.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Karthik; Mathew, Sarah; Perreault, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino is right to argue that we need a richer theory of group-level traits. He is wrong, however, in limiting group-level traits to units of cultural selection, which require explanations based on group selection. Traits are best understood when explanations focus on both process (i.e., selection) and product (i.e., adaptation). This approach can distinguish group-level traits that arise through within-group processes from those that arise through between-group processes. PMID:24970416

  7. Distinguishing octane grades in gasoline using terahertz metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Tian, Z; Chen, Y; Cao, W; Zeng, Z

    2012-06-01

    Distinguishing octane numbers of commercial gasoline is experimentally demonstrated by use of single split-ring resonator metamaterials functioning at terahertz frequencies. The differences in frequency-dependent absorption coefficients and refractive indices of various grades of gasoline lead to a modification in the surrounding dielectric environment and consequently the resonance properties of the planar metamaterials. This consequently enables a distinct frequency shift in the inductive-capacitive electric dipolar resonances. This paper reveals that such metamaterial arrays, as highly sensitive chemical sensors, have promising potential in petroleum industrial applications.

  8. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigan, D.L.; Shriner, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on /sup 32/P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of /sup 32/P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble (/sup 32/P)phosphate.

  9. Distinguishing different sedimentary facies in a deltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkait, Barendra; Majumdar, Dipanjan Das

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to differentiate sedimentary facies in a modern deltaic system by means of grain-size characteristics of the Ganga alluvial plain of West Bengal, India. Three main energy environments (marine, mixed and riverine) comprising the delta were considered. Sand samples were collected from rivers (both tidal and non-tidal), coastal dunes, beaches and tidal flats of the deltaic plain. The grain-size distribution patterns were compared with the two model distributions of log-normal and log-skew-Laplace. Different sedimentary facies were identified by discriminant functions. The analytical results indicate that the energy gradient of the different sedimentary facies of the deltaic system is well reflected by the grain-size characteristics of the individual facies. While critically analyzing the role of different textural parameters in discriminating the individual facies associations, it is observed that the mean size, alpha (slope of coarser fractions of Laplace model) and skewness have greater potential to distinguish different sedimentary facies of the deltaic system. The results of discriminant analysis might be applicable to paleo-environmental interpretation of a deltaic system by distinguishing the individual facies associations.

  10. Transient inability to distinguish between faces: electrophysiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Mundel, Trevor; Milton, John G; Dimitrov, Alexander; Wilson, Hugh W; Pelizzari, Charles; Uftring, Stephen; Torres, Ivan; Erickson, Robert K; Spire, Jean-Paul; Towle, Vernon L

    2003-04-01

    It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all faces looked the same"). A cortical region located posterior to the epileptic focus was identified that exhibited a maximum evoked response to the presentation of facial images (N165), but not to objects, scenes, or character strings. Evoked potentials elicited by a variety of visual images indicated that any perturbation away from novel whole-face stimuli produced submaximal responses from this region of the right temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation of this region resulted in an impairment of face discrimination. It was found that presentation of familiar faces (grandmother, treating physician) produced a different response from that observed for novel faces. These observations demonstrate that within 165 msec of face presentation, and before the conscious precept of face familiarity has formed, this cortical region has already begun to distinguish between a familiar and an unfamiliar face.

  11. The chimpanzee-specific pericentric inversions that distinguish humans and chimpanzees have identical breakpoints in Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus.

    PubMed

    Szamalek, Justyna M; Goidts, Violaine; Searle, Jeremy B; Cooper, David N; Hameister, Horst; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard

    2006-01-01

    Seven of nine pericentric inversions that distinguish human (HSA) and chimpanzee karyotypes are chimpanzee-specific. In this study we investigated whether the two extant chimpanzee species, Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) and Pan paniscus (bonobo), share exactly the same pericentric inversions. The methods applied were FISH with breakpoint-spanning BAC/PAC clones and PCR analyses of the breakpoint junction sequences. Our findings for the homologues to HSA 4, 5, 9, 12, 16, and 17 confirm for the first time at the sequence level that these pericentric inversions have identical breakpoints in the common chimpanzee and the bonobo. Therefore, these inversions predate the separation of the two chimpanzee species 0.86-2 Mya. Further, the inversions distinguishing human and chimpanzee karyotypes may be regarded as early acquisitions, such that they are likely to have been present at the time of human/chimpanzee divergence. According to the chromosomal speciation theory the inversions themselves could have promoted human speciation.

  12. Expression vectors encoding human growth hormone (hGH) controlled by human muscle-specific promoters: prospects for regulated production of hGH delivered by myoblast transfer or intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Dahler, A; Wade, R P; Muscat, G E; Waters, M J

    1994-08-01

    We report here the construction of vectors that produce and secrete human growth hormone (hGH) in a muscle-specific manner. The promoter regions of the genes encoding human skeletal alpha-actin (HSA) and troponin I slow (HTnIs) were linked to the hGH-encoding gene. These vectors were designated pHSA2000GH and pHTnIs4200GH, respectively. The HSA and HTnIs promoters linked to the cat gene have previously been shown to be necessary and sufficient for developmentally regulated muscle-specific expression. Furthermore, these promoters function in a fibre-type-specific manner in transgenic animals. Transient and stable transfection analyses with pHSA2000GH and pHTnIs4200GH indicated that: (i) these vectors efficiently synthesized hGH in a muscle-specific manner; (ii) the myogenic master regulatory gene, myoD, a determinant of cell fate, trans-activated expression of hGH in pluripotential non-muscle cells; and (iii) these hGH expression vectors were developmentally regulated during myogenic differentiation. These regulated tissue/fibre-type-specific hGH-containing plasmids are suitable vectors for the delivery and stable production of GH in livestock and GH-deficient hosts by either transgenesis, myoblast transfer or liposome-mediated intravenous injection.

  13. Jarid2 is a PRC2 component in embryonic stem cells required for multi-lineage differentiation and recruitment of PRC1 and RNA Polymerase II to developmental regulators.

    PubMed

    Landeira, David; Sauer, Stephan; Poot, Raymond; Dvorkina, Maria; Mazzarella, Luca; Jørgensen, Helle F; Pereira, C Filipe; Leleu, Marion; Piccolo, Francesco M; Spivakov, Mikhail; Brookes, Emily; Pombo, Ana; Fisher, Cynthia; Skarnes, William C; Snoek, Tim; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen; Klose, Robert J; Casanova, Miguel; Tavares, Ligia; Brockdorff, Neil; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2010-06-01

    Polycomb Repressor Complexes (PRCs) are important regulators of embryogenesis. In embryonic stem (ES) cells many genes that regulate subsequent stages in development are enriched at their promoters for PRC1, PRC2 and Ser 5-phosphorylated RNA Polymerase II (RNAP), and contain domains of 'bivalent' chromatin (enriched for H3K4me3; histone H3 di- or trimethylated at Lys 4 and H3K27me3; histone H3 trimethylated at Lys 27). Loss of individual PRC components in ES cells can lead to gene de-repression and to unscheduled differentiation. Here we show that Jarid2 is a novel subunit of PRC2 that is required for the co-recruitment of PRC1 and RNAP to genes that regulate development in ES cells. Jarid2-deficient ES cells showed reduced H3K4me2/me3 and H3K27me3 marking and PRC1/PRC2 recruitment, and did not efficiently establish Ser 5-phosporylated RNAP at target genes. ES cells lacking Jarid2, in contrast to previously characterized PRC1 and PRC2 mutants, did not inappropriately express PRC2 target genes. Instead, they show a severely compromised capacity for successful differentiation towards neural or mesodermal fates and failed to correctly initiate lineage-specific gene expression in vitro. Collectively, these data indicate that transcriptional priming of bivalent genes in pluripotent ES cells is Jarid2-dependent, and suggests that priming is critical for subsequent multi-lineage differentiation.

  14. Mathematically guided approaches to distinguish models of periodic patterning

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Tom W.; Megason, Sean G.

    2015-01-01

    How periodic patterns are generated is an open question. A number of mechanisms have been proposed – most famously, Turing's reaction-diffusion model. However, many theoretical and experimental studies focus on the Turing mechanism while ignoring other possible mechanisms. Here, we use a general model of periodic patterning to show that different types of mechanism (molecular, cellular, mechanical) can generate qualitatively similar final patterns. Observation of final patterns is therefore not sufficient to favour one mechanism over others. However, we propose that a mathematical approach can help to guide the design of experiments that can distinguish between different mechanisms, and illustrate the potential value of this approach with specific biological examples. PMID:25605777

  15. Closed time like curves enable perfect state distinguishability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, James William; Wilde, Mark M; Brun, Todd A

    2008-01-01

    The causal self-consistency condition for closed timelike curves can give rise to nonlinear interactions on chronology-respecting qubits. We demonstrate that particular unitary interactions between closed timelike curve qubits and chronology-respecting qubits allow perfect distinguishability of nonorthogonal states, and provide a constructive proof for an arbitrary number of nonorthogonal states. This has a number of highly significant consequences. For example, an adversary with access to closed timelike curves can break the B92, BB84, and SARG04 quantum key distribution protocols, or any prepare-and-measure quantum key distribution scheme. Our result also implies that a party with access to closed timelike curves can violate the Holevo bound by accessing more than log(N) bits of information from an N-dimensional quantum state. In principle, he can transmit an arbitrarily large amount of classical information with a quantum system of fixed size. We discuss the implications of this for quantum cloning.

  16. Chamber catalogues of optical and fluorescent signatures distinguish bioaerosol classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Mark; Perring, Anne E.; McCabe, Kevin; Kok, Greg; Granger, Gary; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2016-07-01

    Rapid bioaerosol characterization has immediate applications in the military, environmental and public health sectors. Recent technological advances have facilitated single-particle detection of fluorescent aerosol in near real time; this leverages controlled ultraviolet exposures with single or multiple wavelengths, followed by the characterization of associated fluorescence. This type of ultraviolet induced fluorescence has been used to detect airborne microorganisms and their fragments in laboratory studies, and it has been extended to field studies that implicate bioaerosol to compose a substantial fraction of supermicron atmospheric particles. To enhance the information yield that new-generation fluorescence instruments can provide, we report the compilation of a referential aerobiological catalogue including more than 50 pure cultures of common airborne bacteria, fungi and pollens, recovered at water activity equilibrium in a mesoscale chamber (1 m3). This catalogue juxtaposes intrinsic optical properties and select bandwidths of fluorescence emissions, which manifest to clearly distinguish between major classes of airborne microbes and pollens.

  17. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  18. Distinguishing between Lévy walks and strong alternative models.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A M

    2012-05-01

    Lévy walks are a widely used but contentious model of animal movement patterns. They are contentious because they have been wrongly ascribed to some animal species through use of incorrect statistical methods and because they have not been adequately compared against strong alternative models, such as composite correlated random walks. This lack of comparison has been partly because the strong alternative models do not have simple likelihood functions. Here I show that power-spectra and the distribution of the first significant digits (the leading non-zero digits) of the step lengths can distinguish between Lévy walks and composite correlated random walks. Using these diagnostic tools, I bolster previous claims that honey bees use a movement strategy that can be approximated by Lévy walks when searching for their hive or for a food source.

  19. How to distinguish a molecule from an 'elementary' particle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. Y.; Shi, M.; Tang, G. Y.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss how to use Morgan's pole counting rule to distinguish a molecular state from an 'elementary' particle. As two examples we focus on X(3872) and f0(980) particles. A molecule may be generated from a meson loop bubble chain, and an 'elementary' particle is related to an explicit interaction field in the effective lagrangian and propagates with a Breit-Wigner propagator. For X(3872) it is found that the data favor the 'elementary' particle explanation. For f0(980) the study becomes much more difficult, since highly nonperturbative dynamics is involved. A unitarization model analysis suggests that f0(980)'s property is quite exotic. Unlike other light scalars, it does not behave like a {\\bar q}q state, and could be interpreted as a molecule.

  20. How to distinguish a molecule from an `elementary' particle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L. Y.; Shi, M.; Tang, G. Y.; Zheng, H. Q.

    2015-10-01

    We discuss how to use Morgan's pole counting rule to distinguish a molecular state from an `elementary' particle. As two examples we focus on X(3872) and f0(980) particles. A molecule may be generated from a meson loop bubble chain, and an `elementary' particle is related to an explicit interaction field in the effective lagrangian and propagates with a Breit-Wigner propagator. For X(3872) it is found that the data favor the `elementary' particle explanation. For f0(3872) the study becomes much more difficult, since highly non-perturbative dynamics is involved. A unitarization model analysis suggests that f0(980)'s property is quite exotic. Unlike other light scalars, it does not behave like a overline q q state, and could be interpreted as a molecule.

  1. The usefulness of distinguishing types of aggression by function.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J Martín

    2010-01-01

    Far from being a universally defined notion, aggression is a changing and multifaceted phenomenon encompassing various concepts. There is no consensus as to how different types of aggression should be classified: multiple ways of doing so using a variety of criteria exist in the scientific literature. Some scientists categorise aggressive acts according to how they are expressed, while others prefer to look at motive, function, purpose and objective. Despite the claim of some authors that distinguishing between different types of aggressive acts is not always productive, categorising these according to different purposes and objectives can be very useful, both for developing theory and because such an approach serves forensic practice as well as preventive and therapeutic interventions, as these focus on the propensities and personality of the individual. Furthermore, given that the main functional classifications analysed show a common tendency to dichotomise, it would seem appropriate for their terminology and some of their measurement instruments to be standardised.

  2. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  3. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R; Gilarranz, Luis J; Sugihara, George

    2015-01-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains. PMID:26435402

  4. Distinguishing time-delayed causal interactions using convergent cross mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan R.; Gilarranz, Luis J.; Sugihara, George

    2015-10-01

    An important problem across many scientific fields is the identification of causal effects from observational data alone. Recent methods (convergent cross mapping, CCM) have made substantial progress on this problem by applying the idea of nonlinear attractor reconstruction to time series data. Here, we expand upon the technique of CCM by explicitly considering time lags. Applying this extended method to representative examples (model simulations, a laboratory predator-prey experiment, temperature and greenhouse gas reconstructions from the Vostok ice core, and long-term ecological time series collected in the Southern California Bight), we demonstrate the ability to identify different time-delayed interactions, distinguish between synchrony induced by strong unidirectional-forcing and true bidirectional causality, and resolve transitive causal chains.

  5. A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Acton, G Scott

    2005-01-01

    An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or dimension-like. Being dimension-like requires (a) within-category heterogeneity and (b) between-category quantitative differences. Being category-like requires (a) within-category homogeneity and (b) between-category qualitative differences. The relation between this classification and abrupt versus smooth differences is discussed. Hybrid structures are possible. Being category-like is itself a matter of degree; the authors offer a formalized framework to determine this degree. Empirical applications to personality disorders, attitudes toward capital punishment, and stages of cognitive development illustrate the approach.

  6. Distinguishing dialect and development from disorder: case studies.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Ciolli, Lois

    2004-02-01

    Seven case studies are presented to illustrate how the tasks in the proposed test battery provide the tools to distinguish language differences due to development or dialect from true signs of delay or disorder. The case studies exemplify different combinations of language strengths and weakness found among participants of extensive field research in the age range from 4 to 9 years. Special attention is paid to certain aspects of language development, such as time clauses or double wh-questions, in which dialect features play no role. All levels of performance, from the highest to the lowest, are found in children who are speakers of Mainstream American English (MAE) and the same is true for those whose language patterns indicate a strong variation from MAE.

  7. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2016-07-01

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  8. Genome-Wide Definition of Promoter and Enhancer Usage during Neural Induction of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Valentina; Delli Carri, Alessia; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Faedo, Andrea; Petiti, Luca; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Peano, Clelia; De Bellis, Gianluca; Bicciato, Silvio; Miccio, Annarita; Cattaneo, Elena; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide mapping of transcriptional regulatory elements is an essential tool for understanding the molecular events orchestrating self-renewal, commitment and differentiation of stem cells. We combined high-throughput identification of transcription start sites with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications to map active promoters and enhancers in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced to neuroepithelial-like stem cells (NESCs). Our analysis showed that most promoters are active in both cell types while approximately half of the enhancers are cell-specific and account for most of the epigenetic changes occurring during neural induction, and most likely for the modulation of the promoters to generate cell-specific gene expression programs. Interestingly, the majority of the promoters activated or up-regulated during neural induction have a "bivalent" histone modification signature in ESCs, suggesting that developmentally-regulated promoters are already poised for transcription in ESCs, which are apparently pre-committed to neuroectodermal differentiation. Overall, our study provides a collection of differentially used enhancers, promoters, transcription starts sites, protein-coding and non-coding RNAs in human ESCs and ESC-derived NESCs, and a broad, genome-wide description of promoter and enhancer usage and of gene expression programs characterizing the transition from a pluripotent to a neural-restricted cell fate.

  9. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  10. Trefoil Factor 3 as a Novel Biomarker to Distinguish Between Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an

  11. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darrion L.; DiMario, Joseph X.

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  12. Can we distinguish early dark energy from a cosmological constant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Difu; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-07-01

    Early dark energy (EDE) models are a class of quintessence dark energy with a dynamically evolving scalar field which display a small but non-negligible amount of dark energy at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Compared with a cosmological constant, the presence of dark energy at early times changes the cosmic expansion history and consequently the shape of the linear theory power spectrum and potentially other observables. We constrain the cosmological parameters in the EDE cosmology using recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations. The best-fitting models favour no EDE; here we consider extreme examples which are in mild tension with current observations in order to explore the observational consequences of a maximally allowed amount of EDE. We study the non-linear evolution of cosmic structure in EDE cosmologies using large-volume N-body simulations. Many large-scale structure statistics are found to be very similar between the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and EDE models. We find that EDE cosmologies predict fewer massive haloes in comparison to ΛCDM, particularly at high redshifts. The most promising way to distinguish EDE from ΛCDM is to measure the power spectrum on large scales, where differences of up to 15 per cent are expected.

  13. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed

    Ledley, F D

    1994-09-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  14. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. PMID:26168348

  15. Distinguishing the Photothermal and Photoinjection Effects in Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Gao, Hanwei

    2015-10-14

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) has drawn significant attention for its unique metal-to-insulator transition near the room temperature. The high electrical resistivity below the transition temperature (∼68 °C) is a result of the strong electron correlation with the assistance of lattice (Peierls) distortion. Theoretical calculations indicated that the strong interelectron interactions might induce intriguing optoelectronic phenomena, such as the multiple exciton generation (MEG), a process desirable for efficient optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, the resistivity of VO2 is quite temperature sensitive, and therefore, the light-induced conductivity in VO2 has often been attributed to the photothermal effects. In this work, we distinguished the photothermal and photoinjection effects in VO2 nanowires by varying the chopping frequency of the optical illumination. We found that, in our VO2 nanowires, the relatively slow photothermal processes can be well suppressed when the chopping frequency is >2 kHz, whereas the fast photoinjection component (direct photoexcitation of charge carriers) remains constant at all chopping frequencies. By separating the photothermal and photoinjection processes, our work set the basis for further studies of carrier dynamics under optical excitations in strongly correlated materials.

  16. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research.

  17. Method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.

    2004-06-29

    A method for distinguishing multiple targets using time-reversal acoustics. Time-reversal acoustics uses an iterative process to determine the optimum signal for locating a strongly reflecting target in a cluttered environment. An acoustic array sends a signal into a medium, and then receives the returned/reflected signal. This returned/reflected signal is then time-reversed and sent back into the medium again, and again, until the signal being sent and received is no longer changing. At that point, the array has isolated the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination and has effectively determined the location of a single target in the medium (the one that is most strongly reflecting). After the largest eigenvalue/eigenvector combination has been determined, to determine the location of other targets, instead of sending back the same signals, the method sends back these time reversed signals, but half of them will also be reversed in sign. There are various possibilities for choosing which half to do sign reversal. The most obvious choice is to reverse every other one in a linear array, or as in a checkerboard pattern in 2D. Then, a new send/receive, send-time reversed/receive iteration can proceed. Often, the first iteration in this sequence will be close to the desired signal from a second target. In some cases, orthogonalization procedures must be implemented to assure the returned signals are in fact orthogonal to the first eigenvector found.

  18. 2015 Distinguished career award: Reflections on a career in science.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M

    2016-08-01

    I was very pleased to receive the 2015 Distinguished Career Award from SSIB. This brief manuscript contains reminisces that might stir up pleasant memories in the older members of SSIB and also some general thoughts that I hope will be of value to the younger investigators who are closer to the beginning of their scientific careers. Although the organization has chosen to honor me with this special award, my own career was shaped by a great many people who have influenced my scientific career and I want to acknowledge them. They include Neal Miller, my doctoral mentor at Yale; Joe Holmes and Alan Epstein, my postdoctoral mentors; George Wolf and Reed Hainsworth, graduate student colleagues; John Brobeck, Paul Rozin, and Phil Teitelbaum, Michael Zigmond, Joe Verbalis, Jim Smith, and Alan Sved, faculty colleagues; Derek Denton, Paul McHugh, and James Fitzsimons, scientific role models; John Bruno, Steve Fluharty, and Linda Rinaman, post-doctoral trainees at Pitt; and Lori Flanagan, Kath Curtis, Michael Bushey, Mike Bykowski, Reza Manesh, Carrie Smith, Jennifer Vaughan, and Myriam Stricker, student trainees at Pitt. I thank them all and also my colleagues in SSIB not only for the honor of this award but for providing an abundant supply of insights and discoveries that have stimulated me throughout my adult life, in addition to being an attentive community in supporting my own work. PMID:26434784

  19. Distinguishing two Population Processes with Identical Equilibrium Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, E.; Hopcraft, K. I.; Matthews, J. O.

    2003-04-01

    We analyze the relationship between the evolution of simple population processes and the rate of emigration of individuals. An external monitoring scheme is defined by counting the number leaving the population in fixed time intervals. This is the analogue of photon counting in quantum optics. It is a reasonable measurement in many situations of interest and also has the merit of being analytically tractable. The formalism we develop is used to investigate the statistical and correlation properties of two stochastic population models that give rise to identical first order probability densities. The first is the birth-death- immigration process for which many well-known results can be found in the literature. The second is based on a population sustained by multiple immigration. This model is a generalization of the pair process investigated previously [1]. It can be used to generate populations with a range of equilibrium densities including those with power law tails to be described in a companion paper. Here we show that, in the case of a geometric distribution of multiples, the equilibrium density is negative binomial and higher order joint statistical properties must be used to distinguish the model from the conventional birth-death-immigration process. Formulae characterizing the integrated counting statistics of the two models are derived and it is shown how they may be exploited to achieve this objective.

  20. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  1. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. PMID:27091004

  2. Distinguishing genetics and eugenics on the basis of fairness.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D

    1994-01-01

    There is concern that human applications of modern genetic technologies may lead inexorably to eugenic abuse. To prevent such abuse, it is essential to have clear, formal principles as well as algorithms for distinguishing genetics from eugenics. This work identifies essential distinctions between eugenics and genetics in the implied nature of the social contract and the importance ascribed to individual welfare relative to society. Rawls's construction of 'justice as fairness' is used as a model for how a formal systems of ethics can be used to proscribe eugenic practices. Rawls's synthesis can be applied to this problem if it is assumed that in the original condition all individuals are ignorant of their genetic constitution and unwilling to consent to social structures which may constrain their own potential. The principles of fairness applied to genetics requires that genetic interventions be directed at extending individual liberties and be applied to the greatest benefit of individuals with the least advantages. These principles are incompatible with negative eugenics which would further penalize those with genetic disadvantage. These principles limit positive eugenics to those practices which are designed to provide absolute benefit to those individuals with least advantage, are acceptable to its subjects, and further a system of basic equal liberties. This analysis also illustrates how simple deviations from first principles in Rawls's formulation could countenance eugenic applications of genetic technologies. PMID:7996561

  3. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  4. On Making a Distinguished Vertex Minimum Degree by Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Nadja; Bredereck, Robert; Niedermeier, Rolf; Uhlmann, Johannes

    For directed and undirected graphs, we study the problem to make a distinguished vertex the unique minimum-(in)degree vertex through deletion of a minimum number of vertices. The corresponding NP-hard optimization problems are motivated by applications concerning control in elections and social network analysis. Continuing previous work for the directed case, we show that the problem is W[2]-hard when parameterized by the graph's feedback arc set number, whereas it becomes fixed-parameter tractable when combining the parameters "feedback vertex set number" and "number of vertices to delete". For the so far unstudied undirected case, we show that the problem is NP-hard and W[1]-hard when parameterized by the "number of vertices to delete". On the positive side, we show fixed-parameter tractability for several parameterizations measuring tree-likeness, including a vertex-linear problem kernel with respect to the parameter "feedback edge set number". On the contrary, we show a non-existence result concerning polynomial-size problem kernels for the combined parameter "vertex cover number and number of vertices to delete", implying corresponding nonexistence results when replacing vertex cover number by treewidth or feedback vertex set number.

  5. The role of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S B; Pistilli, M; Livingston, K G; Gold, D R; Volpe, N J; Shindler, K S; Liu, G T; Tamhankar, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity and specificity of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients. Methods The records of all adult patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology service who underwent orbital ultrasonography for the evaluation of suspected papilledema were reviewed. The details of history, ophthalmologic examination, and results of ancillary testing including orbital ultrasonography, MRI, and lumbar puncture were recorded. Results of orbital ultrasonography were correlated with the final diagnosis of papilledema or pseudopapilledema on the basis of the clinical impression of the neuro-ophthalmologist. Ultrasound was considered positive when the optic nerve sheath diameter was ≥3.3 mm along with a positive 30° test. Results The sensitivity of orbital ultrasonography for detection of papilledema was 90% (CI: 80.2–99.3%) and the specificity in detecting pseudopapilledema was 79% (CI: 67.7–90.7%). Conclusions Orbital ultrasonography is a rapid and noninvasive test that is highly sensitive, but less specific in differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients, and can be useful in guiding further management of patients in whom the diagnosis is initially uncertain. PMID:25190532

  6. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  7. Distinguishing k-defects from their canonical twins

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Melinda; Lewandowski, Matt; Trodden, Mark; Wesley, Daniel

    2010-11-15

    We study k-defects--topological defects in theories with more than two derivatives and second-order equations of motion--and describe some striking ways in which these defects both resemble and differ from their analogues in canonical scalar field theories. We show that, for some models, the homotopy structure of the vacuum manifold is insufficient to establish the existence of k-defects, in contrast to the canonical case. These results also constrain certain families of Dirac-Born-Infeld instanton solutions in the 4-dimensional effective theory. We then describe a class of k-defect solutions, which we dub ''doppelgaengers,'' that precisely match the field profile and energy density of their canonical scalar field theory counterparts. We give a complete characterization of Lagrangians which admit doppelgaenger domain walls. By numerically computing the fluctuation eigenmodes about domain wall solutions, we find different spectra for doppelgaengers and canonical walls, allowing us to distinguish between k-defects and the canonical walls they mimic. We search for doppelgaengers for cosmic strings by numerically constructing solutions of Dirac-Born-Infeld and canonical scalar field theories. Despite investigating several examples, we are unable to find doppelgaenger cosmic strings, hence the existence of doppelgaengers for defects with codimension >1 remains an open question.

  8. Adaptive inference for distinguishing credible from incredible patterns in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holling, Crawford S.; Allen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Strong inference is a powerful and rapid tool that can be used to identify and explain patterns in molecular biology, cell biology, and physiology. It is effective where causes are single and separable and where discrimination between pairwise alternative hypotheses can be determined experimentally by a simple yes or no answer. But causes in ecological systems are multiple and overlapping and are not entirely separable. Frequently, competing hypotheses cannot be distinguished by a single unambiguous test, but only by a suite of tests of different kinds, that produce a body of evidence to support one line of argument and not others. We call this process "adaptive inference". Instead of pitting each member of a pair of hypotheses against each other, adaptive inference relies on the exuberant invention of multiple, competing hypotheses, after which carefully structured comparative data are used to explore the logical consequences of each. Herein we present an example that demonstrates the attributes of adaptive inference that have developed out of a 30-year study of the resilience of ecosystems.

  9. Distinguishing Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior From Stereotypy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chok, James T; Koesler, Bryan

    2014-05-01

    The current project was an initial attempt to develop assessment procedures for distinguishing between obsessive-compulsive (OC) and stereotypic behavior and evaluate the impact of different treatments for these behaviors. Two individuals with autism, one with repetitive behavior characteristic of OC behavior and one with repetitive behavior not characteristic of OC behavior, participated in the study. In Experiment 1, given that individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) report experiencing unpleasant urges that are relieved when they perform compulsive actions, an attempt was made to identify these experiences by measuring heart rate and affect when access to repetitive behavior was restricted and allowed. In Experiment 2, a multiple schedules treatment was conducted with each participant, and in Experiment 3, the participant with autism and OC behavior completed exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment. The overall results across studies suggest that one potential way to discriminate between OC behavior and stereotypy in nonvocal children with autism is to consider the topography of repetitive behavior along with changes in physiology and affect. In addition, it may be worth considering the use of ERP, a traditional treatment for OCD, to treat repetitive behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement if treatments that provide access to repetitive behavior are not effective. PMID:24177034

  10. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID.

  11. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  12. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  13. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  14. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  15. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  16. 10 CFR 1002.3 - Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG General § 1002.3 Custody of official seal and distinguishing flags. The Secretary or his designee...

  17. PROMOTING RESILIENCE.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Eric; Barker, Gillian; Lindo, Zoë; Dieleman, Catherine; Dussault, Antoine C

    2015-06-01

    Broadening contingents of ecologists and environmental scientists have recently begun to promote ecological resilience both as a conceptual framework and as a practical goal. As some critics have noted, this growing interest has brought with it a multiplication of notions of ecological resilience. This paper reviews how and why the notion of ecological resilience has been adopted, used, and defended in ecology since its introduction by C. S. Holling in 1973. We highlight the many faces of ecological resilience, but unlike other reviewers who see these as disunified and confused, we interpret ecological resilience as an evolving, multidimensional, theoretical concept unified by its role in guiding practical response to ecological and environmental challenges. This perspective informs a review of some of the factors often recognized as favoring resilience (structural and response diversity, functional redundancy, modularity, and spatial heterogeneity); we show how the roles and relationships of these factors can be clarified by considering them in the theoretical framework of Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs).

  18. Distinguishing grade I meningioma from higher grade meningiomas without biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Varlotto, John; Flickinger, John; Pavelic, Martin T.; Specht, Charles S.; Sheehan, Jonas M.; Timek, Dana T.; Glantz, Michael J.; Sogge, Steven; Dimaio, Christopher; Moser, Richard; Yunus, Shakeeb; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Urvashi; Rava, Paul; Tangel, Matthew; Yao, Aaron; Kanekar, Sangam

    2015-01-01

    Background Many meningiomas are identified by imaging and followed, with an assumption that they are WHO Grade I tumors. The purpose of our investigation is to find clinical or imaging predictors of WHO Grade II/III tumors to distinguish them from Grade I meningiomas. Methods Patients with a pathologic diagnosis of meningioma from 2002–2009 were included if they had pre-operative MRI studies and pathology for review. A Neuro-Pathologist reviewed and classified all tumors by WHO 2007. All Brain MRI imaging was reviewed by a Neuro-radiologist. Pathology and Radiology reviews were blinded from each other and clinical course. Recursive partitioning was used to create predictive models for identifying meningioma grades. Results Factors significantly correlating with a diagnosis of WHO Grade II-III tumors in univariate analysis: prior CVA (p = 0.005), CABG (p = 0.010), paresis (p = 0.008), vascularity index = 4/4: (p = 0.009), convexity vs other (p = 0.014), metabolic syndrome (p = 0.025), non-skull base (p = 0.041) and non-postmenopausal female (p = 0.045). Recursive partitioning analysis identified four categories: 1. prior CVA, 2. vascular index (vi) = 4 (no CVA), 3. premenopausal or male, vi < 4, no CVA. 4. Postmenopausal, vi < 4, no CVA with corresponding rates of 73, 54, 35 and 10% of being Grade II-III meningiomas. Conclusions Meningioma patients with prior CVA and those grade 4/4 vascularity are the most likely to have WHO Grade II-III tumors while post-menopausal women without these features are the most likely to have Grade I meningiomas. Further study of the associations of clinical and imaging factors with grade and clinical behavior are needed to better predict behavior of these tumors without biopsy. PMID:26472106

  19. Mesiodistal odontometrics as a distinguishing trait: A comparative preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sravya, Taneeru; Dumpala, Rakesh Kumar; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Narasimha, Vanajakshi China

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sex determination is a vital step in reconstructing an individual profile from unidentified skeletal remnants. Variations in tooth size are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Tooth size variations have been reported among different populations. Aim: To identify the sex by determining the mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of maxillary canines. Objectives: (1) To compare the MD diameter of all maxillary canines — (a) in the entire urban and tribal population, (b) in urban male and urban female populations, (c) in tribal male and tribal female populations, and (d) in the entire male and female populations and (2) To estimate the percentage of sexual dimorphism individually in urban and tribal populations. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects each from urban and tribal populations in equal gender ratio were selected in Khammam district, Telangana, for the purpose of this study. After obtaining informed consent, maxillary study models of the selected subjects were made. MD diameters of left and right maxillary canines were measured on casts using vernier calipers. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: (1) The total tribal population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the total urban population, (2) Urban males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than urban females, (3) Tribal males showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than tribal females, (4) The entire male population showed a greater MD diameter of maxillary canines than the entire female population, and (5) The percentage of dimorphism between males and females in individual groups was found to be significant. Conclusion: The study showed maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used as a distinguishing trait for sex determination along with other procedures. PMID:27555727

  20. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel L.; Gainsbury, Sally M.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., “gambling-like game”) may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities. PMID:26690615

  1. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A.; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. PMID:25146574

  2. Distinguishing genuine from spurious causes: a coherence hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lien, Y; Cheng, P W

    2000-03-01

    Two opposing views have been proposed to explain how people distinguish genuine causes from spurious ones: the power view and the covariational view. This paper notes two phenomena that challenge both views. First, even when 1) there is no innate specific causal knowledge about a regularity (so that the power view does not apply) and 2) covariation cannot be computed while controlling for alternative causes (so that the covariation view should not apply), people are still able to systematically judge whether a regularity is causal. Second, when an alternative cause explains the effect, a spurious cause is judged to be spurious with greater confidence than otherwise (in both cases, no causal mechanism underlies the spurious cause). To fill the gap left by the traditional views, this paper proposes a new integration of these views. According to the coherence hypothesis, although a genuine cause and a spurious one may both covary with an effect in a way that does not imply causality at some level of abstraction, the categories to which these candidate causes belong covary with the effect differently at a more abstract level: one covariation implies causality; the other does not. Given this superordinate knowledge, the causal judgments of a reasoner who seeks to explain as much as possible with as few causal rules as possible will exhibit the properties that challenge the traditional views. Two experiments tested and supported the coherence hypothesis. Both experiments involved candidate causes that covary with an effect without implying causality at some level, manipulating whether covariation that implies causality has been acquired at a more abstract level. The experiments differed on whether an alternative cause explains the effect. PMID:10716875

  3. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-08-21

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making.

  4. Distinguishing materials in inspected objects by digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, V.; Lysetska, O.; Opolonin, A.; Danilenko, V.; Galkin, S.; Voronkin, E.; Kostyukevich, S. A.

    2005-08-01

    We used detector arrays of types "scintillator-photodiode" (S-PD) and scintillator-photoreceiving device (PRD). In non-destructive testing systems using S-PD arrays it is possible to use scintillators of different atomic number and density, which allows functioning in the energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV, i.e., steel equivalent thickness I from 100μm to 300mm. For different objects and different purposes, different types of detector arrays and methods of control can be recommended. Results of experimental studies of detector arrays S-PD and S-PRD used for X-ray digital radiography have shown that there exist further possibilities to increase spatial resolution of this system for up to 2-3 line pairs per mm. It was investigated experimental results with used two array detectors for low-energy and high - energy detections (HED and LED). It is show in principle to distinguish not only organic from inorganic materials, but so as safety organic from explosive. Our aim was to show (theoretically and experimentally) that is could be possible to substantially increase the accuracy of separation of substances in the inspected object by their atomic number, as well as to increase the sensitivity of the method as a whole by using a multi-energy approach and detectors that have substantially different sensibility in the low-and high-energy range of the X-ray emitter spectrum. It was show the possibility to distinct materials with effective atomic number difference about 10-15%. It can be used in inspection systems, including anti-terrorist activities, in technical diagnostics, medicine.

  5. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another

  6. An Engineered Strong Promoter for Streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Juan; Xiang, Sihai; Feng, Xiaozhou

    2013-01-01

    Well-characterized promoters are essential tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. In Streptomyces coelicolor, the native kasOp is a temporally expressed promoter strictly controlled by two regulators, ScbR and ScbR2. In this work, first, kasOp was engineered to remove a common binding site of ScbR and ScbR2 upstream of its core region, thus generating a stronger promoter, kasOp3. Second, another ScbR binding site internal to the kasOp3 core promoter region was abolished by random mutation and screening of the mutant library to obtain the strongest promoter, kasOp* (where the asterisk is used to distinguish the engineered promoter from the native promoter). The activities of kasOp* were compared with those of two known strong promoters, ermEp* and SF14p, in three Streptomyces species. kasOp* showed the highest activity at the transcription and protein levels in all three hosts. Furthermore, relative to ermEp* and SF14p, kasOp* was shown to confer the highest actinorhodin production level when used to drive the expression of actII-ORF4 in S. coelicolor. Therefore, kasOp* is a simple and well-defined strong promoter useful for gene overexpression in streptomycetes. PMID:23686264

  7. Distinguishing between exploratory and confirmatory preclinical research will improve translation.

    PubMed

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation), researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation), researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.

  8. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection.

    PubMed

    Pelli, Denis G; Palomares, Melanie; Majaj, Najib J

    2004-12-30

    A letter in the peripheral visual field is much harder to identify in the presence of nearby letters. This is "crowding." Both crowding and ordinary masking are special cases of "masking," which, in general, refers to any effect of a "mask" pattern on the discriminability of a signal. Here we characterize crowding, and propose a diagnostic test to distinguish it from ordinary masking. In ordinary masking, the signal disappears. In crowding, it remains visible, but is ambiguous, jumbled with its neighbors. Masks are usually effective only if they overlap the signal, but the crowding effect extends over a large region. The width of that region is proportional to signal eccentricity from the fovea and independent of signal size, mask size, mask contrast, signal and mask font, and number of masks. At 4 deg eccentricity, the threshold contrast for identification of a 0.32 deg signal letter is elevated (up to six-fold) by mask letters anywhere in a 2.3 deg region, 7 times wider than the signal. In ordinary masking, threshold contrast rises as a power function of mask contrast, with a shallow log-log slope of 0.5 to 1, whereas, in crowding, threshold is a sigmoidal function of mask contrast, with a steep log-log slope of 2 at close spacing. Most remarkably, although the threshold elevation decreases exponentially with spacing, the threshold and saturation contrasts of crowding are independent of spacing. Finally, ordinary masking is similar for detection and identification, but crowding occurs only for identification, not detection. More precisely, crowding occurs only in tasks that cannot be done based on a single detection by coarsely coded feature detectors. These results (and observers' introspections) suggest that ordinary masking blocks feature detection, so the signal disappears, while crowding (like "illusory conjunction") is excessive feature integration - detected features are integrated over an inappropriately large area because there are no smaller integration

  10. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  11. Distinguishing resuspension and advection signals in a hypertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, David; Souza, Alex; Jago, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial material is supplied to an estuary system by the river, while marine material is supplied by the sea. Whether the estuary acts as a trap or a bypass zone for SPM (suspended particulate matter) depends upon the properties and dynamics of both the estuary, including the tidal and residual behaviour of the currents, and the SPM, including particle sizes and settling velocities and concentration gradients, which together control the dynamics, such as the trapping efficiency, of the estuary. Whether an SPM signal is regarded as being one of resuspension or advection depends upon the area of interest, and therefore distinguishing between resuspension and advection can be complex. Material that is resuspended within the area of study is regarded as resuspension, while that which is resuspended outside, but passes through, the area of interest, is regarded as advection. The results of a measurement campaign undertaken in a hypertidal UK estuary during the pre-spring bloom February-March and post-spring bloom May-June are presented utilising a combination of acoustic and optical instruments, moorings, and CTD stations. A characteristic asymmetric "twin peak" signal is present during both time periods, implying the presence of both resuspension and advection. This is confirmed through the use of harmonic analysis. A seasonal variation in the relative importance of the resuspension and advection components is seen between the two observation periods, with the small (<122µm) and large (>122µm) particles displaying different behaviours and providing a strong indication of the presence of flocculation. Approximate point flux calculations showed a reduction in the horizontal gradient of concentration, and subsequently the flood dominance of sediment transport, between May-June and February-March. This has been attributed to changes in biological activity and atmospheric forcing between the two observational periods. Ebb-dominant concentrations brought about by the

  12. Tissue cytokine patterns distinguish variants of rheumatoid synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Klimiuk, P. A.; Goronzy, J. J.; Björ nsson, J.; Beckenbaugh, R. D.; Weyand, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with primary manifestations in the synovial membrane. Tissue infiltrates are composed of T cells, B cells, and macrophages, but histopathological appearances vary widely and are rarely pathognomonic. Mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of rheumatoid synovitis are not known. To explore whether a correlation exists between the microscopic patterns of rheumatoid synovitis and in situ production of cytokines, tissue samples from 21 consecutive patients with clinically active RA were examined. Based upon the organization of the lymphocyte infiltrate, the synovial biopsies were categorized into three distinct subsets. Ten samples were characterized by diffuse lymphoid infiltrates without further microarrangement. In seven samples, lymphoid follicles with germinal center formation were detected, and in four specimens, granuloma formation was identified. In all specimens, cytokine transcription of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 was semiquantified with polymerase chain reaction and liquid phase hybridization. Each of the morphologically defined variants of synovitis displayed a unique cytokine profile. Low-level transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha was typical of diffuse synovitis. In follicular synovitis, IFN-gamma was the dominant cytokine, IL-4 was virtually undetectable, and IL-10 was abundant. Granulomatous synovitis demonstrated high transcription of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha and could be clearly distinguished from the other phenotypes. To investigate whether differences in the synovial lesions were related to host factors, patients were compared for clinical parameters. Diffuse synovitis was seen in most of the patients with seronegative RA, the mildest form of the disease. In contrast, extra-articular spreading of RA with nodule formation was typically

  13. Chemical perturbation of an intrinsically disordered region of TFIID distinguishes two modes of transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengjian; Boskovic, Zarko; Hussain, Mahmud M; Hu, Wenxin; Inouye, Carla; Kim, Han-Je; Abole, A Katherine; Doud, Mary K; Lewis, Timothy A; Koehler, Angela N; Schreiber, Stuart L; Tjian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions (IDPs/IDRs) are proteins or peptide segments that fail to form stable 3-dimensional structures in the absence of partner proteins. They are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and are often associated with human diseases, but their biological functions have been elusive to study. In this study, we report the identification of a tin(IV) oxochloride-derived cluster that binds an evolutionarily conserved IDR within the metazoan TFIID transcription complex. Binding arrests an isomerization of promoter-bound TFIID that is required for the engagement of Pol II during the first (de novo) round of transcription initiation. However, the specific chemical probe does not affect reinitiation, which requires the re-entry of Pol II, thus, mechanistically distinguishing these two modes of transcription initiation. This work also suggests a new avenue for targeting the elusive IDRs by harnessing certain features of metal-based complexes for mechanistic studies, and for the development of novel pharmaceutical interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07777.001 PMID:26314865

  14. MEF2 transcription factors: developmental regulators and emerging cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Pon, Julia R.; Marra, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    The MEF2 transcription factors have roles in muscle, cardiac, skeletal, vascular, neural, blood and immune system cell development through their effects on cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, shape and metabolism. Altered MEF2 activity plays a role in human diseases and has recently been implicated in the development of several cancer types. In particular, MEF2B, the most divergent and least studied protein of the MEF2 family, has a role unique from its paralogs in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The use of genome-scale technologies has enabled comprehensive MEF2 target gene sets to be identified, contributing to our understanding of MEF2 proteins as nodes in complex regulatory networks. This review surveys the molecular interactions of MEF2 proteins and their effects on cellular and organismal phenotypes. We include a discussion of the emerging roles of MEF2 proteins as oncogenes and tumor suppressors of cancer. Throughout this article we highlight similarities and differences between the MEF2 family proteins, including a focus on functions of MEF2B. PMID:26506234

  15. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  16. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  17. Absence of canonical active chromatin marks in developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Romero, Marina; Corominas, Montserrat; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    The interplay of active and repressive histone modifications is assumed to play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. In contrast to this generally accepted view, we show that transcription of genes temporally regulated during fly and worm development occurs in the absence of canonically active histone modifications. Conversely, strong chromatin marking is related to transcriptional and post-transcriptional stability, an association that we also observe in mammals. Our results support a model in which chromatin marking is associated to stable production of RNA, while unmarked chromatin would permit rapid gene activation and de-activation during development. In this case, regulation by transcription factors would play a comparatively more important regulatory role. PMID:26280901

  18. Developmental regulation of fear learning and anxiety behavior by endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, T T-Y; Hill, M N; Lee, F S

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain undergoes substantial maturation into adulthood and the development of specific neural structures occurs on differing timelines. Transient imbalances between developmental trajectories of corticolimbic structures, which are known to contribute to regulation over fear learning and anxiety, can leave an individual susceptible to mental illness, particularly anxiety disorders. There is a substantial body of literature indicating that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system critically regulates stress responsivity and emotional behavior throughout the life span, making this system a novel therapeutic target for stress- and anxiety-related disorders. During early life and adolescence, corticolimbic eCB signaling changes dynamically and coincides with different sensitive periods of fear learning, suggesting that eCB signaling underlies age-specific fear learning responses. Moreover, perturbations to these normative fluctuations in corticolimbic eCB signaling, such as stress or cannabinoid exposure, could serve as a neural substrate contributing to alterations to the normative developmental trajectory of neural structures governing emotional behavior and fear learning. In this review, we first introduce the components of the eCB system and discuss clinical and rodent models showing eCB regulation of fear learning and anxiety in adulthood. Next, we highlight distinct fear learning and regulation profiles throughout development and discuss the ontogeny of the eCB system in the central nervous system, and models of pharmacological augmentation of eCB signaling during development in the context of fear learning and anxiety.

  19. Developmental Regulation of the Growth Plate and Cranial Synchondrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Hu, M; Mishina, Y; Liu, F

    2016-10-01

    Long bones and the cranial base are both formed through endochondral ossification. Elongation of long bones is primarily through the growth plate, which is a cartilaginous structure at the end of long bones made up of chondrocytes. Growth plate chondrocytes are organized in columns along the longitudinal axis of bone growth. The cranial base is the growth center of the neurocranium. Synchondroses, consisting of mirror-image growth plates, are critical for cranial base elongation and development. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in determining the roles of the parathyroid hormone-related protein, Indian hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and Wnt signaling pathways in various aspects of skeletal development. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates the important role of the primary cilia signaling pathway in bone elongation. Here, we review the development of the growth plate and cranial synchondrosis and the regulation by the above-mentioned signaling pathways, highlighting the similarities and differences between these 2 structures. PMID:27250655

  20. Developmental regulation of the Tetrahymena thermophila origin recognition complex.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The Tetrahymena thermophila DNA replication machinery faces unique demands due to the compartmentalization of two functionally distinct nuclei within a single cytoplasm, and complex developmental program. Here we present evidence for programmed changes in ORC and MCM abundance that are not consistent with conventional models for DNA replication. As a starting point, we show that ORC dosage is critical during the vegetative cell cycle and development. A moderate reduction in Orc1p induces genome instability in the diploid micronucleus, aberrant division of the polyploid macronucleus, and failure to generate a robust intra-S phase checkpoint response. In contrast to yeast ORC2 mutants, replication initiation is unaffected; instead, replication forks elongation is perturbed, as Mcm6p levels decline in parallel with Orc1p. Experimentally induced down-regulation of ORC and MCMs also impairs endoreplication and gene amplification, consistent with essential roles during development. Unexpectedly Orc1p and Mcm6p levels fluctuate dramatically in developing wild type conjugants, increasing for early cycles of conventional micronuclear DNA replication and macronuclear anlagen replication (endoreplication phase I, rDNA gene amplification). This increase does not reflect the DNA replication load, as much less DNA is synthesized during this developmental window compared to vegetative S phase. Furthermore, although Orc1p levels transiently increase prior to endoreplication phase II, Orc1p and Mcm6p levels decline when the replication load increases and unconventional DNA replication intermediates are produced. We propose that replication initiation is re-programmed to meet different requirements or challenges during the successive stages of Tetrahymena development.

  1. Characterization of a developmentally regulated oocyst protein from Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Barfield, R C

    2003-06-01

    Changes in proteins during sporulation of Eimeria tenella oocysts were investigated. Unsporulated E. tenella oocysts collected from cecal tissue at 7 days postinoculation were sporulated in aerated media at 28 C for 0-48 hr. Gel analysis of soluble protein extracts prepared from oocysts from their respective time points indicated the presence of 2 prominent bands with relative molecular weight (Mr) in the range of 30 kDa and making up 20% of the total protein. These 2 bands, designated as major oocyst proteins (MOPs), were absent or barely detectable by 21 hr of sporulation. MOP bands were weakly reactive with glycoprotein stain but showed no mobility shift on deglycosylation. By gel analysis it was shown that the purified MOPs consisted of 2 bands of Mr 28.7 and 30.1 kDa. However, by matrix-assisted laser deabsorption-time of flight analysis it was shown that masses were about 17% lower. Internal sequence analysis of the 28.7-kDa protein generated 2 peptides of 17 and 14 amino acids in length, consistent with a recently described protein coded by the gam56 gene and expressed in E. maxima gametocytes. Rabbit antibodies made against MOPs were localized to outer portions of sporocysts before excystment and to the apical end of in vitro-derived sporozoites. These same antibodies were found to react with bands of Mr 101 and 65 kDa by Western blot but did not recognize MOPs in soluble or insoluble sporozoite extracts. The data suggest that the MOPs are derived from part of a gametocyte protein similar to that coded by gam56 and are processed during sporulation into sporocyst and sporozoite proteins. Alternatively, the binding of anti-MOP to 101- and 65-kDa proteins may result from alternatively spliced genes as the development of parasite proceeds.

  2. Developmental regulation of nucleolus size during Drosophila eye differentiation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E

    2013-01-01

    When cell cycle withdrawal accompanies terminal differentiation, biosynthesis and cellular growth are likely to change also. In this study, nucleolus size was monitored during cell fate specification in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc using fibrillarin antibody labeling. Nucleolus size is an indicator of ribosome biogenesis and can correlate with cellular growth rate. Nucleolar size was reduced significantly during cell fate specification and differentiation, predominantly as eye disc cells entered a cell cycle arrest that preceded cell fate specification. This reduction in nucleolus size required Dpp and Hh signaling. A transient enlargement of the nucleolus accompanied cell division in the Second Mitotic Wave. Nucleoli continued to diminish in postmitotic cells following fate specification. These results suggest that cellular growth is regulated early in the transition from proliferating progenitor cells to terminal cell fate specification, contemporary with regulation of the cell cycle, and requiring the same extracellular signals.

  3. Developmental Regulation of the Tetrahymena thermophila Origin Recognition Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The Tetrahymena thermophila DNA replication machinery faces unique demands due to the compartmentalization of two functionally distinct nuclei within a single cytoplasm, and complex developmental program. Here we present evidence for programmed changes in ORC and MCM abundance that are not consistent with conventional models for DNA replication. As a starting point, we show that ORC dosage is critical during the vegetative cell cycle and development. A moderate reduction in Orc1p induces genome instability in the diploid micronucleus, aberrant division of the polyploid macronucleus, and failure to generate a robust intra-S phase checkpoint response. In contrast to yeast ORC2 mutants, replication initiation is unaffected; instead, replication forks elongation is perturbed, as Mcm6p levels decline in parallel with Orc1p. Experimentally induced down-regulation of ORC and MCMs also impairs endoreplication and gene amplification, consistent with essential roles during development. Unexpectedly Orc1p and Mcm6p levels fluctuate dramatically in developing wild type conjugants, increasing for early cycles of conventional micronuclear DNA replication and macronuclear anlagen replication (endoreplication phase I, rDNA gene amplification). This increase does not reflect the DNA replication load, as much less DNA is synthesized during this developmental window compared to vegetative S phase. Furthermore, although Orc1p levels transiently increase prior to endoreplication phase II, Orc1p and Mcm6p levels decline when the replication load increases and unconventional DNA replication intermediates are produced. We propose that replication initiation is re-programmed to meet different requirements or challenges during the successive stages of Tetrahymena development. PMID:25569357

  4. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' broom, a disease of Theobroma cacao. The pathogen life cycle ends with the production of basidiocarps in dead tissues of the infected host. This structure generates millions of basidiospores that reinfect young tissues of the same or other plants. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sexual phase of this fungus may help develop chemical, biological or genetic strategies to control the disease. Results Mycelium was morphologically analyzed prior to emergence of basidiomata by stereomicroscopy, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphological changes in the mycelium before fructification show a pattern similar to other members of the order Agaricales. Changes and appearance of hyphae forming a surface layer by fusion were correlated with primordia emergence. The stages of hyphal nodules, aggregation, initial primordium and differentiated primordium were detected. The morphological analysis also allowed conclusions on morphogenetic aspects. To analyze the genes involved in basidiomata development, the expression of some selected EST genes from a non-normalized cDNA library, representative of the fruiting stage of M. perniciosa, was evaluated. A macroarray analysis was performed with 192 selected clones and hybridized with two distinct RNA pools extracted from mycelium in different phases of basidiomata formation. This analysis showed two groups of up and down-regulated genes in primordial phases of mycelia. Hydrophobin coding, glucose transporter, Rho-GEF, Rheb, extensin precursor and cytochrome p450 monooxygenase genes were grouped among the up-regulated. In the down-regulated group relevant genes clustered coding calmodulin, lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase and PIM1. In addition, 12 genes with more detailed expression profiles were analyzed by RT-qPCR. One aegerolysin gene had a peak of expression in mycelium with primordia and a second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  5. Aphid polyphenisms: trans-generational developmental regulation through viviparity

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kota; Miura, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenism, in which multiple discrete phenotypes develop from a single genotype, is considered to have contributed to the evolutionary success of aphids. Of the various polyphenisms observed in the complex life cycle of aphids, the reproductive and wing polyphenisms seen in most aphid species are conspicuous. In reproductive polyphenism, the reproductive modes can change between viviparous parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction in response to the photoperiod. Under short-day conditions in autumn, sexual morphs (males and oviparous females) are produced parthenogenetically. Winged polyphenism is observed in viviparous generations during summer, when winged or wingless (flightless) aphids are produced depending on a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., density, predators). Here, we review the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive and wing polyphenism in aphids. In reproductive polyphenism, morph determination (male, oviparous or viviparous female) within mother aphids is regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) titers in the mothers. In wing polyphenism, although JH is considered to play an important role in phenotype determination (winged or wingless), the role is still controversial. In both cases, the acquisition of viviparity in Aphididae is considered to be the basis for maternal regulation of these polyphenisms, and through which environmental cues can be transferred to developing embryos through the physiological state of the mother. Although the mechanisms by which mothers alter the developmental programs of their progeny have not yet been clarified, continued developments in molecular biology will likely unravel these questions. PMID:24478714

  6. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, R P

    2001-01-01

    The Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and the facilitated fructose transporter GLUT5 absorb sugars from the intestinal lumen across the brush-border membrane into the cells. The activity of these transport systems is known to be regulated primarily by diet and development. The cloning of these transporters has led to a surge of studies on cellular mechanisms regulating intestinal sugar transport. However, the small intestine can be a difficult organ to study, because its cells are continuously differentiating along the villus, and because the function of absorptive cells depends on both their state of maturity and their location along the villus axis. In this review, I describe the typical patterns of regulation of transport activity by dietary carbohydrate, Na(+) and fibre, how these patterns are influenced by circadian rhythms, and how they vary in different species and during development. I then describe the molecular mechanisms underlying these regulatory patterns. The expression of these transporters is tightly linked to the villus architecture; hence, I also review the regulatory processes occurring along the crypt-villus axis. Regulation of glucose transport by diet may involve increased transcription of SGLT1 mainly in crypt cells. As cells migrate to the villus, the mRNA is degraded, and transporter proteins are then inserted into the membrane, leading to increases in glucose transport about a day after an increase in carbohydrate levels. In the SGLT1 model, transport activity in villus cells cannot be modulated by diet. In contrast, GLUT5 regulation by the diet seems to involve de novo synthesis of GLUT5 mRNA synthesis and protein in cells lining the villus, leading to increases in fructose transport a few hours after consumption of diets containing fructose. In the GLUT5 model, transport activity can be reprogrammed in mature enterocytes lining the villus column. Innovative experimental approaches are needed to increase our understanding of sugar transport regulation in the small intestine. I close by suggesting specific areas of research that may yield important information about this interesting, but difficult, topic. PMID:11716754

  7. Developmental regulation of fear learning and anxiety behavior by endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, T T-Y; Hill, M N; Lee, F S

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain undergoes substantial maturation into adulthood and the development of specific neural structures occurs on differing timelines. Transient imbalances between developmental trajectories of corticolimbic structures, which are known to contribute to regulation over fear learning and anxiety, can leave an individual susceptible to mental illness, particularly anxiety disorders. There is a substantial body of literature indicating that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system critically regulates stress responsivity and emotional behavior throughout the life span, making this system a novel therapeutic target for stress- and anxiety-related disorders. During early life and adolescence, corticolimbic eCB signaling changes dynamically and coincides with different sensitive periods of fear learning, suggesting that eCB signaling underlies age-specific fear learning responses. Moreover, perturbations to these normative fluctuations in corticolimbic eCB signaling, such as stress or cannabinoid exposure, could serve as a neural substrate contributing to alterations to the normative developmental trajectory of neural structures governing emotional behavior and fear learning. In this review, we first introduce the components of the eCB system and discuss clinical and rodent models showing eCB regulation of fear learning and anxiety in adulthood. Next, we highlight distinct fear learning and regulation profiles throughout development and discuss the ontogeny of the eCB system in the central nervous system, and models of pharmacological augmentation of eCB signaling during development in the context of fear learning and anxiety. PMID:26419643

  8. Developmental Regulation of the Plastid Protein Import Apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, C; Cline, K

    1991-01-01

    Plastid development involves the programmed accumulation of proteins. Most plastid proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the organelle by an envelope-based protein import apparatus. Previous studies have shown that developmental rates of protein accumulation correspond to mRNA levels. Here, we examined the relationship between plastid development and the activity of the protein import apparatus. Developing plastids, primarily from wheat leaves, were analyzed for their protein import capability in vitro. Import capability, initially high in proplastids, declined as much as 20-fold as plastid development approached either the mature etioplast or the mature chloroplast. The observed decline was not due to senescence, nonspecific inhibitors, or protein turnover. Furthermore, the import capability of mature etioplasts, initially very low, was transiently reactivated during light-mediated redifferentiation into chloroplasts. These results suggest that plant cells regulate the import apparatus in concert with the protein demands of the developing plastids. PMID:12324584

  9. Developmentally regulated systemic endopolyploid in succulents with small genomes.

    PubMed

    De Rocher, E J; Harkins, K R; Galbraith, D W; Bohnert, H J

    1990-10-01

    Nuclei from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (ice plant) exhibit multiple levels of ploidy in every tissue as revealed by flow microfluorometric analysis of isolated nuclei stained with mithramycin. Multiples of the haploid nuclear genome complement (1C) corresponding to 2C, 4C, 8C, 16C, 32C, and 64C were observed. The distribution of nuclei among the different ploidy levels is tissue-specific and in leaves is characteristic of the stage of development. This type of genome organization has been identified in eight other succulent CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) plant species with small genomes. Multiploidy may be a common property of this type of plant.

  10. Cloning of a developmentally regulated tegument antigen of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Stein, L D; David, J R

    1986-09-01

    We have cloned a gene encoding a 22.6 kDa antigen from a Schistosoma mansoni cDNA library. Northern blots indicate that transcription of this antigen occurs in adults and sporocysts but not in cercariae, eggs or in newly-transformed schistosomula. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting with specific antisera indicate that the antigen is not detectable in the newly transformed schistosomulum but appears within 24 h of schistosomulum transformation. Indirect immunofluorescence of adult worms shows this protein to be located in the tegument.

  11. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  12. The Effect of Distinguished Educators on Academic Gain of Louisiana Academically Unacceptable Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scroggins, Ruby C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of academic growth of Academically Unacceptable schools in Louisiana which have been assigned a Distinguished Educator. Distinguished Educators are external change agents who are placed in Academically Unacceptable schools in Louisiana. The data were generated from the Louisiana Department of…

  13. Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

    2013-01-01

    For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores awarded by…

  14. Daniel Landis: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…

  15. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the…

  16. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Beverly Greene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beverly Greene, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, has a long history of distinguished contributions in the public interest through her research, scholarship, teaching, practice, and consultation. Her work raises the visibility of many populations that have been overlooked and…

  17. Plumage Genes and Little Else Distinguish the Genomes of Hybridizing Warblers.

    PubMed

    Toews, David P L; Taylor, Scott A; Vallender, Rachel; Brelsford, Alan; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Messer, Philipp W; Lovette, Irby J

    2016-09-12

    When related taxa hybridize extensively, their genomes may become increasingly homogenized over time. This mixing via hybridization creates conservation challenges when it reduces genetic or phenotypic diversity and when it endangers previously distinct species via genetic swamping [1]. However, hybridization also facilitates admixture mapping of traits that distinguish each species and the associated genes that maintain distinctiveness despite ongoing gene flow [2]. We address these dual aspects of hybridization in the golden-winged/blue-winged warbler complex, two phenotypically divergent warblers that are indistinguishable using traditional molecular markers and that draw substantial conservation attention [3-5]. Whole-genome comparisons show that differentiation is extremely low: only six small genomic regions exhibit strong differences. Four of these divergence peaks occur in proximity to genes known to be involved in feather development or pigmentation: agouti signaling protein (ASIP), follistatin (FST), ecodysplasin (EDA), wingless-related integration site (Wnt), and beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Throat coloration-the most striking plumage difference between these warblers-is perfectly associated with the promoter region of agouti, and genotypes at this locus obey simple Mendelian recessive inheritance of the black-throated phenotype characteristic of golden-winged warblers. The more general pattern of genomic similarity between these warblers likely results from a protracted period of hybridization, contradicting the broadly accepted hypothesis that admixture results from solely anthropogenic habitat change in the past two centuries [4]. Considered in concert, these results are relevant to both the genetic architecture of avian feather pigmentation and the evolutionary history and conservation challenges associated with these declining songbirds. PMID:27546575

  18. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  19. High-throughput functional comparison of promoter and enhancer activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thomas A; Jones, Richard D; Snavely, Andrew R; Pfenning, Andreas R; Kirchner, Rory; Hemberg, Martin; Gray, Jesse M

    2016-08-01

    Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal activity-regulated coactivator CREBBP, and we measured enhancer and promoter activities both before and after neuronal activation. We find that the same sequences typically encode both enhancer and promoter activities. However, gene promoters generate more promoter activity than distal enhancers, despite generating similar enhancer activity. Surprisingly, the greater promoter activity of gene promoters is not due to conventional core promoter elements or splicing signals. Instead, we find that particular transcription factor binding motifs are intrinsically biased toward the generation of promoter activity, whereas others are not. Although the specific biases we observe may be dependent on experimental or cellular context, our results suggest that gene promoters are distinguished from distal enhancers by specific complements of transcriptional activators. PMID:27311442

  20. Tissue-specific regulation of the mouse Pkhd1 (ARPKD) gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott S.; Cobo-Stark, Patricia; Hajarnis, Sachin; Aboudehen, Karam; Shao, Xinli; Richardson, James A.; Patel, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, an inherited disorder characterized by the formation of cysts in renal collecting ducts and biliary dysgenesis, is caused by mutations of the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) gene. Expression of PKHD1 is tissue specific and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that a 2.0-kb genomic fragment containing the proximal promoter of mouse Pkhd1 directs tissue-specific expression of a lacZ reporter gene in transgenic mice. LacZ is expressed in renal collecting ducts beginning during embryonic development but is not expressed in extrarenal tissues. The Pkhd1 promoter contains a binding site for the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1β, which is required for activity in transfected cells. Mutation of the HNF-1β-binding site abolishes the expression of the lacZ reporter gene in renal collecting ducts. Transgenes containing the 2.0-kb promoter and 2.7 kb of additional genomic sequence extending downstream to the second exon are expressed in the kidney, intrahepatic bile ducts, and male reproductive tract. This pattern overlaps with the endogenous expression of Pkhd1 and coincides with sites of expression of HNF-1β. We conclude that the proximal 2.0-kb promoter is sufficient for tissue-specific expression of Pkhd1 in renal collecting ducts in vivo and that HNF-1β is required for Pkhd1 promoter activity in collecting ducts. Additional genomic sequences located from exons 1-2 or elsewhere in the gene locus are required for expression in extrarenal tissues. PMID:24899057

  1. The use of forensic tests to distinguish blowfly artifacts from human blood, semen, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA.

  2. Novel core promoter elements in the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans and their influence on expression detected by genome-wide analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The core promoter is the region flanking the transcription start site (TSS) that directs formation of the pre-initiation complex. Core promoters have been studied intensively in mammals and yeast, but not in more diverse eukaryotes. Here we investigate core promoters in oomycetes, a group within the Stramenopile kingdom that includes important plant and animal pathogens. Prior studies of a small collection of genes proposed that oomycete core promoters contain a 16 to 19 nt motif bearing an Initiator-like sequence (INR) flanked by a novel sequence named FPR, but this has not been extended to whole-genome analysis. Results We used expectation maximization to find over-represented motifs near TSSs of Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight pathogen. The motifs corresponded to INR, FPR, and a new element found about 25 nt downstream of the TSS called DPEP. TATA boxes were not detected. Assays of DPEP function by mutagenesis were consistent with its role as a core motif. Genome-wide searches found a well-conserved combined INR+FPR in only about 13% of genes after correcting for false discovery, which contradicted prior reports that INR and FPR are found together in most genes. INR or FPR were found alone near TSSs in 18% and 7% of genes, respectively. Promoters lacking the motifs had pyrimidine-rich regions near the TSS. The combined INR+FPR motif was linked to higher than average mRNA levels, developmentally-regulated transcription, and functions related to plant infection, while DPEP and FPR were over-represented in constitutively-expressed genes. The INR, FPR, and combined INR+FPR motifs were detected in other oomycetes including Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Phytophthora sojae, Pythium ultimum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, while DPEP was found in all but S. parasitica. Only INR seemed present in a non-oomycete stramenopile. Conclusions The absence of a TATA box and presence of novel motifs show that the oomycete core promoter is diverged from that of

  3. Distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder using various methods based on terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, Tomáš; Křesálek, Vojtěch

    2014-10-01

    This article provides information about using terahertz radiation based methods such as time-domain spectroscopy, ATR spectroscopy and terahertz reflection imaging for distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder. The findings in this article prove that gunpowder does not have any sharp peaks in terahertz region of electromagnetic spectrum up to 2.5 THz, but also prove that distinguishing of different kinds of gunpowder is possible using different methods based on terahertz radiation. All presented results are connected to absorbance of gunpowder and other measured materials, because comparison of absorbance analysis is essential for distinguishing of gunpowder samples.

  4. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels of prevention, acknowledging the relative deficiency of research on the effectiveness of practice-based integrative care. One goal of integrative medicine is to make the widest array of appropriate options available to patients, ultimately blurring the boundaries between conventional and complementary medicine. Both disciplines should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that are efficacious and effective are systematically distinguished from those that are not. Furthermore, principles of preventive medicine can be infused into prevalent practices in complementary and integrative medicine, promoting public health in the context of more-responsible practices. The case is made that an integrative preventive approach involves the responsible use of science with responsiveness to the needs of patients that persist when conclusive data are exhausted, providing a framework to make clinical decisions among integrative therapies. PMID:26477898

  5. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea.

  6. Distinguishing between Higher and Lower Risk Youth Offenders: Applications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the development of an assessment process for distinguishing between higher and lower risk youth offenders through the use of 3 measures. Preliminary results and applications for practice are included. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. For Distinguished Public Service: Medical Library Association Honors FNLM and NIH MedlinePlus Magazine | NIH ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ruth Holst presented FNLM Chairman Dr. Donald West King with the Distinguished Public Service Award at the ... all that the Library does. Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library ...

  8. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Roback, Diane; Ink, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Includes 12 articles that list notable books for college-bound youth, young adults, and children; paperbacks for young adults; audiobooks for young adults; children's videos; recordings for children; software and Web sites for children; bestsellers of 2000; and literary prizes that were awarded in 2000. (LRW)

  9. Distinguishing Bonds.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond.

  10. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This section includes lists compiled by the American Library Association (ALA) of the best adult books of 1993, including fiction, poetry, and nonfiction; the best young adult books; the best children's books; best sellers; and recipients of literary prizes. (LRW)

  11. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Lists best books by the American Library Association for the general reader, best young adult books, notable children's films and videos, best children's books, notable recordings for children, notable children's software and Web sites, quick picks for reluctant young adult readers, bestsellers of 1997, and literary prizes, 1997. (PEN)

  12. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers. PMID:7575787

  13. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.

  14. RUNX1B Expression Is Highly Heterogeneous and Distinguishes Megakaryocytic and Erythroid Lineage Fate in Adult Mouse Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Julia E.; Sroczynska, Patrycja; Tsoulaki, Olga; Leong, Hui Sun; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z. H.; Miller, Crispin; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    The Core Binding Factor (CBF) protein RUNX1 is a master regulator of definitive hematopoiesis, crucial for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence during ontogeny. RUNX1 also plays vital roles in adult mice, in regulating the correct specification of numerous blood lineages. Akin to the other mammalian Runx genes, Runx1 has two promoters P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal) which generate distinct protein isoforms. The activities and specific relevance of these two promoters in adult hematopoiesis remain to be fully elucidated. Utilizing a dual reporter mouse model we demonstrate that the distal P1 promoter is broadly active in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) populations. By contrast the activity of the proximal P2 promoter is more restricted and its upregulation, in both the immature Lineage- Sca1high cKithigh (LSK) and bipotential Pre-Megakaryocytic/Erythroid Progenitor (PreMegE) populations, coincides with a loss of erythroid (Ery) specification. Accordingly the PreMegE population can be prospectively separated into “pro-erythroid” and “pro-megakaryocyte” populations based on Runx1 P2 activity. Comparative gene expression analyses between Runx1 P2+ and P2- populations indicated that levels of CD34 expression could substitute for P2 activity to distinguish these two cell populations in wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM). Prospective isolation of these two populations will enable the further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in megakaryocytic/erythroid (Mk/Ery) cell fate decisions. Having characterized the extensive activity of P1, we utilized a P1-GFP homozygous mouse model to analyze the impact of the complete absence of Runx1 P1 expression in adult mice and observed strong defects in the T cell lineage. Finally, we investigated how the leukemic fusion protein AML1-ETO9a might influence Runx1 promoter usage. Short-term AML1-ETO9a induction in BM resulted in preferential P2 upregulation, suggesting its expression may be important to

  15. INSM1 promoter-driven adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase cancer gene therapy for the treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Breslin, Mary B; Chen, Chiachen; Akerstrom, Victoria; Zhong, Qiu; Lan, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    The INSM1 gene encodes a developmentally regulated zinc finger transcription factor. INSM1 expression is normally absent in adult tissues, but is reactivated in neuroendocrine tumor cells. In the present study, we analyzed the therapeutic potential of an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) construct in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). We constructed an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven HSV-tk gene for therapy in PNETs. The PNET-specific adeno-INSM1 promoter HSV-tk construct was tested both in vitro and in vivo in a nude mouse tumor model. Northern blot analysis and transient transfection of an INSM1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene indicated that the INSM1 promoter was active in neuroblastoma (IMR-32), retinoblastoma (Y79), and medulloblastoma (D283 Med) cells, but not in glioblastoma (U-87 MG) cells. After Ad-INSM1p-HSV-tk infection, the levels of HSV-tk protein expression were consistent with INSM1 promoter activities. Furthermore, in vitro multiplicity of infection and ganciclovir (GCV) sensitivity studies indicated that the INSM1 promoter could mediate specific expression of the HSV-tk gene and selective killing of INSM1-positive PNETs. In vivo intratumoral adenoviral delivery demonstrated that the INSM1 promoter could direct HSV-tk gene expression in a nude mouse tumor model and effectively repressed tumor growth in response to GCV treatment. Taken together, our data show that the INSM1 promoter is specific and effective for targeted cancer gene therapy in PNETs. PMID:19604042

  16. Cell-specific transcriptional regulation and reactivation of galectin-1 gene expression are controlled by DNA methylation of the promoter region.

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuto, G; Carpentieri, M L; Salvatore, P; Cindolo, L; Bruni, C B; Chiariotti, L

    1996-01-01

    The galectin-1 gene is developmentally regulated gene whose activity is strongly modulated during cell differentiation and transformation. We have previously shown that galectin-1 promoter constructs are highly active when transiently transfected in cells both expressing and not expressing the endogenous gene and that the basal activity is determined by a small region encompassing the transcription start site (from positions -50 to +50). We have now investigated the role of DNA methylation in galectin-1 gene expression. Southern blot analysis with HpaII and MspI endonucleases and sodium bisulfite analysis of genomic DNA from expressing and nonexpressing cell lines and cell hybrids showed a close correlation between gene activity and demethylation of the 5' region of the galectin-1 gene. We found that the galectin-1 promoter region is fully methylated, at every CpG site on both strands, in nonexpressing differentiated rat liver (FAO) and thyroid (PC C13) cells and unmethylated in the expressing undifferentiated liver (BRL3A) and thyroid transformed (PC myc/raf) cell lines. In addition, reactivation of the silent FAO alleles in FAO-human osteosarcoma (143tk-) hybrid cells is accompanied by a complete demethylation of the promoter region. Finally, when galectin-1 chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) promoter constructs were methylated in vitro by SssI methylase at every cytosine residue of the CpG doublets and transfected into mouse fibroblasts, the transcription of the CAT reporter gene was strongly inhibited. PMID:8649381

  17. The developmental activation of the chicken lysozyme locus in transgenic mice requires the interaction of a subset of enhancer elements with the promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M C; Jägle, U; Krüger, G; Bonifer, C

    1997-01-01

    The complete chicken lysozyme locus is expressed in a position independent fashion in macrophages of transgenic mice and forms the identical chromatin structure as observed with the endogenous gene in chicken cells. Individual lysozyme cis -regulatory elements reorganize their chromatin structure at different developmental stages. Accordingly, their activities are developmentally regulated, indicating a differential role of these elements in locus activation. We have shown previously that a subset of enhancer elements and the promoter are sufficient to activate transcription of the chicken lysozyme gene at the correct developmental stage. Here, we analyzed to which grade the developmentally controlled chromatin reorganizing capacity of cis -regulatory elements in the 5'-region of the chicken lysozyme locus is dependent on promoter elements, and we examined whether the lysozyme locus carries a dominant chromatin reorganizing element. To this end we generated transgenic mouse lines carrying constructs with a deletion of the lysozyme promoter. Expression of the transgene in macrophages is abolished, however, the chromatin reorganizing ability of the cis -regulatory elements is differentially impaired. Some cis -elements require the interaction with the promoter to stabilize transcription factor complexes detectable as DNase I hypersensitive sites in chromatin, whereas other elements reorganize their chromatin structure autonomously. PMID:9224598

  18. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  19. Identification of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Yan, Li; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Zongwu; Zhang, Yongxing; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical staining has been widely used in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Due to the lack of a comprehensive analysis of different lung cancer subtypes, there may still be undiscovered markers with higher diagnostic accuracy. Methods Herein first, we systematically analyzed high-throughput data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Combining differently expressed gene screening and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we attempted to identify the genes which might be suitable as immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then we detected the expression of six of these genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in lung cancer sections using immunohistochemical staining. Results A number of genes were identified as candidate immunohistochemical markers with high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then the staining results confirmed the potentials of the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and their sensitivity and specificity were not less than many commonly used markers. Conclusions The results revealed that the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) might be suitable markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and also validated the feasibility of our methods for identification of candidate markers from high-throughput data. PMID:26380766

  20. Novel P2 promoter-derived HNF4{alpha} isoforms with different N-terminus generated by alternate exon insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jianmin; Levitsky, Lynne L.; Rhoads, David B.

    2009-04-15

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a critical transcription factor for pancreas and liver development and functions in islet {beta} cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the human HNF4A gene lead to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) and polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Expression of six HNF4{alpha} variants, three each from two developmentally regulated promoters, has been firmly established. We have now detected a new set of HNF4{alpha} variants designated HNF4{alpha}10-12 expressed from distal promoter P2. These variants, generated by inclusion of previously undetected exon 1E (human = 222 nt, rodent = 136 nt) following exon 1D have an altered N-terminus but identical remaining reading frame. HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 are expressed in pancreatic islets (and liver) and exhibit transactivation potentials similar to the corresponding {alpha}7-{alpha}9 isoforms. DNA-binding analyses implied much higher protein levels of HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 in liver than expected from the RT-PCR data. Our results provide evidence for a more complex expression pattern of HNF4{alpha} than previously appreciated. We recommend inclusion of exon 1E and nearby DNA sequences in screening for HNF4{alpha} mutations and polymorphisms in genetic analyses of MODY1 and T2DM.

  1. Isolation and functional characterization of Lycopene β-cyclase (CYC-B) promoter from Solanum habrochaites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    significant increase in the activity of GUS in the transgenic plants. Promoter deletion analysis led to the identification of a short promoter region (-436 bp to ATG) that exhibited a higher promoter strength but similar developmental expression pattern as compared with the full-length ShCYC-B promoter. Conclusion Functional characterization of the full-length ShCYC-B promoter and its deletion fragments in transient expression system in fruto as well as in stable transgenic tomato revealed that the promoter is developmentally regulated and its expression is upregulated in chromoplast-rich flowers and fruits. Our study identified a short promoter region with functional activity and developmental expression pattern similar to that of the full-length ShCYC-B promoter. This 436 bp promoter region can be used in promoter::reporter fusion molecular genetic screens to identify mutants impaired in CYC-B expression, and thus can be a valuable tool in understanding carotenoid metabolism in tomato. Moreover, this short promoter region of ShCYC-B may be useful in genetic engineering of carotenoid content and other agronomic traits in tomato fruits. PMID:20380705

  2. Color universal design: the selection of four easily distinguishable colors for all color vision types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Okabe, Masataka; Iga, Koichi; Tanaka, Yosuke; Musha, Kohei; Ito, Kei

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a practical application of the concept of Color Universal Design (CUD), the design that is recognizable to all color vision types. In our research, we looked for a clearly distinguishable combination of hues of four colors - black, red, green, and blue - which are frequently used in these circumstances. Red-green confusion people do not confuse all kinds of red and all kinds of green. By selecting particular hues for each color, the ability to distinguish between the four colors should be greatly improved. Our study thus concluded that, by carefully selecting hues within the range of each color category, it is possible to establish color-combinations which are easily distinguishable to people of all color-vision types in order to facilitate visual communication.

  3. Distinguishing Features and Similarities Between Descriptive Phenomenological and Qualitative Description Research.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-09-01

    Scholars who research phenomena of concern to the discipline of nursing are challenged with making wise choices about different qualitative research approaches. Ultimately, they want to choose an approach that is best suited to answer their research questions. Such choices are predicated on having made distinctions between qualitative methodology, methods, and analytic frames. In this article, we distinguish two qualitative research approaches widely used for descriptive studies: descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description. Providing a clear basis that highlights the distinguishing features and similarities between descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research will help students and researchers make more informed choices in deciding upon the most appropriate methodology in qualitative research. We orient the reader to distinguishing features and similarities associated with each approach and the kinds of research questions descriptive phenomenological and qualitative description research address.

  4. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Charles L. Brewer Award for distinguished teaching of psychology: Neil Lutsky.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award at the 119th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2011, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2011 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow, Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Connie Chan; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  6. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504572

  7. Framework for distinguishability of orthogonal bipartite states by one-way local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    In the topic of perfect local distinguishability of orthogonal multipartite quantum states, most results obtained so far pertain to bipartite systems whose subsystems are of specific dimensions. In contrast very few results for bipartite systems whose subsystems are of arbitrary dimensions, are known. This is because a rich variety of (algebraic or geometric) structure is exhibited by different sets of orthogonal states owing to which it is difficult to associate some common property underlying them all, i.e., a common property that would play a crucial role in the local distinguishability of these states. In this Rapid Communication, I propose a framework for the distinguishability by one-way local operations and classical communication (1-LOCC) of sets of orthogonal bipartite states in a dA⊗dB bipartite system, where dA,dB are the dimensions of both subsytems, labeled as A and B . I show that if the i th party (where i =A ,B ) can initiate a 1-LOCC protocol to perfectly distinguish among a set of orthogonal bipartite states, then the information of the existence of such a 1-LOCC protocol lies in a subspace of di×di Hermitian matrices, denoted by T⊥(i ), and that the method to extract this information (of the existence of this 1-LOCC protocol) from T⊥(i ) depends on the value of dim T⊥(i ) . In this way one can give sweeping results for the 1-LOCC (in)distinguishability of all sets of orthogonal bipartite states corresponding to certain values of dim T⊥(i ) . Thus I propose that the value of dim T⊥(i ) gives the common underlying property based on which sweeping results for the 1-LOCC (in)distinguishability of orthogonal bipartite quantum states can be made.

  8. Candice L. Odgers: Awards for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Candice L. Odgers. Odgers's work addressing the developmental course of externalizing and conduct disorders and substance use yielded key insights into genetic and environmental variations in risk, leading to policy recommendations regarding how best to target interventions." Odgers's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  9. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  10. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  11. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E.; Grotbeck, Carter L.

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  12. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia's Child Guidance Clinic, Barnes and his staff have provided exceptional psychological service to thousands of adjudicated youths, developed an APA-accredited internship program, and supervised the development of a juvenile mental health court that diverts mentally ill court-involved youth from delinquency proceedings and into treatment.

  13. Melissa L. Anderson: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association/American Psychological Association of Graduate Students Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. The 2012 winner is Melissa L. Anderson for her ongoing commitment to understanding, treating, and preventing domestic violence in Deaf women…

  14. Angela J. Grippo: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…

  15. Factors Distinguishing between Achievers and At Risk Students: A Qualitative and Quantitative Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiselen, R.; Geyser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that distinguish between Achievers and At Risk Students in Accounting 1A, and to explore how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement each other. Differences between the two groups were explored from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective, focusing on study habits,…

  16. Distinguishing among models of strong WL WL scattering at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Using a multi-channel analysis of strong W{sub L} W{sub L} scattering signals, I study the LHC`s ability to distinguish among various models of strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sectors. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Nonlinear forecasting as a way of distinguishing chaos from measurement error in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, George; May, Robert M.

    1990-04-01

    An approach is presented for making short-term predictions about the trajectories of chaotic dynamical systems. The method is applied to data on measles, chickenpox, and marine phytoplankton populations, to show how apparent noise associated with deterministic chaos can be distinguished from sampling error and other sources of externally induced environmental noise.

  18. Distinguishing boron desorption from mineral dissolution in arid-zone soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron release from six arid-zone soils from the San Joaquin Valley of California was investigated as a function of reaction time, solution pH, and suspension density. A multiple batch extraction experiment was carried out for 362 days to distinguish B desorption from mineral dissolution. Amounts o...

  19. C. Cybele Raver: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training. C. Cybele Raver is a prolific and award-winning writer who has published widely and served as a reviewer on many high-quality journals. Her publications are well…

  20. A National Analysis of Endowed Chairs and Distinguished Professors in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Ball, Daisy; Theodosopoulos, Kendra; Wells, Kevin; Morgan, Grant B.

    2016-01-01

    Noting a gap in the literature, this study examines how race, gender, and prestige are related to endowed and distinguished faculty of education. Specifically, this study seeks to ascertain the makeup of higher education with regard to faculty diversity: what processes are at work that serve to recreate the "status quo" in terms of…

  1. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  2. Mona M. Amer: APA/APAGS award for distinguished graduate student in professional psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation of Mona M. Amer, who received the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology "for her outstanding and innovative leadership in addressing the mental health needs of Muslim and Arab Americans." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Distinguishing Perceived Competence and Self-Efficacy: An Example from Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Wendy M.; Markland, David; Selzler, Anne-Marie; Murray, Terra C.; Wilson, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examined the conceptual and statistical distinction between perceived competence and self-efficacy. Although they are frequently used interchangeably, it is possible that distinguishing them might assist researchers in better understanding their roles in developing enduring adaptive behavior patterns. Perceived competence is conceived…

  4. Can Young Children Distinguish Abstract Expressionist Art from Superficially Similar Works by Preschoolers and Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissel, Jenny; Hawley-Dolan, Angelina; Winner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    While it is sometimes claimed that abstract art requires little skill and is indistinguishable from the scribbles of young children, recent research has shown that even adults with no training in art can distinguish works by abstract expressionists from superficially similar works by children and even elephants, monkeys, and apes (Hawley-Dolan…

  5. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  6. Fanny M. Cheung: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Adam K. Anderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Adam K. Anderson, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for his outstanding contribution to understanding the representation of emotion and its influence on cognition. By combining psychological and neuroscience techniques with rigorous and creative experimental designs, Anderson has…

  8. Marguerita Lightfoot: Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…

  9. Comments on "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology:" Evidence-Based Interventions for Grandiose Bragging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide some perspectives on Lilienfeld, Ammirati, and David's (2012) paper on distinguishing science from pseudoscience in school psychology. In many respects their work represents an intervention for "grandiose bragging," a problem that has occasionally occurred when various non-evidence-based or discredited…

  10. Information-Theoretic Latent Distribution Modeling: Distinguishing Discrete and Continuous Latent Variable Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinguishing between discrete and continuous latent variable distributions has become increasingly important in numerous domains of behavioral science. Here, the authors explore an information-theoretic approach to latent distribution modeling, in which the ability of latent distribution models to represent statistical information in observed…

  11. The Development of an Annotated Guide to Music by Distinguished Composers for Children's Voices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Carl N.

    Since earlier research revealed a general scarcity of song materials, this annotated bibliography of vocal music composed for elementary children's voices by a number of distinguished 19th and 20th century composers was compiled. Correspondence with contemporary composers served as a main source of data but composers' biographies, music…

  12. Using Tractography to Distinguish SWEDD from Parkinson's Disease Patients Based on Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mansu; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is critical to distinguish between Parkinson's disease (PD) and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD), because the two groups are different and require different therapeutic approaches. Objective. The aim of this study was to distinguish SWEDD patients from PD patients using connectivity information derived from diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Methods. Diffusion magnetic resonance images of SWEDD (n = 37) and PD (n = 40) were obtained from a research database. Tractography, the process of obtaining neural fiber information, was performed using custom software. Group-wise differences between PD and SWEDD patients were quantified using the number of connected fibers between two regions, and correlation analyses were performed based on clinical scores. A support vector machine classifier (SVM) was applied to distinguish PD and SWEDD based on group-wise differences. Results. Four connections showed significant group-wise differences and correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society. The SVM classifier attained 77.92% accuracy in distinguishing between SWEDD and PD using these identified connections. Conclusions. The connections and regions identified represent candidates for future research investigations.

  13. Volatile-sulfur-compound profile distinguishes Burkholderia pseudomallei from Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Hahne, Dorothee R; Merritt, Adam J; Clarke, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) was used to show that dimethyl sulfide produced by Burkholderia pseudomallei is responsible for its unusual truffle-like smell and distinguishes the species from Burkholderia thailandensis. SPME-GCMS can be safely used to detect dimethyl sulfide produced by agar-grown B. pseudomallei.

  14. Sandra L. Shullman: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. The 2012 winner is Sandra L. Shullman for her outstanding contributions and leadership as an independent practitioner in the fields of counseling and consulting psychology. Through her…

  15. A methodology for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects associated with response blocking.

    PubMed

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    We present one method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. The proportion of responses that produced a consequence (blocking) was varied while hand mouthing was treated in a man diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Response patterns across the schedule changes suggested that the blocking procedure functioned as a punishing event. PMID:8682737

  16. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  17. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Melanie; Maassarani, Reem

    2010-01-01

    Children's ability to distinguish between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles was investigated by presenting participants with short video excerpts of smiles. Enjoyment smiles differed from non-enjoyment smiles by greater symmetry and by appearance changes produced in the eye region by the Cheek Raiser action. The results indicate that 6- and…

  18. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Innovation and Technology Transfer AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION....D. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer. DATES: Friday, December 9, 2011, at... Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr. Pastan is an NIH...

  19. W. Gregory Keilin: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. W. Gregory Keilin has spent the majority of his professional career providing training and administration for psychology doctoral internship programs as well as leadership service…

  20. Are Children Able to Distinguish among the Concepts of Aloneness, Loneliness, and Solitude?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanaki, Evangelia

    2004-01-01

    School-age children's ability to distinguish among the concepts of aloneness, loneliness, and solitude was the focus of this study. This ability has been largely neglected by researchers. Also, the relation of this ability with self-reported loneliness was examined. Individual interviews were conducted with 180 second, fourth, and sixth graders…

  1. Using Tractography to Distinguish SWEDD from Parkinson's Disease Patients Based on Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is critical to distinguish between Parkinson's disease (PD) and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD), because the two groups are different and require different therapeutic approaches. Objective. The aim of this study was to distinguish SWEDD patients from PD patients using connectivity information derived from diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Methods. Diffusion magnetic resonance images of SWEDD (n = 37) and PD (n = 40) were obtained from a research database. Tractography, the process of obtaining neural fiber information, was performed using custom software. Group-wise differences between PD and SWEDD patients were quantified using the number of connected fibers between two regions, and correlation analyses were performed based on clinical scores. A support vector machine classifier (SVM) was applied to distinguish PD and SWEDD based on group-wise differences. Results. Four connections showed significant group-wise differences and correlated with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale sponsored by the Movement Disorder Society. The SVM classifier attained 77.92% accuracy in distinguishing between SWEDD and PD using these identified connections. Conclusions. The connections and regions identified represent candidates for future research investigations. PMID:27034889

  2. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice: Eduardo S. Morales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Eduardo S. Morales, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice, is cited for his leadership in and contributions to institutional practice through obtaining and implementing research and service grants and creating agencies and programs for Latinos, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons,…

  3. Bernice Lott: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…

  4. Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Luciano L'Abate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…

  5. A high-throughput screening assay for distinguishing nitrile hydratases from nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Leticia Mara Lima; da Silva, Amanda Ribeiro Martins; Rocco, Lucas de Freitas Coli; Milagre, Cintia Duarte de Freitas

    2015-03-01

    A modified colorimetric high-throughput screen based on pH changes combined with an amidase inhibitor capable of distinguishing between nitrilases and nitrile hydratases. This enzymatic screening is based on a binary response and is suitable for the first step of hierarchical screening projects.

  6. A high-throughput screening assay for distinguishing nitrile hydratases from nitrilases

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Leticia Mara Lima; da Silva, Amanda Ribeiro Martins; Rocco, Lucas de Freitas Coli; Milagre, Cintia Duarte de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    A modified colorimetric high-throughput screen based on pH changes combined with an amidase inhibitor capable of distinguishing between nitrilases and nitrile hydratases. This enzymatic screening is based on a binary response and is suitable for the first step of hierarchical screening projects. PMID:26221095

  7. 76 FR 42116 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...) Mail: Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Attn: Policy for distinguishing... need for a nationally consistent and transparent process for effective conservation of marine mammal... conservation management regimes (e.g., MMPA List of Fisheries (LOF), take reduction plans (TRP), ship...

  8. Leslie S. Greenberg: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. Leslie S. Greenberg is an exemplary scientist-practitioner whose pioneering work has significantly altered the landscape of the field of psychotherapy research and practice. His seminal…

  9. Distinguishing Themes of Cultural Responsiveness: A Study of Document-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the distinguishing themes of cultural responsiveness in state- and federally-derived document-based learning materials. Two data sources--"Teaching with Documents" articles in Social Education and Document Based Questions on New York State 11th-grade U.S. History and Government Regents exams--were examined using…

  10. The use of dynamic thermal analysis to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir

    2015-07-25

    WHO estimates that 10% of drugs are falsified. Economic and health factors arising from the use of counterfeit drugs lead to the development of new methods for distinguishing genuine medicines from falsified ones. The purpose of this study was to develop a new, fast, and inexpensive method to distinguish between original and fake drugs. 10 counterfeit Viagra(®) tablets were compared to 4 original pills (Pfizer). The drugs - both original and fake - were heated to 60°C and then the dynamics of their temperature changes at ambient conditions was tested using a thermal imaging camera. The time constants τ showing the dynamics of temperature changes for Viagra(®) and the falsified drug were determined. The thermokinetic parameters of drugs were determined in the temperature range of 60-22.2°C. Both original and counterfeit tablets had different time constants: 171.44 ± 4.62s and 182.71 ± 4.05 s, respectively. Differences in the dynamics of temperature changes as a function of time are particularly pronounced in the range of t+2 to t+7 min. The comparison of the time constants τ enables to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs. The proposed new method which uses dynamic thermal analysis is an effective, cheap and fast technique to distinguish genuine drugs from counterfeit ones.

  11. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  12. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Ahmad R. Hariri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ahmad R. Hariri, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for pioneering contributions to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms driving individual differences in complex behavior traits. Hariri has integrated molecular genetics, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, and psychology in…

  13. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Daniel J. Bauer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Daniel J. Bauer, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for the creative integration of sophisticated quantitative methods with empirical research in the psychological sciences. Bauer draws on his joint training as a developmental and quantitative psychologist to pursue the design,…

  14. Distinguishing between Causes and Enabling Conditions--Through Mental Models or Linguistic Cues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnmunch, Gregory; Beller, Sieghard

    2005-01-01

    The mental model theory of naive causal understanding and reasoning (Goldvarg & Johnson-Laird, 2001, Cognitive Science, 25, 565-610) claims that people distinguish between causes and enabling conditions on the basis of sets of models that represent possible causal situations. In the tasks used to test this hypothesis, however, the proposed set of…

  15. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  16. A Methodology for Distinguishing between Extinction and Punishment Effects Associated with Response Blocking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. In extinction and punishment, different schedules of reinforcement or punishment are in effect when a given proportion of responses is blocked. Response patterns in treatment of hand mouthing in an adult with profound mental retardation suggest that a…

  17. Science 101: How Do We Distinguish between Living and Nonliving Things?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since nearly every science curriculum in the country contains a section on living and non-living things, Bill Robertson believes that pretty much anyone who has taught the subject has run into difficulties. It seems as if no matter what criteria you use to distinguish between the two you can nearly always find exceptions. This article provides a…

  18. Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience in School Psychology: Science and Scientific Thinking as Safeguards against Human Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Ammirati, Rachel; David, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Like many domains of professional psychology, school psychology continues to struggle with the problem of distinguishing scientific from pseudoscientific and otherwise questionable clinical practices. We review evidence for the scientist-practitioner gap in school psychology and provide a user-friendly primer on science and scientific thinking for…

  19. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Keenan, Kate; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Leventhal, Bennett L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attaining a developmentally sensitive nosology for preschool disruptive behavior requires characterization of the features that distinguish it from the normative misbehavior of this developmental period. We hypothesize that "quality of behavior and its pervasiveness across contexts" are critical dimensions for clinical discrimination…

  20. Distinguishing between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Responses to Nakajima (2006) and Staats (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Alan; Galizio, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In a previous issue of "The Behavior Analyst," the authors discussed the ambiguities that surround the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. Seven distinguished behavior analysts commented on their article. The authors believe that this dialogue represented a constructive step toward clarification of an important concept within…

  1. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Laurence Steinberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Laurence Steinberg, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited for his extraordinary impact on policy in juvenile justice and child labor and on research into the role of parent and peer relationships in the development of children and adolescents. His groundbreaking research is marked by a…

  2. And then there were 12--distinguishing Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes from old or new copies.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of announcements of the authentications of two previously unknown Van Leeuwenhoek microscopes in one month, this paper reviews the possibilities and potential pitfalls that might be involved in distinguishing 17th/18th century single-lensed microscopes from historical and modern copies. It is clear that a combination of characteristics must be considered, no single parameter will do.

  3. The use of dynamic thermal analysis to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir

    2015-07-25

    WHO estimates that 10% of drugs are falsified. Economic and health factors arising from the use of counterfeit drugs lead to the development of new methods for distinguishing genuine medicines from falsified ones. The purpose of this study was to develop a new, fast, and inexpensive method to distinguish between original and fake drugs. 10 counterfeit Viagra(®) tablets were compared to 4 original pills (Pfizer). The drugs - both original and fake - were heated to 60°C and then the dynamics of their temperature changes at ambient conditions was tested using a thermal imaging camera. The time constants τ showing the dynamics of temperature changes for Viagra(®) and the falsified drug were determined. The thermokinetic parameters of drugs were determined in the temperature range of 60-22.2°C. Both original and counterfeit tablets had different time constants: 171.44 ± 4.62s and 182.71 ± 4.05 s, respectively. Differences in the dynamics of temperature changes as a function of time are particularly pronounced in the range of t+2 to t+7 min. The comparison of the time constants τ enables to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit drugs. The proposed new method which uses dynamic thermal analysis is an effective, cheap and fast technique to distinguish genuine drugs from counterfeit ones. PMID:25975231

  4. Friederike Range: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…

  5. Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: Keith Humphreys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Keith Humphreys, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, is cited for creatively combining a scientist's commitment to rigor, a clinician's emphasis on high-quality mental health care, and a policy analyst's understanding of how to address and resolve social problems. His work as a…

  6. Distinguished Educators on Reading: Contributions That Have Shaped Effective Literacy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith M., Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.; Dillon, Deborah R., Ed.; Hopkins, Carol J., Ed.; Humphrey, Jack W., Ed.; O'Brien, David G., Ed.

    Drawing from the popular "Distinguished Educator" series of articles in the journal "The Reading Teacher," this book presents 33 essays by respected scholars in nearly every field of reading research and instruction. In addition to the original articles, almost all featured educators have included a professional biography written especially for…

  7. Do You "Want" to Play? Distinguishing between Conflicted Shyness and Social Disinterest in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Prakash, Kavita; O'Neil, Kim; Armer, Mandana

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to distinguish two types of social withdrawal in early childhood: (a) one based on social fear and anxiety despite a desire to interact socially (conflicted shyness) and (b) one based on the lack of a strong motivation to engage in social interaction (social disinterest). Two samples of preschoolers (n = 119 and n = 127) 3-5…

  8. A novel histological technique for distinguishing between epithelial cells in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    French, Claire E V; Jensen, Cynthia G; Vintiner, Susan K; Elliot, Douglas A; McGlashan, Susan R

    2008-06-10

    There are a number of forensic cases in which the identification of the epithelial cell type from which DNA originated would provide important probative evidence. This study aimed to develop a technique using histological staining of fixed cells to distinguish between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelium. First, 11 different stains were screened on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded cells from five women. Samples were analysed qualitatively by examining staining patterns (colour) and morphology (absence or presence of nuclei). Three of the staining methods--Dane's, Csaba's and Ayoub-Shklar--were successful in distinguishing skin epithelial cells from buccal and vaginal. Second, cells were smeared directly onto slides, fixed with one of five fixatives and stained with one of the three stains mentioned above. Methanol fixation, coupled with the Dane's staining method, specific to keratin, was the only technique that distinguished between all three cell types. Skin cells stained magenta, red and orange and lacked nuclei; buccal cells stained predominantly orange-pink with red nuclei; while vaginal cells stained bright orange with orange nuclei and a blue extracellular hue. This staining pattern in vaginal cells was consistent in samples collected from 50 women aged between 18 and 67. Identification of cell type from unlabelled micrographs by 10 trained observers showed a mean success rate of 95%. The results of this study demonstrate that histological staining may provide forensic scientists with a technique for distinguishing between skin, buccal and vaginal epithelial cells and thus would enable more conclusive analyses when investigating sexual assault cases.

  9. Bob McMurray: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bob McMurray for pioneering research on speech and language processing in infants and adults. McMurray has conducted influential work on the graded nature of…

  10. Dan Olweus: Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy. The 2012 winner is Dan Olweus for his rigorous scientific research on bullying among children and youth and his early and tireless attention to its public policy implications. Dan Olweus's…

  11. A methodology for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects associated with response blocking.

    PubMed

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A

    1996-01-01

    We present one method for distinguishing between extinction and punishment effects. The proportion of responses that produced a consequence (blocking) was varied while hand mouthing was treated in a man diagnosed with profound mental retardation. Response patterns across the schedule changes suggested that the blocking procedure functioned as a punishing event.

  12. Distinguishing Bark Beetle-infested Vegetation by Tree Species Types and Stress Levels using Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanpillai, R.; Ewers, B. E.; Speckman, H. N.; Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    In the Western United States, more than 3 million hectares of lodgepole pine forests have been impacted by the Mountain pine beetle outbreak, while another 166,000 hectares of spruce-fir forests have been attacked by Spruce beetle. Following the beetle attack, the trees lose their hydraulic conductivity thus altering their carbon and water fluxes. These trees go through various stages of stress until mortality, described by color changes in their needles prior to losing them. Modeling the impact of these vegetation types require thematically precise land cover data that distinguishes lodgepole pine and spruce-fir forests along with the stage of impact since the ecosystem fluxes are different for these two systems. However, the national and regional-scale land cover datasets derived from remotely sensed data do not have this required thematic precision. We evaluated the feasibility of multispectral data collected by Landsat 8 to distinguish lodgepole pine and spruce fir, and subsequently model the different stages of attack using field data collected in Medicine Bow National Forest (Wyoming, USA). Operational Land Imager, onboard Landsat 8 has more spectral bands and higher radiometric resolution (12 bit) in comparison to sensors onboard earlier Landsat missions which could improve the ability to distinguish these vegetation types and their stress conditions. In addition to these characteristics, its repeat coverage, rigorous radiometric calibration, wide swath width, and no-cost data provide unique advantages to Landsat data for mapping large geographic areas. Initial results from this study highlight the importance of SWIR bands for distinguishing different levels of stress, and the need for ancillary data for distinguishing species types. Insights gained from this study could lead to the generation of land cover maps with higher thematic precision, and improve the ability to model various ecosystem processes as a result of these infestations.

  13. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  14. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  15. Immunohistochemical staining for p16 and BRAFV600E is useful to distinguish between sporadic and hereditary (Lynch syndrome-related) microsatellite instable colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Boissière-Michot, Florence; Frugier, Hélène; Ho-Pun-Cheung, Alexandre; Lopez-Crapez, Evelyne; Duffour, Jacqueline; Bibeau, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC) can identify colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI). As MLH1-deficient CRC can be hereditary or sporadic, markers to distinguish between them are needed. MLH1 promoter methylation assay is the reference method; however, sometimes, it is challenging on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We assessed by IHC the expression of BRAFV600E, p16, MGMT, and CDX2 in 55 MLH1-deficient MSI CRC samples (of which 8 had a germline MLH1 mutation) to determine whether this panel differentiates between sporadic and hereditary CRCs. We also analyzed MLH1 promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing and BRAF status by genotyping. None of the hereditary CRCs showed MLH1 methylation, BRAF mutation, BRAFV600E-positive immunostaining, or loss of p16 expression. We detected MLH1 promoter methylation in 67 % and a BRAF mutation in 42 % of CRC, all showing MLH1 promoter methylation. BRAFV600E IHC and BRAF genotyping gave concordant results in all but two samples. Loss of expression of p16 was found in 30 % of CRC with methylation of the MLH1 promoter, but its expression was retained in all non-methylated and part of MLH1-methylated tumors (100 % specificity, 30 % sensitivity). CDX2 and MGMT expression was not associated with MLH1 status. Thus, BRAFV600E and p16 IHC may help in differentiating sporadic from hereditary MLH1-deficient CRC with MSI. Specifically, p16 IHC might be used as a surrogate marker for MLH1 promoter methylation, because all p16-negative CRCs displayed MLH1 methylation, whereas hereditary CRCs were all p16-positive. PMID:27220764

  16. Virus infection elevates transcriptional activity of miR164a promoter in plants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Micro RNAs (miRs) constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs that have crucial roles in many important plant functions. Virus infection and transgenic expression of viral proteins alter accumulation and activity of miRs and so far, most of the published evidence involves post-transcriptional regulations. Results Using transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under the promoter region of a characterized miR (P-miR164a), we monitored the reporter gene expression in different tissues and during Arabidopsis development. Strong expression was detected in both vascular tissues and hydathodes. P-miR164a activity was developmentally regulated in plants with a maximum expression at stages 1.12 to 5.1 (according to Boyes, 2001) along the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Upon quantification of P-miR164a-derived GUS activity after Tobacco mosaic virus Cg or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) infection and after hormone treatments, we demonstrated that ORMV and gibberellic acid elevated P-miR164a activity. Accordingly, total mature miR164, precursor of miR164a and CUC1 mRNA (a miR164 target) levels increased after virus infection and interestingly the most severe virus (ORMV) produced the strongest promoter induction. Conclusion This work shows for the first time that the alteration of miR pathways produced by viral infections possesses a transcriptional component. In addition, the degree of miR alteration correlates with virus severity since a more severe virus produces a stronger P-miR164a induction. PMID:20042107

  17. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  18. Health Promotion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, Cheryl

    The Health Promotion Program began with establishment of a one-credit course in health promotion and wellness and the training of family practice residents at the Mountain Area Health Education Center to serve as lab leaders in the course. The course later became part of the university's general education requirements. In addition, a health…

  19. Minimizing Promotion Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, LuAnn W.; McGrath, Loraine

    1983-01-01

    Nursing administrators can minimize promotion trauma and its unnecessary cost by building awareness of the transition process, clarifying roles and expectations, and attending to the promoted employee's needs. This article will help nursing administrators develop a concept of manager care combined with programs for orientation of new managers,…

  20. Rhythmic brushstrokes distinguish van Gogh from his contemporaries: findings via automated brushstroke extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Yao, Lei; Hendriks, Ella; Wang, James Z

    2012-06-01

    Art historians have long observed the highly characteristic brushstroke styles of Vincent van Gogh and have relied on discerning these styles for authenticating and dating his works. In our work, we compared van Gogh with his contemporaries by statistically analyzing a massive set of automatically extracted brushstrokes. A novel extraction method is developed by exploiting an integration of edge detection and clustering-based segmentation. Evidence substantiates that van Gogh's brushstrokes are strongly rhythmic. That is, regularly shaped brushstrokes are tightly arranged, creating a repetitive and patterned impression. We also found that the traits that distinguish van Gogh's paintings in different time periods of his development are all different from those distinguishing van Gogh from his peers. This study confirms that the combined brushwork features identified as special to van Gogh are consistently held throughout his French periods of production (1886-1890).

  1. Rodney K. Goodyear: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2015 recipient of this award is Rodney K. Goodyear "for his substantive, sustained, and enduring contributions to research and practice in the training and supervision of students and educators in professional psychology, and for his leadership in helping to establish competency standards in the area of clinical supervision both in the United States and internationally. Goodyear's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618959

  2. Rhythmic brushstrokes distinguish van Gogh from his contemporaries: findings via automated brushstroke extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Yao, Lei; Hendriks, Ella; Wang, James Z

    2012-06-01

    Art historians have long observed the highly characteristic brushstroke styles of Vincent van Gogh and have relied on discerning these styles for authenticating and dating his works. In our work, we compared van Gogh with his contemporaries by statistically analyzing a massive set of automatically extracted brushstrokes. A novel extraction method is developed by exploiting an integration of edge detection and clustering-based segmentation. Evidence substantiates that van Gogh's brushstrokes are strongly rhythmic. That is, regularly shaped brushstrokes are tightly arranged, creating a repetitive and patterned impression. We also found that the traits that distinguish van Gogh's paintings in different time periods of his development are all different from those distinguishing van Gogh from his peers. This study confirms that the combined brushwork features identified as special to van Gogh are consistently held throughout his French periods of production (1886-1890). PMID:22516651

  3. Belief in a just what? Demystifying just world beliefs by distinguishing sources of justice.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People's Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  4. Jon Carlson: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jon Carlson as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. "For his contributions in creating educational and training materials in psychology for instruction and the public. Jon Carlson has a distinguished career in higher education, maintained an active private practice, served 34 years as a school psychologist/counselor, is a prolific author and scholar, and is an innovator in the development of media-based training materials. His contribution to education and training is noteworthy for the volume of his professional production, the scope of topics addressed, and his ability to provide meaningful tools to change how psychologists are trained. His audiovisual work documents the profession of psychology in terms of research and practice for current scholars and for future generations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Distinguishability and chiral stability in solution: Effects of decoherence and intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Heekyung; Wardlaw, David M.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2014-05-28

    We examine the effect of decoherence and intermolecular interactions (chiral discrimination energies) on the chiral stability and the distinguishability of initially pure versus mixed states in an open chiral system. Under a two-level approximation for a system, intermolecular interactions are introduced by a mean-field theory, and interaction between a system and an environment is modeled by a continuous measurement of a population difference between the two chiral states. The resultant equations are explored for various parameters, with emphasis on the combined effects of the initial condition of the system, the chiral discrimination energies, and the decoherence in determining: the distinguishability as measured by a population difference between the initially pure and mixed states, and the decoherence process; the chiral stability as measured by the purity decay; and the stationary state of the system at times long relative to the time scales of the system dynamics and of the environmental effects.

  6. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-09-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  7. Distinguishing among tallgrass prairie cover types from measurements of multispectral reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, G.; Weiser, R. L.; Johnson, D. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Killeen, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The heterogeneity in surface cover caused by management practices or natural events complicates monitoring the conditions of grasslands and assessing their productivity by remote sensing techniques. Statistical procedures were sought that would allow different grassland surface cover types (bare soil, senescent vegetation, and green vegetation) to be distinguished by using measurements of grassland multispectral reflectance. Two procedures, discriminant analysis and canonical discriminant analysis, were found suitable for achieving this objective. Linear classification functions and canonical variables were derived, which distinguish between the three cover types. A comparison between two sensor systems, a Barnes multiband radiometer and an Exotech radiometer that simulates the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) bands, respectively, showed that the separability among the three cover types was substantially improved by the additional and improved spectral features of the Barnes radiometer.

  8. Jon Carlson: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jon Carlson as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology. "For his contributions in creating educational and training materials in psychology for instruction and the public. Jon Carlson has a distinguished career in higher education, maintained an active private practice, served 34 years as a school psychologist/counselor, is a prolific author and scholar, and is an innovator in the development of media-based training materials. His contribution to education and training is noteworthy for the volume of his professional production, the scope of topics addressed, and his ability to provide meaningful tools to change how psychologists are trained. His audiovisual work documents the profession of psychology in terms of research and practice for current scholars and for future generations." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22082400

  9. Assessing the performance of morphological parameters in distinguishing breast tumors on ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, André Victor; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando C; Pereira, Wagner Coelho A; Azevedo, Carolina M

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at investigating seven morphological parameters in distinguishing malignant and benign breast tumors on ultrasound images. Linear discriminant analysis was applied to sets of up to five parameters and then the performances were assessed using the area Az (+/- standard error) under the ROC curve, accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value and negative predictive value. The most relevant individual parameters were the normalized residual value (nrv) and overlap ratio (RS), both calculated from the convex polygon technique, and the circularity (C). When nrv and C were taken together with roughness (R), calculated from normalized radial length (NRL), a performance slightly over 83% in distinguishing malignant and benign breast tumors was achieved.

  10. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for distinguishing different kinds of gunpowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavenda, TomáÅ.¡; Křesálek, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    This article contains information about using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for the security industry, particularly for distinguishing chosen different kinds of gunpowder. The original focus of described research was the observation of characteristic spectrum of gunpowder (spectral fingerprint) in the terahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum to use the terahertz radiation for gunpowder detection and identification. The results of this research lead to the finding that researched samples of gunpowder do not have any characteristic spectral lines or peaks in the terahertz range of the electromagnetic spectrum up to 2 THz. However, the comparison of samples of different kinds of gunpowder proves the possibility of their distinguishing by their absorbance (absorption spectrum). Introduction information about motivation of authors, methods of measurement, samples preparation, results of measurements with their interpretation and discussion about the results with conclusion are the main parts of this article.

  11. Belief in a just what? Demystifying just world beliefs by distinguishing sources of justice.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People's Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice.

  12. Julio J. Ramirez: Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Career Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology is given in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. The 2014 recipient of this award is Julio J. Ramirez, for "creating a national infrastructure to support education and training in behavioral neuroscience and biological psychology, for playing a seminal role in creating an undergraduate neuroscience education journal, and for creating a nationally recognized mentoring program for junior faculty in the neurosciences, particularly with underrepresented groups." Ramirez's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  13. Equilibration of isolated many-body quantum systems with respect to general distinguishability measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balz, Ben N.; Reimann, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate equilibration of isolated many-body systems in the sense that, after initial transients have died out, the system behaves practically indistinguishable from a time-independent steady state, i.e., non-negligible deviations are unimaginably rare in time. Measuring the distinguishability in terms of quantum mechanical expectation values, results of this type have been previously established under increasingly weak assumptions about the initial disequilibrium, the many-body Hamiltonian, and the considered observables. Here, we further extend these results with respect to generalized distinguishability measures which fully take into account the fact that the actually observed, primary data are not expectation values but rather the probabilistic occurrence of different possible measurement outcomes.

  14. Belief in a Just What? Demystifying Just World Beliefs by Distinguishing Sources of Justice

    PubMed Central

    Stroebe, Katherine; Postmes, Tom; Täuber, Susanne; Stegeman, Alwin; John, Melissa-Sue

    2015-01-01

    People’s Belief in a Just World (BJW) plays an important role in coping with misfortune and unfairness. This paper demonstrates that understanding of the BJW concept, and its consequences for behavior, is enhanced if we specify what (or who) the source of justice might be. We introduce a new scale, the 5-Dimensional Belief in a Just Treatment Scale (BJT5), which distinguishes five causal dimensions of BJW (God, Nature, Other People, Self, Chance). We confirm the 5-factor structure of the BJT5. We then address whether the BJW should be considered a uni- and/or multi-dimensional construct and find support for our multi-dimensional approach. Finally, we demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with respect to important correlates of BJW as well as action in response to important negative life events and societal attitudes. This work illustrates the importance of distinguishing causal dimensions with regard to who distributes justice. PMID:25803025

  15. Distinguishing Ontario ginseng landraces and ginseng species using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jimmy; McIntyre, Kristina L; Fischer, Christian; Hicks, Joshua; Colson, Kimberly L; Lui, Ed; Brown, Dan; Arnason, John T

    2013-05-01

    The use of (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics to distinguish and identify unique markers of five Ontario ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) landraces and two ginseng species (P. quinquefolius and P. ginseng) was evaluated. Three landraces (2, 3, and 5) were distinguished from one another in the principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot. Further analysis was conducted and specific discriminating metabolites from the PCA loadings were determined. Landraces 3 and 5 were distinguishable on the basis of a decreased NMR intensity in the methyl ginsenoside region, indicating decreased overall ginsenoside levels. In addition, landrace 5 was separated by an increased amount of sucrose relative to the rest of the landraces. Landrace 2 was separated from the rest of the landraces by the increased level of ginsenoside R(b1). The Ontario P. quinquefolius was also compared with Asian P. ginseng by PCA, and clear separation between the two groups was detected in the PCA scores plot. The PCA loadings plot and a t-test NMR difference plot were able to identify an increased level of maltose and a decreased level of sucrose in the Asian ginseng compared with the Ontario ginseng. An overall decrease of ginsenoside content, especially ginsenoside R(b1), was also detected in the Asian ginseng's metabolic profile. This study demonstrates the potential of NMR-based metabolomics as a powerful high-throughput technique in distinguishing various closely related ginseng landraces and its ability to identify metabolic differences from Ontario and Asian ginseng. The results from this study will allow better understanding for quality assessment, species authentication, and the potential for developing a fully automated method for quality control. PMID:23250379

  16. Janet E. Helms: award for distinguished contributions to education and training in psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Janet E. Helms, who received the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology "for her remarkable contribution to a conceptual and reiterative empirical base that has transformed the study of racism in our time." Accompanying the citation are a brief profile and a selected bibliography, as well as Helms' award address, entitled Fairness Is Not Validity or Cultural Bias in Racial-Group Assessment: A Quantitative Perspective. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Multicolored Silver Nanoparticles for Multiplexed Disease Diagnostics: Distinguishing Dengue, Yellow Fever, and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chun-Wan; de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina; Gómez-Márquez, José; Bosch, Irene; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. Here, we present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection using multi-colored silver nanoplates. This design requires no external excitation source and permits multiplexed analysis in a single channel, facilitating integration and manufacturing. PMID:25672590

  18. Opacification of Middlebrook agar as an aid in distinguishing Nocardia farcinica within the Nocardia asteroides complex.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M; Hellyar, A

    1994-01-01

    Among 58 aerobic actinomycetes isolated from different sources and geographical locations, none of 23 Nocardia asteroides isolates, at 18 N. farcinica isolates, 1 of 5 N. otitidiscaviarum isolates, and 1 of 4 Rhodococcus species isolates opacified Middlebrook 7H10 medium. Within the N. asteroides complex, this characteristic, together with growth at 45 degrees C and resistance to each of erythromycin, cefotaxime, and tobramycin, provides a simple means of distinguishing N. farcinica from N. asteroides. PMID:7814557

  19. Multicolored silver nanoparticles for multiplexed disease diagnostics: distinguishing dengue, yellow fever, and Ebola viruses.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chun-Wan; de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Gómez-Márquez, José; Bosch, Irene; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Gehrke, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices are needed for field-forward screening of severe acute systemic febrile illnesses. Multiplexed rapid lateral flow diagnostics have the potential to distinguish among multiple pathogens, thereby facilitating diagnosis and improving patient care. Here, we present a platform for multiplexed pathogen detection using multi-colored silver nanoplates. This design requires no external excitation source and permits multiplexed analysis in a single channel, facilitating integration and manufacturing.

  20. CD 9 and vimentin distinguish clear cell from chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) can usually be distinguished by histologic characteristics. Occasionally, diagnosis proves challenging and diagnostic difficulty will likely increase as needle biopsies of renal lesions become more common. Methods To identify markers that aid in differentiating ccRCC from chRCC, we used gene expression profiles to identify candidate markers that correlate with histology. 39 antisera and antibodies, including 35 for transcripts identified from gene expression profiling, were evaluated. Promising markers were tested on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 428 renal neoplasms. Strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored and the distribution of staining across different types of renal neoplasms was analyzed. Results Based on results from initial immunohistochemical staining of multitissue titer arrays, 23 of the antisera and antibodies were selected for staining of the TMA. For 7 of these markers, strength of staining of each core on the TMA was formally scored. Vimentin (positive in ccRCC) and CD9 (positive in chRCC) best distinguished ccRCC from chRCC. The combination of vimentin negativity and CD9 positivity was found to distinguish chRCC from ccRCC with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 95.2%. Conclusion Based on gene expression analysis, we identify CD9 and vimentin as candidate markers for distinguishing between ccRCC and chRCC. In difficult cases and particularly when the amount of diagnostic tissue is limited, vimentin and CD9 staining could serve as a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of ccRCC and chRCC. PMID:19922654

  1. Holographic mutual information and distinguishability of Wilson loop and defect operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Mahajan, Raghu

    2015-02-01

    The mutual information of disconnected regions in large N gauge theories with holographic gravity duals can undergo phase transitions. These occur when connected and disconnected bulk Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces exchange dominance. That is, the bulk `soap bubble' snaps as the boundary regions are drawn apart. We give a gauge-theoretic characterization of this transition: States with and without a certain defect operator insertion — the defect separates the entangled spatial regions — are shown to be perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is connected. Meanwhile, states with and without a certain Wilson loop insertion — the Wilson loop nontrivially threads the spatial regions — are perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is disconnected. The quantum relative entropy of two perfectly distinguishable states is infinite. The results are obtained by relating the soap bubble transition to Hawking-Page (deconfinement) transitions in the Rényi entropies, where defect operators and Wilson loops are known to act as order parameters.

  2. Serum peptide reactivities may distinguish neuromyelitis optica subgroups and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Imke; Beißbarth, Tim; Ellenberger, David; Pache, Florence; Stork, Lidia; Ringelstein, Marius; Aktas, Orhan; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Dihazi, Hassan; Friede, Tim; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess in an observational study whether serum peptide antibody reactivities may distinguish aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody (Ab)–positive and -negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: We screened 8,700 peptides that included human and viral antigens of potential relevance for inflammatory demyelinating diseases and random peptides with pooled sera from different patient groups and healthy controls to set up a customized microarray with 700 peptides. With this microarray, we tested sera from 66 patients with AQP4-Ab-positive (n = 16) and AQP4-Ab-negative (n = 19) NMOSD, RRMS (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 20). Results: Differential peptide reactivities distinguished NMOSD subgroups from RRMS in 80% of patients. However, the 2 NMOSD subgroups were not well-discriminated, although those patients are clearly separated by their antibody reactivities against AQP4 in cell-based assays. Elevated reactivities to myelin and Epstein-Barr virus peptides were present in RRMS and to AQP4 and AQP1 peptides in AQP4-Ab-positive NMOSD. Conclusions: While AQP4-Ab-positive and -negative NMOSD subgroups are not well-discriminated by peptide antibody reactivities, our findings suggest that peptide antibody reactivities may have the potential to distinguish between both NMOSD subgroups and MS. Future studies should thus concentrate on evaluating peptide antibody reactivities for the differentiation of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD and MS. PMID:26894206

  3. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the...

  4. The SNF2 family ATPase LSH promotes cell-autonomous de novo DNA methylation in somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Termanis, Ausma; Torrea, Natalia; Culley, Jayne; Kerr, Alastair; Ramsahoye, Bernard; Stancheva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of DNA at carbon 5 of cytosine is essential for mammalian development and implicated in transcriptional repression of genes and transposons. New patterns of DNA methylation characteristic of lineage-committed cells are established at the exit from pluripotency by de novo DNA methyltransferases enzymes, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, which are regulated by developmental signaling and require access to chromatin-organized DNA. Whether or not the capacity for de novo DNA methylation of developmentally regulated loci is preserved in differentiated somatic cells and can occur in the absence of exogenous signals is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that fibroblasts derived from chromatin remodeling ATPase LSH (HELLS)-null mouse embryos, which lack DNA methylation from centromeric repeats, transposons and a number of gene promoters, are capable of reestablishing DNA methylation and silencing of misregulated genes upon re-expression of LSH. We also show that the ability of LSH to bind ATP and the cellular concentration of DNMT3B are critical for cell-autonomous de novo DNA methylation in somatic cells. These data suggest the existence of cellular memory that persists in differentiated cells through many cell generations and changes in transcriptional state. PMID:27179028

  5. [Expression of CD48 as a live marker to distinguish division of hematopoietic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Lu-Yun; Pang, Ya-Kun; Dong, Fang; Ji, Qing; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Gao, Ying-Dai

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are capable of self-renewal or differentiation when they divide. Three types of cell divisions exist. A dividing stem cell may generate 2 new stem cells (symmetrical renewal division), or 2 differentiating cells (symmetrical differentiation division), or 1 cell of each type (asymmetrical division). This study was aimed to explore an efficient and stable method to distinguish the way of cell division in hematopoietic stem cells. Previous studies showed that the distribution of Numb in a cell could be used to distinguish the type of cell division in various kinds of cells. Therefore, the distribution of Numb protein was detected by immunofluorescence in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells of mice exploring the relationship between Numb protein and centrosomes. Since CD48 positive marks the HSC that have lost the ability to reconstitute the blood system in mice, CD48 marker could be used to distinguish cell fate decision between self-renewal and differentiation as a living marker. In this study, the CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells were sorted from bone marrow cells of mice and the cells were directly labeled with Alexa Fluor (AF) 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody in living cultures. After 3 days, the percentage of AF488(+) cells was evaluated under microscope and by FACS. Then colony forming cell assay (CFC) was performed and the ability of cell proliferation were compared between AF488(+) and AF488(-) cells. The results showed that Numb could be used to distinguish different cell division types of hematopoietic stem cells, which was symmetrically or asymmetrically segregated in mitotic CD48(-)CD150(+)LSK cells. The self-labeled fluorochrome could be detected both by FACS as well as microscope. There were about 40% AF488(+) cells after 3 day-cultures in medium titrated with self-labeled AF 488-conjugated anti-CD48 antibody, and the results were consistent between confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The colony forming ability of

  6. Promoting People's Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with communication in rural areas to promote participation in development programs. Suggests that success of such programs depends on continued government policy in favor of citizen participation in agricultural and rural development. (SK)

  7. [Health promotion. Concept development].

    PubMed

    Sito, A; Berkowska, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of health promotion in theory and practice is presented-from the Ottawa Charter in 1986, to the community based health promotion programmes, as the vision for the 21 Century. The historical mile stones in the process of change and the conceptualisation of health promotion are discussed with reference to the World WHO Conferences and documents from these conferences. These events and documents have been vital as guidelines for member countries, both for implementation of community based programmes, as well as for healthy public policy and for training, especially concerning evaluation. The paper also discusses the main trends in research; definitions of principal concepts are highlighted, concerning planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion programmes.

  8. Promoting Your Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  9. Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Winker, Margaret A.; Ferris, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  10. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  11. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  12. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  13. 40 CFR 161.102 - Distinguishing between what data are required and what substance is to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 161.102 Distinguishing between what data are required and what... guidelines. Each data requirement table specifies whether a particular data requirement is required to... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing between what data...

  14. 40 CFR 161.102 - Distinguishing between what data are required and what substance is to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 161.102 Distinguishing between what data are required and what... guidelines. Each data requirement table specifies whether a particular data requirement is required to... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distinguishing between what data...

  15. 40 CFR 161.102 - Distinguishing between what data are required and what substance is to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 161.102 Distinguishing between what data are required and what... guidelines. Each data requirement table specifies whether a particular data requirement is required to... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distinguishing between what data...

  16. 40 CFR 161.102 - Distinguishing between what data are required and what substance is to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 161.102 Distinguishing between what data are required and what... guidelines. Each data requirement table specifies whether a particular data requirement is required to... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distinguishing between what data...

  17. The 2008 Leona Tyler Award Address: Core Values that Distinguish Counseling Psychology--Personal and Professional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Ted

    2009-01-01

    The empirical literature and the author's professional experience over four decades have convinced him that concerning practice patterns and work settings there is little to distinguish counseling psychology from other psychological practice specialties. What is distinctive are certain core values that undergird and distinguish this specialty.…

  18. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  19. Promoter swapping between the genes for a novel zinc finger protein and beta-catenin in pleiomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations.

    PubMed

    Kas, K; Voz, M L; Röijer, E; Aström, A K; Meyen, E; Stenman, G; Van de Ven, W J

    1997-02-01

    Pleiomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands is a benign epithelial tumour occurring primarily in the major and minor salivary glands. It is by far the most common type of salivary gland tumour. Microscopically, pleiomorphic adenomas show a marked histological diversity with epithelial, myoepithelial and mesenchymal components in a variety of patterns. In addition to a cytogenetic subgroup with normal karyotypes, pleiomorphic adenomas are characterized by recurrent chromosome rearrangements, particularly reciprocal translocations, with breakpoints at 8q12, 3p21, and 12q13-15, in that order of frequency. The most common abnormality is a reciprocal t(3;8)(p21;q12). We here demonstrate that the t(3;8)(p21;q12) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1, a novel, developmentally regulated zinc finger gene at 8q12, and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), a protein interface functioning in the WG/WNT signalling pathway and specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. Fusions occur in the 5'-non-coding regions of both genes, exchanging regulatory control elements while preserving the coding sequences. Due to the t(3;8)(p21;q12), PLAG1 is activated and expression levels of CTNNB1 are reduced. Activation of PLAG1 was also observed in an adenoma with a variant translocation t(8;15)(q12;q14). Our results indicate that PLAG1 activation due to promoter swapping is a crucial event in salivary gland tumourigenesis.

  20. Characterization and isolation of a T-DNA tagged banana promoter active during in vitro culture and low temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Efrén; Remy, Serge; Thiry, Els; Windelinckx, Saskia; Swennen, Rony; Sági, László

    2009-01-01

    Background Next-generation transgenic plants will require a more precise regulation of transgene expression, preferably under the control of native promoters. A genome-wide T-DNA tagging strategy was therefore performed for the identification and characterization of novel banana promoters. Embryogenic cell suspensions of a plantain-type banana were transformed with a promoterless, codon-optimized luciferase (luc+) gene and low temperature-responsive luciferase activation was monitored in real time. Results Around 16,000 transgenic cell colonies were screened for baseline luciferase activity at room temperature 2 months after transformation. After discarding positive colonies, cultures were re-screened in real-time at 26°C followed by a gradual decrease to 8°C. The baseline activation frequency was 0.98%, while the frequency of low temperature-responsive luciferase activity was 0.61% in the same population of cell cultures. Transgenic colonies with luciferase activity responsive to low temperature were regenerated to plantlets and luciferase expression patterns monitored during different regeneration stages. Twenty four banana DNA sequences flanking the right T-DNA borders in seven independent lines were cloned via PCR walking. RT-PCR analysis in one line containing five inserts allowed the identification of the sequence that had activated luciferase expression under low temperature stress in a developmentally regulated manner. This activating sequence was fused to the uidA reporter gene and back-transformed into a commercial dessert banana cultivar, in which its original expression pattern was confirmed. Conclusion This promoter tagging and real-time screening platform proved valuable for the identification of novel promoters and genes in banana and for monitoring expression patterns throughout in vitro development and low temperature treatment. Combination of PCR walking techniques was efficient for the isolation of candidate promoters even in a multicopy T

  1. Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide

  2. A novel diagnostic biosensor for distinguishing immunoglobulin mutated and unmutated types of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Amini, Maryam; Rezaei, Behzad; Talebi, Majid

    2016-03-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IgVH) region may be mutated (Ig-mutated CLL) or unmutated (Ig-unmutated CLL); and the presence or absence of mutations in this region of CLL cells distinguishes two clinically distinct forms. It is important for physicians to distinguish between patients with Ig-unmutated CLL, where typically have more indolent disease with median survivals close to 25 years, and Ig-mutated CLL, where have more aggressive disease with median survivals around eight years. In this work, a biosensor capable of diagnosis and distinguishing between these two types of CLL was reported. The biosensor was fabricated by modifying a gold electrode with gold nanoparticles (AuNPS) followed by coating of ZAP70 oligonucleotide probe on the surface to detect specific sequence of ZAP70 gene. ZAP70 could predict the IgVH mutation status and is a good marker for differentiating Ig-mutated and Ig-unmutated CLL and serve as prognostic marker. First, we focused on achieving hybridization between probe and its complementary sequence. Hybridization between probe and target was determined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then, our efforts turned to optimize the conditions for the detection of any point mutation and also to maximize the selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor has a good calibration range between 2.0 × 10(-14) and 1.0 × 10(-9)molL(-1), with ZAP70 DNA sequence detection limit of 4.0 × 10(-15)molL(-1). We successfully detect hybridization first in synthetic samples, and ultimately in blood samples from patients. Experimental results illustrated that the nanostructured biosensor clearly discriminates between mutated and non-mutated CLL and predict the IgVH mutation status, which it has been considered as the single most informative stage independent prognostic factor in CLL.

  3. Distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors: an algorithm using the novel marker DPEP1.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takako; Matsumura, Noriomi; Mandai, Masaki; Oura, Tomonori; Yamanishi, Yukio; Horiuchi, Akiko; Hamanishi, Junzo; Baba, Tsukasa; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Shiozawa, Tanri; Konishi, Ikuo

    2011-02-01

    Distinguishing primary mucinous ovarian cancers from ovarian metastases of digestive organ cancers is often challenging. Dipeptidase 1 was selected as the candidate novel marker of colorectal cancer based on an analysis of a gene expression microarray. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that 13/16 ovarian metastases of colorectal cancers, but only 1/58 primary mucinous ovarian cancers, were dipeptidase 1-positive (threshold; ≧25% expression, P<0.0001). Next, five immunohistochemical markers (dipeptidase 1, estrogen receptor-α, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, and caudal type homeobox 2) were analyzed in combination. In a hierarchical clustering analysis, the mutually exclusive expression of cytokeratin 7 and dipeptidase 1 specifically identified the ovarian metastases of colorectal cancers (P<0.0001). In a decision tree analysis, cytokeratin 7, caudal type homeobox 2, and dipeptidase 1 classified primary mucinous ovarian cancers and ovarian metastases of digestive organ cancers with 90% accuracy. Finally, the five immunohistochemical markers were combined with six preoperative factors (patient's age, tumor size, laterality, serum CEA, CA19-9, and CA125) and combinations were analyzed. Of the 11 factors, 4 (dipeptidase 1, cytokeratin 7, caudal type homeobox 2, and tumor size) were used to generate a decision tree to classify primary mucinous ovarian cancers and metastases of digestive organ cancers with 93% accuracy. In conclusion, we identified a novel immunohistochemical marker, dipeptidase 1, to distinguish primary mucinous ovarian cancers from ovarian metastasis of colorectal cancers. The algorithm using immunohistochemical and clinical factors to distinguish metastases of digestive organ cancers from primary mucinous ovarian cancers will be useful to establish a protocol for the diagnosis of ovarian metastasis.

  4. Time-dependent distinguishability: Choosing to be a wave or a particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, T. P.; Zou, X.-Y.; Branning, D.; Torgerson, J. R.; Mandel, Leonard

    1994-01-01

    Interference experiments with connected parametric down-converters have demonstrated that the possibility, in principle, of identifying the photon path through the interferometer is sufficient to wipe out all interference, irrespective of whether the identification is actually made. The distinguishability of the photon path can be controlled by a time-dependent shutter, which leaves the choice whether the photon behaves as a wave or as a particle in the experimenter's hands. By contrast, in some more recent experiments involving the addition of a low-Q cavity, each idler photon makes the choice whether the associated signal photon behaves like a wave and exhibits interference, or like a particle.

  5. Individuality, distinguishability, and (non-)entanglement: A defense of Leibniz's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, Cord

    2014-11-01

    The paper provides a philosophical interpretation of Ghirardi, Marinatto, and Weber's physical criterion of (non-)entanglement in terms of individuality and distinguishability. It firstly clarifies the relation between ontology and labeling, and then defends the non-standard view that non-similar particles and similar fermions are individuated by a traditional version of Leibniz's principle of the identity of indiscernibles. It will be argued that Leibniz's principle is satisfied explicitly in non-entangled states, whereas in entangled states it can be defended via the summing defense.

  6. Robert L. Hatcher: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of psychological knowledge to improve learning in educational settings, including prekindergarten to Grade 12, or in communities. The 2014 recipient is Robert L. Hatcher. He is acknowledged "for his deep and abiding commitment to improving training for psychologists, for his leadership in developing practicum competencies, and for his vision for competency-based education in psychology." Hatcher's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented. PMID:26618962

  7. Characterization of seedling proteomes and development of markers to distinguish the Brassica A and C genomes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fang; Ge, Cailin; Fang, Xiaoping; Snowdon, Rod J; Wang, Youping

    2010-05-01

    The diploid species Brassica rapa (genome AA) and B. oleracea (genome CC) were compared by full-scale proteome analyses of seedling. A total of 28.2% of the proteins was common to both species, indicating the existence of a basal or ubiquitous proteome. However, a number of discriminating proteins (32.0%) and specific proteins (39.8%) of the Brassica A and C genomes, respectively, were identified, which could represent potentially species-specific functions. Based on these A or C genome-specific proteins, a number of PCR-based markers to distinguish B. rapa and B. oleracea species were also developed.

  8. Measurement of wavelength-dependent extinction to distinguish between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portscht, R.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of spectral transmission factors in smoky optical transmission paths reveal a difference between wavelength exponents of the extinction cross section of high absorption capacity and those of low absorption capacity. A theoretical explanation of this behavior is presented. In certain cases, it is possible to obtain data on the absorption index of aerosol particles in the optical path by measuring the spectral decadic extinction coefficient at, at least, two wavelengths. In this manner it is possible, for instance, to distinguish smoke containing soot from water vapor.

  9. COHERENCE: On the ability of cells to distinguish the coherence of optical radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budagovsky, A. V.

    2005-04-01

    The role of coherent optical radiation in photoregulatory processes caused by chemiluminescence of living cells is discussed. The effect of low and highly coherent quasi-monochromatic light on a dynamic 'host—parasite' system is studied. It is shown that plant organisms can distinguish the statistical order of irradiation. A significant increase in the functional activity was observed only for cells that were completely located within the coherence volume of the electromagnetic field. It is concluded that the cell size in living organisms is the discrimination threshold of the statistical properties of radiation and may serve as a specific biological measure of coherence.

  10. On the ability of cells to distinguish the coherence of optical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Budagovsky, A V

    2005-04-30

    The role of coherent optical radiation in photoregulatory processes caused by chemiluminescence of living cells is discussed. The effect of low and highly coherent quasi-monochromatic light on a dynamic 'host-parasite' system is studied. It is shown that plant organisms can distinguish the statistical order of irradiation. A significant increase in the functional activity was observed only for cells that were completely located within the coherence volume of the electromagnetic field. It is concluded that the cell size in living organisms is the discrimination threshold of the statistical properties of radiation and may serve as a specific biological measure of coherence. (coherence)

  11. A strongly CD34-positive meningioma that was difficult to distinguish from a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomu; Fujitsu, Kazuhiko; Ichikawa, Teruo; Mukaihara, Shigeo; Miyahara, Kousuke; Tanino, Shin; Uriu, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Takahiro; Hataoka, Syunsuke; Kubota, Jyunichi; Suzuki, Kouji; Niino, Hitoshi; Yagishita, Saburou

    2014-08-01

    Fibrous or transitional meningioma and solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) are frequently difficult to differentiate from each other on the basis of histopathology. It is extremely unusual for a meningioma to exhibit diffuse, strongly positive immunoreactivity for cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), and this has never been previously reported from a histopathological specimen. A patient with transitional meningioma that exhibited strongly positive for CD34, which has been regarded as characteristic of SFT and is considered to be useful for distinguishing the latter from meningioma, is reported.

  12. Distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies using dark matter annihilation signals at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Knockel, Bradley; Saha, Ipsita

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies through the neutrino signal from dark matter annihilation at neutrino telescopes. We consider a simple extension of the standard model where the neutrino masses and mixing angles are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism as an explicit example. We show that future extensions of IceCube neutrino telescope may detect the neutrino signal from DM annihilation at the Galactic Center and inside the Sun, and differentiate between the normal and inverted mass hierarchies, in this model.

  13. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  14. Quantum accelerometer: Distinguishing inertial Bob from his accelerated twin Rob by a local measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dragan, Andrzej; Fuentes, Ivette; Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-15

    A single quantum system, such as the Unruh-DeWitt detector, can be used to determine absolute acceleration by local measurements on a quantum field. To show this, we consider two kinematically indistinguishable scenarios: an inertial observer, Bob, measuring the field of a uniformly accelerated cavity, and his noninertial twin, Rob, accelerating and making measurements in a stationary cavity. We find that these scenarios can be distinguished in the nonrelativistic regime only by measurements on highly excited massive fields, allowing one to detect the noninertialness of the reference frame.

  15. Distinguishing between extra natural inflation and natural inflation after BICEP2

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C.S.; Lin, Chia-Min E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we carefully calculated the tensor-to-scalar ratio, the running spectral index, and the running of running spectrum for (extra) natural inflation in order to compare with recent BICEP2 data, PLANCK satellite data and future 21 cm data. We discovered that the prediction for running spectral index and the running of running spectrum in natural inflation is different from that in the case of extra natural inflation. Near future observation for the running spectral index can only provide marginal accuracy which may not allow us distinguishing between extra natural inflation from natural inflation clearly unless the experimental accuracy can be further improved.

  16. Designing a decision support system for distinguishing ADHD from similar children behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Dibajnia, Parvin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a decision support system was designed to distinguish children with ADHD from other similar children behavioral disorders such as depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder based on the signs and symptoms. Accuracy of classifying with Radial basis function and multilayer neural networks were compared. Finally, the average accuracy of the networks in classification reached to 95.50% and 96.62% by multilayer and radial basis function networks respectively. Our results indicate that a decision support system, especially RBF, may be a good preliminary assistant for psychiatrists in diagnosing high risk behavioral disorders of children.

  17. Utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing species of the family Taeniidae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaotian; Chen, Jue; Yang, Yingyuan; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Weibin; Gu, Sunlong; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhenghuan

    2014-08-01

    The family Taeniidae comprises many parasitic species, which cause serious zoonoses. However, effective identification of Taeniidae species is a long-standing problem, especially in samples from wild hosts with mixed infections of different Taeniidae species. DNA barcoding analysis of small fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been confirmed as an effective and useful method for identifying Taenia species. We therefore performed DNA barcoding analysis using a 351-bp region of the COI gene to identify 27 taeniid species including 9 in the genus Echinococcus, 2 in Hydatigera, 15 in Taenia, and 1 in Versteria. A total of 484 COI sequences were used to calculate genetic divergence expressed by the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance. The mean intra-specific K2P distance in the family Taeniidae was 0.71 ± 0.17% (±SE), while inter-specific divergences were considerably higher. We found that, generally, a 2.0% optimal barcoding threshold could be set to distinguish taeniid species. Taenia polyacantha and Hydatigera taeniaeformis were the only 2 false-positive species identification cases in this study for their intra-specific divergences above the 2.0% optimal threshold. Their high intra-specific divergences coincided with fact that cryptic divergences exist in these 2 species, to which new taxa were recommended. On the other hand, sister species T. asiatica and T. saginata showed a 2.48 ± 0.83% inter-specific divergence, which was the smallest among all the taeniid species. Although fitting the 2.0% optimal species barcoding threshold, the close genetic relationship between T. asiatica and T. saginata implies that longer mitochondrial DNA sequences like the complete COI sequence are needed to strictly distinguish them. Therefore, we concluded that the barcoding technique based on a 351-bp region of the COI gene is able to distinguish taeniid species except for cryptic T. polyacantha and H. taeniaeformis and should be carefully used in

  18. Global view of enhancer–promoter interactome in human cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Chen, Changya; Teng, Li; Tan, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Enhancer mapping has been greatly facilitated by various genomic marks associated with it. However, little is available in our toolbox to link enhancers with their target promoters, hampering mechanistic understanding of enhancer–promoter (EP) interaction. We develop and characterize multiple genomic features for distinguishing true EP pairs from noninteracting pairs. We integrate these features into a probabilistic predictor for EP interactions. Multiple validation experiments demonstrate a significant improvement over state-of-the-art approaches. Systematic analyses of EP interactions across 12 cell types reveal several global features of EP interactions: (i) a larger fraction of EP interactions are cell type specific than enhancers; (ii) promoters controlled by multiple enhancers have higher tissue specificity, but the regulating enhancers are less conserved; (iii) cohesin plays a role in mediating tissue-specific EP interactions via chromatin looping in a CTCF-independent manner. Our approach presents a systematic and effective strategy to decipher the mechanisms underlying EP communication. PMID:24821768

  19. [Growth promoting antimicrobials].

    PubMed

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J A

    1999-06-19

    The committee 'Growth promoting antimicrobials' of the Health Council of the Netherlands in 1998 advised immediate prohibition of all growth promoting antimicrobials related to human drugs and decrease of use of other growth promoting antimicrobials during the next three years in Europe. It is clear that frequent use of antibiotics is associated with development of resistance by selection in animals (and man), but it is not proven that this is an explanation of resistance in the human community. We know only little about the mechanisms and conditions of transfer of bacteria to man. Other questions raised are: what about the resulting possible increase of therapeutic application of antibiotics in animals, how to handle the increase of dung, nitrogen and phosphate in the environment and how farmers can survive with a decrease in income, sometimes by as much as 50%? Although many will feel sympathy for the report and its recommendations, implementing them will be difficult and possibly premature. PMID:10416481

  20. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    PubMed

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

  1. DNA barcoding distinguishes pest species of the black fly genus Cnephia (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Conflitti, I M; Pruess, K P; Cywinska, A; Powers, T O; Currie, D C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for cost-effective pest control strategies. We tested the utility of COI barcodes for identifying members of the black fly genus Cnephia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae). Our efforts focus on four Nearctic Cnephia species-Cnephia dacotensis (Dyar & Shannon), Cnephia eremities Shewell, Cnephia ornithophilia (Davies, Peterson & Wood), and Cnephia pecuarum (Riley)--the latter two being current or potential targets of biological control programs. We also analyzed one Palearctic species, Cnephia pallipes (Fries). Although Cnephia adults can be identified anatomically to species, control programs target the larval stage, which is difficult or impossible to distinguish morphologically. By using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian methods, we found that COI barcodes successfully identified three Nearctic Cnephia species, but not C. pecuarum. The Palearctic C. pallipes was also successfully identified. Despite nonmonophyly of C. pecuarum, we show that data from COI barcoding, in combination with geographical and ecological information, can be used to distinguish all four Nearctic species. Finally, we discussed 1) possible reasons for paraphyly in C. pecuarum, 2) topological concordance to previously reported chromosomal dendrograms, and 3) evolution of diverse feeding strategies within the genus Cnephia. PMID:24843929

  2. The discriminatory value of cardiorespiratory interactions in distinguishing awake from anaesthetised states: a randomised observational study.

    PubMed

    Kenwright, D A; Bernjak, A; Draegni, T; Dzeroski, S; Entwistle, M; Horvat, M; Kvandal, P; Landsverk, S A; McClintock, P V E; Musizza, B; Petrovčič, J; Raeder, J; Sheppard, L W; Smith, A F; Stankovski, T; Stefanovska, A

    2015-12-01

    Depth of anaesthesia monitors usually analyse cerebral function with or without other physiological signals; non-invasive monitoring of the measured cardiorespiratory signals alone would offer a simple, practical alternative. We aimed to investigate whether such signals, analysed with novel, non-linear dynamic methods, would distinguish between the awake and anaesthetised states. We recorded ECG, respiration, skin temperature, pulse and skin conductivity before and during general anaesthesia in 27 subjects in good cardiovascular health, randomly allocated to receive propofol or sevoflurane. Mean values, variability and dynamic interactions were determined. Respiratory rate (p = 0.0002), skin conductivity (p = 0.03) and skin temperature (p = 0.00006) changed with sevoflurane, and skin temperature (p = 0.0005) with propofol. Pulse transit time increased by 17% with sevoflurane (p = 0.02) and 11% with propofol (p = 0.007). Sevoflurane reduced the wavelet energy of heart (p = 0.0004) and respiratory (p = 0.02) rate variability at all frequencies, whereas propofol decreased only the heart rate variability below 0.021 Hz (p < 0.05). The phase coherence was reduced by both agents at frequencies below 0.145 Hz (p < 0.05), whereas the cardiorespiratory synchronisation time was increased (p < 0.05). A classification analysis based on an optimal set of discriminatory parameters distinguished with 95% success between the awake and anaesthetised states. We suggest that these results can contribute to the design of new monitors of anaesthetic depth based on cardiovascular signals alone. PMID:26350998

  3. Can the Site-Frequency Spectrum Distinguish Exponential Population Growth from Multiple-Merger Coalescents?

    PubMed Central

    Eldon, Bjarki; Birkner, Matthias; Blath, Jochen; Freund, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the site-frequency spectrum (SFS) to reflect the particularities of gene genealogies exhibiting multiple mergers of ancestral lines as opposed to those obtained in the presence of population growth is our focus. An excess of singletons is a well-known characteristic of both population growth and multiple mergers. Other aspects of the SFS, in particular, the weight of the right tail, are, however, affected in specific ways by the two model classes. Using an approximate likelihood method and minimum-distance statistics, our estimates of statistical power indicate that exponential and algebraic growth can indeed be distinguished from multiple-merger coalescents, even for moderate sample sizes, if the number of segregating sites is high enough. A normalized version of the SFS (nSFS) is also used as a summary statistic in an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach. The results give further positive evidence as to the general eligibility of the SFS to distinguish between the different histories. PMID:25575536

  4. Distinguishing forest and savanna African elephants using short nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuko; Demeke, Yirmed; van Coeverden de Groot, Peter J; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Leggett, Keith E A; Fox, Virginia E; Roca, Alfred L

    2011-01-01

    A more complete description of African elephant phylogeography would require a method that distinguishes forest and savanna elephants using DNA from low-quality samples. Although mitochondrial DNA is often the marker of choice for species identification, the unusual cytonuclear patterns in African elephants make nuclear markers more reliable. We therefore designed and utilized genetic markers for short nuclear DNA regions that contain fixed nucleotide differences between forest and savanna elephants. We used M13 forward and reverse sequences to increase the total length of PCR amplicons and to improve the quality of sequences for the target DNA. We successfully sequenced fragments of nuclear genes from dung samples of known savanna and forest elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, and Namibia. Elephants at previously unexamined locations were found to have nucleotide character states consistent with their status as savanna or forest elephants. Using these and results from previous studies, we estimated that the short-amplicon nuclear markers could distinguish forest from savanna African elephants with more than 99% accuracy. Nuclear genotyping of museum, dung, or ivory samples will provide better-informed conservation management of Africa's elephants.

  5. Application of microscopy in authentication and distinguishing of 11 Paris species in West Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Yin, Hongxiang; Li, Jie; Liu, Xianbo; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Cheng

    2009-10-01

    In the trade and raw drug market, the medicinal plants of genus Paris are available in the form of rhizomes without any vouchers, thus making it difficult to identify and distinguish the different species of Genus Paris. Recent studies have shown that the species of Paris possess different chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and efficiencies in clinical application. To distinguish 11 species of Paris collected from the western Sichuan province of China and ensure their safety and efficacy, in the present work, the microscopic characteristics of rhizomes and the crude drug powder of the 11 species of Paris were compared using a light microscope according to the usual microscopic techniques. The results of the microscopic features were systematically described and illustrated. The differences among these species are great enough that the identity of most material can be easily determined. Also, semiquantitative and quantitative micrographic parameter tables were simultaneously presented. Further, the key authentication parameters based on these anatomic characteristics analyzed was drawn up and presented for the Paris species studied. The study indicated that light microscopy and related techniques could provide a method that is convenient, feasible, and can be unambiguously applied in the authentication of species of Paris. This information is required not only for the identification procedures that guarantee the utilization of the appropriate raw material, but also for the quality control standards demanded.

  6. Distinguishing simulated from genuine dissociative identity disorder on the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Due to high elevations on validity and clinical scales on personality and forensic measures, it is challenging to determine if individuals presenting with symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) are genuine or not. Little research has focused on malingering DID, or on the broader issue of the profiles these patients obtain on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), despite increasing awareness of dissociation. This study sought to characterize the MMPI-2 profiles of DID patients and to determine the utility of the MMPI-2 in distinguishing DID patients from uncoached and coached DID simulators. The analyses revealed that Infrequency, Back Infrequency, and Infrequency-Psychopathology (Fp) distinguished simulators from genuine DID patients. Fp was best able to discriminate simulated DID. Utility statistics and classification functions are provided for classifying individual profiles as indicative of genuine or simulated DID. Despite exposure to information about DID, the simulators were not able to accurately feign DID, which is inconsistent with the iatrogenic/sociocultural model of DID. Given that dissociation was strongly associated with elevations in validity, as well as clinical scales, including Scale 8 (i.e., Schizophrenia), considerable caution should be used in interpreting validity scales as indicative of feigning, and Scale 8 as indicative of schizophrenia, among highly dissociative individuals. PMID:25793598

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Zan; Mo, Lin; Wu, Tong; Tan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm(-1)) to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues. PMID:25654106

  8. Distinguishing simulated from genuine dissociative identity disorder on the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Due to high elevations on validity and clinical scales on personality and forensic measures, it is challenging to determine if individuals presenting with symptoms of dissociative identity disorder (DID) are genuine or not. Little research has focused on malingering DID, or on the broader issue of the profiles these patients obtain on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), despite increasing awareness of dissociation. This study sought to characterize the MMPI-2 profiles of DID patients and to determine the utility of the MMPI-2 in distinguishing DID patients from uncoached and coached DID simulators. The analyses revealed that Infrequency, Back Infrequency, and Infrequency-Psychopathology (Fp) distinguished simulators from genuine DID patients. Fp was best able to discriminate simulated DID. Utility statistics and classification functions are provided for classifying individual profiles as indicative of genuine or simulated DID. Despite exposure to information about DID, the simulators were not able to accurately feign DID, which is inconsistent with the iatrogenic/sociocultural model of DID. Given that dissociation was strongly associated with elevations in validity, as well as clinical scales, including Scale 8 (i.e., Schizophrenia), considerable caution should be used in interpreting validity scales as indicative of feigning, and Scale 8 as indicative of schizophrenia, among highly dissociative individuals.

  9. Ancestry informative markers for distinguishing between Thai populations based on genome-wide association datasets.

    PubMed

    Vongpaisarnsin, Kornkiat; Listman, Jennifer Beth; Malison, Robert T; Gelernter, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The main purpose of this work was to identify a set of AIMs that stratify the genetic structure and diversity of the Thai population from a high-throughput autosomal genome-wide association study. In this study, more than one million SNPs from the international HapMap database and the Thai depression genome-wide association study have been examined to identify ancestry informative markers (AIMs) that distinguish between Thai populations. An efficient strategy is proposed to identify and characterize such SNPs and to test high-resolution SNP data from international HapMap populations. The best AIMs are identified to stratify the population and to infer genetic ancestry structure. A total of 124 AIMs were clearly clustered geographically across the continent, whereas only 89 AIMs stratified the Thai population from East Asian populations. Finally, a set of 273 AIMs was able to distinguish northern from southern Thai subpopulations. These markers will be of particular value in identifying the ethnic origins in regions where matching by self-reports is unavailable or unreliable, which usually occurs in real forensic cases.

  10. Distinguishing between demoralization and specific personality traits in clinical assessment with the NEO-PI-R.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Arjen; Sellbom, Martin; Eigenhuis, Annemarie; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-06-01

    Demoralization, a nonspecific unpleasant state that is common in clinical practice, has been identified as a potential source of nonspecificity in the assessment of personality and psychopathology. The aim of this research was to distinguish between Demoralization and specific personality traits in a widely used measure of personality: the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). NEO-PI-R and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 questionnaires were completed by 278 patients of a specialized clinic for personality disorders in The Netherlands. Furthermore, a replication sample was used consisting of 405 patients from the same institution who completed NEO-PI-R questionnaires, as well. A measure of Demoralization was derived (NEOdem, a NEO-PI-R-based Demoralization scale) using factor analytic techniques. Results indicated that the Demoralization Scale scores were reliable and showed expected patterns of convergence and divergence with conceptually relevant Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-RF scales. When items contributing to Demoralization-related variance were removed from the NEO-PI-R scales, increased specificity was notable with regard to external correlates. These results provide supportive evidence for the validity and heuristic potential of distinguishing between Demoralization and specific personality traits within the NEO-PI-R.

  11. Network deconvolution as a general method to distinguish direct dependencies in networks.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Soheil; Marbach, Daniel; Médard, Muriel; Kellis, Manolis

    2013-08-01

    Recognizing direct relationships between variables connected in a network is a pervasive problem in biological, social and information sciences as correlation-based networks contain numerous indirect relationships. Here we present a general method for inferring direct effects from an observed correlation matrix containing both direct and indirect effects. We formulate the problem as the inverse of network convolution, and introduce an algorithm that removes the combined effect of all indirect paths of arbitrary length in a closed-form solution by exploiting eigen-decomposition and infinite-series sums. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in several network applications: distinguishing direct targets in gene expression regulatory networks; recognizing directly interacting amino-acid residues for protein structure prediction from sequence alignments; and distinguishing strong collaborations in co-authorship social networks using connectivity information alone. In addition to its theoretical impact as a foundational graph theoretic tool, our results suggest network deconvolution is widely applicable for computing direct dependencies in network science across diverse disciplines.

  12. Dead or alive? Autofluorescence distinguishes heat-fixed from viable cells

    PubMed Central

    HENNINGS, LEAH; KAUFMANN, YIHONG; GRIFFIN, ROBERT; SIEGEL, ERIC; NOVAK, PETR; CORRY, PETER; MOROS, EDUARDO G.; SHAFIRSTEIN, GAL

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A proof-of-concept study to evaluate a new autofluorescence method to differentiate necrotic thermally fixed cells from viable tissue following thermal ablation. Methods A conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) device was used to ablate swine mammary tissue and rabbit VX-2 carcinomas in vivo. The ablated regions and 10-mm margins were resected 24 h following treatment, embedded in HistOmer® and sectioned at 3 mm. The fresh sections were evaluated for gross viability with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, 1 h post-resection. Representative non-viable and viable areas were then processed and embedded into paraffin, and sectioned at 5 μm. Standard H&E staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were compared against autofluorescence intensity, at 488-nm wavelength, for cellular viability. Results Heat-fixed cells in non-viable regions exhibit increased autofluorescence intensity compared to viable tissue (area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve =0.96; Mann-Whitney P <0.0001). An autofluorescence intensity-based classification rule achieved 92% sensitivity with 100% specificity for distinguishing non-viable from viable samples. In contrast, PCNA staining did not reliably distinguish heat-fixed, dead cells from viable cells. Conclusions Examination of H&E-stained sections using autofluorescence intensity-based classification is a reliable and readily available method to accurately identify heat-fixed cells in ablated surgical margins. PMID:19533483

  13. Pointwise transinformation distinguishes a recurrent increase of synchronization in the rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Ralf; Jowaed, Ahmad

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) coupling patterns is essential for understanding how interrelations between cortical sites change with the wake-sleep cycle. Waking and sleep EEGs of 12 normal sleepers were analyzed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Stage-dependent differences of PTI were assessed, and a spectral analysis of synchronized events was performed. A pattern of recurrent EEG synchronization was distinguished in all rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phases. The mean coupling of EEG leads differed regionally, with high coupling levels of frontal and occipital derivations and lower midtemporal and central coupling levels. Mean coupling levels were comparable in stages R, W, and N1 but were lower than in N2 and N3. An REM-specific pattern of low EEG synchronization was identified for F7-F8 and T3-T4, with lowest coupling levels during tonic REM sleep. Also, maximal intervals of uncoupled EEG were longer during tonic REM sleep. Because of these results, a new descriptive entity is proposed: the recurrent increase of synchronization in the EEG (RISE). This seems to reflect the dynamic aspects of spatiotemporal EEG synchronization on small time scales. A possibly specific low coupling pattern of the temporal leads may distinguish REM sleep from other states with a "desynchronized" EEG and, to some extent, tonic from phasic REM sleep.

  14. How real-time cosmology can distinguish between different anisotropic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Luca; Eggers Bjæ lde, Ole; Valkenburg, Wessel; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new analysis on how to distinguish between isotropic and anisotropic cosmological models based on tracking the angular displacements of a large number of distant quasars over an extended period of time, and then performing a multipole-vector decomposition of the resulting displacement maps. We find that while the GAIA mission operating at its nominal specifications does not have sufficient angular resolution to resolve anisotropic universes from isotropic ones using this method within a reasonable timespan of ten years, a next-generation GAIA-like survey with a resolution ten times better should be equal to the task. Distinguishing between different anisotropic models is however more demanding. Keeping the observational timespan to ten years, we find that the angular resolution of the survey will need to be of order 0.1 μas in order for certain rotating anisotropic models to produce a detectable signature that is also unique to models of this class. However, should such a detection become possible, it would immediately allow us to rule out large local void models.

  15. WHEN CAN GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND NEUTRON STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Hannam, Mark; Fairhurst, Stephen; Brown, Duncan A.; Fryer, Chris L.; Harry, Ian W.

    2013-03-20

    Gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries have the potential to uncover the distribution of masses and spins of black holes and neutron stars in the universe. The binary components' physical parameters can be inferred from their effect on the phasing of the gravitational-wave signal, but a partial degeneracy between the components' mass ratio and their spins limits our ability to measure the individual component masses. At the typical signal amplitudes expected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (signal-to-noise ratios between 10 and 20), we show that it will in many cases be difficult to distinguish whether the components are neutron stars or black holes. We identify when the masses of the binary components could be unambiguously measured outside the range of current observations: a system with a chirp mass M {<=} 0.871 M{sub Sun} would unambiguously contain the smallest-mass neutron star observed, and a system with M {>=} 2.786 M{sub Sun} must contain a black hole. However, additional information would be needed to distinguish between a binary containing two 1.35 M{sub Sun} neutron stars and an exotic neutron-star-black-hole binary. We also identify those configurations that could be unambiguously identified as black hole binaries, and show how the observation of an electromagnetic counterpart to a neutron-star-black-hole binary could be used to constrain the black hole spin.

  16. Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.

    PubMed

    Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

    2014-12-01

    Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution.

  17. Comparison between Decision Tree and Genetic Programming to distinguish healthy from stroke postural sway patterns.

    PubMed

    Marrega, Luiz H G; Silva, Simone M; Manffra, Elisangela F; Nievola, Julio C

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a motor task of crucial importance for humans to perform their daily activities safely and independently. Studies in the field of Artificial Intelligence have considered different classification methods in order to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain motor disorders based on their postural strategies during the balance control. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the performance between Decision Tree (DT) and Genetic Programming (GP) - both classification methods of easy interpretation by health professionals - to distinguish postural sway patterns produced by healthy and stroke individuals based on 16 widely used posturographic variables. For this purpose, we used a posturographic dataset of time-series of center-of-pressure displacements derived from 19 stroke patients and 19 healthy matched subjects in three quiet standing tasks of balance control. Then, DT and GP models were trained and tested under two different experiments where accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were adopted as performance metrics. The DT method has performed statistically significant (P < 0.05) better in both cases, showing for example an accuracy of 72.8% against 69.2% from GP in the second experiment of this paper.

  18. Distinguishing among perceived control, perceived difficulty, and self-efficacy as determinants of intentions and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, W M; Conner, M; Murray, T C

    2008-12-01

    Perceptions of control hold a dominant position in social cognitive theories yet there is a lack of conceptual and empirical clarity regarding what kind of control is most associated with particular behaviours. Three prominent types of control are perceived control (PC), perceived difficulty (PD), and perceived confidence or self-efficacy (SE) for performing the desired behaviour. Three studies are presented with a primary goal of distinguishing PC, PD, and SE from each other, and a secondary goal of determining which of the three is the superior predictor of health-related intentions and behaviours. The first study replicates earlier work by Trafimow et al. (2002) distinguishing the three constructs for reading 1, 30, and 100 pages, and extends it to exercising one, two, four, and six times per week and also to predicting intentions to exercise 4 days per week and behaviour 1 week later. The second study examines the predictive capability of the three constructs for intentions to floss one's teeth everyday and to eat 5-10 servings of fruits and vegetables everyday and subsequently on behaviour assessed 7 days later. The third study reports a meta-analysis of the relative influence of PC, PD, and SE on behaviours when defined in conceptually consistent ways. The results of all three studies support the conceptual and empirical distinction of PC, PD, and SE and the superiority of SE as a predictor of health behaviours and intentions.

  19. Distinguishing Gasoline Engine Oils of Different Viscosities Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adbul-Munaim, Ali Mazin; Reuter, Marco; Koch, Martin; Watson, Dennis G.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5-2.0 THz was evaluated for distinguishing among gasoline engine oils of three different grades (SAE 5W-20, 10W-40, and 20W-50) from the same manufacturer. Absorption coefficient showed limited potential and only distinguished ( p < 0.05) the 20W-50 grade from the other two grades in the 1.7-2.0-THz range. Refractive index data demonstrated relatively flat and consistently spaced curves for the three oil grades. ANOVA results confirmed a highly significant difference ( p < 0.0001) in refractive index among each of the three oils across the 0.5-2.0-THz range. Linear regression was applied to refractive index data at 0.25-THz intervals from 0.5 to 2.0 THz to predict kinematic viscosity. All seven linear regression models, intercepts, and refractive index coefficients were highly significant ( p < 0.0001). All models had a similar fit with R 2 ranging from 0.9773 to 0.9827 and RMSE ranging from 6.33 to 7.75. The refractive indices at 1.25 THz produced the best fit. The refractive indices of these oil samples were promising for identification and distinction of oil grades.

  20. A general flamelet transformation useful for distinguishing between premixed and non-premixed modes of combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, E.; Pitsch, H.

    2009-03-15

    The flame index was originally proposed by Yamashita et al. as a method of locally distinguishing between premixed and non-premixed combustion. Although this index has been applied both passively in the analysis of direct numerical simulation data, and actively using single step combustion models, certain limitations restrict its use in more detailed combustion models. In this work a general flamelet transformation that holds in the limits of both premixed and non-premixed combustion is developed. This transformation makes use of two statistically independent variables: a mixture fraction and a reaction progress parameter. The transformation is used to produce a model for distinguishing between premixed and non-premixed combustion regimes. The new model locally examines the term budget of the general flamelet transformation. The magnitudes of each of the terms in the budget are calculated and compared to the chemical source term. Determining whether a flame burns in a premixed or a non-premixed regime then amounts to determining which sets of these terms most significantly contribute to balancing the source term. The model is tested in a numerical simulation of a laminar triple flame, and is compared to a recent manifestation of the flame index approach. Additionally, the model is applied in a presumed probability density function (PDF) large eddy simulation (LES) of a lean premixed swirl burner. The model is used to locally select whether tabulated premixed or tabulated non-premixed chemistry should be referenced in the LES. Results from the LES are compared to experiments. (author)