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Sample records for dezincing steel scrap

  1. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  2. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  3. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  4. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  5. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  6. SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP STEEL AND FOUNDRY SCRAP IRON, USED AS THE PRIMARY METAL SOURCES, ARE STORED IN THESE BINS AND LIFTED TO SCALES BY AN ELECTRIC MAGNET. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of MSE`s Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less.

  8. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Economic feasibility of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Balhiser, B.C.; Rosholt, D.L.; Nichols, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive scrap metal has traditionally been disposed of by burial in low-level waste repositories, an option that will become increasingly unattractive if burial costs rise as projected. This paper will examine recycling opportunities that may arise from two divergent economic trends: (1) escalating burial costs, and (2) historically flat product costs from state-of-the-art metal recycle operations. Emphasis will be placed on recycling the radioactive scrap steel (RSS) that will arise from D&D of Government and commercial nuclear facilities in the western United States. An effort is underway to compare processes for recycling RSS at least cost to the generator, least impact to the environment, and minimum worker exposure to radionuclide hazards. An experienced industry team with expertise in radioactive metals recycling, commercial steel recycling, and state-of-the-art metal recycle facilities design has been assembled under subcontract for this purpose. Methods for evaluating process options to arrive at an optimized solution will be discussed in the paper. An analysis of burial versus recycle costs for RSS will also be presented.

  10. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, government and commercial nuclear operators treated radioactive scrap steel (RSS) as a liability and disposed of it by burial; this was an accepted and economical solution at that time. Today, environmental concerns about burial are changing the waste disposal picture by (a) causing burial costs to soar rapidly, (b) creating pressure to close existing burial sites, and (c) making it difficult and expensive to open and operate burial facilities. To exacerbate the problem, planned dismantling of nuclear facilities will substantially increase volumes of RSS {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} over the next 30 yr. This report describes a project with the intention of integrating the current commercial mini-mill approach of recycling uncontaminated steel with radiological controls to design a system that can process contaminated metals at prices significantly below the current processors or burial costs.

  11. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.; Balhiser, B.; Cignetti, N.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  12. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  13. The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

  14. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill.

  15. Management of MSW in Spain and recovery of packaging steel scrap.

    PubMed

    Tayibi, Hanan; Peña, Carmen; López, Félix A; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Packaging steel is more advantageously recovered and recycled than other packaging material due to its magnetic properties. The steel used for packaging is of high quality, and post-consumer waste therefore produces high-grade ferrous scrap. Recycling is thus an important issue for reducing raw material consumption, including iron ore, coal and energy. Household refuse management consists of collection/disposal, transport, and processing and treatment - incineration and composting being the most widely used methods in Spain. Total Spanish MSW production exceeds 21 million tons per year, of which 28.1% and 6.2% are treated in compost and incineration plants, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive study of incineration and compost plants in Spain, including a review of the different processes and technologies employed and the characteristics and quality of the recovered ferrous scrap. Of the total amount of packaging steel scrap recovered from MSW, 38% comes from compost plants and 14% from incineration plants. Ferrous scrap from incineration plants presents a high degree of chemical alteration as a consequence of the thermal process to which the MSW is subjected, particularly the conditions in which the slag is cooled, and accordingly its quality diminishes. Fragmentation and magnetic separation processes produce an enhancement of the scrap quality. Ferrous scrap from compost plants has a high tin content, which negatively affects its recycling. Cleaning and detinning processes are required prior to recycling.

  16. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions from scrap processing steel plants with electric-arc furnaces.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions of scrap iron processing steel plants were explored by measuring concentrations in stack gases of five plants, in the atmosphere (n=11) at a site close to those plants, and in soil at several sites in the region (n=40) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Observed stack-gas Σ32PCN levels from the plants without scrap preheating (189±157ngNm(-3), average±SD, n=4) showed that they are substantial PCN emitting sources. Stack-gas Σ32PCN level for the plant with scrap preheating was considerably higher (1262ngNm(-3)). Similarly, Σ32PCN emission factor for this plant was substantially higher (11.9mgton(-1)) compared to those without scrap preheating (1.30±0.98mgton(-1)). Results have also suggested that the investigated steel plants emit large quantities of fugitive particle-phase PCNs. Measured soil Σ32PCN concentrations that are considered to be representative of the atmospheric levels were greatly variable in the region, ranging between 0.003 and 10.02μgkg(-1) (dry wt). Their spatial distribution showed that main PCN sources in the region were the iron-steel plants. Ambient air levels (1620±800pgm(-3)) were substantially higher than ones observed around the world and in the study area verifying that the steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are important PCN sources. Investigation of possible mechanisms suggested that the combustion processes also contribute to emissions from EAFs in addition to evaporation of PCNs present in the scrap iron.

  17. Release of Residues from Melting NORM-Contaminated Steel Scrap - A German Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, U.; Thierfeldt, S.; Wvrlen, S.

    2003-02-24

    As many raw materials like crude oil, natural gas, mineral sands, phosphor ores and others are contaminated by radionuclides from the Uranium and/or Thorium decay chain (NORM), also plants for processing these materials became contaminated during operation. When plants are shut down, large quantities of pipes, valves, pumps and other components have to be scrapped. As scrap yards and steel mills are equipped by large detector systems to avoid an input of radioactivity into the steel cycle, decontamination is required before recycling. Siempelkamp is operating a melting plant for processing NORM and/or chemically/ toxically contaminated steel scrap. Beside the decontaminated steel as output, residues like slag and filter dust have to be managed within the range of licensed values. Based on the European Safety Standard the European member states have to implement radiation exposure from work activities with NORM in their Radiation Protection Ordinances (RPO). The German government revised the RPO in July 2001. Part 3 describes exposure limits for workers and for the public. Exposures from residues management have to meet 1 mSv/year. Brenk Systemplanung has performed calculations for assessing the radiation exposure from residues of the Siempelkamp melting plant. These calculations have been based on the input of metal from different origins and include all relevant exposure pathways in a number of scenarios. The calculations have been based on the dose criterion of 1 mSv/y as required by the German RPO. The methods and results will be presented.

  18. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2010-08-04

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  19. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  20. Refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel radioactive scrap metals, FY 94 bi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Atteridge, D.G.; Buckentin, J.; Carter, J.; Davis, H.L.; Devletian, J.H.; Scholl, M.R.; Turpin, R.B.; Webster, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    The research addressed under this project is the recycling of metallic nuclear-related by-product materials under the direction of Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). The program addresses the recycling of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) for beneficial re-use within the DOE complex; in particular, this program addresses the recycling of stainless steel RSM. It is anticipated that various stainless steel components under WINCO control at the Idaho Falls Engineering Laboratory (INEL), such as fuel pool criticality barriers and fuel storage racks will begin to be recycled in FY94-95. The end product of this recycling effort is expected to be waste and overpack canisters for densified high level waste for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific components of this problem area that are presently being, or have been, addressed by CAAMSEC are: (1) the melting/remelting of stainless steel RSM into billet form; (2) the melting/remelting initial research focus will be on the use of radioactive surrogates to study; (3) the cost effectiveness of RSM processing oriented towards privatization of RSM reuse and/or resale. Other components of this problem that may be addressed under program extension are: (4) the melting/remelting of carbon steel; (5) the processing of billet material into product form which shall meet all applicable ASTM requirements; and, (6) the fabrication of an actual prototypical product; the present concept of an end product is a low carbon Type 304/316 stainless steel cylindrical container for densified and/or vitrified high level radioactive waste and/or the Universal Canister System for dry (interim) storage of spent fuel. The specific work reported herein covers the melting/remelting of stainless steel {open_quotes}scrap{close_quotes} metal into billet form and the study of surrogate material removal effectiveness by various remelting techniques.

  1. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J.; Hellickson, D.A.; Dudek, F.J.

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.

  3. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  4. The Scrap Map: An Environmental Publication for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document contains materials for a 10-day teaching unit on solid waste recycling for grades K-6. Included are: (1) "The Scrap Map," which shows recycling cycles for metals and paper, and a cryptic word puzzle; (2) three pamphlets on recycling paper, nonferrous scrap metals, and scrap iron and steel; (3) a list of the chapters of the Institute…

  5. Railroading Scrap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakela, Peter

    1975-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental benefits of recycling mainly iron and steel, as well as the current status of such recycling processes. It also examines some of the economic constraints working against recycling, and offers suggestions for correcting the problem. (Author/MA)

  6. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  7. Iron and steel recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Consumption of iron and steel scrap and the health of the scrap industry depend directly on the health of the steelmaking industry. The United States, as well as most of the world, is expected to consume increasing amounts of scrap as a steadily increasing population demands more steel products. World resources of scrap should be sufficient for the foreseeable future. An estimated 75 million metric tons (Mt) of scrap was generated during 1998 in the United States, and 35 Mt of old scrap and 18 Mt of new scrap was consumed. The recycling efficiency was calculated to be 52%, and the recycling rate was found to be 41%. (See appendix for definitions.)

  8. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  9. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  10. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  11. Equipment for shredding rubber scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhkov, V.F.; Golikov, V.N.; Kurglov, V.I.; Cherepkova, R.V.

    1987-07-01

    The authors describe a range of machines developed for shredding rubber scrap and discarded rubber articles into crumbs. Technical characteristics of the machine for shredding vulcanized pressed-rubber parts, used rubber articles and scrap from the shoe industry are presented. A machine for shredding rubber scrap from plants making rubber products and from the shoe industry is shown, as is one for producing rubber crumbs from the scrap during the roughing of tires. Another machine is examined which cuts tires with metallic cords.

  12. Radiological Assessment of Releasing Scrap Metal from Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    N. Naraine; C. Conklin; R. Anigstein

    2000-06-04

    Large quantities of scrap metal are generated during the extensive worldwide decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and, to a lesser extent, during the normal operations of these facilities. To evaluate the radiological impacts of releasing potentially contaminated metals to the general environment, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an exhaustive analysis of the release and recycling of carbon steel scrap. Further assessments were performed of the clearance and recycling of aluminum and copper scrap. The aim of the analyses was to calculate the annual dose and the lifetime risk of cancer to the reasonably maximally exposed (RME) individual, normalized to the specific activity of a given radioactive contaminant in the scrap, from 1 yr of exposure. These results, presented as a set of tables that list the normalized doses and risks to the RME individual for each of 40 radionuclides that are potential contaminants of the three metals, can be used to assess the potential health effects of releasing scrap with a given level of contamination. This report describes the analysis and gives a summary of the results.

  13. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-12-31

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: steel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    About 96 million metric tons of steel was produced in the United States last year — more than any other metal. And the $3.46 billion of iron and steel scrap exported was also the highest of any metal scrap export, helping to reduce the U.S. trade deficit.

  15. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    PubMed

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  16. Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ray

    2006-11-01

    With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences.

  17. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  18. Muon Tomography as a Tool to Detect Radioactive Source Shielding in Scrap Metal Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, G.; Cambiaghi, D.; Dassa, L.; Donzella, A.; Subieta, M.; Villa, V.; Zenoni, A.; Furlan, M.; Rigoni, A.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Zanuttigh, P.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S.

    2014-02-01

    Muon tomography was recently proposed as a tool to inspect large volumes with the purpose of recognizing high density materials immersed in lower density matrices. The MU-STEEL European project (RFCS-CT-2010-000033) studied the application of such a technique to detect radioactive source shielding in truck containers filled with scrap metals entering steel mill foundries. A description of the muon tomography technique, of the MU-STEEL project and of the obtained results will be presented.

  19. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  20. Managing potentially radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-19

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements published NCRP Report No. 141 on November 19, 2002. Contract DE-FG02-98CH10945 provided the sole support for this report titled ''Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal.'' Some preliminary work supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that led to an NCRP Letter Report provided some background information for this work. NCRP Report No. 141 provides recommendations on the methodologies and techniques available to the United States for disposing of radioactive, contaminated scrap metals.

  1. Contaminated scrap-metal inventories at ORO-managed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated scrap metal inventories were surveyed at facilities operating under contract with the US Department of Energy and managed through the Oak Ridge Operations Office. Nearly 90,000 tons of nickel, aluminum, copper, and ferrous metals (steels) contaminated with low-enriched uranium have accumulated, primarily at the uranium enrichment facilities. The potential value of this metal on the scrap market is over $100 million. However, existing regulations do not permit sale for unlicensed use of materials contaminated with low-enriched uranium. Therefore, current handling practices include burial and above-ground storage. Smelting is also used for shape declassification, with subsequent storage of ingots. This survey of existing inventories, generation rates, and handling capabilities is part of an overall metal waste management program to coordinate related activities among the ORO-managed sites.

  2. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  3. Health risk and impact evaluation for recycling of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III

    1994-03-01

    The DoE, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for developing international standards for recycling of radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing health, environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of international inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of international scrap metal markets; assessment of radiological and non-radiological human health risks; impacts on environmental quality and resources; and investigation of social and political factors. The RSM disposal option is being assessed with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing the metals if they are withdrawn from use. Impact estimates are developed for steel as an illustrative example because steel comprises a major portion of the scrap metal inventory. Current and potential sources of RSM include nuclear power plants, fuel cycle and weapons production facilities, industrial and medical facilities and equipment, and petroleum and phosphate rock extraction equipment. Millions of metric tons (t) of scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper, as well as lesser quantities of aluminum, nickel, lead, and zirconium, are likely to become available in the future as these facilities are withdrawn from service.

  4. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my management practices for... Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?...

  5. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my management practices for... Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pollution Prevention Management Practices for New and Existing Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?...

  6. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63... plastics, lead, and free organic liquids that is charged to the furnace. For the production of leaded steel... furnace. You must submit the scrap pollution prevention plan to the permitting authority for approval....

  7. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63... plastics, lead, and free organic liquids that is charged to the furnace. For the production of leaded steel... furnace. You must submit the scrap pollution prevention plan to the permitting authority for approval....

  8. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63... plastics, lead, and free organic liquids that is charged to the furnace. For the production of leaded steel... furnace. You must submit the scrap pollution prevention plan to the permitting authority for approval....

  9. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  10. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  11. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation...

  12. Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

    2010-02-01

    Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources ( 137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

  13. Developments in radioactive scrap monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bellian, J.G.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past ten years there have been major developments in radiation monitoring systems used for detecting shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The extent of the problem and industry`s awareness of the problem have both grown significantly during that time. The multimillion dollar expenses associated with decontamination after a source passes into the melt and the potential health hazard to employees and the public have added further impetus to the development of monitoring systems. Early attempts at scrap monitoring could detect some radiation, but testing with real life situations showed them to be virtually incapable of detecting shielded sources of radioactivity in incoming vehicles. More sophisticated detector technology and the development of advanced software made useful by more powerful microprocessors led to successive generations of monitoring systems with order-of-magnitude improvement in detection capability. The next generation includes larger detectors and more complex algorithms offering further improvement in truck and rail car monitoring. Complete solutions require monitoring at additional locations within the site, such as the charge bucket and conveyor lines, and at the scrap processor`s site.

  14. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-12-31

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

  15. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  16. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  17. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  18. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  19. Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

    2000-04-28

    It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan.

  20. 7 CFR 29.3157 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3157 Section 29.3157 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3157 Scrap (S Group). A by-product of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2441 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2441 Section 29.2441 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2441 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grade Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves,...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3652 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3652 Section 29.3652 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3652 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2666 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2666 Section 29.2666 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2666 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves, or...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1169 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.1169 Section 29.1169 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1169 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grade, Grade Name and Specifications S—Scrap. Loose, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves; or...

  5. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  6. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  7. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements and Monte Carlo computations for the detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Potiriadis, C; Silva, J

    2005-02-01

    A very limited number of field experiments have been performed to assess the relative radiation detection sensitivities of commercially available equipment used to detect radioactive sources in recycled metal scrap. Such experiments require the cooperation and commitment of considerable resources on the part of vendors of the radiation detection systems and the cooperation of a steel mill or scrap processing facility. The results will unavoidably be specific to the equipment tested at the time, the characteristics of the scrap metal involved in the tests, and to the specific configurations of the scrap containers. Given these limitations, the use of computer simulation for this purpose would be a desirable alternative. With this in mind, this study sought to determine whether Monte Carlo simulation of photon flux energy distributions resulting from a radiation source in metal scrap would be realistic. In the present work, experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in the outer part of a truck due to the presence of embedded radioactive sources in the scrap metal load are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable Ge detector and the calculated ones by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. The good agreement between simulated and measured photon flux energy distributions indicate that the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations are realistic.

  8. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  9. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options: Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossert, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The analysis defines a baseline management approach for the estimated 1.2 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) expected to be generated from DOE deactivation and decommissioning activities, and compares two options using a net cost model. The baseline and competing options are described here. Baseline: Packaging and land disposal of RSM using standard DOE procedures, and procurement of a virgin-metal waste container (for comparative analysis with competing options). Option 1: RSM recycling by melting and fabrication into limited reuse products, generally waste containers. The analysis considers different types of waste container products. Option 2: RSM recycling by decontamination and release of scrap metal into commercial markets, and procurement of a comparable virgin-metal waste container. The analysis concludes that, for standard waste container products, the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 2 is lower than the net cost of recycling RSM under Option 1, considering the projected costs of melting RSM and fabricating drums and boxes. The analysis also suggests that the preferred products for recycling under Option 1 are specialized waste containers fabricated with high-value metals (e.g. stainless steel Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters). Other factors favoring each of the recycling options, are also identified.

  10. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  11. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius

    SciTech Connect

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Scrap metal processing wastes. • Areas of applications for slag, electric arc furnace dust, mill scale and wastewater sludge. • Waste generation factor of 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced. • Waste management model. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  12. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  13. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  14. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  15. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  16. Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than that in personal computer scrap or printed circuit board scrap. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective by utilizing conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis indicates that the non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap formed as a variety of shapes; it is much more heterogeneous than that of plastics and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, the separability of TV scrap using density-based techniques was evaluated by the sink-float test. The result demonstrates that a high recovery of copper could be obtained by using an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics shows that the major plastic in TV scrap is high impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may encounter some challenges in separation of plastics from TV scrap because of specific density variations.

  17. 48 CFR 245.607-70 - Scrap warranty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not made directly with the Government. (d) If the scrap is resold to a second buyer, the first buyer shall obtain a scrap warranty from the second buyer. Upon receipt of the second buyer's scrap warranty, the Government will release the first buyer from liability under the original warranty....

  18. 7 CFR 29.6131 - Scrap (S Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.6131 Section 29.6131 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6131 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grades Grade names and specifications S Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  19. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  20. Source identification and apportionment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in iron and steel scrap smelting factory environment using PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Olise, Felix S; Hopke, Philip K

    2016-10-01

    To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2.5-10 for the production, outside M1 and outside M2 sites, respectively. The same size resolved data set were used as input for the positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component factor analysis (PCFA), and Unmix (UNMIX) receptor modeling in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contribution. The PMF resolved four sources with their respective contributions were metal processing (33 %), e-waste (33 %), diesel emission (22 %) and soil (12 %) for PM2.5, and coking (50 %), soil (29 %), metal processing (16 %) and diesel combustion (5 %) for PM2.5-10. PCFA identified soil, metal processing, Pb source, and diesel combustion contributing 45, 41, 9, and 5 %, respectively to PM2.5 while metal processing, soil, coal combustion and open burning contributed 43, 38, 12, and 7 %, respectively to the PM2.5-10. Also, UNMIX identified metal processing, soil, and diesel emission with 43, 42 and 15 % contributions, respectively for the fine fraction, and metal processing (71 %), soil (21 %) and unidentified source (1 %) for the coarse fraction. The study concluded that metal processing and e-waste are the major sources contributing to the fine fraction while coking and soil contributed to the coarse fraction within the factory environment. The application of PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models improved the source identification and apportionment of particulate matter drive in the study area.

  1. The continuing problem of radioactive metal scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Yusko, J.G.; Lubenau, J.O.

    1995-12-31

    Metal scrap found to contain radioactive materials continues to challenge regulatory agencies as discoveries of this unwanted constituent increase. And while efforts are made to prevent the exposure of personnel at metal manufacturing mills and scrap yards when radioactivity is discovered in a shipment of metal scrap, this has not stemmed the number of discoveries. Sources and devices continue to be found, leading to difficulties in the disposal of the radioactive materials, especially with the closure of licensed LLRW facilities to non-compact state members. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials continue to be found, principally as surface contaminants of metals for recycling. And although NORM contamination does not generally pose a threat to the health and safety of personnel at metal mills and scrap yards, there is no consensus about the disposition of NORM-contaminated metal. The changing of trade barriers (such as the North American Free Trade Agreement) also factors into the problem, as materials cross international boundaries and enter the recycling stream. The efforts of entities such as Conference committees, federal regulatory agencies (e.g., NRC, EPA, DOT), state radiation control agencies and the affected industries will be presented and discussed.

  2. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  3. EMISSIONS FROM BURNING CABINET MAKING SCRAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial determination of differences in missions when burning ordinary cordwood compared to kitchen cabinet making scraps. he tests were performed in an instrumented woodstove testing laboratory on a stove that simulated units observed in use at a k...

  4. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  5. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  6. Statement of the steel manufacturers association

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the policy of the Steel Manufacturers Association regarding regulation of radioactively contaminated scrap metal. In general, the use of sound science combined with accurate cost/benefit analysis is identified as an acceptable basis for the imposition of regulations. An increase in contaminated scrap is attributed to the number of radioactive devices licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and a failure of the NRC to adequately track and control the disposition of these sources. Other topics briefly discussed include steel company preventative measures, potential health effects, economic effects, regulatory jurisdiction, and pre-melt and post-melt recommendations.

  7. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  8. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  9. Radioactivity in the scrap metal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses problems from the presence of radiation in scrap metal. The source of the radiation is typically radiography cameras, radiation therapy machines, radioactive gauge devices, transportation containers, or NORM scale on equipment from the minerals industry. Since 1983 there have been 46 reported cases of radioactive contamination of metal production facilities. The resulting decontamination, disposal, and downtime has cost some companies over 20 million dollars. The activity normally enters mills with the scrap feed metal. In the process of melting it can then contaminate the metal products, melt shop equipment, baghouse, employees, and environment. The paper discusses the sources of this contamination, the typical detection methods, the problems in detection, the issues of responsibility after detection, the health risks, and practical and regulatory differences between radioactivity from sources vs NORM.

  10. From Trash to Treasure: Recycling Scrap Metal into Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Trash is having a global impact not only on land, but at sea--making its way into the ocean and creating large islands of floating debris. One such island is The Great Pacific Trash Patch, which is located in the North Pacific and is made up of floating trash and debris that is spread out in an area as much as one and a half times the size of the…

  11. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  12. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-04-11

    A process is described for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to expose additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal. 2 figures.

  13. Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

  14. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  15. Theoretical minimum energies to produce steel for selected conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R. J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H. W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-03-01

    An ITP study has determined the theoretical minimum energy requirements for producing steel from ore, scrap, and direct reduced iron. Dr. Richard Fruehan's report, Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, provides insight into the potential energy savings (and associated reductions in carbon dioxide emissions) for ironmaking, steelmaking, and rolling processes (PDF 459 KB).

  16. Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E. J.

    1997-12-05

    Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.

  17. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract provides that any ship equipment, fuel, lube oil, supplies, stores, furniture,...

  19. 91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SCRAP HOUSE AND CAST HOUSE, BUILDINGS 101 AND 72; BUILDING 101 IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED SCRAP METAL CLEANING AND PROCESSING FACILITIES; BUILDING 72 AT RIGHT CENTER HOUSED MELTING FURNACES AND CONTINUOUS CASTING MACHINERY - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  20. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  1. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a... free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing motor vehicle scrap, you must procure...

  2. SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCRAP BEING FED INTO HARRIS TGS-200 BALER. BLOCKS OF COMPACTED SCRAP, CALLED "CABBAGES", ARE MELTED DOWN IN THE CAST SHOP,ALONG WITH RAW METAL AND ALLOYS. BALED SCRAP MELTS MORE RAPIDLY THAN LOOSE SCRAP. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a... free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing motor vehicle scrap, you must procure...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallic scrap and mercury switches? 63.10885 Section 63.10885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Affected Sources § 63.10885 What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches? (a... free liquids. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing motor vehicle scrap, you must procure...

  5. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  6. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.

  7. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  8. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  9. Update on Recovering Lead From Scrap Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, E. R.; Lee, A. Y.; Paulson, D. L.

    1985-02-01

    Previous work at the Bureau of Mines Rolla Research Center, U.S. Department of the Interior, resulted in successful development of a bench-scale, combination electrorefining-electrowinning method for recycling lead from scrap batteries by using waste fluosilicic acid (H2SiF6) as electrolyte.1,2 This paper describes larger scale experiments. Prior attempts to electrowin lead failed because large quantities of insoluble lead dioxide were deposited on the anodes at the expense of lead deposition on the cathodes. A major breakthrough was achieved with the discovery that lead dioxide formation at the anodes is prevented by adding a small amount of phosphorus to the electrolyte. The amount of PbO2 formed on the anodes during lead electrowinning was less than 1% of the total lead deposited on the cathodes. This work recently won the prestigious IR·100 award as one of the 100 most significant technological advances of 1984.

  10. Side mounted EMS for aluminium scrap melters

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, M.; Tallbaeck, G.; Hanley, P.J.

    1996-10-01

    Normally the electromagnetic stirrer (EMS) is placed below the furnace. However it has recently been found that the EMS can also be placed at the side of the furnace, still giving good stirring. This makes it possible to install EMS on most existing furnaces. The side-mounted EMS is compared with the standard bottom-mounted stirrer with respect to installation, melting time and flow pattern in the melt. The major conclusion is that a side-mounted EMS is practical and will give about as good a performance as the bottom-mounted. Melting time estimates are based upon 3-D fluid flow and heat transfer predictions in combination with a simplified scrap melting theory. Predicted melting times are in fair agreement with operational data for mechanically stirred and electromagnetically bottom stirred furnaces.

  11. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  12. Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, H.W.; Stephenson, M.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Weir, J.R.; Gilbert, W.C.

    1993-09-01

    Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons/yr, is expected to increase sharply over the next couple of years as numerous environmental restoration and decommissioning programs gain momentum. Projections show that 775,000 tons of scrap metal could be generated at the K-25 Site over the next ten years. The Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have similar potentials. The history of scrap metal management at Oak Ridge and future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  13. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    DOEpatents

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich; Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich; Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich; Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  14. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.; Revet, A.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  16. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  17. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for transportation by vessel only when packaged as follows: (1) Burlap (jute) bag; (2) Multi-wall paper bag;...

  18. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  19. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  20. Direct Alloying of Steel with Nickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Proshunin, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    A technology of alloying steel with nickel reduced from nickel concentrate is analysed and developed. Limits of reduction concentration areas are defined. An optimal composition of nickel concentrate pellets and a method of feeding them into the furnace are deduced from experiments. It is proved that when pellets made of nickel concentrate and coke are added into the charge during steel smelting by the technology of alloyed scrap remelting, nickel recovery achieves 92-95%. The technology was tested by smelting DSP-40 steel.

  1. Basic properties of steel plant dust and technological properties of direct reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Xue-Feng; Wang, Jing-Song; Xue, Qing-Guo; Ding, Yin-Gui; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Dong, Jie-Ji; Zeng, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Basic physicochemical properties of the dust from Laiwu Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. were studied. It is found that C, Zn, K, Na, etc. exist in the fabric filter dust, off gas (OG) sludge, fine ash in converter, and electrical field dust in sinter. Among these, OG sludge gives the finest particle, more than 90% of which is less than 2.51 μm. The dust can lead to a serious negative influence on the production of sintering and blast furnaces (BF) if it is recycled in sintering. The briquette and reduction experimental results showed that the qualified strength could be obtained in the case of 8wt% molasses or 4wt% QT-10 added as binders. Also, more than 75% of metallization ratio, more than 95% of dezincing ratio, as well as more than 80% of K and Na removal rates were achieved for the briquettes kept at 1250°C for 15 min during the direct reduction process. SEM observation indicated that the rates of indirect reduction and carbonization became dominating when the briquettes were kept at 1250°C for 6 min.

  2. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  3. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  4. Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

  5. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing.

  6. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % {sup 235}U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % {sup 235}U, and the grams of {sup 235}U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities.

  7. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  8. An overview of recycling and treatment of scrap computers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Chang-Tang; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2004-10-18

    In order to recover valuable materials and to minimize the adverse effects of hazardous materials contained in scrap computers, a dismantling practice is commonly adopted to treat scrap computers. By using the dismantling process, both useful and hazardous materials can be manually separated and retrieved. On the basis of the properties of the retrieved materials, they can be sent to appropriate facilities for further recycling or treatment. Among the retrieved materials, the treatment of hazardous materials from cathode ray tubes (CRT) and printed circuit boards with integrated circuits have drawn considerable attention, thus implying that the proper treatment of such materials can greatly assure the successful recycling of scrap computers. For this reason, this study reviews the available technologies which can be applied to treat and recycle cathode ray tube components and printed circuit boards with integrated circuits. Actual recycling data from a scrap computer recycling plant located in Taiwan are also introduced. The data show that this recycling plant can recover 94.75 wt. % and 45.99 wt. % of useful materials from the main machines (i.e., CPU, power supplier, fan, IC boards, DVD drive, CD drive, hard disk, soft disk, shell casing, etc.) and monitors of scrap computers, respectively.

  9. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  10. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  11. [Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].

    PubMed

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity.

  12. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  14. Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-18

    Sometimes radioactive materials are disposed of improperly and end up in scrap metal yards. You will probably never come into contact with contaminated scrap metal. If you think you have found contaminated scrap metal, do not touch it. Immediately contact your state radiation control office.

  15. 29 CFR 570.128 - Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box... Amended Exemptions § 570.128 Loading of certain scrap paper balers and paper box compactors. (a) Section... 16- and 17-year-olds to load, but not operate or unload, certain power-driven scrap paper balers...

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  17. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  18. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  19. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  20. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  1. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing motor vehicle scrap, you... plan for mercury switches. You must comply with the requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (v) of this section. (i) You must include a requirement in your scrap specifications for removal of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b)(3) of this section. (b) Mercury requirements. For scrap containing motor vehicle scrap, you... plan for mercury switches. You must comply with the requirements in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (v) of this section. (i) You must include a requirement in your scrap specifications for removal of...

  3. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis.

  4. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  5. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  6. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  7. Radiation attenuation and nuclear properties of high density concrete made with steel aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashter, I. I.

    The fast neutron and gamma ray spectra measured behind different thickness of steel scrap concrete with density of 4 g/cm3 have been studied. The mix proportions by weight of this type of concrete were 1 cement: 6.89 steel scrap: 2.9 sand and 0.5 Water. Comparison with a standard ordinary concrete of density 2.3 g/cm3 have been carried out. The measurements were made using a collimated beam of both gamma rays and neutrons emitted from one of the horizontal channel of the Egyptian Research Reactor-1. A fast neutron and gamma ray spectrometer with a stilbene crystal was used to measure the spectra of fast neutrons and gamma rays. Pulse shape discrimination using the zero cross over technique was used to separate the photon pulses from the electron pulses. The equation due to Schmidt has been modified and applied for determining the neutron effective removal cross sections (˜R) for steel scrap, ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite and ilmenite concretes. This equation gives results which are in good agreement with the measured values. The derived empirical equation in a previous work to calculate the neutron integral flux behind different thicknesses of different types of concretes, gives good results for steel scrap concrete under investigation comparing with the corresponding experimental data. Total neutron macroscopic cross sections, linear attenuation coefficients for gamma rays and the half-value layers for both radiations at different energies have been obtained for steel scrap concrete and comparing with the corresponding values of ordinary concrete. The results show that steel scrap concrete is better than ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite and ilmenite concretes from the radiation shielding point of view.

  8. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  9. Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.

    1993-09-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

  10. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A {open_quotes}tiered{close_quotes} concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

  11. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... written certification stating— (1) The total weight of the shipment; (2) The moisture content of the material; (3) The fat content of the material; (4) The type of antioxidant and its concentration in the... a maximum of 15 percent fat by weight. (c) At the time of production, fish meal or fish scrap...

  12. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... written certification stating— (1) The total weight of the shipment; (2) The moisture content of the material; (3) The fat content of the material; (4) The type of antioxidant and its concentration in the... a maximum of 15 percent fat by weight. (c) At the time of production, fish meal or fish scrap...

  13. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... written certification stating— (1) The total weight of the shipment; (2) The moisture content of the material; (3) The fat content of the material; (4) The type of antioxidant and its concentration in the... a maximum of 15 percent fat by weight. (c) At the time of production, fish meal or fish scrap...

  14. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... written certification stating— (1) The total weight of the shipment; (2) The moisture content of the material; (3) The fat content of the material; (4) The type of antioxidant and its concentration in the... a maximum of 15 percent fat by weight. (c) At the time of production, fish meal or fish scrap...

  15. 21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February 18, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Scrap tires: Black gold or fool`s gold?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, S.

    1995-10-01

    Three years ago, a US EPA report estimated there were between 2 and 3 billion tires stockpiled in the US. Currently, according to the Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC, Washington, DC), the number of stockpiled tires totals 850 million. However, this reduction is not due to federal or state legislation; simply, the number was overestimated. Whatever the actual number, scrap tire mounds have been large enough to prompt 34 states to developed scrap tire funding programs aimed at eliminating the stockpiling of the some 250 million tires generated per year, while gradually eliminating the tires already stockpiled. However, of the 34 states, only Illinois, Oregon, Florida, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, are aggressively tackling the problem. In each of these five cases, state officials claim, the only viable way to reduce large quantities of tires quickly is through energy reuse, and, like any other disposal method, it costs money. To compensate for the costs of elimination, states are developing funding for scrap tire reduction programs by placing fees on tire disposal, tire purchase, or vehicle title transfer and registration.

  17. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  18. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644.522 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from...

  19. 48 CFR 45.606 - Contractor scrap procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Contractor scrap... proper disposition and are properly documented in the contractor's property management procedures. (b... precious or strategic metals; or (6) That is dangerous to public health or safety. (c) Absent...

  20. 48 CFR 45.606 - Contractor scrap procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Contractor scrap... proper disposition and are properly documented in the contractor's property management procedures. (b... precious or strategic metals; or (6) That is dangerous to public health or safety. (c) Absent...

  1. BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. [Optimum of polysaccharide distillation on scrap Cordyceps militaris medium].

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Yu; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Song, Hui-Yi; Zhao, Hao-Lu; Sun, Jun-De

    2008-03-01

    A mass of scrap Cordyceps militaris solid culture medium could not be utilized better. In this test, using orthogonal design the optimal technique parmeter of extracting polysaccharide was 80 degrees C, two times, in twenty times of water, and 120 minutes each time. Temperature was the most important factor. The referenced data could be provided to depurative production of Cordyceps militaris and resource utilization.

  3. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Recycling of Al-Si die casting scraps for solar Si feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kum-Hee; Jeon, Je-Beom; Youn, Ji-Won; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki-Young

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of aluminum die-casting scraps for solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock was performed successfully. 3 N purity Si was extracted from A383 die-casting scrap by using the combined process of solvent refining and an advanced centrifugal separation technique. The efficiency of separating Si from scrap alloys depended on both impurity level of scraps and the starting temperature of centrifugation. Impurities in melt and processing temperature governed the microstructure of the primary Si. The purity of Si extracted from the scrap melt was 99.963%, which was comparable to that of Si extracted from a commercial Al-30 wt% Si alloy, 99.980%. The initial purity of the scrap was 2.2% lower than that of the commercial alloy. This result confirmed that die-casting scrap is a potential source of high-purity Si for solar cells.

  5. Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y

    2006-11-01

    In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce.

  6. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities.

  8. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.A.; Roberts, R.J.; Blackburn, R.R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  10. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  11. Protocols for implementing DOE authorized release of radioactive scrap metals.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Arnish, J; Kamboj, S; Nieves, L A

    1999-11-01

    A process to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) policy for authorized release of radioactive materials from DOE facilities is provided in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material, published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. A computerized management tool--P2Pro(RSM)--has been developed to aid in carrying out the release process for radioactive metals. It contains protocols for the authorized release process and relevant information to facilitate the evaluation of scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The P2Pro(RSM) protocols provide DOE and its contractors with an effective, user-friendly tool for managing authorized release activities P2Pro(RSM) is designed to be used in the Windows environment. The protocols incorporate a relational database coupled with a graphic-user interface to guide the user through the appropriate steps so authorized release limits can be developed. With the information provided in the database, an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) optimization process can be easily set up and run for up to 10 alternatives for disposition of radioactive scrap metals. The results of the ALARA optimization process can be printed in a series of reports and submitted as part of the application for the authorized release of the radioactive scrap metals.

  12. Design and performances of the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Peerani, Paolo; Looman, Marc R.; Dechamp, Luc

    2007-05-01

    JRC has developed the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter (SNMC): an advanced neutron multiplicity counter for the verification of inhomogeneous Pu samples, such as scrap material in MOX fuel fabrication plants. The innovative features of this counter with respect to existing ones rely on two aspects: (i) an optimised design based on Monte Carlo calculations in order to select the most appropriate materials, geometry and detector disposition for maximum efficiency and (ii) novel electronics based on digital signal processing (DSP) reducing the system dead time. The paper recalls the design process, the electronics, the construction and assembly of the counter. Then the results of the first experimental tests will be reported. We will show the characterization of the main physical parameters of the counter, the calibration and the verification of a wide variety of plutonium bearing samples available in the PERLA laboratory at JRC Ispra. This will include pure homogeneous samples (Pu dioxide powders, metal Pu, MOX powders and pellets) and some tests on heterogeneous samples representative of scrap material.

  13. Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500/sup 0/C to yield a purified PuO/sub 2/ product.

  14. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  15. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  16. Radiocesium contamination at a steel plant in Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J O; Hone, C; Turvey, F J

    1996-04-01

    Radioactive sources have been inadvertently incorporated into consignments of scrap metal in various locations throughout the world. In 1990, a 3.7 GBq 137 Cs source, due for transfer from a Scottish industrial establishment to one in England, was mistakenly included in a scrap consignment destined for Irish Steel, a metal recycling plant in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Unaware of the presence of the source, Irish Steel smelted this consignment in the usual manner. This involved separation of some non-ferrous materials which were then exported, in pellet form, To Pasminco Europe (now Britannia Zinc Ltd.) in Avonmouth, U.K. The presence of 137 Cs contamination in these pellets was detected by the U.K. company in the course of a routine radiation survey. Irish Steel carried out extensive decontamination of its plant, placing the contaminated dust in secure storage. The company has equipped itself with radiation detection devices which monitor incoming scrap. Outgoing products and furnace dust are also monitored on a routine basis. While this incident was of negligible radiological significance as far as personnel were concerned, the financial cost to Irish Steel have been substantial. It highlights the need for surveillance, by national competent authorities, of the movement of radioactive sources from production through use to final disposal.

  17. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. United States copper metal and scrap use and trade patterns, 1995‒2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-06-17

    This report considers changes to the copper and copper scrap industries of the United States. For the study period, 1995 through 2014, U.S. refined copper production from all sources (primary and secondary materials) decreased from 2.28 million metric tons (Mt) of copper to 1.05 Mt (a 54 percent decrease). During the same period, U.S. copper scrap net exports increased from 0.203 Mt to 0.737 Mt (a 263 percent increase and a compound annual growth rate of about 7.0 percent per year). Copper and copper scrap prices (in constant 2014 dollars) rose such that 2014 prices were about 48 percent greater than 1995 prices. From 1995 through 2014, Chinese imports of copper scrap from the United States grew from 0.061 Mt to 0.569 Mt (an increase of about 830 percent and a compound annual growth rate of about 12.5 percent per year). In 2011, Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap peaked at 0.745 Mt of contained copper. In 1995, Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap accounted for 17 percent of U.S. copper scrap exports. By 2014, Chinese imports accounted for 69 percent of U.S. copper scrap exports (by weight), and Chinese imports of U.S. copper scrap were valued at $1.45 billion.

  19. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  20. Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.

  1. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  2. The changing face of radioactivity in steel

    SciTech Connect

    LaMastra, A.

    1995-07-01

    The question of radioactivity in iron and steel is a matter of definition and limits of detectability. A broad statement could be made that all steel that started with blast furnace iron is radioactive. This statement is not due to the practice of using wear-indication sources in the refractory of blast furnaces. Rather, it is because of the nature of the blast furnace process. Air contains radioactivity. Blowing copious quantities of air through a blast furnace introduces a very low level of radioactivity into the process. Some of the radioactivity will be tied up in the slag or become oxidized, but a small portion will become incorporated in the hot metal. Normally, this trivial level of contamination is not of concern because it carries no consequence and is detectable only by the most sensitive laboratory detection systems. For nearly 40 years, few people paid any attention to the topic of radioactivity in steel. However, that changed in Feb. 1983, when Auburn Steel had the unfortunate occasion to melt a radioactive source in their electric furnace. Since that time, there has been a total of 18 confirmed meltings at metal smelters within the US. The problem of melting radioactive sources in metal smelting plants appears to be increasing. It is not known if a trend is developing or if 1992/1993 are random anomalies. Based on past incidents, the difficulty of finding heavily shielded sources in scrap and the likelihood of more gaging devices being lost, steelmaking management must evaluate the importance of achieving high sensitivity. At the same time, management must also realize that the systems will be detecting more commodities and scrap loads that were heretofore not radioactive. That will have an impact on available manpower, traffic control and the timeliness of scrap deliveries.

  3. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  4. Solids loading evaluation for HB-line scrap recovery filters

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.L.

    2000-08-08

    The HB-Line Scrap Recovery facility uses wire screen filters to remove solids from plutonium-containing solutions transferred from the slab tank dissolvers. At times, the accumulation of solids is large enough to cause blinding (i.e., pluggage) of the filters. If the solids contain undissolved plutonium, significant accumulation of fissile material could impact operations. To address this potential issue, experiments were performed to define the minimum solids required to completely blind a filter. The solids loading experiments were performed by arranging 25- and 10-{micro}m HB-Line filters in series to simulate the equipment in the scrap recovery process. Separate tests were performed using coarse and fine glass frit and cerium oxide powder suspended in 35 wt% sodium nitrate solution using a small turbine mixer. The solution and solids were transferred from a reservoir through the filter housings by vacuum. In each case, the 25-{micro}m filter blinded first and was full of wet cake. After drying and accounting for the sodium nitrate in the filter cake, the following results were obtained. The results of the solids loading tests demonstrated that at least 800 g of solids accumulated in the filter housing before flow stopped. The actual amount of collected material was dependent upon the physical properties of the solids such as density and particle size. The mass of solids collected by the blinded 25-{micro}m filter increased when successively finer solids were used in the experiments. Based on these results, one should anticipate that filters in the HB-Line Scrap Recovery Facility have the potential to collect similar quantities of material before transfer of solution from the dissolvers is severely impacted.

  5. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F. ); Hocking, E.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy's increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations.

  6. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    SciTech Connect

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy`s increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations.

  7. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  8. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For...

  9. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  10. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  11. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  12. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... § 761.60(b), metal surfaces in PCB remediation waste regulated under § 761.61, or metal surfaces in...

  13. 29 CFR 570.63 - Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations... involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order..., scrap paper baler, paper box compactor, or vertical slotter. (ii) Platen die-cutting press,...

  14. The Militarization of the Prairie: Scrap Drives, Metaphors, and the "Omaha World-Herald's" 1942 "Nebraska Plan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, James J.

    2007-01-01

    In WW II, there was no nationwide shortage of scrap on the home front. In backyards, attics, barns, ditches, garages, and factory storage sheds across the country, all sorts of scrap material awaited transport and eventual conversion to arms. Yet the public's awareness of the scrap, and the national willpower necessary to collect it, seemed to be…

  15. Upgrading scrap automotive aluminum alloys with the impulse atomization and quench technique

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.; Sterzik, G.; Henein, H.

    1995-12-31

    As aluminum alloy usage in automobiles grows, there are increasing demands on recycling processes and facilities to deal with mixed alloy automotive aluminum scrap. These processes and facilities strive to produce near virgin aluminum stock, which can be relatively costly and difficult. One alternative is to use physical processing methods to upgrade the scrap properties instead of chemically refining the scrap. The Impulse Atomization Process (IAP, patent pending) is a new process for making metallic and ceramic powders. It can produce fine homogeneous microstructures in scrap aluminum alloys due to high undercooling and rapid solidification. The particles have a very narrow size distribution and are in a convenient form for consolidation. This paper compares and contrasts the microstructural features of Impulse Atomized and quenched Impulse Atomized powders, for both AL6061 and a scrap aluminum alloy composition.

  16. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  17. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-02-27

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely.

  18. Potential radioactive scrap metal quantities from nuclear power plants worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tilbrook, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 12 million tons of scrap metals are likely to be generated worldwide during the next 50 years from decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. A large portion of this material will be only slightly contaminated it at all, and, it it is releasable, it would have a scrap value of billions of dollars. Disposition of the metal is complicated because criteria for release of the metal vary among countries depending on whether the metal is surface of volumetrically contaminated. At present, there is no internationally accepted standard for release of low-level contaminated materials, though both the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Commission of European Communities are in the process of developing recommendations. If the metals are not releasable, they will most likely be disposed of as low-level waste. However, currently available low-level waste repository capacity is limited and costly. Using repositories to dispose of metals that could potentially be decontaminated and recycled is probably not good resource management. This article presents estimates of metal quantities by metal type and contamination that will be come available as nuclear power plants are retired. Topics discussed are major issues related to inventory estimates, methods used to estimate metal masses; and metal masses summarized by reference plant category and total for world region by metal type and activity category. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.; Lilly, M.J. III; Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ``tiered`` concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested.

  20. Continuous Extraction of Nickel from Superalloy Scraps Using Zinc Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    A novel technique for the continuous extraction of nickel (Ni) from Ni-based superalloy scraps using molten zinc (Zn) has been proposed, and its feasibility was experimentally demonstrated. The newly developed approach allows for extraction of Ni metal directly from superalloy scraps with simultaneous separation of the Zn from the resulting Zn-Ni alloy. The optimal conditions for the extraction of Ni and separation of valuable elements such as rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W) were determined by varying major process parameters including the reaction time and configuration of the reaction chamber. The proposed method has been successfully utilized for the production of the superalloy containing 62.8 mass pct of Ni and 15.5 mass pct of refractory metals (Re, W, and Ta). Under certain conditions, 41 pct of the Ni contained in the superalloy could be extracted at 1173 K (900 °C) over 48 hours, producing an alloy containing 84.0 mass pct of Ni and 0.2 mass pct of the refractory metals.

  1. Bioleaching of electronic scrap by mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivǎnuş, D.; ǎnuş, R. C., IV; Cǎlmuc, F.

    2010-06-01

    A process for the metal recovery from electronic scrap using bacterial leaching was investigated. A mixed culture of moderately thermophilic microorganisms was enriched from acid mine drainages (AMDs) samples collected from several sulphide mines in Romania, and the bioleaching of electronic scrap was conducted both in shake flask and bioreactor. The results show that in the shake flask, the mixture can tolerate 50 g/L scrap after being acclimated to gradually increased concentrations of scrap. The copper extraction increases obviously in bioleaching of scrap with moderately thermophilic microorganisms supplemented with 0.4 g/L yeast extract at 180 r/min, 74% copper can be extracted in the pulp of 50 g/L scrap after 20 d. Compared with copper extractions of mesophilic culture, unacclimated culture and acclimated culture without addition of yeast extract, that of accliniated culture with addition of yeast extract is increased by 53%, 44% and 16%, respectively. In a completely stirred tank reactor, the mass fraction of copper and total iron extraction reach up to 81% and 56%, respectively. The results also indicate that it is necessary to add a large amount of acid to the pulp to extract copper from electronic scrap effectively.

  2. Detection and decontamination of residual energetics from ordnance and explosives scrap.

    PubMed

    Jung, Carina M; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Don L; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-02-01

    Extensive manufacturing of explosives in the last century has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and waters. Decommissioning and cleanup of these materials has also led to concerns about the explosive hazards associated with residual energetics still present on the surfaces of ordnance and explosives scrap. Typically, open burning or detonation is used to decontaminate ordinance and explosive scrap. Here the use of an anaerobic microbiological system applied as a bioslurry to decontaminate energetics from the surfaces of metal scrap is described. Decontamination of model metal scrap artificially contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and of decommissioned mortar rounds still containing explosives residue was examined. A portable ion mobility spectrometer was employed for the detection of residual explosives residues on the surfaces of the scrap. The mixed microbial populations of the bioslurries effectively decontaminated both the scrap and the mortar rounds. Use of the ion mobility spectrometer was an extremely sensitive field screening method for assessing decontamination and is a method by which minimally trained personnel can declare scrap clean with a high level of certainty.

  3. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1994-10-28

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

  4. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.

    1995-01-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ``beneficially reuse`` this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept.

  5. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  6. Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Małecki, Stanisław; Gargul, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

  7. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martin Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-15

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12 K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503 K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25 atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1 atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723 K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  8. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    PubMed

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse.

  9. The stainless steel beneficial reuse integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.; Lutz, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Process water heat exchangers at SRS contains over 95% 304 stainless steel which could be recycled back to DOE in a ``controlled release`` manner, that is, the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) could be reprocessed into new reusable products for return to DOE for use within the DOE Complex. In 1994, a demonstration was begun to recycle recycle contaminated stainless steel by melting 60 tons of RSM and refabricating it into containers for long-term temporary storage. The demonstration covers the entire recycle chain; the melting and the fabrication are to be done through subcontracts with private industry. Activity level of RSM to be supplied to industry is less than one curie total; the average specific activity level of the cobalt-60 which will be imbedded in the final products was estimated to be 117 pico curies per gram (4.31 becquerels/gram).

  10. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M.; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  11. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    SciTech Connect

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  12. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  13. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  14. Utilizing the magnetic fraction of raw refuse with shredded automobile scrap in cupola gray iron

    SciTech Connect

    Spironello, V.R.; Mahan, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is involved in research directed toward the utilization of municipal solid waste. One of the primary objectives is the recycling of the magnetic fraction of municipal solid waste (raw refuse). This is consistent with one of the Bureau's goals, which is to minimize the requirements for mineral commodities by maximizing metals recovery from secondary domestic resources. In this investigation, cupola trials were made using combinations of refuse scrap with shredded automobile scrap under basic and acid slag practices. Furnace operating information and the behavior of alloying and tramp elements were obtained. The research showed that it is possible to utilize up to 60% refuse scrap in the cupola under basic practice and 30% under acid practice. Aluminum in refuse scrap, present in bimetallic cans, increased the recoveries of silicon and manganese charged to the cupola. Increased use of refuse scrap provided iron of lower sulfur. The alumina resulting from oxidation increased the slag volume. The aluminum and tin contents of the iron increased with increasing levels of refuse scrap in the charge. Lead was not a problem with respect to contamination of the iron. In basic practice, operation of the cupola was satisfactory since all slags were adequately fluid. In acid practice, operation became troublesome above the 45% level. Under both practices, the cupola iron melting rate decreased. Particulates in scrubber water and stack condensate samples contained lead, zinc, and tin, and the dust load increased. The tensile and transverse strengths of the iron produced under both practices are reported.

  15. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Effects of Residuals in Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Ruddle

    2002-11-25

    AN experimental study of the effects of residual elements in carbon steels was carried out to gain better understanding and control of the effects of residual elements emanating from recycled steel scrap. Two plain carbon steel grade compositions (one medium-carbon and one low-carbon), residual elements and levels, and four areas of study, were selected on the bases of a comprehensive literature survey and consultation with sponsor steel companies. The influence of residuals (Cu, Sn, Ni, P, Si, up to the levels studied here), on these laboratory produced hot rolled steels was studied in the areas of (a) hot ductility, (b) surface hot shortness, (c) scale formation and adherence, and (d) embrittlement and mechanical properties. This report summarizes the experimental procedures, results, discussion and conclusions of this study. The relevance of the study is also discussed in relation to steel processing and product properties and in relation to energy consumption and environmental compliance.

  16. Recycling metal scrap. June 1970-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX database). Report for June 1970-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the processes, techniques, and benefits of recycling metal scrap. The recycling processes for aluminum, chromium, nickel, cobalt, lead, copper, and precious metals scrap are discussed. Recycling in the jewelry, electronics, milling, beverage, automotive, and aircraft industries is considered. Analyses of the current global scrap metal recycling trends are included. (This updated bibliography contains 362 citations, 21 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%.

  18. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative.

  19. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  20. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data.

  1. Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xin-Hua; Wang, Da-Hui

    2005-03-01

    Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed.

  2. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  3. Sheathed thermocouples for continuous molten steel temperature measurement during the ladle treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippi, R.M. . Accumetrix Div.)

    1989-09-01

    The evolution of a thermocouple protection sheath for use in liquid steel during the ladle treatment process is described. Five different designs constructed of boron nitride, alumina-graphite, and magnesia-graphite were evaluated. Results show that excellent slag wear characteristics are possible using magnesia-graphite but improvements in thermal shock resistance and response time are required. Temperature profiles during argon stirring, addition of chill scrap, and natural cooling are presented. 3 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M.; Bossart, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  5. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  6. System using electric furnace exhaust gas to preheat scrap for steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, K.; Iwasaki, K.

    1987-09-08

    A method is described for clean preheating of scrap contaminated with oil and organic matter, for steelmaking, using heat from exhaust gas flow from an electric furnace. It consists of: burning any combustibles present in the exhaust gas flow and simultanously separating out dust particles from the exhaust gas flow; heating a predetermined amount of the scrap by heat exchange with a predetermined portion of the exhaust gas flow; removing and collecting dust from the exhaust gas flow after preheating of scrap thereby; sensing the temperature of the exhaust flow; scrubbing the exhaust gas flow with an aqueous solution of a deodorant solvent flowing at a rate regulated to be in a predetermined relationship related to the exhaust gas temperature sensed prior to scrubbing, thereby generating saturated vapor and reducing the temperature of the exhaust gas flow by a predetermined amount; and electrostatically precipitating out oil mist attached to saturated water vapor and liquid droplets in the exhaust gas flow.

  7. A study on the recycling of scrap integrated circuits by leaching.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Tang, Li-Wen; Popuri, Srinivasa R

    2011-07-01

    In order to minimize the problem of pollution and to conserve limited natural resources, a method to recover the valuable metals such as gold, silver and copper) present in the scrap integrated circuits (ICs) was developed in the present study. Roasting, grinding, screening, magnetic separation, melting and leaching were adopted to investigate the efficiency of recovery of gold, silver and copper from scrap ICs. The collected scrap IC samples were roasted at 850 °C to destroy their plastic resin sealing material, followed by screening and magnetic separation to separate the metals from the resin residue. The non-ferrous materials (0.840 mm) were mainly composed of copper and could be melted into a copper alloy. Non-ferrous materials containing gold (860.05 ppm), silver (1323.12 ppm) and copper (37259.7 ppm) (size less than 50 mesh) were recovered 100% by a leaching process and thiourea was used as a leaching reagent.

  8. Effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxide of WC/Co hardmetal scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gil-Geun; Ha, Gook-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxidized WC/Co hardmetal scrap with solid carbon were examined. Mixed powders were manufactured by milling the WC/Co hard metal scrap oxide and carbon powder in either a tumbler-ball mill or a planetary-ball mill. The milling type affected the carbothermal reduction of the oxide owing to the differing collision energies (mechanical milling energies) in the mills. The hardmetal scrap oxide powder (WO3, CoWO4) milled at high energy was more greatly reduced and at a lower temperature than that milled at lower mechanical energy. The formation of WC by the carburization reaction with solid carbon reached completion at a lower temperature after higher-energy milling than after lower-energy milling. The WC/Co composite particles synthesized by the combined oxidationmechanical milling-carbothermal reduction process were smaller when the initial powder was milled at higher mechanical energy.

  9. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region.

  10. A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

  11. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  12. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  13. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  14. Regional distribution and losses of end-of-life steel throughout multiple product life cycles-Insights from the global multiregional MaTrace model.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Kondo, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakajima, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    Substantial amounts of post-consumer scrap are exported to other regions or lost during recovery and remelting, and both export and losses pose a constraint to desires for having regionally closed material cycles. To quantify the challenges and trade-offs associated with closed-loop metal recycling, we looked at the material cycles from the perspective of a single material unit and trace a unit of material through several product life cycles. Focusing on steel, we used current process parameters, loss rates, and trade patterns of the steel cycle to study how steel that was originally contained in high quality applications such as machinery or vehicles with stringent purity requirements gets subsequently distributed across different regions and product groups such as building and construction with less stringent purity requirements. We applied MaTrace Global, a supply-driven multiregional model of steel flows coupled to a dynamic stock model of steel use. We found that, depending on region and product group, up to 95% of the steel consumed today will leave the use phase of that region until 2100, and that up to 50% can get lost in obsolete stocks, landfills, or slag piles until 2100. The high losses resulting from business-as-usual scrap recovery and recycling can be reduced, both by diverting postconsumer scrap into long-lived applications such as buildings and by improving the recovery rates in the waste management and remelting industries. Because the lifetimes of high-quality (cold-rolled) steel applications are shorter and remelting occurs more often than for buildings and infrastructure, we found and quantified a tradeoff between low losses and high-quality applications in the steel cycle. Furthermore, we found that with current trade patterns, reduced overall losses will lead to higher fractions of secondary steel being exported to other regions. Current loss rates, product lifetimes, and trade patterns impede the closure of the steel cycle.

  15. US Department of Energy`s weapons complex scrap metal inventory. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    Two tasks comprise the thrust of this contracted effort. Task 1 is the development of a Source List and is based on determining a list of public documents pertaining to contaminated/uncontaminated scrap metals, equipment, and other materials of value, were they not contaminated or could they be decontaminated. Task 2 is to develop an inventory of such materials from the Task 1 list of public documentation. In more detail, the Task 2 Inventory Report is based upon fulfillment of the following requirement to prepare and submit an Inventory Report based on the information obtained in the Source List. The Inventory Report shall define the type, quantity, and location of used equipment, scrap metal, and other materials existing within DOE`s system. The Inventory Report shall list: the site where the equipment, scrap metal, or other material resides; the type and size of equipment; the type and volume and/or weight of scrap metal or other material; its source; the type and level of contamination; its accessibility; the current annual rate of generation; and the projected annual rate of generation of the material.

  16. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  17. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, J D

    1985-05-13

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs.

  18. 20. Scrapping C112 U.S.S. Marblehead. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. January 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Scrapping C1-12 U.S.S. Marblehead. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. January 10, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yanchen

    1999-12-10

    This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.

  20. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  1. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  2. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  3. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  4. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP TIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open burning of scrap tires. Fixed combustion gas, volatile and semi-volatile organic, particulate, and airborne metals data were collecte...

  6. Engineering study for a melting, casting, rolling and fabrication facility for recycled contaminated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Report is prepared to study the facilities required for recycling contaminated stainless steel scrap into plate which will be fabricated into boxes suitable for the storage of contaminated wastes and rubble. The study is based upon the underlying premise that the most cost effective way to produce stainless steel is to use the same processes employed by companies now in production of high quality stainless steel. Therefore, the method selected for this study for the production of stainless steel plate from scrap is conventional process using an Electric Arc Furnace for meltdown to hot metal, a Continuous Caster for production of cast slabs, and a Reversing Hot Mill for rolling the slabs into plate. The fabrication of boxes from the plate utilizes standard Shears, Punch Presses and welding equipment with Robotic Manipulators. This Study presumes that all process fumes, building dusts and vapors will be cycled through a baghouse and a nuclear grade HEPA filter facility prior to discharge. Also, all process waste water will be evaporated into the hot flue gas stream from the furnace utilizing a quench tank; so there will be no liquid discharges from the facility and all vapors will be processed through a HEPA filter. Even though HEPA filters are used today in controlling radioactive contamination from nuclear facilities there is a sparsity of data concerning radioactivity levels and composition of waste that may be collected from contaminated scrap steel processing. This report suggests some solutions to these problems but it is recommended that additional study must be given to these environmental problems.

  7. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  8. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  9. Simultaneous material flow analysis of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum used in alloy steel by means of input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Ohno, Hajime; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Takeda, Osamu; Miki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2013-05-07

    Steel is not elemental iron but rather a group of iron-based alloys containing many elements, especially chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Steel recycling is expected to promote efficient resource use. However, open-loop recycling of steel could result in quality loss of nickel and molybdenum and/or material loss of chromium. Knowledge about alloying element substance flow is needed to avoid such losses. Material flow analyses (MFAs) indicate the importance of steel recycling to recovery of alloying elements. Flows of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are interconnected, but MFAs have paid little attention to the interconnected flow of materials/substances in supply chains. This study combined a waste input-output material flow model and physical unit input-output analysis to perform a simultaneous MFA for nickel, chromium, and molybdenum in the Japanese economy in 2000. Results indicated the importance of recovery of these elements in recycling policies for end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed. Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources. Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of portal detectors of a steel factory. Comparison of measured and simulated response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Potiriadis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Metal scrap is widely used in steel production. Millions of tons of scrap metal are traded each year worldwide; hence, both national and international authorities have shown an increasing interest in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. In order to minimize and/or avoid economical losses and material contamination, portal monitors have been installed at the entrance point of installations of many steel industries. Portal monitors typically consist of large organic scintillation detectors. The purpose of this study is to simulate such detectors and compare simulation results with experimental measurements in order to understand, calibrate and effectively use the detectors' response. Monte Carlo simulations of these systems demonstrate the assumptions that have to be made for optimal matching of measured and simulated results. As it was reported in previous studies, we observed a difference between measured and experimental values next to the light guide. In this work, we propose a transition area near the boundary surface of the scintillator and the light guide; this results in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement of measured and simulated results. This study will also define a guideline for later portal monitor simulations and a reliable estimation of the portals' efficiency.

  11. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  12. Use of cold-bonded, waste oxide briquettes at U.S. Steel Mon Valley BOP shop

    SciTech Connect

    DiCaprio, V.; Howell, K.; Harris, R.; Toner, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    In attempts to avoid the escalated costs and environmental concerns associated with taking waste oxide materials to a landfill, National Recovery Systems Inc., in conjunction with US Steel, built a waste oxide briquetting facility at the USS Mon Valley works (Edgar Thomson plant) to recycle various sludges and scales. The waste oxide briquette is currently a blend of BOP classifier sludge, BOP filter drum sludge, casterscale and hot strip mill scale. In addition to the landfill cost avoidance, the waste oxide briquette is also a low cast, steel scrap supplement. This paper describes the production of the waste oxide briquette and the use of the recycled material at the Edgar Thomson BOP shop.

  13. Electric arc furnaces for steel-making: hot spots for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Elbir, Tolga; Seyfioglu, Remzi; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bozlaker, Ayse; Demircioglu, Hulusi; Altiok, Hasan; Yatkin, Sinan; Cetin, Banu

    2009-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations were measured in stack-gases of ferrous scrap processing steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) (n = 5) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey and in air (n = 11) at a site near those plants. Measured stack-gas concentrations for the four plants without scrap preheating (611 +/- 311, 165,000 +/- 285,000, and 33 +/- 3 ng m(-3), average +/- SD for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) indicated that they are significant sources for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). POP emissions from the plant with scrap preheating were significantly higher (13 500, 445 000, and 91 ng m(-3) for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively). It was also shown that the steel plants emit considerable amounts of fugitive POPs in particle-phase. Estimated emissions using the emission factors generated in this study and the production amounts suggested that the steel plants with EAFs may significantly contribute to local and global PAH, PCB, and PBDE emissions. Several other compounds (aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine-containing organic compounds, n = 49) were identified and determined semiquantitatively in the stack-gas and ambient air samples. Ambient air concentrations (62 +/- 35, 320 +/- 134 ng m(-3), 1451 +/- 954 pg m(-3), for sigma41PCBs, sigma16PAHs, and sigma7PBDEs, respectively) were significantly higher than those measured previously around the world and in the region, further confirming that the steel plants with EAFs are "hot spots" for POPs.

  14. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  15. Direct regeneration of recycled cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelei; Zhang, Jin; Song, Dawei; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2017-03-01

    A new green recycling process (named as direct regeneration process) of cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries is designed for the first time. Through this direct regeneration process, high purity cathode material mixture (LiFePO4 + acetylene black), anode material mixture (graphite + acetylene black) and other by-products (shell, Al foil, Cu foil and electrolyte solvent, etc.) are recycled from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries with high yield. Subsequently, recycled cathode material mixture without acid leaching is further directly regenerated with Li2CO3. Direct regeneration procedure of recycled cathode material mixture from 600 to 800 °C is investigated in detail. Cathode material mixture regenerated at 650 °C display excellent physical, chemical and electrochemical performances, which meet the reuse requirement for middle-end Li-ion batteries. The results indicate the green direct regeneration process with low-cost and high added-value is feasible.

  16. Discussion of and reply to ``Processing of scrap tires: Technology and market applications``

    SciTech Connect

    Cosulich, J.; Smisko, J.; Niessen, W.R.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1995-11-01

    Publication of this paper by Michael H. Blumenthal provides an excellent overview of scrap tire market opportunities, processing options, and some legislative background. The authors present some comments and areas that need addition coverage or clarification. These include the following: durability of new tires made from recycled rubber; cost data; tire derived fuel; landfilling of tires; composition of tires; processing equipment; and processing problems. This article also contains Mr. Blumenthal`s reply to the comments and questions.

  17. Selective Leaching Process for Neodymium Recovery from Scrap Nd-Fe-B Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Yu-Jung; Liao, Ching-Hua; Popuri, Srinivasa R.; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Hung, Chi-En

    2013-12-01

    Neodymium-iron-boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets were most widely applied to permanent magnetic products in the world due to their high magnetic force. The increasing growth of scrap Nd-Fe-B magnets resulted in disposal problems and the reduction of neodymium (Nd) valuable resources. In this study, we developed a simple hydrometallurgical precipitation process with pH adjustment to separate and recover Nd 100 pct recovery from scrap Nd-Fe-B magnets. Several physical and chemical methods such as demagnetization, grinding, screening, and leaching processes were also adopted to investigate the recovery of Nd and other metals from scrap Nd-Fe-B magnets. The leaching process was carried out with four leaching reagents such as NaOH, HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4. Batch studies were also conducted to optimize the leaching operating conditions with respect to leaching time, concentration of leaching reagent, temperature, and solid/liquid ratio for both HCl and H2SO4 leaching reagents. Nd was successfully separated and recovered with 75.41 wt pct from optimized H2SO4 leaching solution through precipitation. Further, the purity and weight percentage of the obtained Nd product was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed the obtained product of Nd was in the form of NdOOH and Nd(OH)3.

  18. Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

    2004-10-01

    The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio.

  19. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2012-08-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

  20. The world iron and steel industry and its impact on Indiana iron and steel and electric utility industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Thomas Cheong-Yuen

    In this research, a large scale mathematical programming model is developed to represent steel production and distribution. This model is used to investigate how technological changes, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies will affect future production location and relocation, world energy consumption, environmental pollution, and international trade in steel. Future potential relocation of production capacity of the world iron and steel industry will have substantial impacts on the North American electric utility industry, especially in Indiana. Given that the iron and steel industry is among the most energy intensive industries in North America, the electricity consumption of Indiana in particular is expected to change significantly as the industry adjusts to the changing environment. This research models the iron and steel industry in its use of two types of mills: integrated mills and mini-mills. Integrated mills use complex and capital intensive production processes to produce steel from iron ore, using a combination of the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace. Mini-mills use electric melters which convert mainly scrap or directly reduced iron to steel. The model can reflect the trade and energy consequences of a chosen pattern of steel production, as well as the constraints on the pollutant generation. It also reflects various government trade policies to protect domestic steel production, such as quotas and protective tariffs. In addition, the model minimizes the total cost of steel production and transportation by evaluating the geographic patterns of the following factors: (1) iron and steel production; (2) new facility construction; (3) trade patterns. These factors are each subject to various constraints, such as demands, environmental restrictions, and government trade policies, imposed on the pattern of production. Optimization is performed for a single target year far enough in the future to allow construction of new capacity

  1. Steel Rattler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudo, Robert A.; Stotts, Larry G.

    1997-07-01

    Steel Rattler is a multi-phased project to determine the feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf components in an advanced acoustic/seismic unattended ground sensor. This project is supported by the Defense Intelligence Agency through Sandia National Laboratories as the lead development agency. Steel Rattler uses advanced acoustic and seismic detection algorithms to categorize and identify various heavy vehicles down to the number of cylinders in the engine. This detection is accomplished with the capabilities of new, high-speed digital signal processors which analyze both acoustic and seismic data. The resulting analysis is compared against an onboard library of known vehicles and a statistical match is determined. An integrated thermal imager is also employed to capture digital thermal images for subsequent compression and transmission. Information acquired by Steel Rattler in the field is transmitted in small packets by a built-in low-power satellite communication system. The ground station receivers distribute the coded information to multiple analysis sites where the information is reassembled into coherent messages and images.

  2. Moving toward the circular economy: the role of stocks in the Chinese steel cycle.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Wang, Tao; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    As the world's largest CO(2) emitter and steel producer, China has set the ambitious goal of establishing a circular economy which aims at reconciling economic development with environmental protection and sustainable resource use. This work applies dynamic material flow analysis to forecast production, recycling, and iron ore consumption in the Chinese steel cycle until 2100 by using steel services in terms of in-use stock per capita as driver of future development. The whole cycle is modeled to determine possible responses of the steel industry in light of the circular economy concept. If per-capita stock saturates at 8-12 tons as evidence from industrialized countries suggests, consumption may peak between 2015 and 2020, whereupon it is likely to drop by up to 40% until 2050. A slower growing in-use stock could mitigate this peak and hence reduce overcapacity in primary production. Old scrap supply will increase substantially and it could replace up to 80% of iron ore as resource for steel making by 2050. This would require advanced recycling technologies as manufacturers of machinery and transportation equipment would have to shift to secondary steel as well as new capacities in secondary production which could, however, make redundant already existing integrated steel plants.

  3. Evaluating Awareness and Practices Pertaining to Radioactive Waste Management among Scrap Dealers in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. Methodology A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Conclusions Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:24622341

  4. Recovery of Nickel from Nickel-Based Superalloy Scraps by Utilizing Molten Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    With the purpose of developing a new process for recycling nickel (Ni) directly from superalloy scraps, a fundamental study on the extraction and separation of Ni was carried out using molten zinc (Zn) as the extraction medium. In order to examine the reaction between molten Zn and the Ni-based superalloy, superalloy samples and Zn shots were heated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 6 hours. After heating, the superalloy samples fully reacted with Zn and dissolved in molten Zn. The Zn-alloyed sample obtained by slow cooling consisted of two separated upper and lower phases. In the upper part of the sample, only Zn and the Zn-Ni alloys were found; in the lower part, an intermetallic alloy consisting of refractory metals such as rhenium (Re) and tantalum (Ta) was found. This result shows that Ni and refractory metals contained in the scrap can be separated by utilizing the density differences between the Zn-Ni alloy and the refractory metals in molten Zn. Vacuum treatment of the upper part of the Zn-alloyed sample at 1173 K (900 °C) reduced the concentration of Zn in the sample from 97.0 to 0.4 mass pct. After Zn removal, a Ni alloy containing Ni with a purity of 85.3 to 86.1 mass pct and negligible quantities (<0.1 mass pct) of Re and Ta was obtained. Moreover, recovered Zn metal after distillation had a purity of more than 99.9 mass pct. Therefore, this process could be an environmentally sound recycling process that can recover Ni from superalloy scraps without the consumption of Zn or the generation of toxic wastes solutions.

  5. Treatment of Ni-EDTA containing wastewater by electrocoagulation using iron scraps packed-bed anode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaokun; Zhang, Junya; Zhang, Yan; Lv, Yuancai; Dou, Rongni; Wen, Shulong; Li, Lianghao; Chen, Yuancai; Hu, YongYou

    2016-12-01

    The unique electrocoagulator proposed in this study is highly efficient at removing Ni-EDTA, providing a potential remediation option for wastewater containing lower concentrations of Ni-EDTA (Ni ≤ 10 mg L(-1)). In the electrocoagulation (EC) system, cylindrical graphite was used as a cathode, and a packed-bed formed from iron scraps was used as an anode. The results showed that the removal of Ni-EDTA increased with the application of current and favoured acidic conditions. We also found that the iron scrap packed-bed anode was superior in its treatment ability and specific energy consumption (SECS) compared with the iron rod anode. In addition, the packed density and temperature had a large influence on the energy consumption (ECS). Over 94.3% of Ni and 95.8% of TOC were removed when conducting the EC treatment at an applied current of 0.5 A, initial pH of 3, air-purged rate 0.2 L min(-1), anode packed density of 400 kg m(-3) temperature of 313 K and time of 30 min. SEM analysis of the iron scraps indicated that the specific area of the anode increased after the EC. The XRD analysis of flocs produced during EC revealed that hematite (α-Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4) were the main by-products under aerobic and anoxic conditions, respectively. A kinetic study demonstrated that the removal of Ni-EDTA followed a first-order model with the current parameters. Moreover, the removal efficiency of real wastewater was essentially consistent with that of synthetic wastewater.

  6. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper.

  7. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  8. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  9. ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

    2014-05-01

    As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

  10. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  11. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  12. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  13. Metal Exposures at three U.S. Electronic Scrap Recycling Facilities.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena

    2016-12-09

    Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals. We found one overexposure to lead and two overexposures to cadmium. We found metals on non-production surfaces, and the skin and clothing of workers before they left work in all of the facilities. We also found some elevated blood lead levels (above 10 micrograms per deciliter), however no employees at any facility had detectable mercury in their urine or exceeded 34% of the OELs for blood or urine cadmium. This manuscript focuses on sampling results for lead, cadmium, mercury, and indium. We provided recommendations for improving local exhaust ventilation, reducing the recirculation of potentially contaminated air, using respirators until exposures are controlled, and reducing the migration of contaminants from production to non-production areas. We also recommended ways for employees to prevent taking home metal dust by using work uniforms laundered on-site, storing personal and work items in separate lockers, and using washing facilities equipped with lead-removing cleaning products.

  14. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  15. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    PubMed

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions.

  16. In-situ molybdenum nano-attached particle synthesis from spent Mo scrap.

    PubMed

    Han, Chulwoong; Kim, Byungmoon; Choi, Hanshin

    2014-10-01

    Radio frequency thermal plasma is a versatile process for engineering powder preparation owing to its high energy density and reactivity. Molybdenum powders were prepared from molybdenum sheet scrap by RF thermal plasma in association with powder comminution process. Molybdenum scrap which was used in high temperature environment was friable enough to be broken into micropowders by hammer milling. Spherical molybdenum micro-powder was obtained from the hammer milled powders were treated via thermal plasma. On the other hand, vaporization and condensation pathway for nanoparticle synthesis is largely dependent on both thermo-physical properties and thermal plasma properties. In this regard, molybdenum trioxide was chosen for the feedstock of nanoparticle synthesis. Additional reactivity of argon-hydrogen thermal plasma, oxide feedstock was fully reduced to bcc molybdenum. Considering different reaction pathway of each feedstock, molybdenum nanoparticle attached molybdenum spherical micro-powder could be effectively synthesized by feeding a blended feedstock of molybdenum micro-powder and molybdenum trioxide micro-powder into argon-hydrogen thermal plasma.

  17. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; ...

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  18. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  19. Occupational and environmental lead and PCB exposure at a scrap metal dealer

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, R.

    1995-07-01

    Blood lead levels (BPb) and serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels (PCB) were obtained from 17 employees at two adjacent scrap metal dealers. One facility was located outdoors, directly on top of soil known to be contaminated with lead and PCBs, and the other was located indoors with a concrete floor. BPbs ranged from 4.0 to 39.8 {mu}g/dl (mean 19.9 {mu}g/dl, geometric mean 17.5 {mu}g/dl) and PCB levels ranged from <1 to 65.3 ppb (mean 7.5 ppb). There was no significant difference in either BPb or serum PCB between the two sites. BPb was significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked at work, and both BPb and serum PCB were significantly related to eating lunch outside the lunchroom, suggesting hand-to-mouth contact as a source of exposure. The lack of difference in BPb between employees of the two scrap metal dealers suggests an ongoing source of lead exposure at the sites, other than the soil. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Plutonium scrap recovery at Savannah River: Past, present, and vision of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Blancett, A.L.; Lower, M.W.; Rudisill, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the changing requirement, plus environmental and regulatory commitments, SRP now has essentially completed its paradigm shift. SRP has been transformed from primarily a reprocessor of irradiated uranium targets to primarily a reprocessor of non-specification plutonium. This is the mission which will carry SRP into the 21st Century. Accomplishment of the defined goals for the three-pronged RandD program will achieve several objectives: exploit new processes for recovering low-grade scraps; enhance SRP's position to incorporate pyrochemical processes where they are attractive or beneficial to plant scrap recovery; provide SRL/SRP with a capability to develop compatible aqueous pyrochemical processes; identify material compatibility requirements for the incorporation of pyrochemical processes at SRP; promote development and demonstration of improved NDA instrumentation to accurately measure plutonium holdups in solid residues; identify and implement the technology required for reagent preparation and atmospheric quality control; provide a means to compare economic options for emerging new processes; and as a result, identify process steps which will also put SRP in a position to readily adapt to changing plutonium missions.

  1. Food equipment manufacturer takes a slice out of its scrap rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Hannahs, J.; Carter, M.

    1996-09-01

    The PMI Food Equipment Group began manufacturing circular slicer knives for its commercial Hobart line of slicers in the early 1930s. The company manufacturers the only cast knife in the food industry. The cast knives offer superior edge retention and overall corrosion resistance. The slicer knives are cast in PMI`s foundry. The casting process sometimes produces shrinkage voids or gas bubbles in the knife blank. Surface discontinuities often do not appear until rough cutting or final machining, i.e., after several hours of value-added manufacturing. Knife blanks with these discontinuities were scrapped and sent back to the foundry for remelting. To scrap the knives at that point meant the cost for casting plus the value-added machining added up to a considerable amount. Weld repair allows the recovery of casting and machining expenses equal to a significant percentage of the total manufacturing cost of slicer knives. Repair costs include welding, grinding, shipping, surface finishing and material handling. Other good applications for this GMAW-P process include repair of jet engine components, rotating process industry equipment, and hardfacing of cutting tools and dies. In addition, dissimilar metals and any material that is heat treated to develop its properties such as precision investment castings are excellent applications. The low resultant distortion, elimination of postweld heat treatment and non-line-of-site welding capability solves thin wall, limited access and precision machined component repair challenges.

  2. [Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

    2012-01-01

    The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress.

  3. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  4. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  5. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  6. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  7. A review and update of advancements in clean cast steel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, M.; Monroe, R.W.; Griffin, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Steel Founders' Society of America Quality Assurance Task Force identified oxide macroinclusions as a universal problem experienced by users of steel castings. SFSA along with the Department of Commerce and the Department of Energy have sponsored research directed at reducing the occurrence of macroinclusions in steel castings. The Clean Cast Steel Technology program has investigated melting practice, pouring practice, gating practice, ladle treatment, and special devices such as filtration and analog simulation of mold pouring and filling. In-plant trials have demonstrated a dramatic improvement in casting quality with submerged pouring of steel castings. Research is currently underway in optimizing foundry melting practice to reduce macroinclusions. A 30--50% reduction in macroinclusion occurrence has been observed in production castings at the foundries participating in the trials. Analog simulation and in-plant trials of pouring practices have demonstrated that poor gating practice can increase air entrainment and oxide inclusions. Ladle treatments such as calcium wire injection has been demonstrated in plant trials to significantly reduce oxide defects in steel castings. Experiments have been conducted at participating foundries to examine the benefits of filtration on casting quality. Filtration has been shown to reduce rework and scrap by 70% in some cases.

  8. Reclamation and additional alloying of 18Ni(350) maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.; Salam, I.; Nasim, I.; Hussain, S.W.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q. )

    1994-06-01

    The possibility of gainfully utilizing grade 18Ni(350) maraging steel scrap has been investigated, along with the effect of additional alloying with niobium. A vacuum induction melting and casting furnace was used for melting and additional alloying. The cast ingots were hot forged and their properties compared with those of the stock material. The composition of the reprocessed material was found to be within the prescribed range for 18Ni(350) steel, except for some loss in titanium content. The hardness and tensile strength of the recycled steels were similar to those of the stock material. A slight decrease in hardness in the aged condition could be attributed to loss of titanium during remelting. Charpy V-notch impact testing indicated significantly higher toughness in the remelted material; this has been attributed to a homogeneous, refined microstructure and a lower level of inclusions. Additional alloying with 2% Nb not only improved the mechanical properties but also affected the amount of reverted austenite obtained after aging.

  9. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole.

  10. Modeling the energy content of combustible ship-scrapping waste at Alang-Sosiya, India, using multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Srinivasa; Basha, Shaik; Joshi, H V; Sravan Kumar, V G; Jha, B; Ghosh, P K

    2005-01-01

    Alang-Sosiya is the largest ship-scrapping yard in the world, established in 1982. Every year an average of 171 ships having a mean weight of 2.10 x 10(6)(+/-7.82 x 10(5)) of light dead weight tonnage (LDT) being scrapped. Apart from scrapped metals, this yard generates a massive amount of combustible solid waste in the form of waste wood, plastic, insulation material, paper, glass wool, thermocol pieces (polyurethane foam material), sponge, oiled rope, cotton waste, rubber, etc. In this study multiple regression analysis was used to develop predictive models for energy content of combustible ship-scrapping solid wastes. The scope of work comprised qualitative and quantitative estimation of solid waste samples and performing a sequential selection procedure for isolating variables. Three regression models were developed to correlate the energy content (net calorific values (LHV)) with variables derived from material composition, proximate and ultimate analyses. The performance of these models for this particular waste complies well with the equations developed by other researchers (Dulong, Steuer, Scheurer-Kestner and Bento's) for estimating energy content of municipal solid waste.

  11. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system Part 1: effect of feed solution pH.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Iovi, A; Balcu, I

    2008-05-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the pH range of 2.00-7.30. The results showed that the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. The highest reduction capacity was determined to be 19.2 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.50, and decreased with increasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. A considerable decrease in scrap iron reduction capacity (25%) was also observed at pH 2.00, as compared to pH 2.50, due to the increased contribution of H(+) ions to the corrosion of scrap iron, which leads to a rapid decrease in time of the scrap iron volume. Over the pH range of 2.50-7.30, hexavalent chromium concentration increases slowly in time after its breakthrough in column effluent, until a steady-state concentration was observed; similarly, over the same pH range, the amount of solubilized Cr(III) in treated column effluent decreases in time, until a steady-state concentration was observed. The steady-state concentration in column effluent decreased for Cr(VI) and increased for Cr(III) with decreasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. No steady-state Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations in column effluent were observed at pH 2.00. Over the entire studied pH range, the amount of Fe(total) in treated solution increases as the initial pH of column influent is decreased; the results show also a continuously decrease in time of Fe(total) concentration, for a constant initial pH, due to a decrease in time of iron corrosion rate. Cr(III) concentration in column effluent also continuously decreased in time, for a constant initial pH, over the pH range of 2.50-7.30. This represents an advantage, because the amount of precipitant agent used to remove Fe(total) and Cr(III) from the column effluent will also decrease in time. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) reduction with scrap iron in

  12. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Decontamination and decarburization of stainless and carbon steel by melt refining

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Webber, D.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1996-09-05

    With many nuclear reactors and facilities being decommissioned in the next ten to twenty years the concern for handling and storing Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) is growing. Upon direction of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Lockheed Idaho Technology Company (LITCO) is developing technologies for the conditioning of spent fuels and high-level wastes for interim storage and repository acceptance, including the recycling of Radioactive Scrap Metals (RSM) for beneficial reuse with the DOE complex. In February 1993, Montana Tech of the University of Montana was contracted to develop and demonstrate technologies for the decontamination of stainless steel RSM. The general objectives of the Montana Tech research program included conducting a literature survey, performing laboratory scale melt refining experiments to optimize decontaminating slag compositions, performing an analysis of preferred melting techniques, coordinating pilot scale and commercial scale demonstrations, and producing sufficient quantities of surrogate-containing material for all of the laboratory, pilot and commercial scale test programs. Later on, the program was expanded to include decontamination of carbon steel RSM. Each research program has been completed, and results are presented in this report.

  14. Characterization and leachability of electric arc furnace dust made from remelting of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Guylaine; Duchesne, Josée

    2006-07-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a toxic waste product made in the remelting of scrap steel. The results of a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) conducted on a sample of EAFD originating from the remelting of stainless steel scrap showed that the total Cr and Cr (VI) liquor concentrations (9.7 and 6.1 mg/L, respectively) exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Regulatory Level (TCRL). The EAFD showed a complex heterogeneous mineralogy with spinel minerals group predominance. A sequential extractions method has permitted the determination of the amount of available metals (potentially mobile component) from the EAFD as follows: Cr (3%), Ni (6%), Pb (49%) and Zn (40%). Solubility controls on Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were identified in the EAFD. This means that the Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations in solution were controlled by the solubility of some phases from EAFD. The concentrations of Ni and Zn, which are metals not regulated by TCRL were below 0.41 and 1.3 mg/L, respectively. The solubility control on Pb was sufficient to decrease its concentration (<0.24 mg/L) to a level below the TCRL. However, the control on Cr was not sufficient to decrease its concentration (between 117 and 331 mg/L) to below the TCRL.

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end

  16. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  17. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass.

  18. Increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap by melting with aluminum. Report of investigations/1983

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, G.B.

    1983-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines investigated a method for increasing the leaching rate of bulk superalloy scrap to facilitate recycling and recovery of critical metals such as Ni, Co, and Cr. Three superalloys were investigated, the cast-nickel-base superalloy IN-738, the wrought-nickel-base superalloy Rene-41, and the cast-cobalt-base superalloy Mar-M-509. Superalloys melted with 20, 30, 40, and 50 pct Al metal to form intermetallic compounds were easily crushed to a convenient particle size and reacted rapidly with acid solutions which dissolved the metals. For example, leaching 1/2-in pieces of unalloyed IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degree C for 2 h dissolved about 0.5 pct, while leaching 10 g of minus 20-mesh 30 pct Al-70 pct IN-738 with excess 6N HC1 at 95 degrees C for 2 h dissolved 96.2 pct.

  19. Hydrocoprocessing of scrap automotive tires and coal. Analysis of oils from autoclave coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.L.; Ding, W.; Liang, J.; Callen, M.; Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.

    1997-11-01

    Hydrocoprocessing of scrap automotive tires and a low-rank coal was carried out in a magnetically stirred autoclave. Reaction temperature (400 C) and time (30 min) were kept constant in every experiment, while different pressures (10, 5, and 1 MPa of H{sub 2} and 0.1 MPa of N{sub 2}) were studied. An iron-based catalyst was used to improve yields. Derived oils were analyzed by GC-MS and TLC-FID. In terms of yields, it is shown that there is a synergism between these two materials, although it can only be observed working at low hydrogen pressure. The oils obtained in the coprocessing showed a more aromatic nature than those obtained when both materials are processed alone, and higher boiling points, suggesting that radicals from rubber and coal react between each other instead of reacting with hydrogen radicals.

  20. Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Peter P; Etsell, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    Computer circuit board scrap was first treated with one part concentrated nitric acid and two parts water at 70 degrees C for 1 h. This step dissolved the base metals, thereby liberating the chips from the boards. After solid-liquid separation, the chips, intermixed with some metallic flakes and tin oxide precipitate, were mechanically crushed to liberate the base and precious metals contained within the protective plastic or ceramic chip cases. The base metals in this crushed product were dissolved by leaching again with the same type of nitric acid-water solution. The remaining solid constituents, crushed chips and resin, plus solid particles of gold, were leached with aqua regia at various times and temperatures. Gold was precipitated from the leachate with ferrous sulphate.

  1. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled expanded-polystyrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduct the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional test be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  2. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-03

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  3. Gold and palladium adsorption from leached electronic scrap using ordered mesoporous carbon nanoscaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanoscaffolds are engineered agglomerates of carbon nanotubes held together by small carbon nanofibers with uniform pore sizes, high pore volume, and high channel permeability. These materials exhibit very high affinity for the adsorption of gold from aqueous acidic mixtures. The efficiency of gold recovery is comparable to those typically accomplished using biopolymer-based adsorbents. The adsorption efficiency for other precious metals such as palladium and platinum is lower. Studies on the precious metal (Au, Pd) adsorption on OMC materials from actual liquors of leached electronics will be presented. Adsorption properties will be compared for several different sorbents used for the recovery of precious metals. The leach liquor compositions for three different types of electronic scrap materials (personal computer board, cell phone and tv input/output board) will be presented. The sorption efficiencies for Au, Pd, together with a spectrum of competing and non-competing metals, from such leach mixtures will be compared.

  4. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  5. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics.

  6. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  7. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  8. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  9. Gasification of the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén; López-Delgado, Aurora; Fermoso, Javier

    2012-04-01

    This work reports the effect of pressure on the steam/oxygen gasification at 1000°C of the char derived from low temperature-pressure distillation of granulated scrap tyres (GST). The study was based on the analysis of gas production, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and the high heating value (HHV) of the product. For comparison, similar analyses were carried out for the gasification of coals with different rank. In spite of the relatively high ash (≈12 wt.%) and sulphur (≈3 wt.%) contents, the char produced in GST distillation can be regarded as a reasonable solid fuel with a calorific value of 34MJkg(-1). The combustion properties of the char (E(A)≈50 kJ mol(-1)), its temperature of self-heating (≈264°C), ignition temperature (≈459°C) and burn-out temperature (≈676°C) were found to be similar to those of a semi-anthracite. It is observed that the yield, H(2) and CO contents and HHV of the syngas produced from char gasification increase with pressure. At 0.1 MPa, 4.6 Nm(3)kg(char)(-1) of syngas was produced, containing 28%v/v of H(2) and CO and with a HHV around 3.7 MJ Nm(-3). At 1.5 MPa, the syngas yield achieved 4.9N m(3)kg(char)(-1) with 30%v/v of H(2)-CO and HHV of 4.1 MJ Nm(-3). Carbon conversion significantly increased from 87% at 0.1 MPa to 98% at 1.5 MPa. It is shown that the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres can be further gasified to render a gas of considerable heating value, especially when gasification proceeds at high pressure.

  10. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation

    SciTech Connect

    Reis de Oliveira, Camila; Moura Bernardes, Andrea; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  11. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  12. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  13. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated.

  14. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  15. Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. A low-temperature technique for recycling lead/acid battery scrap without wastes and with improved environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysgant, Z.; Morachevsky, A.; Demidov, A.; Klebanov, E.

    A low-temperature technology for recycling battery scrap without producing wastes is suggested for battery plants with small production capabilities. The required reagents are available and their consumption is minimum. Simple and compact equipment is used. The generation of dust and the volume of the process gases are both minimal and are effectively removed by a filter-ventilating unit that has been developed by the ELTA company. Finally, the proposed technology does not require large investment for its realization.

  17. Removal of chromium from Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of resulted cations.

    PubMed

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2011-11-30

    This work presents investigations on the total removal of chromium from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of the resulted cations with NaOH. The process was detrimentally affected by a compactly passivation film occurred at scrap iron surface, mainly composed of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Maximum removal efficiency of the Cr(total) and Fe(total) achieved in the clarifier under circumneutral and alkaline (pH 9.1) conditions was 98.5% and 100%, respectively. The optimum precipitation pH range which resulted from this study is 7.6-8.0. Fe(total) and Cr(total) were almost entirely removed in the clarifier as Fe(III) and Cr(III) species; however, after Cr(VI) breakthrough in column effluent, chromium was partially removed in the clarifier also as Cr(VI), by coprecipitation with cationic species. As long the column effluent was free of Cr(VI), the average Cr(total) removal efficiency of the packed column and clarifier was 10.8% and 78.8%, respectively. Our results clearly indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater can be successfully treated by combining reduction with scrap iron and chemical precipitation with NaOH.

  18. The study on the extraction and recovery of Au from scrap of the used computer using chloride solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Su-ji; Choi, Eunju; Choi, Nagchoul; Park, Cheonyoung

    2013-04-01

    Recently, due to the realization of environmental problems of cyanide, it is a worldwide quest to find viable alternatives. One of the alternatives is a chloride solvent(chlorine-hypochlorite acid) with an appropriate oxidizing agent. The rate of dissolution of Au by chloride solvent is much faster than that by cyanide. Also, due to presence of chloride ions, there is no passivation of gold surfaces during chlorination. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Au extraction efficiency under various experimental conditions(pulp density, chlorine-hypochlorite ratio and concentration of NaCl) from scrap of the used computer by chloride solvent. In addition, the recovery experiment was conducted to examine of the precipitation efficiency of Au under various metabisulfite concentration from extracted solution. In an EDS analysis, valuable metals such as Cu, Sn, Sb, Al, Ni, Pb and Au were observed in scrap of the used computer. The result of extraction experiment showed that the highest extraction rate was obtained under 1% of pulp density with a chlorine-hypochlorite ratio of 2:1, and a concentration of NaCl at 2M. The highest Au recovery(precipitation) rate was observed the addition of sodium metabisulfite at 2M concentration. Under these conditions, chlorine-hypochlorite could effectively Au extraction from scrap of the used computer sections and the additive reagent using sodium metabisulfite could easily precipitate the Au from the chlorine-hypochlorite solution.

  19. Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.; Mishra, G.

    1997-08-01

    The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, - adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter.

  20. Simultaneous Evaporation of Cu and Sn from Liquid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Youn-Bae

    2016-08-01

    In order to understand evaporation refining of tramp elements in molten ferrous scrap, Cu and Sn, a series of experiments were carried out using liquid-gas reaction in a levitation melting equipment. Effect of S and C, which are abundant in hot metal from ironmaking process, was examined and analyzed by employing a comprehensive evaporation kinetic model developed by the present authors (Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:250-258, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:259-266, 2014; Jung et al. in Metall Mater Trans B 46B:267-277, 2014; Jung and Kang in Metall Mater Trans B 10.1007/s11663-016-0601-5, 2016). Evaporation of Cu and Sn were treated by evaporation of individual species such as Cu(g), CuS(g), Sn(g), and SnS(g), along with CS2(g). Decrease of Cu and Sn content in liquid steel was in good agreement with the model prediction. Optimum conditions of steel composition for the rapid evaporation of Cu and Sn were proposed by utilizing the model predictions.

  1. Assessment of potential radiation exposures by uncontrolled recycle or reuse of radioactive scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Lee, K.J.

    1999-07-01

    With current waste monitoring technology it is reasonable to assume that much of the material designated as low-level waste, generated within nuclear facilities, is in fact uncontaminated. A criterion for uncontrolled disposal of low-level radioactive contaminated waste is that the radiation exposure of the public and of each individual caused by this disposal is so low that radiation protection measures need not be taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggests an annual effective dose of 10 {micro}Sv as a limit for the individual radiation dose and derived the initial control levels of residual radioactivity based on the Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1990, new recommendations on radiation protection standards were developed by ICRP to take into account new biological information related to the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Adoption of these recommendations necessitated a revision of the Commission's secondary limits contained in Publication 30. This study summarizes the potential radiation exposure from valuable scrap metal considered for uncontrolled recycle by new ICRP recommendations. Potential exposure pathways to people were analyzed and concentrations leading to an individual dose of 10 {micro}Sv/year were calculated for 14 key radionuclides. These potential radiation doses are compared with the results of previous study.

  2. Development of DOE complex wide authorized release protocols for radioactive scrap metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Y.

    1998-11-23

    Within the next few decades, several hundred thousand tons of metal are expected to be removed from nuclear facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex as a result of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities. These materials, together with large quantities of tools, equipment, and other items that are commonly recovered from site cleanup or D&D activities, constitute non-real properties that warrant consideration for reuse or recycle, as permitted and practiced under the current DOE policy. The provisions for supporting this policy are contained in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material published by DOE in 1997 and distributed to DOE field offices for interim use and implementation. The authorized release of such property is intended to permit its beneficial use across the entire DOE complex. The objective of this study is to develop readily usable computer-based release protocols to facilitate implementation of the Handbook in evaluating the scrap metals for reuse and recycle. The protocols provide DOE with an effective oversight tool for managing release activities.

  3. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  4. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory & tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory & Tracking System (RSM I&TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I&TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers.

  6. Carbon dioxide capture utilizing zeolites synthesized with paper sludge and scrap-glass.

    PubMed

    Espejel-Ayala, F; Corella, R Chora; Pérez, A Morales; Pérez-Hernández, R; Ramírez-Zamora, R M

    2014-12-01

    The present work introduces the study of the CO2 capture process by zeolites synthesized from paper sludge and scrap glass. Zeolites ZSM-5, analcime and wairakite were produced by means of two types of Structure Directing Agents (SDA): tetrapropilamonium (TPA) and ethanol. On the one hand, zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized using TPA; on the other hand, analcime and wairakite were produced with ethanol. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique was performed for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of these zeolites at two sorption temperatures: 50 and 100 °C. CO2 sorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 synthesized at 50 °C was 0.683 mmol/g representing 38.2% of the value measured for a zeolite ZSM-5 commercial. Zeolite analcime showed a higher CO2 sorption capacity (1.698 mmol/g) at 50 °C and its regeneration temperature was relatively low. Zeolites synthesized in this study can be used in the purification of biogas and this will produce energy without increasing the atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  7. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry.

  8. Surface debris inventory at White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1992-08-01

    An inventory of surface debris in designated grid blocks at the White Wing Scrap Yard [Waste Area Grouping 11 (WAG 11)] was conducted intermittently from February through June 1992 by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program personnel. The objectives of this project are outlined in the following four phases: (1) estimate the amount (volume) and type (e.g., glass, metal and plastics) of surface waste material in 30 designated grid blocks (100- by 100-ft grids); (2) conduct limited air sampling for organic chemical pollutants at selected locations (e.g., near drums, in holes, or other potentially contaminated areas); (3) conduct a walkover gamma radiation scan extending outward (approximately 50 ft) beyond the proposed location of the WAG 11 perimeter fence; and (4) recommend one grid block as a waste staging area. This recommendation is based on location and accessibility for debris staging/transport activities and on low levels of gamma radiation in the grid block.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Roberto, Andréa Claudia Bekner Silva; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6%) presented positive parasite direct search (PD), 81 (51.9%) had positive Montenegro skin test (MST), and 90 (57.7%) presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity), in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482) and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455), and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133). The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  10. Direct Electrochemical Preparation of Cobalt, Tungsten, and Tungsten Carbide from Cemented Carbide Scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiangjun; Xi, Xiaoli; Nie, Zuoren; Zhang, Liwen; Ma, Liwen

    2017-02-01

    A novel process of preparing cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide powders from cemented carbide scrap by molten salt electrolysis has been investigated in this paper. In this experiment, WC-6Co and NaCl-KCl salt were used as sacrificial anode and electrolyte, respectively. The dissolution potential of cobalt and WC was determined by linear sweep voltammetry to be 0 and 0.6 V ( vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of cobalt and tungsten ions was investigated by a variety of electrochemical techniques. Results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave voltammetry show that the cobalt and tungsten ions existed as Co2+ and W2+ on melts, respectively. The effect of applied voltage, electrolysis current, and electrolysis times on the composition of the product was studied. Results showed that pure cobalt powder can be obtained when the electrolysis potential is lower than 0.6 V or during low current and short times. Double-cathode and two-stage electrolysis was utilized for the preparation of cobalt, tungsten carbide, and tungsten powders. Additionally, X-ray diffraction results confirm that the product collected at cathodes 1 and 2 is pure Co and WC, respectively. Pure tungsten powder was obtained after electrolysis of the second part. Scanning electron microscope results show that the diameters of tungsten, tungsten carbide, and cobalt powder are smaller than 100, 200, and 200 nm, respectively.

  11. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  12. Green technology for conversion of food scraps to biodegradable thermoplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Du, Guocheng; Yu, Jian

    2002-12-15

    A new technology is developed and demonstrated that couples anaerobic digestion of food scraps with production of biodegradable thermoplastics, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The food wastes were digested in an anaerobic reactor producing four major organic acids. The concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric, and lactic acids reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4, and 32.7 g/L, respectively. The fermentative acids were transferred through membranes via molecule diffusion into an air-bubbling reactor where the acids were utilized to produce PHAs in an enriched culture of Ralstonia eutropha. With a silicone rubber membrane, butyric acid and small amounts of acetic and propionic acids were transferred and used, producing a homopolymer PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). The dry cell weight and PHA content reached 11.3 g/L and 60.2% (w/w), respectively. With a dialysis membrane, the mass transfer rates of fermentative acids were enhanced, and the PHA production was significantly improved. The dry cell weight and its PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6% (w/w), respectively. The formed PHA was a copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8 mol % HV monomer unit. The polymer content (72.6% of dry cell mass) reported in this study is the highest one obtained from organic wastes and is comparable with the PHA content from pure glucose fermentation.

  13. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaymeh, S. R.; Dewberry, R. A.; Casella, V.

    2001-12-01

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG&G DART system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel gamma-ray spectra to assay for 235U content. The system was used to assay a large number of scrap cans used to store highly enriched uranium (HEU) chips and filings. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  14. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  15. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    PubMed

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder.

  16. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  17. Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chernicoff, W.P.; Chou, K.C.; Gao, H.; MacDonald, C.J.; Molecke, M.A.; Pal, U.B.; Van Den, J.; Woolley, D.

    1999-06-30

    Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year 2000. Out of which contaminated stainless steel with high chromium and nickel contents constitutes 25-30 wt. % [1]. Disposal of this material not only represents resource and value lost, but also necessitates long term monitoring for environmental compliance. The latter results in additional recurring expense. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to decontaminate the radioactive stainless steel to a satisfactory level that can be recycled or at least used for fabrication of containers for RSM disposal instead of using virgin stainless steel. Decontamination of radioactive stainless steel using the ESR process is investigated. In this paper the relevant slag properties, capacity to incorporate the radioactive contaminant, slag-metal partition coefficient, volatilization rate, volatile species, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension are presented as a function of temperature. The impact of these properties on the ESR decontamination process is discussed.

  18. The impact of radioactive steel recycling on the public and professionals.

    PubMed

    Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Ondra, Frantisek; Necas, Vladimir

    2013-06-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials, e.g. steel scrap containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Recycling some of these materials is highly desirable due to numerous reasons. Herein presented scenarios of recycling of radioactive steel within the nuclear as well as civil engineering industry are analyzed from the radiation protection point of view. An approach based on the dose constraints principle is chosen. The aim of the study is to derive conditional clearance levels (maximal specific mass activity of material allowing its recycling/clearance) for analyzed radionuclides ensuring that the detrimental impact on human health is kept on a negligible level. Determined conditional clearance levels, as the result of performed software calculations, are valid for the reuse of radioactive steel in four selected scenarios. Calculation results indicate that the increase of the amount of recyclable radioactive steel due to its reuse in specific applications may be feasible considering the radiation impact on the public and professionals. However, issues connected with public acceptance, technical difficulties and financing of potential realization are still open and they have to be examined in more detail.

  19. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  20. SQA(TM): Surface Quality Assured Steel Bar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh; Shi, Jianjun; Zhou, Shiyu

    2009-03-03

    verification, and first-hand knowledge of the most advanced rolling line operation in the US. This project lasted 5 years with 5 major tasks. The team successfully worked through the tasks with deliverables in detection, data analysis and process control. Technologies developed in this project were commercialized as soon as they were ready. For instance, the advanced surface defect detection algorithms were integrated into OGT’s HotEye® RSB systems late 2005, resulting in a more matured product serving the steel industry. In addition to the commercialization results, the SQA team delivered 7 papers and 1 patent. OGT was also recognized by two prestigious awards, including the R&D100 Award in 2006. To date, this SQA project has started to make an impact in the special bar quality industry. The resulted product, HotEye® RSB systems have been accepted by quality steel mills worldwide. Over 16 installations were completed, including 1 in Argentina, 2 in Canada, 2 in China, 2 in Germany, 2 in Japan, and 7 in the U.S. Documented savings in reduced internal rejects, improved customer satisfaction and simplified processes were reported from various mills. In one case, the mill reported over 50% reduction in its scrap, reflecting a significant saving in energy and reduction in emission. There exist additional applications in the steel industry where the developed technologies can be used. OGT is working toward bringing the developed technologies to more applications. Examples are: in-line inspection and process control for continuous casting, steel rails, and seamless tube manufacturing.

  1. Coated 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-26

    the effects of three coating systems on the mechanical property, fatigue, and...defined striations or striations-like features were formed in air, Figure A-13(b). On the other hand, intergranular cracking and formation of brittle...steel, in air. Their respective effects on the fatigue resistance of bare 4340 steel were similar in both of the employed environments, air and

  2. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  3. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  4. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  5. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  6. Gaseous contaminant emissions as affected by burning scrap tires in cement manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, F; Bredin, N; Heitz, M

    2002-01-01

    We studied the environmental impact (gaseous emissions) of using scrap tires as a fuel substitute at a cement plant that produces one million tons of cement per year. Using a combination of tires and coal as opposed to only coal caused variations in the pollutant emission rate. The study recorded a 37% increase in the rate of emission for CO, a 24% increase for SO2, an 11% decrease for NOx, and a 48% increase for HCl when tires were included. The rate of emission for metals increased 61% for Fe, 33% for Al, 487% for Zn, 127% for Pb, 339% for Cr, 100% for Mn, and 74% for Cu, and decreased 22% for Hg. On the other hand, the emission rate of organic compounds dropped by 14% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 8% in naphthalene, 37% in chlorobenzene, and 45% in dioxins and furans. We used a Gaussian model of atmospheric dispersion to calculate the average pollutant concentration (1-h, 24-h, and annual concentrations) in the ambient air at ground level with the help of the ISC-ST2 software program developed by the USEPA. When tires were used, we observed (i) a 12 to 24% increase in particulate matter, this range considering the concentration variation depending on the average used (1-h, 24-h, and annual basis), 31 to 52% in CO, 22 to 34% in SO2, 39 to 52% in HCl, 12 to 27% in Fe, -3 to 8% in Al, 30 to 37% in Zn, and 270 to 885% in Pb; (ii) a decrease of 8 to 13% in NOx, 9 to 13% in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 to 7% in naphthalene, 32 to 39% in chlorobenzene, and 32 to 45% in dioxins and furans. The results obtained showed that the maximum ground-level concentrations were well within the environmental standards (for operation with only coal as well as for operation with a combination of coal and tires).

  7. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  8. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    SciTech Connect

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.; Mizia, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  9. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  11. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2001-01-30

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  12. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2005-02-01

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  13. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  14. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast

  15. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  16. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    PubMed

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.

  17. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater.

  18. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  19. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  20. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  1. Joining Steel Armor - Intermix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    TARADCOM a d ki Lk A el B~ 0el RWET0 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX March 1979 U U * S* ’ "U .by B. . A.SCEV * U...authorized documents. O "if TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX BY B. A. SCHEVO March 1979 AMS: 3197..6D.4329 TARADCOM ARMOR AND...Intermix Process ...... ........ 3 Test Procedures - Intermix Armor ........ ......... 4 Mock Hull ................. ..................... 5 Results

  2. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  3. Ferrium M54 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    15 to 18% (reference 1). Beyond this range the alloy becomes more noble than steel and loses its sacrificial protection property . Therefore, Zn-14...for a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy , which was subjected to biaxial fatigue loading in 3.5% NaCl solution (reference 27). NAWCADPAX/TIM-2014/292...Edition, Properties and Selection: Iron, Steels, and High- Performance Alloys , ASM International, 1990, p. 395. 8. G. L. Spencer and D. J. Duquette

  4. OFFGAS GENERATION FROM THE DISPOSITION OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM BY VITRIFICATION SIMULANT TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J; Patricia Toole, P; David Best, D; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D; Whitney Thomas, W; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-03-05

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is supporting R&D for the conceptual design of the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC to reduce the attractiveness of plutonium scrap by fabricating a durable plutonium oxide glass form and immobilizing this form within the high-level waste glass prepared in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. A glass formulation was developed that is capable of incorporating large amounts of actinides as well as accommodating many impurities that may be associated with impure Pu feed streams. The basis for the glass formulation was derived from commercial glasses that had high lanthanide loadings. A development effort led to a Lanthanide BoroSilicate (LaBS) glass that accommodated significant quantities of actinides, tolerated impurities associated with the actinide feed streams and could be processed using established melter technologies. A Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) was used for vitrification of the Pu LaBS glass. Induction melting for the immobilization of americium and curium (Am/Cm) in a glass matrix was first demonstrated in 1997. The induction melting system was developed to vitrify a non-radioactive Am/Cm simulant combined with a glass frit. Most of the development of the melter itself was completed as part of that work. This same melter system used for Am/Cm was used for the current work. The CIM system used consisted of a 5 inch (12.7 cm) diameter inductively heated platinum-rhodium (Pt-Rh) containment vessel with a control system and offgas characterization. Scrap plutonium can contain numerous impurities including significant amounts of chlorides, fluorides, sodium, potassium, lead, gallium, chromium, and nickel. Smaller amounts of additional elements can also be present. The amount of chlorides present is unusually high for a melter feed. In commercial applications there is no reason to have chloride at such high concentrations. Because the melter operates at 1400

  5. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  6. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  7. RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  8. Primary and embedded steel imports to the U.S.: implications for the design of border tax adjustments.

    PubMed

    Izard, Catherine F; Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Border Tax Adjustments (BTAs) are a politically popular strategy for avoiding competitive disadvantage problems when a country implements a unilateral climate change policy. A BTA taxes carbon embodied in imported goods in order to protect domestic industry and motivate other countries to implement climate change policy. To estimate the effectiveness of a BTA, is it is necessary to know which products are covered, where they were originally produced and ultimately exported from, and how the covered amount compares to total production in foreign countries. Using a scrap-adjusted, mixed-unit input-output model in conjunction with a multiregional input-output model, this analysis evaluates the effectiveness of BTAs for the case study of U.S. steel imports. Most imported steel by mass is embedded in finished products (60%), and 30% of that steel is produced in a different country than the one from which the final good is exported. Given the magnitudes involved and complexities of global supply chains, a BTA that protects domestic industry will be a challenge to implement. We propose a logistically feasible BTA structure that minimizes the information burden while still accounting for these complexities. However, the amount of steel imported to the U.S. is negligible (5%) compared to foreign production in BTA-eligible countries and is unlikely to motivate affected countries to impose an emissions reduction policy.

  9. Mobilization of state program resources for a steel mill accident.

    PubMed

    Eakins, Jerry; Keaton, Harlan; Passetti, William; Cofer, Walter

    2002-05-01

    Radioactive materials in scrap metal are a serious problem for dealers and processors as well as for state radiation protection programs. Most large dealers and processors have monitoring devices that detect radiation sources at their scale house or feed to the furnaces. For example, in Florida since July 1995, a fiscal year average of 41 such alarms has been reported to the Department of Health's Bureau of Radiation Control. The majority of these alarms involve small amounts of radioactive material, usually naturally occurring radioactive material such as 226Ra, contained in luminous dials or scale associated with mining activities in the state. Occasionally, industrial devices that contain radioactive source material are found. The Bureau classifies these alarms as incidents, and inspectors are dispatched to help identify the source and determine the disposition of the material. On 13 July 2001, a steel mill in north Florida reported that a 137Cs source had been melted in their furnace. This paper describes the actions undertaken by the Bureau in assessing the extent of contamination and subsequent cleanup activities undertaken by the mill.

  10. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  11. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  12. Human health risk assessment of lead, manganese and copper from scrapped car paint dust from automobile workshops in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Onyenezi Amuka, John Paul; Onwuka, Jude Chinedu; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The economic downturn in Nigeria and Structural Adjustment Programme led to the flooding of Nigerian market with imported used automobiles. Most of these vehicles needed refurbishing and reworking. The present study is a human health risk assessment of metal exposure resulting from reworking of imported used vehicles in Nigeria. Scrap paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different mechanic villages (workshops A-H] in Southeastern Nigeria. Scrap paints were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed of lead, manganese and copper with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Workshop B has the highest concentration of Pb (4.26 ± 0.93). Manganese in workshops A and F were (3.31 ± 0.85) and (3.04 ± 0.47) respectively and were higher than the levels from workshops C, B, D, G and H. Copper in workshop D (7.11 ± 0.21) was significantly greater than the other workshops. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures in adults were 9.44E-05 (workshop B), 4.20E-01 (workshop B) and 1.08E-05 (workshop D) respectively. The highest values for HQ through ingestion, inhalation and dermal in children were 8.82E-04, 7.61E-01 and 2.86E-05 all in workshop B respectively. For children, the highest carcinogenic risk levels were 7.05E-08, 6.09E-05 and 2.29E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. In adults, the carcinogenic risk levels were 7.55E-09, 3.39E-05 and 8.67E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. Chronic exposure to scrap car paint dusts may be of significant public health importance in Nigeria as this may add to the body burden of some heavy metals.

  13. Superclean steel development

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P. )

    1989-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has actively encouraged and sponsored a number of research projects to develop a superclean 3.5NiCrMoV steel for low pressure turbine rotors. Such steel is highly resistant to temper embrittlement and will thus facilitate increased efficiency in electricity generation through the use of higher operating temperatures and improvements in design. The objective of this interim report was to integrate the results that have been generated to date worldwide in the pursuit of superclean steel. The report contains detailed findings that enable the interested utility to evaluate how the results affect utility decision making. A companion document has been written to summarize the findings from this technical report. The results indicate that steels with impurity contents typical of the superclean specification can be manufactured for production rotors with properties that equal or exceed those for conventional 3.5NiCrMoV rotors in every detail. Of particular interest are the results that the superclean steels appear to be virtually resistant to temper embrittlement to a temperature of 500 {degrees}C. 109 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Trends in steel technology. [Dual phase and HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants. (FS)

  15. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  16. scraps: An open-source Python-based analysis package for analyzing and plotting superconducting resonator data

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Faustin Wirkus; Khaire, Trupti S.; Novosad, Valentyn; Chang, Clarence L.

    2016-11-07

    We present "scraps" (SuperConducting Analysis and Plotting Software), a Python package designed to aid in the analysis and visualization of large amounts of superconducting resonator data, specifically complex transmission as a function of frequency, acquired at many different temperatures and driving powers. The package includes a least-squares fitting engine as well as a Monte-Carlo Markov Chain sampler for sampling the posterior distribution given priors, marginalizing over nuisance parameters, and estimating covariances. A set of plotting tools for generating publication-quality figures is also provided in the package. Lastly, we discuss the functionality of the software and provide some examples of its utility on data collected from a niobium-nitride coplanar waveguide resonator fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory.

  17. scraps: An open-source Python-based analysis package for analyzing and plotting superconducting resonator data

    DOE PAGES

    Carter, Faustin Wirkus; Khaire, Trupti S.; Novosad, Valentyn; ...

    2016-11-07

    We present "scraps" (SuperConducting Analysis and Plotting Software), a Python package designed to aid in the analysis and visualization of large amounts of superconducting resonator data, specifically complex transmission as a function of frequency, acquired at many different temperatures and driving powers. The package includes a least-squares fitting engine as well as a Monte-Carlo Markov Chain sampler for sampling the posterior distribution given priors, marginalizing over nuisance parameters, and estimating covariances. A set of plotting tools for generating publication-quality figures is also provided in the package. Lastly, we discuss the functionality of the software and provide some examples of itsmore » utility on data collected from a niobium-nitride coplanar waveguide resonator fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory.« less

  18. Stainless steel tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.

    1995-12-31

    There is currently no recognized code or standard for the design, fabrication and construction of atmospheric and low pressure stainless steel tanks. At the present time these tanks are being designed to individual specifications, manufacturers standards or utilizing other codes and standards that may not be entirely applicable. Recognizing the need, the American Petroleum Institute will be publishing a new appendix to the API STD 650 Standard which will cover stainless steel tanks. The new Appendix was put together by a Task Group of selected individuals from the API Subcommittee of Pressure Vessels and Tanks from the Committee on Refinery Equipment. This paper deals with the development and basis of the new appendix. The new appendix will provide a much needed standard to cover the material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, austenitic stainless steel aboveground tanks in nonrefrigerated service.

  19. Recycle of radioactive scrap metal from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25 Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Meehan, R.W.

    1997-02-01

    The scale of the metal available for reuse at the plant includes 22 million pounds of Ni, 17 million pounds of Al, 47 million pounds of copper, and 835 million pounds of steels. In addition there is a wide range of industrial equipment and other items of value. The author describes small bench scale and pilot plant scale efforts made at treating metal for decontamination and fabrication into cast stock or specialized containers for reuse within the DOE complex or release. These projects show that much of the material can be cleaned or chemically decontaminated to a level where it can be free released to various markets. Of the remaining metals, much of it can be cast into products which can be absorbed within the DOE complex.

  20. Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Coree, B.J.; Lovell, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

  1. An Environmentally Friendly Process Involving Refining and Membrane-Based Electrolysis for Magnesium Recovery from Partially Oxidized Scrap Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Pal, Uday B.; Powell, Adam C.

    2013-10-01

    Magnesium is recovered from partially oxidized scrap alloy by combining refining and solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis. In this combined process, a molten salt eutectic flux (45 wt.% MgF2-55 wt.% CaF2) containing 10 wt.% MgO and 2 wt.% YF3 was used as the medium for magnesium recovery. During refining, magnesium and its oxide are dissolved from the scrap into the molten flux. Forming gas is bubbled through the flux and the dissolved magnesium is removed via the gas phase and condensed in a separate condenser at a lower temperature. The molten flux has a finite solubility for magnesium and acts as a selective medium for magnesium dissolution, but not aluminum or iron, and therefore the magnesium recovered has high purity. After refining, SOM electrolysis is performed in the same reactor to enable electrolysis of the dissolved magnesium oxide in the molten flux producing magnesium at the cathode and oxygen at the SOM anode. During SOM electrolysis, it is necessary to decrease the concentration of the dissolved magnesium in the flux to improve the faradaic current efficiency and prevent degradation of the SOM. Thus, for both refining and SOM electrolysis, it is very important to measure and control the magnesium solubility in the molten flux. High magnesium solubility facilitates refining whereas lower solubility benefits the SOM electrolysis process. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was employed to simulate the flow behavior of the flux stirred by the forming gas. Based on the modeling results, an optimized design of the stirring tubes and its placement in the flux are determined for efficiently removing the dissolved magnesium and also increasing the efficiency of the SOM electrolysis process.

  2. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  3. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  4. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  5. Dusts, scale, slags, sludges... Not wastes, but sources of profits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koros, Peter J.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the steel industry has focused on the need for and the many benefits of recycling steel that is discarded either in its own or in its customers’ manufacturing processes, as well as in recovery and reuse of steel scrap that arises after the product has served its intended purpose. In fact, modern steelmaking relies on the use of recycled iron units for at least half of its production. The other side of the story is the fate of the non-steel by-products (e.g., oxide dusts, sludges, scales, slags, spent refractories and the contained “low grade” energy units that are generated as natural adjuncts to iron and steelmaking processes). These valuable by-products often are classified as “wastes” and are discarded to landfills, at significant cost, although in reality they offer significant potential for cost savings or profit if reintroduced into the industrial arena via well planned programs. Examples of such instances will be presented, including energy credit issues, in the hope of pointing the way for future expansion of benefits from these opportunities. Preparing for a challenge and honor such as the Howe Memorial Lecture, one has to stand in awe of the accomplishments of the predecessor we honor in this forum. He worked in the early days of our industry without the benefits of the many technological improvements he and his successors brought to play as the years went by. John Stubbles, in his Howe Memorial Lecture in 1997,[1] presented a masterful and entertaining biography of Howe and his very active and prolific life. Perhaps the most telling quotation he attributed to Howe is very pertinent to the topic we will address presently: “Metallurgy lives by profit, not logic,” to which I would like to add a comment that bears on the topic of this lecture from the 1991 Howe lecturer, my friend and mentor Bill Dennis, “Where there is muck, there is money.” There are numerous examples of “one hand washes the other” in this business; that

  6. Optimizing the structure of metal load in order to reduce electricity consumption in the production of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pǎcurar, Cristina; Hepuť, Teodor; Ardelean, Marius

    2016-06-01

    As the basic units in the preparation of steel, in industrial practice is used oxygen converters and electric arc furnaces. In research carried out has been taken into account structure analysis load electric arc furnaces of the specific consumption of electricity (kWh/t). Data to be achieved for a number of 96 batches, have been taken into account load holding metal of each assortment of scrap metal, these varieties being considered as independent parameters, and electricity consumption is considered dependent parameter. By processing the data in the EXCEL spreadsheet programs and MATLAB have been obtained correlations between parameters analyze, analytical results being presented and the graph. On the basis of an analysis of these correlations to choose optimal structure of the load in order to obtain an acceptable energy consumption from technical and economic point of view.

  7. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  8. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  9. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  10. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  11. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  12. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  13. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  14. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  15. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  16. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  17. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  18. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  19. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    phase of the project entailed the purchase and metallurgical characterization of two heats of HF-1 steel from different vendors. Performed by...At>-A 13^ nzt AD AD-E401 117 CONTRACTOR REPORT ARLCD-CR-83049 HIGH FRAGMENTATION STEEL PRODUCTION PROCESS ^"fP-PTTMirj A 1 James F. Kane...Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER High Fragmentation Steel Production Process 7. AUTHORfs; James F. Kane, Ronald L. Kivak, Colin C. MacCrindle

  20. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  1. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  2. Surface debris inventory at White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1992-08-01

    An inventory of surface debris in designated grid blocks at the White Wing Scrap Yard [Waste Area Grouping 11 (WAG 11)] was conducted intermittently from February through June 1992 by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program personnel. The objectives of this project are outlined in the following four phases: (1) estimate the amount (volume) and type (e.g., glass, metal and plastics) of surface waste material in 30 designated grid blocks (100- by 100-ft grids); (2) conduct limited air sampling for organic chemical pollutants at selected locations (e.g., near drums, in holes, or other potentially contaminated areas); (3) conduct a walkover gamma radiation scan extending outward (approximately 50 ft) beyond the proposed location of the WAG 11 perimeter fence; and (4) recommend one grid block as a waste staging area. This recommendation is based on location and accessibility for debris staging/transport activities and on low levels of gamma radiation in the grid block.

  3. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

    1999-06-15

    The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To

  4. 78 FR 74163 - Keywell LLC, Frewsburg, New York and Keywell LLC, Falconer, New York; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... the production of scrap stainless, titanium and high temperature alloys. The subject worker group... subject firm who were adversely affected by increased company imports of scrap stainless steel,...

  5. Energy and Raw Materials in the Selection of Technologies for Iron and Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortini, Otavio Macedo

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the selection of metal extraction technologies according to the regional availability of energy resources. The most important energy sources in iron and steel production are determined from a review of current technologies to inform possible future scenarios of capacity replacement or expansion according to geography. Alternative technologies are not discussed, considering that actual investment in capacity is most often dominated by high degrees of risk aversion. As such, only technologies proven at a reasonable scale are included in the selection matrix. Scenarios of capacity choice are defined in terms of actions from external agents, those which are not directly involved in the industry but have the capacity to regulate actions by metal producing players. Two extreme scenarios corresponding to closed and open economies are used to set bounds for future expectations. Among steelmaking processes under fully open trade conditions, it is found that EAF steelmaking with charge pre-heat should be the technology of choice in all regions of the world except for South America and Europe, where Integrated Steel Mills have a cost advantage. In fully closed exchange scenarios, Integrated Steel Mills would be the prevalent technology in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and the former USSR, EAF with scrap pre-heating prevailing in all other regions. On the other hand, HYL-ZR would be the iron making technology of choice in all regions under full exchange scenarios. Under fully closed exchange conditions, Mini-Blast Furnaces, COREX, and HYL-ZR would find regional applications. Increases in raw materials and energy costs of 38 pct in steelmaking and 63 pct in ironmaking are found in going from fully open to fully closed exchange regimes. It is also found that Southeast Asia is the most suitable region for deploying new steelmaking capacity, while Australia and Russia are the best selection for new iron making capacity.

  6. MINOS Detector Steel Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Trendler and Walter F. Jaskierny

    1999-03-03

    Magnetic measurements were made on one steel plate of the MINOS far detector. The conventionally used technique of measuring sense coil voltage induced by step changes in excitation current voltage was successful in providing stable, repeatable measurements. Measurements were made at several locations on the steel and the results are presented.

  7. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  8. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  10. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn(4+) into Mn(2+) into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH4)2Mn(SO3)2·H2O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution.

  11. Valorization of aluminum scrap via an acid-washing treatment for reductive removal of toxic bromate from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Lin, Jia-Yin; Lien, Hsing-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Aluminum scrap (AS) is adopted for the first time as a readily available aluminum source to prepare zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) for removing bromate from water via a reductive reaction. Since aluminum is easily oxidized to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on exposure to air, an acid-washing pretreatment on AS is developed to remove the layer of Al2O3. HCl is found as the most effective acid to pretreat AS and the HCl-pretreated or acid-washed AS (AWAS) is able to remove bromate from water and convert it to bromide. Factors, such as temperature, pH, co-existing anions, and particle size, which influence the bromate removal using AWAS are also investigated. The mechanism of bromate removal by AWAS can be attributed to both reduction and adsorption. The elevated temperature also significantly improves bromate removal capacity of AWAS as well as the reaction kinetics. The bromate removal capacity of AWAS is substantially improved under acidic conditions. However, the basic conditions and co-existing anions suppress or interfere with the interaction between bromate and AWAS, leading to much lower removal capacities. The recyclability of AWAS is also evaluated and the acid-washing regeneration is necessary to restore its capacity. However, the mass of AWAS can gradually decrease due to multi-cycle acid-washing regeneration. Through this study, the valorization of AS via acid-washing is demonstrated and optimization of acid-washing parameters is presented. Our findings reveal that the acid-washing is a useful technique to utilize AS as an inexpensive and efficient material for removing bromate from water.

  12. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  13. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  14. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  15. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  16. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  17. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  18. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-01-01

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  19. Hypereutectoid high-speed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kremnev, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Half of the tungsten and molybdenum contained in R6M5 and R18 steels is concentrated in the undissolved eutectic carbides hindering austenitic grain gowth in hardening and providing the necessary strength and impact strength. This article describes the tungsten-free low-alloy high-speed steel 11M5F with a chemical composition of 1.03-1.10% C, 5.2-5.7% Mo, 3.8-4.2% Cr, 1.3-1.7% V, 0.3-0.6% Si, and 0.3% Ce. The properties of 11M5F and R6M5 steels are examined and compared. The results of production and laboratory tests of the cutting properties of tools of the steels developed showed their high effectiveness, especially of 11M5F steel with 1% A1. The life of tools of the tungsten-free steels is two or three times greater than the life of tools of R6M5 steel.

  20. Method for recovery of actinides from actinide-bearing scrap and waste nuclear material using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Asprey, L.B.; Eller, P.G.

    1984-09-12

    Method for recovery of actinides from nuclear waste material containing sintered and other oxides thereof and from scrap materials containing the metal actinides using O/sub 2/F/sub 2/ to generate the hexafluorides of the actinides present therein. The fluorinating agent, O/sub 2/F/sub 2/, has been observed to perform the above-described tasks at sufficiently low temperatures that there is virtually no damage to the containment vessels. Moreover, the resulting actinide hexafluorides are not detroyed by high temperature reactions with the walls of the reaction vessel. Dioxygen difluoride is readily prepared, stored and transferred to the place of reaction.

  1. Optimization of thermochemical, kinetic, and electrochemical factors governing partitioning of radionuclides during melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avyle, J.A. van den

    1998-06-01

    'Melt decontamination of radioactive scrap metal could convert a disposal liability into a final product that would reduce the total volume of material necessary for burial and save substantial material costs. The goal of this project is to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. The main focus of this project is the application of electroslag remelting (ESR) toward cleanup of surface contaminated stainless steels. This report summarizes work accomplished after 9-months of a 3-year project. Activities are ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories and at Boston University.'

  2. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  3. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-09-16

    A process is described for welding chromium-molybdenum steels which consist of: subjecting the steel to normalization by heating to above the transformation temperature and cooling in air; subjecting the steel to a partial temper by heating to a temperature less than a full temper; welding the steel using an appropriate filler metal; subjecting the steel to a full temper by heating to a temperature sufficient to optimize strength, reduce stress, increase ductility and reduce hardness.

  4. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  5. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  6. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC INSPECTION OF HARDENED STEEL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    heat treat methods (no carbon added to the surface), and (2) The determination of through hardness or tempering temperature history of Stentor tool...effectiveness of phase sensitive and harmonic eddy current test methods for determining tempering temperature history of 4340 and Stentor tool steels was...showed that tempering temperature history of 4340 and Stentor steel can be determined for all temperatures (265 F to 820 F) used for specimen preparation on this program.

  8. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  9. Surface radiological investigations at two creek receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.S.; Tiner, P.F.; Williams, J.K.

    1994-02-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from August 1992 July 1993 at two creeks receiving runoff from White Wing Scrap Yard. In this report, the two creeks (both unnamed tributaries of Bear Creek) are, referred to as the east creek and the west creek based on their respective locations relative to White Wing Scrap Yard. The radiological survey of accessible areas at the east creek revealed no detectable gamma exposure rates above typical background levels (8 to 12 {mu}R/h). The very slight elevations in gamma and beta-gamma levels found along the creek were generally associated with outcroppings of shale and typical of naturally occurring radionuclides present in such material. No radiological anomalies were associated with an oily sheen observed on the water at three locations, three 55-gal metal drums in or near the creek, a small pile of metal debris near the creek, or several enclosures used in a 1969 study of animal excretion rates. Radionuclide analysis of three soil samples collected at the east creek demonstrated typical of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, and {sup 40}K.

  10. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  11. Strengthening effect of reduced graphene oxide in steel clad copper rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haitao; Liu, Xianghua; Ai, Zhengrong; Zhang, Shilong; Liu, Lizhong

    2016-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide has been extensively used as reinforcing agent owing to their high mechanical properties. In this work, an attempt is made to synthesize steel clad copper rod reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by the combination of powder-in-tube and intermediate annealing (IA). Experiments show that the Fe/RGO/Cu composites manifest better mechanical properties than Fe/Cu composites. In the process of groove rolling, RGO acts as effective binder, which can greatly improve the adhesive strength of copper scrap and two metals. Moreover, the strengthening effect of RGO is tightly related to its dispersion state. The RGO diffuses much more uniformly on the metallic substrate under the IA temperature of 1100 °C than 800 °C, which can be characterized by less deformation twins appearing at the interface of core copper and the formation of Fe-RGO-Cu transition belt at the bonding interface. In this case, the peak hardness, tensile strength and shear strength of Fe/RGO/Cu composites are 52 HV, 125 and 41 MPa higher than those of the Fe/Cu composites, respectively. The difference of strengthening effect and mechanisms of RGO under 800 and 1100 °C of IA are systematically discussed by referring to experimental results.

  12. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  13. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  14. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  15. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  16. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

    1999-12-31

    Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and

  17. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyucak, Selcuk; Li, Delin

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  18. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    the Navy-C ring (a classical test shape for heat treatment experiments) for several carbon and low alloy steels in order to generate data necessary to validate the code. The predicted distortions were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, the final distortions in the castings were small, making it difficult to determine how accurate the predictions truly are. It is recommended that further validation of the software be performed with the aid of additional experiments with large production steel castings that experience significant heat treatment distortions. It is apparent from this research that the mechanical properties of the bonded sand used for cores and sand molds are key in producing accurate stress simulation results. Because of this, experiments were performed to determine the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of a resin-bonded sand commonly utilized in the steel casting industry. The elastic modulus was seen to vary significantly with heating and cooling rates. Also, the retained room temperature elastic modulus after heating was seen to degrade significantly when the sand was heated above 125°C. The elastic modulus curves developed in this work can readily be utilized in casting simulation software. Additional experiments with higher heating rates are recommended to determine the behavior of the elastic modulus in the sand close to the mold-metal interface. The commercial heat treatment residual stress and distortion code, once fully validated, is expected to result in an estimated energy savings of 2.15 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology.

  19. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  20. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    or recovery basis, subject to agreement between buyer and seller. V-A-7 DoD 4160.21-H ATTACHMENT 2.-INI)USTRY SPECIFICATIONS FOR NONFERROUS SCRAPI ...SPECIFICATIONS FOR NONFERROUS SCRAPI --Continued NARI NARI Code Item Word (76) Old Mixed Aluminum Wire and Cable-Shall consist of old, unalloyed aluminum wire

  1. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  2. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  3. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  7. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  8. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  9. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2... steel, plain nickel-alloy steel, carbon-manganese-alloy steel, manganese-vanadium-alloy steel,...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  11. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  12. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  13. Corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, D. D. L.

    2000-10-01

    The methods and materials for corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete are reviewed. The methods are steel surface treatment, the use of admixtures in concrete, surface coating on concrete, and cathodic protection.

  14. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  15. Copper-Nickel Cladding on Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    steel,. Monel (65Ni/35Cu) alloy consumables should be used as they can tolerate more iron dilution from the steel than the 70-30 copper-nickel alloy ...Cooper Alloys , 400 , K-500 Stainless Steel - Tyles 302, 304, 321, 347 N ickel 200 Silver Braze Alloys Nickel-Chromium Alloy 600 Nickel-Aluminum Bronze 70...cladding of austenitic stainless steels may also offer some ballistic, non-magnetic, and electromagnetic signature advantages over current hull alloys and

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Fibrous Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Crvtaiue wi ,rerse sido it necessaty m’d Identify by block number) steel fibrous concrete corrosion cracked fibrous concrete 20 ABST RACT (Continue...dissolved gas in liq- Although chloride ions affect the rate of steel corro- uids. sion in concrete , corrosion can occur without them. Verbeck has...repcrted that steel subjected to a concrete Corrosion of steel will not occur without water. Not environment normally develops a protective oxide film

  17. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  18. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  19. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  1. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  2. Bearing steels in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Kazuichi; Sato, Toshio; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Hiraoka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    1998-12-31

    Oxygen content of bearing steel will be reduced to below 3 ppm in the year 2000 if the current trend for the reduction of oxygen in the steel continues. As a result, size of oxide inclusions will become smaller and the fatigue life will be doubled. From the viewpoint of life prediction, cleanliness evaluation methods currently used are not effective. Inclusion Rating Method by Statistics of Extreme is useful for both cleanliness evaluation and fatigue life prediction. Bearings made of suitably heat treated carbon steels or low alloy steels, which possess equivalent fatigue properties to bearing steels, will increase owing to the requirement for lower cost and better formability.

  3. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  4. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  5. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  6. Thermal Linear Expansion of Nine Selected AISI Stainless Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recoended values Include the...point of the stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recommended values...Stainless Steel..................................26 8. AISI 410 Stainless Steel..................................29 9. AISI 430 Stainless Steel

  7. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  8. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  9. 40 CFR 420.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (c) The term electric arc furnace steelmaking means the production of steel principally from steel scrap and fluxes in refractory lined furnaces by passing an electric current through the scrap or...

  10. Comparative Structural Strength Research of Hardened Carbon Steel and Hot-Rolled Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Zhakupov, A. N.; Kanayev, A. T.; Sikach, I. A.; Tugumov, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments on quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength showed that St5ps and St5sp carbon steels with A400 strength class can be fully applied for erection of constructions and buildings having cyclical loads during operation. Study of corrosion resistance of hardened carbon steel in comparison with hot-rolled alloy steel consists in difference in structures and hence, difference in intensity of electric and chemical processes featuring presence of steel in concrete. Structure of St5sp steel with A400 strength class in surface area has significantly less corrosion rate than ferritic-perlitic structure of 35GS steel with A400 strength class.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HSLA-100 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    13 Figure 4. High Strength Bainite Strength Components .................... 20 Figure 5. Bainitic Steel Tempering and DBTT ...21 Figure 6. Tempered Bainite Steel Yield Stress and DBTT .................. 21 Figure 7. HSLA-100 Steel Yield Strength versus Aging...Energy at -84°C ............... 31 Figure 14. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH DBTT ............................ 31 Figure 15. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH Ductility

  12. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  13. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  14. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  15. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  16. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  17. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  18. Light microscopy of carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    Containing over 1,200 representative micrographs and the information and explanatory text that makes them really useful: composition, condition, etchant, and magnification, and more than 100 graphs and tables, this how to book not only gives everyday working examples, but also discusses the relationship between the constitution, metallurgy, and microstructure of various carbon steel products. Written by a renowned expert in metallography, this definitive work is a must for all those working in this area. Contents include: nomenclature of phases and constituents; phase transformations; low-carbon irons and steels; annealing and normalizing; spheroidization and graphitization; austenitization; transformation of austenite; tempering of martensite; welding; surface oxidation, decarburation; and oxidation scaling; glossary of terms; etching methods; conversion tables.

  19. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  20. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  1. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  2. A study of Damascus steel

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.

    1995-02-16

    The Damascus sword has been an article of fascination for many years to blade collectors and metallurgists alike. The blades were given their name by Europeans who encountered these blades which originated from Damascus, Syria. They are best known for the appearance of the blade face. Genuine Damascus blades show swirling patterns of alternating light and dark regions which are due to the microstructure of the steel. The microstructure consists of arrays of well rounded cementite patterns in a matrix of either pearlite, bainite, or martensite. When this structure is etched the matrix will turn dark leaving the cementite particles light. Although many blades were produced over the centuries, while some of the process is known the making of a genuine Damascus blade today is generally considered a lost art. Many scientists have studied the subject in an attempt to understand the complex process by which the clustered arrays of cementite particles develop in the steel blades. The most prominent theories to date are presented in the General Introduction to this thesis. The thesis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, four proposed mechanisms of cementite cluster sheet formation as they relate to the banding theory are introduced. Experiments to investigate these mechanisms are presented. In Part II, collaborative research focused on the methodology of the reconstructed process for making Damascus steel is presented. In the third part, a study into the graphitization of the reconstructed blades is presented. In Part IV, experimental attempts at producing Damascus steel ingots in the laboratory are presented.

  3. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenning; Feng, Lajun; Feng, Hui; Cao, Ying; Liu, Lei; Cao, Mo; Ge, Yanfeng

    The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel.

  4. 77 FR 67400 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as..., 2012, applicable to workers of RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a division of RG Steel, LLC, doing business as... RG Steel, LLC, doing business as Wheeling Corrugating Company, Beech Bottom, West Virginia,...

  5. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  6. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility.

  7. Nonmetallic Inclusions in HSLA Steel Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    lowering the DBTT . Nickel prevents the hot shortness phenomenon often observed in copper-bearing steels . Nickel is also an austenite stabilizer. By lowering... STEEL WELDMENTS by Brent A. Douglas December, 1989 Thesis Advisor Alan G. Fox Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 90 ,-. S...ACCESSION NO. II. TITLE (Incude Security Claw fication) Nonmetallic Inclusions In HSLA Steel Weldments IZ. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Douglas, Brent A. 138

  8. Evaluation of the Benefits of HSLA Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    quenched and tempered steels , such as HY80 and HY1OO, require preheat and interpass temperature controls during welding of plates thicker than 1/2 inch...interpass tempera- tures and heat input limitations. Strict adherence to these requirements is mandatory to avoid cracking in hydrogen- sensitive steels ...requirement and excellent weldability of this steel will probably lower produc- tion costs and cracking -related repairs enough to overcome the slight

  9. UPIOM: a new tool of MFA and its application to the flow of iron and steel associated with car production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    Identification of the flow of materials and substances associated with a product system provides useful information for Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), and contributes to extending the scope of complementarity between LCA and Materials Flow Analysis/Substances Flow Analysis (MFA/SFA), the two major tools of industrial ecology. This paper proposes a new methodology based on input-output analysis for identifying the physical input-output flow of individual materials that is associated with the production of a unit of given product, the unit physical input-output by materials (UPIOM). While the Sankey diagram has been a standard tool for the visualization of MFA/SFA, with an increase in the complexity of the flows under consideration, which will be the case when economy-wide intersectoral flows of materials are involved, the Sankey diagram may become too complex for effective visualization. An alternative way to visually represent material flows is proposed which makes use of triangulation of the flow matrix based on degrees of fabrication. The proposed methodology is applied to the flow of pig iron and iron and steel scrap that are associated with the production of a passenger car in Japan. Its usefulness to identify a specific MFA pattern from the original IO table is demonstrated.

  10. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Waste Lot Profile for the K-770 Scrap Yard Soils and Miscellaneous Debris, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - EMWMF Waste Lot 4.12

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport M.

    2009-04-15

    Waste Lot 4.12 consists of approximately 17,500 yd{sup 3} of low-level, radioactively contaminated soil, concrete, and incidental metal and debris generated from remedial actions at the K-770 Scrap Metal Yard and Contaminated Debris Site (the K-770 Scrap Yard) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The excavated soil will be transported by dump truck to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). This profile provides project-specific information to demonstrate compliance with Attainment Plan for Risk/Toxicity-based Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2001). The K-770 Scrap Yard is an approximately 36-acre storage area located southwest of the main portion of ETTP, outside the security perimeter fence in the Powerhouse Area adjacent to the Clinch River. The K-770 area was used to store radioactively contaminated or suspected contaminated materials during and previous to the K-25 Site cascade upgrading program. The waste storage facility began operation in the 1960s and is estimated to at one time contain in excess of 40,000 tons of low-level, radioactively contaminated scrap metal. Scrap metal was taken to the site when it was found to contain alpha or beta/gamma activity on the surface or if the scrap metal originated from a process building. The segregated metal debris was removed from the site as part of the K-770 Scrap Removal Action (RA) Project that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2007 by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). An area of approximately 10 acres is located in EUs 29 and 31 where the scrap was originally located in the 100-year floodplain. In the process of moving the materials around and establishing segregated waste piles above the 100-year floodplain, the footprint of the site was expanded by 10-15 acres in EUs 30 and 32. The area in EUs 29 and 31 that was cleared of metallic debris in the floodplain was sown with grass. The areas in EUs 30 and 32 have some scattered

  11. Bending Properties of Al-Steel and Steel-Steel Composite Metal Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Judith A.; Vendra, Lakshmi J.; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2010-11-01

    The performance of new composite metal foams (CMFs) under bending was evaluated with simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on samples processed by cast and powder metallurgy (PM) techniques. The results showed high maximum strength in all samples up to 86 MPa with more ductile failure in PM samples. Acoustic emission behavior confirmed that the dominating failure mechanism of cast CMF is the brittle fracture of intermetallic phases that mostly exist at the interface of the steel spheres with the aluminum matrix, whereas in PM samples (100 pct steel), the failure is governed by the propagation of preexisting microporosities in the matrix resulting in a complete ductile failure. SEM imaging of the fracture surfaces supported these findings.

  12. Modified 43XX Steels for High Toughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    AL AMMRC TR 80-20 MODIFIED 43XX STEELS FOR HIGH TOUGHNESS T CS.,•, °x ,•, o o,,o,,,sD T I W4 AftELECTE APRIL 1980 J N.J. Kar, V.F. Zackay and E.R...carried out. Isohra tasomions in these steels resulted inn bbaainni 11-v DI FOR Z 47 RITIOW OF I NOV695 IS OBSOLETE UCASFE SECURITY UCLASSIFIEDINOFTI PAGE...this investigation for Si-modified AISI 4330 steel appear to be superior to those for unmodified AISI 4340 and 300-M steels , whilst the strength-tough

  13. Fracture Characteristics of Structural Steels and Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    constrctionTECHNICAL REPORT`M.170 engineringNovember 1975 research laboratory FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL STEELS AND WELDMENTS by J...microscope structure steel steel weldments 2 0. AUS51RA.Y’ Ztiu is~~g e ".C f ,e owl mod Idwisf~yb 6405 ". b mbef This5 tepof I p)wnh~t tlie tiIodings...CLALUVICA1IOli Of UAE(.0’ LINCLASSTFI~n SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAQE(1h.M Data EntWOO4 The hydrogen-enibrittled, high-strength steels exhibited

  14. Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

  15. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  16. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  17. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  18. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  19. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  20. Occurrence of brominated diphenyl ethers, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in foam materials in scrapped car seats from 1985 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Redin, L; Niinipuu, M; Jansson, S

    2016-12-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) from car seats of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and compare the concentrations of PBDEs with the stipulated regulations in the POP Directive. The method comprised screening by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and GG-MS analysis. Of 59 tested samples from ELVs, 17 samples showed lines above limit of detection (LOD) levels when screening by XRF. Those samples were selected as replicates and for further analysis by GC-MS. The majority of the studied samples showed low or non-detectable concentrations of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs, but two samples showed concentrations of Σ Te-HpBDEs close to the regulated level for Te-HpBDEs in waste (1000mgkg(-1)); one was slightly higher (1390mgkg(-1)) and the other slightly lower (570mgkg(-1)). It was concluded that brominated pollutants such as Te-HpBDEs occur in low levels in automotive applications in scrapped cars produced in years when brominated flame retardants were used. However, two of the 59 samples tested showed levels close to those stipulated by regulations concerning POPs in waste.