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Sample records for devonian book lungs

  1. Book lung development in the embryo, postembryo and first instar of the cobweb spider, Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L Koch, 1841 (Araneomorphae, Theridiidae).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2015-07-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to compare spider book lung development with earlier studies of the development of horseshoe crab book gills and scorpion book lungs. Histological studies at the beginning of the 20th century provided evidence that spider and scorpion book lungs begin with outgrowth of a few primary lamellae (respiratory furrows, saccules) from the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds, reminiscent of the formation of book gills in the horseshoe crab. In spider embryos, light micrographs herein also show small primary lamellae formed at the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds. Later, more prominent primary lamellae extend into each book lung sinus from the inner wall of the book lung operculum formed from the limb bud. It appears most primary lamellae continue developing and become part of later book lungs, but there is variation in the rate and sequence of development. Electron micrographs show the process of air channel formation from parallel rows of precursor cells: mode I (cord hollowing), release of secretory vesicles into the extracellular space and mode II (cell hollowing), alignment and fusion of intracellular vesicles. Cell death (cavitation) is much less common but occurs in some places. Results herein support the early 20th century hypotheses that 1) book lungs are derived from book gills and 2) book lungs are an early step in the evolution of spider tracheae.

  2. Devonian of the Appalachian Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, William A.; De Witt, Wallace; Dennison, John M.; Hoskins, D.M.; Huddle, John W.

    1967-01-01

    On the craton, the Middle and Upper Devonian rocks are limestones and shales, but units are thin and discontinuous except for black shale, which, over broad areas, is the latest Devonian deposit. Deposition of this shale persisted into post-Devonian times.

  3. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  4. Devonian conodont biochronology in geologic time calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.; Ziegler, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conodont-based biochronology of the Devonian Period is calibrated herein on the basis of: (1) a recent, reliable radiometric dating (CLAQUE??-LONG et al. 1992) of a stratigraphic position just above the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary; and (2) new calculations of stage durations based on our estimates and those of a large number of other Devonian workers, which pertain to many stratigraphie sequences in several different paleotectonic settings globally. Using these tools we maintain the 46-m.y. duration for the Devonian Period given by the recent global timescale (GTS 89) of HARLAND et al. (1990). The main changes to GTS 89 are accomplished by raising the dating of the end of the Devonian by 9 m.y. from 363 Ma to 354 Ma and considerably shortening the bizarre estimate given by GTS 89 for the length of the oldest two Early Devonian stages. We reiterate our earlier expose?? (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1994) of the inaccuracies and misestimates of the ages of stage boundaries inherent in GTS 89 because of its misuse of conodont zones, which it employed as chrons to subdivide the Devonian Period. Our revisions provide the following new ages: 354 Ma, end of Devonian Period: 364 Ma. start of Famennian Stage; 369 Ma, start of Frasnian Stage; 376 Ma, start of Givetian Stage; 381 Ma, start of Eifelian Stage; 389 Ma start of Emsian Stage; 393 Ma, start of Pragian Stage; and 400 Ma, start of Lochkovian Stage and Devonian Period. Durations of stages are thus: Famennian, 10 m.y.; Frasnian, 5 m.y.; Givetian, 7 m.y.; Eifelian, 5 m.y.; Emsian, 8 m.y.; Pragian, 4 m.y.; and Lochkovian, 7 m.y.

  5. Silurian and Lower Devonian of southwestern Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    Thermal maturity of the Silurian and Lower Devonian rocks in Virginia west of New River decreases southwestward. Oil and gas shows are reported. The total thickness of Lower Devonian plus Silurian strata ranges from 52 to 1000 ft (16 to 305 m), with a maximum in Buchanan County. Sandstones were derived from sources southeast of the central Appalachian basin, some from lands southeast of the outcrop belt, and some formed by reworking of sandstones within the outcrop areas. Sandstones change northwestward to shales in the Clinch and Rose Hill Formations. In the Middle Silurian and Helderberg Group, sandstones grade northwestward to limestones. Limestones in the Hancock Formation change westward to dolomite. The Onesquethaw Stage is represented by sandstone, chert, and limestone assigned to the Wildcat Valley and Huntersville Formations. In the Middle Silurian (Keefer or Big Six sandstone) and Early Devonian (Wildcat Valley Sandstone), longshore currents carried sand across the southwest end of the basin toward Kentucky. Several regional unconformities are present. These unconformities are mostly related to sea level changes, but some are probably tectonic in origin. Five unconformities are significant: 1) at base of Silurian, 2) at base of upper Helderberg over much of the area, 3) at base of Oriskany Sandstone, 4) at base of Huntersville Formation, and 5) at base of Upper Devonian black shales in extreme western Virginia, where Chattanooga Shale overlies middle Devonian to Middle Silurian strata.

  6. The Devonian Marcellus Shale and Millboro Shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Chermak, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources in the United States builds upon many decades of research, which included resource assessment and the development of well completion and extraction technology. The Eastern Gas Shales Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the 1980s, investigated the gas potential of organic-rich, Devonian black shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. One of these eastern shales is the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, which has been extensively developed for natural gas and natural gas liquids since 2007. The Marcellus is one of the basal units in a thick Devonian shale sedimentary sequence in the Appalachian basin. The Marcellus rests on the Onondaga Limestone throughout most of the basin, or on the time-equivalent Needmore Shale in the southeastern parts of the basin. Another basal unit, the Huntersville Chert, underlies the Marcellus in the southern part of the basin. The Devonian section is compressed to the south, and the Marcellus Shale, along with several overlying units, grades into the age-equivalent Millboro Shale in Virginia. The Marcellus-Millboro interval is far from a uniform slab of black rock. This field trip will examine a number of natural and engineered exposures in the vicinity of the West Virginia–Virginia state line, where participants will have the opportunity to view a variety of sedimentary facies within the shale itself, sedimentary structures, tectonic structures, fossils, overlying and underlying formations, volcaniclastic ash beds, and to view a basaltic intrusion.

  7. New Devonian fossil localities in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blieck, A.; Gagnier, P.-Y.; Bigey, F. P.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Janvier, P.; Loboziak, S.; Rachebȩuf, P. R.; Sempere, T.; Steemans, P.

    1996-11-01

    An examination of Palaeozoic sections west of Cochabamba, and west of Lake Poopó, in western Bolivia, was conducted during a field expedition in 1991. The Río Iglesiani valley, west of Cochabamba, surprisingly yielded a Middle Devonian age to all the visited sites, originally supposed to be Ordovician. This result is based on spores, shelly faunas (brachiopods and bivalves), and trilobites. The Copacabana de Andamarca section, west of Lake Poopó, is also dated as Middle Devonian on account of its rather rich fauna (bryozoans, corals, brachiopods, conulariids, hyolithids, tentaculitids, ostracodes, trilobites, crinoids, vertebrates). Both localities correlate to the Icla and/or Huamampampa Formation of the Tarabuco area and Subandean belt, and to the Belén and/or Sica Sica Formation of the northern Altiplano.

  8. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  9. Biogeography of late Silurian and devonian rugose corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Three marine benthic faunal realms can be recognized in the Early and Middle Devonian. The Eastern Americas Realm consisted of most of the eastern half of North America and South America north of the Amazon. This realm extended in a southwest direction from the Devonian equator to approximately 35??S and was an isolated epicontinental sea during much of its history. The Eastern Americas Realm was bounded on the west by the Transcontinental Arch, on the north by the Canadian Shield and on the east and southeast by a peninsular extension of the Old Red Continent. These barriers were emergent during much, but not all, of Devonian time. Seaways beyond these barriers belonged to the Old World Realm. The Malvinokaffric Realm that was farther south was apparently temperate to arctic in climate and latitudinal position and contained few corals. Rugose corals in the Eastern Americas Realm show increasing generic-level endemism from the Late Silurian through the Early Devonian; during the late Early Devonian, 92% of the rugosan genera are not known anywhere else in the world. Endemism decreased through the Middle Devonian to zero in the early Late Devonian. The Early Devonian increase in endemism paralleled, and was probably related to, the development of the Old Red Continent as a barrier between America and Africa-Europe. The waning of endemism in the Middle Devonian reflects the breaching of the land barriers. This permitted some migration in and out of the realm in early Middle Devonian time but greatest movements were in late Middle Devonian time. Principal migration directions were from western or Arctic North America into the Michigan-Hudson Bay area and from the southern Appalachian area into Africa. ?? 1977.

  10. Devonian radiolarians and tentaculitids from central Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thassanapak, Hathaithip; Udchachon, Mongkol; Burrett, Clive

    2012-10-01

    A 4 m thick section of silicified shales from Ban Phonxai in central Laos contains the radiolarians Trilonche davidi, T. hindea, T. minax, T. palimbola, Stigmosphaerostylus spp. and Ceratoikiscum ? sp. and the tentaculitids Homoctenus ultimus and Costulatostylionina vesca which together indicate a Frasnian age. This pelagic, deep shelf fauna from the Indochina Terrane is similar to that from South China and shows that tentaculitids may be common and biostratigraphically useful in radiolarian cherts and shales in South East Asia. This discovery probably necessitates mapping of the Late Devonian Phon Tiou Fm in this area which is currently mapped as the Early Carboniferous Boulapha Formation.

  11. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devonian shale wells in... PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.306 Devonian shale wells in Michigan... shale in Michigan shall file an application that contains the following items: (a) FERC Form No. 121;...

  12. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Devonian shale wells in... PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.306 Devonian shale wells in Michigan... shale in Michigan shall file an application that contains the following items: (a) FERC Form No. 121;...

  13. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Devonian shale wells in... PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.306 Devonian shale wells in Michigan... shale in Michigan shall file an application that contains the following items: (a) FERC Form No. 121;...

  14. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  15. The Devonian trilobites of Brazil: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Maria da Gloria Pires de; Ponciano, Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Devonian trilobites are found in three major Paleozoic intracratonic basins of Brazil (Amazonas, Parnaíba, and Paraná). The trilobites represent the families Homalonotidae, Dalmanitidae, and Calmoniidae. The distribution of these taxa in the Brazilian territory is summarized here because of their remarkable scientific and historical importance, and a revised taxonomy and lithostratigraphy of the Devonian (Pragian - Famennian) trilobites from Brazil is presented, based on new research and recent literature. Homalonotids and dalmanitids are relatively cosmopolitan, whereas calmoniids are more endemic and seem to have been restricted to marine cold-waters of the southern hemisphere (Malvinokaffric Realm). Although the trilobites within the Brazilian intracratonic basins are approximately contemporaneous, they show various patterns of endemism and biogeographical affinities with other Malvinokaffric areas such as Bolivia, South Africa, and the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. At family level, therefore, trilobite diversity from Brazil is comparatively low, which may indicate biogeographical filtering related to the distance and/or remoteness of the Brazilian basins from more open oceanic waters.

  16. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Tremblay, Susan L; Bartowski, Kenneth E; VanAller Hernick, Linda

    2014-04-01

    To test the extent of herbivory in early terrestrial ecosystems, we examined compression-impression specimens of the late Middle Devonian liverwort Metzgeriothallus sharonae, from the Catskill Delta deposit of eastern New York state. Shale fragments of field-collected specimens were processed by applying liquid nitrocellulose on exposed surfaces. After drying, the film coatings were lifted off and mounted on microscope slides for photography. Unprocessed fragments were photographed under cedarwood oil for enhanced contrast. An extensive repertoire of arthropodan-mediated herbivory was documented, representing three functional feeding groups and nine subordinate plant-arthropod damage types (DTs). The herbivory is the earliest occurrence of external foliage-feeding and galling in the terrestrial fossil record. Our evidence indicates that thallus oil body cells, similar to the terpenoid-containing oil bodies of modern liverworts, were probably involved in the chemical defence of M. sharonae against arthropod herbivores. Based on damage patterns of terrestrial plants and an accompanying but sparse body-fossil record, Devonian arthropodan herbivores were significantly smaller compared to those of the later Palaeozoic. These data collectively suggest that a broad spectrum herbivory may have had a more important role in early terrestrial ecosystems than previously thought.

  17. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Presents the following lists of distinguished books: "Best Books of 1998"; "Best Young Adult Books"; "Notable Children's Videos"; "Best Children's Books"; "Notable Recordings for Children"; "Notable Software and Web Sites for Children"; "Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult…

  18. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the theory of vibrations has carried an aesthetic appeal to generations of engineering students for its richness of ideas, and for the intellectual challenges it offers. Also, the diverse range of its applications (covering civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace structures) has provided obvious motivations for its study. For most students, the subject provides, perhaps, the first encounter in substantial application of mathematical tools (differential equations, calculus of variations, Fourier/Laplace transforms, and matrix algebra) to engineering problems. The intimate relationship that the subject of mechanics has with mathematics strikes home probably for the first time. While teaching this subject, the instructor is spoilt for choice in selecting a text book and so are the students who wish to pursue a self-study of the subject. Many luminaries in the field have offered their own exposition of the subject: starting from the classics of Rayleigh, Timoshenko, Den Hartog, Bishop and Johnson, and the works of more recent vintage (e.g., the books by Meirovich, Clough, and Penzien, and works with computational flavour, such as, those by Bathe and Petyt), several works easily come to one's mind. Given this milieu, it requires a distinctive conviction to write a new book on this subject. And, here we have a book, written by a practitioner, which aims to deal with fundamental aspects of vibrations of engineering systems. The scepticism that this reviewer had on the need for having one more such book vanished as he browsed through the book and read selectively a few sections. The author's gift for elegant explanations is immediately noticeable even in such a preliminary reading. After a more careful reading, the reviewer has found this book to be insightful and he considers the book to be a welcome addition to the family of books on vibration engineering. The author has struck a fine balance between physical explanations, mathematical niceties

  19. Edgecliff reefs - Devonian temperate water carbonate deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wolosz, T.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The Middle Devonian Edgecliff Member of the Onondaga Formation in New York and Ontario, Canada, is a coral-rich, reefy,' crinoidal grainstone/packstone. The reefs contain only rare stromatoporoids and are devoid of algae, having been constructed by a fauna of mound and thicket-forming branching colonial rugosans, and large sheet favositids that populated grainstone/packstone flank beds and banks. Despite the restricted fauna, the reefs display a variety of growth patterns. Rugosan mounds range in size from 2-3 m diameter by 1 m thick, up to 230 m diameter by 15 m thick. Composite structures consist of interbedded rugosan buildups and packstone/grainstone flanks, ranging from shield-shaped reefs (240 m diameter by 6 m thick) in which the rugosans occur only as thickets, to pinnacle reefs (up to 3 km diameter by 60 m thick) in which rugosan mounds are interbedded with crinoidal flanks. Geographic distribution of these reef types and analysis of surrounding facies suggests that reef growth pattern was controlled by water depth and local rate of subsidence. Despite superfacial resemblance to modern deep water ahermatypic coral mounds and thickets, abundant coral breakage and overturning, and erosion of at least one reef core during an intermediate stage of reef growth supports a shallow water origin of these reefs. It is suggested that the Edgecliff and its reefs represent an example of Devonian cool water carbonate deposition, a hypothesis supported by a trend of increasing stromatoporoid abundance westwards across New York (in the direction of the paleo-equator).

  20. Early Forest Soils and Their Role in Devonian Global Change

    PubMed

    Retallack

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time.

  1. Devonian of the Northern Rocky Mountains and plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, Charles A.; Mapel, William J.

    1967-01-01

    5. Undivided uppermost Devonian (Famennian, to V-VI) and lowermost Mississippian (Tournaisian, cuI-lower cuIIα) carbonaceous and clastic rocks deposited in six shallow basins interspersed among areas uplifted during the penecontemporaneous Antler orogeny.

  2. Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J.

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevers, Jan G. P. W.

    2016-09-01

    For many years a good introductory book for undergraduate and postgraduate students on remote sensing of the Earth's land surface, which was not starting with an emphasis on traditional photographic techniques, was missing. In 2010 the first edition of the book Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing by Emilio Chuvieco and Alfredo Huete was published by CRC Press and it was filling this gap. Now the second edition by Emilio Chuvieco was published by CRC Press. This second edition is made more attractive by the use of colour and including colour illustrations instead of the black-and-white ones in the first edition.

  4. Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kate

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

  5. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonte, Cidália C.

    2016-02-01

    The use of geospatial data for a wide variety of applications has increased continuously over the last decades and a great variety of packages of open source GIS software are now available, with diverse characteristics. R was created as free software mainly for statistical computation and graphics, but offers now a large diversity of packages to process and visualize spatial data. Many books dedicated to R are available (e.g., Zuur et al., 2009; Chambers, 2008), but not many about spatial analysis in R (Bivand et al., 2008). The book under analysis is aimed for beginners both in R and in spatial analysis, and therefore can be used as a starting point for students and professionals which may want to enter the area of spatial analysis with R.

  6. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Alberto A.

    The title Einstein's Generation immediately suggests names such as Ehrenfest, Ritz, Kaufmann, Born, Laue, and Laub. Staley's book discusses these individuals, but it actually has a broader scope. Both the title and the subtitle are not quite appropriate. A much more fitting title would be Michelson, Electrons, and the Rise of "Modern" Physics. The emphasis on Albert Michelson is evident in the Index: almost four columns on him, compared to just one and a half on Einstein. Likewise, "Einstein's generation" includes, for Staley, many other physicists who were quite older than Einstein, such as Lorentz, Planck, Poincaré, and Minkowski. The book exhibits a composite character because it includes and expands upon four articles that Staley had published earlier on Michelson, relativity, and the co-creation of modern and classical physics. Hence the book is partly a bridging work; it ambitiously connects areas in the history of physics, from the 1880s until 1911. Staley identifies how diverse interests produced crossfertilization, and how various disciplinary boundaries were crossed. He wants to discuss material culture, experiment, and theory, all on the same footing. Every page of the introduction seems to quadruple the scope; he writes about individuals and communities, consolidation and diversification, power and weakness, memory and neglect, the cultural and the material, the classical and the modern, and the absolute and the relative.

  7. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Christina Yan

    2017-02-01

    The world class Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) are quite unique on earth in the sense that the energy source and origin were triggered by a large meteorite impact event. The ore deposits in the SIC make up one of the largest Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit camps in the world and have now been mined for over 100 years. This is the first complete reference book that focuses entirely on the SIC and covers the fields of economic geology, petrology, geochemistry and geophysics. The purpose of this book is to explore the linkage between sulfide and silicate magmas generated by the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact event and to unite an understanding of the process of crustal melt sheet evolution with the formation of the magmatic sulfide mineralization. The author, Peter Lightfoot, has been based in Sudbury for 25 years. As a top scientist on magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits and a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals, Peter has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book, which are perfectly balanced between industry and academia.

  8. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    Compiling a good book on urban remote sensing is probably as hard as the research in this disciplinary field itself. Urban areas comprise various environments and show high heterogeneity in many respects, they are highly dynamic in time and space and at the same time of greatest influence on connected and even tele-connected regions due to their great economic importance. Urban remote sensing is therefore of great importance, yet as manifold as its study area: mapping urban areas (or sub-categories thereof) plays an important (and challenging) role in land use and land cover (change) monitoring; the analysis of urban green and forests is by itself a specialization of ecological remote sensing; urban climatology asks for spatially and temporally highly resolved remote sensing products; the detection of artificial objects is not only a common and important remote sensing application but also a typical benchmark for image analysis techniques, etc. Urban analyses are performed with all available spaceborne sensor types and at the same time they are one of the most relevant fields for airborne remote sensing. Several books on urban remote sensing have been published during the past 10 years, each taking a different perspective. The book Global Urban Monitoring and Assessment through Earth Observation is motivated by the objectives of the Global Urban Observation and Information Task (SB-04) in the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) 2012-2015 workplan (compare Chapter 2) and wants to highlight the global aspects of state-of-the-art urban remote sensing.

  9. Book It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Diane; Vesper, Virginia

    On the Internet, one can not only buy books but also obtain information about publishers and vendors, book reviews, authors, and other book-related information. Even electronic texts are available for downloading or browsing online. The paper discusses World Wide Web sites for many book-related information needs, whether a person is searching for…

  10. Oldest coelacanth, from the Early Devonian of Australia.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Zerina; Long, John A; Talent, John A; Janvier, Philippe; Warren, James W

    2006-09-22

    Coelacanths are well-known sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, which together with lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of land vertebrates (tetrapods). Coelacanths have both living representatives and a rich fossil record, but lack fossils older than the late Middle Devonian (385-390 Myr ago), conflicting with current phylogenies implying coelacanths diverged from other sarcopterygians in the earliest Devonian (410-415 Myr ago). Here, we report the discovery of a new coelacanth from the Early Devonian of Australia (407-409 Myr ago), which fills in the approximately 20 Myr 'ghost range' between previous coelacanth records and the predicted origin of the group. This taxon is based on a single lower jaw bone, the dentary, which is deep and short in form and possesses a dentary sensory pore, otherwise seen in Carboniferous and younger taxa.

  11. Placoderms (Armored Fish): Dominant Vertebrates of the Devonian Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gavin C.

    2010-05-01

    Placoderms, the most diverse group of Devonian fishes, were globally distributed in all habitable freshwater and marine environments, like teleost fishes in the modern fauna. Their known evolutionary history (Early Silurian-Late Devonian) spanned at least 70 million years. Known diversity (335 genera) will increase when diverse assemblages from new areas are described. Placoderms first occur in the Early Silurian of China, but their diversity remained low until their main evolutionary radiation in the Early Devonian, after which they became the dominant vertebrates of Devonian seas. Most current placoderm data are derived from the second half of the group's evolutionary history, and recent claims that they form a paraphyletic group are based on highly derived Late Devonian forms; 16 shared derived characters are proposed here to support placoderm monophyly. Interrelationships of seven placoderm orders are unresolved because Silurian forms from China are still poorly known. The relationship of placoderms to the two major extant groups of jawed fishes—osteichthyans (bony fishes) and chondrichthyans (cartilaginous sharks, rays, and chimaeras)—remains uncertain, but the detailed preservation of placoderm internal braincase structures provides insights into the ancestral gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) condition. Placoderms provide the most complex morphological and biogeographic data set for the Middle Paleozoic; marked discrepancies in stratigraphic occurrence between different continental regions indicate strongly endemic faunas that were probably constrained by marine barriers until changes in paleogeography permitted range enlargement into new areas. Placoderm distributions in time and space indicate major faunal interchange between Gondwana and Laurussia near the Frasnian-Famennian boundary; closure of the Devonian equatorial ocean is a possible explanation.

  12. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2017-01-01

    The second - revised and enlarged - edition of this popular monograph is co-authored by Michael Kahnert and is published as Volume 145 of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. As in the first edition, the main emphasis is on the mathematics of electromagnetic scattering and on numerically exact computer solutions of the frequency-domain macroscopic Maxwell equations for particles with complex shapes. The book is largely centered on Green-function solution of relevant boundary value problems and the T-matrix methodology, although other techniques (the method of lines, integral equation methods, and Lippmann-Schwinger equations) are also covered. The first four chapters serve as a thorough overview of key theoretical aspects of electromagnetic scattering intelligible to readers with undergraduate training in mathematics. A separate chapter provides an instructive analysis of the Rayleigh hypothesis which is still viewed by many as a highly controversial aspect of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical objects. Another dedicated chapter introduces basic quantities serving as optical observables in practical applications. A welcome extension of the first edition is the new chapter on group theoretical aspects of electromagnetic scattering by particles with discrete symmetries. An essential part of the book is the penultimate chapter describing in detail popular public-domain computer programs mieschka and Tsym which can be applied to a wide range of particle shapes. The final chapter provides a general overview of available literature on electromagnetic scattering by particles and gives useful reading advice.

  13. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, John T.

    Mauro Dorato's new book is subtitled "An Introduction to the History and Philosophy of Laws of Nature". This is a bit misleading: a reader previously unacquainted with any of the literature on the topic of laws of nature and related problems in the philosophy of science will find much of the book prohibitively challenging. But the book does aim for the kind of breadth and generality that one would expect from an introduction to the subject, and it serves well as a compact overview of the issues, views, arguments, and counter-arguments that have shaped the contemporary philosophical debate on laws of nature. Almost no important facet of the debate goes untouched. There are chapters or sections on: recent scholarship on the history of the notion of a law and its role in the study of nature; the characteristics of the things called "laws" in a wide range of sciences; the relations among laws, algorithmic compressibility of information, and the theory of measurement; the puzzling question of why so many laws of nature should be mathematical in form; regularity theories of laws; the universals approach to laws; the necessitarian approach to laws; skeptical eliminativism about laws; non-reductive realism about laws; the question of the supervenience of laws on non-nomic facts; the relations of laws to counterfactuals, causality, dispositions, explanation, chance, symmetry, and necessity; ceteris paribus clauses; the evolutionary contingency thesis and the question of biological laws; Wilhelm Dilthey and the alleged distinction between "nomothetic" sciences and "historical" ones; the question of psychophysical laws and the relation between this question and the problems of mental causation and free will; even the connection between the issue of psychophysical laws and Gibson's ecological theory of perception. This is an impressive range of topics, especially considering that they are all treated in only 174 pages. One result is that not all of them are treated with as

  14. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Ink, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Lists best books by the American Library Association for the general reader, best young adult books, notable children's films and videos, best children's books, notable recordings for children, notable children's software and Web sites, quick picks for reluctant young adult readers, bestsellers of 1997, and literary prizes, 1997. (PEN)

  15. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devonian shale wells in Michigan. 270.306 Section 270.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... dry hole) that is within a one mile radius of the well for which a determination is sought,...

  16. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devonian shale wells in Michigan. 270.306 Section 270.306 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... dry hole) that is within a one mile radius of the well for which a determination is sought,...

  17. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Long, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43–48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus. PMID:20147310

  18. Hydrocarbon potential of Upper Devonian black shale, eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, I.M.; Frankie, W.T.; Moody, J.R.; Kemper, J.R.; Elkin, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The gas-producing Upper Devonian black shales of eastern Kentucky represent cycles of organic units alternating with less-organic units that were dominated by an influx of clastics from a northeastern source. This pattern of sedimentation is typical throughout the southern Appalachian basin in areas basinal to, yet still influenced by, the Catskill delta to the northwest. These black shales, which thin westward onto the Cincinnati arch, dip eastward into the Appalachian basin. To evaluate the future gas potential of Devonian shale, a data base has been compiled, consisting of specific geologic and engineering information from 5920 Devonian shale wells in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, Kentucky. The first successful gas completion in eastern Kentucky was drilled in Martin County in 1901. Comparison of initial open-flow potential (IP) and long-term production data for these wells demonstrates that higher IP values generally indicate wells of higher production potential. Areas of higher IP are aligned linearly, and these lineaments are interpreted to be related to fracture systems within the Devonian shale. These fractures may be basement influenced. Temperature log analyses indicate that the greatest number of natural gas shows occur in the lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Using both the temperature log to indicate gas shows and the gamma-ray log to determine the producing unit is a workable method for selecting the interval for treatment.

  19. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Olival

    2014-05-01

    This book concerns the many lives of Hugh Everett's seminal work on the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As these many lives were spread over time, like layers, the reading of this book is like an archeological tour as well as an adventure in physics, its philosophy and history. In short, the story traces the lives of his work. The first life was around 1956-1957 when Everett, a doctoral student under John Archibald Wheeler, wrote his dissertation at Princeton University and published it in the journal Review of Modern Physics. He presented an interpretation which dispensed with the need to collapse quantum states during measurements, thus dissolving the quantum measurement problem, and consistently reproduced results from quantum mechanics using Schrödinger's equation alone. Despite the face value of such a proposal it drew little attention until the end of the 1960s. This was when the second life of Everett's work began. In 1967 Bryce DeWitt appealed to Everett's work while working on the quantization of general relativity creating what is now called the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Furthermore, DeWitt wanted give to Everett's work a wider audience than experts in quantum gravity. Supported by the editors of Physics Today a paper by himself presenting this interpretation as one of the possible ones for quantum mechanics triggered a heated debate on the subject in the periodical. Together with this new life a layer beneath the original publication of the dissertation appeared. In contact with Everett, DeWitt discovered that the 1957 dissertation and paper had been an abridged version of a more consistently developed interpretation. The full version of the work was then published in 1973 with the enticing title, suggested by DeWitt, of "The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics." This second life was larger than the first one, indeed it is alive until today, sparking a huge amount of technical work by physicists and philosophers attempting to solve what

  20. A complete insect from the Late Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Clément, Gaël; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Grandcolas, Philippe; D'Haese, Cyrille; Lagebro, Linda; Denayer, Julien; Gueriau, Pierre; Lafaite, Patrick; Olive, Sébastien; Prestianni, Cyrille; Nel, André

    2012-08-02

    After terrestrialization, the diversification of arthropods and vertebrates is thought to have occurred in two distinct phases, the first between the Silurian and the Frasnian stages (Late Devonian period) (425-385 million years (Myr) ago), and the second characterized by the emergence of numerous new major taxa, during the Late Carboniferous period (after 345 Myr ago). These two diversification periods bracket the depauperate vertebrate Romer's gap (360-345 Myr ago) and arthropod gap (385-325 Myr ago), which could be due to preservational artefact. Although a recent molecular dating has given an age of 390 Myr for the Holometabola, the record of hexapods during the Early-Middle Devonian (411.5-391 Myr ago, Pragian to Givetian stages) is exceptionally sparse and based on fragmentary remains, which hinders the timing of this diversification. Indeed, although Devonian Archaeognatha are problematic, the Pragian of Scotland has given some Collembola and the incomplete insect Rhyniognatha, with its diagnostic dicondylic, metapterygotan mandibles. The oldest, definitively winged insects are from the Serpukhovian stage (latest Early Carboniferous period). Here we report the first complete Late Devonian insect, which was probably a terrestrial species. Its 'orthopteroid' mandibles are of an omnivorous type, clearly not modified for a solely carnivorous diet. This discovery narrows the 45-Myr gap in the fossil record of Hexapoda, and demonstrates further a first Devonian phase of diversification for the Hexapoda, as in vertebrates, and suggests that the Pterygota diversified before and during Romer's gap.

  1. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Sally; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews three books: (1) "Special Educational Needs in Schools" (Sally Beveridge), concerning the education of special needs children in Britain; (2) "Class Management" (E.C. Wragg), one of a series of practical resource books for primary school teachers; and (3) "Teaching Music in the Primary School" (Joanna Glover…

  2. Book Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elleman, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses nine books (fiction, nonfiction, and poetry) for children that center on bats. Focuses on one book ("Silverwing") as an example of the animal fantasy genre, which can tell the adventures of a particular animal, impart environmental knowledge and concerns, and include intriguing, solid facts about the animal in question. Offers…

  3. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "Attention Deficit Disorder: ADHD and ADD Syndromes" (D. R. Jordan), a short book about the characteristics and differences between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the effect they have on children and adults in their classrooms, home, and workplace. The book includes techniques for…

  4. Cassette Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This catalog lists cassette books produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped during 1989. Books are listed alphabetically within subject categories under nonfiction and fiction headings. Nonfiction categories include: animals and wildlife, the arts, bestsellers, biography, blindness and physical handicaps,…

  5. Devonian brachiopods of southwesternmost laurentia: Biogeographic affinities and tectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boucot, A.J.; Poole, F.G.; Amaya-Martinez, R.; Harris, A.G.; Sandberg, C.A.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three brachiopod faunas discussed herein record different depositional and tectonic settings along the southwestern margin of Laurentia (North America) during Devonian time. Depositional settings include inner continental shelf (Cerros de Los Murcielagos), medial continental shelf (Rancho Placeritos), and offshelf continental rise (Rancho Los Chinos). Ages of Devonian brachiopod faunas include middle Early (Pragian) at Rancho Placeritos in west-central Sonora, late Middle (Givetian) at Cerros de Los Murcielagos in northwestern Sonora, and late Late (Famennian) at Rancho Los Chinos in central Sonora. The brachiopods of these three faunas, as well as the gastropod Orecopia, are easily recognized in outcrop and thus are useful for local and regional correlations. Pragian brachiopods dominated by Acrospirifer and Meristella in the "San Miguel Formation" at Rancho Placeritos represent the widespread Appohimchi Subprovince of eastern and southern Laurentia. Conodonts of the early to middle Pragian sulcatus to kindlei Zones associated with the brachiopods confirm the ages indicated by the brachiopod fauna and provide additional information on the depositional setting of the Devonian strata. Biostratigraphic distribution of the Appohimchi brachiopod fauna indicates continuous Early Devonian shelf deposition along the entire southern margin of Laurentia. The largely emergent southwest-trending Transcontinental arch apparently formed a barrier preventing migration and mixing of many genera and species of brachiopods from the southern shelf of Laurentia in northern Mexico to the western shelf (Cordilleran mio-geocline) in the western United States. Middle Devonian Stringocephalus brachiopods and Late Devonian Orecopia gastropods in the "Los Murcielagos Formation" in northwest Sonora represent the southwest-ernmost occurrence of these genera in North America and date the host rocks as Givetian and Frasnian, respectively. Rhynchonelloid brachiopods (Dzieduszyckia sonora) and

  6. Tetrapod trackways from the early Middle Devonian period of Poland.

    PubMed

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Szrek, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Katarzyna; Narkiewicz, Marek; Ahlberg, Per E

    2010-01-07

    The fossil record of the earliest tetrapods (vertebrates with limbs rather than paired fins) consists of body fossils and trackways. The earliest body fossils of tetrapods date to the Late Devonian period (late Frasnian stage) and are preceded by transitional elpistostegids such as Panderichthys and Tiktaalik that still have paired fins. Claims of tetrapod trackways predating these body fossils have remained controversial with regard to both age and the identity of the track makers. Here we present well-preserved and securely dated tetrapod tracks from Polish marine tidal flat sediments of early Middle Devonian (Eifelian stage) age that are approximately 18 million years older than the earliest tetrapod body fossils and 10 million years earlier than the oldest elpistostegids. They force a radical reassessment of the timing, ecology and environmental setting of the fish-tetrapod transition, as well as the completeness of the body fossil record.

  7. Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Porter, Steven; Kuglitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We used δ13C values to identify lichen metabolism in the globally distributed Early Devonian (409 386 Ma) macrofossil Spongiophyton minutissimum, which had been alternatively interpreted as a green plant of bryophyte grade or as a lichen, based on its morphology. Extant mosses and hornworts exhibited a range of δ13Ctissue values that was discrete from that of extant lichens. The δ13Ctissue values of 96 S. minutissimum specimens coincided with δ13Ctissue values of extant lichens. In contrast, S. minutissimum δ13Ctissue values showed no similarity to bryophyte carbon isotope values. The identification of large global populations of lichens during the Early Devonian may indicate that lichen-accelerated soil formation fostered the development of Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Silurian and Devonian in Vietnam—Stratigraphy and facies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tống Duy; Phương, Tạ Hoàng; Janvier, Philippe; Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu; Cúc, Nguyễn Thị Thu; Dương, Nguyễn Thùy

    2013-09-01

    Silurian and Devonian deposits in Viet Nam are present in several zones and regions, including Quang Ninh, East Bac Bo, and West Bac Bo Zones of the Bac Bo Region, the Dien Bien-Nghe An and Binh Tri Thien Zones of the Viet-Lao Region, and the South Trung Bo, and Western Nam Bo Zones of the South Viet Nam Region (Fig. 1). The main lithological features and faunal composition of the Silurian and Devonian Units in all these zones are briefly described. The Silurian consists of deep-water deposits of the upper parts of the Co To and Tan Mai Formations in the Quang Ninh Zone, the upper parts of the Phu Ngu Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone and the upper parts of the Long Dai and Song Ca Formations in the Viet-Lao Region. Shallow water facies Silurian units containing benthic faunas are more widely distributed, including the upper part of the Sinh Vinh and Bo Hieng Formations in the West Bac Bo Zone, the Kien An Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and, in the Viet-Lao Region, the Dai Giang Formation and the upper part of the Tay Trang Formation. No Lower and Middle Devonian deposits indicate deep water facies, but they are characterized by different shallow water facies. Continental to near shore, deltaic facies characterize the Lower Devonian Song Cau Group in the East Bac Bo Zone, the Van Canh Formation in the Quang Ninh Zone, and the A Choc Formation in the Binh Tri Thien Zone. Similar facies also occur in the Givetian Do Son Formation of the Quang Ninh Zone, and the Tan Lap Formation in the East Bac Bo Zone, and consist of coarse terrigenous deposits—cross-bedded conglomerates, sandstone, etc. Most Devonian units are characterized by shallow marine shelf facies. Carbonate and terrigenous-carbonate facies dominate, and terrigenous facies occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian sections in some areas only. The deep-water-like facies is characteriztic for some Upper Devonian formations in the Bac Bo (Bang Ca and Toc Tat Formations) and Viet-Lao Regions (Thien Nhan and

  9. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  10. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roen, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. Concurrent with periodic and varied economic exploitations of the black shales are geologic studies. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15-foot sequence in Tennessee with 3,000 feet of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. The classic Devonian black-shale sequence in New York has been correlated with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long range correlations within the Appalachian basin and provided a basis for correlations with the black shales of the Illinois and Michigan basins. Areal distribution of selected shale units along with paleocurrent studies, clay mineralogy, and geochemistry suggests variations in the sediment source and transport directions. Current structures, faunal evidence, lithologic variations, and geochemical studies provide evidence to support interpretation of depositional environments. In addition, organic geochemical data combined with stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the shale within the basin allow an evaluation of the resource potential of natural gas in the Devonian shale sequence.

  11. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gess, Robert W; Coates, Michael I; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2006-10-26

    Lampreys are the most scientifically accessible of the remaining jawless vertebrates, but their evolutionary history is obscure. In contrast to the rich fossil record of armoured jawless fishes, all of which date from the Devonian period and earlier, only two Palaeozoic lampreys have been recorded, both from the Carboniferous period. In addition to these, the recent report of an exquisitely preserved Lower Cretaceous example demonstrates that anatomically modern lampreys were present by the late Mesozoic era. Here we report a marine/estuarine fossil lamprey from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of South Africa, the identity of which is established easily because many of the key specializations of modern forms are already in place. These specializations include the first evidence of a large oral disc, the first direct evidence of circumoral teeth and a well preserved branchial basket. This small agnathan, Priscomyzon riniensis gen. et sp. nov., is not only more conventionally lamprey-like than other Palaeozoic examples, but is also some 35 million years older. This finding is evidence that agnathans close to modern lampreys had evolved before the end of the Devonian period. In this light, lampreys as a whole appear all the more remarkable: ancient specialists that have persisted as such and survived a subsequent 360 million years.

  12. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    PubMed

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-02

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  13. Book Review

    PubMed Central

    Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This book provides step-by-step guidance on developing a sound publication strategy for how to prepare and get research papers published. The book is a user-friendly guide, a route map for publishing that covers many topics, ranging from abstracts and blogs, tables and trial registration to ethical principles and conventions for writing scientific papers. Publishing the results of scientific research in the form of a scientific paper is the ultimate goal and the final stage of the research of each scientist. To write and publish papers is never going to be an easy task. With this book as their guide, researchers will be better informed and therefore should have an easier and altogether more pleasant path to publication with clear direction on how to choose the right journal, avoid publication delays, and resolve authorship disputes and many other problems associated with scientific publishing. CONTENTS: The 188 pages of the book are distributed in 5 chapters in Part I and 249 entries ordered by the letters of Alphabet in Part II creating an A to Z of publication strategy. In the Appendices there are four sections covering further reading, organizations, guidelines and principles of good publication practice for company-sponsored medical research. The book also contains key references and useful websites within many entries where it seemed helpful. The last ten pages of the book present an index to help users to find the information of interest in the book. CONCLUSION: The book is intended to help all authors, young and old, novice and experienced, to plan their research and publications effectively and prepare manuscripts for journals and other publications, increasing the likelihood that their work will be published. Providing essential information on publishing strategy and process, the book should be extremely useful to everyone who wants to publish research results.

  14. Nightmare book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    judithku; jajustin; tyler, d.

    2017-02-01

    In response to Kate Brown's review of Kate Moore's book The Radium Girls, which tells the depressing but important tale of female radium-dial painters in the early 1900s who contracted radiation poisoning.

  15. Book Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Books produced since 1850, held in the Library of Congress, have a very high acid content, hence a shorter life expectancy than prior-published volumes. A means of "deacidifying" books on a large, economically-viable scale is of great interest, particularly to the research library community, which stores millions of valuable, often irreplaceable documents. The General Electric vacuum chamber used in deacidification tests serves a dual purpose. It creates an environment in which DEZ can do its job without presence of oxygen and also dries the books. After the drying phase, DEZ is introduced to the chamber as a paper-penetrating vapor. The complete process typically takes eight days, four days for vacuum drying and four days of book exposure to DEZ. Accelerated aging tests showed that the process can extend paper life almost fourfold, even on color illustrations.

  16. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, John M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews two books on issues of Native American education: (1) "Light of the Feather: Pathways through Contemporary Indian America" (M. Fedullo); and (2) "Teaching American Indian Students" (J. Rehner). (ME)

  17. Professional Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews five books on talk in the classroom; teaching with humor and play; how children talk, write, dance, draw, and sing their understanding of the world; talented teenagers; and life histories of women teachers working for social change. (BAC)

  18. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roen, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  19. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokulich, Alisa

    In recent years, there has been a growing resurgence of interest in the philosophical views of the founders of quantum mechanics. Kristian Camilleri's book on Werner Heisenberg's philosophy of quantum mechanics is a welcome addition to this literature. It takes Heisenberg seriously as a philosopher of science, traces the various philosophical influences on his view, and carefully distinguishes his interpretation of quantum mechanics from that of his contemporaries. It is a fine example of the new insights that can emerge when one takes an integrated approach to the history and philosophy of science. After summarizing some of the main themes of the book, I will turn to two moderate criticisms of the book-one stylistic, and the other, regarding its content.

  20. Preliminary sensitivity analysis of the Devonian shale in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Covatch, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    A preliminary sensitivity analysis of gas reserves in Devonian shale in Ohio was made on the six partitioned areas, based on a payout time of 3 years. Data sets were obtained from Lewin and Associates for the six partitioned areas in Ohio and used as a base case for the METC sensitivity analysis. A total of five different well stimulation techniques were evaluated in both the METC and Lewin studies. The five techniques evaluated were borehole shooting, a small radial stimulation, a large radial stimulation, a small vertical fracture, and a large vertical fracture.

  1. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  2. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  3. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  4. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  5. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  6. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this exemplary book is to provide a systematic exposition of the entire field of optical tweezers and their applications. The book is divided into three (approximately equal) parts summarizing the electromagnetic theory of optical tweezers (Part I), the practice of designing and building optical tweezers (Part II), and extensive applications of optical tweezers in various branches of science (Part III). The exposition is highly methodical and addresses the needs of anyone dealing with optical tweezers, be it a theoretician, an engineer/experimentalist, a routine practitioner, or an interested scientist.

  7. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevers, J. G. P. W.

    2015-02-01

    About thirty years after the previous advanced textbook on Microwave Remote Sensing by Ulaby, Moore and Fung has been published as three separate volumes, now an up-to-date new textbook has been published. The 1000-page book covers theoretical models, system design and operation, and geoscientific applications of active and passive microwave remote sensing systems. It is designed as a textbook at the postgraduate level, as well as a reference for the practicing professional. The book is caught by a thorough introduction into the physics and mathematics of electrical engineering applied to microwave radiation. Here on overview of its chapters with a short description of its focus will be given.

  8. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botet, R.

    2004-09-01

    The second edition of Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering by Riley et al is a great scientific textbook. The reader should not be intimidated by its size - over 1200 pages - and skimming through it, one is confronted with a vast amount of information (which could be daunting for students). However, when reading it in detail one realizes that the number of pages is justified and the result is a self-contained reference on mathematical methods for physics. The book is well organized: it starts at basic university undergraduate level and progresses to the highest graduate level. It is a tour de force to write mathematical sections that are both complete and at a appropriate academic level; the sequence of sections (and their content) has been chosen with great care in order that each section may introduce the following ones. The authors have clearly succeeded with this challenge, making this a remarkable pedagogical book. No precise knowledge is needed at the beginning, and all the material is presented in a logical progression. The student can confidently follow the material as it is presented. Even though this book is devoted to physics and engineering, it can be used by students in other scientific fields. The material covered in the book concentrates on applied theorems and formulae. But as the title of the book indicates, it is primarily written 'for physics and engineering' so this is to be expected and it greatly simplifies the text of the course. Consequently, derivations of the main results are essentially 'for physicists'. Frequently proofs are briefly outlined and are not as detailed as many mathematicians would like. Nevertheless, the final results are always clearly stated together with the technical conditions under which they should be used, thus providing a very comprehensive and practical textbook. The only criticism is that the sections on probability and statistics do not fit comfortably between their previous and following sections

  9. Professional Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews four professional books: (1) "Changing Teaching, Changing Schools. Bringing Early Childhood Practice into Public Education: Case Studies from the Kindergarten" (O'Connell); (2) "Whole Language Plus: Essays on Literacy in the United States and New Zealand" (Cazden); (3) "Audacious Kids: Coming of Age in America's…

  10. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eron, Leonard D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews six books on developmental psychology: (1) "Children and Violence" (David Reiss and others); (2) "Television and the American Child" (George Comstock); (3) "Intellectual Development" (Robert Sternberg and Cynthia Berg); (4) "Context and Development" (Robert Cohen and Alexander Siegel); (5) "Adolescent Identity Formation" (Gerald Adams and…

  11. Digital books.

    PubMed

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  12. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James J.; Sullivan, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews two books: (1) "LEAD!" (Richard Lynch), which outlines leadership principles for nonprofit and public agency managers; and (2) "Troubled Transplants: Unconventional Strategies for Helping Disturbed Foster and Adopted Children" (Richard J. Delaney and Frank R. Kunstal), which offers practical suggestions for intervention by parents and…

  13. Professional Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews five books peace studies and conflict resolution: (1) "Voices from the Future" (Susan Goodwillie); (2) "War and Peace Literature for Children and Young Adults" (Virginia Walter); (3) "Teaching Young Children in Violent Times" (Diane Levin); (4) "Whose Language? What Power?" (Frank Smith); and (5)…

  14. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencek, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of five books are presented. Topics are public property and private power (Hartog, 1983), essays on Julius Caesar (Blits, 1982), changes in the American political system (Shafer, 1983), the spiritual crisis in western civilizations (Harrington, 1983), and justice, pluralism and equality (Walzer, 1983). (JDH)

  15. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the following books: "Child Care in Context" (Lamb et al., Eds.); "Making Friends in School: Promoting Relationships in Early Childhood" (Ramsay); "The Epigenesis of Mind: Essays on Biology and Cognition" (Carey and Gelman, Eds.); "Moral Maturity: Measuring the Development of Sociomoral Reflection"…

  16. Professional Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews five books for educators: (1) "Once upon a Folktale: Capturing the Folklore Process with Children" (Blatt); (2) "Integrated Studies in the Middle Grades: Dancing through Walls" (Stevenson, Carr); (3) "Conflict in Child and Adolescent Development" (Schantz, Hartup); (4) "Ways of Assessing Children and…

  17. Book Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeinger, Philip R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents and review six books. Topics include earth science topics (Philip R. Holzinger, 1985), the wild horse controversy (Richard Symanski, 1985), historical Dutch geography (Audrey M. Lambert, 1985), urban geography (Susan L. Cutter, 1985), a geopolitical atlas (Gerard Chaliand and Jean-Pierre Rageau, 1985), and remote sensing (Robert K. Holz,…

  18. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecora, Peter J.; Cline, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    Reviews two books: (1) "Advancing Family Preservation Practice" (E. Susan Morton and R. Kevin Brigsby, editors) which summarizes Intensive Family Preservation Services in the United States over the past decade; and (2) "Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations" (Siri Espy) which discusses marketing and its application…

  19. Professional Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Robert L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews six books: "Teacher Lore" (Schubert and Ayers), about teachers' accounts of their experience; "America's Best Classrooms" (Seymour and others); "Another Door to Learning," (Schwarz) about learning-disabled children; "Talking with Your Children about a Troubled World" (Dumas); "Our Family, Our…

  20. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershfield, Bruce; DeWoody, Madelyn

    1993-01-01

    Reviews two booklets edited by Kay Albrecht and by Albrecht and Margaret Plantz that outline principles of developmentally appropriate practices and criteria for quality in child care programs. Also reviews a book by John Meyers that guides helping professionals through the language, themes, rules, and roles of the legal system as the system…

  1. Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2005-01-01

    Terje Hillesund points out that "information technology and especially the Internet have profoundly changed the ways of publishing." Recently, the book publishing industry has started to catch up, making digitized texts--including multimedia texts--available for sale through online bookstores, and in some cases, available for free downloading.…

  2. Book Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews seven books on the following topics: (1) runaway and homeless youth; (2) drug abuse prevention; (3) issues related to helping children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol; (4) lesbians and gay men as foster parents; (5) a multicultural approach to child welfare; (6) keys to successful volunteer programs; and (7) single mothers.…

  3. Distinguished Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryles, Daisy; Roback, Diane; Ink, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Includes 12 articles that list notable books for college-bound youth, young adults, and children; paperbacks for young adults; audiobooks for young adults; children's videos; recordings for children; software and Web sites for children; bestsellers of 2000; and literary prizes that were awarded in 2000. (LRW)

  4. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallone, B. G.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the proceedings of the five day programme on IMRT techniques presented at the 2003 American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Summer School held in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The book is essentially an overview of IMRT techniques, discussing the history, the mathematical processes involved in the planning stages, the biological indices for evaluations, the off-line and on-line medical imaging that is required, the various IMRT delivery techniques available, positioning and motion verification, shielding and QA issues, and some clinical applications. There is some additional discussion on modulated electron and proton therapy, views on the clinical and financial impact of IMRT, as well as some speculation on the future uses of IMRT. The fact that the book is an `overview' must be emphasized. Medical physicists who are well-read in IMRT, or have implemented IMRT, even partially, may be a little disappointed with the book. Although specific details were purposely omitted, the well-read physicist would have preferred to go right to the `heart of the matter', something this book fails to do. As is typical of many proceedings-type books, there is a certain level of inconsistency of writing styles, as well as some redundancy between the different chapters. It is unfortunate that such a large volume does not have an index to allow a reader to explore a particular subject pertaining to IMRT. The reader would have to guide himself/herself by the table of contents before each chapter which could be a problem if the reader requires some information quickly. It is interesting to note that the book lends itself to a variety of professionals interested in IMRT, including administrators. It may be a source of help for medical physicists who wish to discuss IMRT issues with higher level administration, for example. Some clinical applications are also reviewed. The lack of details concerning the advantages of IMRT with respect to clinical outcome is

  5. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  6. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  7. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  8. Affinities and architecture of Devonian trunks of Prototaxites loganii.

    PubMed

    Retallack, G J; Landing, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Devonian fossil logs of Prototaxites loganii have been considered kelp-like aquatic algae, rolled up carpets of liverworts, enormous saprophytic fungal fruiting bodies or giant lichens. Algae and rolled liverwort models cannot explain the proportions and branching described here of a complete fossil of Prototaxites loganii from the Middle Devonian (386 Ma) Bellvale Sandstone on Schunnemunk Mountain, eastern New York. The "Schunnemunk tree" was 8.83 m long and had six branches, each about 1 m long and 9 cm diam, on the upper 1.2 m of the main axis. The coalified outermost layer of the Schunnemunk trunk and branches have isotopic compositions (δ(13)CPDB) of -25.03 ± 0.13‰ and -26.17 ± 0.69‰, respectively. The outermost part of the trunk has poorly preserved invaginations above cortical nests of coccoid cells embraced by much-branched tubular cells. This histology is unlike algae, liverworts or vascular plants and most like lichen with coccoid chlorophyte phycobionts. Prototaxites has been placed within Basidiomycota but lacks clear dikaryan features. Prototaxites and its extinct order Nematophytales may belong within Mucoromycotina or Glomeromycota.

  9. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrusciel, P. T.

    2006-06-01

    Most of us sometimes have to face a student asking: 'What do I need to get started on this'. (In my case 'this' would typically be a topic in general relativity.) After thinking about it for quite a while, and consulting candidate texts again and again, a few days later I usually end up saying: read this chapter in book I (but without going too much detail), then that chapter in book II (but ignore all those comments), then the first few sections of this review paper (but do not try to work out equations NN to NNN), and then come back to see me. In the unlikely event that the student comes back without changing the topic, there follows quite a bit of explaining on a blackboard over the following weeks. From now on I will say: get acquainted with the material covered by this book. As far as Isham's book is concerned, 'this' in the student's question above can stand for any topic in theoretical physics which touches upon differential geometry (and I can only think of very few which do not). Said plainly: this book contains most of the introductory material necessary to get started in general relativity, or those branches of mathematical physics which require differential geometry. A student who has mastered the notions presented in the book will have a solid basis to continue into specialized topics. I am not aware of any other book which would be as useful as this one in terms of the spectrum of topics covered, stopping at the right place to get sufficient introductory insight. According to the publisher, these lecture notes are the content of an introductory course on differential geometry which is taken by first-year theoretical physics PhD students, or by students attending the one-year MSc course 'Quantum Fields and Fundamental Forces' at Imperial College, London. The volume is divided into six chapters: An Introduction to Topology Differential Manifolds Vector Fields and n-Forms Lie Groups Fibre Bundles Connections in a Bundle. It is a sad reflection on current

  10. A new ischnacanthiform (Acanthodii) from the latest Devonian of Iran and the palaeogeography of Late Devonian ischnacanthiforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairapetian, Vachik; Burrow, Carole J.

    2016-07-01

    Dentigerous jaw bones from the Bahram Formation (Late Devonian) near Chahriseh, Iran represent the second youngest record of ischnacanthiform acanthodians worldwide. The specimens are assigned to Atopacanthus based on the near symmetrical shape of the lateral teeth, lack of side cusps on these teeth, and the low angle at which the posterior flange diverges from the longitudinal axis of the bone. They are assigned to a new species Atopacanthus juvai based on the unique combination of a lingual row of rounded teeth, a single row of small denticles on the medial ridge between the lateral and lingual tooth rows, and larger rounded denticles along the base of the lateral teeth lingually. The genus Atopacanthus is otherwise only known from Frasnian marine deposits in the U.S.A., Spitzbergen, Russia, and Germany. The closely related genus Persacanthus is found in the Frasnian of the U.S.A., Canada, Russia, and central Iran. These occurrences indicate possible two-way dispersal between Northern Gondwana and Laurussia in the Late Devonian.

  11. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giere, Ronald

    The original motivation for this book was to understand why the role of models in science was mostly ignored by philosophers of science for the first half of the twentieth century only to become the focus of much attention later in the second half of the century. The scope of the book, however, is much broader than that question. After a brief introductory chapter, there are chapters, respectively, on the use of mechanical models by scientists in the nineteenth century, the nature of analogy, the distinction between models and theories, paradigms and metaphors, the semantic view of theories, the distinctions among phenomena, data and data models, and, finally, representation using models. Overall, the volume is best described as an analytical history of the topic of models in the philosophy of science, a genre invoked by the author herself. (ix)

  12. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanona, Scott

    There is more to this book than readers of this journal might expect from an author who has associated Bohr and Heisenberg with Derrida and Lacan (Plotnitsky, 1994, 2002). Plotnitsky has written in the past on trying to bridge the "two cultures" of the "science wars" by defending Derrida and others against what he perceives to have been too-quickly dismissive critiques (Plotnitsky, 1997), but he has not provided an extended philosophical analysis of Bohr to support the connections he has made. This book seems to be an attempt to engage in a careful analysis of Bohr in a way meant to satisfy critical readers and also support what he here calls "nonclassical epistemology".

  13. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardonio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The content of this book is aptly depicted by its engaging cover design, which exemplifies the vast range of circumstances where sound and vibration characterise the life of human beings and animals, the environment, the quality of buildings and halls, the operation and comfort of land, water and air transportation vehicles, the functioning of machines, etc. Also, the short and comprehensive title effectively defines the breath (sound and vibration) and depth (fundamentals) of the covered topics.

  14. Thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Joseph A.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Repetski, John E.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the oil and gas in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of eastern North America is thought to be derived from Devonian shale that is within these basins (for example, Milici and others, 2003; Swezey, 2002, 2008, 2009; Swezey and others, 2005, 2007). As the Devonian strata were buried by younger sediments, the Devonian shale was subjected to great temperature and pressure, and in some areas the shale crossed a thermal maturity threshold and began to generate oil. With increasing burial (increasing temperature and pressure), some of this oil-generating shale crossed another thermal maturity threshold and began to generate natural gas. Knowledge of the thermal maturity of the Devonian shale is therefore useful for predicting the occurrence and the spatial distribution of oil and gas within these three basins. This publication presents a thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. The map shows outlines of the three basins (dashed black lines) and an outline of Devonian shale (solid black lines). The basin outlines are compiled from Thomas and others (1989) and Swezey (2008, 2009). The outline of Devonian shale is a compilation from Freeman (1978), Thomas and others (1989), de Witt and others (1993), Dart (1995), Nicholson and others (2004), Dicken and others (2005a,b), and Stoeser and others (2005).

  15. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  16. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    Thanks to its impressive success in the second half of the 20th century, both in high-energy physics and in critical phenomena, quantum field theory has enjoyed an abundant literature. We therefore greet yet another book on this subject with caution: what can a monograph on quantum field theory bring now that is new, either conceptually or pedagogically? But when it is written by a physicist such as Bryce DeWitt, who has made his own contribution to the collection of field theory books with The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory, all suspicion is naturally abandoned. One knows in advance that this book can only lead to a genuine enrichment of the literature. DeWitt has made a formidable contribution to various areas of physics: general relativity, the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and most of all the quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories and quantum gravity. In addition, his pedagogical publications, especially the Les Houches schools of 1963 and 1983 [1, 2], have had a great impact on quantum field theory. All this makes the reader keen to pick up his new work and a deeper reading confirms the reviewer's initial enthusiasm. We must begin by alerting the potential readers of this book that it cannot be compared to any other book in the field (unless of course we are talking about references [1] and [2], of which the book under review is an extension and reworking). This uniqueness applies to both the scientific content and the way the ideas are presented. A quick description of this book and a brief explanation of its title should convince the reader of the book's unique quality. For DeWitt, a central concept of field theory is that of `space of histories'. For a field varphii defined on a given spacetime M, the set of all varphii(x) for all x in all charts of M defines its history. It is the space Phi of all possible histories (dynamically allowed or not) of the fields defined on M which is called the `space of histories' by DeWitt. If only

  17. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, T.

    2005-10-01

    I have had a love/hate relationship with this book ever since it first came out. On the one hand, this is an excellent introduction for mathematicians to the differential geometry underlying general relativity. On the other hand, this is definitely a book for mathematicians. The book's greatest strength is its clear, precise presentation of the basic ideas in differential geometry, combined with equally clear and precise applications to theoretical physics, notably general relativity. But the book's precision is also its greatest weakness; this is not an easy book to read for non-mathematicians, who may not appreciate the notational complexity, some of which is nonstandard. The present edition is very similar to the original, published in 1992. In addition to minor revisions and clarifications of the material, there is now a brief introduction to fibre bundles, and a (very) brief discussion of the gauge theory description of fundamental particles. The index to the symbols used is also a more complete than in the past, but without the descriptive material present in the previous edition. The bulk of the book consists of a careful introduction to tensors and their properties. Tensors are introduced first as linear maps on vector spaces, and only later generalized to tensor fields on manifolds. The differentiation and integration of differential forms is discussed in detail, including Stokes' theorem, Lie differentiation and Hodge duality, and connections, curvature and torsion. To this point, Wasserman's text can be viewed as an expanded version of Bishop and Goldberg's classic text [1], one major difference being Wasserman's inclusion of the pseudo-Riemannian case from the beginning (in particular, when discussing Hodge duality). Whether one prefers Wasserman's approach to Bishop and Goldberg's is largely a matter of taste: Wasserman's treatment is both more complete and more precise, making it easier to check calculations in detail, but occasionally more difficult

  18. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKane, Alan

    2003-12-01

    This is a book about the modelling of complex systems and, unlike many books on this subject, concentrates on the discussion of specific systems and gives practical methods for modelling and simulating them. This is not to say that the author does not devote space to the general philosophy and definition of complex systems and agent-based modelling, but the emphasis is definitely on the development of concrete methods for analysing them. This is, in my view, to be welcomed and I thoroughly recommend the book, especially to those with a theoretical physics background who will be very much at home with the language and techniques which are used. The author has developed a formalism for understanding complex systems which is based on the Langevin approach to the study of Brownian motion. This is a mesoscopic description; details of the interactions between the Brownian particle and the molecules of the surrounding fluid are replaced by a randomly fluctuating force. Thus all microscopic detail is replaced by a coarse-grained description which encapsulates the essence of the interactions at the finer level of description. In a similar way, the influences on Brownian agents in a multi-agent system are replaced by stochastic influences which sum up the effects of these interactions on a finer scale. Unlike Brownian particles, Brownian agents are not structureless particles, but instead have some internal states so that, for instance, they may react to changes in the environment or to the presence of other agents. Most of the book is concerned with developing the idea of Brownian agents using the techniques of statistical physics. This development parallels that for Brownian particles in physics, but the author then goes on to apply the technique to problems in biology, economics and the social sciences. This is a clear and well-written book which is a useful addition to the literature on complex systems. It will be interesting to see if the use of Brownian agents becomes

  19. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, J. G.

    2004-05-01

    A book of this nature is long overdue; as could be expected from the pedigree of the editors, the coverage is comprehensive and, thanks to the authors selected, is of high quality. The book is divided into five sections, the central three of which are concerned with the measurement techniques themselves. The invasive techniques of mechanical testing and bone histology are dealt with in great detail at a level suitable for postgraduate students looking for an introduction to these techniques at a practical level. In the section dealing with the measurement techniques which use ionizing radiation, the chapters on DXA, neutron activation and radiogrammetry are well detailed and again at the appropriate level for postgraduate students. However, the chapters dealing with quantitative CT techniques are missing the sort of information that would have given them more authority. There is no mention of reconstruction algorithms or some of the typical shortcomings (e.g. partial volume artefacts) of these techniques and, given the excellent quality of the rest of the book, this was disappointing. The third of these technique sections deals with methods that do not use ionizing radiation. As one might expect with these two editors, the chapter on ultrasound is excellent and the coverage thorough and deep. The chapter on MRI and bone is particularly useful and timely as little has been published in this area and the debate about how best to measure bone quality in vivo has recently been rejoined. The chapters on finite element modelling and vibration analysis give a useful overview of the topics and have comprehensive reference lists for anyone who wishes to deepen their studies. The book has a useful introductory section. Bone biology is discussed in some detail, providing sufficient knowledge for the reader to be able to understand the basis and significance of the measurement techniques that follow. Exhaustive coverage is given to biological and radiation safety issues which

  20. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2005-08-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  1. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  2. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vespignani, A.

    2004-09-01

    Networks have been recently recognized as playing a central role in understanding a wide range of systems spanning diverse scientific domains such as physics and biology, economics, computer science and information technology. Specific examples run from the structure of the Internet and the World Wide Web to the interconnections of finance agents and ecological food webs. These networked systems are generally made by many components whose microscopic interactions give rise to global structures characterized by emergent collective behaviour and complex topological properties. In this context the statistical physics approach finds a natural application since it attempts to explain the various large-scale statistical properties of networks in terms of local interactions governing the dynamical evolution of the constituent elements of the system. It is not by chance then that many of the seminal papers in the field have been published in the physics literature, and have nevertheless made a considerable impact on other disciplines. Indeed, a truly interdisciplinary approach is required in order to understand each specific system of interest, leading to a very interesting cross-fertilization between different scientific areas defining the emergence of a new research field sometimes called network science. The book of Dorogovtsev and Mendes is the first comprehensive monograph on this new scientific field. It provides a thorough presentation of the forefront research activities in the area of complex networks, with an extensive sampling of the disciplines involved and the kinds of problems that form the subject of inquiry. The book starts with a short introduction to graphs and network theory that introduces the tools and mathematical background needed for the rest of the book. The following part is devoted to an extensive presentation of the empirical analysis of real-world networks. While for obvious reasons of space the authors cannot analyse in every detail all the

  3. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris, Júlio C.

    2004-04-01

    General relativity is one of the cornerstones of modern physics. In spite of this, the teaching of general relativity at undergraduate level remains quite marginal. The reasons for this particular situation are quite well known. We can quote, for example, two of them: general relativity requires specific mathematical tools that are somehow outside the mainstream of undergraduate technical development; moreover, this is a branch of physics whose observational and experimental applications have remained rare until recent times, and even though this scenario has changed dramatically in the last few years, the new situation has not yet been absorbed into undergraduate teaching. However, there are many textbooks devoted to the teaching of general relativity at undergraduate level. The recent book of J B Hartle, Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity, is a new proposal in this sense. It is perhaps one of the most interesting pedagogical approaches seeking to surmount the difficulties that arise when one tries to include general relativity in undergraduate teaching. In this new book, Hartle attempts to address the difficuties that must be faced by anyone who teaches general relativity at undergraduate level. In order to not scare the student with the hard technical preparation needed to obtain the basic equations of general relativity, Einstein's equations, he simply gives up the idea of introducing these equations at the very beginning. Instead, he chooses to present Einstein's equations, with most of the mathematics needed to do them, in the last part of the book. This delicate (and of course dangerous) choice has the advantage of introducing the reader first to the physical aspects of general relativity. This approach can be dangerous because the relevant solutions of the equations necessary to discuss the physical content of general relativiy are presented first without a formal derivation. But the author circumvents this potential drawback in a

  4. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louko, Jorma

    2007-04-01

    Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph `Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaumé and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a

  5. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louko, J.

    2005-06-01

    Jean Zinn-Justin's textbook Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics aims to familiarize the reader with the path integral as a calculational tool in quantum mechanics and field theory. The emphasis is on quantum statistical mechanics, starting with the partition function Tr exp(-β H) and proceeding through the diffusion equation to barrier penetration problems and their semiclassical limit. The 'real time' path integral is defined via analytic continuation and used for the path-integral representation of the nonrelativistic S-matrix and its perturbative expansion. Holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals are introduced and applied to nonrelativistic quantum field theory. There is also a brief discussion of path integrals in phase space. The introduction includes a brief historical review of path integrals, supported by a bibliography with some 40 entries. As emphasized in the introduction, mathematical rigour is not a central issue in the book. This allows the text to present the calculational techniques in a very readable manner: much of the text consists of worked-out examples, such as the quartic anharmonic oscillator in the barrier penetration chapter. At the end of each chapter there are exercises, some of which are of elementary coursework type, but the majority are more in the style of extended examples. Most of the exercises indeed include the solution or a sketch thereof. The book assumes minimal previous knowledge of quantum mechanics, and some basic quantum mechanical notation is collected in an appendix. The material has a large overlap with selected chapters in the author's thousand-page textbook Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena (2002 Oxford: Clarendon). The stand-alone scope of the present work has, however, allowed a more focussed organization of this material, especially in the chapters on, respectively, holomorphic and Grassmannian path integrals. In my view the book accomplishes its aim admirably and is eminently usable as a textbook

  6. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, N.

    2005-06-01

    This new book on quantum field theory by Michele Maggiore fits well into the Oxford Master Series in Physics, which is designed for final year undergraduate and beginning graduate students in physics. It is based on the teaching experience of the author with students in the fourth year at the University of Geneva. In this sense it is a two-semester course book for students exposed to quantum field theory for the first time. Maggiore gives, on slightly less than 300 pages, a balanced introduction to a vast field of twentieth century physics that will help students going on to study more advanced and specialized courses. Beside applications to many processes in particle physics that can also be found in many other textbooks, the author emphasizes conceptual, structural and methodological aspects of quantum field theory. After an introductory chapter, the group theoretical tools required to implement Lorentz invariance in quantum field theory are developed on 30 pages. Chapter 3 is devoted to classical field theory, emphasizing symmetries and conservation laws. The quantization of free fields in the next chapter follows traditional lines. Here one may miss a section describing the mathematical structure of the Fock space. It is also not said that in infinite dimensions von Neumann's uniqueness theorem for the representations of the canonical commutation relations no longer holds. The operations C, P, T are carefully discussed. In the relatively long chapter 5, perturbation theory and renormalization are developed. In this context the author discusses the modern view on renormalizability, and also emphasizes in a separate section the seriousness of the cosmological constant problem in quantum field theory. The next three chapters provide applications of the theory, especially to quantum electrodynamics and the low-energy limit of the electroweak theory. Chapters 9, 10, and 11 are meant as a bridge to more advanced courses. In these, path integral quantization, non

  7. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  8. Book Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Anthony

    1986-10-01

    Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells by K. Takahashi and M. Konagai is one of the first books dealing exclusively with the subject of amorphous silicon solar cells. The book was first published in Japanese in 1983 and was translated and published in English in 1986. Part 1, covering 94 pages, is a general introduction to solar energy, including the basic concepts, the prospects for cost reduction of the various competing photovoltaic technologies, and a discussion of several types of solar power systems, while Part 2 deals exclusively with the technical issues surrounding the application of amorphous silicon to solar cells. Throughout, reference is made to the impact of photovoltaics on the Japanese economy, both as a business activity and as a domestic supply of electrical energy. As the authors point out, photovoltaics is a national priority for the Japanese, with increasing business as well as government support. Although this was also once the case in the U.S., as memories of the recent energy crises fade, the bulk of this activity is shifting toward the Far East.

  9. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-11-01

    Ever since the days of William Blake there has been an underground resistance against the soulless yet triumphant science and its unholy alliance with money, technology and political power. With the nearly undisputed hegemony that science and technological innovation has attained in the post-World War II era, this kind of resistance has resulted in numerous books and articles that in different ways warn against the dark sides of science and the socio-economic system that nourishes a science in degeneration. Classical examples include Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man (1964), Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society (1965), Theodore Roszak's The Making of a Counter Culture (1968), and Paul Feyerabend's Science in a Free Society (1978). A fair part of the literature written by sociologists and philosophers is not only critical to trends in modern science, but tends to or is overtly anti-science. The book under review belongs in some respects to this heterogeneous literary tradition, but Twilight of the Scientific Age is primarily directed against the institutional system of science and its associated ideology and not against science itself. Indeed, the author is himself a practicing scientist, an astrophysicist, and he emphasizes several times that he firmly believes in science, even that he loves it. He is not a "stupid cultural relativist," he asserts (p. 11), but a critical freethinker independent of dogmatic beliefs.

  10. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve

    2008-11-01

    The Polish physicist Józio (Joseph, Josh, Jo) Rotblat was catapulted into the public eye when he (and the 'Pugwash Conferences' organization) received the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. His life prior to that had been most distinguished but conducted well out of the public eye. Born and raised as a Jewish physicist in pre-World War II Poland, and thus potentially educationally disadvantaged, he battled away for education and scientific achievement. He came to Liverpool University just before the outbreak of World War II, worked in James Chadwick's laboratory on the early beginnings of neutron fission physics, moved to Los Alamos to take part in the US-UK collaborative Manhattan Project to build a nuclear bomb and was motivated by a desire to rid Poland of Nazi 'racial cleansing'. On realizing the US-UK goal was somewhat wider, he resigned this work and dedicated his life to the peaceful uses of radiation and the campaigns to rid the world of the potential world-eliminating possibility of nuclear war. For this purpose he interacted with Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell, and in July 1957 founded the 'Pugwash Conferences', named for a small fishing village in Nova Scotia, Canada where the first was held. Along the way his personal life was no less dramatic. Cruel events conspired, and his wife Tola remained in Poland and was killed in the Nazi extermination camp at Majdanek. He grieved for his beloved Poland and those left behind or unaccounted for. He was suspected by some Americans of being a spy and had his personal papers and family artefacts impounded. After the war he was Professor of Medical Physics at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London for 30 years up to retirement. After John Roberts, he was the second editor of this journal Physics in Medicine and Biology from 1961-72 (see e.g. Bob Burns' paper in our 50th birthday issue, 2006. Kit Hill's little book which chronicles the life and times of Rotblat weaves together the key events in his personal and professional

  11. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    It is not usual for someone to write a book on someone else's Ph.D. thesis, but then Feynman was not a usual physicist. He was without doubt one of the most original physicists of the twentieth century, who has strongly influenced the developments in quantum field theory through his many ingenious contributions. Path integral approach to quantum theories is one such contribution which pervades almost all areas of physics. What is astonishing is that he developed this idea as a graduate student for his Ph.D. thesis which has been printed, for the first time, in the present book along with two other related articles. The early developments in quantum theory, by Heisenberg and Schrödinger, were based on the Hamiltonian formulation, where one starts with the Hamiltonian description of a classical system and then promotes the classical observables to noncommuting quantum operators. However, Dirac had already stressed in an article in 1932 (this article is also reproduced in the present book) that the Lagrangian is more fundamental than the Hamiltonian, at least from the point of view of relativistic invariance and he wondered how the Lagrangian may enter into the quantum description. He had developed this idea through his 'transformation matrix' theory and had even hinted on how the action of the classical theory may enter such a description. However, although the brief paper by Dirac contained the basic essential ideas, it did not fully develop the idea of a Lagrangian description in detail in the functional language. Feynman, on the other hand, was interested in the electromagnetic interactions of the electron from a completely different point of view rooted in a theory involving action-at-a-distance. His theory (along with John Wheeler) did not have a Hamiltonian description and, in order to quantize such a theory, he needed an alternative formulation of quantum mechanics. When the article by Dirac was brought to his attention, he immediately realized what he was

  12. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, E.

    2006-09-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history; this problem has never ceased to fascinate its investigators. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave (given the motion of the particle), and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma (the theory is straightforward but tricky) that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For readers of Classical and Quantum Gravity, the fascination does not end there. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review [1], and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue [2]. It is surprising to me that radiation reaction is a subject that continues to be poorly covered in the standard textbooks, including Jackson's bible [3]. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text [4], which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic [5], which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas (presented in characteristic terseness). It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students

  13. Devonian and Mississippian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Mamet, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Lower through Upper Devonian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Nev., consist of four formational rank units more than 800 m thick, separated from Mississippian units by an unconformity. The lower three Devonian units, the Beacon Peak Dolomite, McColley Canyon Formation, and Denay Limestone are known in other areas; the top unit, the Fenstermaker Wash Formation, is new. The Mississippian units, more than 280 m thick, are divisible into three units which are unlike coeval units elsewhere, and are herein named the Davis Spring Formation, Kinkead Spring Limestone, and Antelope Range Formation. Systematic sampling of the Devonian sequence has yielded relatively abundant conodonts containing several biostratigraphic ally significant taxa. The Mississippian units contain redeposited conodonts of chiefly Late Devonian and Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) age together with indigenous Osagean foraminifers and algae in the Kinkead Spring Limestone.

  14. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, E.

    2005-10-01

    The ever growing relevance of general relativity to astrophysics and cosmology continues to motivate the publication of new textbooks which put the theory in a fresh perspective informed by recent developments. In the last few years we have witnessed the appearance of two new books which reflect this trend, and which stand proud among the classic relativity texts. While the 1970s were the decade of Weinberg [1] and Misner et al [2], and the 80s the decade of Schutz [3] and Wald [4], this is clearly the decade of Hartle [5] and Carroll. Hartle has introduced a novel pedagogical approach to teaching general relativity, which he convincingly argues [6] should be done in the standard undergraduate physics curriculum. His 'physics-first approach' emphasizes physical phenomena and minimizes mathematical formalism. Hartle achieves a lot by introducing only the spacetime metric and the geodesic equation, which are the main tools needed to explore curved spacetime and extract physical consequences. To be sure, to explain how the metric is obtained in the first place does require a background of differential geometry and the formulation of the Einstein field equations. But in Hartle's book this material is wisely presented at a later stage, after an ample sampling of the physics of curved spacetime has motivated the need for the advanced mathematics. Carroll follows instead the traditional route, what Hartle calls the 'math-first approach', in which one introduces first the required mathematical formalism and only then derives the physical consequences. He is, of course, in good company, as this is the method followed in all existing textbooks (with Hartle's being the sole exception). Carroll's approach may not be original, but it is tried and true, and the result of Carroll's efforts is an excellent introduction to general relativity. The book covers the standard topics that would be found in virtually all textbooks (differential geometry, the field equations, linearized

  15. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, S.

    2006-10-01

    The early 1980s, when I first learned theory, were desperate times for graduate students. We searched frantically for coherent introductions, passing tattered copies of review articles around like samizdat, struggling over obscure references to ancient models of strong interactions, and flocking to lectures—not least those by Joe Polchinski—that promised to really explain what was going on. If only this book had been around, it would have saved much grief. Volume I, The Bosonic String, offers a clear and well organized introduction to bosonic string theory. Topics range from the 'classical' (spectra, vertex operators, consistency conditions, etc.) to the 'modern' (D-branes first appear in an exercise at the end of chapter 1, noncommutative geometry shows up in chapter 8). Polchinski does not hesitate to discuss sophisticated matters—path integral measures, BRST symmetries, etc.—but his approach is pedagogical, and his writing is lucid, if sometimes a bit terse. Chapters end with problems that are sometimes difficult but never impossible. A very useful annotated bibliography directs readers to resources for further study, and a nearly 30-page glossary provides short but clear definitions of key terms. There is much here that will appeal to relativists. Polchinski uses the covariant Polyakov path integral approach to quantization from early on; he clearly distinguishes Weyl invariance from conformal invariance; he is appropriately careful about using complex coordinates on topologically nontrivial manifolds; he keeps the string world sheet metric explicit at the start instead of immediately hiding it by a gauge choice. Volume II includes an elegant introduction to anticommuting coordinates and superconformal transformations. A few conventions may cause confusion—%, Polchinski's stress energy tensor, for instance, differs from the standard general relativistic definition by a factor of -2π, and while this is briefly mentioned in the text, it could easily be

  16. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcherds, P.

    2005-03-01

    This book achieves what its subtitle indicates. The author skilfully weaves together the story of Bragg's life and of the scientific developments with which he was most closely involved. The author has a good understanding of Bragg's scientific work which he explains in considerable detail, with a number of diagrams reproduced from Bragg's papers, and manages to convey the excitement generated by Bragg's discoveries. The salient points of Bragg's life are well known. He was born and brought up in Australia and is still the youngest ever winner of a Nobel prize (though Josephson did his seminal work at a comparable age, it took many years for him to get his Prize). From 1914 to 1918 Bragg was involved with acoustic methods of detecting enemy guns. From 1919 to 1938 he was Professor of Physics in Manchester, and for about a year he was Director of the National Physical Laboratory. He then went to Cambridge as Cavendish Professor until 1953, when he moved to the Royal Institution (where his father had been). While an undergraduate at Cambridge 'Bragg's most influential teacher was...C T R Wilson [Nobel Laureate, 1927]...[whose] lectures "were the best, and delivery the worst, of any lectures to which I have ever been. He mumbled facing the board, he was very hesitant in his delivery, and yet the way he presented the subject was quite brilliant'' '. One wonders how long Wilson's inspirational teaching would survive today, with continual inspections and the requirement to satisfy the demands of the jobsworths. Bragg's comments on this would make interesting reading! Bragg was a very successful public lecturer on science. He made use of vivid analogies, many of which are quoted by Hunter. Since this book is published by Oxford University Press, I hope that some of them may appear in future editions of The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. (Bragg is included in Mackay's A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing)). There are too many

  17. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcher, J.

    2006-10-01

    This book is a find. Mariño meets the challenge of filling in less than 200 pages the need for an accessible review of topological gauge / gravity duality. He is one of the pioneers of the subject and a clear expositor. It is no surprise that reading this book is a great pleasure. The existence of dualities between gauge theories and theories of gravity remains one of the most surprising recent discoveries in mathematical physics. While it is probably fair to say that we do not yet understand the full reach of such a relation, the impressive amount of evidence that has accumulated over the past years can be regarded as a substitute for a proof, and will certainly help to delineate the question of what is the most fundamental quantum mechanical theory. As has been the case in the past, it is in the context of Witten's 'topological' quantum theories that the mathematical framework is well enough established to firmly ground, and fully benefit from, the development of the physical theories. This book makes an important contribution to this new chapter in the math / physics interaction. There are two main instances of topological gauge/gravity duality. In the A-model, Chern Simons gauge theory on the 3-sphere is related to the closed topological string theory on the local Calabi Yau 3-fold {\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}^1}(-1) \\oplus{\\mathcal O}_{{\\mathbb P}^1} (-1), also known as the resolved conifold (Gopakumar-Vafa duality). In the B-model, certain types of matrix models are related on the gravity side to topological strings on certain cousins of the deformed conifold (Dijkgraaf-Vafa duality). In both cases, and similarly to the more physical AdS/CFT correspondence, the duality can be discovered by realizing the gauge theory as the target space theory of open strings ending on particular D-branes in a geometry closely related to the closed string background of the gravity theory. The A-branes supporting Chern Simons theory are wrapped on the Lagrangian three

  18. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botet, R.

    2005-01-01

    This second edition of the popular book written by Quang Ho-Kim, Narenda Kumar and Chi Sing Lam, provides a comprehensive and interesting view of ten important topics in modern physics. All the sections have been updated: symmetry, lasers, superconductivity, chaos and fractals, stellar evolution, elementary particles and cosmology, while three new sections have been added to this edition: Bose-Einstein condensates, nanostructures and quantum computation. It is an impressive feat by the authors to cover such a wide panorama of physics from particles to cosmos and at a consistently high scientific level of information and explanation. This level is excellent and is at the frontier of current research but it does mean that some parts may be quite difficult for the undergraduate student. The ideal reader is probably the mature physicist revisiting familiar lines of thought, and following amazing bridges between distant topics. And if you are an active specialist in one particular topic, this book would give a clear insight on subjects outside your own field, allowing you to at last understand what your university colleague is really doing in a branch of physics with which you are totally unfamiliar. At the beginning, the style of writing can be disconcerting at this scientific level; equations are almost systematically avoided and illustrations are sparse, which can occasionally make the discussions rather ponderous, but the remarkable level of pedagogy and imaginative conception more than compensates for this. The fundamental ideas of exciting natural phenomena are elegantly discussed, while the authors never forget that physics is an experimental science, and address up-to-date applications in this manner. A brief bibliography is added at the end of each chapter, and a few simple exercises are given with answers. But the great strength of this book, and the main reason why it is worth reading by anyone interested in modern science, lies in the text itself which

  19. Devonian sedimentation in the Xiqingshan Mountains: Implications for paleogeographic reconstructions of the SW Qinling Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Fu, Changlei; Guo, Xianqing; Xia, Wenjing; Niu, Manlan

    2016-08-01

    The Qinling Orogen between the North China and Yangtze plates comprises various accreted and collisional terranes, recording the evolution of the Proto-Tethyan Ocean and the formation of east Asia. Knowledge of the provenance and tectonic setting of a thick succession of E-W striking Devonian sedimentary rocks sandwiched tectonically between the Shangdan and Mianlue ophiolitic suture zones in this belt is essential to understanding the evolution of the Qinling Orogen and the assembly of the North China and Yangtze plates during the Late Paleozoic. Systematic studies of the Devonian sedimentary facies in the Xiqingshan Mountains indicate the northern margin of the South Qinling belt was uplifted prior to the Early Devonian. Lower Devonian sandstones are dominated by feldspathic litharenite (Q12-31F18-37L40-65), indicative of a continental arc derivation. Detrital zircon U-Pb data demonstrate that the Lower and Middle Devonian sandstones were derived respectively from ca. 770 Ma and ca. 400 Ma felsic arc-related magmatic sources. Devonian sedimentation in the Xiqingshan Mountains is interpreted to have occurred in a foreland basin between the Yangtze plate and the North Qinling continental arc.

  20. Sedimentary history and biostratigraphy of Late Silurian-Early Devonian of southern Appalachians and southeastern Craton

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, T.W.; Capaccioli, D.A.; Neff, N.E.; Reid, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    The Late Silurian and Early Devonian sedimentary record of the southern Appalachians is preserved as a patchwork of shallow marine carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. These units commonly are bounded by unconformities, and biostratigraphic resolution has been lacking until recently. In Tennessee, the Sneedville formation (Hancock Dolomite of USGS usage) contains stromatoporoid faunas that correlate it with the Upper Silurian (Pridoli) Rondout (New York) and Tonoloway (central Appalachians) Formations, but recent conodont discoveries suggest a lower age limit in the Ludlow (crispa zone). Sneedville carbonates and clastics represent a broad range of shallow subtidal and peritidal facies that underwent periodic deepening and shoaling. In Georgia, correlative rocks are absent, and the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian, Llandovery) is locally overlain by upper Lower Devonian Armuchee Chert-Frog Mountain Sandstone or by uppermost Devonian Chattanooga Shale. Reevaluation of the Red Mountain-Frog Mountain interval in Alabama showed a brachiopod fauna that correlated to the Keyser Limestone (uppermost Silurian-lowermost Devonian) of the central Appalachians. Cratonward, a relatively complete success of Upper Silurian-Lower Devonian carbonate rocks in west-central Tennessee (Decatur Limestone, Ross Formation) contrasts with the hiatus-bounded sections of the Appalachians. Toward the south, the Decatur intertongues with the lower Ross (eosteinhornensis zone), but to the north, the upper Decatur and Ross are both Devonian (woschmidti zone). The Decatur-Ross interval correlates with the Hunton Group of Oklahoma and is an ecologic analog and part temporal equivalent of parts of the Helderberg Group of New York.

  1. Devonian climate change, breathing, and the origin of the tetrapod stem group.

    PubMed

    Clack, Jennifer A

    2007-10-01

    The diversification of the tetrapod stem group occurred during the late Middle through the Late Devonian, that is from the Givetian to Famennian stages about 385-365 million years ago. The relationships between the known taxa representing this radiation have currently reached a reasonable consensus so that interpretations of the order of appearance of tetrapod characters is possible. The immediate fish relatives of the earliest limbed tetrapods show what is interpreted as a progressive increase in the spiracular chamber and its opening to the outside. Here, this is inferred to be associated with an increased capacity for air-breathing. Lungs are thought to have been present in most early bony fishes, and were most likely ventilated by air-gulping. This could have brought about a facultative capacity for air-breathing, which the tetrapod stem group exploited to the greatest degree. These adaptations are shown not only in freshwater forms but also in estuarine and marginal marine forms. Estimates of oxygen levels during this period suggest that they were unprecedentedly low during the Givetian and Frasnian periods. At the same time, plant diversification was at its most rapid, changing the character of the landscape and contributing, via soils, soluble nutrients, and decaying plant matter, to anoxia in all water systems. The co-occurrence of these global events may explain the evolution of air-breathing adaptations in at least two lobe-finned groups, contributing directly to the rise of the tetrapod stem group. In contrast to recent studies, low atmospheric oxygen is not considered to be a causal factor in the lack of fossils documenting the evolution of Early Carboniferous tetrapods.

  2. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, J. B.

    2007-02-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  3. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.

    2006-02-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most successful theoretical structures in all of science. Developed between 1925-26 to explain the optical spectrum of atoms, the theory over the succeeding 80 years has been extended, first to quantum field theories, gauge field theories, and now even string theory. It is used every day by thousands of physicists to calculate physical phenomena to exquisite precision, with no ambiguity in the results. To claim that this is a theory which is not understood by those physicists is absurd. And yet, as eminent a physicist as Richard Feynman, who did as much as anyone else to extend quantum theory to field theories and was a master at producing those exquisite calculations, could say that anyone who claimed they understood quantum theory clearly did not understand quantum theory. One hundred years ago Einstein postulated one of the most unsettling features of the theory, the wave-particle duality, with his particulate explanation for light of the photoelectric effect, and an explanation which was in direct conflict with Maxwell's brilliant development of a wave, or field, theory of light. Einstein believed that the particulate nature would ultimately be explainable by some sort of non-linear theory of electromagnetism, and was outraged by the acceptance of the community of the probabilistic quantum theory. His programme was of course dealt a (near?) fatal blow by Bell's discovery that the three desiderata - a theory which agrees with experiment, a theory which is local in its effects, and a theory in which nature, at its heart, is not probabilistic - are incompatible. That discomfort felt by Einstein and by Feynman is felt by numerous other people as well. This discomfort is heightened by the fact that the theory of gravity, another of Einstein's great achievements, has resisted all efforts at reconciliation with quantum mechanics. This book explores that discomfort, and tries to pin down what the locus of that discomfort is. For many

  4. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2007-05-01

    Here are two textbooks, both published by Springer and each roughly half devoted to cosmology—the large scale structure and evolution of the Universe. I can imagine a context (not the same context) in which each would be useful. And there the similarities largely end. Bergstrom and Goobar's (hereafter B&G) other topic is particle astrophysics, and they are addressing students who already have some knowledge of advanced quantum mechanics and classical field theory (or who can master some relativistic dynamics and the Dirac equation on the basis of a couple of very information-dense appendices). The book is meant for use at the graduate level, probably the second year by US standards (the authors are from Stockholm). Schneider (hereafter PS), on the other hand, begins with galaxies, and then alternates between cosmological topics of gradually increasing sophistication (expanding universe to CMB fluctuations) and additional galactic topics—clusters, quasars and all. The book is meant as the second half of an introductory astronomy/astrophysics course for physics majors, and in the US would fit into an upper division `capstone' course. Each is meant for a single semester class at the target level, and might be squeezed into a 10-week term with elimination of some topics. B&G is a paperback of a second edition, with colour confined to a central block of plates, relatively few graphs and drawings, but lots of complex equations. PS is a hard cover translation from a German original, with colour used freely in astronomical images and graphs throughout, with fewer and less complex equations. Though the nominal difference in copyright date is only two years (2006 for PS, 2004 for B&G), the former is considerably more up to date, mentioning, for instance, that the third year WMAP results are not different enough from the first year to justify redoing drawings and such (I agree). What can you expect to get if you buy one or both of these? B&G have a homepage of error

  5. The impact of precession and obliquity on the Late-Devonian greenhouse climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Crucifix, M.; Bounceur, N.; Claeys, P. F.

    2012-12-01

    To date, only few general circulation model (GCM) have been used to simulate the extremely warm greenhouse climate of the Late-Devonian (~370 Ma). As a consequence, the current knowledge on Devonian climate dynamics comes almost exclusively from geological proxy data. Given the fragmentary nature of these data sources, the understanding of the Devonian climate is rather limited. Nonetheless, the Late-Devonian is a key-period in the evolution of life on Earth: the continents were no longer bare but were invaded by land plants, the first forests appeared, soils were formed, fish evolved to amphibians and 70-80% of all animal species were wiped out during the Late Devonian extinction (~376 Ma). In order to better understand the functioning of the climate system during this highly important period in Earth's history, we applied the HadSM3 climate model to the Devonian period under different astronomical configurations. This approach provides insight into the response of Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing due to precession and obliquity. Moreover, the assessment of the sensitivity of the Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing, presented here, will allow cyclostratigraphers to make better and more detailed interpretations of recurring patterns often observed in Late-Devonian sections. We simulated Late-Devonian climates by prescribing palaeogeography, vegetation distribution and pCO2 concentration (2180 ppm). Different experiments were carried out under 31 different astronomical configurations: three levels for obliquity (ɛ = 22°; 23.5° and 24.5°) and eccentricity (e = 0; 0.03 and 0.07) were chosen. For precession, 8 levels were considered (longitude of the perihelion= 0°; 45°; 90°; 135°; 180°; 235°; 270°). First results suggest that the intensity of precipitation on the tropical Euramerican continent (also known as Laurussia) is highly dependent on changes in precession: During precession maxima (= maximal insolation in SH during winter

  6. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogister, A. L.

    2004-03-01

    John Wesson’s well known book, now re-edited for the third time, provides an excellent introduction to fusion oriented plasma physics in tokamaks. The author’s task was a very challenging one, for a confined plasma is a complex system characterised by a variety of dimensionless parameters and its properties change qualitatively when certain threshold values are reached in this multi-parameter space. As a consequence, theoretical description is required at different levels, which are complementary: particle orbits, kinetic and fluid descriptions, but also intuitive and empirical approaches. Theory must be carried out on many fronts: equilibrium, instabilities, heating, transport etc. Since the properties of the confined plasma depend on the boundary conditions, the physics of plasmas along open magnetic field lines and plasma surface interaction processes must also be accounted for. Those subjects (and others) are discussed in depth in chapters 2 9. Chapter 1 mostly deals with ignition requirements and the tokamak concept, while chapter 14 provides a list of useful relations: differential operators, collision times, characteristic lengths and frequencies, expressions for the neoclassical resistivity and heat conduction, the bootstrap current etc. The presentation is sufficiently broad and thorough that specialists within tokamak research can either pick useful and up-to-date information or find an authoritative introduction into other areas of the subject. It is also clear and concise so that it should provide an attractive and accurate initiation for those wishing to enter the field and for outsiders who would like to understand the concepts and be informed about the goals and challenges on the horizon. Validation of theoretical models requires adequately resolved experimental data for the various equilibrium profiles (clearly a challenge in the vicinity of transport barriers) and the fluctuations to which instabilities give rise. Chapter 10 is therefore

  7. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John

    2007-04-01

    ), but the latter is surprising in the context of a subject whose whole purpose is to observe the properties of primordial perturbations that may have arisen from inflation. Instead, the text concentrates on the technical heartland of the transport theory for CMB photons, and the Newtonian and relativistic theory for the development of CMB anisotropies, including polarization. It closes with more observationally-based chapters on general statistical aspects of the CMB sky, a digest of the recent results from WMAP, and an outlook. These are welcome, but the book really stands or falls on its treatment of the core physics of anisotropies. Without going too much into specifics, it can be fairly stated that the treatment given of the main material on CMB fluctuations is geared more to working professionals than to students. There is a good deal of useful technical detail, but it is not always derived systematically, and sometimes arises by reference to the research literature. There are no problem sets or worked examples, and not much attempt at intuitive illumination. As an example, one might point to the large-angle anisotropies of the CMB, which were first analysed in the classic Sachs Wolfe paper of 1967. The relativistic transport equation is there, but one looks in vain for the separation into the Sachs Wolfe effect proper (potential perturbations at last scattering) and the integrated effect of evolution since then. This latter ISW effect is in fact of huge interest in current research, since it is one of the methods for probing whether the vacuum energy differs from a cosmological constant. In general, the text seems strangely patchy on issues of contemporary interest, certainly in terms of its emphasis. It is as if the three authors contributed material separately without achieving a full integration. On the more positive side, the book has the advantage that it presents a Russian view of the subject. So much of the initial work on the `Relic Radiation' (a much

  8. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J. M.

    2006-02-01

    In 1952, Mme Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published a major paper, Théorème d'existence pour certains systèmes d'équations aux dérivées partielles non linéaires (Acta Math. 88 141-225), which laid the foundation for modern studies of the Cauchy problem in general relativity. The fiftieth anniversary of this event was celebrated with an eponymous Cargèse Summer School in 2002. The proceedings of that summer school are summarized electronically (as audio, video, transparencies and lecture notes, where available) on a DVD archive included with this volume, and are also available on the internet. However the organizers decided that a separate volume describing the 'state of the art in mathematical general relativity' would be useful, and this book is the result. It includes some material not covered in the school and excludes some school material which has been covered adequately elsewhere. Unfortunately, I was unable to find, electronically, a table of contents, which every prospective purchaser would wish to see, and so this review does in fact list all the articles, ordered, roughly, by length. About one fifth of the book is devoted to a survey of Smoothness at Null Infinity and the Structure of Initial Data by Helmut Friedrich. This is a modern study of gravitational radiation, and the analysis of Einstein's equations. It is extremely helpful to survey all of this material, including some of the latest developments, using a consistent notation. This article is strongly recommended to anyone hoping to gain a foothold in this area. Note also that 47 pages of transparencies have become 84 book pages. Lars Andersson has surveyed, in The Global Existence Problem in General Relativity, some results and conjectures about the global properties of 3+1-dimensional spacetimes with a compact Cauchy surface. Again it is very useful to have essentially all of the known results presented in a consistent notation. This material is not on the DVD. Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat has

  9. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  10. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, John

    2007-04-01

    The present volume is an introduction to general relativity and cosmology, at a level suitable for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates. The book consists of two main parts, the first entitled `Elements of differential geometry', and the second `The theory of gravitation'. Chapters 2-7, part I, introduce the basic ideas of differential geometry in a general setting, and are based on previously unpublished notes by one of the authors. On the one hand, the treatment is modern in that it uses a `top-down' approach, i.e. starting with general differentiable manifolds, and deferring the introduction of a metric tensor until after the notions of affine connection and curvature have been introduced. On the other hand, the treatment is classical in that it relies heavily, though not exclusively, on index notation. The general material, chapters 1-7, is then followed by four more specialized chapters dealing with matters of specific interest for general relativity. Topics include symmetry groups acting on Riemannian manifolds, with spherically symmetric spacetimes and spatially homogeneous spacetimes as examples, the efficient calculation of curvature, and the Petrov classification of the Weyl curvature tensor using spinors. Part II deals with general relativity and cosmology. The basic assumptions of the theory and its application to spherically symmetric gravitational fields are discussed in two chapters, and there is some historical material and motivation for the basic assumptions at the beginning of the book. The final chapter contains a detailed discussion of the Kerr solution. But the main emphasis in part II is on relativistic cosmology, in particular the analysis of cosmological models more general than the familiar Friedmann-Lemaitre (FL) models. The material on cosmology begins with a discussion of relativistic hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The kinematical quantities (rate of expansion, shear, etc, of a timelike congruence) are introduced

  11. Shallow seismic investigations of Devonian-shale gas production

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.T.; Ruotsala, J.E.; Kudla, J.J.; Dunne, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    The foremost conclusion of this study is that fractured Devonian shale gas reservoirs, as exemplified by the Cottageville field, are detectable by seismic reflection methods. Further, the target is not particularly difficult, once the nature of the seismic anomaly is understood. The preferred exploration rationale is based on travel time anomalies related to lowered acoustic velocity within the gas-bearing zone. In the simplest case the travel time anomaly causes an apparent down-warp or sag in a flat-lying reflector. This conclusion is developed in Parts B and C of this report. Concerning the high-resolution extension of the seismic method, which is the subject of Part A, there are essentially two separate conclusions which can be drawn. One is that additional, valuable subsurface information can be obtained by recording seismic data at frequenies higher than those in common use by the petroleum industry at the time of this writing. The other is that it is feasible to obtain seismic reflection data on a smaller scale, using less costly instrumentation, than is typically employed in the petroleum industry. However, it is not yet possible to say whether such small scale surveying will be practical from an industry point of view.

  12. Late Devonian conodonts and event stratigraphy in northwestern Algerian Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboubi, Abdessamed; Gatovsky, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Conodonts recovered from the Late Devonian South Marhouma section comprise 5 genera with 31 species (3 undetermined). The fauna establishes the presence of MN Zones 5, undifferentiated 6/7, 8/10 for the Middle Frasnian, the MN Zones 11, 12, 13 for the Upper Frasnian as well as the Early through Late triangularis Zones in the basal Famennian. The outcropping lithological succession is one of mostly nodular calcilutites alternating with numerous marly and shaly deposits, which, in the lower and upper part, comprise several dysoxic dark shale intervals. Among these the Upper Kellwasser horizon can be precisely dated and as such the presence of the terminal Frasnian Kellwasser Event is recognized for the first time in Algeria. Both the Middlesex and Rhinestreet Events cannot yet be precisely located, but supposedly occur among the dark shale horizons in the lower part of the section. However, their assignment to a precise level has so far not been established. Though poor in conodont abundance the South Marhouma section provides first evidence of the presence of several Montagne Noire conodont zones within the so far widely unstudied Frasnian of the Ougarta Chain. As such it is considered representative for the northwestern Algerian Saoura region.

  13. Bacterial mediation, red matrices diagenesis, Devonian, Montagne Noire (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préat, Alain; Mamet, Bernard; Bernard, Alain; Gillan, David

    1999-07-01

    Two Devonian red carbonate rock sections are studied in the Montagne Noire, at Coumiac (Frasnian/Famennian) and at the Pic de Vissou (Eifelian/Givetian). The sediments are grey-red mudstones and wackestones rich in pelagic fossils. They are characteristic of an outer ramp. The Coumiac sequence is condensed with numerous hardgrounds and hiatuses. The Pic de Vissou succession is more complete and of shallower origin. In both cases, the origin of the red coloration of the micritic matrix is probably linked to bacterial activity which produced submicronic hematite. Both iron and manganese concentrations are low (average 0.2%). Bacteria form ferruginous microstromatolites, blisters, microtufts, `hedgehogs' filling sponge perforations and thin continuous mineralized films (probably biofilms). Hardgrounds are underlined by ferruginous microstromatolites. The origin of the matrix color is probably related to the destruction of these bacterial constructions, the submicronic hematite ultimately coating the crystal faces of the calcite mosaic. During early lithification, microfissures appeared and were invaded by microbial colonies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that these colonies are composed of spheroidal beads. This suggests continuity of the bacterial activity during early diagenesis. Later on, these early fissures were cut by burrows. Subsequently a secondary fissure network transected all the previously mentioned sedimentary structures. This late fissure network is characterized by diagenetically remobilized hematite and/or calcite. The latest alterations are stylolites and ultimate tectonic fractures.

  14. Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, C. Kevin; Hotton, Carol L.; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Hueber, Francis M.

    2007-05-01

    The enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites Dawson 1859 consists of tree-like trunks as long as 8 m constructed of interwoven tubes <50 mm in diameter. Prototaxites specimens from five localities differ from contemporaneous vascular plants by exhibiting a carbon isotopic range, within and between localities, of as much as 13‰ δ13C. Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry highlights compositional differences between Prototaxites and co-occurring plant fossils and supports interpretation of isotopic distinctions as biological rather than diagenetic in origin. Such a large isotopic range is difficult to reconcile with an autotrophic metabolism, suggesting instead that, consistent with anatomy-based interpretation as a fungus, Prototaxites was a heterotroph that lived on isotopically heterogeneous substrates. Light isotopic values of Prototaxites approximate those of vascular plants from the same localities; in contrast, heavy extremes seen in the Lower Devonian appear to reflect consumption of primary producers with carbon-concentrating mechanisms, such as cryptobiotic soil crusts, or possibly bryophytes. Prototaxites biogeochemistry thus suggests that a biologically heterogeneous mosaic of primary producers characterized land surfaces well into the vascular plant era.

  15. Patch reef modeling: a comparison of Devonian and recent examples

    SciTech Connect

    Precht, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    In reef research, models have been developed to define variations in the lithic and biotic development of facies. Walker and Alberstadt, and Hoffman and Narkiewicz developed models for growth of ancient reef communities. Although these models form a solid foundation by which patch reefs can be classed and zoned, they are neither complete nor accurate for all reef types. A comparison was made of Lower Devonian patch reefs from the Appalachian basin of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and Holocene examples from the Bahamas and Florida Keys to identify the structure, orientation, community variability, and succession of the reef biofacies. The complexion and genesis of the carbonate lithofacies were also studied. Results show similarities; these include the size, areal distribution, 3-D geometry, wave-resistance potential, lateral sequences of facies, sedimentary textures and structures, vertical zonation explained by growth from low-energy to high-energy regimes, biotic diversity, growth habit and form, and postmortem alteration. Thus, when used in conjunction with the traditional models, the recent can serve as the basis for a general model which include most patch reef types. However, these models should not be used as explicit analogs for all Phanerozoic reefs. Knowing and understanding the limitations of these comparative studies are essential to a fuller comprehension of the potential for variations which exist within and between the traditional models.

  16. History of gas production from Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, J.R.; Frankie, W.T.; Smath, R.A.; Moody, J.R.; Johnston, I.M.; Elkin, R.R.

    1988-08-01

    More than 10,500 wells that penetrate the Devonian shale have been compiled into a data base covering a 25-county area of eastern Kentucky. This area includes the Big Sandy gas field, the largest in the Appalachian basin, and marginal areas to the southwest, west, and northwest. The development of the Big Sandy gas field began in the 1920s in western Floyd County, Kentucky, and moved concentrically outward through 1970. Since 1971, the trend has been for infill and marginal drilling, and fewer companies have been involved. The resulting outline of the Big Sandy gas field covers most of Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties in Kentucky; it also extends into West Virginia. Outside the Big Sandy gas field, exploration for gas has been inconsistent, with a much higher ratio of dry holes. The results of this study, which was partially supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), indicate that certain geologic factors, such as fracture size and spacing, probably determine the distribution of commercial gas reserves as well as the outline of the Big Sandy gas field. Future Big Sandy infill and extension drilling will need to be based on an understanding of these factors.

  17. Organic content of Devonian shale in western Appalachian basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    In the organic-rich facies of the Devonian shale in the western part of the Appalachian basin, the distribution of organic matter provides an indirect measure of both gas in place and the capacity of the shale to supply gas to permeable pathways.The boundary between organic-rich ('black') and organic-poor ('gray') facies is defined here as 2% organic content by volume. The thickness of organic-rich facies ranges from 200ft in central Kentucky to 1000ft along the Kentucky-West Virginia border. The average content of the organic-rich facies increases from 5% by volume on the edge to 16% in central Kentucky. The net thickness of organic matter in the organic-rich facies shows the amount of organic material in the shale, and is the most fundamental of the organic-content characterizations. Net thickness of organic matter ranges between 20 and 80ft (6.1 and 24.4m) within the mapped area.-from Author

  18. Devonian Great Barrier Reef of Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Playford, P.E.

    1980-06-01

    A well-preserved Middle to Upper Devonian barrier-reef belt is exhumed as a series of limestone ranges for 350 km along the northern margin of the Canning basin. The reefs are of international importance for reef research because of the excellence of exposures and the lack of extensive dolomitization or structural deformation. They are also known in the subsurface, where they are regarded as prime objectives for oil exploration. The platforms were built by stromatoporoids, algae, and corals in the Givetian and Frasnian, and by algae in the Famennian. The platform and basin deposits were laid down nearly horizontally, whereas the marginal-slope deposits accumulated on steep depositional slopes. Geopetal fabrics, which quantify depositional and tectonic-compactional dip components, provide paleobathymetric data concerning the reef complexes and their fossil biotas. The reef limestones were subject to strong submarine cementation, resulting in very early porosity destruction, whereas the back-reef deposits of the platform interiors remained largely uncemented and retained most of their primary porosity. Stylolitization and associated compaction were greatest in limestones whose primary porosity was not destroyed by early submarine cementation. Consequently the platform interiors have compacted more than the margins, resulting in the typical concave shape of many platforms. Cementation concomitant with stylolitization destroyed most of the porosity that remained in the limestones after early submarine diagenesis. The most porous rocks now are dolomites having secondary moldic porosity. 27 figures.

  19. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschul, Brett D.

    2007-06-01

    All the physics we observe in our world is underlain by special relativity, a theory that has survived for more than a hundred years, in many respects completely intact. Yet despite its status as the most stringently tested theory in all of physics, special relativity is still frequently questioned. In the last decade and a half, many scientists have come to believe that special relativity, as Einstein formulated it, will need to be modified to accommodate a quantum theory of gravity. {\\it Special Relativity: Will it Survive the Next 101 Years?} is a volume intended to introduce the reader to this new and still slightly controversial area of research. The book is divided into four parts. The first part is essentially historical. It consists of an essay discussing Einstein's work in the context of contemporary technological developments and a amusing note by R W P Drever on a precision Lorentz test that he performed literally in his backyard. These set the stage for the more modern material that follows. Part II discusses the theory of relativity and its mathematical foundations, from completely modern perspectives. There is much here that may be new even for experts on special relativity, and a significant level of mathematical sophistication on the part of the reader is assumed. A number of the lectures delve into the crucial question of how special relativity and its generalizations can be combined with quantum mechanics. The third part discusses theoretical models of Lorentz violation, and all the important paradigms that appear in the current literature are considered. These include the standard model extension (an effective field theory), modified dispersion relations and 'double special relativity', and noncommutative geometry. These lectures generally delve into less detail than those in part II; the focus is on helping the reader digest the new principles that must arise in theories without Lorentz symmetry. The final part of the volume covers current

  20. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcherds, P. H.

    2004-09-01

    There is a new tradition in England called Apple Day which is held on some day in October. The actual day varies from place to place. For instance, in 2003, 23 October was Apple Day at Woolsthorpe Manor, the house where Isaac Newton was born and where, during the Plague, he is said to have developed the theory of gravity. (For information on future Apple Days see, for example, http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/thingstodo.) Last year in our garden we picked an apple which weighed one pound, thirteen and a half ounces (1 lb 13 1/2 oz or 29 1/2 oz). The following day we went to an Apple Day event where there were many exotic apples on display, varieties which are not sold in shops. One of the varieties there was called 'Twenty Ounce'. By now you may be wondering what all this has to do with the book being reviewed. We shall return to this later. This entertaining book is ostensibly about units, in particular about Imperial and metric units, but there are numerous informative digressions. The author reminds us that almost every country 'with the exception of the United States, North and South Yemen, Burma and Brunei' has gone metric. He points out that the United States (US) became officially metric in 1893. However, as early as 1866, the US legal definition of the metre was 39.370000 inches. He tells us that after World War II the (US) inch was rounded down (from 25.400051) to 25.4 mm. There is no mention that the Imperial (British) inch was simultaneously rounded up from 25.399956 mm to 25.4 mm. The author frequently digresses, covering such matters as the trisection of angles and Eratosthenes' graphic solution for duplicating the cube. There is an informative discussion on the length of the day: appropriately 25 December, which lasts for 24 h and 30 s, is the longest day. He shows how with cycles and epicycles one can construct an ellipse. Ptolemy did not realize the importance of the focus of the ellipse. The author discusses various topics in the development of

  1. Views on Science Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harry C.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews six new children's science books. Five of the reviewed books deal separately with the topics of the space shuttle project, cosmology and stellar evolution, space, forest fires, and the electromagnetic spectrum; one is a book of geography puzzles. (GT)

  2. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, R.

    2005-06-01

    This book gives a clear exposition of quantum field theory at the graduate level and the contents could be covered in a two semester course or, with some effort, in a one semester course. The book is well organized, and subtle issues are clearly explained. The margin notes are very useful, and the problems given at the end of each chapter are relevant and help the student gain an insight into the subject. The solutions to these problems are given in chapter 12. Care is taken to keep the numerical factors and notation very clear. Chapter 1 gives a clear overview and typical scales in high energy physics. Chapter 2 presents an excellent account of the Lorentz group and its representation. The decomposition of Lorentz tensors under SO(3) and the subsequent spinorial representations are introduced with clarity. After giving the field representation for scalar, Weyl, Dirac, Majorana and vector fields, the Poincaré group is introduced. Representations of 1-particle states using m2 and the Pauli Lubanski vector, although standard, are treated lucidly. Classical field theory is introduced in chapter 3 and a careful treatment of the Noether theorem and the energy momentum tensor are given. After covering real and complex scalar fields, the author impressively introduces the Dirac spinor via the Weyl spinor; Abelian gauge theory is also introduced. Chapter 4 contains the essentials of free field quantization of real and complex scalar fields, Dirac fields and massless Weyl fields. After a brief discussion of the CPT theorem, the quantization of electromagnetic field is carried out both in radiation gauge and Lorentz gauge. The presentation of the Gupta Bleuler method is particularly impressive; the margin notes on pages 85, 100 and 101 invaluable. Chapter 5 considers the essentials of perturbation theory. The derivation of the LSZ reduction formula for scalar field theory is clearly expressed. Feynman rules are obtained for the λphi4 theory in detail and those of QED

  3. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Lung transplant Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or ... lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other ...

  4. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  5. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulling, S. A.

    2006-05-01

    saying that gravity was not only an honourable member of the forces of nature, but ultimately the source of them all. It has become a cliche that the unification of relativity with quantum theory is the central problem of contemporary physics. In the 1950s, before strings, non-Abelian monopoles, or even quasars, Bryce DeWitt was applying the quantum-field-theoretical methods and conceptual framework of his mentor, Julian Schwinger, to gravity. His central insight was that the conceptual and technical problems of quantum gravity were closely analogous to those of gauge theories. He developed a unified, relentlessly abstract, and highly personal vision of the fundamentals of physical theory. It was, and is, expressed in idiosyncratic and condensed notation often different from the languages of mainstream field theorists, traditional relativists, and mathematicians alike. In short, he has never been easy reading. His ideas were systematically presented in famous lecture series at the Les Houches summer schools on Relativity, Groups and Topology in 1963 [1] and 1983 [2], the book Supermanifolds [3], and a number of (relatively) shorter expositions that have been widely read. By the middle 1970s the methods that he had developed mainly for gravity were widely recognized as very useful for Yang Mills gauge theories, and his work had become part of the mainstream. Now, another 20 years after the second Les Houches, we have this final testament of Bryce DeWitt's ideas. At over 1000 pages in two volumes in a fabric-covered slipcase, it is the sort of work usually described as 'magisterial' (meaning, perhaps, 'no one has yet succeeded in reading it all the way through'). Over the years, of course, DeWitt learned many new things and thought of ways to say the old things better. Accordingly, the new books consist of reworkings of the most important parts of the older writings together with some new material. Oxford University Press is to be thanked and congratulated for the care it

  6. Writing a book review.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2010-09-01

    A book review is a form of academic writing that provides a succinct yet critical analysis evaluating the content, style, merit and significance of a book. The reader should gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the book, aided by input from the reviewer. The four stages of writing a book review are: introducing the book, outlining its contents, highlighting parts of the book by selecting particular chapters or themes, and giving a detailed evaluation.

  7. Linking Fossil Fish Cyclicity and Paleoenvironmental Proxies in the mid-Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, D.; Whiteside, J. H.; Trewin, N. H.; Johnson, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The significant radiation of fishes throughout the Devonian, combined with the abundance of well-preserved fossil fish assemblages from this period, provides for a high-resolution record of prevalent fish taxa in the Orcadian basin of North Scotland. In addition to their ability to serve as a lake-level and lake-chemistry proxy, the waxing and waning of dominant fish taxa exhibit a pronounced cyclicity, suggesting they respond to broader climate rhythms. Recent studies of mid-Devonian lacustrine sedimentary sequences have quantitatively demonstrated the presence of Milankovitch cyclicity in geochemical and gamma ray proxy records. Spectral analysis of gamma ray data show a strong obliquity peak usually associated with ice-house conditions; this obliquity signal is unexpected as tropical latitudes in the mid-Devonian are traditionally thought to have been in a greenhouse climate. Geochemical data include the measurement of bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, molecule-specific carbon isotopes of plant biomarkers, and depth ranks from eight sections of the Caithness Flagstone Group of the Orcadian Basin. Evidence for orbital forcing of climate change paired with the fossil fish record provides a unique opportunity to establish an astronomically calibrated timescale for the mid-Devonian, as well as to make a quantitative assessment of the validity of a greenhouse climate existing in the mid-Devonian.

  8. Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development

    PubMed Central

    Cupello, Camila; Brito, Paulo M.; Herbin, Marc; Meunier, François J; Janvier, Philippe; Dutel, Hugo; Clément, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Coelacanths are lobe-finned fishes known from the Devonian to Recent that were long considered extinct, until the discovery of two living species in deep marine waters of the Mozambique Channel and Sulawesi. Despite extensive studies, the pulmonary system of extant coelacanths has not been fully investigated. Here we confirm the presence of a lung and discuss its allometric growth in Latimeria chalumnae, based on a unique ontogenetic series. Our results demonstrate the presence of a potentially functional, well-developed lung in the earliest known coelacanth embryo, and its arrested growth at later ontogenetic stages, when the lung is clearly vestigial. The parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggests a unique adaptation to deep-water environments. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the presence of small, hard, flexible plates around the lung in L. chalumnae, and consider them homologous to the plates of the ‘calcified lung' of fossil coelacanths. PMID:26372119

  9. Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development.

    PubMed

    Cupello, Camila; Brito, Paulo M; Herbin, Marc; Meunier, François J; Janvier, Philippe; Dutel, Hugo; Clément, Gaël

    2015-09-15

    Coelacanths are lobe-finned fishes known from the Devonian to Recent that were long considered extinct, until the discovery of two living species in deep marine waters of the Mozambique Channel and Sulawesi. Despite extensive studies, the pulmonary system of extant coelacanths has not been fully investigated. Here we confirm the presence of a lung and discuss its allometric growth in Latimeria chalumnae, based on a unique ontogenetic series. Our results demonstrate the presence of a potentially functional, well-developed lung in the earliest known coelacanth embryo, and its arrested growth at later ontogenetic stages, when the lung is clearly vestigial. The parallel development of a fatty organ for buoyancy control suggests a unique adaptation to deep-water environments. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the presence of small, hard, flexible plates around the lung in L. chalumnae, and consider them homologous to the plates of the 'calcified lung' of fossil coelacanths.

  10. Evaluation of EL836 explosive stimulation of Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, T G

    1980-07-01

    This report presents an evaluation of EL836, an explosive developed at E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company Laboratories, in stimulating gas shale. EL836 is a water gel type explosive with a high aluminum content. The computational evaluation of EL836 involved four one-dimensional cyclindrical geometry calculations to assess the influence of two equation-of-state descriptios of EL836, the effect or rock yielding and the effect of internal crack pressurization. Results of a computational evaluation of the EL836 explosive in stimulating Devonian gas shale suggest the following: Extensive plastic yielding will occur in a region immediate to the borehole. Extensive tensile fracture will occur in a region that begins at the outer boundary of plastic deformation and terminates at more than 100 borehole radii. Without a mechanism of ;near-wellbore fracture, such as crushing or pre-cracking during drilling or intentional borehole grooving, the plastic flow that occurs adjacent to the wellbore causes stress redistributions which prohibit early-time (less than a millisecond) tensile fracture immediate to the wellbore and thus prohibits gas penetration from the wellbore into the crack system. The barrier that the near-wellbore plastic zone presents to gas flow from the wellbore is reduced in radial dimension as time increases. Natural fractures in the wellbore wall or cataclysmic deformation and fracture adjacent to the wellbore, as a result of the explosive detonation, will likely assist in breaking down the barrier to gas flow. Very significatn enhancement is achieved in the EL836 stimulation treatment when gases penetrate the stress-wave induced radial cracks. Only minor differences were observed in the EL836 stimulation effects when comparison is made between two different explosive equations-of-state. 33 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Bulge Migration and Pinnacle Reef Development, Devonian Appalachian Foreland Basin.

    PubMed

    Ver Straeten CA; Brett

    2000-05-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analyses of Late Emsian and Early Eifelian (Lower to Middle Devonian) carbonate-dominated strata in the northern Appalachian Basin indicate anomalous, locally varying relative sea level changes and inversions of topography. The distribution of a major basal-bounding unconformity, basinal pinnacle reefs, local absence of parasequences, and eastward migration of shallow marine carbonate lithofacies and related biofacies in the Onondaga Limestone and underlying strata mark the retrograde migration of an elongate, northeast-southwest-trending area of positive relief, bordered on its cratonward side by a similarly migrating basin of intermediate depth. These features are thought to represent the forebulge and back-bulge basin of the Appalachian foreland basin system as it developed during a time of relative quiescence within the Acadian Orogeny. However, the relatively small size of the bulgelike feature (ca. 80-100-km-wide, 20-50-m positive relief), its great distance from the probable deformation front (>400 km), and the lack of a well-developed foredeep immediately adjacent to the bulgelike feature may indicate that it represents a smaller-scale flexural high ("flexural welt") superposed over the cratonward edge of the larger-scale classical forebulge of the basin. Development of shallow-water reefs on the crest of the bulge during sea level lowstand, followed by migration of the bulge and widespread transgression, permitted growth of economically significant pinnacle reefs in the deep basin center. Further subsurface reef exploration should concentrate along the projected position of the bulge during the basal Onondaga lowstand.

  12. Cyclic platform dolomites of Devonian Jefferson Formation, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1986-05-01

    Preliminary field study indicates that the Devonian Jefferson Formation in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade basinward into slope sediments deposited on a steepened carbonate ramp. Individual shallowing-upward, platformal cycles are 25 to < 1 m (82 to 3 ft) thick and, from top to bottom, consist of: solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; sucrosic dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; thin-bedded, fine-grained, shaly dolostones with closely spaced hardgrounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones. Thinner cycles (< 5 m or 16 ft thick) contain fewer basal lithologies and typically consist only of cryptalgal dolomudstone with breccia caps. The 1 to 25-m thick cycles comprise larger scale sequences (30-60 m or 100-200 ft thick), in which smaller scale cycles become progressively thinner toward the top of large-scale sequences. These shallowing-upward carbonate cycles probably formed in response to glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Current estimates for the time span represented by the Jefferson formation (9 m.y.), divided by the number of shallowing-upward cycles, indicate that each cycle represents an average time span of 0.6 to 1.0 m.y.. This time span suggests that either: (1) average sedimentation rates were unrealistically slow during deposition of each cycle (< 0.1-3 cm/1000 years); (2) breccia caps represent long periods of subaerial exposure (> 0.5 to about 0.2 m.y.); or (3) the Jefferson Formation was deposited during a much shorter time span than previously thought.

  13. Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

  14. Was the Earth's Magnetic Field Weak in the Late Devonian?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, T.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Pavlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Very few data exist to describe geomagnetic field behaviour in the Late Devonian (LD). Samples, which have recently been Ar-Ar dated to 364-377 Myr ago, of LD-aged volcanics and instrusives from the Viluy large igneous province in Siberia are investigated. These units have already demonstrated reliable, palaeomagnetic directions consistent with the retention of a primary remanence. Microwave Thellier-type palaeointensity experiments (mostly IZZI protocol with partial thermoremanent magnetization checks) were performed on 55 samples from 16 sites, of which, 12 samples from 4 sites provide satisfactory paleointensity data. Arai plots are strongly concave-up in shape but multiple lines of evidence support that this is caused by a strong component of magnetisation overprinting a weak primary magnetisation rather than by lab-induced alteration or multidomain behaviour. The samples display corresponding distinct directional components, positive pTRM checks and little or no zig-zagging of the Arai plot. Furthermore, the results of non-heating pseudo-Thellier experiments support the existence of a strong component overprinting a much weaker one. The site-mean paleointensities, ranging from 5.3-11.1 μT and which correspond to a virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) of (1.0-2.1) ×1022 Am2, indicate that the LD was a time of extremely weak magnetic field intensity. It provides the evidence that the superchron state, between ~310 and 265 Myr ago, is preceded by very weak field in the LD (~60 Myr before the superchron). If low dipole moment can be considered an indicator of high reversal frequency (as appears to be the case in the mid-Jurassic) then our results support that rapid transitions between reversal hyperactivity and superchron states are a recurring feature in the palaeomagnetic record, potentially linked to simultaneous episodes of true polar wander.

  15. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. P.

    1981-04-01

    In July 1976, some thirty young scientists and their lecturers were privileged to participate in a conference on "Metrology and the Fundamental Constants" at Varenna, this being the 68th course in the "Enrico Fermi International School of Physics". Now, at last, we are all privileged to share in that experience—to a large degree—with the appearance of the Proceedings, published last summer under the auspices of the Italian Physical Society. This rather massive volume (800 pages) places in one's hands a summary of the "state of the art" in the greater part of physical metrology. It is not, however, a metrology handbook, designed to assist the unskilled in making trustworthy measurements. It summarizes, via the lectures of internationally-recognized experts, the most recent attempts to realize with enhanced accuracy the basic units of measurement and, in so doing, it presents the subject of measurement science as the central (or all-pervasive) topic in physics itself. Clearly demonstrated is the progress from discovery to "understanding" of physical phenomena which is made possible through the historical alternation of observation and measurement. The volume includes informative reviews of the fundamentals of this fundamental science, namely, the concepts of quantities and units (Allisy); systems of units and the Système International, SI. (Terrien); international aspects of metrology and standards (Terrien); practical considerations in a hierarchy of standards (Terrien); materials problems affecting metrology (Ferro Milone and Sourdo) and statistical methods (Allisy). These discussions alone, being brought together in one place, are of particular usefulness. The remaining, and major, part of the book is taken up by authoritative and generally very readable discussions of measurement topics, for the most part separately focused on one of the base units. For these one cannot help noticing nor refrain from recording a measure of imbalance: some quantities (for

  16. Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2012-04-10

    Coelacanths are known for their evolutionary conservatism, and the body plan seen in Latimeria can be traced to late Middle Devonian Diplocercides, Holopterygius and presumably Euporosteus. However, the group's early history is unclear because of an incomplete fossil record. Until now, the only Early Devonian coelacanth is an isolated dentary (Eoactinistia) from Australia, whose position within the coelacanths is unknown. Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China. Resolved by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses as crownward of Diplocercides or as its sister taxon, the new form extends the chronological range of anatomically modern coelacanths by about 17 Myr. The finding lends support to the possibility that Eoactinistia is also an anatomically modern coelacanth, and provides a more refined reference point for studying the rapid early diversification and subsequent evolutionary conservatism of the coelacanths.

  17. New data on Upper Devonian stratigraphy of the northwestern Kuznetsk basin: Evidence from foraminifera and chondrichthyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhina, I. G.; Rodina, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The thorough investigation of four Frasnian-Famennian (Upper Devonian) boundary sections along the right side of the Tom River northwest of Kemerovo yielded new data on the composition of their foraminiferal and ichthyofaunal assemblages. These data were used for development of the zonal foraminiferal scale for Upper Devonian deposits of the northwestern Kuznetsk coal basin and the first zonal scale for their subdivision on the basis of Elasmobranchii remains and for correlation of the examined sections between each other and with Upper Devonian sequences in other regions. The analysis of foraminiferal and ichthyofaunal assemblages, which are the most widespread in upper Frasnian sections of the northwestern Kuznetsk coal basin, made it possible to specify the regional stratigraphic model.

  18. Devonian Novaculites as source of oil in Marathon-Ouachita thrust system

    SciTech Connect

    Zemmels, I.; Grizzle, P.L.; Walters, C.C.; Haney, F.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Arkansas Novaculite of southern Oklahoma and the Caballos Novaculite of west Texas (both Devonian) form fractured reservoirs in the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system. These formations were examined to ascertain their petroleum potential. Findings include the following. (1) The thermal maturity of the thrust system conforms to the maturity of the sequence that it has overthrust, suggesting that this allochthonous facies is not anomalously mature. (2) Shale units within the novaculites contain oil-prone organic matter in sufficient concentrations to constitute source rocks. (3) The composition of oils from Isom Springs field in southern Oklahoma and from McKay Creek field in west Texas is virtually identical and generally resembles Devonian oils in Oklahoma and west Texas. The authors concluded that the Devonian novaculites of the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system are self sourcing and do not require a fortuitous juxtaposition of source rocks of a different age to produce a commercial deposit.

  19. Books To Grow By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshan, Bob, Comp.

    Compiled by Bob Keeshan, TV's "Captain Kangaroo," this book is a reference guide for books appropriate for children through age eight. Books are organized alphabetically, according to children's age group, and include Bob Keeshan's comments as well as author, publisher, publishing date, and price. Each entry also lists values the book teaches,…

  20. Lithostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental reconstructions for Devonian strata in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.B. III . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    Devonian strata in the Michigan Basin are represented by variably thick sequences of open shelf, tidal flat and sabhka carbonates, interbedded with basin-centered and sabhka evaporites (anhydrite and halite). Although there are isolated outcrops around the margins of the basin, the lithofacies relationships of these strata can be best studied from subsurface data of cores, wireline logs, and drill cutting samples. This database is compiled from over 25,000 oil and gas wells that enter or entirely penetrate Devonian strata in Michigan. Most of the strata in the Michigan Basin Devonian are part of the Kaskaskia cratonic depositional sequence (Sloss, 1963). The sequence begins with the southeast to northwest transgression of a quartz arenite (Sylvania Ss.) sandstone facies onto a weathered, cherty carbonate (Bois Blanc Fm.) surface developed on Lower Devonian strata exposed during the post-Tippecanoe unconformity. With rising sea level, the basin sediments became dominated by open shelf, biohermal and locally restricted lagoon carbonates (Amherstberg Fm.). Much of the Middle Devonian is represented by thick basin-centered sabhka and salina evaporates and restricted-environment carbonates (Lucas Fm.). These interbedded and laterally gradational evaporite/carbonate facies are cyclic, showing gradual salinity changes during accumulation. Stratigraphically important K-Bentonite marker beds are prevalent in this part of the Michigan section. Overlying this restricted sequence are again open shelf, biohermal, and local restricted sabhka carbonate deposits (Dundee Fm.). Thin, but widespread and eastwardly thickening, terrigenous shales and mudstones are intercalated within another shelf carbonate package (Traverse Group). Devonian deposits in the Michigan Basin are capped by thick black shales and interbedded carbonates (Antrim Fm.).

  1. The north-subducting Rheic Ocean during the Devonian: consequences for the Rhenohercynian ore sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Raumer, Jürgen F.; Nesbor, Heinz-Dieter; Stampfli, Gérard M.

    2016-11-01

    Base metal mining in the Rhenohercynian Zone has a long history. Middle-Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits (SHMS), volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits (VHMS) and Lahn-Dill-type iron, and base metal ores occur at several sites in the Rhenohercynian Zone that stretches from the South Portuguese Zone, through the Lizard area, the Rhenish Massif and the Harz Mountain to the Moravo-Silesian Zone of SW Bohemia. During Devonian to Early Carboniferous times, the Rhenohercynian Zone is seen as an evolving rift system developed on subsiding shelf areas of the Old Red continent. A reappraisal of the geotectonic setting of these ore deposits is proposed. The Middle-Upper Devonian to Early Carboniferous time period was characterized by detrital sedimentation, continental intraplate and subduction-related volcanism. The large shelf of the Devonian Old Red continent was the place of thermal subsidence with contemporaneous mobilization of rising thermal fluids along activated Early Devonian growth faults. Hydrothermal brines equilibrated with the basement and overlying Middle-Upper Devonian detrital deposits forming the SHMS deposits in the southern part of the Pyrite Belt, in the Rhenish Massif and in the Harz areas. Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits (VHMS) formed in the more eastern localities of the Rhenohercynian domain. In contrast, since the Tournaisian period of ore formation, dominant pull-apart triggered magmatic emplacement of acidic rocks, and their metasomatic replacement in the apical zones of felsic domes and sediments in the northern part of the Iberian Pyrite belt, thus changing the general conditions of ore precipitation. This two-step evolution is thought to be controlled by syn- to post-tectonic phases in the Variscan framework, specifically by the transition of geotectonic setting dominated by crustal extension to a one characterized by the subduction of the supposed northern slab of the Rheic Ocean

  2. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    whole, although the discussions may be too detailed for the casual reader (who need read only the introduction and conclusions) and yet without sufficient detail for the person who requires a basic understanding (who then will consult the citations). Although he cannot anticipate the recommendations of the CCT for a new international temperature scale, the clues certainly are present in the discussions which he gives. Most important are the descriptions of the deviations of the IPTS-68 from thermodynamic temperatures, the limitations of thermocouples, and the need, which currently is met by the provisionally adopted EPT-76, for an extension of the international scale to temperatures below 13.8 K. I am pleased to have this monograph available and anticipate making good use of it. Over the past several years I often have felt the need for a resource book to answer general questions or to obtain an introduction to an unfamiliar area of temperature measurement, and regret very much that "Temperature" was not available earlier. This monograph undoubtedly will be a necessity for any laboratory where thermodynamic measurements are carried out and thermometers are used as serious tools. A great deal of basic and developmental work has been done on thermometry in the past ten years or so, probably considerably more than remains to be done in many areas of the temperature scale. The publication of "Temperature" is timely in this respect, and it should have a long, useful life as a standard reference. The author may consider a second edition when a new international temperature scale is adopted, but there will be few corrections and only relatively minor changes and additions beyond the details of the new scale.

  3. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Erice, Sicily, in November 1981 brought together specialists in precise measurement to present a tutorial introduction to quantum metrology and the measurement of the fundamental physical constants. Ever since the evolution of experimental physics as a scientific pursuit the measurement of the values of quantities accepted to be constants of nature has commanded the attention of some of the world's most accomplished workers in this field. Their efforts to seek out the sources of systematic error and to reduce the random errors have produced significant advances in techniques and a continual interest in their results from users and critics: as Raymond T Birge, who pioneered the evaluation of the 'best' values of the constants from the available measurements, observed (perhaps with tongue-in-cheek) "it is the continual variation in the values of these quantities that furnishes most of the interest in the subject". Long before the recognition of the fundamental constants the measurement of mass, length and time grew as a matter of necessity in organized communities, especially in agriculture, commerce and navigation. The adoption of standards, first local, then national, and now international, was a natural consequence. It is particularly relevant that the published proceedings of the NATO school opens with a historical survey by Pierre Giacomo of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, which places the subsequent papers in perspective. Measurements which realize the standards of length and time, and those from which values of the fundamental constants are derived, are of such a nature that a considerable background knowledge of physics is needed for their understanding. (The principle of the caesium frequency standard and the physics of the Josephson junction are a long haul from Michelson's measurement of the speed of light and the Millikan oil drop experiment familiar in the school books.) With this in mind, George

  4. Geometry of an outcrop-scale duplex in Devonian flysch, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Bradley, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    We describe an outcrop-scale duplex consisting of 211 exposed repetitions of a single bed. The duplex marks an early Acadian (Middle Devonian) oblique thrust zone in the Lower Devonian flysch of northern Maine. Detailed mapping at a scale of 1:8 has enabled us to measure accurately parameters such as horse length and thickness, ramp angles and displacements; we compare these and derivative values with those of published descriptions of duplexes, and with theoretical models. Shortening estimates based on line balancing are consistently smaller than two methods of area balancing, suggesting that layer-parallel shortening preceded thrusting. ?? 1994.

  5. Chemostratigraphic and U-Pb geochronologic constraints on carbon cycling across the Silurian-Devonian boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, Jon M.; Schoene, Blair; Bluher, Sarah; Maloof, Adam C.

    2016-02-01

    The Devonian Period hosts extraordinary changes to Earth's biosphere. Land plants began their rise to prominence, with early vascular vegetation beginning its colonization of near-shore environments in the latest Silurian. Across the Silurian-Devonian (Pridoli-Lochkovian) transition, carbon isotope analyses of bulk marine carbonates (δC13carb) from Laurentian and Baltic successions reveal a positive δC13carb shift. Known as the Klonk Event, values reach + 5.8 ‰, making it one of the largest carbon isotope excursions in the Phanerozoic. Assigning rates and durations to these significant events requires a robust, precise Devonian time scale. Here we present 675 micritic matrix and 357 fossil-specific δC13carb analyses from the lower Devonian Helderberg Group of New York and West Virginia that exhibit the very positive δC13carb values observed in other Silurian-Devonian basins. This chemostratigraphic dataset is coupled with 66 ID-TIMS U-Pb dates on single zircons from six ash falls intercalated within Helderberg sediments, including dates on the stratigraphically lowest Devonian ashes yet developed. In this work, we (a) demonstrate that matrix and fossil-specific δC13carb values track one another closely in the Helderberg Group, (b) estimate the Silurian-Devonian boundary age in New York to be 421.3 ± 1.2 Ma (2σ; including decay constant uncertainties), and (c) calculate the time required to evolve from baseline to peak δC13carb values at the onset of the Klonk event to be 1.00 ± 0.25 Myr. Under these constraints, a steady-state perturbation to the global carbon cycle can explain the observed excursion with modern fluxes, as long as DIC concentration in the Devonian ocean remained below ∼2× the modern value. Therefore, potential drivers, such as enhanced burial of organic carbon, need not rely on anomalously high total fluxes of carbon to explain the Klonk Event.

  6. Bimodal Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic rock assemblages in the Machias-Eastport area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Olcott; Moench, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Exposed in the Machias-Eastport area of southeastern Maine is the thickest (at least 8,000 m), best exposed, best dated, and most nearly complete succession of Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic strata in the coastal volcanic belt, remnants of which crop out along the coasts of southern New Brunswick, Canada, and southeastern New England in the United States. The volcanics were erupted through the 600-700-million-year-old Avalonian sialic basement. To test the possibility that this volcanic belt was a magmatic arc above a subduction zone prior to presumed Acadian continental collision, samples representing the entire section in the Machias-Eastport area of Maine were chemically analyzed. Three strongly bimodal assemblages of volcanic rocks and associated intrusives are recognized, herein called the Silurian, older Devonian, and younger Devonian assemblages. The Silurian assemblage contains typically nonporphyritic high-alumina tholeiitic basalts, basaltic andesites, and diabase of continental characterand calc-alkalic rhyolites, silicic dacites, and one known dike of andesite. These rocks are associated with fossiliferous, predominantly marine strata of the Quoddy, Dennys, and Edmunds Formations, and the Leighton Formation of the Pembroke Group (the stratigraphic rank of both is revised herein for the Machias-Eastport area), all of Silurian age. The shallow marine Hersey Formation (stratigraphic rank also revised herein) of the Pembroke Group, of latest Silurian age (and possibly earliest Devonian, as suggested by an ostracode fauna), contains no known volcanics; and it evidently was deposited during a volcanic hiatus that immediately preceded emergence of the coastal volcanic belt and the eruption of the older Devonian assemblage. The older Devonian assemblage, in the lagoonal to subaerial Lower Devonian Eastport Formation, contains tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, typically with abundant plagioclase phenocrysts and typically richer in iron and

  7. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used to treat people who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary hypertension Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  8. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the arteries of the lungs ( pulmonary hypertension ) Sarcoidosis Lung transplant may not be done for people ... Chronic Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Lung disease Sarcoidosis Review Date 4/13/2015 Updated by: Dale ...

  9. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... they can't breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation ... tuberculosis Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Patient Instructions Chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  10. End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sallan, Lauren Cole; Coates, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    The Devonian marks a critical stage in the early evolution of vertebrates: It opens with an unprecedented diversity of fishes and closes with the earliest evidence of limbed tetrapods. However, the latter part of the Devonian has also been characterized as a period of global biotic crisis marked by two large extinction pulses: a "Big Five" mass extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary (374 Ma) and the less well-documented Hangenberg event some 15 million years later at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary (359 Ma). Here, we report the results of a wide-ranging analysis of the impact of these events on early vertebrate evolution, which was obtained from a database of vertebrate occurrences sampling over 1,250 taxa from 66 localities spanning Givetian to Serpukhovian stages (391 to 318 Ma). We show that major vertebrate clades suffered acute and systematic effects centered on the Hangenberg extinction involving long-term losses of over 50% of diversity and the restructuring of vertebrate ecosystems worldwide. Marine and nonmarine faunas were equally affected, precluding the existence of environmental refugia. The subsequent recovery of previously diverse groups (including placoderms, sarcopterygian fish, and acanthodians) was minimal. Tetrapods, actinopterygians, and chondrichthyans, all scarce within the Devonian, undergo large diversification events in the aftermath of the extinction, dominating all subsequent faunas. The Hangenberg event represents a previously unrecognized bottleneck in the evolutionary history of vertebrates as a whole and a historical contingency that shaped the roots of modern biodiversity.

  11. Devonian magmatism in the Timan Range, Arctic Russia - subduction, post-orogenic extension, or rifting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, V.; Scarrow, J. H.; Silva, I. G. Nobre; Cambeses, A.

    2016-11-01

    Devonian mafic magmatism of the northern East European Craton (EEC) has been variously linked to Uralian subduction, post-orogenic extension associated with Caledonian collision, and rifting. New elemental and isotopic analyses of Devonian basalts from the Timan Range and Kanin Peninsula, Russia, in the northern EEC constrain magma genesis, mantle source(s) and the tectonic process(es) associated with this Devonian volcanism to a rift-related context. Two compositional groups of low-K2O tholeiitic basalts are recognized. On the basis of Th concentrations, LREE concentrations, and (LREE/HREE)N, the data suggest two distinct magma batches. Incompatible trace elements ratios (e.g., Th/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/La) together with Nd and Pb isotopes indicate involvement of an NMORB to EMORB 'transitional' mantle component mixed with variable amounts of a continental component. The magmas were derived from a source that developed high (U,Th)/Pb, U/Th and Sm/Nd over time. The geochemistry of Timan-Kanin basalts supports the hypothesis that the genesis of Devonian basaltic magmatism in the region resulted from local melting of transitional mantle and lower crust during rifting of a mainly non-volcanic continental rifted margin.

  12. Succession of rugose coral faunas in the Lower and Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, William Albert

    1967-01-01

    The late Onesquethaw (Onondaga) faunas are the largest and most widely distributed of all those under review. Succeeding faunas of the Cazenovia, Tioughnioga and Taghanic Stage (Hamilton-Tully sequence) are less widespread and are clearly derivatives of the late Onesquethaw fauna. The Taghanic fauna is the latest Middle Devonian rugose coral fauna in the area

  13. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  14. Ice-house-like orbital forcing of a mid-Devonian Ecosystem (Orcadian Basin, Scotland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Grogan, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Devonian witnessed the terrestrialization of plants and the radiation of fishes, two events upon which the climatic conditions have profound implications. However, recent oxygen isotopic data have challenged traditional assumptions of ice-free greenhouse conditions through the early and middle Devonian. Glaciation during icehouse times imparts distinctive frequency spectra on low-latitude climate records due to the high-latitude glacial control on global climates. Here we analyze gamma ray data from >350m of the Caithness Flagstone Group of the Orcadian Basin in North Scotland that cover ˜1.8 million years of the Middle Devonian (Givetian/Eifelian boundary) at 15 - 30° N. The repetitive facies assemblages have been interpreted to represent transitions between perennial lacustrine environments, and ephemeral playa or sub-aerial floodplain conditions. Fourier techniques, wavelet analysis, and a novel “pure sine model” technique reveal the full spectrum of sub-precessional to long eccentricity Milankovitch cycles. The presence of spectral power in the obliquity band (~40 kyr), unexpected at low latitudes during hothouse climate regimes, indicates a high-latitude influence on low-latitude climate, potentially amplified by ice sheets, or an as of yet unexplained insolation forcing mechanism. These data strongly support the idea of an ice-house climate during the middle Devonian.

  15. Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

  16. Views on Science Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Sarah

    1980-01-01

    Describes five new children's books about animals and other books about the development of anesthetics, the effects of bacteria, and the discovery of pheromones (scent chemicals that facilitate communication between members of an animal species). (GT)

  17. Looking into Tunnel Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Describes how to make tunnel books, which are viewed by looking into a "tunnel" created by accordion-folded expanding sides. Suggests possible themes. Describes how to create a walk-through tunnel book for first grade students. (CMK)

  18. Conodont zonation and the Devonian/Carboniferous (Famennian/Tournaisian) boundary in the Naltaş section, eastern Taurides, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakul-Özdemir, Ayşe

    2017-02-01

    Conodont faunas from the Devonian/Carboniferous Naltaş section (eastern Taurides, Turkey) are presented. The faunas include important marker species of the latest Devonian earliest Carboniferous interval, belonging to the genera Siphonodella, Bispathodus, Polygnathus, Pseudopolygnathus, Apatognathus and Branmehla. Four conodont zones, comparable to the standard conodont zonation, are established in the studied succession, from the oldest to the youngest: (1) Bispathodus ultimus, (2) Siphonodella praesulcata Zones (Upper Famennian), (3) Siphonodella sulcata and (4) Siphonodella bransoni Zones (Lower Tournaisian). The Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in the eastern Taurides is recognized by the first appearance of Siphonodella sulcata.

  19. "It's Alive!": Science Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the history of children's books about science, from the first picture book in Germany in 1658 to Louis Agassiz's work on establishing science firmly in the education of young people in America. States that science books need to be accurate, and they must demonstrate the "scientific method." Outlines 11 characteristics of science…

  20. Children Talking about Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe

    In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…

  1. Thinking outside the Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    A title, a cover, and pages with "substance" bound together--this is what the author's eighth-grade students decided were the essential elements of a book. There could be more, but no less. In art, one does judge a book by its cover. In this article, the author describes how her students created their books. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Collecting Artists' Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalberto, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of increase in library collections of artists' books (artwork conceived in book form and designed entirely by artists) highlights reasons to collect artists' books, major collections, establishing a collection, housing and preservation, organization, outreach, and networking. Collection policy and procedures of Virginia Commonwealth…

  3. Supplementary Science Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, LeRoy

    1972-01-01

    Recently a great number of books have been printed that are written and illustrated nicely and deal with sophisticated science content. Provides a list of such books in different science areas. Books are categorized as easy to read, medium difficulty, and challenging. (PS)

  4. Children's Books and Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Mary; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books and audiotape recordings for children from infancy through the early elementary grades. The bibliography includes recordings of music and storytelling; books that tell fairy tales and old favorite stories; and books about such topics as mother-child relationships and pets. (BB)

  5. Picture Books for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

  6. The Book of Luck.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that focused on the supernatural in which students create their own "Book Of Luck" using plastic videocassette containers. Discusses how each student created a book and the types of things that were included in the book. Includes examples. (CMK)

  7. Notable Canadian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…

  8. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  9. Special Book Review Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Provides reviews of books dealing with all aspects of careers, including 8 books on dealing with change, 13 on career management, 4 on entrepreneurship, 3 guides and workbooks, 2 on assessment, 4 on resumes, and 1 biography. Includes 12 short reviews of books on career development issues and information such as publishers' addresses. (JOW)

  10. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  11. Astronomical Book Trek: Astronomy Books of 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Provided in two separate annotated lists are technical and nontechnical astronomy books. Categories in the latter group include: general astronomy; astronomy textbooks; amateur astronomy; astronomy history; life on other worlds; astrophysics; the solar system; space exploration; and the sun. (JN)

  12. Late Devonian Anoxia Events in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: a Global Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, S. K.; Waters, J. A.; Suttner, T. J.; Kido, E.; DeReuil, A. A.; Moore, L. M.; Batchelor, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 values decreased dramatically during the Middle Devonian due to the rapid rise of land plants. These changing environmental conditions resulted in widespread anoxia and extinction events throughout the Late Devonian, including the critical Kellwasser and Hangenberg anoxia events, which are associated with major mass extinctions at both the beginning and end of the Famennian Stage of the Late Devonian. Fammenian sediments in northwestern Xinjiang Province, China, represent a highly fossiliferous shallow marine setting associated with a Devonian oceanic island arc complex. Analysis of multiple geochemical proxies (such as U/Th, Ba, normalized P2O5, V/Cr, Zr), magnetic susceptibility, and mineralogical data (biogenic apatite and pyrite framboids) indicates that these Famennian sequences record not only the Upper Kellwasser Anoxic Event at the Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) boundary but also the rebound from the F/F extinction event. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Hangenberg Anoxic Event can also be recognized in the same sequence, although our biostratigraphic control is less precise. Previous studies of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg Events have been performed on continental shelf environments of Laurussia, Gondwana, Siberia, and South China. The Devonian formations of northwest Xinjiang in this study, however, are part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is thought to have formed as part of a complex amalgamation of intra-oceanic island arcs and continental fragments prior to the end of the latest Carboniferous. These results allow us to confirm the presence of the Kellwasser and Hangenberg Events in the open oceanic part of Paleotethys, indicating that both events were global in scope. The presence of an abundant diverse Famennian fauna between these anoxia/extinction events suggests that the shallow marine ecosystems in the CAOB were somewhat protected due to their tectonic location and relative isolation within an open ocean system

  13. New thelodont findings from the Lower Devonian Andrée Land Group, Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, H.; Žigaitė, Ž.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years, ever since Ørvig (1957) described the first thelodont material from Sörkapp Land, have the amount of scales available from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen slowly increased to a body that clearly promotes an extended taxonomical and biostratigraphical revision. More recently, have thelodonts been described from a more stratigraphically controlled sequence of beds from the Red Bay Group (Blom and Goujet 2002). These Lochkovian (lowermost Devonian) taxa show a faunal differentiation which also allowed a detailed comparison between the Red Bay Group of Spitsbergen and sections of similar age from other parts of the Northern Hemisphere (Blom and Goujet 2002), supporting the suggested detailed biozonal subdivision of the Lochkovian deposits as presented by Talimaa (2000) based on distribution data from northern Eurasia. Although the stratigraphical framework of Spitsbergen is complicated, the Red Bay and Andrée Land groups have a well distributed fauna of thelodont scales that have been suggested to be the main reference of thelodont biozonation in the Pragian and Emsian (Talimaa 2000). We have examined a major part of thelodont collections comming from the region, including some newly collected samples. As a result, a biostratigraphic distribution of a number of well known thelodont taxa have been described from the Wood Bay and Grey Hoek formations in NW Spitsbergen. In addition, one new thelodont genus and two new species have been discovered. These data, together with known thelodont assemblages from the Canadian Arctic (Vieth 1980) and Severanya Zemlya (Karatajute-Talimaa 1978) allows us to speak about the usefulness of thelodonts in biostratigraphy and global correlation in the upper parts of the Lower Devonian. Blom, H. and Goujet, D. 2002. Thelodont scales from the Lower Devonian Red Bay Group, Spitsbergen. Palaeontology, 45(4): 795-820. Karatajūtė -Talimaa, V. N., 1978. Silurian and Devonian Thelodonts of the USSR and Spitsbergen

  14. Linking Biogeochemical Cycles of Nitrogen and Oxygen in Euxinic Devonian Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Berner’s 2009 reconstruction of Phanerozoic atmospheric pO2 (1) features an approximately 30% decline in O2 spanning the Lower to Upper Devonian, a period characterized by the emergence and expansion of terrestrial forest ecosystems and episodic high organic matter deposition now found as epicontinental basinal black shales. There is an apparent contradiction between high rates of organic matter burial coupled with an increasing areal extent of photosynthetic O2 production and declining levels of atmospheric O2. This study sought to resolve that contradiction by examining the role of terrestrial nitrgen in the development of anoxygenic photosynthetic ecosystems in euxinic Devonian basins utilizing stable isotope and biomarker analyses. By fixing C into biomass without producing O2 as a byproduct, sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis can serve to moderate the flux of O2 to the atmosphere generated by oxygenic photosynthesis (2). Sulfur isotope values indicate temporally and spatially widespread euxinia in Middle and Upper Devonian epeiric seas and the presence of isorenieratane, a biomarker for green sulfur bacteria, indicating that anoxygenic photosynthesis was also widespread. High levels of marine primary productivity and the consequent development a sulfidic water column in Middle and Upper Devonian epeiric basins were likely the result of the emergence of a substantial new source of fixed N. Modern lowland tropical forests are net exporters of N to aquatic systems and it is likely that warm, moist Devonian lowland forests featured a similar N biogeochemistry. Riverine and atmospheric deposition of terrestrial fixed N facilitated an increase in the relative contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to total global C fixation, resulting in the 30% pO2 decline over a period of about 30 million years. The Upper Devonian expansion of forests into upland and temperate environments, where the N excess seen in modern forests is uncommon, reversed the O2 decline

  15. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  16. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Stephen; Ink, Gary; Lofquist, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides data on prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices, 1996 final and 1997 preliminary figures; book sales statistics, 1997--AAP preliminary estimates; U.S. trade in books, 1997; international book title output, 1990-95; book review media statistics; and number of book outlets in the U.S. and Canada. (PEN)

  17. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Ink, Gary; Grabois, Andrew; Barr, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Includes six articles that discuss research and statistics relating to the book trade. Topics include prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and books and other media reviewed. (LRW)

  18. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  19. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  20. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %R%) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Ryder, Robert T.; Nyahay, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in New York State by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. The thermal maturity of the Ordovician and Devonian rocks is of major interest because they contain the source for most of the unconventional natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Jenden and others, 1993; Ryder and others, 1998). Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation, in particular, its basin-centered part (Ryder, 1998). Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulation in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  1. Thermal maturity patterns (CAI and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  2. The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof; Qvarnström, Martin; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2017-04-01

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  3. Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

  4. A Late Devonian Fertile Organ with Seed Plant Affinities from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  5. The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals.

    PubMed

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof; Qvarnström, Martin; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2017-04-01

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  6. Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian Series, Stage, and possible substage boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, W.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Conodonts are accepted internationally to define Devonian Series and Stage boundaries. Hence, the evolution and taxonomy of pelagic palmatolepids, primarily Palmatolepis and its direct ancestor Mesotaxis, and shallow-water icriodontids, Icriodus, Pelekysgnathus, and "Icriodus", are the major tools for recognizing subdivisions of the Upper Devonian. Palmatolepids are the basis for the Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation (ZIEGLER & SANDBERG 1990), whereas icriodontids are the basis for the alternative, integrated shallow-water zonation (SANDBERG & DREESEN 1984). However, an alternative palmatolepid taxonomy for some Frasnian species has been employed recently by some conodont workers using the Montagne Noire (M.N.) zonation, shape analyses of Pa elements, and multielement reconstructions of KLAPPER (1989), KLAPPER & FOSTER (1993); and KLAPPER et al. (1996). Herein, the evolution of palmatolepids and icriodontids is summarized in terms of our zonation and some of the taxonomic differences with the alternative M.N. zonation are exemplified. One of the problems in relating the Standard and M.N. zonations arises from previous errors of interpretation and drafting of the Martenberg section in Germany. This section was designated the reference section for the Frasnian transitans through jamieae Zones by ZIEGLER & SANDBERG (1990). Herein, the early and middle Frasnian zonal boundaries at Martenberg are improved by re-study of our old and recent collections from three profiles, spaced only 4 m apart. Serious problems exist with the Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), selected by the Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, following the paleontologic definition of the bases of the Frasnian, Famennian, and Tournaisian Stages, because of the difficulty in making global correlations from these GSSP's. Our summary of these problems should be helpful if future workers decide to relocate these GSSP's.

  7. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  8. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  9. Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian) fish from the Lower Bokkeveld Group (Ceres Subgroup), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. E.; Almond, J. E.; Evans, F. J.; Long, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    Four major groups of fish are represented by fragmentary remains from South Africa's Lower Bokkeveld Group of Early to Middle Devonian age: the Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi and Osteichthyes. These represent the oldest known occurrences of these groups in southern Africa, as well as an important addition to the very meagre record of earlier Devonian fish from the Malvinokaffric Province of southwestern Gondwana. Bokkeveld fish material comes from the Gydo (Late Emsian) and Tra Tra (Middle Eifelian) Formations of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces. The cosmopolitan marine acanthodian Machæracanthus is represented only by isolated fin spines which may belong to two different species on the basis of their external ornamentation, cross-sectional outline and internal histology. The elasmobranchs are represented by four elements: (1) a flattened chondrocranium which bears affinity to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous symmoriid (protacrodont) 'cladodont' sharks. It is probably the earliest known (Emsian) shark chondrocranium; (2) an isolated, primitive scapulocoracoid with a very short coracoidal ridge; (3) ankylosed and isolated radials, interpreted as parts of pterygial plates of a paired fin of an unknown chondrichthyan bearing affinity to the Middle Devonian Zamponiopteron from Bolivia; and (4) isolated barlike structures, perhaps gill arch or a jaw elements, thought to be from the same taxon as (3). The placoderms are represented by an incomplete trunk armour and fragmentary, finely ornamented plates of a primitive antiarch. The Osteichthyes are represented by a single large scale of an unidentified dipnoan from the Eifelian of the Cedarberg range, as well as a probable sarcopterygian dermal plate from the Emsian of the Prince Albert area. These are among the earliest sarcopterygian remains recorded from the Malvinokaffric Province.

  10. Devonian shale gas exploration and production studies. Final report, November 1983-April 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.L.; Koziar, G.; Lemon, J.P.; Akers, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    Ten wells in southwestern West Virginia were selected as potential candidates for in-depth study to identify Devonian-shale-gas production-controlling mechanisms. Wells were studied using geophysical logs, TV log, and flow measurements. Sidewall cores were retrieved for geochemical and geophysical analyses. The well studies were augmented with a seismic survey, production data analysis and data collection for approximately 1400 wells in the study area.

  11. Earth-atmosphere evolution based on new determination of Devonian atmosphere Ar isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Darren F.; Gandanger, Pierre; McConville, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The isotopic composition of the noble gases, in particular Ar, in samples of ancient atmosphere trapped in rocks and minerals provides the strongest constraints on the timing and rate of Earth atmosphere formation by degassing of the Earth's interior. We have re-measured the isotopic composition of argon in the Rhynie chert from northeast Scotland using a high precision mass spectrometer in an effort to provide constraints on the composition of Devonian atmosphere. Irradiated chert samples yield 40Ar/36Ar ratios that are often below the modern atmosphere value. The data define a 40Ar/36Ar value of 289.5 ± 0.4 at K/36Ar = 0. Similarly low 40Ar/36Ar are measured in un-irradiated chert samples. The simplest explanation for the low 40Ar/36Ar is the preservation of Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar in the chert, with the intercept value in 40Ar-39Ar-36Ar space representing an upper limit. In this case the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated only 3% (5.1 ± 0.4 ×1016 mol) of the total 40Ar inventory since the Devonian. The average accumulation rate of 1.27 ± 0.09 ×108 mol40Ar/yr overlaps the rate over the last 800 kyr. This implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in the outgassing rate of the Earth since the mid-Palaeozoic despite the likely episodicity of Ar degassing from the continental crust. Incorporating the new Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar into the Earth degassing model of Pujol et al. (2013) provides the most precise constraints on atmosphere formation so far. The atmosphere formed in the first ∼100 Ma after initial accretion during a catastrophic degassing episode. A significant volume of 40Ar did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until after 4 Ga which implies that stable K-rich continental crust did not develop until this time.

  12. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  13. Conodont colour alteration patterns in Devonian rocks of the eastern Anti-atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Z.

    The thermal and burial history of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Late Palaeozoic time is investigated using conodont colour alteration data and the electron spin resonance technique (ESR). Both the conodont colour alteration index (CAI) patterns and the results of ESR investigations indicate that the Devonian rocks of the eastern Anti-Atlas attained their present-day maturation level during Carboniferous time prior to Variscan uplift. The observed CAI values from 3 to 5 reflect heating to temperatures of 120°C and 310°C respectively. The conodont CAI pattern observed in the Devonian rocks is a product of burial and loading by thick Carboniferous cover but the maturation level is too high to be accounted for by burial beneath the known stratigraphical overburden under normal heat flow conditions. The analysis of palaeotemperatures inferred from conodont CAI values shows variation in heat flow during Carboniferous time, with an average geothermal gradient of 30°C/km in the Béchar Basin and higher gradients in the region of the mader and Tafilalt. The style of the observed CAI patterns suggests that depositional trends in the Carboniferous cover, now largely removed by erosion, followed the Devonian subsidence patten.

  14. A late Devonian impact event and its association with a possible extinction event on Eastern Gondwana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K.; Geldsetzer, H. H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence from South China and Western Australia for a 365-Ma impact event in the Lower crepida conodont zone of the Famennian stage of the Late Devonian (about 1.5 Ma after the Frasnian/Famennian extinction event) includes microtektitelike glassy microspherules, geochemical anomalies (including a weak Ir), a probable impact crater (greater than 70 k) at Taihu in South China, and an Ir anomaly in Western Australia. A brachiopod faunal turnover in South China, and the 'strangelove ocean'-like c-delta 13 excursions in both Chinese and Australian sections indicate that at least a regional-scale extinction might have occurred at the time of the impact. A paleoreconstruction shows that South China was very close to and facing Western Australia in the Late Devonian. The carbon isotopic excursions, which occur at the same stratigraphic level in both South China and Western Australia cannot be explained as being coincidental. The c-delta 13 excursions and the brachiopod faunal turnover in South China indicate that there might have been at least a regional (possibly global) extinction in the Lower crepida zone. The impact-derived microspherules and geochemical anomalies (especially the Ir) indicate a Lower crepida zone impact event on eastern Gondwana. The location, type of target rocks, and possibly age of the Taihu Lake crater qualify as the probable site of this Late Devonian impact.

  15. Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    George, David; Blieck, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

  16. Causes of the great mass extinction of marine organisms in the Late Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barash, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The second of the five great mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic occurred in the Late Devonian. The number of species decreased by 70-82%. Major crises occurred at the Frasnian-Famennian and Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The lithological and geochemical compositions of sediments, volcanic deposits, impactites, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios, evidence of climate variability, and sea level changes reflect the processes that led the critical conditions. Critical intervals are marked by layers of black shales, which were deposited in euxinic or anoxic environments. These conditions were the main direct causes of the extinctions. The Late Devonian mass extinction was determined by a combination of impact events and extensive volcanism. They produced similar effects: emissions of harmful chemical compounds and aerosols to cause greenhouse warming; darkening of the atmosphere, which prevented photosynthesis; and stagnation of oceans and development of anoxia. Food chains collapsed and biological productivity decreased. As a result, all vital processes were disturbed and a large portion of the biota became extinct.

  17. Rift-related Devonian sedimentation and basin development in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Zhao; Allen, Mark B.; Whitham, Andrew G.; Price, Simon P.

    During Devonian times South China lay to the north of the Palaeo-Tethyan ocean, the boundary being a passive continental margin. A shallow sea covered the southern parts of the continent while northern areas, forming the Huanan Landmass, were emergent. At the beginning of the Devonian most of South China was above sea level. Subsequent transgression from the south gave rise to an irregular coastline with the development of many fault-controlled gulfs. Further transgression led to the development of an epicontinental sea with reefs forming along the margins of the submerged gulfs and black shales deposited within them. By Emsian time a widespread carbonate platform was established, while anoxic deposition continued in the troughs. The marine transgression peaked in the Frasnian Stage. During Famennian time widespread regression occurred and much of South China became once more emergent. Peneplanation of the Huanan Landmass led to the partial infilling of many of the older fault-bounded depressions. Throughout the Devonian the local distribution of sediments was strongly controlled by NE-SW trending transtensional faults that bounded NW-SE trending normal faults. These structures continued to influence sedimentation in the Late Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and possibly the Tertiary in the offshore Beibu Gulf Basin.

  18. Acritarchs from Ponta Grossa Formation and their stratigraphic significance: Devonian of Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Devonian fossil record in the Parana basin of Brazil is restricted to the Ponta Grossa Formation, a potential source rock unit. Paleontological studies of the macrofauna from this formation indicated an Early Devonian age. For this paper a wide range of surface samples and core samples from eight wells drilled by Pauliperto (a CESP-IPT joint venture) have been studied. Microplankton from the Devonian of the Parana basin never before described are presented here, together with their biostratigraphical and paleoecological implications. Intrabasinal and interbasinal correlations are also made. From a total of 60 species identified until now, twenty forms having well-defined stratigraphic ranges and broad (intercontinental) geographic representation are described herein. This assemblage is marked by the presence and diversity of the Subgroups Polygonomorphitae and Pteromorphitae. The Subgroup Acanthomorphitae is also well represented. The Emsian-Frasnian age previously established for the Ponta Grossa Formation through other palynological studies is further confirmed by the paleomicroplankton evidence. Moreover, the chronostratigraphic limits of these sediments may now be refined even further. Thus, depsite the presence of long-ranging forms, other species, such as Triangulina alargada, which is restricted to the Emsian in the La Vid Formation in northern Spain, allow a better chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The abundance of forms of Tasmanites together with a large quantity and diversity of microplankton provides the basis for the paleoecologic interpretations.

  19. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  20. Shelf to basin transition of Silurian-Devonian rocks, Porcupine River area, east-central Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Colean, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    Exposures of Silurian to lowermost Devonian strata in the Porcupine River region consist of an unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation. Petrographic studies indicate that these rocks display facies representative of five depositional environments: basin, open sea shelf, deep shelf margin, open platform, and restricted shelf. The unnamed carbonate unit, exposed in the Linear Ridge area, is 390 ft (126 m) thick and records a history of restricted shelf to basinal sedimentation. Stratigraphic relations and paleontological studies suggest a Middle to Late Silurian (Ludlovian) age for this unit. The Road River Formation is Late Silurian (Ludlovian) to Early Devonian (Lochkovian) in age and is exposed near the confluence of the Porcupine-Salmontrout Rivers and downstream along the Lower Ramparts. It consists of 30-190 ft (10-61 m) of graptolitic shale with interbeds of siliceous limestone. Petrographic studies of the shales are interpreted to reflect deposition in a basinal setting, whereas the siliceous limestones represent deep shelf-margin debris flows derived from nearby, coeval shallow-water shelf environments. Together, the unnamed carbonate unit and the Road River Formation represent a shelf to basin transition on a carbonate ramp that transcends the Silurian-Devonian boundary. Petrographic examination of these rocks reveals that they are susceptible to a wide range of diagenetic processes, including (1) micritition, (2) neomorphism, (3) syntaxial overgrowths, (4) pressure solution (stylolitization), (5) trapping of dried hydrocarbons, (6) tensional stress (calcite veining), and (7) silicification.

  1. Abrupt ocean anoxia and mass extinction at the Hangenberg crisis, Devonian-Carboniferous boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Davydov, V. I.

    2012-12-01

    The late Devonian period hosts a set of profound biotic crises accompanying episodes of tropical ocean anoxia, positive carbon isotope excursions, relative sea level rise and fall, and apparent global climatic cooling. The Hangenberg event, at the close of the Devonian, is the last of these crises which ushered in a new and long-lived icehouse climate regime spanning the Carboniferous and early Permian. New high-precision U-Pb zircon ages for bracketing volcanic tuffs constrain the timing and tempo of the Hangenberg biotic crisis. When combined with quantitative biostratigraphic analysis, these data constrain the duration of tropical ocean anoxia, mass extinction and carbon cycle perturbation to less than 100 thousand years. This rapidity and duration is consistent with a model of orbitally-forced cooling resulting in enhancement of oceanic circulation, in turn promoting catastrophic overturn, upwelling of anoxic bottom waters onto the tropical continental shelves, and consequent biotic reorganization. Enhanced organic carbon burial evidenced by a positive carbon isotope spike is also revealed as rapid and short-lived, but sufficient to draw down atmospheric CO2 and initiate a glacial pulse restricted to a single short period eccentricity cycle at the end-Devonian.

  2. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  3. Give a Book, Take a Book | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Collection has begun for the 15th Annual Book & Media Swap sponsored by the Scientific Library. NCI at Frederick staff can use this opportunity to clear out personal book and DVD shelves of unwanted materials, donate them to the swap, and then receive “new” materials in return. The library staff will collect materials through Tuesday, Oct. 27. Kick-off day for the event is Wednesday, Oct. 28, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., in the lobby of the Conference Center in Building 549.

  4. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  5. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  6. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  7. ESL Literacy. Student Book; Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishio, Yvonne Wong

    The student workbook and teacher manual for an adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy course are presented. It assumes that students have some native language literacy skills but may have had little or no prior schooling. The student book has 10 units, topically organized: alphabet; numbers; time; the calendar; money; school; the…

  8. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  9. Native American Children's Books. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Kathryn Elizabeth; Cornelius, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 11 children's books, published 1990-93, suitable for elementary and middle school students, covering Native riddles; Hiawatha as founder of the Iroquois confederacy; Chief Seattle's famous speech; stories about Inuit life and Mexican village life during the 1500s; Sequoyah and the Cherokee alphabet; the Iroquois creation myth; Wampanoag…

  10. Whither the Great Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casement, William

    2002-01-01

    The decades since the 1960s have been unfortunate in many respects for American higher education, but things are not uniformly bleak. Here and there, the study of Great Books persists. The general picture that is available, then, of the health of great-books study in colleges today is mixed. High-visibility news stories, along with curriculum…

  11. Strawberry Square. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom

    Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…

  12. Astronomy books in Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  13. Buy the Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Follett library software system is the literary conscience of St. Francis High School. It reports on overdue books, checkout statistics, and online catalog search records. The circulation numbers tell that reading is a tough sell for today's teens. As the school's custodian of books and information, the author describes his efforts at leading…

  14. More2books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Reach for the Stars is AAMT's data-collection activity for National Literacy and Numeracy Week, funded by the Australian Government. This year's activity was on the theme "More2books" and many thousands of students and their teachers explored the mathematics of the books in their classrooms. This article presents a version of the…

  15. Books Born Digital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Lance

    2009-01-01

    It used to be that a book was published first as a hardcover, then as a lower-cost paperback. With increasingly tech-savvy consumers demanding instantaneous access to content in various formats, that publishing protocol has in the last decade changed to one in which the book in codex form often remains the focus, but digital "extras"…

  16. The Obama Books Boom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    As Barack Obama's rise to power inspires a flood of books, scholars hope the publishing trend will yield serious analysis. Barack Obama's rise from Illinois politics to the U.S. presidency has inspired authors to produce a flood of books chronicling the 44th commander in chief's life story and political career. Obama's political odyssey invites…

  17. Pictures into Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Linda; Lehman, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a project that integrated computer technology skills with art history, photography, and layout/design. Approximately 160 fourth graders became photographers and created books on the following concepts: position words, numbers, colors, alphabet, shapes, and patterns. The books were professionally bound and…

  18. The Book Club Exploded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    One leader, 12 readers, and a few well-thumbed copies of Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice." That is all a book club once required, but this is no longer the case. This article describes how the runaway popularity of book clubs has brought with it a whole new set of possibilities. Thematic discussion? A fiction/nonfiction mix? Videoconferencing?…

  19. Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)

  20. Why Write Book Reviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng-Odoom, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    The pressure to publish or perish or, more recently, to be visible or vanish, marginalises a culture of critical reading and reflection that has historically been the province of book reviews. Today, book reviews are roundly rejected by academic bureaucrats as unimportant, easy to write and hence, easy to get published, mere summaries, uncritical…

  1. Paradigm Lost. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Claiming to have developed a new conceptualization of creative phenomena, Howard Gardner has rounded up the usual biographical suspects in his new book "Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi" (Basic Books, 1993). Gardner doesn't successfully…

  2. Special Issue: Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohs, Perla, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews of 42 books in the following categories are provided: career counseling theory and skills, organizational development, career and life planning, adult career development, retirement, career fields, job search, job success, entrepreneurship, college and women, college and the military, life management, creativity, and reference books. (SK)

  3. Celebrating Censored Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Burress, Lee, Ed.

    Intended to provide rationales for the use of a group of controversial books in American public schools, this manual explains the educational values of 33 of the most frequently challenged books. Detailed rationales include such information as historical perspective, literary elements, pertinence, and thematic content. Some of the titles include…

  4. More than Comic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerman-Cornell, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Graphic novels (book-length fiction or nonfiction narratives told using the conventions of a comic book) bring together text and image in a way that seems to capture students' imaginations. Right now, there is little more than anecdotal research about how graphic novels can be used within specific middle school and high school disciplines. As…

  5. Books in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinger, Alice K.

    1989-01-01

    Opportunities for parents to encourage reading in the family are noted and ways to enhance the reading experience are discussed, including writing letters to book characters, singing combined with reading aloud, supplementing school subjects with enjoyable reading, sharing books at family gatherings, and using family experiences for book…

  6. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  7. Astronomy Books of 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercury, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides annotated listing of books in 16 areas: (1) amateur astromony; (2) children's books; (3) comets; (4) cosmology; (5) education in astronomy; (6) general astronomy; (7) history of astronomy; (8) life in the universe; (9) miscellaneous; (10) physics and astronomy; (11) pseudo-science; (12) space exploration; (13) stars and stellar evolution;…

  8. Books under Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Kathie

    2005-01-01

    Notwithstanding the First Amendment, book banning is a practice rooted in American history. In 1873, Congress passed the Comstock Law in an effort to legislate public morality. Though rarely enforced, the act remains on the books. A survey by the National School Boards Association found that one-third of challenges to school reading materials in…

  9. Why Books Will Survive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lane

    1983-01-01

    High prices, paper that self destructs, and competition from computers and video forms may mean hard times ahead for books. The factor most likely to assure the survival of books into the future is that there is simply no experience in life that matches silent reading. (Author/RM)

  10. China Connections Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  11. Wordless Books: Picture Perfect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukehart, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Wordless books offer a bounty of riches. The format is accessible to everyone regardless of language or reading ability, making the books ideal for use in international settings, classes with nonnative speakers, or families with adults or children who are struggling or emergent readers. They enrich the aesthetic lives and literacy skills of…

  12. Mass Digitization of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects…

  13. Special Book Review Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Offers reviews of 40 new and classic books for career counselors and career centers. Includes reviews of books on the following topics: assessment, career management, distance learning, entrepreneurship, the spirit-work connection, job-search methods, lifelong career development, as well as guides and workbooks. (JOW)

  14. Death, Children, and Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  15. The Shape of the Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manguel, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance and impact of the shape of books, explaining that from the very beginning, readers demanded books in formats adapted to their intended uses. Describes the history of book production, beginning with Mesopotamian tablets dating from the 12th century B.C. and highlighting changes in books and book production into the 20th…

  16. Literacy through the Book Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul

    This book, a guide for adults to help children create their own original and creative books, demonstrates how constructing (writing and editing) their own books can be an engaging and highly educational experience for children. The book uses simple, easy-to-follow instructions to demonstrate how scores of different book forms can be made from a…

  17. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Stephen; Ink, Gary; Greco, Albert N.

    1999-01-01

    Presents: "Prices of United States and Foreign Published Materials"; "Book Title Output and Average Prices"; "Book Sales Statistics, 1998"; "United States Book Exports and Imports: 1998"; "International Book Title Output: 1990-96"; "Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada";…

  18. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Adrian W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The six articles in this section examine prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; U.S. book exports and imports; number of book outlets in the United States and Canada; and book review media statistics. (LRW)

  19. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  20. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  1. Appalachian Stress Study: 2. Analysis of Devonian shale core: Some implications for the nature of contemporary stress variations and Alleghanian Deformation in Devonian rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Keith F.; Oertel, Gerhard; Engelder, Terry

    1989-06-01

    Detailed stress measurements in three boreholes penetrating horizontally bedded Devonian silt-stones, sandstones, and limestones above a prominent salt decollement in the Appalachian Plateau of western New York have revealed variations in horizontal stress magnitudes which correlate with lithologic and stratigraphic units in all wells. High differential stress levels (up to 20 MPa) were found in shales of very high clay content, contrary to the proposition that such materials have negligible long-term strength. Elastic modulus data show that stiffer beds generally host higher stress levels and suggest that sand/shale stress contrasts result in large part from elastic shortening of the section in response to regional ENE compression. No correlation between stress and Poisson's ratio was found. However, a major systematic drop in stress level within the generally massive shales, which occurs across a group of sand beds near the base of the Rhinestreet formation, appears to be of different origin. The stress offset corresponds to the top of a section which we conclude, on the basis of local and regional total strain data derived from chlorite fabric measurements, once hosted abnormally high pore pressures. The total strain data also suggest the entire section above the salt has been uniformly shortened during Alleghanian compression. To explain the stress discontinuity, two kinematic patterns for Alleghanian deformation of the Devonian section are proposed, both involving abnormal pore pressure development in the sub-Rhinestreet section in response to limited drainage of fluid. Drainage of this paleo-overpressure is the best available explanation of the stress offset, although an additional remnant stress component must also be present to satisfy the stress data precisely.

  2. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula to investigate the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier, and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (< 10 μT). These findings challenge the uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  3. Best Books of 1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhardt, Lillian N.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The forty-two titles selected by the editors of School Library Journal" are the best among over 2,100 new children's books reviewed since last January. Also included are 25 top notch Young Adult titles. (67 references) (MM)

  4. Children's Books and Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Provides publication data, short reviews, and age suitability recommendations for one audio cassette and nine books for children on various fiction and nonfiction topics published in 1991 and 1992. (MDM)

  5. The Book Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Ronald, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Annotations of 13 children's books with social studies themes published in 1977. Topics include racial background, conservation and recycling, American history, medieval and Shakespearean cultures, and rural life in the 1940s. (AV)

  6. Movie Books: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item annotated bibliography lists books dealing with various aspects of children's films: monsters, television production, filmmaking, kids of the movies, animation, movie stunts, magic, movie animals, and photography. Publisher, publication date, and intended grade level are included. (EJS)

  7. Library - Book Trade Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Helen Welch

    1970-01-01

    The trend in relations between the library and the book trade has been in the direction of increased communication and cooperation. Organizational links between librarians, publishers, and booksellers are discussed. (Author/JS)

  8. Batik to Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisinger, Betty

    1972-01-01

    Article describes how fifth- and sixth-graders first wrote Japanese Haiku poetry, then made books with batik covers. Materials needed and technique to follow are outlined, with photographs showing some details. (PD)

  9. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  10. Smart Book Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  11. New Plants from the Lower Devonian Pingyipu Group, Jiangyou County, Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dianne; Geng, Bao-Yin; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Descriptions of Lower Devonian plants from Yunnan, South China, have revolutionized concepts of diversity and disparity in tracheophytes soon after they became established on land. Sichuan assemblages have received little attention since their discovery almost 25 years ago and require revision. With this objective, fieldwork involving detailed logging and collection of fossils was undertaken in the Longmenshan Mountain Region, Jiangyou County and yielded the two new taxa described here. They are preserved as coalified compressions and impressions that allowed morphological but not anatomical analyses. Yanmenia (Zosterophyllum) longa comb nov is based on numerous rarely branching shoots with enations resembling lycophyte microphylls, without evidence for vasculature. The presence of sporangia is equivocal making assignation to the Lycopsida conjectural. The plant was recently described as a zosterophyll, but lacks strobili. These are present in the second plant and comprise bivalved sporangia. The strobili terminate aerial stems which arise from a basal axial complex displaying diversity in branching including H- and K- forms. These features characterise the Zosterophyllopsida, although the plant differs from Zosterophyllum in valve shape. Comparisons indicate greatest similarities to the Lower Devonian Guangnania cuneata, from Yunnan, but differences, particularly in the nature of the sporangium border, require the erection of a new species, G. minor. Superficial examination of specimens already published indicate a high degree of endemism at both species and generic level, while this study shows that Yanmenia is confined to Sichuan and Guangnania is one of the very few genera shared with Yunnan, where assemblages also show a high proportion of further endemic genera. Such provincialism noted in the Chinese Lower Devonian is explained by the palaeogeographic isolation of the South China plate, but this cannot account for differences/endemism between the Sichuan and

  12. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.

    2010-01-01

    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  13. Early and Middle Devonian shelf-slope transition, southern Mahogany Hills, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.A.; Benedetoo, K.M.

    1989-03-01

    In the southern Mahogany Hills of Nevada, the abrupt lateral transition between the lower McColley Canyon Formation (Kobeh Member) and Beacon Peak (Sevy) dolomite (Lower Devonian) and the pinch-out of the Oxyoke Canyon sandstone into the upper Sadler Ranch formation (Middle Devonian) document lithofacies relationships between carbonate shelf and slope deposits. The McColley Canyon-Beacon Peak transition is marked by a change from thin-bedded dolomite and limestone with occasional chert nodules and scattered fossil material to poorly bedded, largely unfossiliferous, sandy dolomite. This change suggests shallowing and concomitant circulation restriction at the shelf edge during the early stages of platform (ramp) development. Measured sections in the vicinity of Combs Peak suggest that the location of the shelf edge is the result of both transgression and paleotopographic relief on the subjacent platform. A thin oxidized zone at the top of the Beacon Peak in section CP II, interpreted as a paleosol, indicates subaerial exposure of the outer shelf prior to renewed transgression and deposition of the Bartine Member. The location of the carbonate shelf edge is further documented by the westward pinch-out of unfossiliferous, arenaceous dolomites of the Oxyoke Canyon sandstone into fossiliferous foreslope dolomites of the Sadler Ranch formation. This facies change is the result of regression, which caused shoaling along the shelf edge. Lithofacies relationships exposed in the southern Mahogany Hills document two transgressive-regressive cycles and help to establish the location of an Early and Middle Devonian carbonate shelf-slope break in southern Eureka County.

  14. Controls on porosity development in the Devonian Reservoir at Dolarhide Field

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, A.; Miller, J. ); Van Horn, D. )

    1990-05-01

    Devonian strata in the Dollarhide anticline originally contained 138 million bbl of oil. Porosity distribution is controlled by depositional facies. Devonian shata contain five main lithologies (from bottom to top). (1) Nonporous, microcrystalline chert and dolomite deposited as carbonate and siliceous mud in a basinal enviroment. (2) Burrowed chert-dolomite (10-35 ft thick) with variable porosity accumulated as siliceous sponge spicules and carbonate mud in a low-energy slope environment. (3) Laminated tripolitic chert (0-65 ft) deposited as a spiculitic sand in submarine channels in a slope environment. It has excellent porosity, mainly molds of sponge spicules. (4) Bioclastic limestone (47-92 ft) accumulated as a crinoidal grainstone in a moderate- to high-energy, outer shelf environment. Calcite cementation occluded virtually all porosity. (5) Upper dolomite (50-90 ft) consists of 1-3-ft-thick sequences of dolomitized peloidal grainstone capped by fine-grained chert. The grainstone was deposited in high-energy, shallow-subtidal and tidal-flat environments and has variable porosity. Deposition of the 200-ft-thick Devonian section occurred during a major progradation of shelf and slope facies. Porosity occurs in two stratigraphic zones separated by tight bioclastic limestone. The upper porosity zone (0-90 ft in upper dolomite) is heterogeneous with stratified porosity that bifurcates, coalesces, and pinches out. The lower porosity zone (laminated tripolitic chert and burrowed chert-dolomite) is homogeneous, with high porosity (commonly 25-35%), moderate permeability (5-20 md), and, in the southern part of the field, no distinct vertical permeability barriers. Thickness of the lower reservoir is variable (0-100 ft) with elongate thicks where sponge spicule sands filled channels.

  15. New U-Pb zircon ages and the duration and division of Devonian time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Bradley, D.C.; Ver Straeten, C.A.; Harris, A.G.; Ebert, J.R.; McCutcheon, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Newly determined U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic ashes closely tied to biostratigraphic zones are used to revise the Devonian time-scale. They are: 1) 417.6 ?? 1.0 Ma for an ash within the conodont zone of Icriodus woschmidti/I. w. hesperius Lochkovian); 2) 408.3 ?? 1.9 Ma for an ash of early Emsian age correlated with the conodont zones of Po. dehiscens--Lower Po. inversus; 3) 391.4 ?? 1.8 Ma for an ash within the Po. c. costatus Zone and probably within the upper half of the zone (Eifelian); and 4) 381.1 ?? 1.3 Ma for an ash within the range of the Frasnian conodont Palmatolepis punctata (Pa. punctata Zone to Upper Pa. hassi Zone). U-Pb zircon ages for two rhyolites bracketing a palyniferous bed of the pusillites-lepidophyta spore zone, are dated at 363.8 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363 ?? 2.2 Ma and 363.4 ?? 1.8 Ma, respectively, suggesting an age of ~363 Ma for a level within the late Famennian Pa. g. expansa Zone. These data, together with other published zircon ages, suggest that the base and top of the Devonian lie close to 418 Ma and 362 Ma, respectively, thus lengthening the period of ~20% over current estimates. We suggest that the duration of the Middle Devonian (Eifelian and Givitian) is rather brief, perhaps no longer than 11.5 Myr (394 Ma-382.5 Ma), and that the Emsian and Famennian are the longest stages in the period with estimated durations of ~15.5 Myr and 14.5 Myr, respectively.

  16. Early and Middle Devonian shelf-slope transition, southern Mahogany Hills, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.A. ); Benedetto, K.M. )

    1991-10-01

    In the southern Mahogany Hills the abrupt lateral transition between the lower McColley Canyon Formation (Kobeh Member) and the Beacon Peak (Sevy) Dolomite (Lower Devonian), and the pinch out of the Oxyoke Canyon Sandstone into the upper Sadler Ranch Formation (Middle Devonian), document lithofacies relationships between carbonate shelf and slope deposits. The McColley Canyon/Beacon Peak transition is marked by a change from thin-bedded dolomite and limestone with occasional chert nodules and scattered fossil material, to poorly bedded, largely unfossiliferous, sandy dolomite. This change suggests shallowing and concomitant circulation restriction at the shelf edge during the early stages of platform (ramp) development. Data from measured sections, in the vicinity of Combs Peak, suggest that the location of the shelf edge' was the result of both transgression and paleotopographic relief on the subjacent platform. A thin oxidized zone at the top of the Beacon Peak Dolomite on Combs Peak, interpreted as a paleosol, indicates subaerial exposure of the outer shelf prior to renewed transgression and deposition of the Bartine Member of the McColley Canyon Formation. The location of the carbonate shelf edge is further documented by the westward pinch out of unfossiliferous, arenaceous dolomites of the Oxyoke Canyon Sandstone into fossiliferous, fore-slope dolomites of the Sadler Ranch Formation. This facies change is the result of regression, which caused shoaling along the shelf edge. Lithofacies relationships Mahogany Hills document two transgressive-regressive cycles, and help to establish the location of an Early and Middle Devonian carbonate shelf-slope transition in southern Eureka County.

  17. Lithologies of the basement complex (Devonian and older) in the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks of the basement complex (Devonian and older) were encountered in at least 30 exploratory wells in the northern part of the NPRA. Fine-grained, variably deformed sedimentary rocks deposited in a slope or basinal setting predominate and include varicolored (mainly red and green) argillite in the Simpson area, dark argillite and chert near Barrow, and widespread gray argillite. Chitinozoans of Middle-Late Ordovician and Silurian age occur in the dark argillite and chert unit. Sponge spicules and radiolarians establish a Phanerozoic age for the varicolored and gray argillite units, both of which contain local interbeds of chert-rich sandstone and silt-stone. Conglomerate and sandstone, also chert-rich but interbedded with mudstone and coal and of Early-Middle Devonian age, occur in the Topagoruk area; these strata formed in a fluvial environment. At East Teshekpuk, granite of probable Devonian age was penetrated. Brecciated, quartz-veined rock of uncertain protolith that may be part of the basement complex was encountered in the Ikpikpuk well. Seismic data indicate that angular unconformities truncate all sedimentary units of the basement complex in NPRA. Rocks correlative in age and lithofacies with the dark argillite and chert unit occur in the subsurface near Prudhoe Bay. Other argillite units in NPRA have similarities to basement rocks in the subsurface adjacent to ANWR and the Ordovician-Silurian Iviagik Group at Cape Lisburne, but lack the interbedded limestones found in the ANWR strata, and are less metamorphosed than, and compositionally distinct from, the Iviagik. The Topagoruk conglomerate and the East Teshekpuk granite resemble the Ulungarat formation and the Okpilak batholith, respectively, in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  18. Global climatic changes during the Devonian-Mississippian: Stable isotope biogeochemistry of brachiopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Uwe

    1989-12-01

    A progressive trend towards heavier δ 13C values of Devonian-Mississippian brachiopods from North America, Europe, Afghanistan and Algeria probably reflects expansion of the terrestrestrial and/or marine biomass and/or burial of carbon in soils/sediments. Oceanic Productivity crises, based on perturbations in the overall δ 13C trend, are recognized for the Mid Givetian, Early Famennian, Late Kinderhookian, Late Osagean and Early and Late Meramecian. The Givetian productivity crisis was probably accompanied by massive overturn of biologically toxic deep-ocean water. Temperature data, adjusted for the possible secular variation of seawater, support the hypothesis of global greenhouse conditions for the Devonian (mean of 30°C, mean of 26°C if extrinsic data are deleted) and icehouse conditions for the Mississippian (mean of 17°C). During the Mid Givetian, Frasnian and Early Famennian calculated water temperatures for tropical epeiric seas were generally above the thermal threshold limit (˜ 38°C) of most marine invertebrates or epeiric seawater was characterized by unusually low salinities (˜ pp ppt) or a combination of the two. These elevated water temperatures and/or low salinities, in conjunction with the postulated productivity crises and overturning of toxic deep waters are considered prime causes for the biotic crisis of the Late Devonian. In addition, a presumed expanding oxygen-minimum zone and general anoxia in the oceans prevented shallow-water organisms from escaping these inhospitable conditions. Re-population of the tropical seas occurred, after either water temperatures had dropped below the thermal threshold limit and/or salinities were back to normal, and oceanic productivity had increased due to more vigorous oceanic circulation, sometime during the Mid-Late Famennian. Migration of eurythermal, shallow- and deeper-water organisms into the vacant niches of the shallow seas was possible because of, generally, slightly lower sea levels, but, more

  19. Origins and relationships of colonial Heliophyllum in the upper Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Heliophyllum halli Milne-Edwards and Haime is common to abundant in many Lower and Middle Devonian stratigraphic units in New York. Most Heliophyllum are solitary, but both branching and massive colonies are known. Four 'populations' of colonial Heliophyllum in the Givetian part of the sequence are distinct, as is a fifth form that occurs through the section. Each of the colonial forms is interpreted as an independent derivative of solitary forms of H. halli. The relationships appear to range from infrasubspecific to specific, and it is suggested that the complex should be recognized as the Heliophyllum halli species group.

  20. Nitrate levels and the age of groundwater from the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer in Fife, Scotland.

    PubMed

    McNeill, G W; Anderson, J; Elliot, T

    2003-03-01

    The tritium concentrations in 13 groundwater samples from boreholes throughout the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer of Fife have been measured. Due to atmospheric variations in tritium concentrations over the last century, this radioactive tracer can be used as a groundwater age indicator. In this study, the groundwater tritium concentrations have allowed for the area to be divided into three zones, and the variable chemistry of the groundwater samples, including the problem of recent elevated nitrate levels in the Fife Aquifer, has been interpreted in terms of their relative ages.

  1. Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Brooks B; Benoist, Stephen L; El Hassani, Ahmed; Wheeler, Christopher; Crick, Rex E

    2003-06-13

    We have found evidence for a bolide impacting Earth in the mid-Devonian ( approximately 380 million years ago), including high concentrations of shocked quartz, Ni, Cr, As, V, and Co anomalies; a large negative carbon isotope shift (-9 per mil); and microspherules and microcrysts at Jebel Mech Irdane in the Anti Atlas desert near Rissani, Morocco. This impact is important because it is coincident with a major global extinction event (Kacák/otomari event), suggesting a possible cause-and-effect relation between the impact and the extinction. The result may represent the extinction of as many as 40% of all living marine animal genera.

  2. Evidence of land plant affinity for the Devonian fossil Protosalvinia (Foerstia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romankiw, L.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Roen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Devonian plant fossil Protosalvinia (Foerstia) has been examined by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS). Results of these studies reveal that the chemical structure of Protosalvinia is remarkably similar to that of coalified wood. A well-defined phenolic carbon peak in the NMR spectra and the appearance of phenol and alkylated phenols in pyrolysis products are clearly indicative of lignin-like compounds. These data represent significant new information on the chemical nature of Protosalvinia and provide the first substantial organic geochemical evidence for land plant affinity. -Authors

  3. Limestones of western Newfoundland that magnetized before Devonian folding but after Middle Ordovician lithification

    SciTech Connect

    Hodych, J.P. )

    1989-01-01

    A positive fold test and a negative conglomerate test help determine when and how stable remanence was acquired in the Middle Ordovician Table Head Group limestones of the Port au Port Peninsula of Newfoundland. The limestones magnetized after lithification and incorporation as clasts into a Middle Ordovician breccia. Hence, the limestones do not carry a detrital or other primary remanence despite their very low conodont color alteration index. The remanence may be thermoviscous or diagenetic and was acquired before Devonian folding. This suggests the need for caution in interpreting paleomagnetic results from other early Paleozoic limestones whose remanence resides in magnetite of blocking temperature lower than 400C.

  4. Microtektite-like glass spherules in Late Devonian (367 MA) shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claeys, Philippe; Casier, Jean-Georges

    1993-01-01

    Glass spherules are found closely associated with the Frasnian-Famennain (FF) boundary in two sections, Senzeille and Hony, located in the Dinant basin in the South of Belgium. These spherules are interpreted, based on their chemistry and low water content, as impact produced microtektite-like glass. Craters of Late Devonian ages include the Siljan Ring (Sweden), Charlevoix (Quebec), and Taihu Lake (China). The occurrence of microtektite-like glass closely associated with the FF mass extinction is intriguing. The relationships between the impact and the extinction event deserve further study.

  5. Seeing into Books: Lessons from Rare Book School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Lois G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the author spent a week at Rare Book School (RBS) immersed in a course entitled "Teaching the History of the Book;" an investigation into different ways of thinking about, designing, and conducting a course on the history of the book. The goal was to learn how to convert teaching and outreach experiences in rare book collections from a…

  6. State Centers for the Book Show How "Books Change Lives."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities sponsored by some of the 28 state Centers for the Books, affiliated with the national Center for the Book at the Library of Congress, that were created to stimulate public interest in books, reading, and libraries. Highlights include electronic bulletin boards, satellite conferences, and children's book fairs. (LRW)

  7. Sharing Skills: Reach for a Book; Book Week Puzzle Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Caroline Feller

    1986-01-01

    Reach for a Book is the theme for Children's Book Week 1986, and book presentations, activities, and exhibits to emphasize the joy of reading are listed. A Book Week Puzzle Packet provides two puzzles designed to reinforce the idea of using the card catalog to find materials on specific subjects. (EM)

  8. The Children's Book Showcase 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    The 1975 Children's Book Showcase committee selected 27 children's books for their excellent quality and design. Each of these books is given a two-page spread in the Showcase catalog. Information about the books, which are arranged alphabetically by title, includes author, title, publisher, artist, editor, art director, designer, production…

  9. Children's Book Awards Annual 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Matt; Dupuy, Marigny J.

    This publication reviews the books from the major national children's book awards and lists. The following awards are covered: John Newberry Awards, Randolph Caldecott Awards, Coretta Scott King Awards, Mildred L. Batchelder Awards, Pura Belpre, Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, and the National Book Award for Young People's Literature. The lists are…

  10. When Do Children Read Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ours, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  11. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J.; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F.; Hao, Shougang

    2016-08-01

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant-soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus. The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet-dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant-soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated.

  12. Rotational and accretionary evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon, from Devonian to present time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show graphically how the Klamath Mountains grew from a relatively small nucleus in Early Devonian time to its present size while rotating clockwise approximately 110°. This growth occurred by the addition of large tectonic slices of oceanic lithosphere, volcanic arcs, and melange during a sequence of accretionary episodes. The Klamath Mountains province consists of eight lithotectonoic units called terranes, some of which are divided into subterranes. The Eastern Klamath terrane, which was the early Paleozoic nucleus of the province, is divided into the Yreka, Trinity, and Redding subterranes. Through tectonic plate motion, usually involving subduction, the other terranes joined the early Paleozoic nucleus during seven accretionary episodes ranging in age from Early Devonian to Late Jurassic. The active terrane suture is shown for each episode by a bold black line. Much of the western boundary of the Klamath Mountains is marked by the South Fork and correlative faults along which the Klamath terranes overrode the Coast Range rocks during an eighth accretionary episode, forming the South Fork Mountain Schist in Early Cretaceous time.

  13. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  14. Tectonic and depositional model of the Arabian and adjoining plates during the Silurian-Devonian

    SciTech Connect

    Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-01-01

    During the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian, the western part of the Arabian Peninsula was covered by polar glaciers that advanced from the south pole in African Gondwana. During this period, nondeposition, erosion, or marginal marine conditions prevailed in eastern and northern Arabia. When the glaciers melted in the Early Silurian, sea level rose sharply and the paleo-Tethys Ocean transgressed the Arabian and adjoining plates depositing a thick, organic-rich shale directly over the glaciogenic and periglacial rocks and related unconformities. The post-glacial sequence coarsens upward reflecting the passage of a coastline prograding northward from African and Arabian Gondwana to northern Arabia. A sea level drop in the Late Silurian placed the study area in a terrestrial environment; however, as sea level recovered in the Early Devonian, a carbonate sequence blanketed most of the area. The transgression, however, was interrupted by regional uplift and local orogenic movements in the Middle and Late Devonian. These movements constitute the onset of Hercynian tectonism, which resulted in erosion of the older sequences, depositional hiatuses, and regional facies changes.

  15. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of Lochkovian to Eifelian limestones from the Devonian of central and southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggisch, Werner; Mann, Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Lower to Middle Devonian carbonates of the Prague Syncline, the Carnic Alps, the Montagne Noire, and the Cantabrian Mountains were investigated for δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. These values were measured on bulk rocks, selected components and cements. Many carbonates exhibit primary marine values, but some are altered by diagenesis. A δ13C curve can be presented for the latest Pridolian to Emsian time interval. Several sharp or broad positive excursions are obvious in the woschmidti-postwoschmidti, sulcatus, kitabicus, Late serotinus, and kockelianus conodont zones. The excursion at the Silurian Devonian boundary is known worldwide and therefore considered global in nature. Some of the others are described for the first time from central and southern Europe, and their global nature has to be verified by further investigations in other regions. Most excursions relate to and/or started during major regressions whereas sea-level highstands correspond to minimal δ13C values. Similar relationships between sea-level changes and δ13C have been observed from other early Palaeozoic intervals. The transgressive Choteč (?) and Kačák events are marked by positive isotope excursions, this type of combination is usually observed in late Palaeozoic to Cenozoic black shale events.

  16. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies of the Silurian-Devonian interval of the northern Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, K.L.; Geesaman, R.C. ); Wheeler, D. )

    1992-04-01

    The Silurian and Devonian intervals of the northern Central Basin platform area of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico include the Fusselman, Wristen, and Thirtyone formations and the Woodford Shale. The carbonate-rich Fusselman, Wristen, and Thirtyone formations record a transition from ramp to platform deposition. Oolite grainstones of the lower Fusselman Formation were deposited in a ramp setting during an Upper Ordovician/Lower Silurian transgression. The overlying crinoid packstones and grainstones represent shoals that developed along a break in slope separating the evolving platform from a southward-dipping starved basin. By the close of Fusselman deposition, the platform was well developed, with shallow peridtidal mudstones and wackestones, and high-energy grainstones deposited as near-parallel facies tracts over the platform area. The platform system became fully developed during the deposition of the Wristen Formation. Porous dolomitic peridtidal and platform margin facies grade downdip into nonporous, limy and argillaceous open-shelf facies. Platform facies are typified by numerous shallowing-upward parasequences that terminated at subaerial exposure surfaces. The rocks of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation were deposited as a wedge that onlaps the exposed Silurian platform margin. This formation contains a porous, chert-rich, lowstand deposit; a transgressive disconformity; and variably porous, grain-rich highstand deposits representing an overall sea level rise. A major unconformity marks the contact between the karsted upper surface of the Thirtyone Formation and the overlying organic-rich, anoxic Woodford Shale.

  17. Biogenic structures in upper Devonian storm deposits in Catskill Deltaic Complex, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.F.

    1986-05-01

    Trace fossils and biogenic structures are moderately abundant in sandstones of the Genesee Group. These rocks are well exposed in a quarry at Gilbert Lake State Park, east-central New York, where they are interpreted as storm deposits. The biogenic structures given important information about the behavior of Devonian animals colonizing the freshly deposited sediment. Within the sandstones, trace-fossil diversity is low. The most abundant trace fossil is a small (1 mm diameter) branching burrow system (.Chondrites). Other common forms are vertical to horizontal meniscate burrows, horizontally oriented spreite-bearing forms (.Rhizocorallium-.Zoophycos), and vertical burrows (Skolithos). Except for Skolithos, the trace fossils are highly variable morphologically (e.g., the mensicate burrows apparently pass laterally into .Rhizocorallium-.Zoophycos). Commonly, the top 8-10 cm of inferred storm deposits are highly bioturbated, whereas the lower 20-25 cm typically are undisturbed. .Chondrites extends to depths more than 20 cm below the top of the burrowed zone, implying that its producer burrowed to equivalent depths. Two generalizations about the behavior of Devonian animals colonizing storm deposits can be made. (1) Their behavior was changeable, as indicated by diverse orientations and morphologic variability of the trace fossils. (2) They had a moderately deep infaunal habit, indicated by the abundance of burrowing in the top 8-10 cm of storm deposits.

  18. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J.; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F.; Hao, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant−soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus. The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet−dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant−soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated. PMID:27503883

  19. A middle Devonian temperate water limestone-isotopes, stromatoporoids and shallow water facies

    SciTech Connect

    Wolosz, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Edgecliff Member of the Middle Devonian Onondaga Formation has long been of interest to exploration geologists because its pinnacle reefs and bioherms are potential natural gas reservoirs. Current evidence indicates that the Edgecliff was deposited in a shallow, temperate water environment suggesting that application of standard tropical carbonate models will be misleading. Three lines of evidence support the temperate water model for the Edgecliff. Carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses performed on 29 samples from the non-luminescent portions of 15 brachiopods with prismatic ultrastructure yield {delta}{sup 18}O values which are isotopically heavier than accepted values for Devonian sea-water, suggesting cool water conditions. The distribution of stromatoporoids (assumed warm water organisms) ranges from rare and small in the eastern part of New York State, to more common in Ontario, Canada. This trend in stromatoporoids appears to represent an increase in size and abundance as the distance from the paleo-equator decreases. Finally, previously unrecognized shallow water facies in the Edgecliff including thin, dolomitized and bioturbated carbonate muds, solitary rugosan biostromes and ridge-like fringing coral bioherms negate any possibility that the isotopic and paleobiologic data reflect deposition in deep, cooler waters as opposed to an overall temperate water environment.

  20. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Devonian Scherr-Foreknobs and Lockhaven Formations near Allegheny front of central Pennsylvanian

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, A.G.; McGhee, G.R. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Five well-exposed sections (at Madley, New Baltimore, Altoona, Milesburg, and Lockhaven) of Upper Devonian marine strata were measured and analyzed to refine lithologic and temporal correlations along the Allegheny Front of Pennsylvania. The members of the Scherr and Foreknobs formations (Minnehaha Springs, Mallow, Briery Gap, Blizzard, Pound, and Red Lock) are recognized as far north as Altoona. Farther north at Milesburg and Lockhaven, the lithology of the upper parts of the Lockhaven Formation are markedly different from the contiguous Foreknobs Formation, but the Minnehaha Springs member of the basal Scherr and lower-middle Lockhaven Formations is recognized in all sections studied. The Minnehaha Springs member (a 50 to 100-ft, resistant, medium-gray to red-gray sandy silt unit) is considered to be the result of a brief sea level lowering and is therefore nearly isochronous. The isochronous nature of the Minnehaha Springs member is substantiated by biostratigraphic data; therefore, it is considered the most reliable datum for correlating the sections of this study. The lithologic information of the six measured sections was augmented by 38 wells logs of oil and gas wells of the region. From the combined lithologic data, three generalized lithofacies cross sections were generated. These cross sections clearly indicate that: (1) the strike of the paleoshoreline was nearly parallel with the Allegheny Front; (2) a major delta lobe existed in central Pennsylvania during the Late Devonian; but (3) the size and influence of the delta on depositional environments was not constant through space and time.

  1. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  2. The groundwater age in the Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mažeika, J.; Baublytė, A.; Martma, T.

    2009-06-01

    3H, δ13C and hydrochemical data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age derived from conventional 14C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system from the Baltic upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area on the Baltic Sea coast in the west was considered. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater changes from 300 to 24,000 mg/L and increases downgradient towards the coast. The other major constituents have the same trend as the TDS. The hydrochemical facies of groundwater vary from an alkali-earth carbonates facies at the eastern upland area to an alkali-earth carbonate-sulfate and chloride facies at transit and discharge areas. Meteoric water percolating through the Quaternary and Devonian aquifers regulate the initial 14C activities of groundwater involving two main members of DIC: soil CO2 with modern 14C activity uptake and dissolution of 14C-free aquifer carbonates. Other sources of DIC are less common. 14C activity of DIC in the groundwater ranged from 60 to 108 pMC at the shallow depths. With an increase of the aquifers depth the dolomitization of aqueous solution and leakage of the “old” groundwater from lower aquifers take place, traced by lower activities (7-30 pMC).

  3. Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, J.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

  4. Upper Devonian-Tournaisian facies and oil resources of the Russian craton's eastern margin

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmishek, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Upper Devonian-Tournaisian facies on the Russian craton's eastern margin indicate deposition in two distinct paleomorphic environments: bathimetrically expressed basins and shallow platforms. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation persisted on the platforms, and black, thin-bedded, organic-rich shales and limestones of the Domanik facies were deposited in stagnant basins that stretched more than 2000 km from the Arctic Ocean to the Caspian Sea. Intermittently introduced clastic material and detrital carbonates formed progradational shelves. Barrier reefs along platform edges, atolls and reef mounds on basin margins, and smaller patch reefs on platforms were abundant. The basins were finally filled with Tournaisian (in the Timan-Pechora province) or basal Visean (in the Volga-Ural province) clastics. The North Caspian deep-water basin survived until the end of Early Permian time when it was filled with a thick salt formation. The organic-rich Domanik facies is the major source rock in the Volga-Ural, Timam-Pechora, and North Caspian petroleum provinces. About one-third of oil reserves occurs predominantly in structural traps in Middle Devonian-lower Frasnian clastics that directly underlie Domanik rocks. Most of the remaining two-thirds is found in reefs, especially in drape structures over the reefs in Tournaisian carbonates and basal Visean clastics. 61 refs., 16 figs.

  5. Reservoir zonation in Silurian-Devonian carbonates of Wells field, Dawson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Wells field in Dawson County, Texas, has produced over 7.5 million bbl since 1955 from Silurian-Devonian carbonates. Although originally classified as a Devonian field, production there actually is out of the Silurian Wristen and Fusselman formations. Wells field is an extremely complex system of structured and stratigraphic reservoirs not easily characterized by traditional subsurface mapping techniques. Detailed lithologic analyses of well cuttings from 29 wells in and around this field were done to evaluate reservoir zonation and potentials for either new field development wells, or recompletions from existing well bores. These analyses have shown that paleotopographic highs on the Fusselman unconformity across the field created optimum sites for Fusselman dolomite reservoir development, and collateral development of Wristen reservoirs. The Wristen reservoirs are in the form of porous carbonate mounds that grew adjacent to the paleotopographically high areas, or simple compactionally fractured cherty carbonates over these highs. The recognition of Fusselman paleotopography in most wells is implied by thickness and facies changes in the overlying Wristen section. A certain amount of structure and facies-induced reservoir separation has been documented. The results of this study have been used to identify several areas of the field where each of the three reservoirs could be exploited for underdeveloped reserves.

  6. The climate change caused by the land plant invasion in the Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hir, Guillaume; Donnadieu, Yannick; Goddéris, Yves; Meyer-Berthaud, Brigitte; Ramstein, Gilles; Blakey, Ronald C.

    2011-10-01

    Land plants invaded continents during the Mid-Paleozoic. Their spreading and diversification have been compared to the Cambrian explosion in terms of intensity and impact on the diversification of life on Earth. Whereas prior studies were focused on the evolution of the root system and its weathering contribution, here we used a coupled climate/carbon/vegetation model to investigate the biophysical impacts of plant colonization on the surface climate through changes in continental albedo, roughness, thermal properties, and potential evaporation. From the Early to the Late Devonian, our model simulates a significant atmospheric CO 2 drop from 6300 to 2100 ppmv that is due to an increase in the consumption of CO 2 though continental silicate weathering. The continental drift and the climatic changes promoted by land plants explain this trend. The simulated CO 2 drawdown is paradoxically associated with unchanged temperatures. We show here that the CO 2 drop is counteracted by a large warming resulting from the surface albedo reduction caused by the appearance of an extended plant-cover. If CO 2 is consensually assumed as the main driver of the Phanerozoic climate, this paper demonstrates that, during land-plant invasion, the modifications of soil properties could have played in the opposite direction of the carbon dioxide fall, hence maintaining warm temperatures during part of the Devonian.

  7. Representatives of the family Actinostromatidae (Stromatoporoidea) in the Devonian of southern Poland and their ecological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Stromatoporoids of the family Actinostromatidae are common constituents of Givetian to Frasnian (Devonian) organic buildups. The species-level structure of actinostromatid assemblages from the Devonian of southern Poland is described in the present paper, with special emphasis on ecological factors that influenced species composition of the communities. Nine species of the genera Actinostroma and Bifariostroma are distinguished. Members of the family Actinostromatidae predominated in stromatoporoid assemblages within lower Frasnian carbonate buildup margins. The most diverse actinostromatid faunas were found within the middle Givetian Stringocephalus Bank, in the upper Givetian-lower Frasnian biostromal complex and in the lower Frasnian organic buildups. Species-level biodiversity was lowest within detrital facies which surrounded the Frasnian carbonate buildups. Species of Actinostroma with well-developed colliculi are commonest within the middle Givetian to early Frasnian coral-stromatoporoid biostromal complexes, whereas species with strongly reduced colliculi predominate early-middle Frasnian organic buildups. The skeletal structure of actinostromatids reflects environmental changes, documenting a transition from species with thin, close-set pillars and widely spaced laminae (common in the middle Givetian) to those with long, thick pillars and megapillars (in Bifariostroma), which were predominant during the early and middle Frasnian. The distribution of growth forms among species reveals a significant intraspecific variation. Species of Actinostroma can be either tabular or low domical, depending on the palaeoenvironmental setting. Thus, the present study confirms that stromatoporoid morphology was influenced by environmental conditions.

  8. Belowground rhizomes in paleosols: The hidden half of an Early Devonian vascular plant.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Deng, Zhenzhen; Huang, Pu; Huang, Kangjun; Benton, Michael J; Cui, Ying; Wang, Deming; Liu, Jianbo; Shen, Bing; Basinger, James F; Hao, Shougang

    2016-08-23

    The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant-soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet-dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant-soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated.

  9. Sediments and processes on a small stream-flow dominated, devonian alluvial fan, Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Philip A.

    1981-05-01

    The main conglomerate type of a small Devonian alluvial fan in Shetland, northern Britain, is an inverse to normally graded framework-supported gravel. The sedimentological details of these beds and fundamental considerations of the mechanics of movement of highly concentrated flows suggests that neither debris-flow nor grain-flow were responsible for the deposition of these conglomerates. On the contrary, these inverse to normally graded conglomerates were deposited by water as thick gravel sheets with little topographic relief, but broadly analogous to longitudinal bars. They were deposited under high aggradation conditions first on the rising and then on the falling flood. The high concentration of material in transport on the rising and peak flood was responsible for the polymodal and unstratified nature of the conglomerates. As the flood waned, normal grading was developed and a preferred horizontal fabric was produced under low concentrations of sediment. Other conglomerate types, comparatively of lesser importance, were deposited from highly concentrated clast dispersions and are notably richer in matrix and locally possess inverse grading. The hydrological environment was one of flashy discharges of short duration but of high velocity. Flow was dissipated rapidly, perhaps due to extreme water loss. This example from the Devonian of Shetland provides an interesting alternative to the mass-transport dominated fan models currently in vogue.

  10. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  11. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been a steady drop in lung cancer deaths among men, mainly because fewer men are smoking, and since the turn of the century, lung cancer deaths in women have been slowly declining. Cigarette smoking rates had been dropping steadily in the 1990s ...

  12. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  13. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  14. Internet Books for Educators, Parents, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Jean

    This book is a reference guide to more than 100 Internet books. The book is divided into six chapters covering: (1) general Internet books; (2) books for educators and librarians; (3) books for parents, children, and students; (4) books for use in curriculum development; (5) juvenile fiction; and (6) books for web page design and creation. Within…

  15. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  16. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  17. Check Out These Books

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Michelle (Editor); Mulenburg, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    The book entitled "Fusion Leadership: Unlocking the Subtle Forces that Change People and Organizations Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel (1998) Berett-Koehler Publishers, Inc." was Reviewed by Dr. Michelle Collins, NASA Headquarters. If you've already read books on leadership and organizational change by authors such as Moshe Rubinstein and Iris Firstenberg, Peter Senge, Tom Peters, and Steven Covey, and you were thinking of rereading them, you don't have to do that now. Just read this book instead. It's a fusion of many of their same concepts presented from a different view. The book does not explore any particular subject in depth. Rather the authors "skim" many subjects and concepts, interlacing them to develop the concept of "Fusion Leadership". The fundamental concept of treating people as people rather than machines is the main theme. "Fusion Leadership" is the process of fusing people together by nurturing six "subtle" forces: mindfulness, courage, vision, heart, communication, and integrity. To do so, hierarchy is diminished and responsibility both for oneself as well as for the team is emphasized. There are a number of organizations and managers that will find such a change threatening. The concepts behind such a management style are straightforward and the benefits are intuitive once you've reflected on them; however, the obvious benefits of the behavioral change proposed in Fusion Leadership can be completely lost in a fear-based system. The concept of caring about people in one's organization was the common thread in Chris Turner's book All Hat, No Cattle (see book review, ASK 5). Much is being written about the re-humanizing of the workplace, but the basis of it is so common sense that one wonders what's taking so long for the workplace to change? Whether you're in a position to change your organization or simply your project team, you'll find the concepts in fusion leadership equally applicable.

  18. Chemistry WebBook

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  19. Burial diagenesis in the Upper Devonian reef complexes of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.W. ); Kerans, C. ); Playford, P.E. ); McManus, A. )

    1991-06-01

    The Devonian carbonates of the Geikie Gorge region, Canning basin, have undergone a long and complex diagenetic history that began in Devonian seawater with extensive marine cementation of platform-margin lithologies. Devonian-Lower Carboniferous burial diagenesis was the most important porosity occluding episode because almost all primary porosity was destroyed by equant calcite cements during this interval. Dolomitization and consequent secondary porosity development also occurred during early burial diagenesis. The distribution and geochemistry of the major calcite cements and dolomite types are consistent with these phases having been precipitated from connate marine or basinal brines. Karstification and minor calcite cementation took place during late Carboniferous subaerial exposure. Minor calcite cementation occurred during Permian-Cenozoic burial, predominantly in secondary porosity within pervasively dolomitized lithologies. Karstification, dedolomitization, and calcite recrystallization took place in association with Cenozoic meteoric diagenesis. Secondary moldic and intercrystalline porosity within the completely dolomitized lithologies were the longest lived porosity types in the carbonates. Some secondary porosity escaped both Devonian-Carboniferous and Permian-Cenozoic burial cementation, probably due to a lack of nucleation sites for calcite cements within completely dolomitized lithologies.

  20. An exceptionally preserved Late Devonian actinopterygian provides a new model for primitive cranial anatomy in ray-finned fishes

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Sam; Darras, Laurent; Clément, Gaël; Blieck, Alain; Friedman, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse living osteichthyan (bony vertebrate) group, with a rich fossil record. However, details of their earliest history during the middle Palaeozoic (Devonian) ‘Age of Fishes' remains sketchy. This stems from an uneven understanding of anatomy in early actinopterygians, with a few well-known species dominating perceptions of primitive conditions. Here we present an exceptionally preserved ray-finned fish from the Late Devonian (Middle Frasnian, ca 373 Ma) of Pas-de-Calais, northern France. This new genus is represented by a single, three-dimensionally preserved skull. CT scanning reveals the presence of an almost complete braincase along with near-fully articulated mandibular, hyoid and gill arches. The neurocranium differs from the coeval Mimipiscis in displaying a short aortic canal with a distinct posterior notch, long grooves for the lateral dorsal aortae, large vestibular fontanelles and a broad postorbital process. Identification of similar but previously unrecognized features in other Devonian actinopterygians suggests that aspects of braincase anatomy in Mimipiscis are apomorphic, questioning its ubiquity as stand-in for generalized actinopterygian conditions. However, the gill skeleton of the new form broadly corresponds to that of Mimipiscis, and adds to an emerging picture of primitive branchial architecture in crown gnathostomes. The new genus is recovered in a polytomy with Mimiidae and a subset of Devonian and stratigraphically younger actinopterygians, with no support found for a monophyletic grouping of Moythomasia with Mimiidae. PMID:26423841

  1. Book Catalog Use Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacco, Concetta N.

    1973-01-01

    Technological developments of the past twenty years have resulted in renewed interest in book-form catalogs. Users were surveyed at two libraries to determine that their satisfaction with bibliographical data, entry points, and physical form. (17 references) (Author/DH)

  2. Writing Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolen, Jane

    According to the author, an experienced editor, teacher, and writer of children's literature, the purpose of this book is threefold: to present a broader view of children's literature, to show the wide range of children's literature, and to reveal the opportunities available for writing children's literature. The chapters discuss: (1) attitudes…

  3. Children & Books. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Zena; And Others

    Designed for classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, the emphases in this book are on understanding children and their needs, on perspectives and background, on criteria and types of literature, and on artists and authors. The first part provides an overview of children's needs and interests,…

  4. Earthfest. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weilbacher, Mike

    1991-01-01

    An activity book to help elementary teachers and students explore the environment offers information and questions about spaceships; an ecology primer and poster with questions; information on animal adaptation with poster and questions; ecological and dramatic arts projects; a script for performance; and suggestions to make Earth Day celebrations…

  5. Book Review: The People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Reviews "The Micmac: How Their Ancestors Lived Five Hundred Years Ago" (Ruth Holmes and Harold McGee), an illustrated book that shows how Micmac Indians adapted so well to the world. Describes the Micmacs' knowledge of herbs for treating sicknesses and injuries. Explains that the demise of the Micmacs came with new diseases brought to…

  6. 1972 Microfilm Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    The 1972 Microfilm Source Book has been designed to give sources of supply for important services and equipment related to microfilm. Events in the microfilm industry during 1971 are reviewed first, and a calendar is provided of major meetings and conferences held during 1972. The next section contains an index to products which lists them…

  7. Roundtable on Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey-Gaines, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Presents brief reviews, in roundtable discussion form, of seven professional books relating to the theme "being a progressive educator in conservative times" and spanning many topics encompassing how learning and different teaching styles and attitudes can influence what happens in and out of the classroom. (SR)

  8. Book Your Summer Vacation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Summer's the time for teachers to travel, not only physically from the confines of the classroom to exotic places, but vicariously, through the magic of books. Summer adventures help teachers expand their experience and enrich their store of context so that they can offer their students more when school resumes in the fall. That's why each year…

  9. Best Books 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Trevelyn; Toth, Luann; Charnizon, Marlene; Grabarek, Daryl; Fleishhacker, Joy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the 62 books chosen by "School Library Journal's" editors as the best of the year. While novels include some historical settings and contemporary concerns, it is fantasy that continues to reign supreme. More original, and more creative than ever, it includes selections that are frightening, edgy, wildly funny, electrifying,…

  10. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  11. On Japanese Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanare, Shigeo

    This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…

  12. Why I Make Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Leah

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she discovered that she was a book and paper artist after she had been kicked out of two high schools, went to art school, had a degree in Political Science and Women's Studies, had another one in Education, and was teaching school full time. After she constructed and stitched her first multisection…

  13. The Salt Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Pamela, Ed.

    Researched, written, illustrated, and photographed by Kennebunk, Maine, high school students under the guidance of their English teacher, this book documents the skills, crafts, and attitudes needed for survival in northern New England. Information gathered by personal interviews, on-site observation, and research is organized into two sections:…

  14. Superintendent's Briefing Book, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "2011 Superintendent's Briefing Book" provides comprehensive yet concise overviews of the best thinking available on a wide range of top-priority PreK-12 education concerns. This resource will prove invaluable in making research-based decisions with confidence, and in identifying programs and practices that will improve student achievement.…

  15. Book and Software Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissick, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    This introductory column on books and software concerned with special education technology presents an article by JuHye Yook on the software design process. It discusses the rationale for developing new software for students with reading disabilities, the design and development process, and analysis of the software design. Software use by two…

  16. The Comic Book Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Comic Book Project (CBP) celebrates its eighth anniversary this year. The project, which just originated with one school in New York City, had grown to encompass thousands of students nationwide. The goal of the CBP is not to create comics the "Marvel way" or to develop the next Stan Lee. Rather, the goal is to give students the opportunity to…

  17. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  18. Best Books 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Heilbrun, Margaret; Hoffert, Barbara; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Rogers, Mike; Williams, Wilda

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a compilation of a top ten list of books for 2010. The goal was to glean the very best the great publishing tsunami has to offer with the input of librarians and trusty reviewers; the result is a mix of both the usual suspects and dark horse contenders.

  19. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  20. Bold Books for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Don

    2005-01-01

    "Bold Books for Teenagers" provides dynamic, informative viewpoints on important issues in publishing and teaching contemporary literature, especially literature for adolescents. Reviews of young adult literature also appear in this column. This article examines how English teachers can help students explore their interests without promoting any…

  1. Best Books 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Trevelyn; Toth, Luann; Charnizon, Marlene; Grabarek, Daryl; Fleishhacker, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Just when one thinks every topic has been covered to the fullest, somehow, talented writers, creative artists, and forward-thinking editors come up with new takes and fresh angles. This is particularly true of the books selected as the best of 2009. The hallmarks of the nonfiction this year include some unusual scientists, from two brothers who…

  2. Books Behind Bars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulker, Virgil

    This book reports on an experiment in literacy which was carried out at the federal correctional institution in Milan, Michigan. Contents include: an introduction by Daniel N. Fader, "Walden's Bookshop," a discussion of a prison library; "The Milan Library: A History of Inmate Involvement"; "Literature and the…

  3. The Book of Dene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This book contains the traditional tales and beliefs of the Chippewa, Dogrib, Slavey, and Loucheux peoples. These histories and traditions were spoken to a priest named Emile Petitot (1838-1916) who wrote the words down in the Dene language. This edition was translated from the French and compared with versions in the original tongues by the…

  4. Book Industry Trends: College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oda, Stephanie; Sanislo, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    With the cost of college said to be escalating at double the rate of inflation, parents and students have voiced frustration, some think unreasonably, about textbook prices. In 2007, higher-education publishers continued to grapple with price resistance to textbooks and competition from the used-book market. This article reports that…

  5. Basic Book Repair Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Abraham A.

    This book addresses some common preservation techniques that invariably become necessary in library and archival collections of any size. The procedures are described in chronological sequence, and photographs show the techniques from the viewpoint of the person actually doing the work. The recommended repair methods can be accomplished using…

  6. Book Bag Buddies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Angie; Townsend, J. Scott; Green, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Children love to learn about new topics and share what they have discovered with their teachers, families, and friends. The authors designed the "Book Bag Buddies" project to give their third-grade students a chance to channel their enthusiasm and research from science investigations into writing. In this creative project, students integrated…

  7. Premier(e) Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searcher, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This month's previewed book is "Neal-Schuman Authoritative Guide To Evaluating Information on the Internet" by Alison Cooke. The excerpted chapter, "Evaluating Particular Types of Sources," looks at a variety of Internet sources, such as organizational World Wide Web sites, personal home pages, FTP archives, current awareness…

  8. Books for Summer Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  9. Administration Trip Books

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Plan. (h) Army Community of Excellence. (i) Child development services. k. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs ( ASAM ...RA) will — (1) Provide information as requested when the information falls under the purview of the ASAM &RA. (2) Provide recurring trip book

  10. Hurrah for Chapter Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Glenowyn L.

    This annotated bibliography contains a list of 42 recent Chapter Books. The bibliography is divided into the following topics: Adventure-Survival (3 titles); Autobiography-Biography (3 titles); Death (1 title); Easy Readers (8 titles); Good Reading (12 titles); Historical Fiction (10 titles); Mystery (3 titles); Newbery Award Winner, 2000; and…

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Supergravity Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    Supergravity is an essential ingredient in so many areas of ultra high energy physics, yet it is rarely taught systematically, even at the graduate level. Students most often have to learn along with applying, and must use the now classic older texts. For such core material, it is surprising that there are so few good texts on the subject. It is not necessarily that supergravity is so much more conceptually complex, rather that it is technical and therefore easy for a text to become dry, dense and rather indigestible. This book, written by two experts in the field, is therefore a breath of fresh air. It not only represents a comprehensive modern overview of the subject, but achieves this with clarity, accessibility, and even humour! To paraphrase the authors, if you are not impressed by this book, you should put it down and watch television instead. It starts by reviewing, or overviewing, aspects of field theory, basic supersymmetry and gravity that will be needed for the rest of the book. This first third or so of the book is very condensed, and will not be easy to follow for those who have not encountered the material before. However, the authors acknowledge this and give plenty of suggestions for more pedagogical texts in the relevant areas, thus it does not feel overly brief. The middle section deals with the construction of supergravity, starting with basic N = 1 supergravity in 4 and 11 dimensions and gradually extending the discussion to include matter multiplets. This part of the book systematically builds up understanding and construction of models, before moving on to superconformal methods. The purpose is not to cover all supergravity theories, but to focus on a few examples in detail, and to give sufficient expertise and information for the reader to be able to deal with any other models they might need. The final part of the book deals with applications, and includes two chapters on applications in adS/CFT, which will be of most interest to new

  12. Cambrian to Devonian evolution of alluvial systems: The sedimentological impact of the earliest land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Neil S.; Gibling, Martin R.

    2010-02-01

    In present-day alluvial environments, the impact of vegetation on sedimentological processes and deposits is well known. A vegetated catchment may decrease sediment yield, sediment erodibility, Hortonian overland flow, aeolian winnowing of fines, the proportion of sediment transported as bedload, and may increase bank stability, infiltration into substrates, and bed roughness. Vegetation also promotes the production of chemically-weathered clays and soils and the adoption of a meandering style. It is generally understood that, prior to the evolution of terrestrial vegetation during the Early Palaeozoic, ancient alluvial systems were markedly different from modern systems, with many systems adopting a "sheet-braided" style. This understanding has previously informed the interpretations of many Precambrian pre-vegetation alluvial successions, but there has been relatively little work regarding Early Palaeozoic alluvial successions laid down prior to and during the initial colonization of the Earth's surface by plants. A comprehensive review of 144 Cambrian to Devonian alluvial successions documented in published literature was combined with original field data from 34 alluvial successions across Europe and North America. The study was designed to identify changes in alluvial style during the period that vegetation was evolving and first colonizing alluvial environments. An increase in mudrock proportion and sandstone maturity is apparent, along with a decrease in overall sand grain size through the Early Palaeozoic. These trends suggest that primitive vegetation cover promoted the production and preservation of muds from the mid Ordovician onwards and increased the residence time of sand-grade sediment in alluvial systems. The compilation also enables the first stratigraphic occurrence of certain vegetation-dependent sedimentary features to be pinpointed and related to the evolution of specific palaeobotanical adaptations. The first markedly heterolithic alluvial

  13. Modeling oxygenation of an ocean-atmosphere system during the Late Ordovician-Devonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, K.

    2013-12-01

    Throughout the Earth's history, the redox state of surface environments, biogeochemical cycles, and biological innovation/extinction have been intimately related. Therefore, understanding the long-term (over millions of years) evolution of the redox state of an ocean-atmosphere system and its controlling factors is one of the fundamental topics of Earth Sciences. In particular, Early Paleozoic is marked by the prominent biological evolution/diversification events (Cambrian explosion and Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event), implying the causal linkage between ocean oxygenation and biological innovation. On the other hand, multiple lines of evidence (such as black shale deposition, low C/S ratio of buried sediments, low molybdenum isotopic value, and iron speciation data) suggest that ocean interior had been kept in low oxygen condition until the Devonian. Dahl et al. (2010) PNAS found an increase in molybdenum isotopic value from ~1.4‰ to ~2.0‰ between ~440 Ma and ~390 Ma, implying the oceanic redox transition to a well-oxygenated condition. It was proposed that this ocean oxygenation event correlates with the diversification of vascular land plants; an enhanced burial of terrigenous organic matter increases the oxygen supply rate to an ocean-atmosphere system. Although this hypothesis for a causal linkage between the diversification of land plants and oxidation event of an ocean-atmosphere system is intriguing, it remains unclear whether the radiation of land plant is necessary to cause such redox transition. Because oxygen is most likely regulated by a combination of several feedbacks in the Earth system, it is essential to evaluate the impact of plant diversification on the oxygenation state of an ocean-atmosphere system by use of a numerical model in which C-N-P-O-S coupled biogeochemical cycles between ocean-atmosphere-sediment systems are take into account. In this study, the paleoredox history of an ocean-atmosphere system during the Paleozoic is

  14. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  16. Caldecott Medal Books and Readability Levels: Not Just "Picture" Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Julia; Leal, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Determines readability levels for each of the Caldecott Medal books, and presents the full list. Finds that the overall grade-level readability average was 4.75. Offers some suggestions for using the books in elementary classrooms. (SR)

  17. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... will recover in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) before moving to a hospital room for one to three weeks. Your doctor may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation after your lung transplant surgery to help you ...

  18. Book Clubbing! Successful Book Clubs for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This practical guide demonstrates how to sponsor a successful, student-led book club for grades K through 12 that is fun, easy-to-implement, and encourages reading. Establishing a book club for children and young people that's self-sustaining and successful long-term is a challenge that this book addresses and conquers. According to recent…

  19. Artists' Books and the Cultural Status of the Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Johanna

    1994-01-01

    Describes the emergence of the publication of artists' books as a historical phenomenon, particularly as a late twentieth-century innovation. Outlines the traditions and forms of various artists' books of the past several decades. Provides extensive coverage of this genre of book coverage, including numerous photographs. (HB)

  20. Book a Book Fair Today! It's a Celebration!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of book fairs to encourage reading and offers suggestions for planning them. Considers sponsorship, location and timing, sources to get books from, how to select books, marketing, library programs connected with the fair, volunteers, and who receives the profits. (LRW)

  1. A Review of Two Distance Learning Books [book review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Spector, J. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Reviews two books that are representative of the substantive books aimed at those who wish to design effective distance learning. Together these books provide a reasonably complete perspective on how to design effective distance learning. They have many strengths, and few weaknesses. (SLD)

  2. A Marine Stem-Tetrapod from the Devonian of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The origin of terrestrial vertebrates represents one of the major evolutionary and ecological transformations in the history of life, and the established timing and environment of this transition has recently come under scrutiny. The discovery and description of a well-preserved fossil sarcopterygian (fleshy-limbed vertebrate) from the Middle Devonian of Nevada helps to refine and question aspects of the temporal and anatomical framework that underpins the tetrapod condition. This new taxon, Tinirau clackae, demonstrates that substantial parallelism pervaded the early history of stem-tetrapods, raises additional questions about when digited sarcopterygians first evolved, and further documents that incipient stages of the terrestrial appendicular condition began when sarcopterygians still retained their median fins and occupied aquatic habitats. PMID:22448265

  3. Demonstration projects for coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas: Final report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Verrips, A.M.; Gustavson, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    In 1979, the US Department of Energy provided the American Public Gas Association (APGA) with a grant to demonstrate the feasibility of bringing unconventional gas such as methane produced from coalbeds or Devonian Shale directly into publicly owned utility system distribution lines. In conjunction with this grant, a seven-year program was initiated where a total of sixteen wells were drilled for the purpose of providing this untapped resource to communities who distribute natural gas. While coalbed degasification ahead of coal mining was already a reality in several parts of the country, the APGA demonstration program was aimed at actual consumer use of the gas. Emphasis was therefore placed on degasification of coals with high methane gas content and on utilization of conventional oil field techniques. 13 figs.

  4. A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan.

    PubMed

    Daeschler, Edward B; Shubin, Neil H; Jenkins, Farish A

    2006-04-06

    The relationship of limbed vertebrates (tetrapods) to lobe-finned fish (sarcopterygians) is well established, but the origin of major tetrapod features has remained obscure for lack of fossils that document the sequence of evolutionary changes. Here we report the discovery of a well-preserved species of fossil sarcopterygian fish from the Late Devonian of Arctic Canada that represents an intermediate between fish with fins and tetrapods with limbs, and provides unique insights into how and in what order important tetrapod characters arose. Although the body scales, fin rays, lower jaw and palate are comparable to those in more primitive sarcopterygians, the new species also has a shortened skull roof, a modified ear region, a mobile neck, a functional wrist joint, and other features that presage tetrapod conditions. The morphological features and geological setting of this new animal are suggestive of life in shallow-water, marginal and subaerial habitats.

  5. Penecontemporaneous dolomitization and preservation of Oncolitic stromatoporoids in lower Middle Devonian of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Lower Middle Devonian carbonates of north-central Ohio record environments that changed upward from hypersaline supratidal-tidal lagoon (Lucas) to barrier beach to shallow marine (Columbus-Delaware). Within the upper Lucas and lower Columbus, molds of stromatoporoids are common, occurring generally as scattered disoriented remnants in various stages of dissolution. In an areally restricted portion of the upper Lucas, stromatoporoids are much more abundant and are extremely well preserved. Growth forms vary from massive low-profile encrustations to oncolitic spherical to prolate masses. Laminae within the oncolitic forms mimic the overlapping semiconcentric laminar structures of algal oncolites and are interpreted as having formed by similar interrupted upward growth of organic masses that experience episodic movement and overturning. Transport and burial resulted in additional deformation and fracture of semirigid skeletons. The author suggests the encrusting and oncolitic stromatoporoids lived in a tidally influenced channel or flat adjacent to a restricted hypersaline tidal lagoon.

  6. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik; Qiao, Tuo; Zhu, You’an; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Crown or modern sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods) differ substantially from stem sarcopterygians, such as Guiyu and Psarolepis, and a lack of transitional fossil taxa limits our understanding of the origin of the crown group. The Onychodontiformes, an enigmatic Devonian predatory fish group, seems to have characteristics of both stem and crown sarcopterygians but is difficult to place because of insufficient anatomical information. We describe the new skull material of Qingmenodus, a Pragian (~409-million-year-old) onychodont from China, using high-resolution computed tomography to image internal structures of the braincase. In addition to its remarkable similarities with stem sarcopterygians in the ethmosphenoid portion, Qingmenodus exhibits coelacanth-like neurocranial features in the otic region. A phylogenetic analysis based on a revised data set unambiguously assigns onychodonts to crown sarcopterygians as stem coelacanths. Qingmenodus thus bridges the morphological gap between stem sarcopterygians and coelacanths and helps to illuminate the early evolution and diversification of crown sarcopterygians. PMID:27386576

  7. Deformation of the subsurface silurian and devonian rocks of the southern tier of New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beinkafner, K. J.

    Seismic, lithofacies, and structural interpretations are integrated into a tectonic model. For the Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian interval, subsurface lithofacies are mapped from well sample logs. The elusive decollement of the Allegheny Plateau is identified and mapped from repeat sections on gamma ray logs. In the eastern counties, Unit F (salt) sections of the Syracuse Formation are vertically repeated two and three times along splays originating at decollement. The dome shape of the top of the Syracuse Formation and a planar base suggest a thin-skinned tectonic origin. In Steuben and Allegheny Counties, Unit E sections are overthickened and the detachment surface is near the base of Unit E. In Chautauqua County decollement terminates in a structure with northeast strike. At the northwest edge of the underlying salt beds, horizontal decollement bends upward forming structural petroleum traps. A decollement tectonic model for the southern tier is proposed in which individual buried fault blocks display differential movement above detachment zones.

  8. Body-size reduction in vertebrates following the end-Devonian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Sallan, Lauren; Galimberti, Andrew K

    2015-11-13

    Following the end-Devonian mass extinction (359 million years ago), vertebrates experienced persistent reductions in body size for at least 36 million years. Global shrinkage was not related to oxygen or temperature, which suggests that ecological drivers played a key role in determining the length and direction of size trends. Small, fast-breeding ray-finned fishes, sharks, and tetrapods, most under 1 meter in length from snout to tail, radiated to dominate postextinction ecosystems and vertebrae biodiversity. The few large-bodied, slow-breeding survivors failed to diversify, facing extinction despite earlier evolutionary success. Thus, the recovery interval resembled modern ecological successions in terms of active selection on size and related life histories. Disruption of global vertebrate, and particularly fish, biotas may commonly lead to widespread, long-term reduction in body size, structuring future biodiversity.

  9. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and geochemistry of Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harbi, Omar A.; Khan, M. Mujtaba

    2008-07-01

    The Tawil Sandstone (Lower Devonian) in Central Saudi Arabia overlies the Sharwara Member of the Tayyarat Formation (Silurian) and succeeded conformly by the Shaiba Member of the Jauf Formation. Petrographical data reveal that the Tawil Sandstone comprises 96% quartz, 3% feldspar, and 1% rock fragments and all samples are classified as quartz arenites. The presence of well sorted, altered to fresh feldspar, and discriminate function analysis suggests that the sediments have been subjected to substartial reworking resulting in a high level of maturity. Modal analysis data (Q-F-L) suggest a stable cratonic provenance for the sediments and accumulation in a passive margin basin is indicated (binary plot of SiO 2 vs K 2O/Na 2O). Diagenetic features include dissolution of feldspar and rock fragments, compaction, reduction of the existing pore space through rearrangements, and rotation and fragmentation of grains resulting in dissolution of quartz grains and cementation.

  10. Selective silicification of fossils by syntaxial overgrowths on quartz sand, Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian), New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliva, Robert G.

    1992-07-01

    Some fossil fragments in the Oriskany Sandstone (Lower Devonian) of New York were partially replaced by syntaxial quartz overgrowths. These replacive overgrowths are significant in that they provide insights into the mechanism and controls of quartz replacement of calcite. The susceptibility of the different calcite types of quartz replacement was governed by their microstructural complexity. Fossil fragments with finely crystalline microstructures, such as brachiopods, ostracods, and bryozoans, were partially replaced by quartz, whereas echinoderm ossicles, which consist of single large calcite crystals, were not replaced. Calcite cement was also immune to replacement. Brachiopod, bryozoan, and ostracod bioclasts (with minor exceptions) underwent partial replacement by quartz (with its concomitant shell calcite dissolution) only where the shell fragments were in contact with detrital quartz grains. Proximity to authigenic crystal nucleation sites (i.e., quartz sand grains) was thus the prime control over whether host mineral dissolution occurred, which is a situation unique to the force of crystallization-driven replacement mechanism.

  11. Late Devonian sedimentary record of the Paleotethys Ocean - The Mae Sariang section, northwestern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Königshof, P.; Savage, N. M.; Lutat, P.; Sardsud, A.; Dopieralska, J.; Belka, Z.; Racki, G.

    2012-06-01

    An 11 m thick condensed sequence of Late Devonian limestones in northwestern Thailand exhibits faunal associations and sedimentological-/microfacies data which are indicative of a pelagic facies setting. The entire long-ranging section is completely free from clastic input. Similar successions are known worldwide in a few sections only. The Mae Sariang section is characterised by low sedimentation rates as recognised by a number of hardgrounds, neptunian dikes and Fe/Mn crusts. The succession comprises a number of pelagic faunal elements e.g. conodonts, cephalopods and pelagic ostracodes. The fauna records rare macrofossils and the faunal diversity is low. The very condensed section ranges from the Late rhenana to praesulcata conodont biozones, but contains some global events as undoubtedly shown by biostratigraphical and carbon-isotope results (including major Kellwasser and Hangenberg biotic crises). In terms of plate tectonics this important succession most probably belongs to the Inthanon Zone comprising remnants of the Paleotethys Ocean.

  12. The revival of a so-called rotten fish: the ontogeny of the Devonian acanthodian Triazeugacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Chevrinais, Marion; Cloutier, Richard; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description as a chordate, the Late Devonian Scaumenella mesacanthi has been interpreted alternately as a prochordate, a larval ostracoderm and an immature acanthodian. For the past 30 years, these minute specimens were generally considered as decayed acanthodians, most of them belonging to Triazeugacanthus affinis. Among the abundant material of ‘Scaumenella’, we identified a size series of 188 specimens of Triazeugacanthus based on otolith characteristics. Despite taphonomic alteration, we describe proportional growth and progressive appearance of skeletal elements through size increase. Three ontogenetic stages are identified based on squamation extent, ossification completion and allometric growth. We demonstrate that what has been interpreted previously as various degrees of decomposition corresponds to ontogenetic changes. PMID:25694507

  13. Correlation of LANDSAT lineaments with Devonian gas fields in Lawrence County, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. O.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to locate sources of natural gas in Ohio, the fractures and lineaments in Black Devonian shale were measured by: (1) field mapping of joints, swarms, and fractures; (2) stereophotointerpretation of geomorphic lineaments with precise photoquads; and (3) by interpreting the linear features on LANDSAT images. All results were compiled and graphically represented on 1:250,000 scale maps. The geologic setting of Lawrence County was defined and a field fracture map was generated and plotted as rose patterns at the exposure site. All maps were compared, contrasted, and correlated by superimposing each over the other as a transparency. The LANDSAT lineaments had significant correlation with the limits of oil and gas producing fields. These limits included termination of field production as well as extensions to other fields. The lineaments represent real rock fractures with zones of increased permeability in the near surface bedrock.

  14. Devonian-Carboniferous tectonics and basin deformation in the Cabot Strait Area, eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, G.S.; Hall, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Magdalen Basin, in the Cabot Strait-Bay St. George area, was a major depocenter for Devonian-Carboniferous sediments in eastern Canada. Structure within the basin is complex and is characterized by northeast- and east-trending, mainly dextral strike-slip faults associated with the bend in the Appalachian orogenic belt known as the St. Lawrence Promontory. Under the Cabot Strait two linear grabens parallel the major fault trends and preserve up to 6 km of Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, comprising mainly coarse-grained terrigenous clastics with a Lower Carboniferous transgressive episode recorded by marine carbonates, evaporites, and fine-grained clastics. Several unconformities within the sedimentary succession record deformation associated with movement along the regional strike-slip faults. Minor local unconformities are interpreted within the upper Horton (early Visean), upper Barachois (late Westphalian), and post-Pennsylvanian successions. A major unconformity cuts out most of the Namurian and Westphalian section in the study area and can be correlated on a regional scale. Kinematic strain partitioning along the master Cabot fault led to the development of doubly vergent compressional structures within a wrench borderland. This was complicated by transpressive deformation at a restraining bend in the master fault, and by deformation associated with over-stepped ends of splays of the regional fault system. The Magdalen Basin probably formed in an early phase of post-Acadian extension, and was later reactivated by regional strike-slip faults. The presence of thick source and reservoir rocks, as well as diverse trapping possibilities and a favorable burial and maturation history, indicate that the Cabot Strait area has good potential for accumulating and preserving petroleum.

  15. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  16. Characterization and geochemistry of Devonian oil shale North Alabama - South Central Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheams, K.F.; Neathery, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the physical and chemical data obtained to date, the Devonian oil shale rock of north Alabama and south-central Tennessee appears to offer an attractive potential for future resource development. The shale rock appears to have formed in a restrictive marine environment which provided opportunity for the accumulation of marine organic matter to form sufficient kerogen. The shale contains approximately 18% to 22% organic matter which is primarily kerogen. The kerogen has a relatively high H:C ratio indicative of an alginite and/or exinite source (Type 1 and Type II kerogen) and a high proportion of alkane and saturated ring hydrocarbons. However, a few samples have low H:C ratio values and are interpreted to have been formed in a shallow water oxidizing environment. Also, there is a possibility that these low H:C values may represent mixtures of terrestrial and marine organic material suggesting lateral facies changes of the rock from marine to near shore depositional environments. Trace metal values for both the whole rock and the shale oil fraction indicate a generally high V:Ni ratio, also indicative of a marine environment. Other trace metal values are in good agreement with data from other Devonian shales. Throughout the north Alabama and south-central Tennessee study area, the average oil yield from the shale is 13.9 gallon per ton. The highest oil yield values were obtained from the middle and upper parts of the shale sequence. Based on the crude oil composition diagram (11), the Alabama-Tennessee shale oil is classified as a aromatic-intermediate oil Estimated reserves of inplace shale oil resources in the principal study area, under less than 200 feet of overburden, exceeds 12.5 billion barrels.

  17. Woodford Shale (Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian) and associated phosphate nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Siy, S. Inc., Dallas, TX )

    1990-02-01

    A deep-water marine environment is inferred for the Woodford Shale formation (Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian) in the Arbuckle and Ouachita mountains of southern Oklahoma. Black shales and associated phosphate nodules were deposited peripherally to the carbonate shelf adjacent to the North American craton. Analysis indicates that shales and interbedded cherts lack siliciclastic detritus and shallow-water fauna, and that they have an abundance of siliceous organisms. Depletion of Ce in the Woodford Shale relative to average shale compositions suggests the influence of deep oceanic water. Carbon isotope compositions of shales, cherts, and phosphates for {delta}{sup 13}C range from {minus}27.5 to {minus}30.2 {per thousand}. These values are comparable to Devonian-Mississippian values reported for distal marine sediments that get successively lighter farther from shore. In-situ phosphate nodules occurring in the top of the formation are early diagenetic features that formed in the upper few centimeters of organic-rich sediment in a poorly oxygenated subaqueous environment. A hierarchy of apatite morphologies in nodules indicates stages of diagenesis. Structureless collophane probably is representative of primary marine apatite. Higher order apatite phases successively include globular collophane, botryoidal apatite, and apatite crystallites. The latter commonly is associated with silicified nodules. Silicification of phosphate nodules represents the most advanced stage of diagenesis prior to sediment lithification, and it implies that silica diagenesis within the Woodford occurred after nodules formed. Preserved radiolarians and sponge spicules observed in nodules also indicate that apatite precipitated before biogenic silica dissolved.

  18. Mid-Max field: A piece of the Silurian-Devonian exploration puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Entzminger, D.J.; Basham, W.L. ); Gonzales, E. )

    1992-04-01

    The Mid-Max field, Andrews County, Texas, provides an example for the exploration and development of subtle stratigraphic targets in the Permian basin. The integration of all available data, including seismic, log, core, and engineering data, is essential in this mature area as the search for hydrocarbons turns toward subtle structural and stratigraphic prospects. The Mid-Max field, on the Central basin platform, is a Silurian reef. Seismic data support the geologic interpreation of Woodford Shale thinning over a Silurian high, a Silurian to Fusselman thick, and the presence of a relatively flat Fusselman reflector beneath the Silurian high. Whole cores and rotary sidewall cores from the field contain stromatoporoids, corals, algal stromatolites, crinoidal grainstones and other reef elements. The reservoir is predominantly dolomite with porosity and permeability being variable and controlled by the presence of lime mud, fracturing, and diagenesis. The 26-29 API gravity sour crude produced at Mid-Max field is atypical of Siluria-Devonian oils, which commonly are sweet crudes of 35 to 45 API gravity. This atypical oil is explained by the mixing of two types of Woodford-sourced oils and biodegradation. Tectonism appears to have played a minor role in the formation of the Mid-Max field, unlike the conventional faulted-anticline prospects in the Silurian-Devonian of the Permian basin. Although modern common-depth-point seismic data and a dry Silurian test exited over the Mid-Max prospect prior to drilling, these illusive traps commonly are misinterpreted or overlooked, which would suggest that there might be similar subtle Silurian prospects elsewhere in the Permian basin.

  19. Influence of Precambrian rift trends on pre-Devonian deposition in southern Northwest Territories, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    A study incorporating all available outcrop, well, and geophysical data shows that pre-Devonian deposition in the southern part of the Northwest Territories of Canada was strongly influenced by a weakened basement framework of Precambrian horsts and grabens which developed in response to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading in the proto-Pacific. Major horsts continuously rose to form arches that shed clastics into the downdropping basins. As the highs were worn down, the deposits changed from dominantly clastic to largely carbonate and the highs were ultimately transgressed. Within the area the pre-Hadrynian basement consists of granite on the east, metamorphics and minor sediments throughout the central part, and unaltered sediments on the west. The three trends are believed to define a westerly transition from the old craton through an ancient rift zone to the proto-Pacific. To define the history, the pre-Devonian section was broken into major time-rock sequences which represent separate transgressive-regressive cycles of deposition terminated either by local or regional uplift and erosion or by renewed transgression. Within each sequence most lateral changes from thinner intertidal deposits to thicker deeper water ones were seen to occur in narrow transition zones, indicating that the cycles were dominated by differential vertical subsidence along major hinge lines. This Precambrian framework runs the length of western North America and controlled much of the early Paleozoic sedimentation along it. It also greatly influenced later Laramide thin-skin thrusting wherein the horst-cored arches acted as buttresses to the eastward-moving blocks.

  20. Exploring Cultural Diversity (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galda, Lee; Cotter, Janet

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 57 children's books, combining realistic fiction, nonfiction, poetry, literary folklore, and folklore from people and places around the world, that reveal the cultural wonders of the world. Offers suggestions on how to group these books within thematic units. (MG)

  1. Children's Books and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Marc

    1977-01-01

    Provides an historical perspective on the social changes precipitated by invention of the printing press and widespread availability of books. Suggests ways in which to effectively incorporate human rights teaching into modern children's books. (AV)

  2. Moving from Books to Bytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2001-01-01

    This academic library book buying survey examines full-text databases; electronic journals; top circulating subjects; price increases for serials and resulting subscription cuts; the influence of digital choices on purchasing decisions; circulation versus use statistics; and electronic books. (LRW)

  3. Follow Your Heart [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinskyj, Don

    1999-01-01

    Maintains that Pieper and Pieper's book shares Montessori's ideals and approach, and that it achieves a balance between strict behaviorist approaches and permissiveness. Notes the book's strengths, including the authors' research and clinical experience and numerous examples. (KB)

  4. [The White Book].

    PubMed

    Rouger, P

    2008-11-01

    It is necessary for European countries to have references and guidelines to cope with the wide field of blood transfusion. It is the institutions and professionals' role to provide for technical specifications linked to the collection, qualification, preparation, storage and distribution of labile blood products. In this context, EuroNet-TMS publishes every five year (2005, 2010...) a White Book meant to issue statements on the current situation, activities in progress in Europe and future developments.

  5. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  6. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  7. The Sketchbook as Artist's Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlet, Deb

    2005-01-01

    Students delight in making books. This bookmaking project merges the idea of sketchbooks with artist's books--books made by, and for, the artist in which ideas and memories get formulated and stored for later use or reminiscence. Young art students can be taught to appreciate the important qualities of sketchbooks. For many students, making a…

  8. The Children's Book Showcase, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Book Council, New York, NY.

    The Children's Book Council of New York presents outstanding books for 1976 in the Children's Book Showcase 1976 catalog. Selection criteria place heavy emphasis on illustration, typography, layout, binding, paper, printing, and reproduction, with vitality and originality also considered. The two-page spread for each of the 28 selections contains…

  9. School Book Club Expurgation Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keresey, Gayle

    1984-01-01

    Discusses expurgation practices (deletion, excision, alteration, obliteration of parts of books) of major school book clubs--Scholastic, Xerox's Read Book Club, Troll Associates--as identified by Intellectual Freedom Committee of Young Adult Services Division of the American Library Association. Implications for school libraries are noted.…

  10. Carter G. Woodson Book Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents the recipients of the 1999 Carter G. Woodson book awards that honor books focusing on ethnic minorities and race relations that are appropriate for elementary and secondary levels. Includes books that cover topics such as life for Japanese Americans in internment camps and lives of 12 black women. (CMK)

  11. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  12. The Colorado Children's Book Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livo, Norma J.

    This paper discusses the Colorado Children's Book Award (CCBA), established in 1975 to allow children, rather than adults, to vote on their favorite books. The rules for book nomination and voting are explained in this paper and a short history of the award is given. The remaining portion of the paper reviews briefly each of the 12 children's…

  13. Book Mathematics--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2008-01-01

    It is potentially arresting when a mathematical implication is offered in a non-mathematical book. This author contends that students are encouraged to develop mathematical thinking when they read mathematical challenges in books. Aspects of books such as time-lines, historical relationships, maps, journeys, cause-and-affect, deductive inference,…

  14. The Pricing of Economics Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laband, David; Hudson, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the pricing and other characteristics of books. Notes substantial increases in book prices between 2000 and 1985 data. Suggests a major factor is the increasing importance of foreign presses that sell books at higher prices. Indicates that discount on paperbacks appear to have been relatively stable in the two years studied. (JEH)

  15. Books for Children, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.; And Others

    A committee comprised of children's book specialists from school and public libraries and a bookseller examined books published from November 1984 through November 1985, and compiled this annotated bibliography of picture books, fiction, and nonfiction. The bibliography is arranged by age group and categories, among which are picture stories for…

  16. The Real E-books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the "real" e-books. Discusses Stephen King's novella released exclusively for electronic publication, and discusses experiences of another author writing on a specialized subject. Presents a brief background of e-books. Examines the differences between Portable Document Format (PDF) technology and the new Open eBook (OEB)…

  17. [Young children and books].

    PubMed

    Diatkine, R; Bonnafé, M; Roy, J; Camus, C; Brandao, C

    1986-01-01

    Children come into contact very early with the written language. The work of Emilia Ferreiro, a student of Piaget, has shown that from early on, well before they can read, they know that the written word has a meaning. Their successive hypotheses show an elaboration which does not occur by chance. Experience shows that babies have a specific interest for a book as an object. They recognize the value of the pictures, as much representations of their mental representations as are words, whereas these two capacities evolve in a complementary fashion. The capacity to be interested by a narrative introduces a new form of organization in the chain of representations, whether they refer to absent or imaginary objects. A good story has a special place among the narratives the child hears, which actually have the specific structures of the written language. The authors of this work report a number of examples of very young children who are put in contact with books. They see in this a new model for mental health work which can be set up by virtue of meetings outside the school rooms, the mental health services, and even of the libraries, by people of different professional skills, in order to loosen the vice of the children's daily routine, and to give the child time to dream with the books, and to draw the adults in to a salutary disorder.

  18. High resolution facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Siluro-Devonian succession of Al Kufrah basin (SE Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindre, Laurent; Le Heron, Daniel; Bjørnseth, Hans Morten

    2012-11-01

    New fieldwork data collected from the flanks of Al Kufrah basin, SE Libya, provide insight into the controls on Siluro-Devonian sedimentation patterns along the eastern part of the North Gondwanan platform. A stratigraphic and sequential correlation framework from the northern and eastern flanks of the basin is presented for the Tanezzuft, Akakus, Tadrart and Binem formations. Ten facies associations are recognised, classified within three process-driven groups, facilitating high-resolution sequence analysis and highlighting key regional unconformities. The basal, shaly Tanezzuft formation is organised into a regional transgressive cycle that overlies upper Ordovician glacially-related deposits of the Mamuniyat formation. The shale grade upward into the heterogeneous Akakus formation that comprises complex deltaic thin sandy strata interbedded with silty shale and siltstones, widely influenced by storm to tide related flows. In Jabal az Zalmah (northern flank), four 3rd order transgressive-regressive (T/R) depositional sequences were identified, whilst only one in Jabal 'Asba (eastern flank), indicating significant erosion of the Akakus due to the Caledonian deformation. Depositional cycles are made of sheltered tidal flat deposits which pass upward into lower to upper offshore heterolithic deposits. They are bounded by regional disconformities interpreted as forced regression surfaces. The Silurian Tanezzuft and Akakus formations form together an overall 2nd order regressive succession. The Caledonian unconformity is interpreted as a mega-regional sequence boundary resulting from uplift and erosion during the late Silurian into the early Devonian. The thickness variability of the Akakus formation across Al Kufrah basin is strongly indicative of differential erosion which generated a complex basin physiography. Above, the Tadrart formation of lower Devonian age forms an aggrading braided-style fluvial sandy sequence of approximately constant thickness across the

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Complete Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Simon

    2000-03-01

    This book contains all the essential concepts for GCSE (or equivalent) physics courses or for general science courses at Key Stage 4. It claims to be ideal for use as a bridging resource for those intending to take physics beyond GCSE: it is no surprise, then, that the book is written at a level above that of the average Key Stage 4 student. It includes material not included in many GCSE syllabuses; this is clearly identified in the contents pages. It would be a useful resource for more able students at GCSE or for beginning A-level students. The layout of the book is attractive. It is well illustrated and colourful. Some of the illustrations are striking: each of the 12 main sections of the book begins with a title page that includes some unusual photographs illustrating physical ideas. Section 2, Forces and Motion, has a photograph of a bungee jumper leaping from the Sky Tower in New Zealand, taken at night looking along the length of the tower from its foot. Section 9, Magnets and Currents, has a computer-generated picture of the magnetic field in a fusion generator. These pictures, as well as contributing to the attractiveness of the book, could be used to initiate discussions of some of the physics. However, there are pictures that serve little useful purpose: a photograph of a recording station for seismic waves looks like any other building lit up at night. A photograph of a rock band in the middle of a section on sound carries no explanatory caption at all and is purely decorative. Other illustrations - in a variety of styles - do illustrate some physical ideas very well: the diagrams of motors and generators, for instance, are far clearer than my efforts on the blackboard! The book is divided into 14 sections with titles reflecting the traditional divisions of physics syllabuses, together with a beginning section on measurement and units and two final sections, `History of Key Ideas' and `Experimental Physics'. The first section, `Measurement and Units

  20. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  2. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  3. Furrier's lung

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J. Cortez

    1970-01-01

    As is known, the inhalation of animal hairs can provoke immunological reactions in the respiratory tract affecting the naso-tracheo-bronchial sector and giving rise to asthma-like syndromes. Another form of disease, found in furriers with long exposure to `hair dust', is described. It is characterized by a granulomatous interstitial pneumonia, of the tuberculoid type, very similar to that described in other diseases related to the inhalation of organic dusts, both vegetable and animal, such as `farmer's lung' and `bird fancier's lung'. This new disease—which we experimentally reproduced—can be diagnosed from the occupational history together with the finding on lung biopsy of hair shafts within granulomatous lesions (birefringence and histo-chemical reactions). As in other diseases of this type, a host factor of probable immunological nature is suggested. Attention is drawn to the need to protect workers in the furrier's trade. Images PMID:5484998

  4. Back to sender: tectonic accretion and recycling of Baltica-derived Devonian clastic sediments in the Rheno-Hercynian Variscides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Wolfgang; Dulce, Joachim-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary petrography and zircon ICP-MS laser ablation ages from synorogenic clastic sediments in the Rheno-Hercynian Belt of Germany (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Harz) reveal basal tectonic accretion followed by exhumation and recycling of Baltica-derived Devonian shelf sediments. The recycled sediment volume demands a substantial palinspastic addition to the passive, northern margin of the Rheno-Hercynian basin. Detrital zircon ages from the Late Carboniferous foreland basin and their possible source rocks in the South Portuguese Zone permit the same interpretation. This suggests that synorogenic sedimentation in Portugal is related, like in Germany, to the closure of the Devonian-Carboniferous Rheno-Hercynian basin and not to the closure of the Ordovician-Silurian Rheic Ocean.

  5. Disintegration of the continental margin of northwestern Gondwana: Late Devonian of the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Jobst

    1985-11-01

    The Devonian early Carboniferous sequence in the eastern Anti-Atlas represents a complete record of the last stage of the depositional and tectonic evolution along the northwestern margin of Gondwana. As a consequence of early Variscan block faulting, a platform and basin topography was established during the Middle and Late Devonian. Platforms were covered by condensed cephalopod limestones; sedimentation in the basins was mainly argillaceous with calcareous and turbiditic intercalations. In the latest Famennian/early Tournaisian the whole area was covered by delta deposits in the south passing into turbidites and olistostromes toward a continental slope farther north. This sedimentary and structural evolution reflects the gradual foundering and disintegration of the northwestern continental margin of Gondwana prior to the collisional stage in the late Visean/late Carboniferous.

  6. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Late Silurian-Early Devonian transpressional rift origin of the Quebec Reentrant, northern Appalachians: Constraints from geochemistry of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Dostal, J.

    1994-10-01

    Silurian-Devonian rocks in the northwestern mainland Appalachians form part of an overstep sequence deposited across the vestiges of Iapetus after the collision of Laurentia and Gondwana. They occur in three synclinoria (Gaspé-Connecticut Valley, Merrimack-Aroostook, and Fredericton synclinoria), separated by two anticlinoria (Munsungun-Pennington-Boundary Mountain-Bronson Hill and Miramichi). Silurian rocks in Gaspé-Connecticut Valley and Merrimack-Aroostook synclinoria consist of shelf and trough sediments derived mainly from Laurentia to the northwest, with some local contributions from an ephemeral landmass (Appalachia) and from the Miramichi Highlands, hi contrast, Early Devonian rocks in all three synclinoria are mainly flysch derived from the southeast in Avalonia. Interbedded volcanic rocks are predominantly Late Silurian-Early Devonian in age. They are generally bimodal with the mafic rocks exhibiting a change from transitional alkalic-tholeiitic to tholeiitic around the Siluro-Devonian boundary, broadly coincident with the Salinic disturbance in the Gaspe Peninsula. The geochemical characteristics of the basalts indicate that they were erupted in a continental intraplate environment with melting migrating upward through time across the garnet to spinel phase boundary as stretching increased. Thermal uplift during rifting is inferred to have led to erosion associated with the Salinic disturbance. The start of the volcanism appears to coincide with a switch from sinistral to dextral transpression along the orogen that may be related to the change from clockwise to anticlockwise rotation of Laurentia relative to Gondwana. The effects of dextral transpression vary with the trend of the orogen; intense deformation and metamorphism occurred in the Central Mobile belt opposite the New York and St. Lawrence promontories, whereas rifting developed in the Quebec Reentrant, leading to thinning of the crust, up-welling of the asthenosphere, melting, and magmatism.

  8. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    The executive study presents the results and progress of efforts toward understanding shale gas production from the Devonian shale in Appalachia. A correlation was found between the geochemical parameters of the shale in eastern Kentucky and shale gas production there. Tasks on resource inventory tasks and shale characterization include regional structure studies, production studies, geophysical studies, structure studies, fracture density and orientation, and fracture studies. (DLC)

  9. Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events

    PubMed Central

    Algeo, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    The Devonian Period was characterized by major changes in both the terrestrial biosphere, e.g. the evolution of trees and seed plants and the appearance of multi-storied forests, and in the marine biosphere, e.g. an extended biotic crisis that decimated tropical marine benthos, especially the stromatoporoid-tabulate coral reef community. Teleconnections between these terrestrial and marine events are poorly understood, but a key may lie in the role of soils as a geochemical interface between the lithosphere and atmosphere/hydrosphere, and the role of land plants in mediating weathering processes at this interface. The effectiveness of terrestrial floras in weathering was significantly enhanced as a consequence of increases in the size and geographic extent of vascular land plants during the Devonian. In this regard, the most important palaeobotanical innovations were (1) arborescence (tree stature), which increased maximum depths of root penetration and rhizoturbation, and (2) the seed habit, which freed land plants from reproductive dependence on moist lowland habitats and allowed colonization of drier upland and primary successional areas. These developments resulted in a transient intensification of pedogenesis (soil formation) and to large increases in the thickness and areal extent of soils. Enhanced chemical weathering may have led to increased riverine nutrient fluxes that promoted development of eutrophic conditions in epicontinental seaways, resulting in algal blooms, widespread bottomwater anoxia, and high sedimentary organic carbon fluxes. Long-term effects included drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 and global cooling, leading to a brief Late Devonian glaciation, which set the stage for icehouse conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. This model provides a framework for understanding links between early land plant evolution and coeval marine anoxic and biotic events, but further testing of Devonian terrestrial-marine teleconnections is needed.

  10. Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian Formations of the Funeral Mountains in the Ryan Quadrangle, Death Valley Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, James Franklin

    1974-01-01

    A composite section of the Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian formations in the Funeral Mountains between Death Valley and Amargosa Valley is about 4,700 feet thick. The formations are in the top of a concordant, complexly faulted sequence that is about 25,000 feet thick from the highest part of the Precambrian to the Upper Mississippian. The Silurian and younger formations consist of marine dolomite and limestone that contain some regionally characteristic cherty and siliceous clastic beds as well as widely spaced fossiliferous zones. The Hidden Valley Dolomite, overlying the Ordovician Ely Springs Dolomite, is 1,440 feet thick except in the southeast end of the area where it is 870 feet thick. Cherty dark dolomite in the lower part of the Hidden Valley contains Silurian (possibly Llandovery, clearly Wenlock, and probably Ludlow) fossils; dolomite in a somewhat argillaceous and silty uppermost part contains Lower Devonian (upper Emsian) fossils. The Lost Burro Formation, 2,640 feet thick, has Middle Devonian (Givetian) fossils stratigraphically high in the lower part of the formation, which consists of dolomite above the basal Lippincott Member. It has Upper Devonian (Frasnian) fossils midway in the upper part, which consists predominantly of limestone. The Tin Mountain Limestone, 315 feet thick, contains abundant Lower Mississippian (Kinderhookian and Osagean) fossils. The Perdido Formation, which is incomplete and no more than 500 feet thick under unconformable Cenozoic continental rocks, consists mostly of limestone, chert, and siltstone. Fossils, which are scarce, include Upper Mississippian (Meramecian) microfossils 205 feet above the base of the Perdido.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  14. [Humidifier lung].

    PubMed

    Gerber, P; de Haller, R; Pyrozynski, W J; Sturzenegger, E R; Brändli, O

    1981-02-07

    Breathing air from a humidifier or an air conditioning unit contaminated by various microorganisms can cause an acute lung disease involving fever, cough and dyspnea, termed "humidifier fever". This type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was first described in 1959 by PESTALOZZI in the Swiss literature and subsequently by BANASZAK et al. in the Anglo-American. Here a chronic form of this disease which led to pulmonary fibrosis is described: A 37-year-old woman who works in a cheese shop presented with dyspnea which had been progressive over two years, weight loss, a diffuse reticular pattern radiographically and a severe restrictive defect in lung function tests. Open lung biopsy revealed chronic interstitial and alveolar inflammation with non-caseating granulomas and fibrotic changes. Circulating immune complexes and precipitins against the contaminated humidifier water and cheese mites were found, but no antibodies suggesting legionnaires' disease. Two out of five otherwise healthy employees of this cheese shop, where a new humidifying system had been installed 7 years earlier, also had precipitins against the contaminated water from the humidifier and the cheese mites. Despite ending of exposure and longterm steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis persisted. Contrary to the acute disease, this chronic form is termed "humidifier lung". The importance is stressed of investigating the possibility of exposure to contaminated humidifiers or air conditioning units in all cases of newly detected pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using a ... clot from the pulmonary artery ( pulmonary embolism ) Treat complications of tuberculosis Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be used to treat many of these ...

  16. Tectonic and flexural significance of Middle Devonian graben-fill sequence in new Albany shale, central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Mellon, C. )

    1989-08-01

    The third tectonic phase of the Acadian orogeny began in the late Middle Devonian, and the sedimentary record of that event is largely restricted to the deeper, more proximal portions of the Appalachian foreland and Illinois intercratonic basins. Much of the intervening area, on and near the Cincinnati arch, was uplifted and subjected to erosion by movement on the peripheral bulge accompanying the initiation of the third tectonic phase. However, bulge movement also reactivated basement fault systems in Kentucky and created a series of grabens that were filled with eroded sediments and debris flows from adjacent horsts. Although rarely preserved, a buried Devonian graben along Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky, reveals such a sequence. The graben is bounded by upthrown blocks of Middle Devonian Boyle Dolomite, which also floors the graben. Within the graben a black-shale unit, apparently absent elsewhere, conformably overlies the Boyle and grades upward into debris-flow deposits represented by the Duffin breccia facies of the New Albany Shale. The Duffin contains clasts of the shale, as well as of chert, silicified fossils, and fine to boulder-size dolostone clasts eroded from the Boyle high on the flanks of the graben. The underlying shale also exhibits evidence of penecontemporaneous soft-sediment deformation related to the debris-flow emplacement of Boyle residue in the graben and due to later loading by the Duffin.

  17. New results of studying of the Devonian shale formation in the Volga-Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Pronin, Nikita; Morozov, Vladimir; Nosova, Fidania

    2015-04-01

    The objects of the study are Upper Devonian carbonate rocks in the territory of South-Tatar arch and Melekess basin in the Volga- Urals region. We studied core material and organic matter of Domanicoid facies from the sediments of Semilukskiy and Rechitskiy (Domanik) horizons of the Upper Devonian. Basic analytical research methods included the following: study of the composition, structural and textural features of the rocks, the structure of their voids, filter and reservoir properties and composition of the fluid. The complex research consisted of macroscopic description of the core material, optical microscopy analysis, radiographical analysis, thermal analysis, x-ray tomography, electron microscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, chromate-mass spectrometry, isotopic analysis of oil and organic matter, light hydrocarbons analysis using paraphase assay, adsorbed gases analysis, and thermal vacuum degassing method. In addition, we performed isotopic studies of hydrocarbons saturating shale rocks. The study of biomarkers was carried out with the help of chromato-mass spectrometry in the Laboratory of Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels, Kazan Federal University. GC/MS method was used in oil to investigate the individual composition of naphthenic hydrocarbons, primarily steranes and terpanes and another new biological markers. In this study we used several informative parameters characterizing the depositional environment, the type of source OM and its maturity. In the evaluation of the facial conditions of sedimentation and the degree of catagenetic conversion of the OM, the quantitative characteristics based not only on the distribution of steranes and terpanes, which are related to the lithology and maturity of the OM.New biomarkers parameters (carotenoids) were used to study the conditions of formation of shale strata. Based on these new data, a new model of geological and environmental conditions for the formation of shale strata saturated bituminous matter (organic

  18. Evidence for long-term climate change in Upper Devonian strata of the central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Kertis, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The highest 1 to 200 m of the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Catskill and equivalent Hampshire formations exhibit a noticeable vertical or stratigraphic change in color and a shift in lithologic character. The lower part of the unit is characterized by typically red, channel-phase sandstones and overbank siltstone and mudstone containing thin calcareous paleosols. These lithologies give way to greenish gray sandstone containing abundant coaly plant fragments, coalified logs, and pyrite, interbedded with thick intervals of non-calcareous paleo-vertisols. The increase in the prominence of preserved terrestrial organic matter suggests that there was a corresponding increase in the abundance of plants in terrestrial ecosystems. The stratigraphic change in lithology within the upper part of the Catskill-Hampshire succession suggests the onset of environmental conditions that became increasingly wet in response to elevated humid climatic conditions during the final stages of Catskill alluvial plain deposition. The sedimentological signature suggesting increased climatic wetness within the uppermost Catskill and Hampshire formations is nearly contemporaneous with the initiation of Late Devonian Gondwanan glaciation in the paleo-high-latitudes. The Appalachian climate record indicates that this change began during the Fa2c and continued through the latest Famennian, reaching its peak during the Fa2d when glacial deposits are recorded in the paleo-mid-latitudes of the Appalachian basin. Evidence of this late Famennian increase in precipitation also is recorded in the adjacent marine environments. Equivalent-age marine units in Ohio and Kentucky record progressive increases in both total organic carbon and the percentage of terrestrially-derived organic carbon. This suggests that there was a late Famennian increase in terrestrial organic matter productivity, and that during the late Famennian, there were elevated levels of runoff produced by the interpreted increase in

  19. Constraints on Earth degassing history from the argon isotope composition of Devonian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, F. M.; Mark, D.

    2012-04-01

    The primordial and radiogenic isotopes of the noble gases combine to make them a powerful tool for determining the time and tempo of the outgassing of the Earth's interior. The outgassing history of the Earth is largely constrained from measurements of the isotopic composition of He, Ne, Ar and Xe in samples of modern mantle, crust and atmosphere. There have been few unequivocal measurement of the isotopic composition of noble gases in ancient atmosphere. We have re-visited whether ancient Ar is trapped in the ~400 Ma Rhynie chert [1]. We have analysed samples of pristine Rhynie chert using the ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer calibrated against the new determination of atmospheric Ar isotope ratios [2]. 40Ar/36Ar ratios are low, with many lower than the modern air value (298.8). Importantly these are accompanied by atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios indicating that the low 40Ar/36Ar are not due to mass fractionation. We conclude that the Rhynie chert has captured Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar was at least 3 % lower than the modern air value. Thus the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated at least 5 ± 0.2 x 1016 moles of 40Ar in the last 400 million years, at an average rate of 1.24 ± 0.06 x 108 mol 40Ar/year. This overlaps the rate determined from ice cores for the last 800,000 years [3] and implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in Earth outgassing rate since mid-Palaeozoic times. The new data require the Earth outgassed early, and suggests that pristine samples of Archaean and Proterozoic chert may prove useful as palaeo-atmosphere tracers. [1] G. Turner, J. Geol. Soc. London 146, 147-154 (1989) [2] D. Mark, F.M. Stuart, M. de Podesta, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7494-7501 [3] M. Bender et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105, 8232-8237 (2008)

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Synergetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, B.

    2005-01-01

    The reductionist approach asks us to split the world into its constituents and to develop a detailed understanding of the properties of each fragment. This programme has met with considerable success in many instances, but it fails to account for properties that emerge from the interrelation between constituents and can be seen in the system as a whole only. The reductionist approach explains the spectra and intensities of the light emitted by a single atom, but it does not account for the appearance of coherent lasing action of atoms coupled by their light field. It describes the motion of individual molecules in a liquid but cannot explain how they arrange to form the majestic roll of waves on a beach. Similarly, a brain consists of millions of neurons whose biochemistry is reasonably well understood, but how they interact to give rise to memory and association and the myriad of other tasks a brain is capable off, remains unclear. These and many other examples in the anorganic and living world around us have in common that they typically operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium, that they involve the interaction of many ingredients, and that nonlinear interactions and feedback loops tend to be important. Over the past few decades many aspects of the dynamics of such systems have been explored, and fields like nonlinear dynamics, bifurcation theory, and pattern formation have prospered enourmously. Yet, the connection between the different areas and their contribution to the larger goal of explaining and exploring much of the order out of chaos around us has been in danger of being lost. Hermann Hakens book overcomes this reductionist separation of approaches and disciplines and provides a coherent collection of concepts, methods and tools with which all the previous examples and many more can be addressed. It lays the foundation for a quantitative analysis and should been seen as an invitation to the reader to apply its ideas to his or her favourite phenomenon

  1. A Christmas Book from 1875

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2009-12-01

    This is a story about a book that I found in my collection, its author, and the boy who owned it. The book is The Boy's Playbook of Science, first published in 1860 by John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). On the flyleaf is written "Arthur G. Webster; Christmas/75; from Mama." Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923) was one of the founders of the American Physical Society, and was 12 when he was given this book.

  2. Best-Selling Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujoth, Jean Spealman

    This book reports the results of a survey by the author to determine what children's books have been bought for, and read by, the most children. It identifies and describes 958 children's grade books now in print that, according to U.S. publishers, have sold 100,000 copies or more since their publication. These best-sellers are listed by author,…

  3. Geochemistry of Devonian and Carboniferous of sedimentary rocks in the Tsetserleg terrane, Hangay-Hentey basin, central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purevjav, N.; Roser, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hangay-Hentey basin forms part of the Central Asian Orogen Belt in central Mongolia. Contrasting hypotheses have been proposed explain its origin, and its tectonic evolution and provenance are controversial. Many studies to date have been based on geological evidence and only limited petrographic and geochemical analysis is available. The Hangay-Hentey basin is divided into seven terranes, of which the Tsetserleg terrane is one. The Tsetserleg terrane consists of siliceous- clastic sediments deposited in a turbidite environment. It is divided into the Middle Devonian Erdenetsogt Formation (sandstone, siltstone, shale and jasper), Middle-Upper Devonian Tsetserleg Formation (sandstone and siltstone), and the Lower Carboniferous Jargalant Formation (finer grained sandstone and mudstone) Sandstone petrography and major and trace element geochemistry of mudstones and sandstones has been used in attempt to constrain some aspects of provenance, tectonic setting and weathering of these Devonian and Carboniferous sediments. The Devonian sandstones are moderately sorted, and composed of sub-angular to sub-rounded quartz, plagioclase, microcline and rock fragments, and a few grains of chlorite and mica. Volcanic (dacite and rhyolite) lithics dominant the lithic population (Lv/L >0.90), and QFL values suggest deposition in an undissected to transitional arc environment. Geochemically the sandstones immature and are classed as wackes, while the mudstones are classed as shales. Major and trace element concentrations of 94 sandstones and mudstones indicate both the Devonian and Carboniferous sediments in the Tsetserleg terrane were mainly derived from felsic sources, although more intermediate detritus dominates in some samples. Major element data suggests deposition probably occurred in an Active Continental Margin setting (ACM), but scatter into the ARC field means an evolved continental island arc (CIA) setting or back arc environment is also possible. Chemical Index of

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  7. Robotic Booking Of Coolant Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Gutow, David A.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Robotic tube-booking subsystem proposed for use in automated manufacturing cell described in "Robotic Processing of Rocket-Engine Nozzles" (MFS-29927). Includes electric or pneumatic end effector that inspects gaps under guidance of control processor connected to robotic vision subsystem. After inspecting each gap, end effector books tubes in vicinity, then reinspects to ensure attainment of desired gap. Makes entire tube-gap area brazeable, without damage to tubes, with consistent results. In addition, robotic booking takes less time and costs less than manual booking.

  8. Facilitating a midwifery book club.

    PubMed

    Chenery-Morris, Samantha

    2012-03-01

    A midwifery student book club was set up at University Campus Suffolk (UCS) with the aim of engaging students in alternative forms of literature relevant to their studies and to enhance their university experience. The book club was well attended by first and second year midwifery students, but less so by third years. There was evidence of informal student engagement with the lecturer through follow up emails about the meetings. Most of the books reviewed were enjoyed, but the responsibility of suggesting a book for their peers to review was deemed too much by some students.

  9. Position of the Upper Devonian Frasnian--Famennian boundary in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Rossbach, T.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Biostratigraphic analysis of eight Upper Devonian sections in VA and WV reveals that the section at Huttonsville, Randolph County, WV, is a key locality for determining the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. The Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville indicates a higher stratigraphic placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary than has been generally assumed. Conodonts are not known within that section, so placement of the boundary uses the last occurrence of tentaculitids and the last and first occurrences of several species of brachiopods. It is believed that the Frasnian-Famennian boundary can be identified independently of the atrypoid brachiopods. Stratigraphic ranges of the cricoconarid Tentaculites discusses and the brachiopod Tropidoleptus carinatus, both considered Frasnian marker fossils, indicate that the Frasnian extends well into the Red Lick Member of the Foreknobs Formation at Huttonsville, with T. carinatus occurring up to 70% of the stratigraphic thickness of the Red Lick. The Famennian marker fossils A. angelica and C. sulcifer are both found at Huttonsville above the last recorded occurrence of all the Frasnian marker fossils. To the northeast of Huttonsville the Frasnian-Famennian series boundary has been placed by other workers within or at the top of the Pound Member of the Foreknobs Formation. This discrepancy implies that either the Pound Member is diachronous or that to the northeast paleoecologic factors caused local disappearances of critical fossils before their extinction at Huttonsville.

  10. Global iridium anomaly, mass extinction, and redox change at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta ); Attrep, M. Jr.; Orth, C.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Iridium abundance anomalies have been found on a global scale in the Devonian-Carboniferous (D-C) boundary interval, which records one of the largest Phanerozoic mass-extinction events, an event that devastated many groups of living organisms, such as plants, ammonoids, trilobites, conodonts, fish, foraminiferans, brachiopods, and ostracodes. At or very close to the D-C boundary, there exists a geographically widespread black-shale interval, and Ir abundances reach anomalous maxima of 0.148 ppb (Montagne Noire, France), 0.138 ppb (Alberta, Canada) 0.140 ppb (Carnic Alps, Austria), 0.156 ppb (Guangxi, China), 0.258 ppb (Guizhou, China), and 0.250 ppb (Oklahoma). The discovery of global D-C Ir anomalies argues for an impact-extinction model. However, nonchondritic ratios of Ir to other important elements and a lack of physical evidence (shocked quartz, microtektites) do not support such a scenario. The fact that all Ir abundance maxima are at sharp redox boundaries in these sections leads us to conclude that the Ir anomalies likely resulted from a sudden change in paleo-redox conditions during deposition and/or early diagenesis. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. An exceptional Devonian fish from Australia sheds light on tetrapod origins.

    PubMed

    Long, John A; Young, Gavin C; Holland, Tim; Senden, Tim J; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2006-11-09

    The transition from fishes to tetrapods was one of the most dramatic events in the evolution of vertebrates, but many pivotal fossils are incomplete, resulting in gaps in the data that are used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Here we present new observations from the most complete, acid-prepared Devonian tetrapodomorph fish yet discovered, Gogonasus, which was previously placed just crownward of Kenichthys and rhizodontids, the most primitive taxa on the tetrapod lineage. Unexpectedly, Gogonasus shows a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived tetrapod-like features. Whereas the braincase and dermal cranial skeleton exhibit generalized morphologies with respect to Eusthenopteron or Panderichthys, taxa that are traditionally considered to be phyletically close to tetrapods, the presence of a deeply invaginated, wide spiracle, advanced internal spiracular architecture and near-horizontal hyomandibula are specialized features that are absent from Eusthenopteron. Furthermore, the pectoral fin skeleton of Gogonasus shares several features with that of Tiktaalik, the most tetrapod-like fish. A new phylogenetic analysis places Gogonasus crownward of Eusthenopteron as the sister taxon to the Elpistostegalia. Aspects of the basic tetrapod limb skeleton and middle ear architecture can now be traced further back within the tetrapodomorph radiation.

  12. The earliest known stem-tetrapod from the Lower Devonian of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Long, John A; Zhao, Wenjin; Senden, Tim J; Jia, Liantao; Qiao, Tuo

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries of advanced fish-like stem-tetrapods (for example, Panderichthys and Tiktaalik) have greatly improved our knowledge of the fin-to-limb transition. However, a paucity of fossil data from primitive finned tetrapods prevents profound understanding of the acquisition sequence of tetrapod characters. Here we report a new stem-tetrapod (Tungsenia paradoxa gen. et sp. nov.) from the Lower Devonian (Pragian, ∼409 million years ago) of China, which extends the earliest record of tetrapods by some 10 million years. Sharing many primitive features with stem-lungfishes, the new taxon further fills in the morphological gap between tetrapods and lungfishes. The X-ray tomography study of the skull depicts the plesiomorphic condition of the brain in the tetrapods. The enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres and the possible presence of the pars tuberalis in this stem-tetrapod indicate that some important brain modifications related to terrestrial life had occurred at the beginning of the tetrapod evolution, much earlier than previously thought.

  13. Early Devonian conodont-graptolite collation and correlations with Brachiopod and Coral Zones, central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.A.; Berry, W.B.N.

    1983-03-01

    A range chart of some Early Devonian conodont and graptolite taxa from central Nevada is presented. It is based on the graphic correlation method of Shaw, and shows correlations with the established zones for brachiopods and corals as well as conodonts and graptolites. It indicates that the hesperius through pesavis conodont zones established for western North America are approximately equivalent to the Lochkovian of the Czechoslovakian sequence, and the Pragian begins approximately with the sulcatus zone. The chart also indicates that the zones based on different groups do not coincide, are of very unequal duration, and that intervals of rapid morphologic change correspond to intervals of higher diversity and greater morphologic variation. Species have significantly different longevities, generally those originating during times of greatest morphologic variation being the shorter lived. The approximate duration of the species studied is 2 to 10 m.y. Use of the graphic correlation method permits better correlation of shelf and basin faunas and enhances the possibility for constructing accurate shelf margin histories and for correlating provincial shelf faunas with those in other parts of the world.

  14. Evolution of topography of post-Devonian Scandinavia: effects and rates of erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S.; Hartz, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms and timing of mountain growth in Scandinavia remain enigmatic given that the region has not been involved in active orogenesis since the Devonian and in any large-scale tectonic activities after the NE Atlantic breakup during the early Cenozoic. In this study we combine analysis of the vertical motions of the region caused by (dominantly) glacial erosion during the Quaternary with Apatite Fission Track (AFT) analysis of rocks from the area. Using numerical models, we first quantify how fluvial and glacial erosion carved out the fjords and valleys to a depth of 2 km below the paleosurfaces. This erosional episode represents a major local weight loss and results in up to a 0.8-km uplift of rocks and up to a 0.5-km rise of local topography. These estimates only marginally depend on the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere and thus are robust. We show then that no correlation exists between sample altitude and published AFT data, but that a correlation does exist between AFT age and the depth below our constructed pre-glacial summit surface. This correlation demonstrates the robustness of the numerical erosional model, quantifies average erosion rates during Carboniferous-Cretaceous at < 10 m/My, and outlines the regions of western Scandinavia (Lofoten and Bergen areas and Møre-Trøndelag fault complex) with atypical Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution, probably related to regional tectonic activities.

  15. Reef development and extinction in response to Sealevel change in the Devonian of the Canning basin

    SciTech Connect

    Playford, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Relative change in sealevel, due to eustatism, basin subsidence, and local tectonism, strongly influenced the development and extinction of Devonian reefs in the Canning basin of Western Australia. Several eustatic events of platform emergence, backstepping, and drowning are recognized, and well-developed Milankovitch cyclicity is apparent in backreef and forereef deposits. Basin subsidence proceeded at rates of about 120 {mu}m/yr, to accommodate some 2000 m of reefal deposits. A type 1 sequence boundary separates the two major reef cycles, the Givetian-Frasnian Pillara cycle and Famennian Nullara cycle. The boundary unconformity in the reefal platforms has erosional relief of several meters, with associated minor karstification, and is believed to have resulted from an abrupt, small, and short-lived eustatic fall in sealevel. Although this was apparently only a small-scale event, it coincided with the world-wide mass extinction of many metazones, marked in the Canning basin by the elimination of the Frasnian stromatoporoid-coral reefbuilders, and their replacement in the Famennian by cyanobacteria alone. An iridium anomaly close to the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is of biogenic origin; it is not thought to have resulted from bolide impact. Preliminary correlations can be made with the development and extinction of equivalent reefs in China, Canada, and Europe. Detailed dating of the Canning basin complexes is proceeding, using conodonts and ammonoids, and this will facilitate more precise global correlation of the eustatic events.

  16. First Record of Soft Tissue Preservation in the Upper Devonian of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue preservation is reported from Upper Devonian deposits of the Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland, for the first time. The preserved soft tissues are muscles associated with arthropod cuticle fragments. The muscles are phosphatized with variable states of preservation. Well-preserved specimens display the typical banding of striated muscles. Other muscle fragments are highly degraded and/or recrystallized such that their microstructure is barely visible. The phosphatized muscles and associated cuticle are fragmented, occur in patches and some are scattered on the bedding plane. Due to the state of preservation and the lack of diagnostic features, the cuticle identification is problematic; however, it may have belonged to a phyllocarid crustacean. Taphonomic features of the remains indicate that they do not represent fossilized fecal matter (coprolite) but may represent a regurgitate, but the hypothesis is difficult to test. Most probably they represent the leftover remains after arthropod or fish scavenging. The present study shows that soft tissues, which even earlier were manipulated by scavenger, may be preserved if only special microenvironmental conditions within and around the animal remains are established. PMID:26559060

  17. Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales-II: Soxhlet extraction.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Ging, T.; Love, A.; Anders, D.

    1986-01-01

    We report on Soxhlet extraction (and subsequent related analyses) of 39 Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales from the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin, and analyses of 28 oils from the Basin. Because of the influence of primary petroleum migration, no increase in the relative or absolute concentrations of hydrocarbons or bitumen was observed at the threshold of intense hydrocarbon generation (TIHG), or during mainstage hydrocarbon generation in the Bakken shales. Thus, the maturation indices that have been so useful in delineating the TIHG and mainstage hydrocarbon generation in other studies were of no use in this study, where these events could clearly be identified only by Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The data of this study demonstrate that primary petroleum migration is a very efficient process. Four distinctive classes of saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatograms from the Bakken shales arose from facies, maturation, and primary migration controls. As a consequence of maturation, the % of saturated hydrocarbons increased in the shale extract at the expense of decreases in the resins and asphaltenes. Measurements involving resins and asphaltenes appear to be excellent maturation indices in the Bakken shales. Two different and distinct organic facies were present in immature Bakken shales. -from Authors

  18. The Hunsrück biota: A unique window into the ecology of Lower Devonian arthropods.

    PubMed

    Rust, Jes; Bergmann, Alexandra; Bartels, Christoph; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Sedlmeier, Stephanie; Kühl, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    The approximately 400-million-year old Hunsrück biota provides a unique window into Devonian marine life. Fossil evidence suggests that this biota was dominated by echinoderms and various classes of arthropods, including Trilobita, stem lineage representatives of Euarthropoda, Chelicerata and Eucrustacea, as well as several crown group Chelicerata and Eucrustacea. The Hunsrück biota's exceptional preservation allows detailed reconstructions and description of key-aspects of its fauna's functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Morphological and stratigraphic data are used for a critical interpretation of the likely habitats, mode of life and nutritional characteristics of this diverse fauna. Potential predators include pycnogonids and other chelicerates, as well as the now extinct stem arthropods Schinderhannes bartelsi, Cambronatus brasseli and Wingertshellicus backesi. Mainly the deposit feeding Trilobita, Marrellomorpha and Megacheira, such as Bundenbachiellus giganteus, represents scavengers. Possibly, opportunistic scavenging was also performed by the afore-mentioned predators. Most of the studied arthropods appear to have been adapted to living in relatively well-illuminated conditions within the photic zone. Fossil evidence for associations amongst arthropods and other classes of metazoans is reported. These associations provide evidence of likely community structures.

  19. Macrofossils of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Results of this study of the macrofossils of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota have reinforced the suggestion, based on previous paleontological work in Saskatchewan, that the Bakken is of both Devonian and Mississippian age, rather than being entirely of Lower Mississippian age as originally considered. Increased drilling and coring activity in the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin has provided the opportunity for acquiring a larger fauna that was previously available. Based on lithologic character, the Bakken has been divided into three informal members. These consist of a calcareous siltstone unit between two lithologically similar units of carbonaceous shale. These black shales contain similar faunas distinct from that of the middle member. The black shales contain inarticulate brachiopods, conchostracans, and rare cephalopods and fish remains as well as more abundant conodonts, ostracods, and palynomorphs. The middle siltstone unit contains a more abundant and diverse fauna consisting of inarticulate and articulate brachiopods together with corals, gastropods, cephalopods, ostracods, echinoderm remains, and trace fossils. This is the first report of cephalopods, conchostracans, ostracods, corals, trace fossils, and some of the brachiopods in the Bakken, although all, except the gastropods, have been reported from stratigraphic equivalents (Exshaw Formation of south-central Montana, the Leatham Formation of northeastern Utah, and the middle member of the Pilot Shale in western Utah and eastern Nevada).

  20. Conodont-based stratigraphy of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Eifelian, Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, V. M.; Kononova, L. I.

    2016-07-01

    Conodonts from the deposits of the Mosolovian Regional Stage (Middle Devonian) of the Voronezh Anteclise are studied on the basis of the data from six boreholes. Three assemblages are recognized. The index species of the lowermost assemblage is Icriodus formosus Naz. The index species of the middle assemblage are I. formosus Naz. and Pseudobipennatus ziegleri Kon. et Kim, as well as I. arkonensis Stauff. and I. jejunus Naz. This assemblage is the most diverse and is recognized in all boreholes. The deposits containing this assemblage correspond to the maximum of the Nara transgression. The upper assemblage is also recognized in all the studied boreholes. Its index species is Ps. ziegleri Kon. et Kim. The Mosolovian Regional Stage is assigned to the kockelianus Zone. The distribution diagrams of species in the most diverse middle assemblage support the hypothesis that, in the southeastern regions of the Voronezh anteclise, the depth was greater than in its western part. The characteristic conodont species are shown in the plates.

  1. Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ – gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Mats E.; Parry, Luke A.; Rudkin, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst the fossil record of polychaete worms extends to the early Cambrian, much data on this group derive from microfossils known as scolecodonts. These are sclerotized jaw elements, which generally range from 0.1–2 mm in size, and which, in contrast to the soft-body anatomy, have good preservation potential and a continuous fossil record. Here we describe a new eunicidan polychaete, Websteroprion armstrongi gen. et sp. nov., based primarily on monospecific bedding plane assemblages from the Lower-Middle Devonian Kwataboahegan Formation of Ontario, Canada. The specimens are preserved mainly as three-dimensional moulds in the calcareous host rock, with only parts of the original sclerotized jaw walls occasionally present. This new taxon has a unique morphology and is characterized by an unexpected combination of features seen in several different Palaeozoic polychaete families. Websteroprion armstrongi was a raptorial feeder and possessed the largest jaws recorded in polychaetes from the fossil record, with maxillae reaching over one centimetre in length. Total body length of the species is estimated to have reached over one metre, which is comparable to that of extant ‘giant eunicid’ species colloquially referred to as ‘Bobbit worms’. This demonstrates that polychaete gigantism was already a phenomenon in the Palaeozoic, some 400 million years ago. PMID:28220886

  2. Chemotrophic Filamentous Microfossils from the Hollard Mound (Devonian, Morocco) as Investigated by Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    The biologic origin of objects with microbe-like morphologies from the oldest preserved terrestrial sedimentary rocks remains a matter of controversy. Their biogenicity has been questioned, as well as the claim that they are convincing evidence of early life. Though minerals with microbe-like morphologies represent ambiguous evidence of life, they are, in a number of conditions, the only achievable information. In this study, the focused ion beam (FIB) electron microscopy technique was used for nano and micrometer-scale high-resolution imaging and in situ microsectioning of filamentous microfossils. The structural elements of these filaments, their spatial relationships with the host rock, and artifacts produced by alteration of the original morphology due to laboratory sample processing have been clearly defined. The in situ sectioning provided a means by which to investigate surface and subsurface microstructures and perform different analytical techniques on the same object, which minimizes sample destruction and avoids excessive manual handling and exposure of the specimen during analysis. Improvement in the morphological and compositional evaluation of the filaments has facilitated the development of a hypothesis regarding the metabolic pathway of the filamentous microfossils preserved in the Middle Devonian-aged Hollard Mound deposit, Anti-Atlas, Morocco. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the FIB/SEM (scanning electron microscopy) system for detecting microbial-scale morphologies.

  3. From the Visual Book to the WEB Book: The Importance of Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of two studies into electronic book production. The Visual book study explored visual components of books for more effective electronic book production, while the WEB book study applied findings of the Visual book study to book production on the World Wide Web. The electronic text usability study and questionnaire are…

  4. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cannery Formation consists of green, red, and gray ribbon chert, siliceous siltstone, graywacke-chert turbidites, and volcaniclastic sandstone. Because it contains early Permian fossils at and near its type area in Cannery Cove, on Admiralty Island in southeastern Alaska, the formation was originally defined as a Permian stratigraphic unit. Similar rocks exposed in Windfall Harbor on Admiralty Island contain early Permian bryozoans and brachiopods, as well as Mississippian through Permian radiolarians. Black and green bedded chert with subordinate lenses of limestone, basalt, and graywacke near Kake on Kupreanof Island was initially correlated with the Cannery Formation on the basis of similar lithology but was later determined to contain Late Devonian conodonts. Permian conglomerate in Keku Strait contains chert cobbles inferred to be derived from the Cannery Formation that yielded Devonian and Mississippian radiolarians. On the basis of fossils recovered from a limestone lens near Kake and chert cobbles in the Keku Strait area, the age of the Cannery Formation was revised to Devonian and Mississippian, but this revision excludes rocks in the type locality, in addition to excluding bedded chert on Kupreanof Island east of Kake that contains radiolarians of Late Pennsylvanian and early Permian age. The black chert near Kake that yielded Late Devonian conodonts is nearly contemporaneous with black chert interbedded with limestone that also contains Late Devonian conodonts in the Saginaw Bay Formation on Kuiu Island. The chert cobbles in the conglomerate in Keku Strait may be derived from either the Cannery Formation or the Saginaw Bay Formation and need not restrict the age of the Cannery Formation, regardless of their source. The minimum age of the Cannery Formation on both Admiralty Island and Kupreanof Island is constrained by the stratigraphically overlying fossiliferous Pybus Formation, of late early and early late Permian age. Because bedded radiolarian

  5. Towards an evaluation of the role of Mid Devonian forests in the development of the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, C. M.; Giesen, P.; Stein, W. E.; Mannolini, F.; Vanaller Hernick, L.; Landing, E.; Wang, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The development of tree form during the Middle Devonian (Eifelian and Givetian) is considered important because of its predicted profound effect on the Earth System. In order to be able to evaluate the impact of afforestation of the terrestrial environment, accurate whole plant concepts, reconstructions and growth models are a prerequisite. This paper will summarise both the considerable ongoing successes and important remaining gaps in our knowledge. The main plant groups to evolve a tree habit in the Middle Devonian were the pseudosporochnalean cladoxylopsids, the archaeopteridalean progymnosperms and the bipolar lycopsids. Amongst pseudosporochnaleans, the basic bauplan is for a swollen base with densely inserted narrow, long roots, a straight trunk and laterally inserted digitately divided branches bearing small, variously branched, unwebbed axial appendages. Fossils are known from Europe and the Americas. Spectacular new German specimens of Calamophyton (Mid Eifelian - Mid Givetian) demonstrate the whole plant from roots to trunk apex. Notable is the dense insertion of lateral branches. Pseudosporochnus (latest Eifelian - ?) includes bigger trunk material. Wattieza (Givetian - earliest Late Devonian) was a large tree with moderate sized specimens reaching 6-8 m height. Through time there is a clear trend of increase in maximum trunk diameters (and therefore height), decrease in density of lateral branch insertions on the trunk, and increasing three-dimensional morphological complexity of the (photosynthetic?) appendages. Basically monocauline, they had relatively short branches, and field evidence of the bases (Eospermatopteris) demonstrates the high density of individuals in Wattieza forests. Anatomically, structural elements (xylem tissues) are restricted to narrow strands which occupy a thin zone around the periphery of the trunk - much of the rest of the stem tissue is not lignified. Branches contain a much greater proportion of xylem tissues. Important

  6. From the Electronic Book through the Hyperbook to the BOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses electronic books and hypermedia as stages in the evolution of media used for the storage and transmission of information. Design features of a hyperbook being developed are described, and a future optical storage device called a BOOK (Binary Operating system for the Organization of Knowledge) is explained. (seven references) (LRW)

  7. Books Matter: The Place of Traditional Books in Tomorrow's Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megarrity, Lyndon

    2010-01-01

    People who love books can find entering an Australian library in the so-called "cyber-age" to be an unsettling experience. The first thing you notice is the reduced emphasis on book shelves in favour of empty but architecturally pleasing "public spaces", comfortable cushions, computer terminals, sometimes even new cafes and…

  8. Services for Older Adults. Reference Book [and] Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…

  9. Children's Books in Review. Books That Give Cultural Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a selection of children's books that feature a variety of topics and literary representations with insight into other cultures. The books focus on foods, historical events, reliance on the environment, folktales, family experiences, community heritage, words and phrases, and linguistic eccentricities. (SM)

  10. Children's Books in Review: Books on Strengthening Family Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews children's books that emphasize the strengthening of family ties. Characters in the books realize the importance and influence of family relationships as they struggle with sibling rivalry, self-discovery, peer relationships, a search for heritage, adoption, and death. (SM)

  11. Synsedimentary tectonics, mud-mounds and sea-level changes on a Palaeozoic carbonate platform margin: a Devonian Montagne Noire example (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrouilh, Robert; Bourque, Pierre-André; Dansereau, Pauline; Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Françoise; Weyant, Pierre

    1998-06-01

    The Devonian sedimentary succession of the southern flank of the Montagne Noire (France) was deposited along a divergent margin. This paper is a contribution to describe and evaluate biogenic, sedimentary, geochemical and micropalaeontological features as indicators of sea-level changes and global history of the Devonian in this area. Following transgression and shallow-water environments during Early Devonian time (Lochkovian to early Emsian), biogenic mud-rich mounds with stromatactis developed during latest Emsian at the platform margin. The depth of the Devonian sea was increasing and the seafloor passed below the photic zone and the lower limit of storm wave base during the Emsian. Growth and seismic faults affected the mounds and created Neptunian cracks and crevices, quickly filled with sedimentary material (pisoids) and cements (Neptunian dykes and veins). Light and CL-microscopy, and stable isotope geochemistry show that stromatactis, cements of Neptunian dykes, veins and pisoid cortices are early marine, whereas the red finely crystalline material that forms the bulk of the mound has been cemented in the near-surface diagenetic environment, after the early marine cementation of stromatactis and Neptunian dykes and veins, by meteoric or hydrothermal fluids. The sedimentary rocks overlying the stromatactis mounds exhibit regularly condensed iron and manganese-rich layers, interrupted by the Kellwasser hypoxic horizon. These condensed deposits developed up to the Famennian in a context of carbonate gravity sedimentation and became more and more rhythmic and frequent up section. The occurrence and irregular distribution of large-scale submarine mass flows during Frasnian and Famennian times can be related to block faulting on which Lower Devonian stromatactis mounds could have been uplifted by this block faulting to form seamounts. The sea-level fluctuations detected in the southern flank of Montagne Noire are compared to the Devonian eustatic sea-level curve

  12. Books: From Writer to Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfeld, Howard

    This book describes the various stages of book publishing and the people responsible for those stages. Its seventeen chapters discuss the following topics: the writer, the literary agent, the publishing house, the decision to publish, the editor, the illustrator, the copy editor, the designer, the jacket designer, the production supervisor, the…

  13. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  14. The Whole Language Evaluation Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S., Ed.; And Others

    Intended for teachers from kindergarten through adult education and for administrators, this book demonstrates how teachers have created environments that facilitate whole language evaluation. Articles in the book discuss strategies used in evaluating students' growth across many curricular areas, including reading, writing, and second language…

  15. The Weekend Education Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Wilbur

    A guidebook to short residential programs, the book provides an account of the many types of centers, the wide range of subjects, accommodations/facilities, and the procedures for enrollment and obtaining degrees/credits. The book was written in response to a deluge of inquiries to a "Reader's Digest" article on the topic. The first half of the…

  16. The eBook Hook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bettie Parsons; Notwell, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The time students spend using mobile devices is making an impact on the reading experience both inside and outside the classroom. The authors--a doctoral student and a fourth-grade language arts and science teacher--designed and implemented a unit on landforms that included nonfiction reading, with both traditional print books and eBooks on iPads,…

  17. Activity Book. Celebrate Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchert, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An activity book helps students learn about the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon as they get a sense of the mission's impact on their lives. The activities enhance understanding of science, math, social studies, and language arts. A teacher's page offers information on books, magazines, computer materials, and special resources. (SM)

  18. Connect the Book. Benjamin Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of James Cross Giblin's "The Amazing Life of Benjamin Franklin" (Scholastic, 2000). This book provides a real look at the life of one of America's most famous statesmen who was also a printer, inventor, and writer. The book additionally includes a chronology of Franklin's life, information about his many…

  19. Book Display as Adult Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  20. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  1. Books, the Stuff of Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanian, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Muses about the growing number of "special problem" books--books about children who are asthmatic, diabetic, or have AIDS, etc. Recounts the circumstances of the author's childhood as a diabetic. Concludes that adults sometimes work too hard at trying to make life fair for children. (PA)

  2. Disabled Superheroes in Comic Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    The author reviews the role of "superhero" in comic books, finding five prominent characters with disabilities. He suggests that sales of these comic books are due, in part, to unique gimmicks in the character, but may also reflect increased acceptance within the society of successful disabled role models. (Author/CL)

  3. How to Get Greener Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Cynthia N.

    2008-01-01

    Professors select readings for their students in different forms: printed matter, including books and journals; print-on-demand texts; and online material. Before long, enough books and articles will be available for downloading onto devices like the Sony Reader and Amazon.com's new Kindle to make that format another option. They consider a wide…

  4. Unusual! Unbelievable! Unreal! (Children's Books).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Carol; Peters, Donna; Semer, Susie; White, W. Quinn; Scharer, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 48 illustrated children's books that enable readers to explore the unusual, unbelievable, or unreal. Presents the books in the following grouping: unbelievable characters; coping with adversity; incredible accomplishments; unreal tales from real places; unusual plants and animals; unreal phenomena; and…

  5. Establishing a Book Publishing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciofalo, Andrew

    Addressing the need to prepare college graduates for careers in book publishing, this report examines the necessity and structure of a book publishing curriculum at the undergraduate level at Loyola College in Maryland. A 1977 bulletin by the American Association of Publishers (AAP) cited a lack of awareness of publishing as a possible career, and…

  6. When Books Are Your Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Since most libraries are now hosting their own web sites, this author advocates for a social network centered on the work of building and supporting resource-rich library sites. While there are already several social networks for books, books are just one thing that libraries make available. A social network that helps people share what they are…

  7. Jigsawing with Wordless Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardon, Douglas Jay

    Upper-level elementary classroom teachers can integrate wordless picture books (usually used only in the lower elementary grades) with the Jigsaw approach to cooperative learning. Students are first assigned to heterogeneously-balanced "home teams." Members of the home team write a story to accompany a picture book, usually in about 15…

  8. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  9. Are Goosebumps Books Real Literature?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Leslie Anne; Butler, Rebecca P.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that, regardless of whether they have literary merit, the "Goosebumps" books (a series of mildly scary horror books for preteens) are getting children hooked on reading, some of whom do not otherwise read. Discusses students' attitudes toward the series. (SR)

  10. Hooked on Books: Program & Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fader, Daniel N.; McNeil, Elton B.

    An approach to learning called "English in Every Classroom" and based on the concepts of saturation and diffusion is presented in a book that proposes to surround the student with newspapers, magazines, and paperbound books until he comes to perceive them as a pleasureable means to a necessary end and to relate school to the world outside. The…

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    S/CFT correspondence. The author explains clearly most of the arguments in discussions and refers for further details to original papers (with corresponding arXiv numbers), selected lists of which appear at the end of each chapter (there are more than 300 references in the book). Considered as a whole the book covers primers on quantum fields, Feynman diagrams, renormalization procedure and renormalization groups, as well as the representation theory of classical linear Lie algebras. Some necessary information on irreducible representations of su(N), so(N) and sp(2N) is given in an appendix. There are in the text short historical and biographical notes concerning those scientists who made important contributions to the subject of the monograph: S Coleman, Yu Golfand, E Witten and others. Most of the seventeen chapters contain a few exercises to check the reader's understanding of the corresponding material. This monograph will be useful for graduate students and researchers in the field of elementary particles.

  13. Study of hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, eastern Kentucky annual technical report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Frankie, W.T.

    1985-07-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kentucky is conducting a 2-year research project funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to study hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky. Objectives are to develop an understanding of relationships between stratigraphy and hydrocarbon production, create a data base, and prepare geologic reports for each county in the study area. Data were compiled from the KGS, GRI Eastern Gas Data System (EGDS), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), and industry. Research for Letcher County was completed and 270 Devonian wells were entered into the KGS computer data base. Devonian black-shale units were correlated using gamma-ray logs. Structure and isopach maps, and stratigraphic cross sections have been constructed. An isopotential map defining areas of equal initial gas production has been prepared. Statistics for Letcher County have been run on the data base using Datatrieve software package. Statistical analyses focused on different types of formation treatments and the resulting production. Temperature logs were used to detect gas-producing intervals within the Mississippian-Devonian black-shale sequence. The results of the research provide the petroleum industry with a valuable tool for gas exploration in the Devonian shales.

  14. From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis.

    PubMed

    Lamsdell, James C; Selden, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to a stagnant persistent lineage, pinpointing the Devonian as the period during which this evolutionary regime shift occurred. The late Devonian biotic crisis is potentially unique among the "Big Five" mass extinctions in exhibiting a drop in speciation rates rather than an increase in extinction. Our study reveals eurypterids show depressed speciation rates throughout the Devonian but no abnormal peaks in extinction. Loss of morphospace occupation is random across all Paleozoic extinction events; however, differential origination during the Devonian results in a migration and subsequent stagnation of occupied morphospace. This shift appears linked to an ecological transition from euryhaline taxa to freshwater species with low morphological diversity alongside a decrease in endemism. These results demonstrate the importance of the Devonian biotic crisis in reshaping Paleozoic ecosystems.

  15. Bibliography of Books for Children. 1971 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderlin, Sylvia, Ed.

    This is an annotated bibliography of books suitable for children aged 2 to 12. About 1500 titles are included. Books are listed under general headings such as Animals in Fiction, Art, Biographies, Books for Beginning Readers, Books for Fun, Books for the Very Young, Fantasy and Fairy Tales, Fiction, Folklore, Foreign Language, Holidays, Mother…

  16. Inciting Interest in the Newbery Award Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegel, Claudette

    2007-01-01

    Hearing some fun facts about books and authors can bring books to life and help ignite students' interest in books and reading. Because most elementary school media centers and public libraries have many of the Newbery Medal books, students will have a better chance of finding books they decide they want to read once they hear about them. Reading…

  17. A Handbook for Using Movable Action Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohning, Gerry; Radencich, Marguerite

    Prepared as a guide for teachers, parents, and librarians, this handbook presents guidelines for developing a collection of movable action books (also called pop-ups, movables, surprise books, lift-the-flap books, or novelty books) appropriate for use with children in the home or school setting. Following a brief description of action books, their…

  18. Children's Books of the Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Elaine, Comp.

    Selected from the reference library of current children's books housed at the National Book League in London, the 323 books in this annotated bibliography reflect the author's personal selection of those works which seemed most worth noticing from the publications of 1972. Books are categorized into picture books, fictional stories for five to…

  19. Children's Books of the Year 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Elaine, Comp.

    Selected from the reference library of current children's books housed at the National Book League in London, the 323 books in this annotated bibliography reflect the author's personal selection of those works which seemed most worth noticing from the publications of 1971. Books are categorized into picture books, fictional stories for five to…

  20. What Do Digital Books Mean for Libraries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Discusses digital books, or electronic books, and their relationship to libraries and communication between authors and readers. Topics include the scholarly market, for academic libraries, versus the consumer market; textbooks versus novels; digitization of older books; marketing; costs; and electronic books versus printed books. (LRW)

  1. Weeded Books Inspire Student Art Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    The rationale behind weeding books is to remove dated, obsolete, erroneous material and worn books in disrepair from the collection to make room for current titles. Students of Lakeview have discovered an innovative idea of creating an altered book from the weeded book by taking a hardcover book and changing the original cover by means of a…

  2. Art How-to Books: Brush Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasscock, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    It's no secret that books can be used by readers to learn new things. How-to books are published on various topics, and none are requested more often by children than art books. Tackling instruction in book form requires organization, creativity, and planning. Willingness to tailor a book's features and approach is essential to creating a…

  3. Libraries, Patrons, and E-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the world of e-books and libraries, where libraries fit into these book-consumption patterns of Americans, when people choose to borrow their books and when they choose to buy books. It examines the potential frustrations e-book borrowers can encounter when checking out digital titles, such as long wait lists and compatibility…

  4. University contracts summary book

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The principal objectives of the Fossil Energy Program are to seek new ideas, new data, fundamental knowledge that will support the ongoing programs, and new processes to better utilize the nation's fossil energy resources with greater efficiency and environmental acceptability. Toward this end, the Department of Energy supports research projects conducted by universities and colleges to: Ensure a foundation for innovative technology through the use of the capabilities and talents in our academic institutions; provide an effective, two-way channel of communication between the Department of Energy and the academic community; and ensure that trained technical manpower is developed to carry out basic and applied research in support of DOE's mission. Fossil Energy's university activities emphasize the type of research that universities can do best - research to explore the potential of novel process concepts, develop innovative methods and materials for improving existing processes, and obtain fundamental information on the structure of coal and mechanisms of reactions of coal, shale oil, and other fossil energy sources. University programs are managed by different Fossil Energy technical groups; the individual projects are described in greater detail in this book. It is clear that a number of research areas related to the DOE Fossil Energy Program have been appropriate for university involvement, and that, with support from DOE, university scientific and technical expertise can be expected to continue to play a significant role in the advancement of fossil energy technology in the years to come.

  5. Lung diffusion testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Emphysema Interstitial fibrosis Pulmonary embolism Pulmonary hypertension Sarcoidosis Lung hemorrhage Asthma Risks There are no significant ... Read More Asbestosis Interstitial lung disease Lung disease Sarcoidosis Review Date 11/19/2015 Updated by: Denis ...

  6. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor Treating Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery to Treat Lung Carcinoid Tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  7. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and precise dating of middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) Alamo Breccia, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.; Malkowski, K.; Joachimski, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    At Hancock Summit West, Nevada, western USA, uppermost Givetian (upper Middle Devonian) and lower and middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) rocks of the lower Guilmette Formation include, in stratigraphic sequence, carbonate-platform facies of the conodont falsiovalis, transitans, and punctata Zones; the type Alamo Breccia Member of the middle punctata Zone; and slope facies of the punctata and hassi Zones. The catastrophically deposited Alamo Breccia and related phenomena record the ~ 382??Ma Alamo event, produced by a km-scale bolide impact into a marine setting seaward of an extensive carbonate platform fringing western North America. Re-evaluation of conodonts from the lower Guilmette Formation and Alamo Breccia Member, together with regional sedimentologic and conodont biofacies comparisons, now firmly locates the onset of the Johnson et al. (1985) transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycle IIc, which occurred after the start of the punctata Zone, within a parautochthonous megablock low in the Alamo Breccia. Whole-rock carbon isotope analyses through the lower Guilmette Formation and Alamo Breccia Member reveal two positive ??13Ccarb excursions: (1) a small, 3??? excursion, which is possibly correlative with the falsiovalis Event previously identified from sections in Western Europe and Australia, occurs below the breccia in the Upper falsiovalis Zone to early part of the transitans Zone; and (2) a large, multi-part excursion, dominated by a 6??? positive shift, begins above the start of the punctata Zone and onset of T-R cycle IIc and continues above the Alamo Breccia, ending near the punctata- hassi zonal boundary. This large excursion correlates with the punctata Event, a major positive ??13C excursion previously recognized in eastern Laurussia and northern Gondwana. Consistent with previous studies, at Hancock Summit West the punctata Event is apparently not associated with any regional extinctions or ecosystem reorganizations. In the study area, onset of the

  8. Genetic processes and environmental significance of Lower Devonian brachiopod shell concentrations in Longmenshan area, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengjie; Qu, Xuelin; Du, Lingchun; Dai, Tingyong; Yang, Yuchuan; Li, Junwu; Yang, Chengjin

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive features of the Lower Devonian rocks of the Longmenshan area in southwestern China are brachiopod shell concentrations, especially in the Bailiuping, Ganxi and Xiejiawan Formations, where brachiopod shell concentrations occur widely throughout. Depending on the dominant skeletal elements, six types of shell concentrations can be distinguished: Protochonete, Acrospirifer, Howellella, Orientospirifer, polyspecific shell and polyspecific fragments concentrations. According to the shell features, taphonomic signature, host sediments and their relationships, four genetic models of the various shell concentrations are described in this paper. The genetic processes and distributions along an onshore-offshore area were clarified on the base of taphonomic analysis. Pavements of opportunistic species of Protochonetes are autochthonous assemblages living in quieter, deeper, more offshore waters near the maximum storm wave base. The pavements are the result of reduced sedimentation; the substrate was silty and water-saturated with variable turbidity soupy-mud. Transport by high-energy processes is interpreted as the final formation process of polyspecific fragments concentrations with most extensive scope from intertidal zone to the maximum storm wave base. The Acrospirifer, Howellella, and Orientospirifer concentrations have been stirred by storm wave action and quickly buried after short transport tempestite model. They are most easily preserved around the average storm wave-base. The polyspecific shell concentrations, which include large bivalves are autochthonous assemblages living in shallow and relatively quieter water near shore environments. Autochthonous assemblages of the opportunist Protochonetes bailiupingensis occurring in the Bailiuping Formation of the Longmenshan area not only record of storm events, but are also important features to identify and correlate the Bailiuping Formation in the field.

  9. Early evolution of the lungfish pectoral fin endoskeleton: evidence from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Pentlandia macroptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jude, Emma; Johanson, Zerina; Kearsley, Anton; Friedman, Matt

    2014-08-01

    As the closest living relatives of tetrapods, lungfishes are frequently used as extant models for exploring the fin-to-limb transition. These studies have generally given little consideration to fossil taxa. This is because although lungfish fins are relatively common in the fossil record, the internal structure of these fins is virtually unknown. Information on pectoral-fin endoskeletons in fossil representatives of Dipnomorpha (the lungfish total group) is limited to poorly preserved remains in the lungfish Dipterus and Conchopoma and more complete material in the porolepiform Glyptolepis. Here we describe a well-preserved pectoral-fin endoskeleton in the Middle Devonian (Givetian) lungfish Pentlandia macroptera from the John O’Groats fish bed, Caithness, northeastern Scotland. The skeleton is in association with a cleithrum and clavicle, and consists of a series of at least eight mesomeres. Extensive series of preaxial and postaxial radials are present. Some of the radials are jointed, but none branch. No mesomere articulates with multiple radials on either its pre- or post-axial face. The first two mesomeres, corresponding to the humerus and ulna, bear well-developed axial processes. Uniquely among dipnomorphs, a distinct ossification centre corresponding to the radius is present in Pentlandia. A review of anatomy and development of the pectoral-fin endoskeleton in the living Neoceratodus is presented based on cleared and stained material representing different size stages. These developmental data, in conjunction with new details of primitive lungfish conditions based on Pentlandia, highlight many of the derived features of the pectoral-fin skeleton of Neoceratodus, and clarify patterns of appendage evolution within the dipnomorphs more generally.

  10. Sedimentology and tectonics of Devonian Nation River Formation, Alaska, part of yet another allochthonous terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D.G.; Murray, R.W.; Wiley, T.J.; Boundy-Sanders, S.; Kauffman-Linam, L.; Jones, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Sandwiched between terra incognito of the Yukon Flats, Alaska, and the disrupted cratonal sequences of Yukon Territory, Canada, is a complex array of Proterozoic and Phanerozoic rock units composing a poorly defined group of tectonostratigraphic terranes. The Nation River formation (NRF) is a conspicuous siliciclastic submarine fan complex interbedded in a Paleozoic sequence characterized by deep-water cherts, siliceous shales, and platform to basin-plain carbonates. The NRF ranges from 500 to 2000 m thick. Where the basal part is exposed, NRF overlies the Devonian McCann Hill Chert, a deep-water radiolarian chert sequence. Above the NRF is either another radiolarian chert sequence, the Mississippian Ford Lake Shale, or Permian shallow-water Tahkandit Limestone or Step Conglomerate. NRF lithologies include fine-grained to pebbly turbidites assembled in both thinning- and fining-upward and thickening- and coarsening-upward cycles typical of middle to outer fan settings. Compositionally the grains are principally chert (green, gray, white, black, and rarely red) with minor amounts of vein quartz and quartz sandstone. Most of the chert seems to be replacement chert from a carbonate terrane, though some pebbles yield an Ordovician radiolarian assemblage. Paleocurrent flow directions based on thousands of bottom features (flutes, prods, and grooves) indicate, in present-day coordinates, flow toward the east. Individual azimuth directions are throughout the two easterly quadrants, by 60% of these data indicate flow between 045 and 150/sup 0/. This spread of data is consistent from outcrop to outcrop, indicating that there are no localized block rotations. Easterly flow has also been determined for the overlying Cretaceous units of the Kandik basin (Biederman Argillite and Kathul Graywacke).

  11. Geomagnetic field behaviour preceding a Superchron: new evidence for a weak Devonian geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L.; Anwar, T.; Scherbakova, V.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Shatsillo, A.; Holt, J.; Pavlov, V.

    2015-12-01

    The ~50 million year transition from the peak in reversal frequency in the Middle Jurassic (~170Ma), associated with a weak geomagnetic field, to the stable and apparently strong field during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (84-121Ma), represents a dramatic change in time-averaged geomagnetic field behaviour during the Mesozoic Era. New evidence from Siberian samples suggests there is a similar transition in geomagnetic field behaviour during the Palaeozoic, with a weak geomagnetic field in the Upper Devonian preceding the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron (262-318Ma). Both sites, the Viluy Traps and the Zharovsk complex of the Patom Margin, have seemingly reliable, published palaeomagnetic directions and new age constraints, 364.4 ± 1.7Ma (40Ar/39A) 371-377Ma (U-Pb) respectively. The samples were measured using the Thermal Thellier-Coe protocol with partial thermo-remanent magnetisation (pTRM) and tail checks and the Microwave Thellier-IZZI protocol with pTRM checks. Accepted Arai plots show positive pTRM checks, a clear relation between distinct primary directional and palaeointensity components and little to no zig-zagging. Three distinct magneto-mineralogical types were identified from SEM and rock magnetic techniques; low Ti- and intermediate Ti- titanomagnetite and possible maghemite, with mineral type affecting the success rate of samples but resulting in no significant variation in palaeointensity results. The Arai plots also commonly have a distinct two-slope concave-up shape, although non-heating, pseudo-Thellier experiments have supported this resulting from a strong overprint component rather than alteration or multi-domain effects. Results from these experiments give low site mean values between 2.3-29.9μT (Virtual Dipole Moments 4-50.6 ZAm2). The apparently periodic (~180 million years) transitions in geomagnetic field behaviour may indicate the influence of mantle convection changing heat flow across the Core Mantle Boundary.

  12. Surprisingly complex community discovered in the mid-Devonian fossil forest at Gilboa.

    PubMed

    Stein, William E; Berry, Christopher M; Hernick, Linda VanAller; Mannolini, Frank

    2012-02-29

    The origin of trees by the mid-Devonian epoch (398-385 million years ago) signals a major change in terrestrial ecosystems with potential long-term consequences including increased weathering, drop in atmospheric CO(2), modified climate, changes in sedimentation patterns and mass extinction. However, little is known about the ecology of early forests or how changes in early terrestrial ecosystems influenced global processes. One of the most famous palaeontological records for this time is the 'oldest fossil forest' at Riverside Quarry, Gilboa, New York, USA, discovered in the 1920s. Hundreds of large Eospermatopteris sandstone casts, now thought to represent the bases of standing cladoxylopsid trees, were recovered from a horizon that was originally interpreted as a muddy swamp. After quarry operations ceased, relatively minor outcrops of similar fossils at nearby localities have provided limited opportunities to evaluate this pervasive view using modern methods. In 2010, removal of the quarry backfill enabled reappraisal of the palaeoecology of this important site. Here we describe a 1,200 m(2) map showing numerous Eospermatopteris root systems in life position within a mixed-age stand of trees. Unexpectedly, large woody rhizomes with adventitious roots and aerial branch systems identified as aneurophytalean progymnosperms run between, and probably climb into, Eospermatopteris trees. We describe the overall habit for these surprisingly large aneurophytaleans, the earliest fossil group having wood produced by a bifacial vascular cambium. The site also provides evidence for arborescence within lycopsids, extending the North American range for trees in this ecologically critical group. The rooting horizon is a dark grey sandy mudstone showing limited root penetration. Although clearly belonging to a wetland coastal plain environment, the forest was probably limited in duration and subject to periodic disturbance. These observations provide fundamental clarification

  13. Late-Middle to Late Devonian (Givetian-Famennian) tectonic and stratigraphic history of central Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Ettensohn, F.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Barnett, S.F. ); Norby, R.D. )

    1994-04-01

    Earliest Givetian deposition in central Kentucky is represented in upper parts of the Boyle and Sellersburg formations and reflects marginal-marine to shallow-marine carbonate deposition at the end of the second tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny in the area is reflected by a disconformity or angular unconformity between the Boyle and New Albany formations, by reactivation of faults on the Kentucky river and related fault zones, and by concurrent graben formation. Succeeding late Givetian deposition is represented by the equivalent Portwood and Blocher members of the New Albany. The Portwood represents localized deposition of dolomitic breccias and black shales in grabens and half grabens, paleogeographically manifest as a series of restricted coastal lagoons and estuaries in central and east-central Kentucky. In contrast, dolomitic, Blocher black shales in west-central kentucky, beyond the effects of faulting, reflect more open, platform-lagoonal conditions. Both units are carbonate rick, contain a sparse benthic fauna, and had local sources of sediment. By latest Givetian or earliest Frasnian, local basins were largely filed, and when local sediment sources were inundated by transgression, sediment starvation, represented by a major lag zone or bone bed, ensued throughout central Kentucky, while black- and gray-shale deposition continued in deeper parts of the Illinois and Appalachian basins. During the Frasnian and early Famennian, as subsidence and transgression continued, deeper water gray- and black-shale units from the Appalachian and Illinois basins slowly onlapped the Cincinnati Arch area of central Kentucky; black shales in these units are fissile and lack both carbonates and benthic fauna. At the Devonian-Mississippian transition, however, a locally developed unconformity and structurally related erosion probably reflect inception of the fourth and final tectophase of the Acadian orogeny.

  14. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  15. Palynofacies patterns of the Devonian of the Parnaíba Basin, Brazil: Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Viviane Segundo Faria; Carvalho, Marcelo de Araujo; Borghi, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    To help describe the paleoenvironmental interpretation of one the most extensive marine Devonian successions in Brazil, palynofacies analyses were conducted on 46 samples from the Itaim (Pragian-Givetian), Pimenteira (Givetian-Frasnian) and Cabeças (Famennian) formations of the Parnaíba Basin in north-central Brazil. For the palynofacies analyses, kerogen categories were counted and subjected to cluster analyses. Five palynofacies associations were identified for three studied sections: PseudoAOM palynofacies, which consists of amorphous organic matter (AOM), pseudoamorphous and coenobial algae Quadrisporites; Transl/Nbiostr. palynofacies, which consists of translucent non-biostructured phytoclasts (well-preserved and degraded), cuticles (well-preserved and degraded), Spongiophyton and Botryococcus; Marine microplankton palynofacies, which consists of acritarchs, prasinophytes and translucent biostructured phytoclasts; Opaque palynofacies, which consists of opaque phytoclasts (equidimensional and lath shaped); and Sporomorphs palynofacies, which consists of zoomorphs (e.g., Chitinozoa) and sporomorphs (e.g., spores). The stratigraphic distribution of the five palynofacies associations reflects a continuous terrestrial influx throughout marine succession. At the Pragian-Emsian age, the woody material of Transl/Nbioestr. palynofacies prevails, suggesting a marine depositional paleoenvironment (presence of marine palynomorphs), but under deltaic influence due to the input of terrigenous material. An increasing trend of marine elements of Marine microplankton palynofacies is recorded for the Givetian, which suggests a progressive marine influence. However, during the Frasnian, the highest abundance of marine elements was recorded (Marine microplankton palynofacies). Moreover, a bloom of Maranhites spp. and prasinophytes (e.g., Tasmanites and Cymatiosphaera) was also recorded. The abrupt increase of marine palynomorphs in the Frasnian - here termed the "Maranhites

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  17. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  18. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L.

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  19. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  20. A Gigantic Sarcopterygian (Tetrapodomorph Lobe-Finned Fish) from the Upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L.; Senden, Timothy J.; Young, Gavin C.

    2013-01-01

    Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved – either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both ‘primitive’ and ‘derived’ tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres