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Sample records for diabetes cross-sectional questionnaire

  1. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  2. Diabetes mellitus and intermittent claudication: a cross-sectional study of 920 claudicants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) and intermittent claudication (IC) are frequently associated health conditions. Our hypothesis is that the nature, severity and quality of life (QoL) of patients with IC and DM are worse than those of claudicant patients without diabetes. Material and methods An observational, cross-sectional and multicentre study of 920 patients with IC, divided into two groups: diabetic (n = 477) and non-diabetic (n = 443). For each group, we examined clinical and biological characteristics (including levels of glucose and lipids), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), responses to the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Results Compared with claudicant patients without diabetes, claudicants with diabetes were older (p < 0.001), more likely to be female (p = 0.006), with a higher BMI (p < 0.001), more likely to have a sedentary lifestyle (p < 0.001) and to be a non-smoker (p < 0.001). Claudicant patients with diabetes also had significantly more cardiovascular risk factors (p < 0.001), more frequent ischaemic cardiopathy (p = 0.023) and chronic renal failure (p = 0.002), and fewer prior ictus events (p = 0.003). No significant differences between groups were found with respect to blood pressure, levels of cholesterol or triglycerides. The mean ABI of diabetic-IC patients was slightly lower than IC patients without diabetes (p = 0.016). All WIQ subdomains scores were significantly lower (p < 0.001), indicating poorer walking ability, in claudicant and diabetic patients with compared with those without diabetes. The mean E5-QD global scores and the mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale in the whole series were 0.58 (SD = 0.21) and 55.04 (SD = 21.30), respectively. Both E5-QD scores were significantly lower, indicating poorer QoL, in claudicant patients with diabetes than claudicant patients without diabetes (p < 0

  3. Factor analysis of self-treatment in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-treatment is a treatment of oneself without professional help, which may cause health-related consequences. This investigation examined the self-treatment behaviors in patients with diabetes mellitus in Iran/kashan. Methods The patients who referred to the clinic of diabetes and those who were admitted to the General hospital in the city of Kashan due to diabetes mellitus were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. For data collection, The 25 item questionnaire of Likert scale type with four scales was used. Factor analysis was performed to define the patterns of self-treatment. Results 398 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 54.9 ± 12.9 years. The majority (97%) had type 2 diabetes. 50% of patients reported self- treatment. The self-treatment score was 45.8 ± 8.8 (25-100). Female gender, lower education and co-morbid illnesses of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiac disease had significant relationship with self-treatment. The factor analysis procedure revealed seven factors that explained the 43% of variation in the self-treatment. These seven factors were categorized as knowledge, deficiencies of formal treatments, available self-treatment methods, physician related factors, the tendency to use herbal remedies, underlying factors such as gender and factors related to diabetes. Conclusions There is a medium tendency for self-treatment in diabetic patients. The assessment of self-treatment practices must be an essential part of patients' management in diabetes care. PMID:21970577

  4. Ramadan and diabetes - knowledge, attitude and practices of general practitioners; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Muhammad Yakoob; Hashmi, Bella Z.; Ulhaque, Muhammad Saif

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory for all Muslims across the world. Through literature review, it has been found out that there are various articles published for the awareness of patients and general population regarding safe fasting during Ramadan. But very few studies highlight the Ramadan specific knowledge of general practitioners engaged in providing care to people with diabetes. This study aims to describe the practice, knowledge and attitude of general practitioners regarding treatment and dietary modifications for people with diabetes during Ramadan across Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken among a sample of 274 general practitioners. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire that consisted of 25 questions that were structured according to three categories i-e. Ramadan specific knowledge, diet and physical activity and treatment modification related knowledge and practices of GPs. Results: Out of the total population of GPs surveyed, 70% responded correctly to the questions while 30% responded incorrectly. 1/4th of GPs incorrectly responded to questions regarding basic concepts of diabetes and Ramadan. 1/3rd of GPs responded incorrectly regarding questions on diet. Almost 40% of the GPs responded incorrectly to the questions regarding drug dosage adjustment in people with diabetes during Ramadan. However, more than 80% responded in agreement regarding alteration in medication timings. Conclusion: Almost one third of the studied populations of general practitioners across Pakistan lack the knowledge of basic principles that are important to be employed in the management of diabetes during Ramadan. Hence there is need to promote educational programmes and CMEs to improve the knowledge of our GPs that should be reflected by their sound clinical practices in the field of diabetes. PMID:27648026

  5. Application of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in Albanian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Adriatik; Hoxha, Adrian; Simaku, Artan; Gabrani, Jonila (Cyco)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the reliability and validity of the translated version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) by evaluating its psychometric properties and to determine possible differences among nurses and physicians regarding safety attitudes. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Albanian version of the SAQ and a demographic questionnaire. Setting Four regional hospitals in Albania. Participants 341 healthcare providers, including 132 nurses and 209 doctors. Main outcome measure(s) The translation, construct validity and internal validity of the SAQ. The SAQ includes six scales and 30 items. Results A total of 341 valid questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 70%. The confirmatory factor analysis and its goodness-of-fit indices (standardised root mean square residual 0.075, root mean square error of approximation 0.044 and comparative fit index 0.97) showed good model fit. The Cronbach's α values for each of the scales of the SAQ ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers who had a positive attitude was 60.3% for the teamwork climate, 57.2% for the safety climate, 58.4% for job satisfaction, 37.4% for stress recognition, 59.3% for the perception of management and 49.5% for working conditions. Intercorrelations showed that the subscales had moderate-to-high correlations with one another. Nurses were more hesitant to admit and report errors; only 55% of physicians and 44% of nurses endorsed this statement (χ2=4.9, p=0.02). Moreover, nurses received lower scores on team work compared with doctors (N 45.7 vs D 52.3, p=0.01). Doctors denied the effects of stress and fatigue on their performance (N 46.7 vs D 39.5, p<0.01), neglecting the workload. Conclusions The SAQ is a useful tool for evaluating safety attitudes in Albanian hospitals. In light of the health workforce's poor recognition of stress, establishing patient safety programmes should be a priority among policymakers in Albania. PMID:25877270

  6. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  7. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingping; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jiaxin; Lv, Shiyi; Mei, Suzhen; Chen, Xing; Xi, Sisi; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Mukun; Bai, Wenpei; Yan, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36–76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder. Results A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05). Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15) (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006–1.095, p = 0.025) and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228–5.422, p = 0.012) were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001). Conclusion Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder. PMID:26448626

  8. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Khader, Yousef S.; Jafal, Sahar; Khawaja, Nahla; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST) in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years) with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients’ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM) questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG), and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST. PMID:24672276

  9. Female Sexual Function of Overweight Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Torloni, Maria Regina; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Scomparini, Flávia Burin; Mattar, Rosiane

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing worldwide and may compromise female sexual function. We hypothesize that among GDM patients in the third trimester of pregnancy, those with excess body fat would have worse female sexual function scores than normal weight women. Our aim was to assess the sexual function of overweight compared to normal weight women with GDM. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 143 Brazilian women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy: 76 were overweight (pre-pregnancy body mass index-BMI≥25.0 Kg/m2) and 67 were normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2). Participants were recruited from March 2010 to April 2013 at the antenatal clinic of a single public tertiary teaching institution. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to assess sexual function. Overall, 51.7% of the 143 participants were at risk for sexual dysfunction symptoms (FSFI scores ≤26); this rate was significantly higher among overweight compared to normal weight women (60.5% versus 41.8%, p = 0.038). Mean total FSFI scores were significantly lower in overweight compared to normal weight women (21.7±9.2 versus 24.9±8.0, p = 0.029). Compared to normal weight women, overweight participants had lower mean scores in desire (3.4±1.2 versus 4.0±1.4, p = 0.007) and lubrication (3.8±2.0 versus 4.5±1.6, p = 0.023). According to these results, overweight women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy have lower female sexual function scores than normal weight women with the same disorder. PMID:24736490

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  11. Self-reported knowledge on diabetes and its related factors among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Kaiqian; Guo, Yanfang; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An increasing trend in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been observed among youths; however, little is known about how informed young people are of its existence and dangers. This study is to assess the level of knowledge on type 2 diabetes among Chinese college students and to explore related factors influencing the knowledge. Setting A cross-sectional survey was conducted among college students in Guangzhou, China, from September to November 2013. Participants A total of 658 students were randomly recruited using a multistage sampling method and were invited to participate in the confidential interviews. Primary and secondary outcome measures Self-reported knowledge on diabetes and its main sources were measured by a self-designed questionnaire. Results A total of 521 students participated in this study. The mean total score of knowledge was 13.3±3.44 of 22. Less than 50% of participants could correctly answer the questions about the onset of type 2 diabetes, the adverse effects of sedentary lifestyles, the complications, the therapeutic methods and the monitoring index of diabetes. The factors associated with higher levels of knowledge about type 2 diabetes in stepwise regression models were: being in a high grade, having a better academic performance, having a medical specialty and having relatives or friends with diabetes. Newspapers and books (61.4%), television and the Internet (46.3%) were the major sources of knowledge about type 2 diabetes, and more than half of the participants (55.9%) considered that medical staff was the most reliable source. Conclusions The college students had limited knowledge about type 2 diabetes. Public education, especially among individuals with non-medical specialties, a low-level grade, poor academic performance or no relatives and friends with diabetes, would be extremely beneficial. PMID:27609848

  12. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  13. The impact of learned resourcefulness on quality of life in type II diabetic patients: a cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better

  14. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15–49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. PMID:27496230

  15. Stability of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for a cross-sectional sample.

    PubMed

    Artistico, Daniele; Laicardi, Caterina

    2002-04-01

    Factor comparability of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised was tested by contrasting three groups of people: young, adult, and elderly persons. Personality trait factors were significantly invariant among age groups. There was a significant age x sex interaction for Neuroticism scores.

  16. Rising risk of type 2 diabetes among inhabitants of Jamnagar, Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Undoubtedly, diabetes is an incremental threat for the world health and substantial evidence now suggest that diabetes is strongly associated with patients’ unhealthy lifestyle, behavioral patterns, and socioeconomic changes. Treatment modalities, in particular to this disease differs from patient to patient. In Ayurveda, this individuality is decided on the basis of Prakriti, Vaya, Bala, Desha etc., and hence it is essential to know these factors for successful management of diseases. Aim: To assess the role of demographic profile, changes in life style habits, dietary patterns, occupational and social background in increasing prevalence of type 2 diabete mellitus (DM) at Jamnagar region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted on randomly selected 350 diabetic patients of Jamnagar region. A survey proforma was prepared and detailed history of each patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria was taken along with demographic profile. Observations and Conclusion: The obtained data reveals that, certain faulty dietary and life style regimes of this region are responsible in manifestation of DM. Its magnitude and low awareness warrants appropriate public health interventions for its effective control. PMID:26730132

  17. Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis - A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M R; Møller, H; Rafaelsen, S R; Jørgensen, M M B; Osther, P J; Vedsted, P

    2017-03-07

    Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004-2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study.

  18. Relation between primary care physician supply and diabetes care and outcomes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Tara; Glazier, Richard H.; Campitelli, Michael A.; Calzavara, Andrew; Stukel, Therese A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher primary care physician supply is associated with lower mortality due to heart disease, cancer and stroke, but its relation to diabetes care and outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between primary care physician supply and evidence-based testing and hospital visits for people with diabetes in naturally occurring multispecialty physician networks in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis between Apr. 1, 2009, and Mar. 31, 2011, using linked administrative data. We included all Ontario residents over 40 years of age with a diagnosis of diabetes before Apr. 1, 2007, who were alive on Apr. 1, 2009 (N = 712 681). We tested the association between physician supply and outcomes at the network level using separate Poisson regression models for urban and nonurban physician networks. We accounted for clustering at the physician and network level and adjusted for patient characteristics. Results: Patients in physician networks with a high supply of primary care physicians were more likely to receive the optimal number of evidence-based tests for diabetes than patients in networks with low primary care physician supply (urban relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.07; nonurban RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) but were no different regarding emergency department visits (urban RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.17; nonurban RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.08) or hospital admissions for diabetes complications (urban RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.89-1.14; nonurban RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.07). Interpretation: Having more primary care physicians per capita is associated with better diabetes care but not with reduced hospital visits in this setting. Further research to understand this relation and how it varies by setting is important for resource planning. PMID:27280118

  19. Family issues and family functioning of Japanese outpatients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies confirmed that the control of diabetes is related to family functioning, but the validity of the tools used to assess family functioning in these studies is questionable. Few studies have focused on family issues. In this study, we used a new assessment tool to evaluate family functioning and family issues of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was given to outpatients with type 2 diabetes at a community hospital in Aichi, Japan, between August 2001 and March 2002. First, the patients were asked to answer FACESKGIV-16, which measures cohesion and adaptability, questions regarding family issues, daily lifestyle, and HAD. Physical and serological data were measured. Family functioning, family issues, and relationships between each parameter and family functioning or family issues were analyzed. Results Of the 133 participants, 121 (33.3%) had some sort of family issue. Family issues included “Health problems of family members” (40.9%), “Family life cycle issues” (22.7%), and others. The best fit multiple regression model (Adjusted R2: 0.494, p = 0.020) included Plasma Glucose as an independent variable, and the squared value of cohesion score, depression score of HAD, Total calorie intake, Exercise time, Housekeeping time, and BMI were dependent variables. The results show that extremes of family cohesion with either too many or too few issues related to family functioning are correlated with the plasma glucose level. Conclusions Family issues were common among patients with type 2 diabetes, and the extremes of family cohesion were associated with the glucose level, in contrast to the common wisdom that a well balanced family leads to good control of diabetes. PMID:23799927

  20. A cross-sectional survey of depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trento, M; Raballo, M; Trevisan, M; Sicuro, J; Passera, P; Cirio, L; Charrier, L; Cavallo, F; Porta, M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression in outpatients with type 2 diabetes and its possible correlation with anxiety, cognitive function, and clinical variables. The Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Mini-Mental-State Examination were administered to 249 non-insulin-treated (NIT) and 249 insulin-treated (IT) outpatients with type 2 diabetes, aged 40-80, in a cross-sectional survey. Compared with a reported prevalence of 6-13% in the general population, 104 (20.9%) patients had either a score indicative of depression or were on anti-depressant medication. Assuming that medication might modify the responses to questionnaires, the latter patients were excluded from further analysis. IT patients had higher age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, more foot ulcers, retinopathy, microalbuminuria and practised more self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < 0.01 all) but a slightly lower mean depression score (P = 0.004) and similar anxiety or cognitive function. At multivariate analysis, depression was associated with anxiety (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), gender (men having lower scores than women, P = 0.042), and insulin treatment, IT patients being less depressed than NIT (P < 0.001), but none of the clinical variables. Anxiety correlated with age (P < 0.001). The association between depression and anxiety became progressively weaker with increasing age. These data confirm increased prevalence of depression in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes who did not show impaired cognitive function. The lack of correlation with disease duration, metabolic control, and complications suggests that depression may not appear/worsen with diabetes and/or its complications but rather supports suggestions that it might predate both.

  1. Sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics, diabetics and normoglycemic controls: a comparative cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing prevalence of pre-diabetes is an emerging public health problem. Decrease in sweet taste sensitivity which can lead to an increase in sugar intake might be a factor driving them to overt diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics in comparison with diabetics and with normoglycemic controls. Methods Forty pre-diabetics, 40 diabetics and 34 normoglycemic controls were studied. The three groups were matched for age, sex and BMI. The division into groups was based on their glycated hemoglobin levels. The detection and recognition thresholds were determined by the multiple forced-choice method using sucrose solutions prepared in ¼ log dilutions. The intensities of perceived sensations for a series of suprathreshold concentrations of sucrose solutions prepared in ½ log dilution were determined by rating on a visual analogue scale. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 21. Results The mean (SD) detection thresholds of diabetic, pre-diabetic and normoglycemic groups were 0.025 (0.01), 0.018 (0.01) and 0.015 (0.01) respectively with a significant increase in diabetic group compared to normoglycemic group (p = 0.03). The mean recognition thresholds were not different among the three groups. When the intensity ratings for suprathreshold concentrations of sucrose were compared between the three groups, for all suprathreshold concentrations tested, significant differences were observed across the four concentrations (p < 0.001) and between groups in suprathreshold ratings (p < 0.05). Further analysis showed that the diabetic group had significantly lower suprathreshold ratings than the normoglycemic group (p < 0.001). Although all mean suprathreshold intensity ratings of the pre-diabetic group were between the normoglycemic and diabetic groups, the differences were not significant. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics

  2. The impact of knowledge about diabetes, resilience and depression on glycemic control: a cross-sectional study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and the factors of knowledge about diabetes, resilience, depression and anxiety among Brazilian adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study included 85 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged between 11–22 years, with an average age of 17.7 ± 3.72 years. Glycemic control degree was evaluated through HbA1c. To assess psychosocial factors, the following questionnaires were used: resilience (Resilience Scale, RS) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). The Diabetes Knowledge Assessment Scale (DKNA) was used to assess knowledge about diabetes. Results Significant correlations were found between HbA1c and resilience, anxiety and depression. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the only variable which presented significant association with the value of HbA1c was depression. Conclusions Depression has a significant association with higher HbA1c levels, as demonstrated in a regression analysis. The results suggest that depression, anxiety and resilience should be considered in the design of a multidisciplinary approach to type 1 diabetes, as these factors were significantly correlated with glycemic control. Glycemic control was not correlated with knowledge of diabetes, suggesting that theoretical or practical understanding of this disease is not by itself significantly associated with appropriate glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.5%). PMID:24289093

  3. Breastfeeding and Maternal Hypertension and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Ying; Liu, Hai-Hang; Li, Hong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to assess the association of breastfeeding and maternal hypertension and diabetes in Beijing, China. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four urban communities of Beijing, China, with 9,128 parous women 40–81 years of age who had had only one lifetime birth. Each participant completed a detailed survey and accepted blood pressure measurement and blood glucose testing. Moreover, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were confirmed by review of medical records. Results: After the analysis was adjusted for the potential confounders, including age, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), working status, educational level, drinking, smoking, family history of hypertension, age of menarche, menopause, oral contraceptive use, age of child-bearing, and postpartum BMI, the odd ratio (OR) of hypertension was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.32) for women who did not breastfeed, compared with women who did. In addition, the ORs for >0 to 6 months, >6 to 12 months, and >12 months of breastfeeding were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76–0.99), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.00), and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65–0.97), respectively, compared with women who did not breastfeed. With adjustment for age, WHR, working status, educational level, family history of diabetes, and postpartum BMI, women who did not breastfeed increased the risk of diabetes (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.11–1.53) compared with women who did. Moreover, women who breastfed for >0 to 6 months (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.98) and >6 to 12 months (OR=0.46; 95% CI, 0.26–0.84) had a lower risk of diabetes, compared with women who did not breastfeed. Conclusions: Chinese mothers who did not breastfeed were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes in later life. PMID:25785993

  4. Disturbed eating behavior in Iranian adolescent and young females with type-1 diabetes compared to non diabetic peers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Amini, Parvaneh; Pahlavanzadeh, Saied; Shokouh, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Background: An association of eating disorder with diabetes mellitus may lead to a serious lack of metabolic control, higher mortality and morbidity. There is no recent study conducted in the Iranian population about eating disorder and its variants. The aim of the present study is investigation of frequency of disturbed eating behaviors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disturbed eating behavior were evaluated and compared in two groups of 12–22 year old adolescent and young females (126 with diabetes and 325 without diabetes). A self-report questionnaire including demographic data, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used for data gathering. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression [odds ratio (OR)] were used for data analyses in SPSS 15. Results: Findings revealed that higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances (67.9% vs. 53.8%, P = 0.01). Diabetic group obtained higher scores in both dieting (14.95 ± 6.28 vs. 11.79 ± 5.62, P < 0.001) and bulimia scales (4.9 ± 3.13 vs. 4.12 ± 2.89, P = 0.017), which supports a role for T1DM in inducing the symptoms. Diabetic girls were at more than double the risk of developing eating disturbance. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significantly higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances. Also, diabetic subjects had an increased probability of getting higher scores in all three EAT-26 subscales. Therefore, healthcare professionals, especially diabetic nurses, should be aware of the potential effects of the subclinical and clinical eating behaviors on adolescents with T1DM and evaluate them for these disturbances. PMID:27904642

  5. Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Janet F; Hicks, Neville; Taylor, Anne W; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Phillips, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Background Diabetes and its associated complications are part of a chronic disease global epidemic that presents a public health challenge. Epidemiologists examining health differences between men and women are being challenged to recognise the biological and social constructions behind the terms 'sex' and/or 'gender', together with social epidemiology principles and the life course approach. This paper examines the epidemiology of a population with diabetes from the north-west metropolitan region of South Australia. Methods Data were used from a sub-population with diabetes (n = 263), from 4060 adults aged 18 years and over living in the north-west suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. Eligible respondents were asked to participate in a telephone interview, a self-report questionnaire and a biomedical examination. Diabetes (undiagnosed and diagnosed) was determined using self-reported information and a fasting blood test administered to participants. Data were analysed using SPSS (Version 10.0) and EpiInfo (Version 6.0). Results Factors associated with diabetes for both men and women were being aged 40 years and over, and having a low gross annual household income, obesity and a family history of diabetes. In addition, being an ex-smoker and having low cholesterol levels were associated with diabetes among men. Among women, having a high waist-hip ratio, high blood pressure and reporting a previous cardiovascular event or mental health problem were associated with diabetes. Conclusion The results found that men and women with diabetes face different challenges in the management of their condition. Public health implications include a need for quality surveillance data, including epidemiological life course, social, behavioural, genetic and environmental factors. This will enrich the evidence base for health promotion professionals and allow policy makers to draw inferences and conclusions for interventions and planning purposes. PMID:19284598

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia: Cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chisha, Yilma; Terefe, Wondwossen; Assefa, Huruy; Lakew, Serawit

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently 93 million people are estimated as living with diabetic retinopathy worldwide. The prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in developed countries have been well documented; but in Ethiopia, data on prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy is lacking. Objective To determine prevalence and factors associated with development of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital, Ethiopia. Method Cross-sectional study design with record review of 400 diabetic patients was conducted at Arbaminch General Hospital from November to January 2015. Among 400 diabetic patients, 270 patients with baseline information and without history of hypertension at baseline were included in this study. But patients with gestational diabetes and with retinopathy at baseline were excluded from the study. Consecutive sampling technique was applied to select study participants. Data of cohorts was extracted from medical record using pre tested structured extraction check list. Data cleaning, coding, categorizing, merging and analysis carried out by STATA version 12. Descriptive statistics was done and presented accordingly. Bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was done to select potential candidates for the full model at P-value cutoff point ≤ 0.25 and multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was made to estimate the independent effect of predictors on the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. Model diagnostic tests were done, final model fitness was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow chi square test. Finally, statistical significance was tested at P-value <0.05. Result Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among diabetic patients at Arbaminch General Hospital was 13%. Adjusted analysis showed that the odds of diabetic retinopathy were statistically and significantly associated with baseline age (AOR = 6.06: 95%CI; 2.42, 15.21), baseline systolic blood pressure level (AOR = 4.38: 95%CI; 1.64, 11

  7. Prevalence of depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder and one of the main causes of death in Palestine. Palestinians are continuously living under stressful economic and military conditions which make them psychologically vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among type II diabetic patients and to examine the relationship between depression and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, and glycemic control. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at Al-Makhfiah primary healthcare center, Nablus, Palestine. Two hundred and ninety-four patients were surveyed for the presence of depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale. Patients' records were reviewed to obtain data pertaining to age, sex, marital status, Body Mass Index (BMI), level of education, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, glycemic control using HbA1C test, use of insulin, and presence of additional illnesses. Patients’ medication adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Results One hundred and sixty four patients (55.8%) of the total sample were females and 216 (73.5%) were < 65 years old. One hundred and twenty patients (40.2%) scored ≥ 16 on BDI-II scale. Statistical significant association was found between high BDI-II score (≥ 16) and female gender, low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses, low medication adherence and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). No significant association between BDI score and glycemic control, duration of diabetes, and other socio-demographic factors was found. Multivatriate analysis showed that low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses and low medication adherence were significantly associated with high BDI-II scores. Conclusion Prevalence of depression found in our study was higher than that reported in other countries. Although 40% of the

  8. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID)

    PubMed Central

    Mithal, Ambrish; Majhi, Debashish; Shunmugavelu, M.; Talwarkar, Pradeep G.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Raza, Ammar S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs), as per American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065) of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632) patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like high

  9. Cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives South Africa has pledged to the sustainable development goal of promoting good health and well-being to all residents. While this is laudable, paucity of reliable epidemiological data for different regions on diabetes and treatment outcomes may further widen the inequalities of access and quality of healthcare services across the country. This study examines the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals attending primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Design A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Primary healthcare setting in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Participants Patients treated for T2DM for 1 or more years (n=327). Primary outcome measure Prevalence of uncontrolled T2DM. Secondary outcome measure Determinants of uncontrolled T2DM (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results Out of the 327 participants, 274 had HbA1c≥7% (83.8%). Female sex (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2), overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.9 to 261.2), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI 4.4 to 23.8), sedentary habits (95% CI 7.2 to 61.3), lower monthly income (95% CI 1.3 to 6.5), longer duration of T2DM (95% CI 4.4 to 294.2) and diabetes information from non-health workers (95% CI 1.4 to 7.0) were the significant determinants of uncontrolled T2DM. There was a significant positive correlation of uncontrolled T2DM with increasing duration of T2DM, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. However, a significant negative correlation exists between monthly income and increasing HbA1c. Conclusions We found a significantly high prevalence (83.8%) of uncontrolled T2DM among the patients, possibly attributable to overweight/obesity, sedentary living, lower income and lack of information on diabetes. Addressing these determinants will require re-engineering of primary healthcare in the district. PMID:27473948

  10. Higher plain water intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk: a cross-sectional study in humans.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Harriet A; Davis, Mark G; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plain water intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. It was hypothesized that higher plain water intake would be associated with a lower T2D risk score. One hundred thirty-eight adults from Southwest and Southeast England answered a cross-sectional online survey assessing T2D risk (using the Diabetes UK risk assessment); physical activity (using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire); and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and beverages (using an adapted version of the Cambridge European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire). There was a trend for differences in mean plain water intake between those stratified as having low, increased, moderate, or high risk of T2D; but these did not achieve significance (P = .084). However, plain water intake was significantly negatively correlated with T2D risk score (τ = -0°180, P = .005); and for every 240-mL cup of water consumed per day, T2D risk score was reduced by 0.72 point (range, 0-47) (B = -0.03, 95% confidence interval = -0.06 to -0.01, P = .014). The current study has provided preliminary results that are supported by theory; mechanisms need to be explored further to determine the true effect of plain water intake on disease risk. As increasing plain water intake is a simple and cost-effective dietary modification, its impact on T2D risk is important to investigate further in a randomized controlled trial. Overall, this study found that plain water intake had a significant negative correlation with T2D risk score; and regression analysis suggested that water may have a role in reducing T2D risk.

  11. Association between Serum Cystatin C and Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jie; Deng, Wuquan; Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yanling; Zhou, Lina; Boey, Johnson; Armstrong, David G.; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    Serum cystatin C (CysC) has been identified as a possible potential biomarker in a variety of diabetic complications, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. We aimed to examine the association between CysC and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 411 patients with T2D were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at a university hospital. Clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters were compared between DFU group and non-DFU group. The association between serum CysC and DFU was explored by binary logistic regression analysis. The cut point of CysC for DFU was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and DFU dramatically increased with CysC (P < 0.01) in CysC quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the significant risk factors for DFU were serum CysC, coronary artery disease, hypertension, insulin use, the differences between supine and sitting TcPO2, and hypertension. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut point of CysC for DFU was 0.735 mg/L. Serum CysC levels correlated with DFU and severity of tissue loss. Our study results indicated that serum CysC was associated with a high prevalence of DFU in Chinese T2D subjects. PMID:27668262

  12. Association between Serum Cystatin C and Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Deng, Wuquan; Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yanling; Zhou, Lina; Boey, Johnson; Armstrong, David G; Yang, Gangyi; Liang, Ziwen; Chen, Bing

    Serum cystatin C (CysC) has been identified as a possible potential biomarker in a variety of diabetic complications, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. We aimed to examine the association between CysC and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 411 patients with T2D were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at a university hospital. Clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters were compared between DFU group and non-DFU group. The association between serum CysC and DFU was explored by binary logistic regression analysis. The cut point of CysC for DFU was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and DFU dramatically increased with CysC (P < 0.01) in CysC quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the significant risk factors for DFU were serum CysC, coronary artery disease, hypertension, insulin use, the differences between supine and sitting TcPO2, and hypertension. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut point of CysC for DFU was 0.735 mg/L. Serum CysC levels correlated with DFU and severity of tissue loss. Our study results indicated that serum CysC was associated with a high prevalence of DFU in Chinese T2D subjects.

  13. Quality of life associated with treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Yolanda V; Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón A; Valdivia-Martínez, José J

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite certain contradictions, an association has been identified between adherence to drug treatment and the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The contradictions observed emphasize the importance of using different methods to measure treatment adherence, or the association of psychological precursors of adherence with quality of life. For this reason, we have used an indirect method to measure adherence (pill count), as well as two adherence behaviour precursors (attitude and knowledge), to assess the association between adherence and the quality of life in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study on a random sample of 238 type 2 diabetic patients was carried out over one year in four family medicine units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Treatment adherence was measured using the indirect method of pill count to assess adherence behaviour, obtaining information at two home visits. In the first we recorded the medicine prescribed and in the second, we counted the medicine remaining to determine the proportion of the medicine taken. We also assessed two adherence behaviour precursors: the patients' knowledge regarding their medical prescription measured through a structured questionnaire; and attitudes to treatment adherence using a Likert scale. Quality of life was measured through the WHOQOL-100 (the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire). Information concerning both knowledge and attitude was obtained through interviews with the patients. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to establish the relationship between each quality of life domain and the variables related to adherence, controlling for covariates. Results There was no association between quality of life and treatment adherence behaviour. However, the combination of strong knowledge and a positive attitude was associated with five of the six quality of life domains. Conclusion The results

  14. Development of a Questionnaire and Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient eHealth Readiness and eHealth Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many speak of the digital divide, but variation in the opportunity of patients to use the Internet for health (patient eHealth readiness) is not a binary difference, rather a distribution influenced by personal capability, provision of services, support, and cost. Digital divisions in health have been addressed by various initiatives, but there was no comprehensive validated measure to know if they are effective that could be used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) covering both non-Internet-users and the range of Internet-users. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-completed questionnaire and scoring system to assess patient eHealth readiness by examining the spread of scores and eHealth inequalities. The intended use of this questionnaire and scores is in RCTs of interventions aiming to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Methods Based on four factors identified from the literature, a self-completed questionnaire, using a pragmatic combination of factual and attitude questions, was drafted and piloted in three stages. This was followed by a final population-based, cross-sectional household survey of 344 people used to refine the scoring system. Results The Patient eHealth Readiness Questionnaire (PERQ) includes questions used to calculate four subscores: patients’ perception of (1) provision, (2) their personal ability and confidence, (3) their interpersonal support, and (4) relative costs in using the Internet for health. These were combined into an overall PERQ score (0-9) which could be used in intervention studies. Reduction in standard deviation of the scores represents reduction in eHealth inequalities. Conclusions PERQ appears acceptable for participants in British studies. The scores produced appear valid and will enable assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Such methods need continued evolution and

  15. Prevalence of Diabetes among Migrant Women and Duration of Residence in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed M.; Ali, Raghib; Loney, Tom; Aziz, Faisal; ElBarazi, Iffat; Al Dhaheri, Salma; Farooqi, M. Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the highest in United Arab Emirates (UAE), however data for the expatriate population is limited. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of T2DM amongst migrant women and test the hypothesis that acculturation (measured by years of residency) is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and we recruited a representative sample (n = 599, 75% participation rate) of migrant women aged 18 years and over in Al Ain, UAE. The American Diabetes Association criteria were used to diagnose T2DM. An adapted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of T2DM including length of UAE residence. Results The mean age of participants was 34.1 (± 9.5) years. Of the study participants, based on HbA1C levels, 18.6% (95% CI: 13.9–24.4) had prediabetes and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.2–15.6) had T2DM. Prevalence of prediabetes was 8.5% for Filipinos, 16.7% for Arabs and 30.3% for South Asians. Similarly the prevalence of T2DM was 1.7% for Filipinos, 12.2% for Arabs and 16.7% for South Asians. Significant correlates of overall T2DM (measured and known diabetes) included length of UAE residence for more than 10 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21–6.20), age ≥40 years (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53–7.87) and South Asian nationality (AOR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94–4.70). Conclusion Diabetes is a significant public health problem among migrant women in the UAE, particularly for South Asians. Longer length of residence in the UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. PMID:28099445

  16. The natural history of pedal puncture wounds in diabetics: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Surgeons usually witness only the limb-threatening stages of infected, closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Given that this catastrophic outcome often represents failure of conservative management of pre-infected wounds, some suggest consideration of invasive intervention (coring or laying-open) for pre-infected wounds in hope of preventing contamination from evolving into infection, there being no evidence based guidelines. However, an invasive pre-emptive approach is only justifiable if the probability of progression to catastrophic infection is very high. Literature search revealed no prior studies on the natural history of closed pedal puncture wounds in diabetics. Methods A survey was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire on 198 adult diabetics resident in the parish of St. James, Jamaica. The sample was selected using a purposive technique designed to mirror the social gradient and residential distribution of the target population and is twice the number needed to detect a prevalence of puncture wounds of 14% with a range of 7-21% in a random sample of the estimated adult diabetic population. Results The prevalence of a history of at least one closed pedal puncture wound since diagnosis of diabetes was 25.8% (CI; 19.6-31.9%). The only modifiable variable associated at the 5% level of significance with risk of pedal puncture wound, after adjustment by multivariable logistic regression, was site of interview/paying status, a variable substantially reflective of income more so than quality-of-care. Of 77 reported episodes of closed pedal puncture wound among 51 participants, 45.4% healed without medical intervention, 27.3% healed after non-surgical treatment by a doctor and 27.3% required surgical intervention ranging from debridement to below-knee amputation. Anesthetic foot (failure to feel the puncture) and sole of the forefoot as site of puncture were the variables significantly associated with risk of requiring surgical

  17. Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. Objective To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut- a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of

  18. Social distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related risk factors in Barbados: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Christina; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Hennis, Anselm; Samuels, T Alafia; George, Kenneth S; Unwin, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the distribution of diabetes, hypertension and related behavioural and biological risk factors in adults in Barbados by gender, education and occupation. Design Multistage probability sampling was used to select a representative sample of the adult population (≥25 years). Participants were interviewed using standard questionnaires, underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and provided fasting blood for glucose and cholesterol measurements. Standard WHO definitions were used. Data were weighted for sampling and non-response, and were age and sex standardised to the 2010 Barbados population. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated, and prevalence ratios were calculated for behavioural and biological risk factors by demographic and socioeconomic group. Results Study response rate was 55.0%, with 764 women, 470 men. Prevalence of obesity was 33.8% (95% CI 30.7% to 37.1%); hypertension 40.6% (95% CI 36.5% to 44.9%); and diabetes 18.7% (95% CI 16.2% to 21.4%). Compared with women, men were less likely to be obese (prevalence ratio 0.5; 95% CI 0.4 to 0.7), or physically inactive (0.5; 0.4 to 0.6), but more likely to smoke tobacco (4.1; 2.5 to 6.7) and consume large amounts of alcohol in a single episode (4.6; 2.7 to 7.6). Both diabetes (0.83; 0.65 to 1.05) and hypertension (0.89; 0.79 to 1.02) were lower in men, but not significantly so. In women, higher educational level was related to higher fruit and vegetable intake, more physical activity, less diabetes and less hypercholesterolaemia (p 0.01–0.04). In men, higher education was related only to less smoking (p 0.04). Differences by occupation were limited to smoking in men and hypercholesterolaemia in women. Conclusions In this developing country population, sex appears to be a much stronger determinant of behavioural risk factors, as well as obesity and its related risks, than education or occupation. These findings have implications for meeting the commitments made

  19. Relationship between diabetic nephropathy and depression: a cross-sectional analysis using the Diabetes Study from the Center of Tokyo Women's Medical University (DIACET)

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Keiko; Babazono, Tetsuya; Ishizawa, Kaya; Miura, Junnosuke; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between stage of diabetic nephropathy and likelihood or severity of depression in patients with diabetes. Research design and methods We studied 2212 patients with diabetes (mean age 60.9 years; 928 women; 1838 patients with type 2 diabetes). Presence and severity of depression was examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Patients were classified into 5 stages of nephropathy, according to albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); patients in stage 5 undergoing dialysis and kidney transplantation were analyzed separately (stages 5D and 5T). The relationship between stage of nephropathy and depression was examined using analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Both least square mean PHQ-9 scores and prevalence of patients with PHQ-9 scores ≥5 points (mild depression) and ≥10 points (moderate or severe depression) increased from stage 1 to 5D, and then declined in stage 5T. Multivariate ORs for mild or greater depression increased in patients in stages 3, 4, and 5D in reference to those in stage 1, which declined in patients in stage 5T. Albuminuria was significantly, but eGFR was not, associated with higher PHQ-9 scores and the PHQ-9 scores ≥5 or ≥10 after adjustment for clinical findings. Conclusions In patients with diabetes, progression of nephropathy is likely to be associated with increased risk and severity of depression, which may be reduced after successful kidney transplantation. Albuminuria may be more strongly associated with depression than eGFR. PMID:28074142

  20. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Everett, B.; Astorga, C.; Yogendran, D.; Salamonson, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  1. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Yoffe, Paula; Hills, Nancy; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    While experimental and observational studies suggest that sugar intake is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, independent of its role in obesity, it is unclear whether alterations in sugar intake can account for differences in diabetes prevalence among overall populations. Using econometric models of repeated cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p <0.001) after testing for potential selection biases and controlling for other food types (including fibers, meats, fruits, oils, cereals), total calories, overweight and obesity, period-effects, and several socioeconomic variables such as aging, urbanization and income. No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or overweight. Duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner, while declines in sugar exposure correlated with significant subsequent declines in diabetes rates independently of other socioeconomic, dietary and obesity prevalence changes. Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity.

  2. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  3. Psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Asuka; Fujimaki, Yuko; Fujimori, Shin; Isogawa, Akihiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test the psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma (self-esteem and social participation) and their relationship to self-stigma, patient activation for engaging in self-care and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 2 tertiary-level hospitals and 2 secondary-level hospitals in Japan. Participants A consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with T2DM. Inclusion criteria were as follows: presence of T2DM, age 20–74 years, no diagnosis of dementia and/or psychosis, and no need for urgent medical procedures. Outcome measures Study measures included a self-administered questionnaire to assess the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the 3 subscales of 36-question Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; Social Function, Role Physical, Role Emotional), Self-Stigma Scale and Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13). Glycated haemoglobin was obtained from same day blood work. In our previous qualitative study, we found that psychological and behavioural patterns of stigma varied according to patients' levels of illness-related self-esteem as well as attitudes towards social participation. For quantitative consistency, we used the SES scale to measure self-esteem and the SF-36 subscales to measure social participation. We then divided participants into 4 groups by exhibited psychological and behavioural patterns: group A (high SES/high SF-36), group B (high SES/low SF-36), group C (low SES/high SF-36) and group D (low SES/low SF-36). Results Using analysis of covariance after controlling for age and sex, there was a significant difference in self-stigma levels between the four groups (F[3203]=15.70, p<0.001). We observed the highest mean self-stigma levels in group D. Group D also had significantly lower PAM-13 scores than those of groups A (p<0.001) and B (p=0.02). Conclusions The psychological and behavioural pattern of group D was found to be associated with higher

  4. Quality of care in rural youth with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional pilot assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stumetz, Kyle S; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Mitrovich, Connor

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) presents a significant health burden for patients and families. The quality of care (QOC) among those living in rural communities is thought to be subpar compared with those in urban communities; however, little data exist to reflect this, especially in pediatric diabetes. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate diabetes QOC among families living in rural versus urban areas. 6 QOC markers were used to compare youth with T1DM: appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, diabetes education during clinic visit, congruency with diabetes standards of care, diabetes self-management behaviors, and diabetes-related hospitalizations. Research design and methods Participants were rural or urban adult caregivers of youth ages 2–18 with ≥10-month history of T1DM receiving treatment at Seattle Children's Hospital, USA. Participants were from rural areas of central Washington, or urban areas of western Washington. Caregivers completed a 26-item survey pertaining to the 6 QOC markers. The 6 QOC markers were compared across 61 participants (34 rural, 27 urban), to determine how diabetes care quality and experiences differed. Data were collected over 12 months. Groups were compared using t-tests and χ2 tests, as appropriate. Results Compared with urban families, rural families reported significantly lower income and a 4-fold greater usage of public insurance. Among the QOC measures, rural participants were significantly worse off in the appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, and hospitalizations categories. Congruence with diabetes standards of care (foot care only) was also significantly poorer in rural participants. Conclusions The burden of travel in conjunction with the lack of resources in this rural population of families with T1DM youth is cause for concern and warrants further research. PMID:27933188

  5. Sense of control and diabetes mellitus among U.S. adults: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli, Kathryn M; Vernon, Sally W; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Tortolero, Susan; David Low, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of psychosocial factors on diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the association between two psychosocial factors- sense of control and social support- and diabetes mellitus. Methods The authors analyzed data from 2,592 U.S. households in the 1995 survey of the Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether sense of personal control and social support were associated with DM and whether gender, race, and Hispanic ethnicity modified these associations. Results After adjusting for age, obesity, and socioeconomic position, a one point increase in sense of control (i.e., a stronger sense of control) was associated a significant reduction in risk of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.95). A weak social support system was associated with a non-significant risk of diabetes (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 1.89). No effect modification was detected. Conclusion Sense of control deserves greater attention as a predictor of diabetes mellitus. Further studies of the contribution of psychosocial factors to diabetes mellitus should assess the temporal nature of this relationship. PMID:17971217

  6. RAGE and AGEs in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin; Huang, Rong; Lu, Sen; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs; RAGE) binds to both AGEs and amyloid-beta peptides. RAGE is involved in chronic complications of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to investigate the roles of RAGE, AGEs and the Gly82Ser polymorphism of RAGE in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Of the 167 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients recruited, 82 satisfied the diagnostic criteria for MCI, and 85 matched control individuals were classified as non-MCI. Demographic data were collected, and the soluble RAGE (sRAGE) concentrations, serum AGE-peptide (AGE-P) levels, RAGE Gly82Ser genotype and neuropsychological test results were examined. Results The MCI group exhibited a decreased sRAGE level (0.87±0.35 vs. 1.05±0.52 ng/ml, p<0.01) and an increased serum AGE-P level (3.54±1.27 vs. 2.71±1.18 U/ml, p<0.01) compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each unit reduction in the sRAGE concentration increased the MCI risk by 54% (OR 0.46[95% CI 0.22–0.96], p = 0.04) and that each unit increase in the AGE-P level increased the MCI risk by 72% in the type 2 diabetes patients (OR 1.72[95% CI 1.31–2.28], p<0.01). The serum sRAGE level was negatively correlated with the score on the trail making test-B (TMT-B) (r = -0.344, p = 0.002), which indicates early cognitive deficits related to diabetes. Moreover, the AGE-P level was positively correlated with multiple cognitive domains (all p<0.05). No significant differences in the neuropsychological test results or serum RAGE concentrations between the different RAGE genotypes or in the RAGE genotype frequencies between the MCI and control groups were identified (all p>0.05). Conclusions The RAGE pathway partially mediates AGE-induced MCI in diabetic patients. The serum AGE-P level may serve as a serum biomarker of MCI in these individuals, and sRAGE represents a predictor and even a potential intervention target of

  7. Sputum glucose and glycemic control in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Van Sambeek, Lindsey; Cowley, Elise S; Newman, Dianne K; Kato, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes affects up to half of cystic fibrosis patients and is associated with increased mortality and more frequent pulmonary exacerbations. However, it is unclear to what degree good glycemic control might mitigate these risks and clinical outcomes have not previously been studied in relation to glucose from the lower airways, the site of infection and CF disease progression. We initially hypothesized that diabetic cystic fibrosis patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) > 6.5% have worse pulmonary function, longer and more frequent exacerbations and also higher sputum glucose levels than patients with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% or cystic fibrosis patients without diabetes. To test this, we analyzed spontaneously expectorated sputum samples from 88 cystic fibrosis patients. The median sputum glucose concentration was 0.70 mM (mean, 4.75 mM; range, 0-64.6 mM). Sputum glucose was not correlated with age, sex, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, glycemic control, exacerbation frequency or length, or pulmonary function. Surprisingly, sputum glucose was highest in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting the dynamics of glycemic control, sputum glucose and pulmonary infections are more complex than previously thought. Two-year mean HbA(1c) was positively correlated with the length of exacerbation admission (p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with measures of pulmonary function (p < 0.01). While total number of hospitalizations for exacerbations were not significantly different, subjects with an HbA(1c) > 6.5% were hospitalized on average 6 days longer than those with HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5% (p < 0.01). Current clinical care guidelines for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes target HbA(1c) ≤ 7% to limit long-term microvascular damage, but more stringent glycemic control (HbA(1c) ≤ 6.5%) may further reduce the short-term pulmonary complications.

  8. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Type 2 Diabetics: A Cross-sectional Study in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Ephraim, RKD; Nsiah, P; Osakunor, DNM; Adoba, P; Sakyi, SA; Anto, EO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes comes with various complications and this may be compounded by morbidities of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Aims: This study examined the prevalence of HBV and HCV infectionst among type 2 diabetics as well as its associated factors. This randomized cross-sectional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of the Central Regional Hospital, Cape Coast between December 2012 and April 2013. Subjects and Methods: A well-structured questionnaire was used to recruit 110 type 2 diabetics. Venous blood samples were collected for the estimation of blood glucose and to screen for HBV and HCV infections. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 17.0. Descriptive analysis was performed and results expressed as means (SD) and n (%). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Prevalence of HBV in type 2 diabetics was 5.5% (6/110). No type 2 diabetic was positive for HCV. The prevalence of HBV infection in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants was higher (5.5% [6/110]) than that of HCV (0/110). A total of 69.1% (76/110) T2DM patients had poor glycemic control. Mean waist and hip circumference was higher among HBV-negative T2DM participants (99.3; 106.9) than HBV-positive participants (87.2; 101.8). Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HBV was higher than that of HCV in T2DM patients. T2DM patients would require necessary preventive measures like prophylaxis, to reduce the risk of HBV infection and its ramifications. PMID:25328781

  9. Estimating the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes using population level pharmacy claims data: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; McHugh, Sheena; Whelton, Helen; Layte, Richard; Barron, Steve; Kearney, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes using a national pharmacy claims database. Research design and methods We used data from the Health Service Executive-Primary Care Reimbursement Service database in Ireland for this cross-sectional study. Prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes were individuals using an oral hypoglycemic agent, irrespective of insulin use, in 2012. Incident cases were individuals using an oral hypoglycemic agent in 2012 who had not used one in the past. Population level estimates were calculated and stratified by age and sex. Results In 2012, there were 114 957 prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes giving a population prevalence of 2.51% (95% CI 2.49% to 2.52%). Among adults (≥15yrs), this was 3.16% (95% CI 3.15% to 3.18%). The highest prevalence was in those aged 70+ years (12.1%). 21 574 people developed type 2 diabetes in 2012 giving an overall incidence of 0.48% (95% CI 0.48% to 0.49%). In adults, this was 0.60% (95% CI 0.60% to 0.61%). Incidence rose with age to a maximum of 2.08% (95% CI 2.02% to 2.15%) in people aged 65–69 years. Men had a higher prevalence (2.96% vs 2.04%) and incidence (0.54% vs 0.41%) of type 2 diabetes than women. Conclusions Pharmacy claims data allow estimates of objectively defined type 2 diabetes at the population level using up-to-date data. These estimates can be generated quickly to inform health service planning or to evaluate the impact of population level interventions. PMID:28123753

  10. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count.

  11. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fast, developing economies such as India, the population is undergoing rapid social transition, which can increase the risk profile for diabetes. Market forces promoting lifestyles such as sedentary habits, alcohol and tobacco use, which earlier were more prevalent among affluent urban populations are now trickling into the urban poor and rural populations. Aim: The aim of the present research was to compare the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes among three distinct social groups-the urban affluent, the urban poor and the rural poor. Subjects and Methods: A total of 775 adult population over 18 years and belonging to both genders were surveyed for prevalence of some of the risk factors for diabetes such as physical inactivity, obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use. The sample comprised of three distinct social groups as follows; 125 medical students representing the affluent, 400 subjects from urban slums, and 250 subjects from rural areas. Obesity was measured by body mass index (BMI) while central obesity was ascertained by waist hip ratio (WHR). Alcohol and tobacco use were elicited by interview. Results: The overall response rate was 88.52% (686/775). Medical students were more sedentary with mean hours spent each day sitting or reclining at 10.47 (3.25) h, compared to corresponding figures of 6.34 (3.1) h and 7.49 (3.74) h for the rural and urban slum residents respectively (P < 0.001). However, all types of leisure time physical activities were significantly more among the medical students compared to the other groups (P < 0.001). BMI was significantly highest among the rural population with mean of 24.22 (4.17) kg/m2 when compared to the other groups, (P < 0.001). Villagers also had higher WHR and had a higher proportion of persons above the WHR cut-off for gender (P < 0.001). Experimentation with alcohol was more prevalent among the medical students while the urban slum residents were more frequent and heavy drinkers. Smoking was most

  12. Development of the Chinese version of the Hospital Autonomy Questionnaire: a cross-sectional study in Guangdong Province

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zifeng; Yuan, Lianxiong; Huang, Yixiang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Futian

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to develop a questionnaire for quantitative evaluation of the autonomy of public hospitals in China. Method An extensive literature review was conducted to select possible items for inclusion in the questionnaire, which was then reviewed by 5 experts. After a two-round Delphi method, we distributed the questionnaire to 404 secondary and tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, and 379 completed questionnaires were collected. The final questionnaire was then developed on the basis of the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results Analysis suggested that all internal consistency reliabilities exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70 for the α coefficient. The overall scale coefficient was 0.87, and 6 subscale coefficients were 0.92 (strategic management), 0.81 (budget and expenditure), 0.85 (financing), 0.75 (financing, medical management), 0.86 (human resources) and 0.86 (accountability). Correlation coefficients between and among items and their hypothesised subscales were higher than those with other subscales. The value of average variance extracted (AVE) was higher than 0.5, the value of construct reliability (CR) was higher than 0.7, and the square roots of the AVE of each subscale were larger than the correlation of the specific subscale with the other subscales, supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of the Chinese version of the Hospital Autonomy Questionnaire (CVHAQ). The model fit indices were all acceptable: χ2/df=1.73, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.93, Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.91, Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) = 0.96, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.97, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, Standardised Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) = 0.07. Conclusions This study demonstrated the reliability and validity of a CVHAQ and provides a quantitative method for the assessment of hospital autonomy. PMID:26911587

  13. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Ya; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Li, Ri; Yu, Qin Ya; Huang, Feng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Methods and Materials Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. Results A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8%) had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05). Conclusions This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province. PMID:28123907

  14. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  15. Determinants of patient satisfaction in ambulatory oncology: a cross sectional study based on the OUT-PATSAT35 questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with satisfaction with care in cancer patients undergoing ambulatory treatment. We investigated associations between patients' baseline clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, as well as self-reported quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Methods Patients undergoing ambulatory chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 2 centres in France were invited, at the beginning of their treatment, to complete the OUT-PATSAT35, a 35 item and 13 scale questionnaire evaluating perception of doctors, nurses and aspects of care organisation. Additionally, for each patient, socio-demographic variables, clinical characteristics and self-reported quality of life using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire were recorded. Results Among 692 patients included between January 2005 and December 2006, only 6 were non-responders. By multivariate analysis, poor perceived global health strongly predicted dissatisfaction with care (p < 0.0001). Patients treated by radiotherapy (vs patients treated by chemotherapy) reported lower levels of satisfaction with doctors' technical and interpersonal skills, information provided by caregivers, and waiting times. Patients with primary head and neck cancer (vs other localisations), and those living alone were less satisfied with information provided by doctors, and younger patients (< 55 years) were less satisfied with doctors' availability. Conclusions A number of clinical of socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with different scales of the satisfaction questionnaire. However, the main determinant was the patient's global health status, underlining the importance of measuring and adjusting for self-perceived health status when evaluating satisfaction. Further analyses are currently ongoing to determine the responsiveness of the OUT-PATSAT35 questionnaire to changes over time. PMID:22204665

  16. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  17. Evaluation of serum ferritin and some metal elements in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wolide, Amare Desalegn; Zawdie, Belay; Alemayehu, Tilahun; Tadesse, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes has been associated with an imbalance of some trace metal elements in the blood sample of type 2 diabetes patients. Aim To evaluate the status of serum ferritin and some selected metal elements among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods Facility-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15, 2015 to October 30, 2015, at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. A total of 428 type 2 diabetes and nondiabetes study subjects were recruited to the study. After overnight fasting, 10 mL of venous blood samples were taken for biochemical and trace metal element analysis. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for Windows for analysis. Results Serum concentration of Zn+2, Mg+2, Cr+3, ferritin, and Fe+3 in patients with type 2 diabetes was significantly lower (p<0.0001) than nondiabetes patients. In contrast, serum Cu+2 was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in type 2 diabetes patients than nondiabetics. In addition, significant differences were not seen in both groups with regard to serum Mn+2, Ca+2, and Po4−3. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), serum Fe+3, ferritin, and Mn+2 were significantly higher among oral hypoglycemic agent users of type 2 diabetes patients than the injectable insulin users. Serum Zn+2 had significant positive correlation with serum Mg+2 (r=0.738), Cr+3 (r=0.233), Ca+2 (r=0.238), and Po4−3 (r=0.222). In addition, serum Zn+2 had shown significant and negative correlation with body mass index (BMI, r=−0.331), WHR (r=−0.340), and fasting blood glucose (FBG, r=−0.186). Likewise, serum Mg+2 and Po4−3 are significantly and negatively correlated with BMI, WHR, and FBG. Conclusion The imbalance of trace metal elements in the blood sample of diabetes is uncertain. Thus, we recommend a prospective cohort study to find out the principal factors behind the problem. PMID:27980430

  18. A cross-sectional study of the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lulu; Xu, Huilan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control and risk factors for low diabetes health literacy among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural areas in China. Design setting and participates A cross-sectional survey was conducted among elderly individuals in rural communities in Yiyang City in China. Multi-staged cluster random sampling was used to select 42 areas and 434 individuals with prediabetes who were interviewed using a questionnaire on diabetes health literacy in China. Main outcome measures Participants were asked for general information (age, gender, marital status, history of hyperglycaemia, family history of diabetes mellitus, presence of other diseases and level of education). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for poor health literacy concerning diabetes prevention and control among elderly subjects with prediabetes. Results The median health literacy score for diabetes prevention and prediabetes control was 10.0 (IQR 7.0–13.0). The level of diabetes health literacy among men was lower than among women (OR 2.831, 95% CI 1.818 to 4.408), and lower among respondents with 1–6 years of education than among those with 6 years or more of education (OR 14.274, 95% CI 5.927 to 34.375). Those with less than 1 year of education had the lowest literacy (OR 31.148, 95% CI 11.661 to 83.204). The level of diabetes health literacy among elderly individuals with prediabetes but no history of hyperglycaemia was lower than among those with a history of hyperglycaemia (OR 2.676, 95% CI 1.101 to 6.504). Conclusions Health literacy concerning diabetes prevention and control among elderly individuals with prediabetes was very low in rural China. Appropriate health education for elderly individuals with low educational levels should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15007033; Results. PMID:27235299

  19. Prevalence, discomfort and self-relief behaviours of painful diabetic neuropathy in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jane, Sui-Whi; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Chiu, Wen-Nan; Beaton, Randal D; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence, discomfort, and self-relief behaviours of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) among rural community residents with type 2 diabetes. Design A community-based, cross-sectional study. Setting This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of a nurse-led health promotion programme for preventing foot ulceration in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Participants Six hundred and twenty-eight community adults with type 2 diabetes participated in this study. Outcome measures Parameters assessed included peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vasculopathy, glycaemic control and metabolic biomarkers. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression model. Results About 30.6% of participants (192/628) had PDN. Factors associated with PDN included an abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI; OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.9 to 6.2; p<0.001), Michigan neuropathy screening index (OR=1.69; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6; p=0.021), triglyceride level (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4; p=0.036) and being female (OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4; p=0.022). PDN was characterised by uncomfortable feelings of prickling, stinging or burning pain and inexplicable dullness around the base or dorsal areas of the feet, but received little attention or treatment from primary healthcare providers. Conclusions A high prevalence of PDN was found in rural community residents with type 2 diabetes and the healthcare workers provided little attention to, or treatment of, discomfort. It is important to identify high-risk groups with PDN early in order to prevent foot ulceration and reduce the incidence of amputation of the extremities. It is also urgent to develop appropriate treatment and self-relief behaviours to halt or reverse the progression of PDN for this population living in rural areas. PMID:27697870

  20. Is questionnaire-based sitting time inaccurate and can it be improved? A cross-sectional investigation using accelerometer-based sitting time

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Christiansen, Caroline Stordal; Hanisch, Christiana; Bay, Hans; Burr, Hermann; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the differences between a questionnaire-based and accelerometer-based sitting time, and develop a model for improving the accuracy of questionnaire-based sitting time for predicting accelerometer-based sitting time. Methods 183 workers in a cross-sectional study reported sitting time per day using a single question during the measurement period, and wore 2 Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1–4 working days to determine their actual sitting time per day using the validated Acti4 software. Least squares regression models were fitted with questionnaire-based siting time and other self-reported predictors to predict accelerometer-based sitting time. Results Questionnaire-based and accelerometer-based average sitting times were ≈272 and ≈476 min/day, respectively. A low Pearson correlation (r=0.32), high mean bias (204.1 min) and wide limits of agreement (549.8 to −139.7 min) between questionnaire-based and accelerometer-based sitting time were found. The prediction model based on questionnaire-based sitting explained 10% of the variance in accelerometer-based sitting time. Inclusion of 9 self-reported predictors in the model increased the explained variance to 41%, with 10% optimism using a resampling bootstrap validation. Based on a split validation analysis, the developed prediction model on ≈75% of the workers (n=132) reduced the mean and the SD of the difference between questionnaire-based and accelerometer-based sitting time by 64% and 42%, respectively, in the remaining 25% of the workers. Conclusions This study indicates that questionnaire-based sitting time has low validity and that a prediction model can be one solution to materially improve the precision of questionnaire-based sitting time. PMID:28093433

  1. Psychological stress and strain on employees in dialysis facilities: a cross-sectional study with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Work in dialysis facilities involves long term contact with chronically ill patients. International comparisons make it clear that dialysis work is being concentrated, staff is being reduced and more patients are being treated. It is more than 20 years since the last German publication on job strains and job satisfaction experienced by dialysis staff was published. The present study examines the stress and strain currently experienced by the staff of German dialysis facilities. Methods The staff of 20 dialysis facilities were surveyed with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The questionnaire was extended by adding dialysis-specific questions. The data from the dialysis facilities were assessed by comparison with other professions in medical care - nurses and geriatric nurses - using data recorded in the German COPSOQ database. Results A total of 367 employees took part in the study, corresponding to a response rate of 55%. For almost all psychosocial aspects, the dialysis staff regarded the stress and strain as being more critical than did the geriatric nurses. There were some positive differences in comparison to hospital nursing, including less conflict between work and private life. However, there were also negative differences, such as fewer possibilities of influencing the work. Conclusions The results of the study show that dialysis work exhibits both positive and negative aspects in comparison with other healthcare professions. The results in the different facilities were highly variable, indicating that the deficits found in the individual scales are not inevitable consequences of working in dialysis in general, but are influenced and might be favourably altered by the individual facilities. PMID:24499468

  2. An initial psychometric evaluation and exploratory cross-sectional study of the body checking questionnaire among Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Swami, Viren; Onodera, Carolina Mie Kawagosi; da Silva, Dirceu; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Body checking is considered an expression of an excessive preoccupation with appearance. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ). Additionally, we wanted to examine the questionnaire's associations with body avoidance behaviour, body mass index, dietary habits, and the intensity, frequency, and length of physical exercise. Finally, we also examined the differences between the total BCQ score and the individual BCQ factor scores. Differences between active and sedentary persons and between non-dieters and those on weight-loss diets were also analyzed. For the psychometric study, 546 female public university students from four different courses were surveyed. Two minor samples of university students and eating disorders women were also recruited. In the second part of the study, 403 women were recruited from weight-loss programs, gyms, and a university. All participants were verbally invited to participate in the research and voluntarily took part. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original model of the Brazilian BCQ that retained all 23 items. Satisfactory evidence of construct validity and internal consistency were also generated through analysis of factor loadings, t-values, Cronbach's alpha, and construct reliability tests. The results also showed associations among body checking and body avoidance, body satisfaction, social anxiety, body mass index, and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise. Significant differences were found between non-dieters and weight-loss dieters for all BCQ factors and the total BCQ score. For physically active and sedentary persons, a significant difference was only observed for idiosyncratic checking behaviour. In conclusion, the BCQ appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Brazilian research, and the associations and differences found in this study suggest that women at gyms and especially in

  3. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  4. Glucose Lowering Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care Setting in France: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Grandfils, N.; Detournay, B.; Attali, C.; Joly, D.; Simon, D.; Vergès, B.; Toussi, M.; Briand, Y.; Delaitre, O.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To understand glucose lowering therapeutic strategies of French general practitioners (GPs) in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2011 among a sample of French GPs who contribute to the IMS Lifelink Disease Analyzer database. Eligible patients were those with T2DM and moderate-to-severe CKD who visited their GPs at least once during the study period. Data were collected through electronic medical records and an additional questionnaire. Results. 116 GPs included 297 patients: 86 with stage 3a (Group 1, GFR = 45–60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 211 with stages 3b, 4, or 5 (Group 2, GFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients' mean age was approximately 75 years. Insulin was used in 19% of patients, and was predominant in those with severe CKD. More than two-thirds of patients were treated with glucose lowering agents which were either contraindicated or not recommended for CKD. Conclusion Physicians most commonly considered the severity of diabetes and not CKD in their therapeutic decision making, exposing patients to potential iatrogenic risks. The recent patient oriented approach and individualization of glycemic objectives according to patient profile rather than standard HbA1c would improve this situation. PMID:23653644

  5. Poor glycaemic control in Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Luciana V; Leitão, Cristiane B; Kramer, Caroline K; Zucatti, Alessandra T N; Jezini, Deborah L; Felício, João; Valverde, Ana B; Chacra, Antonio R; Azevedo, Mirela J; Gross, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the clinical profile of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system and identify factors associated with poor glycaemic control. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 14 centres in five regions of Brazil, including primary care units and outpatient clinics of University Hospitals. Participants Patients with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient clinics of public healthcare system. Main outcome measured Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), centrally measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program certified). Results A total of 5750 patients aged 61±10 years, with 11±8 years of diabetes duration (66% women, 56% non-white, body mass index: 28.0±5.3 kg/m2) were analysed. Mean HbA1c was 8.6±2.2%, and median HbA1c was 8.1% (6.9% to 9.9%). HbA1c <7% was observed in only 26% of patients. Mean HbA1c was higher (p < 0.01) in the North (9.0±2.6%) and Northeast (8.9±2.4%) than in the Midwest (8.1±2%), Southeast (8.4±2.1%) and South regions (8.3±1.9%). Using the cut-off value of HbA1c above the median, age (0.986 (0.983 to 0.989)), white ethnicity (0.931 (0.883 to 0.981)) and being from Midwest region (0.858 (0.745 to 0.989)) were protective factors, while diabetes duration (1.015 (1.012 to 1.018)), use of insulin (1.710 (1.624 to 1.802)) and living in the Northeast region (1.197 (1.085 to 1.321)) were associated with HbA1c >8%. Conclusions The majority of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes attending the public healthcare system had HbA1c levels above recommended targets. The recognition of Northeast residents and non-white patients as vulnerable populations should guide future policies and actions to prevent and control diabetes. PMID:24052610

  6. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Ibrahim, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk. PMID:26989695

  7. An Initial Psychometric Evaluation and Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of the Body Checking Questionnaire among Brazilian Women

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Swami, Viren; Onodera, Carolina Mie Kawagosi; da Silva, Dirceu; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Body checking is considered an expression of an excessive preoccupation with appearance. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ). Additionally, we wanted to examine the questionnaire’s associations with body avoidance behaviour, body mass index, dietary habits, and the intensity, frequency, and length of physical exercise. Finally, we also examined the differences between the total BCQ score and the individual BCQ factor scores. Differences between active and sedentary persons and between non-dieters and those on weight-loss diets were also analyzed. For the psychometric study, 546 female public university students from four different courses were surveyed. Two minor samples of university students and eating disorders women were also recruited. In the second part of the study, 403 women were recruited from weight-loss programs, gyms, and a university. All participants were verbally invited to participate in the research and voluntarily took part. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original model of the Brazilian BCQ that retained all 23 items. Satisfactory evidence of construct validity and internal consistency were also generated through analysis of factor loadings, t-values, Cronbach’s alpha, and construct reliability tests. The results also showed associations among body checking and body avoidance, body satisfaction, social anxiety, body mass index, and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise. Significant differences were found between non-dieters and weight-loss dieters for all BCQ factors and the total BCQ score. For physically active and sedentary persons, a significant difference was only observed for idiosyncratic checking behaviour. In conclusion, the BCQ appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Brazilian research, and the associations and differences found in this study suggest that women at gyms and especially in

  8. The Prevalence of Personality Disorders among Emergency Nurses Based on MMPI-2 Questionnaire; a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Parvin; Mirbaha, Sahar; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Meschi, Farahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of behavioral disorders is substantially higher in stressful working environments such as emergency departments. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses. Methods: In the present epidemiologic study, the prevalence of personality disorders among emergency nurses of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) test. After the questionnaires were filled, data were entered to a special software for MMPI-2 test and the final result was interpreted based on the opinion of a clinical psychologist. Findings were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: 102 emergency nurses with the mean age of 30.2 ± 5.6 years were enrolled (100% female; 100% with master’s degree in nursing). The mean working time and experience of studied nurses were 210.8 ± 47.9 hours/month (130-370) and 4.1 ± 3.6 years (1-20), respectively. 32 (31.4%) cases showed symptoms of personality disorders The most common personality disorder detected in this study was somatization with 8.8%, hysteria with 6.9% prevalence, and pollyannaish with 4.9%. Among the studied factors only recent history of unpleasant event has significant correlation with existence of personality disorders (p = 0.015). Conclusion: The present study showed that somatization, hysteria, and pollyannaish were the most common personality disorders among the emergency nurses. History of an unpleasant event in the past year was the only effective factor in existence of personality disorders in the studied nurses. PMID:28286824

  9. Clinical features of psoriatic arthritis in Korean patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional observational study of 196 patients with psoriasis using psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongyun; Kim, Hee Joo; Kim, Dae Suk; Kim, Soo Min; Park, Jin Su; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Min-Geol

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence and clinical features of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in psoriasis patients vary widely in different countries, and studies on Korean population are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of PsA in a Korean population of patients with psoriasis by using psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, and consecutive psoriatic patients were evaluated for PsA by using two kinds of psoriatic arthritis screening questionnaires: Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation tool (PASE) and Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST). Psoriatic patients with higher score in screening questionnaires were referred to rheumatologist for confirmative diagnosis of PsA. Among 196 psoriasis patients screened by PASE and PEST, total prevalence of PsA was 11.2 % (n = 22/196) with 59.1 % of the cases being newly diagnosed. Compared with patients without PsA, patients with PsA had more extensive psoriasis, higher frequency of pustular and inverse type of psoriasis, and lower frequency of plaque type of psoriasis. Spondylitis was the most common manifestation pattern, followed by polyarthritis, oligoarthritis, predominant distal interphalangeal arthritis, and arthritis mutilans. Our findings are consistent with a low prevalence of PsA among patients with psoriasis in Asia. We also confirm a spondylitis as the most common pattern of PsA in Korea. PsA screening questionnaires can be a simple and useful tool to screen PsA in patients with psoriasis.

  10. Willingness of patients with diabetes to use an ICT-based self-management tool: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Satoko; Fujita, Hideo; Kimura, Shigeko; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Waki, Hironori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of the willingness of patients with diabetes to use a self-management tool based on information and communication technology (ICT) such as personal computers, smartphones, and mobile phones; and to examine the patient characteristics associated with that willingness. Research design and methods We conducted a cross-sectional interview survey of 312 adults with diabetes at a university hospital in an urban area in Japan. Participants were classified into 2 groups: those who were willing to use an ICT-based self-management tool and those who were unwilling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the willingness, including clinical and social factors, current use of ICT, self-management practices, self-efficacy, and diabetes-related emotional distress. Results The mean age of the 312 participants was 66.3 years (SD=11.5) and 198 (63%) were male. Most of the participants (93%) had type 2 diabetes. Although only 51 (16%) currently used ICT-based self-management tools, a total of 157 (50%) expressed the willingness to use such a tool. Factors associated with the willingness included: not having nephropathy (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.58); outpatient visits once a month or more (vs less than once a month, OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.99); current use of personal computers and/or smartphones (OR=4.91, 95% CI 2.69 to 8.98); and having greater diabetes-related emotional distress (OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20). Conclusions Approximately half of the patients showed interest in using an ICT-based self-management tool. Willing patients may expect ICT-based self-management tools to complement outpatient visits and to make self-management easier. Starting with patients who display the willingness factors might optimize programs based on such tools. PMID:28243450

  11. Tinea pedis and onychomycosis frequency in diabetes mellitus patients and diabetic foot ulcers. A cross sectional – observational study

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Gamze; Evran, Mehtap; Gungor, Dilek; Karakas, Mehmet; Sert, Murat; Tetiker, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Impaired cellular immunity and reduced phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitate the development of skin fungal and bacterial infections due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. In our study, we aimed to assess onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis frequency in diabetic patients, and effects on the development of chronic complications, particularly foot ulcer. Methods: We included 227 diabetic patients in the study. Forty-three patients had diabetic foot ulcer. We screened and recorded demographic characteristics, HbA1c levels of patients, and presence of complications We examined patients dermatologically, and collected samples by scalpel from skin between toes, and from sole, toe nail, and area surrounding nails from suspected to have fungal infection. Results: Native positivity between toes was higher in men compared to women (p<0.05). We obtained significant relation between HbA1c elevation and native positivity between toes (p<0.05). Fungal infection between toes, at sole and toe nail significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot ulcer compared to patients without diabetic foot ulcer (p<0.05). Moreover, native positivity in patients with diabetic foot ulcer correlated with presence of fungal infection examination findings (p<0.05). Conclusion: Fungal infections were more frequently observed in the presence of poor glycemic control and peripheral vascular disease in diabetic patients in compliance with the literature, and the presence of fungal infection may also responsible for the development of foot ulcers. PMID:27648034

  12. To Study Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- A Cross- Sectional Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Muneshwar, J.N.; Afroz, Sayeeda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neuropathy is one of the commonest complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Apart from having peripheral and autonomic neuropathy patients with type 2 DM may also suffer from sensory neural hearing loss, which is more severe at higher frequencies. However, few studies have done detailed evaluation of sensory pathway in these patients. In this study brain stem auditory evoked potential is used to detect the acoustic and central neuropathy in a group of patients with type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar. Aim To study brain stem auditory evoked potential in patients of type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar and to correlate the various parameters e.g., age (years), weight (kilograms), height (meters), BMI (kg/m2), HbA1c (%) in patients with type 2 DM with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional comparative study conducted from January 2014 to January 2015. Total 60 patients with type 2 DM of either sex, between age groups of 35-50 years were enrolled from the Diabetic Clinic of Medicine department, of a tertiary care hospital. Based on the value of HbA1c, patients were divided in two groups with controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar and with each group comprising of 30 patients. BERA (Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry) was done in both the groups on RMS ALERON 201/401. Recordings were taken at 70dB, 80dB and 90dB at 2KHz frequency. Absolute latency of wave I, III, V and interpeak latencies I–III, III-V and I-V were recorded. Results Mean±SD of the absolute latency of BERA waves I, III, V and interpeak latencies I–III, III-V and I-V at 2 KHz and at varying intensity of 70dB, 80dB and 90dB in uncontrolled group of DM were delayed and were significant as compared to controlled group of DM. Conclusion If BERA is done in diabetic patients, central neuropathy can be detected earlier in uncontrolled groups of diabetic patients. PMID:28050358

  13. Bone mass loss is associated with systolic blood pressure in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes in Tibet: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Song, J; Yang, S; Meng, S; Lv, X; Yue, J; Mina, A; Puchi, B; Geng, Y; Yang, L

    2017-02-02

    We conducted an observational cross-section study to investigate the status of bone mineral mass of Tibetan postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes and the possible predictors for osteoporosis. We found that prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.0% and blood pressure was an independent risk factor for bone mass loss.

  14. The Pain in Neuropathy Study (PiNS): a cross-sectional observational study determining the somatosensory phenotype of painful and painless diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Themistocleous, Andreas C; Ramirez, Juan D; Shillo, Pallai R; Lees, Jonathan G; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Orengo, Christine; Tesfaye, Solomon; Rice, Andrew S C; Bennett, David L H

    2016-05-01

    Disabling neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a common sequel of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We aimed to characterise the sensory phenotype of patients with and without NeuP, assess screening tools for NeuP, and relate DPN severity to NeuP. The Pain in Neuropathy Study (PiNS) is an observational cross-sectional multicentre study. A total of 191 patients with DPN underwent neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre density assessment. A set of questionnaires assessed the presence of pain, pain intensity, pain distribution, and the psychological and functional impact of pain. Patients were divided according to the presence of DPN, and thereafter according to the presence and severity of NeuP. The DN4 questionnaire demonstrated excellent sensitivity (88%) and specificity (93%) in screening for NeuP. There was a positive correlation between greater neuropathy severity (r = 0.39, P < 0.01), higher HbA1c (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), and the presence (and severity) of NeuP. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy sensory phenotype is characterised by hyposensitivity to applied stimuli that was more marked in the moderate/severe NeuP group than in the mild NeuP or no NeuP groups. Brush-evoked allodynia was present in only those with NeuP (15%); the paradoxical heat sensation did not discriminate between those with (40%) and without (41.3%) NeuP. The "irritable nociceptor" subgroup could only be applied to a minority of patients (6.3%) with NeuP. This study provides a firm basis to rationalise further phenotyping of painful DPN, for instance, stratification of patients with DPN for analgesic drug trials.

  15. The Pain in Neuropathy Study (PiNS): a cross-sectional observational study determining the somatosensory phenotype of painful and painless diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Themistocleous, Andreas C.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Shillo, Pallai R.; Lees, Jonathan G.; Selvarajah, Dinesh; Orengo, Christine; Tesfaye, Solomon; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Bennett, David L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Disabling neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a common sequel of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We aimed to characterise the sensory phenotype of patients with and without NeuP, assess screening tools for NeuP, and relate DPN severity to NeuP. The Pain in Neuropathy Study (PiNS) is an observational cross-sectional multicentre study. A total of 191 patients with DPN underwent neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fibre density assessment. A set of questionnaires assessed the presence of pain, pain intensity, pain distribution, and the psychological and functional impact of pain. Patients were divided according to the presence of DPN, and thereafter according to the presence and severity of NeuP. The DN4 questionnaire demonstrated excellent sensitivity (88%) and specificity (93%) in screening for NeuP. There was a positive correlation between greater neuropathy severity (r = 0.39, P < 0.01), higher HbA1c (r = 0.21, P < 0.01), and the presence (and severity) of NeuP. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy sensory phenotype is characterised by hyposensitivity to applied stimuli that was more marked in the moderate/severe NeuP group than in the mild NeuP or no NeuP groups. Brush-evoked allodynia was present in only those with NeuP (15%); the paradoxical heat sensation did not discriminate between those with (40%) and without (41.3%) NeuP. The “irritable nociceptor” subgroup could only be applied to a minority of patients (6.3%) with NeuP. This study provides a firm basis to rationalise further phenotyping of painful DPN, for instance, stratification of patients with DPN for analgesic drug trials. PMID:27088890

  16. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes among hypertensive patients attending Kiambu district Hospital, Kenya: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Meme, Nkatha; Amwayi, Samuel; Nganga, Ziporrah; Buregyeya, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are closely linked: one cannot be properly managed without attention to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetic and pre-diabetic states that is abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) and factors associated with it among hypertensive patients in Kiambu Hospital, Kenya. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. Hypertensive patients aged ≥18 attending the out-patient medical clinic were included in the study. Pregnant and known diabetic patients were excluded. Data was collected on socio-demographics, behavior, and anthropometrics. Diabetes status was based on a Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1C) classification of ≥6.5% for diabetes, 6.0-6.4% for pre-diabetes and ≤6.0% for normal. AGR was the dependable variable and included two diabetic categories; diabetes and pre-diabetes. Results We enrolled 334 patients into the study: the mean age was 59 years (Standard deviation= 14.3). Of these patients 254 (76%) were women. Thirty two percent (107/334; 32%) were found to have AGR, with 14% (46) having un-diagnosed DM and 18%(61) with pre-diabetes. Factors associated with AGR were age ≥45 (OR = 3.23; 95% CI 1.37 ≥ 7.62), basal metabolic index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (OR= 3.13; 95% CI 1.53 - 6.41), low formal education (primary/none)(OR= 2; 95%CI 1.08 - 3.56) and family history of DM (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.16 - 4.15). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of undiagnosed AGR among hypertensive patients. This highlights the need to regularly screen for AGR among hypertensive patients as recommended by WHO. PMID:26966482

  17. Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients’ self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients’ were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Results Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p < 0.05). Significant association was also found between non-adherence to exercise and poor mobility, self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p

  18. Association between mobile phone use and self-reported well-being in children: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Feizhou; Gao, Peng; He, Mindi; Li, Min; Tan, Jin; Chen, Daiwei; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the past decade, the mobile phone (MP) has become extremely popular among children and the average age at which children own their first MP has decreased. The potential health effects of children’s exposure to MP have been the subject of widespread public concern. The aim of our study is to investigate the associations between MP use and well-being in children. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The questionnaires were completed in class with items regarding demographics, MP usage, self-reported well-being (symptoms were taken from the questionnaire of the HBSC survey) and possible confounding factors between October 2011 and May 2012 in Chongqing, China. Data were analysed using χ2 tests and logistic regression models. Participants Among the 793 children invited to participate, 781 returned the questionnaires. Results In total, 746 (94.1%) valid questionnaires were received. Fatigue was significantly associated with the years of MP usage (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.22) and the daily duration of MP calls (OR 2.98; 95% CI 1.46 to 6.12). Headache was significantly associated with the daily duration of MP calls (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.23 to 6.57). However, after adjusting for confounders only, the association between fatigue and MP usage remained statistically significant. There was no significant association between MP use and other physical symptoms in children. Conclusions The present study indicated that there was a consistent significant association between MP use and fatigue in children. Further in-depth research is needed to explore the potential health effects of MP use in children. PMID:25967996

  19. Prospective cross-sectional study using questionnaire to assess the effect of a different nomenclature for psychiatric illnesses on the perception of these diseases by university students.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jerome; Kam, L S; Tsang, Y M; Chow, Boris C K; Fang, Y Y; Lam, K W; Lam, Y T; Li, Y Y; Wong, Cally H S

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. To assess the effect of a difference in nomenclature for psychiatric illness on perceptions of university students. DESIGN. Cross-sectional study. SETTING. Three local universities in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 201 university students (undergraduates or postgraduates) were interviewed with a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Score difference between the new and old nomenclature of each disease for each question of the questionnaire, using a 5-point Likert scale and an integrated score difference for each disease. RESULTS. Of the seven diseases investigated, six yielded a significant yet mild increase in positive perceptions with the new nomenclature. These diseases included schizophrenia (integrated score difference: +0.158, P<0.001), neurasthenia (integrated score difference: +0.117, P<0.001), paranoia (integrated score difference: +0.209, P<0.001), personality disorder (integrated score difference: +0.282, P<0.001), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (integrated score difference: +0.086, P=0.005), and bipolar disorder (integrated score difference: +0.154, P<0.001). Epilepsy showed a negative perception with its new nomenclature (integrated score difference: -0.119, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS. The new nomenclature system for psychiatric diseases achieves more positive perceptions among the university students than the old nomenclature. Epilepsy was the exception for which the old nomenclature conferred a more positive perception. Further studies on this topic involving a more general population should be advocated to confirm the improvements in perception with the new naming system for psychiatric diseases.

  20. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Saeed ur Rashid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Bashir, Sajid; Hashmi, Furqan; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001). Conclusion: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible. PMID:26957872

  1. Usefulness of four commonly used neuropathic pain screening questionnaires in patients with chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gudala, Kapil; Ghai, Babita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently symptoms-based screening questionnaires have gained attention for screening for a neuropathic pain component (NePC) in various chronic pain conditions. The present study assessed the usefulness of four commonly used NePC screening questionnaires including the Self-completed douleur neuropathique 4 (S-DN4), the ID Pain, the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), and the Self-completed Leeds Assessment of neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) to assess the presence of NePC. Methods This is a single-center cross-sectional study where patients with CLBP, with or without leg pain, were included. Participants were initially screened for NePC presence by a physician according to the regular practice, and later assessed using screening questionnaires. The diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires was compared assuming the physician-made diagnosis as the gold standard. Results A total of 215 patients with CLBP of which 164 (76.3%, 95% CI, 70.2-81.5) had a NePC were included. S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ have an area under the curve (AUC) > 0.8 indicating excellent discrimination. However, S-LANSS has an AUC of 0.69 (0.62-0.75), indicating low discrimination. S-DN4 has a significantly higher AUC as compared to ID Pain (d(AUC) = 0.063, P < 0.01) and S-LANSS (d(AUC) = 0.197, P < 0.01). But the AUC of S-DN4 does not significantly differ from that of PDQ (d(AUC) = 0.013, P = 0.62). Conclusions S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ, but not S-LANSS, have good discriminant validity to screen for NePCs in patients with CLBP. Despite using all the tests, 20-30% of patients with an NePC were missed. Thus, these questionnaires can only be used as an initial clue in screening for NePCs, but do not replace clinical judgment. PMID:28119771

  2. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease—a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. Objective of the study The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to indicate the independent predictors of knowledge, attitude and practice. Result Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501–1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude

  3. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P<0.001), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (P<0.001), urea (P=0.019), BMI (P=0.001), systolic blood pressures (P<0.001), TG (P=0.007) and lower HDL (P=0.034) than patients with IFG, IGT, and normoglycemic subjects. Conclusions: The current study showed a high prevalence of T2DM in the Zoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  4. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Rawal, Lal B; Niessen, Louis W

    2015-10-01

    Depression is a common feature in patients with type 2 diabetes and often remains undetected and untreated, causing increased morbidity and mortality. We explored the prevalence of co-morbid depression and its associated factors, including major life-events among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 515 patients with type 2 diabetes between September 2013 and July 2014 in a tertiary hospital in Dhaka city. We assessed depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with predefined cut-off scores of 5, 10, 15 and 20 to indicate minimal, mild, moderate, moderately-severe, and severe depression. Associations between depression and its associated factors were explored using univariate and multivariate regression. Overall, 61.9% participants had depressive symptoms, and the prevalence was higher among females (70.9%) compared to males (50.6%). One-third (35.7%) of participants had mild depression and 36.2% had moderate to severe depression. In the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with depression were: age≤60 years (OR: 2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p≤0.006), female gender (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-3.0; p≤0.002), those having 1-3 complications (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.3; p=0.010), experienced loss of business or crop failure (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6; p=0.006), major family conflicts (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), separation or deaths of family members or divorce (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5; p≤0.001), and those who experienced unavailability of food or medicines (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.0-4.5; p=0.038). Patients with diabetes, especially females, those having other complications, and major life-events should routinely be screened for symptoms of depression with adequate management of these conditions.

  5. Medical students' choice of specialty and factors determining their choice: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chew, Yu Wei; Rajakrishnan, Sudeash; Low, Chin Aun; Jayapalan, Prakash Kumar; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T

    2011-01-01

    Information about medical students' choice of specialty can be helpful for planning health manpower. However, such information from medical students in Malaysian medical schools is lacking. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among fourth- and fifth-year medical undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College. A total of 425 students responded to the survey questionnaire. Nearly a quarter of the students indicated internal medicine as their choice of specialty. Other choices were general surgery (13.2%), pediatrics (11.3%), orthopedics (12.7%) and obstetrics & gynecology (Ob/Gyn) (12.1%). Female students (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.18-3.08), fourth-year students (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.15-3.12), and students who reported a higher self-rated knowledge of their subject of choice were more likely to choose internal medicine and allied specialties (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.07-2.19). The influence of teaching faculty and consultants at the teaching hospitals (74.4%) and inspiration obtained during clinical postings (71.9%) were the factors which were rated by the most students as 'important' for choosing a specialty. About half of the students intended to pursue their postgraduate studies in Malaysia, most of the rest in the United Kingdom or Australia. While internal medicine and surgical subspecialties were preferred, students were not inclined towards primary care or diagnostic subspecialties. Incentives should be provided and other measures should be taken to make these branches more attractive.

  6. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  7. Associations of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio with pre-diabetes and diabetes risks: a cross-sectional study in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuang; Han, Tingting; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huan; Ren, Xingxing; Wu, Peihong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Yihong; Chen, Yawen; Qiu, Huiying; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2017-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio is a useful predictor of cardiovascular risk. However, the association between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still obscure. Aims To investigate the associations between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes in a Chinese population, and to assess the role of gender in these associations. Methods A stratified random sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which included 264 men and 465 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes or T2DM. Serum ApoB, ApoA-I and other lipid and glycaemic traits were measured. Pearson's partial correlation and multivariable logistic analysis were used to evaluate the associations between ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes. Results The ApoB/ApoA-I ratios were significantly increased across the spectrum of NGT, pre-diabetes and T2DM. Women showed higher levels of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and ApoB than men in the pre-diabetic and T2DM groups, but not in the NGT group. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was closely related with triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other glycaemic traits. Moreover, in women, the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the top and middle tertiles of the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 3.65-fold (95% CI 1.69 to 6.10) and 2.19-fold (95% CI 1.38 to 2.84) higher than in the bottom tertile, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. However, the associations disappeared in men after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio showed positive associations with the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Chinese women. PMID:28110289

  8. Translation, adaptation, validation and performance of the American Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire Short Form (WEL-SF) to a Norwegian version: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John R.; Nielsen, Hans J.; Natvig, Gerd K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients’ adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF) of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions’ psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA), correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbach’s alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001). The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.001) and changes in BMI (p = 0.026). A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%). The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92) was obtained, and Cronbach’s alpha remained high (0.86–0.92) if single items

  9. Examination of psychosocial predictors of Chinese hospital pharmacists' intention to provide clinical pharmacy services using the theory of planned behaviour: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Yang, Fan; Mu, Dongqin; Xing, Yuan; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Main study aim was as follows: (1) to explore the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model in predicting Chinese hospital pharmacists' intention to provide clinical pharmacy services (CPSs), including auxiliary CPSs and core CPSs; (2) to identify the main factors affecting the Chinese hospital pharmacists' intention to provide core CPSs based on TPB quantitatively. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting The study was conducted in 22 general hospitals in seven cities located in the eastern and western part of China. Participants 416 hospital pharmacists (292 (70.2%) female) entered and completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Quantitative responses with hospital pharmacists' intention, attitude, subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) over provision of CPSs and their past behaviour (PB)-related CPSs. Results The structural equation model analysis found that attitude (p=0.0079, β=0.12), SN (p=0.038, β=0.10) and the pharmacists' intention to provide auxiliary CPSs (p=0.0001, β=0.63) significantly predicted of their intention to provide core CPSs, accounting for 54.0% of its variance. Attitude (p=0.0001, β=0.35), PBC (p=0.0182, β=0.12) and PB (p=0.0009, β=0.15) are significant predictors of pharmacists' intention, accounting for 21% of the variance in pharmacists' intention to provide auxiliary CPSs. Conclusions The TPB with the addition of PB is a useful framework for predicting pharmacists' intention to provide CPSs in Chinese hospital care context. Strategies to improve hospital pharmacists' intention to provide CPSs should focus on helping the individuals related medical care see the value of CPSs, altering their perception of social pressure towards core CPSs and the removal of obstacles that impede the translation of intentions into behaviour. PMID:27707835

  10. Lifestyle Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes and Use of Different Glucose-Lowering Drugs: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ulrichsen, Sinna P.; Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Larsen, Finn B.; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the lifestyle profile among persons with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and among users of different glucose-lowering drugs. Methods We used questionnaire data from a Danish health survey and identified presence of Type 2 DM and use of medications through medical databases. We calculated age- and gender-standardized prevalence ratios (PRs) of lifestyle factors according to Type 2 DM and different glucose-lowering drugs. Results Of 21,637 survey participants aged 25–79 years, 680 (3%) had Type 2 DM (median age 63 years) with a median diabetes duration of 5 years. Participants with Type 2 DM had a substantially higher prevalence of obesity (36% vs. 13%, PR: 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.8–3.6), yet more reported to eat a very healthy diet (25% vs. 21%, PR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0–1.4) and to exercise regularly (67% vs. 53%, PR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2–1.4). Also, fewer were current smokers or had high alcohol intake. When compared with metformin users, obesity was substantially less prevalent in users of sulfonylurea (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4–0-8), and insulin and analogues (PR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in sulfonylurea users (PR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1) compared with metformin users. We found no material differences in physical exercise, diet or alcohol intake according to type of glucose-lowering drug. Conclusions Type 2 DM patients are substantially more obese than other individuals, but otherwise report to have a healthier lifestyle. Metformin use is strongly associated with obesity, whereas sulfonylurea use tends to be associated with tobacco smoking. PMID:25369331

  11. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Obirikorang, Yaa; Obirikorang, Christian; Odame Anto, Enoch; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Dzah, Nyalako; Akosah, Caroline Nkrumah; Nsenbah, Emmanuella Batu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0%) and method of weight measurement (98.6%) but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%). The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%), hypertension (81.8%), and diet modification (86.7%), respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p < 0.05). Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p < 0.05). Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required. PMID:26881262

  12. Knowledge and Lifestyle-Associated Prevalence of Obesity among Newly Diagnosed Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Diabetic Clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, Yaa; Obirikorang, Christian; Odame Anto, Enoch; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Dzah, Nyalako; Akosah, Caroline Nkrumah; Nsenbah, Emmanuella Batu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the knowledge and prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. This cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood sugar levels were also assessed. Participants had adequate knowledge about the general concept of obesity (72.0%) and method of weight measurement (98.6%) but were less knowledgeable of ideal body weight (4.2%). The commonly known cause, complication, and management of obesity were poor diet (76.9%), hypertension (81.8%), and diet modification (86.7%), respectively. The anthropometric measures were higher among females compared to males. Prevalence of obesity was 61.3% according to WHR classification, 40.8% according to WHtR classification, 26.1% according to WC, and 14.8% according to BMI classification. Being female was significantly associated with high prevalence of obesity irrespective of the anthropometric measure used (p < 0.05). Taking of snacks in meals, eating meals late at night, physical inactivity, excessive fast food intake, and alcoholic beverage intake were associated with increased prevalence of obesity (p < 0.05). Prevalence of obesity is high among diabetic patient and thus increasing effort towards developing and making education programs by focusing on adjusting to lifestyle modifications is required.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients - A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mysore.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Suresh; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Kalpana, T; Vidyalaxmi, K; Nikhil, B; Chakravarthy, T

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence rates of diabetes are rising rapidly both in urban and rural India with the present prevalence in urban India being 12-19% and in rural India 4 - 10% in different published Indian studies.1 All involved in diabetes care agree that patients play a major role in the successful management of diabetes. There is an increasing amount of evidence that patient education is the most effective way to lessen the diabetic complications and its management.2 Education is likely to be effective if we know the characteristics of the patients in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes. This study was conducted in Mysore to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients attending JSS Hospital. A total of 900 patients were included in the study. Five hundred sixteen (57.3%) patients were males, while 384 (42.7%) patients were females. Four hundred twenty-three (47%) patients were from urban area, while 477 (53%) were from rural area. Five hundred sixty-five (62.5%) diabetic patients were unaware of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, 661 (73.4%) patients about cause of diabetes, 264 (29.3%) patients about common symptoms of diabetes, 256 (28.4%) patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic disease which can affect many systems in the body like the heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. 29%, 30.7%, 31.2% and 35.7% of diabetic patients were not aware of the diabetic complications to heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves respectively. Even patients with diabetes for more than 10 years, 18.8% were not aware of the heart complications while 21.5% were not aware of the diabetes complications to eyes, kidneys and nerves. 834 (92.6%) diabetic patients were not aware of HbA1C. 790 (87.7%) diabetic patients did not know that fruits can be eaten by diabetics. Eight hundred seventeen (90.8%) diabetic patients had not attended a formal diabetic education class. This possibly is a

  14. Characteristics of service users and provider organisations associated with experience of out of hours general practitioner care in England: population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Elliott, Marc N; Richards, Suzanne; Barry, Heather E; Roland, Martin; Campbell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the experience of users of out of hours general practitioner services in England, UK. Design Population based cross sectional postal questionnaire survey. Setting General Practice Patient Survey 2012-13. Main outcome measures Potential associations between sociodemographic factors (including ethnicity and ability to take time away from work during working hours to attend a healthcare consultation) and provider organisation type (not for profit, NHS, or commercial) and service users’ experience of out of hours care (timeliness, confidence and trust in the out of hours clinician, and overall experience of the service), rated on a scale of 0-100. Which sociodemographic/provider characteristics were associated with service users’ experience, the extent to which any observed differences could be because of clustering of service users of a particular sociodemographic group within poorer scoring providers, and the extent to which observed differences in experience varied across types of provider. Results The overall response rate was 35%; 971 232/2 750 000 patients returned surveys. Data from 902 170 individual service users were mapped through their registered practice to one of 86 providers of out of hours GP care with known organisation type. Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer reports of overall experience of care, with a mean difference of −3.13 (95% confidence interval −4.96 to −1.30) compared with not for profit providers. Asian service users reported lower scores for all three experience outcomes than white service users (mean difference for overall experience of care −3.62, −4.36 to −2.89), as did service users who were unable to take time away from work compared with service users who did not work (mean difference for overall experience of care −4.73, −5.29 to −4.17). Conclusions Commercial providers of out of hours GP care were associated with poorer experience of care

  15. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use amongst junior collegiates in twin cities of western Nepal: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Kishore, PV; Paudel, Jagadish; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2008-01-01

    Background College students are vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Tobacco industries often target college students for marketing. Studies about prevalence of tobacco use and its correlates among college students in Nepal are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two cities of western Nepal during January-March, 2007. A pre-tested, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (in Nepali) adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and a World Bank study was administered to a representative sample of 1600 students selected from 13 junior colleges by two-stage stratified random sampling. Results Overall prevalence of 'ever users' of tobacco products was 13.9%. Prevalence among boys and girls was 20.5% and 2.9% respectively. Prevalence of 'current users' was 10.2% (cigarette smoking: 9.4%, smokeless products: 6.5%, and both forms: 5.7%). Median age at initiation of cigarette smoking and chewable tobacco was 16 and 15 years respectively. Among the current cigarette smokers, 58.7% (88/150) were smoking at least one cigarette per day. Most (67.8%) 'Current users' purchased tobacco products by themselves from stores or got them from friends. Most of them (66.7%) smoked in tea stalls or restaurants followed by other public places (13.2%). The average daily expenditure was 20 Nepalese rupees (~0.3 USD) and most (59%) students reported of having adequate money to buy tobacco products. Majority (82%) of the students were exposed to tobacco advertisements through magazines/newspapers, and advertising hoardings during a period of 30 days prior to survey. The correlates of tobacco use were: age, gender, household asset score and knowledge about health risks, family members, teachers and friends using tobacco products, and purchasing tobacco products for family members. Conclusion School/college-based interventions like counseling to promote cessation among current users and tobacco education to prevent initiation are necessary. Enforcement of legislations

  16. Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES—Australia (MILES-2) study

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Jessica L; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Ventura, Adriana D; Hendrieckx, Christel; Pouwer, Frans; Speight, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Purpose More research into the psychosocial aspects of diabetes is needed so that the health and quality of life of people with the condition can be improved. To fill this gap, we conducted the second Diabetes MILES—Australia study (MILES-2), a survey focused on psychological, behavioural and social aspects of diabetes. The aim of the MILES-2 study was to provide a (1) longitudinal follow-up of the original MILES 2011 study cohort; (2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. Participants Eligible participants were English-speaking Australians with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, aged 18–75 years. Longitudinal cohort participants were mailed/emailed study invitations directly by researchers. Random sampling (stratified by diabetes type, insulin use, state) of the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database and nationwide advertisements were used to recruit new cohort participants. The final sample included N=2342 eligible respondents (longitudinal cohort: n=504; 2015 new cohort: n=1838); 54% had type 2 diabetes. Findings to date Survey respondents were from an advantaged socioeconomic background compared to the general population. Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). Participants who completed both the 2011 and 2015 surveys were more likely than those completing the 2011 survey only to have type 1 diabetes, report a higher education and annual income, and live in metropolitan areas. Participant feedback indicated that the survey was perceived as relevant and valuable. Future plans The depth and breadth of the data available in this large sample will highlight unmet needs and priority areas for future investigation and, crucially, will inform policy, programme and intervention

  17. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among 13473 patients with diabetes mellitus in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in six provinces

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yifan; Tao, Liyuan; Qiu, Weiqiang; Lv, Huibin; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Mingzhou; Li, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening DR (STDR) among Chinese adults with diabetes. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional epidemiological survey across Mainland China (N=13 473). Participants were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus by physicians and transferred to our screening clinics (1/3 from hospital patients, 1/3 from city residents, the other 1/3 from rural residents). 2 fundus photographs were taken of each eye with a colourful, non-mydriatic and non-stereoscopic camera and were graded according to the UK guidelines. Main outcomes and measures The prevalence and severity of DR and STDR. Results Of the 13 473 participants with diabetes participating in the study, 4591 had DR and 1769 had STDR, for an overall prevalence of 34.08% (95% CI 33.28% to 34.88%) and 13.13% (95% CI 12.56% to 13.70%), respectively. Among these, gradable photographs were available for 12 780 participants (94.86%). Participants who were aged >65 years were less likely to suffer from DR or STDR (p<0.001; age distribution). No gender-related differences were present (p>0.05). Participants with STDR suffered from more severe visual impairment compared with those without STDR (p<0.001). The prevalence of DR and STDR in the northern region was higher than in the southern region (p<0.001). The prevalence of DR was closely related to duration of disease (OR 2.63; 95% CI 2.42 to 2.86; p<0.001) and diabetes onset age (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.41; p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of DR and STDR in Mainland China appeared a little high, and varied according to area. Non-proliferative DR was more common, but STDR needed prompt treatment, especially in economically less developed areas. This study highlights the necessity for DR screening and treatment in Mainland China. PMID:28069622

  18. The Geography of Diabetes among the General Adults Aged 35 Years and Older in Bangladesh: Recent Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Gruebner, Oliver; Kraemer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report geographical variations of sex-specific diabetes by place of residence (large cities/city corporations, small towns/other urban areas, rural areas) and region of residence (divided into seven divisions) among general adults (35+ years of age) in Bangladesh. Methods The recent cross-sectional data, extracted from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011, was used. A total of 3,720 men and 3,823 women aged 35+ years, who participated in the fasting blood sugar testing, were analysed. Any person with either fasting plasma glucose level (mmol/L) ≥7.0 or taking medication for diabetes was considered as a person with diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 10.6% in men and 11.3% in women. Bivariable analyses indicated significant variations of diabetes by both geographical variables. The prevalence was highest in city corporations (men 18.0%, women 22.3%), followed by small towns (men 13.6%, women 15.2%) and rural areas (men 9.3%, women 9.5%). Regional disparities in diabetes prevalence were also remarkable, with the highest prevalence in Chittagong division and lowest prevalence in Khulna division. Multivariable logistic regression analyses provided mixed patterns of geographical disparities (depending on the adjusted variables). Some other independent risk factors for diabetes were advancing age, higher level of education and wealth, having TV (a proxy indicator of physical activity), overweight/obesity and hypertension. Conclusions Over 10% of the general adults aged 35 years and older were having diabetes. Most of the persons with diabetes were unaware of this before testing fasting plasma glucose level. Although significant disparities in diabetes prevalence by geographical variables were observed, such disparities are very much influenced by the adjusted variables. Finally, we underscore the necessities of area-specific strategies including early diagnosis and health education programmes for changing

  19. Mapping the association between back pain and type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of adult Spanish twins

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñana, Juan; Ferreira, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Background Back pain and type 2 diabetes often co-occur, resulting in greater impact on people’s health and complexity in their care. Plausible causal mechanisms for this association have been proposed, yet the nature of the link remains unclear. We therefore explored the direction of the association between type 2 diabetes and chronic back pain in twins, controlling for genetics and early environmental confounding. Methods 2,096 and 1,098 twins were included in the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. Any or severe (≥ 9) low back pain (LBP), neck pain (NP), and spinal pain (concurrent LBP and NP) and type 2 diabetes were investigated. Sequential analyses were performed using logistic regression. Firstly, twins were analysed unpaired (adjusted age and gender): total sample analyses. Then, to control for genetic and shared environmental factors, a co-twin case-control analysis was performed including monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for back pain (cross-sectional only). Results In the cross-sectional total sample analyses, type 2 diabetes was associated with chronic spinal pain (OR 1.61; 95%CI 1.12 to 2.31), severe chronic spinal pain (OR 3.33; 95%CI 1.47 to 7.53), chronic NP (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 to 1.85), severe chronic NP (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.24 to 4.21), and severe chronic LBP (OR 1.63; 95%CI 1.00 to 2.64). After further adjustment for genetic and shared environmental factors, none of the associations remained significant. The longitudinal analyses indicated that the presence of type 2 diabetes did not increase the risk of future back pain, or vice-versa, after two to four years. Conclusions Chronic back pain (spinal pain, NP, or LBP) was associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Associations are stronger for severe cases of pain. Future research should investigate the temporal relationships between these conditions with longer follow up in twins. PMID:28369107

  20. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  1. Adequacy of diabetes care for older U.S. rural adults: a cross-sectional population based study using 2009 BRFSS data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S. diabetes prevalence estimates for adults ≥ 65 years exceed 20%. Rural communities have higher proportions of older individuals and health disparities associated with rural residency place rural communities at risk for a higher burden from diabetes. This study examined the adequacy of care received by older rural adults for their diabetes to determine if older rural adults differed in the receipt of adequate diabetes care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were examined using bivariate and multivariate analytical techniques. Results Logistic regression analysis revealed that older rural adults with diabetes were more likely to receive less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts (OR = 1.465, 95% CI: 1.454-1.475). Older rural adults receiving less than adequate care for their diabetes were more likely to be: male, non-Caucasian, less educated, unmarried, economically poorer, inactive, a smoker. They were also more likely to: have deferred medical care because of cost, not have a personal health care provider, and not have had a routine medical check-up within the last 12 months. Conclusion There are gaps between what is recommended for diabetes management and the management that older individuals receive. Older adults with diabetes living in rural communities are at greater risk for less than adequate care when compared to their non-rural counterparts. These results suggest the need to develop strategies to improve diabetes care for older adults with diabetes and to target those at highest risk. PMID:22177279

  2. Clinical Characteristics for the Relationship between Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Fang, Rong; Liu, Li-Hua; Chen, Sheng-Di; Tang, Hui-Dong

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential differences in cognitive status, lipid and glucose metabolism, ApoEε4 alleles and imaging between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. 83 subjects with normal cognitive function and 114 mild cognitive impaired patients were divided into four groups by history of diabetes. General demographics was collected from all participants followed by MRI scan, biochemical examinations and a series of neuropsychological tests. Student’s t test, multiple regressions and one-way ANOVA were applied to investigate the differences between groups. Comparing diabetic patients with non-diabetic subjects in the mild cognitive impaired group, we found several decreased items in recall of three words in MMSE (p=0.020), AVLT and SCWT (p<0.050). The multiple linear regression revealed that two-hour glucose level (B= −0.255, p<0.001) and fasting C-peptide (B= −0.466, p=0.001) had negative effects on the score of MMSE. In addition, diabetic patients treated with insulin and other diabetes medication performed better in part of the AVLT (p<0.050) compared to patients with insulin treatment or oral antidiabetic medication only. Patients with metformin medication had a better memory outcome compared to patients with sulphonylurea medication in the AVLT long delay free recall (p =0.010). These findings show that patients of mild cognitive impairment with diabetes mellitus have a worse outcome in attention, information processing speed and memory compared to non-diabetic patients. Higher two-hour glucose level and C-peptide level may be risk factors for severe cognitive impairment in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The results of this study also suggest that medication may have effects on cognitive function. PMID:26236545

  3. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes. PMID:24760351

  4. Albuminuria, cardiovascular risk factors and disease management in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Landgraf, Rüdiger; Happich, Michael; Wichmann, H-Erich; Piehlmeier, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that microalbuminuria is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other vascular diseases in persons with type 2 diabetes. In the present study we examined the prevalence and risk factors for micro- and macroalbuminuria and examined glycemic control as well as treatment of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in persons with known type 2 diabetes in Germany. Methods The presented data were derived from the 'KORA Augsburg Diabetes Family Study', conducted between October 2001 and September 2002. Participants were adults aged 29 years and older with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 581). Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g, and macroalbuminuria as an albumin-creatinine ratio of more than 300 mg/g. Results Microalbuminuria was revealed in 27.2% and macroalbuminuria in 9.0% of the 581 included diabetic persons. Multivariable regression analysis identified HBA1c, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, smoking and waist circumference as independent risk factors associated with albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria). Relatively few persons with type 2 diabetes achieved treatment targets of HbA1c < 7% (46.6%), total cholesterol < 200 mg/dl (44.1%), and LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dl (16.0%). Optimal HDL cholesterol values (> 45 mg/dl in men, > 55 mg/dl in women) were found in 55.8%, and blood pressure values < 130 and < 85 mmHg in 31.3% of the persons Conclusion Albuminuria is common among German persons with known type 2 diabetes. Despite evidence-based guidelines, only a small proportion of type 2 diabetic persons achieved the recommended levels of glycemic control and control of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18986536

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turago, Muluken Gizaw; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with T1D. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in Addis Ababa. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Children below the age of 12 years with DKA who were admitted to the pediatric ward in the selected hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014 and the residence of Addis Ababa were included. DKA was defined as children below the age of 12 years who have blood glucose level ≥250mg/dl, ketonuria, and ketonemia and diagnosed being T1D patient for the first time. Descriptive statistics was performed using frequency distribution, mean, median, tables, and graphs. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with the prevalence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Results Of 395 DKA patients who were hospitalized during the five-year period, 142(35.8%) presented with DKA at first diagnosis of diabetes. On the other hand 253 (64.2%) children with DKA had longstanding T1D. Independent factors associated with DKA include: Age category 2–4.49years, 7–9.49 years and ≥9.5years (Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 3.14[1.21,8.06]), 3.44(1.39,8.49) and 4.02(1.68,9.60), respectively); parents’ knowledge on the sign and symptoms of DKA (AOR = 0.51[0.27, 0.95]); sign and symptoms of DKA before the onset of DKA (AOR = 0.35[0.21, 0.59]) and infection prior to DKA onset (AOR = 3.45[1.97, 6.04]). Conclusions The overall proportion of children diagnosed with DKA and new onset of T1D in Addis Ababa was high. In particular, children between 9–12 years of age and children whose parents did not know the sign and symptoms of DKA had a high risk of DKA at primary diagnosis of T1D. PMID:28135278

  6. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Harish, Yashoda; Hiremath, Shivalingaswamy; Puranik, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs) index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18%) whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%), diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%), and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%), in comparison to the controls (6.18%). Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease. PMID:28298829

  7. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p < 0.01), homemakers (p < 0.01), 61-70 age group (p = 0.01), those without formal education (p < 0.01), and people with lower social status (p < 0.01) had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β = 0.036, p = 0.016), mode of treatment (β = 0.9, p = 0.047), no formal educational level (β = 1.959, p = 0.01), emotional representation (β = 0.214, p < 0.001), identity (β = 0.196, p < 0.001), illness coherence (β = -0.109, p = 0.007), and consequences (β = 0.093, p = 0.049) as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  8. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-08-13

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes.

  9. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p < 0.01), homemakers (p < 0.01), 61–70 age group (p = 0.01), those without formal education (p < 0.01), and people with lower social status (p < 0.01) had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β = 0.036, p = 0.016), mode of treatment (β = 0.9, p = 0.047), no formal educational level (β = 1.959, p = 0.01), emotional representation (β = 0.214, p < 0.001), identity (β = 0.196, p < 0.001), illness coherence (β = −0.109, p = 0.007), and consequences (β = 0.093, p = 0.049) as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms. PMID:26236749

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India: findings from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the distribution of diabetes and modifiable risk factors to provide data to aid diabetes prevention programmes in India. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey of men and women included in India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006). Setting The sample is a multistage cluster sample with an overall response rate of 98 %. All states of India are represented in the sample (except the small Union Territories), covering more than 99 % of the country's population. Subjects Women (n 99 574) and men (n 56 742) aged 20–49 years residing in the sample households. Results Prevalence of diabetes was 1598/100 000 (95 % CI 1462, 1735) among men and 1054/100 000 (95 % CI 974, 1134) among women in India. Rural–urban and marked geographic variation were found with higher rates in south and north-eastern India. Weekly and daily fish intake contributed to a significantly higher risk of diabetes among both women and men. Risks of diabetes increased with increased BMI, age and wealth status of both women and men, but no effects of the consumption of milk/curd, vegetables, eggs, television watching, alcohol consumption or smoking were found. Daily consumption of pulse/beans or fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes among women, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in the case of men. Conclusions Prevalence was underestimated using self-reports. The wide variation in self-reported diabetes is unlikely to be due entirely to reporting biases or access to health care, and indicates that modifiable risk factors exist. Prevention of diabetes should focus on obesity and target specific socio-economic groups in India. PMID:22050916

  11. Association of socioeconomic status with diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension in diabetic hypertensive individuals in Bangladesh: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    H, Syed Emdadul; Islam, Md. Jahirul; Mostofa, Md. Golam; Saadat, Khandakar ASM

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if socioeconomic status could affect the likelihood of diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension in diabetic hypertensive individuals. Design Cross-sectional nationally representative study. Settings Bangladesh. Participants This paper used data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 339 diabetes hypertensive individuals. Main outcome measures Diagnosis, treatment and control of hypertension. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in diabetes individuals was 38.4% in the study population. Among diabetic hypertensive subjects only 65.7% had been diagnosed, 58.4% were receiving treatment and 42% controlled their hypertension. Individuals from high socioeconomic status (AOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.16–5.83) had an increased likelihood of reporting diagnosis of hypertension. Individuals from medium (AOR 2.22; 95% CI 1.11–4.46) and high socioeconomic status (AOR 3.47; 95% CI 1.59–7.58) had increased chance of receiving treatment. In addition, individuals belonging to high socioeconomic status (AOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.14–5.63) were more likely to report of controlling hypertension. Conclusions This study indicated that hypertension is more prevalent among diabetic patients. Furthermore, diabetic hypertensive patients from the low socioeconomic status group are also less likely to be diagnosed and also less likely to receive treatment for hypertension. In addition, diabetic hypertensive patients from the low socioeconomic status were less likely to control hypertension compared with an individual belonging to the high socioeconomic status group. This reduced likelihood of receiving proper treatment will lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among diabetic hypertensive patients. PMID:26688743

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Glycaemia and Diabetes in a Population Living in a Highly Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Polluted Area in Northern Italy: a Cross-sectional and Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Claudia; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Feretti, Donatella; Covolo, Loredana; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Scarcella, Carmelo; Bergonzi, Roberto; Apostoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts of interests: the authors declare no potential conflict of interests. Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS). Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort) study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases) or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases). Results A total of 53 subjects (10.0%) were diabetics: 28 had diabetes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia. PMID:25170473

  13. Comparative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the oral antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone in patients with type-2 diabetes: a cross-sectional, observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oz Gul, Ozen; Cinkilic, Nilufer; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Cander, Soner; Vatan, Ozgur; Ersoy, Canan; Yılmaz, Dilek; Tuncel, Ercan

    2013-09-18

    This cross-sectional, observational pilot study was designed to investigate the frequency of different endpoints of genotoxicity (sister-chromatid exchange, total chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus formation) and cytotoxicity (mitotic index, replication index, and nuclear division index) in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with type-2 diabetes treated with different oral anti-diabetic agents for 6 months. A total of 104 patients who met the American Diabetes Association criteria for type-2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. Of the 104 patients, 33 were being treated with sitagliptin (100mg/day), 25 with pioglitazone (30mg/day), 22 with rosiglitazone (4mg/day), and 24 with medical nutrition therapy (control group). The results for all the genotoxicity endpoints were significantly different across the four study groups. Post hoc analysis revealed that the genotoxicity observed in the sitagliptin group was significantly higher than that observed in the medical nutrition therapy group, but lower than that occurring in subjects who received thiazolidinediones. All of the three cytotoxicity endpoints were significantly lower in patients treated by oral anti-diabetic agents compared with those who received medical nutrition therapy. However, the three indexes did not differ significantly in the sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone groups. Taken together, these pilot data indicate that sitagliptin and thiazolidinediones may exert genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the possible long-term differences between oral anti-diabetic drugs in terms of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, and how these can modulate the risk of developing diabetic complications in general and cancer in particular.

  14. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia- a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. Results A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of < 600 MET-minutes/week. After adjusted for co-variants, Physical Component Summary (PCS) was significantly associated with BMI categories [F (2,262) = 11.73, p < 0.001] where pre-diabetics with normal weight and overweight had significantly higher PCS than those obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff = 9.84, p = 0.006, 95% CIdiff = 2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff = 8.14, p < 0.001, 95% CIdiff = 3.46, 12.80]. Conclusion Pre-diabetics who were of normal weight reported higher HRQOL compared to those

  15. The Impact of Diabetic Neuropathy on Balance and on the Risk of Falls in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Timar, Romulus; Gaiță, Laura; Oancea, Cristian; Levai, Codrina; Lungeanu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a prevalent complication of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with a major impact on the health of the affected patient. We hypothesized that mediated by the dysfunctionalities associated with DN’s three major components: sensitive (lack of motion associated sensory), motor (impairments in movement coordination) and autonomic (the presence of postural hypotension), the presence of DN may impair the balance in the affected patients. Our study’s main aim is to evaluate the possible association between the presence and severity of DN and both the balance impairment and the risk of falls in patients with T2DM. Material and Method In this cross-sectional study we enrolled, according to a consecutive-case population-based setting 198 patients with T2DM. The presence and severity of DN was evaluated using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, a tool which allows both diagnosing and severity staging of DN. The balance impairment and the risk of falls were evaluated using four validated and standardized tools: Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed-up and Go test (TUG), Single Leg Stand test (SLS) and Fall Efficacy Scale (FES-I). Results The presence of DN was associated with significant decreases in the BBS score (40.5 vs. 43.7 points; p<0.001) and SLS time (9.3 vs. 10.3 seconds; p = 0.003) respectively increases in TUG time (8.9 vs. 7.6 seconds; p = 0.002) and FES-I score (38 vs. 33 points; p = 0.034). The MNSI score was reverse and significantly correlated with both BBS score (Spearman’s r = -0.479; p<0.001) and SLS time (Spearman’s r = -0.169; p = 0.017). In the multivariate regression model, we observed that patient’s age, DN severity and depression’s symptoms acted as independent, significant predictors for the risk of falls in patients with T2DM. Conclusions The presence of DN in patients with DM is associated with impaired balance and with a consecutively increase in the risk of falls. PMID:27119372

  16. Illness self-concept in Type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional view on clinical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Weets, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the centrality of one's illness self-concept, or the degree to which chronic illness intrudes upon one's self, in a sample of 478 18-35-year-old patients with Type 1 diabetes. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that illness self-concept centrality was a one-dimensional construct, despite the fact that three constituting components (i.e. pervasiveness, directionality, and illness self-consciousness) have been forwarded. Further, important demographic and clinical correlates of illness self-concept were identified: women, unemployed individuals, individuals with a lower educational level, and patients with an insulin pump had a more central illness self-concept. Finally, a series of correlation and regression analyses indicated that, despite the fact that illness self-concept centrality was negatively related to emotional stability, self-esteem, and diabetes integration, and positively to perceived consequences of diabetes, illness self-concept had unique predictive value over and above these variables for problem areas in diabetes and depressive symptoms. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  17. Metallothionein MT2A A-5G Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes: Cross-Sectional and Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yuta; Naito, Mariko; Satoh, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Naito, Hisao; Kato, Masashi; Takagi, Sahoko; Matsunaga, Takashi; Seiki, Toshio; Sasakabe, Tae; Suma, Shino; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Hishida, Asahi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Wakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that protect cells from toxic agents such as heavy metal ions or reactive oxygen species. MT2A A-5G is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the MT2A gene, and the minor G allele results in lower transcription efficiency. We aimed to elucidate associations between MT2A A-5G and risks of 2 diseases potentially related to lowered MT expression, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes mellitus (DM), in a community-dwelling population. Study subjects were Nagoya city residents participating in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC) Daiko Study, comprised 749 men and 2,025 women, aged 39-75 years. CKD (>stage 3) and DM were defined by standard guidelines. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustments for age, sex and potential confounders in a cross-sectional study, and verified in a 5-year longitudinal study. Odds ratios (OR [95% confidence interval]) were calculated relative to the AA genotype. Serum MT (I + II), Cd and zinc levels were also determined by genotype. The OR of the GG genotype for CKD risk was 3.98 (1.50, 10.58) in the cross-sectional study and 5.17 (1.39, 19.28) in the longitudinal study. The OR of the GA genotype for DM was 1.86 (1.26, 2.75) in the cross-sectional study and 2.03 (1.19, 3.46) in the longitudinal study. MT2A A-5G may be associated with CKD and DM risks. This polymorphism is a promising target for evaluations of CKD and DM risks with possible involvement of low-dose chronic exposure to environmental pollutants.

  18. Metallothionein MT2A A-5G Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes: Cross-Sectional and Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Yuta; Naito, Mariko; Satoh, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Naito, Hisao; Kato, Masashi; Takagi, Sahoko; Matsunaga, Takashi; Seiki, Toshio; Sasakabe, Tae; Suma, Shino; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Hishida, Asahi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Wakai, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that protect cells from toxic agents such as heavy metal ions or reactive oxygen species. MT2A A-5G is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the MT2A gene, and the minor G allele results in lower transcription efficiency. We aimed to elucidate associations between MT2A A-5G and risks of 2 diseases potentially related to lowered MT expression, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes mellitus (DM), in a community-dwelling population. Study subjects were Nagoya city residents participating in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC) Daiko Study, comprised 749 men and 2,025 women, aged 39–75 years. CKD (>stage 3) and DM were defined by standard guidelines. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustments for age, sex and potential confounders in a cross-sectional study, and verified in a 5-year longitudinal study. Odds ratios (OR [95% confidence interval]) were calculated relative to the AA genotype. Serum MT (I + II), Cd and zinc levels were also determined by genotype. The OR of the GG genotype for CKD risk was 3.98 (1.50, 10.58) in the cross-sectional study and 5.17 (1.39, 19.28) in the longitudinal study. The OR of the GA genotype for DM was 1.86 (1.26, 2.75) in the cross-sectional study and 2.03 (1.19, 3.46) in the longitudinal study. MT2A A-5G may be associated with CKD and DM risks. This polymorphism is a promising target for evaluations of CKD and DM risks with possible involvement of low-dose chronic exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:27122239

  19. DDT and its metabolites are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Saudi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Othman, AbdulAziz A; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide including many Arab Gulf countries. According to a community-based national epidemiological health survey, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Saudi adults (age group of 30-50 years) is 23.7%. A recent study by Al-Daghri et al. (BMC Med 9:76, 2011) reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is 31.6%. We investigated the associations between OC pesticides and type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia using a simple, sensitive, rapid, and selective gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method that has been recently developed. A total of 280 Saudi adults (136 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and 144 non-DM controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of diabetes was based on established diagnosis and medications taken. Blood dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were quantified using GC-MS. Residues of DDT and its derivatives were analyzed in serum by means of gas chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. Associations between DDT exposure and T2DM were analyzed by logistic regression. DDT and its derivatives and serum concentrations of DDT and its derivative DDE showed the strongest and most significant association to type 2 diabetes in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Associations of DDT and its derivatives varied across different diabetes-related components of the metabolic syndrome. It positively and significantly associated with four of the five of these components especially elevated triacylglycerol, high fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and HOMA-IR but negatively and significantly with HDL. Possible biological mechanisms are discussed. This study

  20. Knowledge and Self-Reported Practice of Insulin Injection Device Disposal among Diabetes Patients in Gondar Town, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Taye Haile, Kaleab; Melese Birru, Eshetie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Incorrect sharp disposal practices may expose the public to needle-stick injuries. The present study aimed at assessing the knowledge and practice of diabetic patients towards insulin injection device disposal in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on insulin requiring diabetes patients who visited the diabetes clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH) from February 1 to March 28, 2016. Frequencies, percentages, and ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Student's t-test were used to analyze variables. Results. About half of the participants (49.5%) had poor knowledge towards safe insulin injection waste disposal. More than two-thirds (80.7%) of respondents had poor practice and 64.3% of respondents did not put insulin needle and lancets into the household garbage. 31% of respondents threw sharps on street when they travel outside. Respondents living in urban areas had a higher mean of knowledge and practice score than those who live in rural area. Conclusions. This study revealed that knowledge and practice of diabetic patients were low towards safe insulin injection waste disposal in study area. Healthcare providers should also be aware of safe disposing system and counsel patients on appropriate disposal of used syringes. PMID:27738637

  1. Adaptation and validation of the Distress Scale for Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Vega, Ingrid Patricia; Doubova, Svetlana V; Aguirre-Hernandez, Rebeca; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the Distress Scale for Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension (DSDH17M). Setting Two family medicine clinics affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Participants 722 patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension (235 patients with diabetes, 233 patients with hypertension and 254 patients with both diseases). Design A cross-sectional survey. Methods The validation procedures included: (1) content validity using a group of experts, (2) construct validity from exploratory factor analysis, (3) internal consistency using Cronbach's α, (4) convergent validity between DSDH17M and anxiety and depression using the Spearman correlation coefficient, (5) discriminative validity through the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and (6) test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results The DSDH17M has 17 items and three factors explaining 67% of the total variance. Cronbach α ranged from 0.83 to 0.91 among factors. The first factor of ‘Regime-related Distress and Emotional Burden’ moderately correlated with anxiety and depression scores. Discriminative validity revealed that patients with obesity, those with stressful events and those who did not adhere to pharmacological treatment had significantly higher distress scores in all DSDH17M domains. Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient for DSDH17M ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 among factors. Conclusions DSDH17M is a valid and reliable tool to identify distress of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:26936903

  2. Metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a public hospital in Peru: a cross-sectional study in a low-middle income country

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Castañon, Felix; Lazo-Porras, María; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Thomas, Nimmy Josephine; Garcia-Guarniz, Ana-Lucia; Valdivia-Bustamante, Augusto A.; Málaga, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess patients’ achievement of ADA (American Diabetes Association) guideline recommendations for glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatient clinic in a low-middle income country (LMIC) setting. Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 123 ambulatory T2DM patients who are being treated at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Data was gathered via standardized interviews, clinical surveys, and anthropomorphic measurements for each patient. Blood samples were drawn in fasting state for measures of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile. Laboratory parameters and blood pressure were evaluated according to ADA recommendations. Results Of the 123 patients, 81 were women and the mean age was 61.8 years. Glycemic control was abnormal in 82 (68.33%) participants, and 45 (37.50%) were unable to control their blood pressure. Lipid profile was abnormal in 73 (60.83%) participants. Only nine (7.50%) participants fulfilled ADA recommendations for glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control. Conclusions Amongst individuals with type 2 diabetes, there was poor attainment of the ADA recommendations (HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol) for ambulatory T2DM patients. Interventions are urgently needed in order to prevent long-term diabetic complications. PMID:27761351

  3. Evaluation of Non-Laboratory and Laboratory Prediction Models for Current and Future Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional and Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seokyung; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Various diabetes risk scores composed of non-laboratory parameters have been developed, but only a few studies performed cross-validation of these scores and a comparison with laboratory parameters. We evaluated the performance of diabetes risk scores composed of non-laboratory parameters, including a recently published Korean risk score (KRS), and compared them with laboratory parameters. Methods The data of 26,675 individuals who visited the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center for a health screening program were reviewed for cross-sectional validation. The data of 3,029 individuals with a mean of 6.2 years of follow-up were reviewed for longitudinal validation. The KRS and 16 other risk scores were evaluated and compared with a laboratory prediction model developed by logistic regression analysis. Results For the screening of undiagnosed diabetes, the KRS exhibited a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 58%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) of 0.754. Other scores showed AROCs that ranged from 0.697 to 0.782. For the prediction of future diabetes, the KRS exhibited a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 54%, and an AROC of 0.696. Other scores had AROCs ranging from 0.630 to 0.721. The laboratory prediction model composed of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels showed a significantly higher AROC (0.838, P < 0.001) than the KRS. The addition of the KRS to the laboratory prediction model increased the AROC (0.849, P = 0.016) without a significant improvement in the risk classification (net reclassification index: 4.6%, P = 0.264). Conclusions The non-laboratory risk scores, including KRS, are useful to estimate the risk of undiagnosed diabetes but are inferior to the laboratory parameters for predicting future diabetes. PMID:27214034

  4. Educational Level Is Related to Physical Fitness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Allet, Lara; Giet, Olivier; Barral, Jérôme; Junod, Nicolas; Durrer, Dominique; Amati, Francesca; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low educational level (EL) and low physical fitness are both predictors of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unknown if EL is related to physical fitness. This would have important implication for the treatment approach of patients of low EL. Materials and Methods In 2011/12, we invited participants of a new nationwide Swiss physical activity program for patients with type 2 diabetes to participate in this study. EL was defined by self-report and categorized as low (mandatory education), middle (professional education) or high (high school/university). Physical fitness was determined using 5 validated measures that assessed aerobic fitness, functional lower limb muscle strength, walking speed, balance and flexibility. Potential confounder variables such as other socio-cultural factors, physical activity level, body composition, diabetes-related parameters and complications/co-morbidities as well as well-being were assessed. Results All invited 185 participants (mean age 59.6 ±9.8 yrs, 76 women) agreed to be included. Of all patients, 23.1% had a low, 32.7% a middle and 44.2% a high EL; 41.8% were professionally active. The study population had a mean BMI of 32.4±5.2 kg/m2 and an HbA1c of 7.3±1.3%. The mean diabetes duration was 8.8±7.4 years. In the baseline assessment, higher EL was associated with increased aerobic fitness, increased functional lower limb muscle strength, and increased walking speed using linear regression analysis (values for low, middle and high EL, respectively: 91.8 ± 27.9, 116.4 ± 49.7 and 134.9 ± 60.4 watts for aerobic fitness (p = 0.002), 15 ± 4.7, 13.9 ± 2.7, 12.6 ± 2.9 seconds for strength (p = 0.001) and 8.8 ± 1.6, 8.3 ± 1.4, 7.8 ± 1.4 seconds for walking speed (p = 0.004)). These associations were independent of potential confounders. Overall, aerobic fitness was 46%, functional limb muscle strength 16%, and walking speed 11% higher in patients of high compared to those

  5. Expression of periodontal inflammation into left ventricular hypertrophy in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sarda, Trupti; Rathod, Surekha; Kolte, Abhay; Bodhare, Girish; Modak, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease, is closely related to certain systemic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These conditions, occurring as comorbidities, synergically affect periodontal tissues. Aim: This study aims to examine whether chronic gingivitis and chronic generalized severe periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients affected with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided into three groups with 15 patients each according to their periodontal status: Group I consisting of healthy individuals, Group II consisting of chronic gingivitis, and Group III consisting of chronic generalized severe periodontitis. They were assessed clinically, biochemically, and echocardiographically. LVM was calculated according to Devereux formula and was indexed to height. Results: The differences in the means for LVM and LVM index (LVMI) were statistically significant in three groups with a P = 0.006 and 0.014, respectively. After adjusting for the confounders, the mean values of LVM in Group I, II, and III were 149.35 ± 35.51 g, 147.95 ± 31.59 g, and 156.36 ± 36.57 g, respectively and for LVMI, the mean values were 43.61 ± 12.16 g/m2.7 (Group I), 47.12 ± 10.84 g/m2.7 (Group II), and 46.34 ± 12.55 g/m2.7 (Group III). Conclusions: A positive association between chronic generalized severe periodontitis and increased LVM in Type 2 DM patients was observed, suggesting the role of periodontal disease in the left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:27630499

  6. Serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes in gestational diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Koukkou, E; Watts, G F; Lowy, C

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To compare serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations during and six to 12 months after pregnancy in control and diabetic women. METHODS: The serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 20 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 22 women with normal glucose tolerance (controls) during the third trimester of pregnancy and six to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: During pregnancy the women with GDM had higher serum triglyceride (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)), 2.91 (2.22-3.51) v 2.1 (1.75-2.52)) but lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations compared with controls (mean (SD), 3.08 (1.2) v 4.01 (1.1). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. After pregnancy, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein A1 and B decreased in a parallel manner, resulting in lower concentrations, comparable between the two groups. LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased after pregnancy in the controls (mean (SD), 4.01 (1.1) v 2.69 (0.6)) but not in those with GDM (3.08 (1.2) v 2.72 (0.7)). The change in lipid concentrations was not related to change in weight. CONCLUSION: Development of diabetes during pregnancy induces a state of dyslipidaemia characterised by elevated triglyceride concentrations, as seen in other insulin resistance states. However, GDM seems to blunt the increase in LDL cholesterol during pregnancy and this requires further investigation. Whether the changes in lipoprotein metabolism in GDM are significant for the health status of the mother and the foetus requires further study. PMID:8881912

  7. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c < 7 %. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex (OR 1.345, 95 % CI 1.022-1.769; P = 0.034), higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR 1.954, 95 % CI 1.778-2.147; P < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.181, 95 % CI 1.020-1.367; P = 0.026) were significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The complexity of antidiabetics was also associated with poor glycemic control (P < 0.05). Compared to diet and exercise, insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P < 0.001). Male patients with higher levels of total cholesterol, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or longer diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  8. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  9. Assessment of cognitive status in patients with type 2 diabetes through the mini-mental status examination: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetes is considered an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment and some studies observed through neuropsychological tests that cognitive disfunction affects both elderly and younger patients with diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cognitive status of outpatients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate factors associated with impaired function. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of type 2 diabetic outpatients. They were asked to undergo the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during routine ambulatory visits between April 2006 and January 2007, with the highest pontuation of the test being 30 points. Patients were classified as having possible dementia according to years of study. Exclusion criteria were blindness, illiterately, stroke, Alzheimer disease and psychiatric disorder. Results are presented as median (interquartile range) or mean ± SD. Results The study group was composed of 346 type 2 diabetic outpatients (216 females), aged 58,6 ± 12,1 years and with duration of diabetes of 12,3 ± 9,1 years. Hypertension was present in 77,2%. The total MMSE score achieved was 26 points (16 - 30) and was correlated with years of study (R2 = 0,39, p < 0,001) and 'per capita' income (R2 = 0,22, p < 0,0001) and duration of diabetes (R2 = - 0,13, p = 0,01). Patients who needed help to take their medications obtained worst performance in the MMSE (23,16 ± 3,55 vs 25,7 ± 2,84, p < 0,01) and were more likely to present possible dementia (p < 0,01). Forty two subjects (12.1%) had diagnosis of possible dementia and this was also associated with years of study (p = 0,045). No association was observed between possible dementia and total MMSE scores with A1C levels. Conclusions We conclude that patients with type 2 diabetes should be regularly evaluated for their cognitive function, because duration of disease could be associated with decline in cognition. The early implementation of mini mental which is a simple

  10. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  11. Audiologists’ preferences for patient-centredness: a cross-sectional questionnaire study of cross-cultural differences and similarities among professionals in Portugal, India and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Gomersall, Philip A; Tomé, David; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patient-centredness has become an important aspect of health service delivery; however, there are a limited number of studies that focus on this concept in the domain of hearing healthcare. The objective of this study was to examine and compare audiologists’ preferences for patient-centredness in Portugal, India and Iran. Design The study used a cross-sectional survey design with audiologists recruited from three different countries. Participants A total of 191 fully-completed responses were included in the analysis (55 from Portugal, 78 from India and 58 from Iran). Main outcome measure The Patient–Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS). Results PPOS mean scores suggest that audiologists have a preference for patient-centredness (ie, mean of 3.6 in a 5-point scale). However, marked differences were observed between specific PPOS items suggesting these preferences vary across clinical situations. A significant level of difference (p<0.001) was found between audiologists’ preferences for patient-centredness in three countries. Audiologists in Portugal had a greater preference for patient-centredness when compared to audiologists in India and Iran, although no significant differences were found in terms of age and duration of experience among these sample populations. Conclusions There are differences and similarities in audiologists’ preferences for patient-centredness among countries. These findings may have implications for the training of professionals and also for clinical practice in terms of optimising hearing healthcare across countries. PMID:25763795

  12. Quality of recording of diabetes in the UK: how does the GP's method of coding clinical data affect incidence estimates? Cross-sectional study using the CPRD database

    PubMed Central

    Tate, A Rosemary; Dungey, Sheena; Glew, Simon; Beloff, Natalia; Williams, Rachael; Williams, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of coding quality on estimates of the incidence of diabetes in the UK between 1995 and 2014. Design A cross-sectional analysis examining diabetes coding from 1995 to 2014 and how the choice of codes (diagnosis codes vs codes which suggest diagnosis) and quality of coding affect estimated incidence. Setting Routine primary care data from 684 practices contributing to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (data contributed from Vision (INPS) practices). Main outcome measure Incidence rates of diabetes and how they are affected by (1) GP coding and (2) excluding ‘poor’ quality practices with at least 10% incident patients inaccurately coded between 2004 and 2014. Results Incidence rates and accuracy of coding varied widely between practices and the trends differed according to selected category of code. If diagnosis codes were used, the incidence of type 2 increased sharply until 2004 (when the UK Quality Outcomes Framework was introduced), and then flattened off, until 2009, after which they decreased. If non-diagnosis codes were included, the numbers continued to increase until 2012. Although coding quality improved over time, 15% of the 666 practices that contributed data between 2004 and 2014 were labelled ‘poor’ quality. When these practices were dropped from the analyses, the downward trend in the incidence of type 2 after 2009 became less marked and incidence rates were higher. Conclusions In contrast to some previous reports, diabetes incidence (based on diagnostic codes) appears not to have increased since 2004 in the UK. Choice of codes can make a significant difference to incidence estimates, as can quality of recording. Codes and data quality should be checked when assessing incidence rates using GP data. PMID:28122831

  13. Determinants of medication adherence among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three Malaysian public health clinics: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Boon-How; Hassan, Noor-Hasliza; Sherina, Mohd-Sidik

    2015-01-01

    Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile), lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were female (52.8%), Malay (52.9%), and married (79.1%). About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6). Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90) and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99) were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are younger, have a higher income, and symptoms of depression. PMID:25999699

  14. A cross-sectional study of depression and self-care in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Camila Ribeiro; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Depression has been recognized as a risk factor for foot ulceration in persons with diabetes mellitus. Using convenience sampling methods, a cross-sectional study was conducted among persons with type 2 diabetes treated in a diabetic foot clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil between February 2010 and December 2011. One hundred (100) patients (average age 62 years, range 38 to 83 years), 50 with a foot ulcer and 50 at risk for developing a foot ulcer, participated. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), where scores increase with severity; and patients were interviewed about foot self-care behaviors. Average BDI scores among patients with an ulcer were higher (mean 20.37; range 1 to 42) than those of patients that had not developed a foot ulcer (mean 15.70; range 2 to 49) (P = 0.030). Self-care behavior was not significantly different between the two groups. Severe depression (P = 0.049, OR= 6.56 95% CI 1.01-42.58) and male gender (P <0.001, OR=14.87 95% CI 3.83-57.82) were associated with the presence of a foot ulcer. Despite reported adequate self-care behaviors, patients with an ulcer had more symptoms of depression than patients who were at risk for developing a foot ulcer. Studies examining cause-and-effect relationships between these observations and the potential role of depression interventions are needed. The results of this and other studies suggest depression screening is important in patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers.

  15. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Alzaid, Aus A.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with high mortality, morbidity, poor general health, and loss of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with HRQOL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 283 T2DM patients during June 2011 and September 2012 at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected according to their availability during their routine visit to the outpatient clinics and they were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Short-Form 36-item survey (SF-36) to assess the HRQOL. Results The mean age of the participants was 56.4±13.2 years. Around 63% (178) were males and 37% (105) were females. Glycosylated hemoglobin level was found to be significantly higher among female and HRQOL was higher among male. Respondents who were more than 50 years old had poor HRQOL than less than 50 years age group. Poor economic status, reported diabetic complications and longer duration of diabetes were significantly associated with poor HRQOL. The respondents treated with combination of therapies (oral medication plus insulin) indicated better HRQOL than patients with insulin therapy alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, economic status (except subscale energy), and complications of DM (except subscale energy) as independent risk factor for HRQOL. Conclusion Gender, economic status, and complication of DM were independent risk factors for majority of the subscales of HRQOL. PMID:25003076

  16. Prevalence and determinants of depressive and anxiety symptoms in adults with type 2 diabetes in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nianquan; Lou, Peian; Shang, Yan; Zhang, Pan; Wang, Jian; Chang, Guiqiu; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression and to assess their impact on glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. Participants 893 Chinese men and women aged 18–84 years who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Methods People with type 2 diabetes completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales. Demographic and physiological characteristics were recorded. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the combined effect of factors associated with anxiety and depression and to assess the effects of anxiety and depression on glycaemic control. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was 56.1% and 43.6%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that anxiety symptoms were associated with being woman, low income, chronic disease, depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. Depressive symptoms were associated with being woman, older age, low education level, being single, diabetes complications, anxiety symptoms and poor sleep quality. Glycaemic control was not related to anxiety symptoms (OR=1.31, 95% CIs 0.94 to 1.67) or depressive symptoms (OR=1.23, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.63). A combination of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was associated with poor glycaemic control (relative excess risk due to interaction: 4.93, 95% CI 2.09 to 7.87; attributable proportion due to interaction: 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in this Chinese sample of participants, although depression and anxiety were not singly associated with glycaemic control. However, a combination of depressive and anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with glycaemic control in participants with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27531739

  17. Association of Serum Selenium, Zinc and Magnesium Levels with Glycaemic Indices and Insulin Resistance in Pre-diabetes: a Cross-Sectional Study from South India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Charu; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Agarwal, Ashish; Ahmad, Afzal; Hegde, Anupama; Srikantiah, Rukmini Mysore

    2017-01-01

    A growing understanding of antioxidant mechanisms and insulin-like actions of trace elements selenium and zinc has rekindled researchers' interest towards their role in diabetes mellitus, nutritional management of which concentrates predominantly on macronutrient intake. However, selenium studies limiting largely to diabetes have yielded inconsistent results with sparse knowledge in the pre-diabetes population. This hospital-based cross-sectional study screened 300 people who came to the institutional hospital laboratory with fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin requisition over a period of 6 months. Thirty-five pre-diabetes subjects aged 25-45 years and 35 age-matched healthy controls were selected as per inclusion criteria and clinical history. Serum selenium was estimated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, zinc and magnesium by colorimetric end-point methods and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and insulin resistance was calculated using a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 2 calculator. Data analysis was done using SPSS ver. 16 employing an independent sample t test for intergroup comparison of means and Pearson's correlation for correlation analysis. Serum mineral levels in the pre-diabetes group (selenium 63.01 ± 17.6 μg/L, zinc 55.78 ± 13.49 μg/dL, magnesium 1.37 ± 0.38 mg/dL) were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in comparison to the healthy controls (selenium 90.98 ± 15.81 μg/L, zinc 94.53 ± 15.41 μg/dL, magnesium 2.12 ± 0.22 mg/dL). A significant negative correlation was seen with glycaemic indices and insulin resistance. This study conducted in pre-diabetes subjects highlights a considerable deficiency of serum selenium, zinc and magnesium observed at a much earlier pre-clinical phase. This coupled with the evidence of a strong inverse association with glycaemic indices and insulin resistance postulates the role of mineral alterations in the pathophysiology of hyperglycaemia and

  18. Analysis of a sample of type 2 diabetic patients with obesity or overweight and at cardiovascular risk: a cross sectional study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The multifactorial control of diabetes relies on interventions that provide patients with the best knowledge and resources available. The objective of this research was to analyze the clinical characteristics of a sample of people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, and establish possible links between disease control, family history and lifestyle, to improve the quality of interventions. Family history, lifestyle habits, blood pressure, anthropometric data and laboratory tests were analyzed in this descriptive and comparative cross-sectional study. Results All patients had a pathological body mass index (BMI), and in those patients with a family history of diabetes, the disease was more serious and onset was earlier. Overall, 70.9% were taking drugs for arterial blood pressure management, with mean values within recommended limits; 87.1% were taking antihyperlipidemic drugs and had mean values for blood lipids within reference range; 93.5% were receiving oral antidiabetic drugs and/or insulin and had blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values higher than recommended limit; and 87% were taking antiplatelet drugs and had fibrinogen and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein higher than the normal range. High HbA1c values were found in a high proportion of our sample who were not following a tailored diet (84.2%), and better BMIs were associated with moderate physical activity. Coexistence of somatic disorders (97.4% of the sample with musculoskeletal diseases) could lead to the lack of physical activity. Conclusions This sample of patients with type 2 diabetes and at high cardiovascular risk, had acceptable metabolic control, facilitated by drug therapy. Family history of diabetes was associated with earlier disease onset and worse disease progression. Patients who were not following a tailored diet had worse HbA1c values compared with those who were. Individuals who practiced moderate physical activity in line with international

  19. A Retrospective Cross-sectional Analysis of Health Education Disparities in Patients With Diabetes Using Data From the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

    PubMed

    Branoff, Janelle D; Jiroutek, Michael R; Kelly, Chloe R; Huma, Sadia; Sutton, Beth S

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between receipt of diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight loss education in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes with various demographic and socioeconomic variables using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for the years 2008 to 2011. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study design included patients ≥ 18 years of age with diabetes in the NAMCS between 2008 and 2011, inclusive. A series of weighted multivariable logistic regression models was constructed to evaluate predictors of diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight loss education. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Results Among patients included in this study (n = 3027), 35.6% received diet/nutrition education, 21.8% received exercise education, and 13.6% received weight loss education. From the multivariable analyses, visits using "other" payment type, visits with Medicaid, and visits occurring in non-Metropolitan Statistical Areas were significantly less likely to receive diet/nutrition education; visits using other payment type, visits in non-Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and visits by those ≥ 65 and 45-64 years of age were significantly less likely to receive exercise education. No significant disparities in the receipt of weight loss education were found. Conclusion These findings indicate that although only approximately one third or fewer patients diagnosed with diabetes were receiving diet/nutrition, exercise, or weight loss education, there appeared to be limited disparities among the groups studied. Education rates appear to be trending upward over time, to be slightly improved as compared with previous studies, and to include fewer disparities.

  20. Cross-sectional associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes: baseline data from a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiavaroli, Laura; Mirrahimi, Arash; Ireland, Christopher; Mitchell, Sandra; Sahye-Pudaruth, Sandhya; Coveney, Judy; Olowoyeye, Omodele; Patel, Darshna; de Souza, Russell J; Augustin, Livia S A; Bashyam, Balachandran; Pichika, Sathish Chandra; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Nishi, Stephanie K; Leiter, Lawrence A; Josse, Robert G; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail E; Moody, Alan R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Sievenpiper, John L; Jenkins, David J A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way. Setting Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Participants 325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6.5% and 8.0% at screening, without a recent cardiovascular event. Main outcome measures CIMT by CUS and associations with dietary intake from 7-day food records, as well as anthropometric measures and fasting serum samples. Results CIMT was significantly inversely associated with dietary pulse intake (β=−0.019, p=0.009), available carbohydrate (β=−0.004, p=0.008), glycaemic load (β=−0.001, p=0.007) and starch (β=−0.126, p=0.010), and directly associated with total (β=0.004, p=0.028) and saturated (β=0.012, p=0.006) fat intake in multivariate regression models adjusted for age, smoking, previous CVD event, blood pressure medication, antidiabetic medication and ultrasonographer. Conclusions Lower CIMT was significantly associated with greater consumption of dietary pulses and carbohydrates and lower total and saturated fat intake, suggesting a potential role for diet in CVD risk management in type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trials are anticipated to explore these associations further. Trial registration number NCT01063374. PMID:28336747

  1. Requirements and access needs of patients with chronic disease to their hospital electronic health record: results of a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    White, H; Gillgrass, L; Wood, A; Peckham, D G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patient's views on the functionality required for personalised access to the secondary care electronic health record (EHR) and their priorities for development. Design Quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional self-complete survey of patient views on required EHR functionality from a secondary care EHR, including a patient ranking of functionality. Setting Secondary care patients attending a regional cystic fibrosis unit in the north of England. Participants 201 adults (106 (52.7%) males), median age 29 years (range 17–58 years), entered and completed the study. Inclusion criteria are as follows: a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, aged 16 years and over, at the time of clinical stability. Outcome measures Quantitative responses within 4 themes; (1) value placed on aspects of the EHR; (2) access requirements to functions of the EHR; (3) views on information sent to the EHR and (4) patient feedback entered into the EHR. A ranked score for 15 functions of the EHR was obtained. Results Highest ratings (% reporting item as very important/important) were reported for access to clinical measures (lung function (94%), C reactive protein (84%), sputum microbiology (81%) and blood results (80%)), medication changes (82%) and lists (83%) and sending repeat prescription (83%) and treatment requests (80%), while sending symptom diaries was less so (62%). Email contact with clinicians was the most valuable communication element of the EHR (84% very important/important). Of 15 features of the EHR (1=most desirable to 15=least desirable), patients identified ‘clinical measures’ (2.62 (CI 2.07 to 3.06)), and ‘access to medication lists’ (4.91 (CI 4.47 to 5.44)), as highest priority for development and the ability to comment on errors/omissions (11.0 (CI 10.6 to 11.5)) or experience of care (11.8 (CI 11.4 to 12.2)) as lowest. Conclusions Patients want extensive personal access to their hospital EHR, placing high importance on the

  2. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman’s rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  3. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AL-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassan, Asim; Alrasheedy, Alian A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life profile among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Centre at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) scale was used for the assessment of health-related quality of life. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Inferential statistics were applied to evaluate associations between study variables. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was used for data analysis; p <0.05 was set as the level of statistical significance. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were categorised into the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. Forty-four (58.7%) were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and 40 (53.3%) had a university level of education. A moderate level of health-related quality of life (0.70 ± 0.22) was measured in the study cohort. Gender was significantly associated with health-related quality of life scores (p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs 0.74 ± 0.20). There were no statistically significant associations between health-related quality of life scores and age groups, duration of diabetes, marital status, educational level and type of treatment. Conclusion: This study has highlighted that Saudi diabetes patients have low levels of health-related quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to consider this when planning holistic patient treatment approaches. PMID:26770806

  4. Poor self-rated health in adult patients with type 2 diabetes in the town of Södertälje: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Taloyan, Marina; Wajngot, Alexandre; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Tovi, Jonas; Sundquist, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Several studies indicate that ethnicity may be a strong predictor of poor self-rated health (SRH). The aims of the present study were to investigate whether there was an association between ethnicity and poor SRH in subjects with type 2 diabetes and to determine if the association remained after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, gender employment, marital status, and education. Design A cross-sectional study based on a patient population in the town of Södertälje. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Setting Four primary health care centers. Subjects A total of 354 individuals were included: Assyrian/Syrian-born (n = 173) and Swedish-born (n = 181). Results The odds ratio for rating poor SRH for Assyrian/Syrian subjects with type 2 diabetes was 4.5 times higher (95% CI = 2.7–7.5) than for Swedish patients in a crude model. After adjusting for possible confounders, unemployed/retired people had 5.4 times higher odds for reporting poor SRH than employees (OR = 5.4; 95% CI = 2.3–12.5). Women had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI = 1.0–3.0) for reporting poor SRH than men. In the final model poor SRH among Assyrians/Syrians decreased but still remained significant (OR=3.7; 95% CI = 2.5–6.6). Conclusions The findings in this study are important for planning primary health care services. They highlight the crucial importance of being aware of the subjective health status of immigrants fleeing from war in the Middle East and resettling in Sweden. PMID:20608888

  5. Complementary alternative medicine use among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the primary care setting: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited study on the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in primary -care settings. This study seeks to understand the prevalence, types, expenditures, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of CAM use among patients with DM visiting outpatient primary care clinics. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 240 diabetic patients. CAM is defined as a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional Western medicine. Data analysis was done using SPSS v. 19 and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of CAM use. Results The prevalence of CAM use was 62.5 percent. Female were 1.8 times more likely than male in using CAM. Malays (75%) were the most frequent users, followed Indians (18%) and Chinese (6%). Biological therapy (50.0%) were the most widely used, followed by manipulative-body based systems (9.2%), energy system (8.8%), alternative medicine systems (4.6%) and mind-body system (1.7%). In biological therapy, a total of 30.4 percent, 24.2 percent, 13.3 percent, and 7.9 percent of diabetic patients consumed bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia), followed by Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth), garlic (Allium Sativum), and Sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus Nutans Lindau) respectively. The mean of the expenditure on CAM usage was RM 52.8 ± 101.9 (US $16.9 ± 32.5) per month. According to multiple logistic regression analyses, being Muslim (OR 5.258, 95 percent CI 2.952-9.368) had significant positive association with CAM use. Conclusions The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future. PMID

  6. Clinical and dietary predictors of common carotid artery intima media thickness in a population with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina S; Keogh, Jennifer B; Meikle, Peter J; Garg, Manohar L; Clifton, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the clinical and dietary predictors of common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA IMT) in a cohort of subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Participants with type 1 (n = 23) and type 2 diabetes (n = 127) had mean and mean maximum CCA IMT measured using B mode ultrasound. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Clinical and dietary predictors of mean and mean maximum CCA IMT were determined using linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS The main predictors of mean and mean maximum CCA IMT were age and weight. After multivariate adjustment there were no dietary predictors of CCA IMT. However, in subjects that were not prescribed a lipid lowering medication alcohol consumption was positively associated with CCA IMT after multivariate adjustment. No difference existed in CCA IMT between subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes once age was adjusted for. CONCLUSION CCA IMT was predominantly predicted by age and weight in these subjects with diabetes. The finding that CCA IMT was not different between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes warrants further investigation in a larger cohort. PMID:28138361

  7. An Insight into Health Care Setup in National Capital Region of India using Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire (DLOQ)- A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ritu; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Prasad, Monika; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decades India, though being a developing country has progressed in multiple sectors but has not shown a substantial qualitative progress in healthcare. To be able to evaluate learning organization in a healthcare setup would thrust millennium development goals and infuse continuous learning model into health sector. Aim To assess health care context using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) in a health care setting in National Capital Region of India. Materials and Methods DLOQ proforma were distributed among 315 employees at all levels of the hospital. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 19.0 and was subjected to quantitative analysis and non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant difference between the means of the different professions where as Mann-Whitney tests compared the relation between each of the profession and a significant difference (p < 0.05) was noted, except dimension “systems connection”. Conclusion The results provided sufficient inputs about the multidimensional learning organization capacity of a health care setting in a rapidly developing country. PMID:27504396

  8. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3–1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  9. Evaluation of doctoral nursing education in Japan by students, graduates, and faculty: a comparative study based on a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Satoko; Gregg, Misuzu F; Miki, Yuko; Arimoto, Azusa; Murashima, Sachiyo; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-05-01

    Evaluation of doctoral education in nursing is needed with the rapid increase in doctoral nursing programs in Japan. This study aimed to compare the evaluations of doctoral nursing education by students, graduates, and faculty. All 46 doctoral nursing programs in Japan were target settings. 127 students who had been in the doctoral program, 24 graduates and 87 faculty members had responded to the survey. A questionnaire with 17 items for program evaluation, 12 items for faculty evaluation, 9 items for resource evaluation, and 3 for overall evaluations was distributed in November and December 2008. Responses to 1 program evaluation item, 2 faculty evaluation items and 4 resource evaluation items indicated significant differences among evaluators. While 79.2% of graduates responded positively that the number of faculty members was sufficient to facilitate learning, only 36.1% of faculty members and 49.6% of students responded affirmatively. Graduates' ratings were the most positive and faculty members were the least positive, especially for infrastructure or equipment such as libraries, computers, and the number of technical and support staff. The significant differences among the evaluators suggested that having evaluators in various roles is important to evaluate the quality of doctoral nursing education.

  10. Is anxiety more common in school students with newly diagnosed specific learning disabilities? A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, AN; Karande, S; Bala, N; Sant, H; Gogtay, NJ; Sholapurwala, R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: School students with specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) experience chronic academic underachievement and resultant stress. The present study aimed to determine if school students with newly diagnosed SpLD were more likely to have anxiety than their regular peers. Materials and Methods: The study cases (aged 8-15 years) were recruited from our institute's learning disability clinic. The matched controls were recruited from four schools in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Anxiety was measured using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report version questionnaire. Median SCAS scores and the proportion of students with an SCAS score in the “clinical anxiety” range were compared between the groups. Results: SCAS scores were significantly higher in 8-11-year-old learning-disabled male and female students (P < 0.0001 for both groups) and 12-15-year-old female students (P = 0.004), as compared with matched controls. A significantly higher number of learning-disabled students were found to have “clinical anxiety” [24.64% vs 4.35%, crude odds ratio (OR) = 7.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.91-17.78, P = 0.0001], as compared with the controls regardless of gender, age group, presence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or associated medical conditions. A significantly higher proportion of 8-11-year-old learning-disabled students, especially males, were found to have “clinical anxiety” as compared with 12-15-year-old learning-disabled students (crude OR = 4.38, 95% CI 1.94-9.92, P = 0.0004). Gender, presence of comorbid ADHD or associated medical conditions, and type of school attended or curriculum did not impact the prevalence of “clinical anxiety” in learning-disabled students. Interpretation and Conclusions: Students with newly diagnosed SpLD have greater odds of being “clinically anxious” relative to their regular peers. We recommend screening for anxiety in children with Sp

  11. Delay between Onset of Symptoms and Seeking Physician Intervention Increases Risk of Diabetic Foot Complications: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gavan, Norina A.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Vinik, Etta J.; Florea, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    We present a post hoc analysis of 17,530 questionnaires collected as part of the 2012 screening for neuropathy using Norfolk Quality of Life tool in patients with diabetes in Romania, to assess the impact on foot complications of time between the onset of symptoms of diabetes/its complications and the physician visit. Odds ratios (ORs) for self-reporting neuropathy increased from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07–1.25) in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset to 2.27 in those who sought medical care >2 years after symptoms onset. The ORs for having a history of foot ulcers were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26–1.63) in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months and increased to 3.08 (95% CI: 2.59–3.66) in those who sought medical care after >2 years from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset. The highest ORs for a history of gangrene (2.49 [95% CI: 1.90–3.26]) and amputations (2.18 [95% CI: 1.60–2.97]) were observed in those who sought medical care after >2 years following symptoms onset. In conclusion, we showed that waiting for >1 month after symptoms onset dramatically increases the risk of diabetic foot complications. These results show the need for accessible educational programs on diabetes and its chronic complications and the need to avoid delays in reporting. PMID:28018920

  12. Practical Classification Guidelines for Diabetes in patients treated with insulin: a cross-sectional study of the accuracy of diabetes diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Suzy V; Wienand-Barnett, Sophie; Shepherd, Maggie; King, Sophie M; Fox, Charles; Khunti, Kamlesh; Oram, Richard A; Knight, Bea A; Hattersley, Andrew T; Jones, Angus G; Shields, Beverley M

    2016-01-01

    Background Differentiating between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is fundamental to ensuring appropriate management of patients, but can be challenging, especially when treating with insulin. The 2010 UK Practical Classification Guidelines for Diabetes were developed to help make the differentiation. Aim To assess diagnostic accuracy of the UK guidelines against ‘gold standard’ definitions of type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on measured C-peptide levels. Design and setting In total, 601 adults with insulin-treated diabetes and diabetes duration ≥5 years were recruited in Devon, Northamptonshire, and Leicestershire. Method Baseline information and home urine sample were collected. Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) measures endogenous insulin production. Gold standard type 1 diabetes was defined as continuous insulin treatment within 3 years of diagnosis and absolute insulin deficiency (UCPCR<0.2 nmol/mmol ≥5 years post-diagnosis); all others classed as having type 2 diabetes. Diagnostic performance of the clinical criteria was assessed and other criteria explored using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results UK guidelines correctly classified 86% of participants. Most misclassifications occurred in patients classed as having type 1 diabetes who had significant endogenous insulin levels (57 out of 601; 9%); most in those diagnosed ≥35 years and treated with insulin from diagnosis, where 37 out of 66 (56%) were misclassified. Time to insulin and age at diagnosis performed best in predicting long-term endogenous insulin production (ROC AUC = 0.904 and 0.871); BMI was a less strong predictor of diabetes type (AUC = 0.824). Conclusion Current UK guidelines provide a pragmatic clinical approach to classification reflecting long-term endogenous insulin production; caution is needed in older patients commencing insulin from diagnosis, where misclassification rates are increased. PMID:27080317

  13. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  14. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin-resistant phenotypes among adults without diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enju; McKeown, Nicola M; Newby, P K; Meigs, James B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Quatromoni, Paula A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-08-01

    Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the health consequences of consuming different dietary patterns. We used this approach to examine the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and insulin-resistant phenotypes, including waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, 2 h post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and blood pressure, using data from the fifth examination cycle of the Framingham Offspring Study. Among 2875 participants without diabetes, we identified four dietary patterns based on the predominant sources of energy: 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains', 'Refined Grains and Sweets', 'Beer' and 'Soda'. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and potential confounders, compared with the 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains' pattern, the 'Refined Grains and Sweets' pattern had significantly higher mean waist circumference (92.4 v. 90.5 cm; P = 0.008) and BMI (27.3 v. 26.6 kg/m2; P = 0.02); the 'Soda' pattern had significantly higher mean fasting insulin concentration (31.3 v. 28.0 microU/ml; P < or = 0.001); the 'Beer' pattern had significantly higher mean HDL-cholesterol concentration (1.46 v. 1.31 mmol/l; P < 0.001). No associations were observed between dietary patterns and ISI0,120, TAG, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Our findings suggest that consumption of a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and reduced-fat dairy protects against insulin-resistant phenotypes and displacing these healthy choices with refined grains, high-fat dairy, sweet baked foods, candy and sugar-sweetened soda may promote insulin-resistant phenotypes.

  15. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3 nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

  16. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) impact multiple modalities of sensation including light touch, temperature, position sense and vibration perception. No study to date has examined the mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerves during limb movement in this population. The objective was to determine the unique effects T2DM and DSP have on nerve mechanosensitivity in the lower extremity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 43 people with T2DM. Straight leg raise neurodynamic tests were performed with ankle plantar flexion (PF/SLR) and dorsiflexion (DF/SLR). Hip flexion range of motion (ROM), lower extremity muscle activity and symptom profile, intensity and location were measured at rest, first onset of symptoms (P1) and maximally tolerated symptoms (P2). Results The addition of ankle dorsiflexion during SLR testing reduced the hip flexion ROM by 4.3° ± 6.5° at P1 and by 5.4° ± 4.9° at P2. Individuals in the T2DM group with signs of severe DSP (n = 9) had no difference in hip flexion ROM between PF/SLR and DF/SLR at P1 (1.4° ± 4.2°; paired t-test p = 0.34) or P2 (0.9° ± 2.5°; paired t-test p = 0.31). Movement induced muscle activity was absent during SLR with the exception of the tibialis anterior during DF/SLR testing. Increases in symptom intensity during SLR testing were similar for both PF/SLR and DF/SLR. The addition of ankle dorsiflexion induced more frequent posterior leg symptoms when taken to P2. Conclusions Consistent with previous recommendations in the literature, P1 is an appropriate test end point for SLR neurodynamic testing in people with T2DM. However, our findings suggest that people with T2DM and severe DSP have limited responses to SLR neurodynamic testing, and thus may be at risk for harm from nerve overstretch and the information gathered will be of limited clinical value. PMID:20799983

  17. Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus newly treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists (CHADIG Study): a cross-sectional multicentre study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Conget, Ignacio; Mauricio, Dídac; Ortega, Rafael; Detournay, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1Ra) have been made recently available in Spain for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) treatment. There are no published data on the clinical and sociodemographic profile of patients initiating treatment with GLP-1Ra in Spain. Our objective was to understand these patients' characteristics in a real-world clinical practice setting. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Spanish specialist outpatient clinics. Participants 403 adults with DM2 initiating GLP-1Ra treatment were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Sociodemographic and DM2-related clinical data, including treatment at and after GLP-1Ra initiation and comorbidities, were collected. Results Evaluable patients (n=403; 50.9% female) were included (July 2013 to March 2014) at 24 centres by 53 specialists (47 endocrinology, 6 internal medicine), with the following profile (value±SD): age (58.3±10.4 years), diabetes duration (9.9±7 years), body mass index (BMI; 36.2±5.5) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; 8.4±1.4%); 14% had HbA1c≤7%. Previous antidiabetic treatment: 53.8% only oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), 5.2% insulin and 40% insulin and OAD; of those receiving OAD, 35% single drug, 38.2% 2 drugs and 24% 3 drugs. Concomitant to GLP-1Ra, 55.3% were only on OAD, 36.2% on insulin and OAD, and 7.2% only on insulin. Of those receiving OAD, the GLP-1Ra was mainly associated with 1 drug (65%) or 2 drugs (31.8%). GLP-1Ra are frequently added to existing antidiabetic drugs, with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors being the OAD most frequently switched (45% receiving 1 before starting GLP-1Ra, only 2.7% receiving it concomitantly). Conclusions In Spain, GLP-1Ra therapy is usually started in combination with OADs or OADs and insulin. These drugs are used in relatively young patients often not reaching therapeutic goals with other treatment combinations, roughly a decade after diagnosis and with a relatively high BMI

  18. Rationale and cross-sectional study design of the Research on Obesity and type 2 Diabetes among African Migrants: the RODAM study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Dodoo, Francis; Smeeth, Liam; Addo, Juliet; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen K; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Spranger, Joachim; Nicolaou, Mary; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Burr, Tom; Henneman, Peter; Mannens, Marcel M; van Straalen, Jan P; Bahendeka, Silver; Zwinderman, A H; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly prevalent among African migrants compared with European descent populations. The underlying reasons still remain a puzzle. Gene–environmental interaction is now seen as a potential plausible factor contributing to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D, but has not yet been investigated. The overall aim of the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) project is to understand the reasons for the high prevalence of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan Africans in diaspora by (1) studying the complex interplay between environment (eg, lifestyle), healthcare, biochemical and (epi)genetic factors, and their relative contributions to the high prevalence of obesity and T2D; (2) to identify specific risk factors within these broad categories to guide intervention programmes and (3) to provide a basic knowledge for improving diagnosis and treatment. Methods and analysis RODAM is a multicentre cross-sectional study among homogenous sub-Saharan African participants (ie, Ghanaians) aged >25 years living in rural and urban Ghana, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK (http://rod-am.eu/). Standardised data on the main outcomes, genetic and non-genetic factors are collected in all locations. The aim is to recruit 6250 individuals comprising five subgroups of 1250 individuals from each site. In Ghana, Kumasi and Obuasi (urban stratum) and villages in the Ashanti region (rural stratum) are served as recruitment sites. In Europe, Ghanaian migrants are selected through the municipality or Ghanaian organisations registers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained in all sites. This paper gives an overview of the rationale, conceptual framework and methods of the study. The differences across locations will allow us to gain insight into genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to the occurrence of obesity and T2D and will inform targeted intervention and prevention programmes, and

  19. Dietary quality in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland; a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of dietary quality indices (DQIs) have been developed to assess the quality of dietary intake. Analysis of the intake of individual nutrients does not reflect the complexity of dietary behaviours and their association with health and disease. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a variety of validated DQIs. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 111 Caucasian adults, 65 cases with T2DM were recruited from the Diabetes Day Care Services of St. Columcille’s and St. Vincent’s Hospitals, Dublin, Ireland. Forty-six controls did not have T2DM and were recruited from the general population. Data from 3-day estimated diet diaries were used to calculate 4 DQIs. Results Participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score for consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern compared to the control group, measured using the Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) (mean ± SD) (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.5 vs 4.2 ± 1.8, P = 0.02 respectively). Participants with T2DM also had lower dietary quality than the control population as assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (Range 0–9) (T2DM; 2.6 ± 2.3, control; 3.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.001). No differences between the two groups were found when dietary quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Micronutrient intake was assessed using the Micronutrient Adequacy Score (Range 0–8) and participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score than the control group (T2DM; 1.6 ± 1.4, control; 2.3 ± 1.4, P = 0.009). When individual nutrient intakes were assessed, no significant differences were observed in macronutrient intake. Conclusion Overall, these findings demonstrate that T2DM was associated with a lower score when dietary quality was assessed using a number of validated indices

  20. Effects of lifestyle habits and eating meals together with the family on the prevalence of obesity among school children in Tokushima, Japan: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Kyoko; Sei, Masako; Takeda, Eiji; Ewis, Ashraf A; Munakata, Hokuma; Onishi, Chiemi; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2008-02-01

    Obesity in children has become a major global public health concern. The prevention of obesity must start from early childhood in order to establish sound lifestyle habits and promote healthy adulthood. In this study, we evaluated factors associated with the prevention of obesity and the development of healthy lifestyle habits in children. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was performed in elementary and junior high school students in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, during the summer of 2004. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items such as physique, sleep, eating habits, diet, exercise, free time, and attending after-school lessons. Our study revealed that eating meals as a family every day is associated with a lower rate of obesity as well as getting good lifestyle habits such as eating balanced meals and getting enough sleep. Of the 3,291 students who responded to the questionnaire, 2,688 (81.7%) reported that they eat meals with their family every day. The percentage of students who eat meals with their family every day decreased with increasing school grade, with the lowest percent in the junior high school students. However, the results regarding female junior high school students revealed a marked association between eating meals with the family every day and good lifestyle habits. We recommend that parents and school teaching staff encourage the establishment of sound, healthy lifestyle habits in children from early childhood as an effective measure for the prevention of obesity.

  1. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among patients with Type 2 diabetes in Rural Sullia, Karnataka: A community-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Peraje Vasu; Kulkarni, Annarao Gunderao; Gangadhar, Namratha Kurunji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which requires a multipronged approach for its management, wherein patient has an important role to play in terms of self-care practices, which can be taught to them by educational programs. To develop such an educational program, a baseline assessment of knowledge and self-care practices of patients, needs to be made. The two objectives of the study were to estimate the knowledge of diabetic patients regarding the disease and its complications, and to estimate the knowledge and adherence to self-care practices concerned with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study was conducted in rural Sullia, Karnataka, from January 2014 to May 2015. The sample size was calculated to be 400, and the sampling method was probability proportionate to sampling size. Result: Majority of them were married males of Hindu religion and belonged to upper middle class. Only 24.25% of them had good knowledge. Among the self-care practices, foot care was the most neglected area. Conclusion: Only one-fourth of the study population had a good knowledge toward diabetes. Adherence to some of the self-care practices was also poor. Government policies may help in creating guidelines on diabetes management, funding community programs for public awareness, availability of medicines, and diagnostic services to all sections of the community. Continuing education programs for health-care providers and utilization of mass media to the fullest potential may also help in creating awareness. PMID:28349003

  2. Lower vegetable protein intake and higher dietary acid load associated with lower carbohydrate intake are risk factors for metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes: Post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Hiroya; Tanaka, Muhei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wada, Sayori; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A low-carbohydrate diet based on animal sources is associated with higher all-cause mortality, whereas a vegetable-based low-carbohydrate diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease mortality. It has been suggested that acid/base imbalance might play an important role in some cardiometabolic abnormalities. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether carbohydrate intake is associated with quality of dietary protein and acid load, and whether these are related to metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 149 patients with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary acid load was assessed by potential renal acid load and net endogenous acid production. Results Mean daily total energy intake, carbohydrate intake, animal protein intake and vegetable protein intake were 1821.5 kcal, 248.8 g, 36.1 g and 31.1 g, respectively. Carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score, and was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. Logistic regression analyses showed that the subgroup of patients with a lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher potential renal acid load or net endogenous acid production score was significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with the quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load. Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26221526

  3. Concordance in diabetic foot ulceration: a cross-sectional study of agreement between wound swabbing and tissue sampling in infected ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Andrea; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Brown, Sarah; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Backhouse, Michael; Bhogal, Moninder; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Reynolds, Catherine; Sykes, Gill; Dowson, Christopher; Edmonds, Michael; Vowden, Peter; Jude, Edward B; Dickie, Tom; Nixon, Jane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is inadequate evidence to advise clinicians on the relative merits of swabbing versus tissue sampling of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). OBJECTIVES To determine (1) concordance between culture results from wound swabs and tissue samples from the same ulcer; (2) whether or not differences in bacterial profiles from swabs and tissue samples are clinically relevant; (3) concordance between results from conventional culture versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and (4) prognosis for patients with an infected DFU at 12 months' follow-up. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, multicentre study involving patients with diabetes and a foot ulcer that was deemed to be infected by their clinician. Microbiology specimens for culture were taken contemporaneously by swab and by tissue sampling from the same wound. In a substudy, specimens were also processed by PCR. A virtual 'blinded' clinical review compared the appropriateness of patients' initial antibiotic regimens based on the results of swab and tissue specimens. Patients' case notes were reviewed at 12 months to assess prognosis. RESULTS The main study recruited 400 patients, with 247 patients in the clinical review. There were 12 patients in the PCR study and 299 patients in the prognosis study. Patients' median age was 63 years (range 26-99 years), their diabetes duration was 15 years (range 2 weeks-57 years), and their index ulcer duration was 1.8 months (range 3 days-12 years). Half of the ulcers were neuropathic and the remainder were ischaemic/neuroischaemic. Tissue results reported more than one pathogen in significantly more specimens than swabs {86.1% vs. 70.1% of patients, 15.9% difference [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.8% to 20.1%], McNemar's p-value < 0.0001}. The two sampling techniques reported a difference in the identity of pathogens for 58% of patients. The number of pathogens differed in 50.4% of patients. In the clinical review study, clinicians agreed on the need for a

  4. Associations of reallocating sitting time into standing or stepping with glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity: a cross-sectional analysis of adults at risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, Charlotte L; Henson, Joe; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Bakrania, Kishan; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify associations between sitting time and glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity by considering reallocation of time into standing or stepping. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Leicestershire, UK, 2013. Participants Adults aged 30–75 years at high risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or type 2 diabetes. 435 adults (age 66.8±7.4 years; 61.7% male; 89.2% white European) were included. Methods Participants wore an activPAL3 monitor 24 hours/day for 7 days to capture time spent sitting, standing and stepping. Fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose and insulin were assessed; insulin sensitivity was calculated by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Secretion (HOMA-IS) and Matsuda-Insulin Sensitivity Index (Matsuda-ISI). Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was used to quantify associations of substituting 30 min of waking sitting time (accumulated in prolonged (≥30 min) or short (<30 min) bouts) for standing or stepping on glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity. Interaction terms were fitted to assess whether the associations with measures of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity was modified by sex or IGR status. Results After adjustment for confounders, including waist circumference, reallocation of prolonged sitting to short sitting time and to standing was associated with 4% lower fasting insulin and 4% higher HOMA-IS; reallocation of prolonged sitting to standing was also associated with a 5% higher Matsuda-ISI. Reallocation to stepping was associated with 5% lower 2-hour glucose, 7% lower fasting insulin, 13% lower 2-hour insulin and a 9% and 16% higher HOMA-IS and Matsuda-ISI, respectively. Reallocation of short sitting time to stepping was associated with 5% and 10% lower 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin and 12% higher Matsuda-ISI. Results were not modified by IGR status or sex. Conclusions Reallocating a small amount of short or prolonged sitting time with standing or stepping may improve 2-hour

  5. Target organ damage and cardiovascular complications in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes in Spain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cea-Calvo, Luis; Conthe, Pedro; Gómez-Fernández, Pablo; de Alvaro, Fernando; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Background Target organ damage (mainly cardiac and renal damage) is easy to evaluate in outpatient clinics and offers valuable information about patient's cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using simple methods, the prevalence of cardiac and renal damage and its relationship to the presence of established cardiovascular disease (CVD), in patients with hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods The RICARHD study is a multicentre, cross-sectional study made by 293 investigators in Nephrology and Internal Medicine Spanish outpatient clinics, and included patients aged 55 years or more with HT and type 2 DM with more than six months of diagnosis. Demographic, clinical and biochemical data, and CVD were collected from the clinical records. Cardiac damage was defined by the presence of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH), and renal damage by a calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and/or the presence of an albumin/creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g; or an urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥ 30 mg/24 hours. Results 2339 patients (mean age 68.9 years, 48.2% females, 51.3% with established CVD) were included. ECG-LVH was present in 22.9% of the sample, GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 45.1%, and abnormal UAE in 58.7%. Compared with the reference patients (those without neither cardiac nor renal damage), patients with ECG-LVH alone (OR 2.20, [95%CI 1.43–3.38]), or kidney damage alone (OR 1.41, [1.13–1.75]) showed an increased prevalence of CVD. The presence of both ECG-LVH and renal damage was associated with the higher prevalence (OR 3.12, [2.33–4.19]). After stratifying by gender, this relationship was present for both, men and women. Conclusion In patients with HT and type 2 DM, ECG-LVH or renal damage, evaluated using simple methods, are associated with an increased prevalence of established CVD. The simultaneous presence of both cardiac and renal damage was associated to the

  6. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  7. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  8. Performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and a Simplified Finnish Diabetes Risk Score in a Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Programme for Screening of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dysglycaemia in Madrid, Spain: The SPREDIA-2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Lunar, C.; Lahoz, C.; Mostaza, J. M.; Abánades-Herranz, J. C.; Laguna-Cuesta, F.; Estirado-de Cabo, E.; García-Iglesias, F.; González-Alegre, T.; Fernández-Puntero, B.; Montesano-Sánchez, L.; Vicent-López, D.; Cornejo-del Río, V.; Fernández-García, P. J.; Sánchez-Arroyo, V.; Sabín-Rodríguez, C.; López-López, S.; Patrón-Barandio, P.; Gómez-Campelo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and a simplified FINDRISC score (MADRISC) in screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (UT2DM) and dysglycaemia. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with participants with UT2DM, ranged between 45–74 years and lived in two districts in the north of metropolitan Madrid (Spain). The FINDRISC and MADRISC scores were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve method (ROC-AUC). Four different gold standards were used for UT2DM and any dysglycaemia, as follows: fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, and OGTT or HbA1c. Dysglycaemia and UT2DM were defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The study population comprised 1,426 participants (832 females and 594 males) with a mean age of 62 years (SD = 6.1). When HbA1c or OGTT criteria were used, the prevalence of UT2DM was 7.4% (10.4% in men and 5.2% in women; p<0.01) and the FINDRISC ROC-AUC for UT2DM was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69–0.74). The optimal cut-off point was ≥13 (sensitivity = 63.8%, specificity = 65.1%). The ROC-AUC of MADRISC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72–0.81) with ≥13 as the optimal cut-off point (sensitivity = 84.8%, specificity = 54.6%). FINDRISC score ≥12 for detecting any dysglycaemia offered the best cut-off point when HbA1c alone or OGTT and HbA1c were the criteria used. Conclusions FINDRISC proved to be a useful instrument in screening for dysglycaemia and UT2DM. In the screening of UT2DM, the simplified MADRISC performed as well as FINDRISC. PMID:27441722

  9. Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, A. G.; Gore, S. M.; Hutchinson, S. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S.; Burns, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTING: Lowmoss prison, Glasgow, and Aberdeen prison on 11 and 30 October 1996. SUBJECTS: 293 (94%) of all 312 inmates at Lowmoss and 146 (93%) of all 157 at Aberdeen, resulting in 286 and 143 valid questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of injecting inside prison in the previous four weeks by injector inmates who had been in prison for at least four weeks. RESULTS: 116 (41%) Lowmoss and 53 (37%) Aberdeen prisoners had a history of injecting drug use but only 4% of inmates (17/395; 95% confidence interval 2% to 6%) had ever been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. 42 Lowmoss prisoners (estimated 207 injections and 258 uses of sterilising tablets) and 31 Aberdeen prisoners (229 injections, 221 uses) had injected inside prison in the previous four weeks. The prisons together held 112 injector inmates who had been in prison for more than four weeks, of whom 57 (51%; 42% to 60%) had injected in prison in the past four weeks; their estimated mean number of injections was 6.0 (SD 5.7). Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. CONCLUSIONS: Sterilising tablets and hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all prisoners. Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. PMID:9233321

  10. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  12. Pancreas-enriched miRNAs are altered in the circulation of subjects with diabetes: a pilot cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Attila A.; Nunez Lopez, Yury O.; Xie, Hui; Yi, Fanchao; Mathews, Clayton; Pasarica, Magdalena; Pratley, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation of diabetes sometimes overlaps, contributing to ambiguity in the diagnosis. Thus, circulating pancreatic islet-enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) might be useful biomarkers of β-cell injury/dysfunction that would allow more accurate subtyping of diabetes. We measured plasma levels of selected miRNAs in subjects with prediabetes (n = 12), type 2 diabetes (T2D, n = 31), latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA, n = 6) and type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 16) and compared them to levels in healthy control subjects (n = 27). The study was conducted at the Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes (TRI-MD), Florida Hospital. MiRNAs including miR-375 (linked to β-cell injury), miR-21 (associated with islet inflammation), miR-24.1, miR-30d, miR-34a, miR-126, miR-146, and miR-148a were significantly elevated in subjects with various forms of diabetes compared to healthy controls. Levels of several miRNAs were significantly correlated with glucose responses during oral glucose tolerance testing, HbA1c, β-cell function, and insulin resistance in healthy controls, prediabetes, and T2D. These data suggest that miRNAs linked to β-cell injury and islet inflammation might be useful biomarkers to distinguish between subtypes of diabetes. This information could be used to predict progression of the disease, guide selection of optimal therapy and monitor responses to interventions, thus improving outcomes in patients with diabetes. PMID:27558530

  13. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  14. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: does diabetes mellitus matter? Which socioeconomic status does it impact? A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Rabiul

    2017-01-01

    The elevation of blood pressure levels has been recognized as a determinant of the risk for several common cardiovascular diseases. This work explores the evidence of disparities in the form of association between hypertension and diabetes mellitus in different socioeconomic statuses (SESs) at household level. A population sample of 7561 individuals aged ≥35 years from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) was used for this study. Concentration indexes are used to measure the disparities of myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus with SES. A two-level hierarchical logit model was used to examine the effects of participants and household SES accompanied by other explanatory variables on having hypertension. Then, the analysis is stratified by SES groups to examine how the overall effect of diabetes mellitus on hypertension may vary with SES. Finally, predictive margins are determined to understand the predictive probability of diabetes and SES of having hypertension as a risk factor of developing cardiovascular disease. The descriptive summary measures of SES inequality indicate that prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was higher among high SES. The multivariate analysis covering all samples reveals that there is a strong association between diabetes and hypertension (P < .01). Likewise, after stratifying, it is evident that in high SES, there is a strong association between individuals with diabetes mellitus and hypertension development; they have around four-fold higher chance of being affected by hypertension in comparison to individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose (P < .01). Moreover, there are strong associations between individuals in low and medium SESs having diabetes and having hypertension (P < .01); the likelihood of having hypertension is almost double compared to individuals who have no diabetes. The result of this study also shed light on the chance of an increase in prevalence of hypertension in prediabetes

  15. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-xia; Su, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. Objective To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Results Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p < 0.05 respectively). Differences in metabolic risk factors by urban/rural residence included overweight or obesity, triglycerides (≥1.71mmol/l), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), alcohol intake, and physical inactivity (p < 0.01 respectively). There was significant difference regarding the prevalence of HbA1c >8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), physical inactivity and irregular eating habits (p = 0.035, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers. PMID:27622506

  16. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among People with Type 2 Diabetes in the Ho Municipality, Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The cooccurrence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome potentiates the cardiovascular risk associated with each of the conditions; therefore characterizing metabolic syndrome among people with type 2 diabetes is beneficial for the purpose of cardiovascular disease prevention. This study aims at evaluating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among 162 patients with type 2 diabetes attending the diabetic clinic of the Ho Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Data obtained included anthropometric indices, blood pressure, serum lipids, glucose, and sociodemographics and clinical information. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the study population was 43.83%, 63.58%, and 69.14% using the NCEP-ATP III, the WHO, and the IDF criteria, respectively. The most predominant component among the study population was high blood pressure using the NCEP-ATP III (108 (66.67%)) and WHO (102 (62.96)) criteria and abdominal obesity (112 (69.14%)) for IDF criteria. High blood pressure was the most prevalent component among the males while abdominal obesity was the principal component among the females. In this population with type 2 diabetes, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome exists. Gender vulnerability to metabolic syndrome and multiple cluster components were skewed towards the female subpopulation with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28293668

  17. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  18. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  19. Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among persons with type-2 diabetes mellitus without a prior psychiatric history: a cross-sectional study in clinical settings in urban Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a growing health problem in South Asia. Despite an increasing number of studies exploring causal pathways between diabetes and depression in high-income countries (HIC), the pathway between the two disorders has received limited attention in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential pathway of diabetes contributing to depression, to assess the prevalence of depression, and to evaluate the association of depression severity with diabetes severity. This study uses a clinical sample of persons living with diabetes sequelae without a prior psychiatric history in urban Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 persons living with type-2 diabetes attending tertiary centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with at least three months of diagnosed diabetes and no prior depression diagnosis or family history of depression were recruited randomly using serial selection from outpatient medicine and endocrine departments. Blood pressure, anthropometrics (height, weight, waist and hip circumference) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at the time of interview. Depression was measured using the validated Nepali version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia). Results The proportion of respondents with depression was 40.3%. Using multivariable analyses, a 1-unit (%) increase in HbA1c was associated with a 2-point increase in BDI score. Erectile dysfunction was associated with a 5-point increase in BDI-Ia. A 10mmHg increase in blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) was associated with a 1.4-point increase in BDI-Ia. Other associated variables included waist-hip-ratio (9-point BDI-Ia increase), at least one diabetic complication (1-point BDI-Ia increase), treatment non-adherence (1-point BDI-Ia increase), insulin use (2-point BDI-Ia increase), living in a nuclear family (2-point BDI-Ia increase), and lack of family history of diabetes (1-point BDI-Ia increase). Higher

  20. Poor Vitamin C Status Late in Pregnancy Is Associated with Increased Risk of Complications in Type 1 Diabetic Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Juhl, Bente; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level (p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis (r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy. PMID:28241487

  1. Socio-Economic Differences in the Association between Self-Reported and Clinically Present Diabetes and Hypertension: Secondary Analysis of a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Gerald; Forrest, Lynne F.; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are key risk factors for coronary heart disease. Prevalence of both conditions is socio-economically patterned. Awareness of presence of the conditions may influence risk behaviour and use of preventative services. Our aim was to examine whether there were socio-economic differences in awareness of hypertension and diabetes in a UK population. Method Data from the Scottish Health Survey was used to compare self-reported awareness of hypertension and diabetes amongst those found on examination to have these conditions, by socioeconomic position (SEP) (measured by occupation, education and income). Odds ratios of self-reported awareness against presence, and the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of self-reporting as a measure of the presence of the condition, were calculated. Results Presence and self-reported awareness of both conditions increased as SEP decreased, on most measures. There was only one significant difference in awareness by SEP once other factors had been taken into account. Sensitivity showed that those in the most disadvantaged groups were most likely to self-report awareness of their hypertension, and specificity showed that those in the least disadvantaged groups were most likely to self-report awareness of its absence. There were few differences of note for diabetes. Conclusion We found no consistent pattern in the associations between SEP and the presence and self-reported awareness of hypertension and diabetes amongst those with these conditions. Without evidence of differences, it is important that universal approaches continue to be applied to the identification and management of those at risk of these and other conditions that underpin cardiovascular disease. PMID:26466384

  2. Higher prevalence of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency in sulfonylurea combination compared with insulin combination in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n = 299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n = 95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12≤300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR = 4.74, 95% CI 1.41-15.99, P = 0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels.

  3. Higher Prevalence of Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Sulfonylurea Combination Compared with Insulin Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Donghoon; Yun, Jae-Seung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Long-term and high-dose treatment with metformin is known to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether the prevalence of B12 deficiency was different in patients treated with different combination of hypoglycemic agents with metformin during the same time period. A total of 394 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulfonylurea (S+M group, n = 299) or metformin and insulin (I+M group, n = 95) were consecutively recruited. The vitamin B12 and folate levels were quantified using the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as vitamin B12≤300 pg/mL without folate deficiency (folate>4 ng/mL). The mean age of and duration of diabetes in the subjects were 59.4±10.5 years and 12.2±6.7 years, respectively. The mean vitamin B12 level of the total population was 638.0±279.6 pg/mL. The mean serum B12 levels were significantly lower in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (600.0±266.5 vs. 757.7±287.6 pg/mL, P<0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the metformin-treated patients was significantly higher in the S+M group compared with the I+M group (17.4% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.001). After adjustment for various factors, such as age, sex, diabetic duration, duration or daily dose of metformin, diabetic complications, and presence of anemia, sulfonylurea use was a significant independent risk factor for B12 deficiency (OR = 4.74, 95% CI 1.41–15.99, P = 0.012). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with metformin combined with sulfonylurea require clinical attention for vitamin B12 deficiency and regular monitoring of their vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25299054

  4. Inadequate glucose control in type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired lung function and systemic inflammation: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inadequate glucose control may be simultaneously associated with inflammation and decreased lung function in type 2 diabetes. We evaluated if lung function is worse in patients with inadequate glucose control, and if inflammatory markers are simultaneously increased in these subjects. Methods Subjects were selected at the Colombian Diabetes Association Center in Bogotá. Pulmonary function tests were performed and mean residual values were obtained for forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC, with predicted values based on those derived by Hankinson et al. for Mexican-Americans. Multiple least-squares regression was used to adjust for differences in known determinants of lung function. We measured blood levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), fibrinogen, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (C-RP). Results 495 diabetic patients were studied, out of which 352 had inadequate control (HBA1c > 7%). After adjusting for known determinants of lung function, those with inadequate control had lower FEV1 (-75.4 mL, IC95%: -92, -59; P < 0.0001) and FVC (-121 mL, IC95%: -134, -108; P < 0,0001) mean residuals, and higher FEV1/FVC (0.013%, IC95%: 0.009, 0.018, P < 0.0001) residuals than those with adequate control, as well as increased levels of all inflammatory markers (P < 0.05), with the exception of IL-6. Conclusions Subjects with type 2 diabetes and inadequate control had lower FVC and FEV1 than predicted and than those of subjects with adequate control. It is postulated that poorer pulmonary function may be associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators. PMID:20659337

  5. Association between self-stigma and self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Asuka; Fujimaki, Yuko; Fujimori, Shin; Isogawa, Akihiro; Onishi, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growing qualitative evidence reveals that many patients with chronic illnesses struggle to rebuild a positive self-image after diagnosis while attempting to find a balance between their current physical status and their ongoing social duties. One factor destabilizing patients’ identities is self-stigma, which seems to affect their behavioral goals through decreased self-efficacy. We hypothesized that self-stigma would be an independent factor, distinct from self-efficacy, for developing self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We used a consecutive sample of 209 outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated by endocrinologists at two university hospitals, one general hospital and one clinic. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to test the relationship between the patients’ activation levels for self-care behaviors (dependent variable) and self-stigma, self-efficacy, and depression symptoms (independent variables), adjusting for covariates involving sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results In a multiple linear regression model adjusted for prior covariates, there was significant association between self-stigma and activation levels for self-care behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes (adjusted R2=0.26, F (12,196)=7.20, p<0.001). The standardized partial regression coefficient of self-stigma was −0.23 (p=0.001), whereas that of self-efficacy was 0.19 (p=0.007). Conclusions Self-stigma is a negative independent factor, separate from self-efficacy, affecting the self-care behaviors of patients with type 2 diabetes. Self-stigma also has, at least, a similar impact on self-care behaviors to that of self-efficacy. To optimize treatment outcomes, patients’ self-stigma should be minimized, whereas their self-efficacy should be enhanced. PMID:26835138

  6. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  7. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Sebastian; Klee, Dirk; Kircheis, Gerald; Friedt, Michael; Schaper, Joerg; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI]). Of these, 82 (88.1%) had completely normal results in all examined aspects. Only one patient (1.1%) fulfilled the criteria as potential NAFLD with ALT > twice the upper limit of normal. Ten of the 93 patients (10.8%) showed any mild abnormality in at least one examined category including ALT, conventional ultrasounds and liver stiffness measurements. However, none of these ten fulfilled the NAFLD case definition criteria. Therefore, these slightly abnormal results were judged to be unspecific or at least of unknown significance in terms of NAFLD indication.

  8. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  9. Does Future Diabetes Risk Impair Current Quality of Life? A Cross-Sectional Study of Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, Saku; Cederberg, Henna; Roine, Risto; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saramies, Jouko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Present study examines the relationship between the estimated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We quantify the association between Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and HRQoL, and examine the potential use of FINDRISC as tool to evaluate HRQoL indirectly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 707 Finnish people without a diagnosis of T2D between the ages of 51 and 75 years. The risk of developing T2D was assessed using the validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0–26 points), and quality of life was measured using two preference-based HRQoL instruments (15D and SF-6D) and one health profile instrument (SF-36). Effects of the individual FINDRISC items and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as co-morbidities, on HRQoL were studied using multivariable Tobit regression models. Results Low HRQoL was significantly and directly associated with the estimated risk of developing T2D. An approximate 4–5 point change in FINDRISC score was observed to be associated with clinically noticeable changes in the preference-based instrument HRQoL index scores. The association between HRQoL and the risk of developing T2D was also observed for most dimensions of HRQoL in all applied HRQoL instruments. Overall, old age, lack of physical activity, obesity, and history of high blood glucose were the FINDRISC factors most prominently associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions The findings may help the health care professionals to substantiate the possible improvement in glucose metabolism and HRQoL potentially achieved by lifestyle changes, and better convince people at high risk of T2D to take action towards healthier lifestyle habits. FINDRISC may also provide an accurate proxy for HRQoL, and thus by estimating the risk of T2D with the FINDRISC, information about patients’ HRQoL may also be obtained indirectly, when it is not feasible to use HRQoL instruments. PMID:26840374

  10. Association of Chronic Kidney Disease with Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Risks in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Cross-sectional Study in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue; He, Jie; Ji, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Lou, Han-Yu; Song, Xiao-Xiao; Shan, Li-Zhen; Kang, Ying-Xiu; Zeng, Wen-Heng; Pang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Song-Zhao; Ding, Yue; Ren, Yue-Zhong; Shan, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between CKD and CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China has not yet been well investigated. This study aimed to determine the association of CKD with the risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in a Chinese population with T2DM. Methods: A total of 1401 inpatients with T2DM at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between April 2008 and November 2013 were included in this study. The CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation for Asians was used to classify CKD. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine was used to estimate the risks of CHD and stroke. Results: CHD risk was significantly increased with CKD stage (20.1%, 24.8%, and 34.3% in T2DM patients with no CKD, CKD Stage 1–2, and Stage 3–5, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). The stroke risk was also increased with CKD stage (8.6%, 12.7%, and 25.4% in T2DM patients with no CKD, CKD Stage 1–2, and Stage 3–5, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). Compared with no-CKD group, the odds ratios (ORs) for high CHD risk were 1.7 (P < 0.001) in the CKD Stage 1–2 group and 3.5 (P < 0.001) in the CKD Stage 3–5 group. The corresponding ORs for high stroke risk were 1.9 (P < 0.001) and 8.2 (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: In patients with T2DM, advanced CKD stage was associated with the increased risks of CHD and stroke. PMID:28051024

  11. Gender-Disparities in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: More Than a Quality of Care Issue. A Cross-Sectional Observational Study from the AMD Annals Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated gender-differences in quality of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care. Starting from electronic medical records of 300 centers, 5 process indicators, 3 favorable and 6 unfavorable intermediate outcomes, 6 treatment intensity/appropriateness measures and an overall quality score were measured. The likelihood of women vs. men (reference class) to be monitored, to reach outcomes, or to be treated has been investigated through multilevel logistic regression analyses; results are expressed as Odd Ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). The inter-center variability in the achievement of the unfavorable outcomes was also investigated. Overall, 28,802 subjects were analyzed (45.5% women). Women and men had similar age (44.5±16.0 vs. 45.0±17.0 years) and diabetes duration (18.3±13.0 vs. 18.8±13.0 years). No between-gender differences were found in process indicators. As for intermediate outcomes, women showed 33% higher likelihood of having HbA1c ≥8.0% (OR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.25–1.43), 29% lower risk of blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg (OR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.65–0.77) and 27% lower risk of micro/macroalbuminuria (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.65–0.81) than men, while BMI, LDL-c and GFR did not significantly differ; treatment intensity/appropriateness was not systematically different between genders; overall quality score was similar in men and women. Consistently across centers a larger proportion of women than men had HbA1c ≥8.0%, while a smaller proportion had BP ≥140/90 mmHg. No gender-disparities were found in process measures and improvements are required in both genders. The systematic worse metabolic control in women and worse blood pressure in men suggest that pathophysiologic differences rather than the care provided might explain these differences. PMID:27695110

  12. Low levels of serum Vitamin D in chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rosamma; Nagrale, Amol Vijay; Joseraj, Manaloor George; Pradeep Kumar, Kotha Muttathu; Kaziyarakath, Jaishid Ahadal; Chandini, Radhakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Vitamin D is associated with inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of our study was to find out the level of serum Vitamin D in chronic periodontitis patients (CHP) with and without type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 141 subjects, including 48 controls. Case groups consisted of 43 chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 DM (CHPDM) and 50 CHP. pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), modified gingival index (MGI), plaque index (PI), and calculus index (CI) were taken. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) level in ηg/ml was estimated by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay with Elecsys and cobase e immunoassay analysers(cobase e 411). Other laboratory investigations including fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum calcium were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean serum 25(OH) D level was 22.32 ± 5.76 ηg/ml, 14.06 ± 4.57 ηg/ml and 16.94 ± 5.58 ηg/ml for control, CHPDM and CHP groups respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean value of FBS was significantly high in CHPDM group as compared to CHP group. Periodontal parameters like MGI, PI, PD, and CI showed significant difference between groups (P < 0.05) and higher score was found in CHP group, while CAL and PI showed no statistically significant difference between CHP and CHPDM group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: This study observed a low level of serum Vitamin D level in patients with CHP and CHPDM. Low Vitamin D level was observed in case groups may be due to the diseases process rather than low Vitamin D acting as a cause for the disease. PMID:26644714

  13. Relationships between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Osonoi, Yusuke; Osonoi, Takeshi; Saito, Miyoko; Tamasawa, Atsuko; Nakayama, Shiho; Someya, Yuki; Ishida, Hidenori; Gosho, Masahiko; Kanazawa, Akio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While individuals tend to show accumulation of certain lifestyle patterns, the effect of such patterns in real daily life on cardio-renal—metabolic parameters remains largely unknown. This study aimed to assess clustering of lifestyle patterns and investigate the relationships between such patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters. Participants and methods The study participants were 726 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients free of history of cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between lifestyle patterns and cardio-renal-metabolic parameters was investigated by linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Factor analysis identified three lifestyle patterns. Subjects characterized by evening type, poor sleep quality and depressive status (type 1 pattern) had high levels of HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase and albuminuria. Subjects characterized by high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes (type 2 pattern) had high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Subjects characterized by high physical activity (type 3 pattern) had low uric acid and mild elevation of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In multivariate regression analysis adjusted by age, gender and BMI, type 1 pattern was associated with higher HbA1c levels, systolic BP and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Type 2 pattern was associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, ɤ- glutamyl transpeptidase levels, and diastolic BP. Conclusions The study identified three lifestyle patterns that were associated with distinct cardio-metabolic-renal parameters in T2DM patients. Trial registration UMIN000010932 PMID:28273173

  14. A cross-sectional view of the current state of treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes in the USA: Enrollment data from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium type 2 diabetes registry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, clinical outcomes, and co-morbidities of youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Registry. PDC enrolled 598 youth <21 yr of age with T2D from February 2012 to July 2015 at eight centers. ...

  15. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  16. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, P.; Gaspari, F.; Perna, A.; Remuzzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cross sectional correlation between the ratio and urinary protein excretion rate. Univariate and multivariate analysis of baseline predictors, including the ratio and 24 hour urinary protein, of decline in glomerular filtration rate and end stage renal failure in the long term. SETTING: Research centre in Italy. SUBJECTS: 177 non-diabetic outpatients with chronic renal disease screened for participation in the ramipril efficacy in nephropathy study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of decline in filtration rate evaluated by repeated measurements of unlabelled iohexol plasma clearance and rate of progression to renal failure. RESULTS: Protein:creatinine ratio was significantly correlated with absolute and log transformed 24 hour urinary protein values (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively.) Ratios also had high predictive value for rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate (univariate P = 0.0003, multivariate P = 0.004) and end stage renal failure (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04). Baseline protein:creatinine ratios and rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate were also significantly correlated (P < 0.0005). In the lowest third of the protein:creatinine ratio (< 1.7) there was 3% renal failure compared with 21.2% in the highest third (> 2.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria and a reliable predictor of progression of disease in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathies and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of renal disease and prognosis. PMID:9501711

  17. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  19. Cross-sectional study of diet, physical activity, television viewing and sleep duration in 233 110 adults from the UK Biobank; the behavioural phenotype of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered

  20. Association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Ortega-González, Carlos; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Moran, Carlos; Sánchez-Serrano, Ana Paola; Higareda-Sánchez, Rodolfo; de la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the association of obesity and overweight with the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), pre-diabetes and clinical–biochemical characteristics among infertile Mexican women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Level-three medical institution, an infertility clinic in Mexico City. Participants We included infertile Mexican women with diagnosis of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria: group 1 (n=83), normal weight (body mass index (BMI) 18.5–24.9 kg/m2); group 2 (n=217), overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2); and group 3 (n=238), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Primary and secondary outcome measures IR was determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) >2.5 and pre-diabetes by fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L and/or glucose value between 7.8 and 11 mmol/L at 2 hours during an oral glucose tolerance test. We compared clinical–biochemical characteristics among groups. Results Prevalence of IR for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 19.3%, 56.2% and 78.2%; overweight and obesity increase the IR OR (CI 95%) to 5.3 (2.9 to 9.8) and 14.9 (8.0 to 28), respectively. Prevalence of pre-diabetes for groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7.2%, 17.5% and 31.5%; overweight and obesity increase the pre-diabetes OR (CI 95%) to 2.7 (1.1 to 6.7) and 5.9 (2.4 to 14), respectively. Acanthosis nigricans was more frequent in group 3 than group 1. Free Androgen Index (FAI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) was higher in group 1 than group 3. Conclusions Obese and overweight infertile Mexican women with PCOS, attending to an infertility clinic, have a higher prevalence of IR and pre-diabetes compared with normal-weight women with PCOS. Therapeutic interventions should include those that improved metabolic functioning prior to

  1. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  2. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  3. Lower insulin sensitivity is related to lower relative muscle cross-sectional area, lower muscle density and lower handgrip force in young and middle aged non-diabetic men

    PubMed Central

    Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382

  4. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  5. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  6. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  7. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  8. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  9. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control

    PubMed Central

    McEneny, Jane; Daniels, Jane-Ann; McGowan, Anne; Gunness, Anjuli; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Michael; Young, Ian S.; Gibney, James

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA-) related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P = 0.088), and significantly in HDL2(P = 0.003) and HDL3(P = 0.005). When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%), serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was <8.34% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, regression analysis illustrated, that for every 1%-unit increase in HbA1c, SAA increased by 20% and 23% in HDL2 and HDL3, respectively, independent of BMI. HsCRP did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk. PMID:26557720

  11. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  12. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  13. Acceptance of a reusable self-injection device for recombinant human growth hormone: final data from a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, international, multicenter, observational study in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Dirk; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Houang, Muriel; Ehtisham, Sarah; Johnstone, Helen; Zabransky, Markus; Kiess, Wieland

    2016-01-01

    Background A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to assess attitudes toward a reusable self-injection system (SurePal™) among pediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with Omnitrope® within routine clinical practice. Methods This was a multicenter, observational study, incorporated into the noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope® (PATRO) Children study. Included subjects, or their caregivers, completed a questionnaire on the following five main areas: attractiveness of SurePal™, training received, using the device, the low drug wastage system, and experience versus other devices used previously (pretreated patients). Responses were based on a 5-point scale, with 2 being the best possible outcome and −2 the worst possible outcome. Results In total, 550 patients were included in this study (338 from France, 169 from Germany, and 43 from the UK). The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 10.8±3.5 years; the majority (57%) were male and growth hormone treatment naïve (88%). Almost half (49.8%) of children prepared their SurePal™ for injection themselves and 45.5% performed injections themselves. As patients progressed into their teens, the majority (≥75%) favored preparing SurePal™ and performing injections themselves, rather than seeking assistance. The attractiveness of SurePal™ was rated as excellent/good by 84.7% of patients overall; this rating was similarly high (≥79%) across countries and age-groups. Preparing (88.8%) and using (83.3%) SurePal™ were rated as very easy/easy by most patients; these ratings were similarly high, irrespective of country or age-group. The dose-memory function was rated as very helpful/helpful by 66.2% of patients. Among 246 patients who reported using the low drug-waste feature, 87.4% found it helpful. Among pretreated patients (n=64), 78.2% reported that SurePal™ was much better/better than their previous device. Conclusion These data confirm the

  14. Assessment of Prevalence, Beliefs, and Habits of Hookah Smoking Among People with a Medical Background Compared to People with a Non-medical Background: A Cross-sectional Self-administered Questionnaire-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: The total number of respondents were 470. The number of respondents with a medical background was 45.31%. The percentage of the respondents with a medical background who smoked a hookah was 28.63%, while the same percentage of the respondents with a non-medical background was 63.42. The perception of hookah being less harmful than a cigarette was not found to be statistically different between the two groups. Respondents with a medical background were more ignorant of the presence or absence of tobacco in the hookah they smoked. The average duration of the hookah smoking habit, the frequency of its use per month, and the average lengths of the hookah smoking session were 3.52 years (95% CI of 3.21 to 3.82), 1.946 (95% CI 1.799 to 2.093), and 58.90 minutes (95% CI of 54.42 to 63.37), respectively. Conclusion: The knowledge about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco should be integrated into the structured teaching curriculum of undergraduate medical and dental courses as they prepare future physicians and dental surgeons for an anti-tobacco campaign. PMID:27660734

  15. Assessing Measurement Invariance of the Diabetes Stress Questionnaire in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Kristoffer S.; Hains, Anthony A.; Kichler, Jessica C.; Davies, W. Hobart; Diaz-Thomas, Alicia M.; Ferry, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Diabetes Stress Questionnaire (DSQ), a measure of diabetes-specific stress, across sex, age (<9th grade vs. ≥9th grade), and glycemic control (optimal vs. suboptimal). Methods Data from 318 adolescent participants were pooled from four archival data sets and the ongoing Predicting Resiliency in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes study in which the DSQ was completed. Confirmatory factor and measurement invariance analyses were conducted to confirm the proposed factor structure and measurement invariance across sex, age, and glycemic control. Results The DSQ factor structure was found to have an acceptable fit, which was invariant across sex, age, and glycemic control. Conclusions When using the DSQ, differences in diabetes-related stress with respect to sex, age, or glycemic control can be considered meaningful. This study supports the DSQ as an evidence-based and well-established assessment of perceived diabetes stress in youth with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25248851

  16. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  18. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  19. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  20. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  1. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  2. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  3. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  5. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  7. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  8. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  9. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Becker, ANL

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and to modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.

  10. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  11. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  12. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  13. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  14. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  15. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  16. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  17. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  18. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  19. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  20. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  1. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  2. Development of a questionnaire to measure heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes: the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Lacey, Kimberly; Chyun, Deborah; Abbott, Gina

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a paper and pencil questionnaire that measures heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes. The Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ) is a 25-item questionnaire that was developed to tap into respondents' knowledge of major risk factors for the development of CHD. Approximately half of these items specifically address diabetes-related CHD risk factors. Based on extensive pilot data, the current study analyzed responses from 524 people with diabetes to assess the psychometric properties. The HDFQ is readable to an average 13-year old and imposes little burden. It shows good content and face validity. It demonstrates adequate internal consistency, with Kuder-Richardson-20 formula = 0.77 and good item-total correlations. Item analysis showed a desirable range in P-values. In discriminant function analyses, HDFQ scores differentiated respondents by knowledge of their own cardiovascular health, use of lipid lowering medications, health insurance status, and educational attainment, thus indicating good criterion related validity. This measure of heart disease risk knowledge is brief, understandable to respondents, and easy to administer and score. Its potential for use in research and practice is discussed. Future research should establish norms as well as investigate its test-retest reliability and predictive validity.

  3. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  4. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  5. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  6. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  7. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  8. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  9. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  10. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  11. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  12. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  13. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  14. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  15. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  16. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  17. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  18. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  19. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  20. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  1. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  2. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  3. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  4. Quality of life in the patients with central diabetes insipidus assessed by Nagasaki Diabetes Insipidus Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Aya; Ando, Takao; Akazawa, Satoru; Satoh, Tsuyoshi; Sagara, Ikuko; Horie, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Misa; Usa, Toshiro; Yanagisawa, Robert T; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to a deficiency of vasopressin. Currently, the treatment goal for CDI is improvement of quality of life (QOL) by desmopressin (DDAVP) without developing hyponatremia. However, there is no reliable measure for QOL in CDI patients. We evaluate our original questionnaire for QOL, consisting of 12 questions focusing on polyuria, polydipsia, and DDAVP treatment, in CDI patients who underwent a switch from nasal spray to oral disintegrating tablets of DDAVP. Twenty-five CDI patients under nasal DDAVP treatment, six with newly developed CDI, and 18 healthy individuals without known polyuric/polydipsic disorders as control subjects were enrolled. QOL scores were determined by our questionnaire at the enrollment and 3 months after the start of oral DDAVP treatment and were examined by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Eleven questions detected improvement in QOL. The sum of the QOL scores of the eleven questions increased from 29.2 ± 5.6 under nasal to 36.8 ± 4.5 under oral DDAVP (p < 0.001). There were no clinically relevant changes in serum levels of Na. After eliminating two questions about DDAVP treatment, the sum of QOL scores was 15.3 ± 6.5 in untreated CDI patients, 24.4 ± 5.2 in those with nasal treatment, 28.9 ± 4.9 in those with oral DDAVP, and 29.5 ± 3.6 in healthy controls. The difference among groups was significant (p < 0.05 in Steel-Dwass test) except between patients treated with oral DDAVP and healthy controls. Our questionnaire can be used to accurately assess QOL in CDI patients.

  5. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  6. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  7. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  8. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Using Rasch analysis to evaluate the validity of the diabetes-specific version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire--Revised.

    PubMed

    Rees, Gwyneth; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Xie, Jing; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Fenwick, Eva K

    2015-10-01

    This study used Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric validity of the Illness Perception Questionnaire--Revised to assess beliefs about diabetes in 470 participants with Type 2 diabetes and 71 participants with Type 1 diabetes. All Illness Perception Questionnaire--Revised scales had psychometric issues, which included poorly utilised response categories, poor scale precision and multidimensionality. Following re-engineering, only four of the eight scales (Consequences, Illness coherence, Timeline cyclical and Emotional representations) were psychometrically adequate according to the Rasch model. The diabetes-specific version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire--Revised provides suboptimal assessment of beliefs held by patients with diabetes.

  10. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong; Ran, Xingwu; Su, Benli; Ji, Qiuhe; Pan, Changyu; Weng, Jianping; Ma, Changsheng; Hao, Chuanming; Zhang, Danyi; Hu, Dayi

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B) goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. Methods Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B) were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24–27.9kg/m2 and ≥28.0kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80cm in women and ≥85cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90mmHg and LDL-C<2.6mmol/L. Results Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6%) were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals. Conclusions Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients. PMID:26726883

  11. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  12. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  13. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  14. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  15. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  16. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  17. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  18. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  19. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  20. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  1. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  2. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  3. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  4. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  5. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  6. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  7. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  8. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  9. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  10. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  11. The development and validation of diabetes knowledge questionnaire for the Indigenous population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, B; Ramadas, A; Quek, K F

    2010-12-01

    The study's aim was to construct and validate a diabetes mellitus knowledge questionnaire in Bahasa Malaysia for Orang Asli (OA-DKQ). The questionnaire was administered to; case (Orang Asli) and control (administrative staff) groups at baseline and retested two weeks later. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. The OA-DKQ has an internal consistency of 0.806. These findings suggest the OA-DKQ is an acceptable instrument to assess knowledge and preventive behaviour in Orang Asli (86 words).

  12. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  13. The Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire for People with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Asaad, Ghada; Sadegian, Maryam; Lau, Rita; Xu, Yunke; Soria-Contreras, Diana C.; Bell, Rhonda C.; Chan, Catherine B.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition therapy is essential for diabetes treatment, and assessment of dietary intake can be time consuming. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure diabetic patients’ adherence to Canadian diabetes nutrition recommendations. Specific information derived from three, repeated 24-h dietary recalls of 64 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.2 ± 9.7 years, was correlated with a total score and individual items of the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire (PDAQ). Test-retest reliability was completed by 27 type 2 diabetic patients, aged 62.8 ± 8.4 years. The correlation coefficients for PDAQ items versus 24-h recalls ranged from 0.46 to 0.11. The intra-class correlation (0.78) was acceptable, indicating good reliability. The results suggest that PDAQ is a valid and reliable measure of diabetes nutrition recommendations. Because it is quick to administer and score, it may be useful as a screening tool in research and as a clinical tool to monitor dietary adherence. PMID:26198247

  14. Clinical questionnaire study of oral health care and symptoms in diabetic vs. non-diabetic predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Maarit; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Furuholm, Jussi; Honkanen, Eero; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study oral symptoms (burning mouth sensation, xerostomia, dysphagia, and dysgeusia) and background characteristics among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The hypothesis was that patients experience oral discomfort and show interest towards dental care differently depending on the origin of their kidney disease. One hundred thirty-eight CKD patients at predialysis stage (94 men, 44 women, mean age 54 years) at the Helsinki University Central Hospital participated in the study. The patients were divided into a diabetic nephropathy group and a group of patients with other kidney diseases. The patients had a clinical oral examination and filled in a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared between the groups (SPSS for Windows version 15.0). T test was used for parameters normally distributed while binomial data were analyzed with cross-tabulations and chi-square test. Contrary to our study hypothesis, no statistically significant differences were seen in the questionnaire study between the diabetic vs. non-diabetic CKD patients in any other study parameter except in the use of medication (10 ± 2.3 vs. 8 ± 3.1 drugs daily, p < 0.05), and working status (23.5% vs. 50% working full time, p < 0.01). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups. Xerostomia, however, was frequently observed among the predialysis patients investigated (41.7% in diabetic, 48.2% in non-diabetic patients). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups of predialysis patients investigated. Clinicians should be aware of nephropathy patients who frequently suffer from oral discomfort, particularly xerostomia.

  15. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  16. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  17. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  18. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  19. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  20. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  1. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  2. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  3. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  4. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  5. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  6. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  7. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  8. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  9. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  10. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  11. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  12. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  13. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  14. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  15. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  16. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  17. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  18. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  19. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  20. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  1. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  2. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T.R.; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50–75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. Aim A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. Methods With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Conclusion Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized. PMID:27195209

  3. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  4. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  5. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  6. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  7. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  8. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  9. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  10. Factors Affecting Mobile Diabetes Monitoring Adoption Among Physicians: Questionnaire Study and Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, José Alberto; Sanz, Silvia; Henseler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes often find it difficult to control their blood glucose level on a daily basis because of distance or physical incapacity. With the increase in Internet-enabled smartphone use, this problem can be resolved by adopting a mobile diabetes monitoring system. Most existing studies have focused on patients’ usability perceptions, whereas little attention has been paid to physicians’ intentions to adopt this technology. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the perceptions and user acceptance of mobile diabetes monitoring among Japanese physicians. Methods A questionnaire survey of physicians was conducted in Japan. The structured questionnaire was prepared in a context of a mobile diabetes monitoring system that controls blood glucose, weight, physical activity, diet, insulin and medication, and blood pressure. Following a thorough description of mobile diabetes monitoring with a graphical image, questions were asked relating to system quality, information quality, service quality, health improvement, ubiquitous control, privacy and security concerns, perceived value, subjective norms, and intention to use mobile diabetes monitoring. The data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) path modeling. Results In total, 471 physicians participated from 47 prefectures across Japan, of whom 134 were specialized in internal and gastrointestinal medicine. Nine hypotheses were tested with both the total sample and the specialist subsample; results were similar for both samples in terms of statistical significance and the strength of path coefficients. We found that system quality, information quality, and service quality significantly affect overall quality. Overall quality determines the extent to which physicians perceive the value of mobile health monitoring. However, in contrast to our initial predictions, overall quality does not have a significant direct effect on the intention to use mobile diabetes

  11. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  12. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  13. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  14. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  15. Pharmacy students screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes with a validated questionnaire in community pharmacies during their experiential rotation in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%), hypertension (102/30%), taking medications for hypertension (102/30%), and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%). The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1) times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension. PMID:26770784

  16. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  17. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  18. Antinucleus-Nucleus Cross Sections Implemented in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Galoyan, A.; Folger, G.; Grichine, V.M.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    Cross sections of antinucleus ({bar p}, {bar d}, {bar t}, {sup 3}{ovr He}, {sup 4}{ovr He}) interactions with nuclei in the energy range 100 MeV/c to 1000 GeV/c per antinucleon are calculated in the Glauber approximation which provides good description of all known {bar p}Across sections. The results were obtained using a new parameterization of the total and elastic {bar p}p cross sections. Simple parameterizations of the antinucleus-nucleus cross sections are proposed for use in estimating the efficiency of antinucleus detection and tracking in cosmic rays and accelerator experiments. These parameterizations are implemented in the Geant4 toolkit.

  19. Using Rasch Measurement To Investigate the Cross-form Equivalence and Clinical Utility of Spanish and English Versions of a Diabetes Questionnaire: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Ben; Smith, Everett V., Jr.; Girotti, Mariela; Pelaez, Lourdes; Lawless, Kimberly; Smolin, Louanne; Brodsky, Irwin; Eiser, Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Used Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of data obtained from a newly developed Diabetes Questionnaire designed to measure diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and self-care. Responses of 26 diabetes patients to the English version of the questionnaire and 24 patients to the Spanish version support the cross-form equivalence and…

  20. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  2. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  3. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  4. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  5. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  6. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  7. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  8. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  9. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  10. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  11. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  12. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  13. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  16. Automating the Modeling of the SEE Cross Section's Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that automates the application of the alpha law in any SEE analysis is presented. This automation is essential for the widespread acceptance of the sophisticated cross section angular dependence model.

  17. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  18. Development of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between dietary components and development of chronic diabetic complications, the dietary evaluation should include a long period, months or years. The present manuscript aims to develop a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a portfolio with food photos to assess the usual intake pattern of Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes to be used in future studies. Methods Dietary data using 3-day weighed diet records (WDR) from 188 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were used to construct the list of usually consumed foods. Foods were initially clustered into eight groups: “cereals, tubers, roots, and derivatives”; “vegetables and legumes”; “fruits”; “beans”; “meat and eggs”; “milk and dairy products”; “oils and fats”, and “sugars and sweets”. The frequency of food intake and the relative contribution of each food item to the total energy and nutrient intakes were calculated. Portion sizes were determined according to the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles of intake for each food item. Results A total of 62 food items were selected based on the 3-day WDR and another 27 foods or how they are prepared and nine beverages were included after the expert examination. Also, a portfolio with food photos of each included food item and portion sizes was made to assist the patients in identifying the consumed portion. Conclusions We developed a practical quantitative FFQ and portfolio with photos of 98 food items covering those most commonly consumed in the past 12 months, to assess the usual diet pattern of patients with type 2 diabetes in Southern Brazil. PMID:23938026

  19. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  20. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  2. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  3. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  4. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  5. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  6. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  7. Psychological distress of patients suffering from restless legs syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic disorder with substantial impact on quality of life similar to that seen in diabetes mellitus or osteoarthritis. Little is known about the psychological characteristics of RLS patients although psychological factors may contribute to unfavourable treatment outcome. Methods In an observational cross-sectional design, we evaluated the psychological features of 166 consecutive RLS patients from three outpatient clinics, by means of the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) questionnaire. Additionally, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the International RLS Severity Scale (IRLS) were measured. Both treated and untreated patients were included, all patients sought treatment. Results Untreated patients (n = 69) had elevated but normal scores on the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI; p = 0.002) and on the sub-scales somatisation (p < 0.001), compulsivity (p = 0.003), depression (p = 0.02), and anxiety (p = 0.004) compared with a German representative sample. In the treated group, particularly in those patients who were dissatisfied with their actual treatment (n = 62), psychological distress was higher than in the untreated group with elevated scores for the GSI (p = 0.03) and the sub-scales compulsivity (p = 0.006), depression (p = 0.012), anxiety (p = 0.031), hostility (p = 0.013), phobic anxiety (p = 0.024), and paranoid ideation (p = 0.012). Augmentation, the most serious side effect of dopaminergic, i.e. first-line treatment of RLS, and loss of efficacy were accompanied with the highest psychological distress, as seen particularly in the normative values of the sub-scales compulsivity and anxiety. Generally, higher RLS severity was correlated with higher psychological impairment (p < 0.001). Conclusion Severely affected RLS patients show psychological impairment in multiple psychological domains which has to be taken into account in the treatment regimen. PMID:21933380

  8. Primary care screening for peripheral arterial disease: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane H; Richards, Jonathan; Conway, Kevin; Kenkre, Joyce E; Lewis, Jane EA; Mark Williams, E

    2017-01-01

    Background Early identification of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and subsequent instigation of risk modification strategies could minimise disease progression and reduce overall risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. However, the feasibility and value of primary care PAD screening is uncertain. Aim This study (the PIPETTE study — Peripheral arterial disease In Primary carE: Targeted screening and subsequenT managEment) aimed to determine the value of a proposed primary care PAD screening strategy. Outcomes assessed were: prevalence of PAD and agreement of ankle– brachial index (ABI)-defined PAD (ABI ≤0.9) with QRISK®2-defined high CV risk (≥20). Design and setting A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken in a large general practice in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. Method In total, 1101 individuals with ≥2 pre-identified CV risk factors but no known CV disease or diabetes were invited to participate. Participants underwent ABI measurement and QRISK2 assessment, and completed Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaires. Results A total of 368 people participated in the study (participation rate: 33%). Prevalence of PAD was 3% (n = 12). The number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one new case of PAD was 31. Refining the study population to those aged ≥50 years with a smoking history reduced the NNS to 14, while still identifying 100% of PAD cases. Of participants with PAD, 33% reported severe lifestyle-limiting symptoms of intermittent claudication that warranted subsequent endovascular intervention, yet had not previously presented to their GP. The QRISK2 score predicted high CV risk in 92% of participants with PAD. Conclusion The low PAD yield and the fact that QRISK2 was largely comparable to the ABI in predicting high CV risk suggests that routine PAD screening may be unwarranted. Instead, strategies to improve public awareness of PAD are needed. PMID:28126882

  9. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  10. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  11. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  12. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  13. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  14. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  15. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  16. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  17. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  18. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703). Results 18.1% (799/4416) of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%), kidney disease (4.9%), cholesterol (4.5%), urinary tract infection (1.9%) and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%). A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6%) of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self-testers sought medical

  19. Cross-Sectional Assessment of Nut Consumption and Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fiol, Miquel; Wärnberg, Julia; Estruch, Ramón; Román, Pilar; Arós, Fernando; Vinyoles, Ernest; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Covas, María-Isabel; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Prospective studies have consistently suggested that nut consumption is inversely related to fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease. Limited data are available on the epidemiological associations between nut intake and cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective To evaluate associations between frequency of nut consumption and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors [obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia] in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,210 men and women (mean age, 67 y) recruited into the PREDIMED study. MetS was defined by the harmonized ATPIII and IDF criteria. Diabetes and hypertension were assessed by clinical diagnosis and dyslipidemia (high triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, and hypercholesterolemia) by lipid analyses. Nut consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and categorized as <1, 1–3, and >3 servings/wk. Control of confounding was done with multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to participants consuming <1 serving/wk of nuts, those consuming >3 servings/wk had lower adjusted odds ratios (OR) for obesity (0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.68; P-trend <0.001), MetS (0.74, 0.65 to 0.85; P-trend<0.001), and diabetes (0.87, 0.78 to 0.99; P-trend = 0.043). Higher nut consumption was also associated with lower risk of the abdominal obesity MetS criterion (OR 0.68, 0.60 to 0.79; P-trend<0.001). No significant associations were observed for the MetS components high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or elevated fasting glucose. Conclusions Nut consumption was inversely associated with the prevalence of general obesity, central obesity, MetS, and diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:23460844

  20. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  1. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  2. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  3. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  4. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  5. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  6. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  7. Improved empirical parameterization for projectile fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.

    2017-03-01

    A new empirical parametrization is developed for calculating the fragment cross sections in projectile fragmentation reactions at high energies (>100 MeV/nucleon). The new parametrization, FRACS, consists of two main parts, i.e., the mass yield and the isobaric distribution, on the basis of previous parametrizations. The formalism for the mass yield is improved to describe the target and the projectile energy dependences observed in measured fragmentation cross sections. The parametrization of the isobaric distribution is also modified to reproduce recent experimental data. Furthermore, an additional term is proposed and first implemented in the FRACS parametrization to account for the evident odd-even staggering effect observed in many experimental cross sections. Comparisons with extensive cross sections measured in various fragmentation reactions reveal that FRACS is in much better agreement with experimental data and can reproduce measured cross sections in most cases within a factor of 1.84, which is a much smaller rms deviation as compared to that of the recent parametrization EPAX3.

  8. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  9. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  10. Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rosana de Moraes Borges; de Oliveira, Amanda Cristine; Teles, Sheylle Almeida da Silva; Stringuini, Maria Luiza Ferreira; Fornés, Nélida Shimid

    2014-01-01

    Background. Food frequency questionnaires are used to assess dietary intake in epidemiological studies. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Validity was evaluated by comparing the data generated by QFFQs to those of 24-hour recalls (24 hrs). QFFQs were applied twice per patient to assess reproducibility. Statistical analysis included performing t-tests, obtaining Pearson correlation coefficients when necessary, correcting measurements for randomness by the weighted kappa method, calculating intraclass correlation coefficients, and generating Bland-Altman plots (P < 0,05). Results. The total energy and nutrient intake as estimated by the QFFQs were significantly higher than those from 24 hrs. Pearson correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted, deattenuated data ranged from 0.32 (protein) to 0.75 (lipid, unsaturated fat and calcium). Weighted kappa values ranged from 0.15 (vitamin C) to 0.45 (calcium). Bland-Altman plots indicated acceptable validity. As for reproducibility, intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.24 (calcium) to 0.65 (lipid), and the Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two questionnaires. Conclusion: The QFFQ presented an acceptable ability to classify correctly and with good reproducibility, adolescents with type 1 diabetes according to their levels of dietary intake. PMID:25250051

  11. Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with obesity among college students in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence.

  12. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  13. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

  14. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  15. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  16. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections III - light systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-09-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model [R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 117 (1996) 347; R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 129 (1997) 11] is extended for light systems ( A ⩽ 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is light particle and the other is medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium and heavy systems. As a result the extended model can reliably be used in all studies where there is a need for absorption cross sections.

  17. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  18. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  19. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  20. New Resonance Parameter Evaluation of Cl Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    2005-05-24

    Better measurements and evaluations are needed for many elements where the existing evaluations or the underlying nuclear cross-section data are not sufficiently accurate for reliable calculation of criticality safety margins. Deficiencies in the existing ENDF/B-VI data evaluation for Cl led to our resonance parameter evaluation of Cl neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Our evaluation takes advantage of recent high-resolution capture and transmission measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as well as older total cross-section measurements at Karlsruhe (KFK) to extend the resolved resonance energy range to 1.2 MeV with much more accurate representation of the data than previous evaluations.

  1. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  2. Absorption Cross-Sections of Sodium Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  3. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  4. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  5. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  6. Neutron Capture Cross Section Calculations with the Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Mary; Uberseder, Ethan; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Hauser-Feshbach (HF) cross sections are of enormous importance for a wide range of applications, from waste transmutation and nuclear technologies, to medical applications, and nuclear astrophysics. It is a well observed result that different nuclear input models sensitively affect HF cross section calculations. Less well-known however are the effects on calculations originating from model-specific implementation details (such as level density parameter, matching energy, backshift and giant dipole parameters), as well as effects from non-model aspects, such as experimental data truncation and transmission function energy binning. To investigate the effects or these various aspects, Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections have been calculated for approximately 340 nuclei. The relative effects of these model details will be discussed.

  7. A cross-sectional study of chronic wound-related pain and itching.

    PubMed

    Paul, Julia

    2013-07-01

    Persons with chronic wounds may experience wound-related itch (pruritus) and pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the occurrence of itch and pain in chronic wounds and the relationship of the intensity between these factors. Patients in an outpatient wound care center, 18 years and older with an open wound, were recruited consecutively over a 5-month period. The 199 participants (112 [56%] men) had a mean age of 67 years (range 21-98 years); one wound per person was addressed and included venous (31), arterial (23), neuropathic (31), pressure-related (33), traumatic (37), and "other" (41) wounds. Wound-related pain and itch data were obtained using a modified Paul-Pieper Itching Questionnaire and Characteristics of Itch Questionnaire. Responses were hand-recorded and coded without personal identifiers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, and associations among data were assessed using Pearson chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Wound-related itch was significantly associated with participant age (P = 0.011) and employment status (P = 0.003). Wound-related pain was significantly associated only with education level (P = 0.048). Persons with venous wounds had both the largest proportion with wound-related itch (45.2%) and the largest proportion with wound-related pain (61.2%) out of all of the wound types. Persons with diabetic neuropathy had both the smallest proportion with wound-related itch (16.1%) and the smallest proportion with wound-related pain (35.4%) among all of the wound types. Associations between wound type and wound-related itch or pain were not significant. When venous wounds were compared to all other wound types combined, wound-related itch was significantly associated (P = 0.021) with wound type - ie, venous wound type and itch was statistically significant when venous wounds were compared to a combination of all other wound types. Wound-related pain and itch occurred together in 35

  8. Cross-sectional geometry of the dentary in bats.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Nicolay, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    Bats exhibit remarkable diversity in dietary habits, with species specializing on insects, fruit, nectar, vertebrates and blood. Studies of larger mammals have shown that structural differences in dentary cross-sectional properties exist among species with different diets. Unfortunately, few of these studies have considered the role of phylogeny in shaping these apparent form-function associations. Here we ask whether a relationship exists between diet and dentary structure in bats when phylogenetic history is factored into the analysis. To answer this question, we compared results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and traditional (nonphylogenetic) regression analyses of dentary cross-sectional shape in frugivorous, nectarivorous, and insectivorous bats (253 individuals representing 72 species). Cross-sectional moments of inertia of the dentary between M(1) and M(2) were computed from bone densitometry scans of skeletal specimens. Traditional regressions of cross-sectional parameters against dentary length detected significant departures from isometry among frugivores. In contrast, PGLS analyses indicated that cross-sectional variables for each dietary group scaled with isometry. Thus, the allometric patterns illuminated by traditional statistics are linked to the phylogenetic structure of the sample. Identical patterns of significant differences in slopes and intercepts between frugivores and nectarivores emerged from both traditional and PGLS analyses. As predicted, the cross-sectional shape of the dentary in frugivores is consistent with increased resistance to torsion and bending, while that of nectarivores suggested a less resistant dentary. Although traditional and PGLS analyses yielded some similar results, the phylogenetic structure of a sample can drive apparent patterns of scaling and should be considered in comparative functional analyses.

  9. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns<σ> ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns<σ> systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

  10. Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care inventory-revised version questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jansà, Margarida; Vidal, Mercè; Giménez, Marga; Conget, Ignacio; Galindo, Mercedes; Roca, Daria; Colungo, Cristina; Esmatjes, Enric; Salamero, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish and Catalan versions of the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory-Revised Version (SCI-R) questionnaire to assess the degree of adherence to self-care among adults with diabetes. Methods We validated the Spanish and Catalan translation from, and back translation to, English and cultural adaptation of the SCI-R in type 1 diabetes patients on multiple insulin doses or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and in type 2 diabetes patients on oral agents and/or insulin. Internal reliability, structural validity, and external validity (correlation with glycated hemoglobin) were evaluated. Responsiveness to change was assessed in patients 1 year after onset of type 1 diabetes and following a structured education program. Results The SCI-R presented good internal reliability Cronbach’s α: 0.75, test-retest reliability (r = 0.82) and structural validity (r > 0.40). The external validity was also good; the SCI-R correlated with HbA1c in patients with type 1 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = −0.50) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (r = −0.66) and in patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple insulin doses (r = −0.62). However, it was not satisfactory in patients on oral agents (r = −0.20) and/or bedtime insulin (r = −0.35). Responsiveness to change was analyzed in 54 patients (age 27.3±7.4 years, 26% men, HbA1c 6.8% ±1.1%); the SCI-R score was 72.3% ±13.7% and correlated negatively with glycated hemoglobin (r = −0.42) and 3 scales of the Diabetes Quality of Life questionnaire (lower score indicating better perception): Impact (r = −0.37), Social Worry (r = −0.36) and Diabetes Worry (r = −0.38), all at P < 0.05. Conclusion The Spanish and Catalan versions of the SCI-R questionnaire show good psychometric properties and both could be considered as useful tools for evaluating self-care behavior in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, there are still some subgroups of

  11. The solar neutrino capture cross section for 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    1981-09-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate for the reaction 81Br + νe --> 81Kr + e- is calculated for the standard solar and weak interaction models. The results show that the capture cross section is dominated by the lowest Gamow-Teller transition to the metastable 1/2- (0.190 MeV) state in 81Kr. As the inverse electron capture rate for this transition has been measured recently, one can then argue that the cross section is well determined experimentally. Thus uncertainties in nuclear physics should not be an obstacle to the recently proposed 81Br radiochemical measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux. Present address.

  12. Charge Influence on Mini Black Hole's Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraça, R. S.; Malheiro, M.

    In this work we study the electric charge effect on the cross section production of charged mini black holes (MBH) in accelerators. We analyze the charged MBH solution using the fat brane approximation in the context of the ADD model. The maximum charge-mass ratio condition for the existence of a horizon radius is discussed. We show that the electric charge causes a decrease in this radius and, consequently, in the cross section. This reduction is negligible for protons and light-ions but can be important for heavy-ions.

  13. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    DOE PAGES

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  14. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  15. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  16. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  17. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  18. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  19. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  20. Cross section expansion for direct neutron radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.

    2004-07-01

    Cross sections for neutron radiative capture multiplied by the relative velocity can be expressed as a Taylor expansion in powers of the relative energy. The coefficients of this expansion are expressed in the potential model as integrals involving solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation and of its inhomogeneous energy derivatives calculated at zero energy. Similarities and differences with charged-particle capture are emphasized. The {sup 12}C(n,{gamma}){sup 13}C capture reaction is treated as an example. The coefficients of the Taylor expansion lead to simple parametrizations of the experimental partial cross sections for neutron capture to each {sup 13}C bound state.

  1. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  2. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  3. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1995-02-05

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos we have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. We give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  4. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1994-09-01

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos the authors have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. They give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  5. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  6. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  7. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  8. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  9. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  10. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents Aged 12-18: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 18,104 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…

  11. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  12. Validation of Brunei’s Malay EQ-5D Questionnaire in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Abdullah, Awg Muhammad Khairulamin bin; Wang, Pei; Lin, Naing; Luo, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Malay spoken in Brunei a South East Asian country where Malay is the national language is distinctive and different from Malay spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. This study aimed to develop a Brunei Malay version of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and to assess its psychometric properties among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen’s kappa. Results As hypothesized, patients known to have ‘better’ health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having ‘worse’ health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively. Conclusions The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation. PMID:27835652

  13. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Dos Santos, G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    In support of the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program established in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range from 0.36 eV to several hundred keV have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Also total and capture cross sections of Al, Cl, and K in the energy range from about 100 eV to several hundred keV have been measured or are under way. The goal is to derive accurate cross section representations for the materials involved in criticality calculations of fuel storage, transportation, etc., configurations. Additional high-resolution measurements of the total cross sections of {sup 233}U below a few keV neutron energy are being planned for 1998, as well as for the other involved material. Evaluated data files in ENDF-6 format will be processed into formats for use in criticality analysis and utilized in benchmark data testing. Finally the data will be submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B.

  14. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  15. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  16. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  17. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  18. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  19. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

    2006-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 175}Lu and {sup 176}Lu have been measured in the energy range 3-225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of {approx}1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by {approx}7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A 175/176.

  1. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  3. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  4. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Charles; Dejoseph, Charles; Garscadden, Alan

    2001-10-01

    The ionization and dissociation of hydrocarbon fuels with various plasma excitation schemes including pulsed high E/n discharges have been proposed to alleviate the problem of ignition in supersonic flow combustors and operations at high altitudes. The fuel which is also used for cooling, must not pyrolyse at operational temperatures. We have examined the electron ionization collision processes in n-decane using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry that permits measurements of the 24 ions with cross sections larger than 10-19cm2. These generally fall into two broad categories: those with five or more carbon atoms whose ionization cross sections rise rapidly and essentially saturate within twice the appearance potential and those with four carbon atoms and less whose cross sections rise more gradually and are only saturating at energies above 70 eV. The total ionization cross section is large, rising to 7x10-16cm2. Studies were made with deuterated samples to distinguish the potential mechanisms in fragment ion induced dissociation of the parent gas. The results are compared with similar data for octane.

  6. Pion Charge Exchange Cross Section on Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; LArIAT (FNAL T-1034) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations allows charge parity violation to be probed in the neutrino sector. Detectors with high calorimetric energy resolution and high spatial resolution will provide precise measurements of neutrino oscillations. By measuring small π+/- cross sections for individual interaction channels, specifically charge exchange, we will make a measurement in the first of its kind on liquid Argon and demonstrate the physics capabilities of a relatively new detector technology: the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC). This analysis will report on the thin slab cross section measurement technique and the Monte Carlo cross section measurements in the energy range of 0.2 - 1.0 GeV. This analysis is the first iteration in classifying charge exchange events from a sample of incident pions, and it aims to identify events in which a π0 was produced without any charged pions leaving the interaction vertex. We will also report on the methodology and efficiency of this algorithm in identifying particles and their interactions in liquid argon. This analysis will inform a future measurement of the π+/- charge exchange cross section on liquid argon. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1359364.

  7. The Inclusive Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section Measured in NOMAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godley, Andrew; Wu, Qun; Mishra, Sanjib

    2007-04-01

    The inclusive charged current cross section of muon neutrino interactions is measured as a function of energy using the NOMAD data. The significance of this measurement is its precision below 30 GeV, a region not previously well covered and of importance to current and proposed neutrino experiments. The procedure and results of the measurement will be presented.

  8. Radar cross sections of standard and complex shape targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohel, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical, analytical, and experimental results are described for radar cross sections (RCS) of different-shaped targets. Various techniques for predicting RCS are given, and RCS of finite standard targets are presented. Techniques used to predict the RCS of complex targets are made, and the RCS complex shapes are provided.

  9. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. e+e- → charm cross sections via ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhlova, Galina

    2010-06-01

    We discuss recent measurements of exclusive e+e- cross sections for charmed hadron final states near threshold performed by Belle and BABAR. The results are based on a study of events with initial-state-radiation photons in a large data sample collected with the Belle and BABAR detectors at the γ(4S) resonance and nearby continuum.

  11. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  12. Theory in evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections.

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross-sections. They consider especially the target {sup 235}U as an example. They emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross-section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross-section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross-section. They compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for {sup 235}U.

  13. Cross sections for low-energy inelastic H + Na collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. K.; Barklem, P. S.; Dickinson, A. S.; Gadea, F. X.

    2010-03-15

    Full quantum-scattering calculations are reported for low-energy near-threshold inelastic collision cross sections for H+Na. The calculations include transitions between all levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production) for collision energies from the threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. Results for the 3s-3p excitation are carefully examined using three different quantum chemistry input data sets, and large differences are found near the threshold. The differences are found to be predominantly due to differences in the radial coupling rather than potentials and are also found not to relate to differences in couplings in a simple manner. In fact, of the three input couplings, the two that are most similar give the cross sections with the largest differences. The 3s-3p cross sections show orbiting resonances which have been seen in earlier studies, while Feshbach resonances associated with closed channels were also found to be present in the low-energy cross sections for some transitions.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  15. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugohara, R. T.; Homem, M. G. P.; Iga, I.; de Souza, G. L. C.; Machado, L. E.; Ferraz, J. R.; dos Santos, A. S.; Brescansin, L. M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Lee, M. T.

    2013-08-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e--DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using the relative flow technique. Theoretically, elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections, as well as the grand-total and total absorption cross sections for electron collision with DME are calculated in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A single-center-expansion technique combined with the Padé approximant method is used in our calculations. A comparison between the present experimental and theoretical data shows very good agreement. Moreover, comparison with theoretical and experimental data for e--ethanol (an isomer of DME) scattering shows interesting isomeric effects.

  16. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  17. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  19. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  20. Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengqun; Gao Lei; Li Kuohu; Song Yueli; Zhang Fang; Kong Xiangzhong; Luo Junhua

    2009-11-15

    We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions {sup 122}Te(n,2n){sup 121}Te{sup g} and {sup 128}Te(n,2n){sup 127}Te{sup g}, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by {gamma} detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m+g} and {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reactions.

  1. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  2. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.

  3. 18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on parapet contains the operating mechanisms for the penstock gates. Power house is not yet under construction. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  5. Experimental absolute cross section for photoionization of Xe^7+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2010-03-01

    Collision processes with highly charged xenon ions are of interest for UV-radiation generation in plasma discharges, for fusion research and for space craft propulsion. Here we report results for the photoionization of Xe^7+ ionsootnotetextS. Schippers et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (in print) which were measured at the photon-ion end station of ALS beamline 10.0.1. As compared with the only previous experimental studyootnotetextJ. M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000) of this reaction, the present cross sections were obtained at higher energy resolution (50--80 meV vs. 200--500 meV) and on an absolute cross section scale. In the experimental photon energy range of 95--145 eV the cross section is dominated by resonances associated with 4d->5f excitation and subsequent autoionization. The most prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the 4d^9,s,f, resonance at 121.14±0.02 eV which reaches a peak cross section of 1.2 Gb at 50 meV photon energy spread. The experimental resonance strength of 160 Mb eV (corresponding to an absorption oscillator strength of 1.46) is in fair agreement with the theoretical result^2.

  6. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for /sup 240/Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle supported steel flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  8. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  9. Psychometric validation of the visual function questionnaire-25 in patients with diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is a common cause of impaired vision and blindness amongst diabetics. If not detected and treated early, the resulting vision loss can lead to considerable health costs and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to provide evidence of the psychometric properties of the National Eye Institute - Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ-25) for use in a cohort of DME patients who participated in a clinical efficacy and safety trial of pegaptinib sodium (Macugen). Methods A phase 2/3 randomised, double masked trial evaluated pegaptanib injection versus sham injection in patients with DME. The analysis was conducted using baseline HRQoL data of the VFQ-25 and the EQ-5D, on a modified intent-to-treat sample of 235 patients. These measures were administered by a trained interviewer by telephone in all but one of the study countries, where face-to-face interviews were conducted in the clinic. The measures were completed in the week prior to baseline, and after 54 weeks of treatment. Distance visual acuity, measured according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), was assessed at all time points. Psychometric properties of the VFQ-25 assessed included domain structure, reliability, concurrent and construct validity, responsiveness. Results The VFQ-25 was found to consist of 11 domains slightly different than those proposed. Nevertheless, none of the eight established multi-item scales met the criterion for further splitting and the VFQ-25 was scored as in the developers’ instructions. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for six out of the eight original multi-item scales, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.58 (Distance Activities) to 0.85 (Vision Specific: Dependency). The VFQ-25 domains generally showed a low to moderate correlation with EQ-5D visual analogue scale (range 0.16-0.43) and with the visual acuity score (range 0.10-0.41). Construct validity was upheld

  10. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Krtička, M.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Belgya, T.

    2013-02-01

    Precise thermal neutron capture γ-ray cross sections σγ for 39,40,41K were measured on a natural potassium target with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. The cross sections were internally standardized using a stoichiometric KCl target with well-known 35Cl(n,γ) γ-ray cross sections [Révay and Molnár, Radiochimica ActaRAACAP0033-823010.1524/ract.91.6.361.20027 91, 361 (2003); Molnár, Révay, and Belgya, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. BNIMBEU0168-583X10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01529-5 213, 32 (2004)]. These data were combined with γ-ray intensities from von Egidy [von Egidy, Daniel, Hungerford, Schmidt, Lieb, Krusche, Kerr, Barreau, Borner, Brissot , J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys.JPHGBM0305-461610.1088/0305-4616/10/2/013 10, 221 (1984)] and Krusche [Krusche, Lieb, Ziegler, Daniel, von Egidy, Rascher, Barreau, Borner, and Warner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(84)90506-2 417, 231 (1984); Krusche, Winter, Lieb, Hungerford, Schmidt, von Egidy, Scheerer, Kerr, and Borner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(85)90429-4 439, 219 (1985)] to generate nearly complete capture γ-ray level schemes. Total radiative neutron cross sections were deduced from the total γ-ray cross section feeding the ground state, σ0=Σσγ(GS) after correction for unobserved statistical γ-ray feeding from levels near the neutron capture energy. The corrections were performed with Monte Carlo simulations of the potassium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code dicebox where the simulated populations of low-lying levels are normalized to the measured cross section depopulating those levels. Comparisons of the simulated and experimental level feeding intensities have led to proposed new spins and parities for selected levels in the potassium isotopes where direct reactions are not a significant contribution. We determined the total radiative neutron cross sections σ0(39K)=2.28±0.04 b, σ0(40K)=90±7 b, and σ0(41K)=1.62±0.03 b from the

  11. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  12. Potentially inappropriate medications use in community-based aged patients: a cross-sectional study using 2012 Beers criteria

    PubMed Central

    Zeenny, Rony; Wakim, Samira; Kuyumjian, Yara-Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) should be avoided by the aged population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of PIMs among Lebanese aged outpatients using Beers criteria of 2012. The secondary objectives were to identify the correlates of the PIMs use and to compare the PIMs prevalence rates as per Beers criteria of 2003 and 2012. Methods This cross-sectional observational study was conducted among aged outpatients of different accredited community pharmacies across Lebanon. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. The Beers criteria of 2012 were used to evaluate PIMs. The association between PIMs used and independent variables were analyzed by logistic regression. The differences between PIMs use according to Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 were calculated using chi-squared and McNemar’s tests. Results A total of 248 outpatients were analyzed. We identified 112 (45.2%) out of 248 patients taking PIMs. The leading classes of medications identified to cause PIMs were those acting on the central nervous system (71.4%). The factors associated with PIMs use were age, osteoporosis, Alzheimer/dementia, diabetes, and alcohol consumption. PIMs use increased significantly between Beers criteria 2003 and 2012 (Chi-squared test, P<0.001; McNemar’s test, P<0.001). Conclusion Our study showed a high prevalence of PIMs use in Lebanon, which is associated with various correlates. Education of health care providers and medication review should be considered to improve medication safety of older adults. PMID:28115835

  13. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  14. Transition to motherhood in type 1 diabetes: design of the pregnancy and postnatal well-being in transition questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life transitions are associated with high levels of stress affecting health behaviours among people with Type 1 diabetes. Transition to motherhood is a major transition with potential complications accelerated by pregnancy with risks of adverse childbirth outcomes and added anxiety and worries about pregnancy outcomes. Further, preparing and going through pregnancy requires vigilant attention to a diabetes management regimen and detailed planning of everyday activities with added stress on women. Psychological and social well-being during and after pregnancy are integral for good pregnancy outcomes for both mother and baby. The aim of this study is to establish the face and content validity of two novel measures assessing the well-being of women with type 1 diabetes in their transition to motherhood, 1) during pregnancy and 2) during the postnatal period. Methods The approach to the development of the Pregnancy and Postnatal Well-being in T1DM Transition questionnaires was based on a four-stage pre-testing process; systematic overview of literature, items development, piloting testing of questionnaire and refinement of questionnaire. The questionnaire was reviewed at every stage by expert clinicians, researchers and representatives from consumer groups. The cognitive debriefing approach confirmed relevance of issues and identified additional items. Results The literature review and interviews identified three main areas impacting on the women’s postnatal self-management; (1) psychological well-being; (2) social environment, (3) physical (maternal and fetal) well-being. The cognitive debriefing in pilot testing of the questionnaire identified that immediate postnatal period was difficult, particularly when the women were breastfeeding and felt depressed. Conclusions The questionnaires fill an important gap by systematically assessing the psychosocial needs of women with type 1 diabetes during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. The

  15. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  16. Depression among the urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Leong; Yadav, Hematram

    2013-01-01

    This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.

  17. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn. PMID:27965962

  18. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn.

  19. Tearing instability in a tokamak with a noncircular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenin, V. V.; Skovoroda, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Using a straight-column model to describe tokamak plasma with a noncircular cross section, it is shown how to (i) find the boundary of tearing instability from the condition of existence of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibrium different from that of a straight cylinder by solving a two-dimensional linear boundary-value problem with a second-order equation with respect to the flux coordinate and (ii) find the spatial structure of the tearing mode and the corresponding effective Δ' when there is only one resonance magnetic surface in the plasma for a given axial wavenumber by solving some kind of a boundary-value problem for the perturbation. The proposed approach is illustrated by numerical calculations for the case of an elliptical cross section as an example.

  20. Intermanifold similarities in partial photoionization cross sections of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Tobias; Liu, Chien-Nan; Rost, Jan-Michael

    2002-04-01

    Using the eigenchannel R-matrix method we calculate partial photoionization cross sections from the ground state of the helium atom for incident photon energies up to the N=9 manifold. The wide energy range covered by our calculations permits a thorough investigation of general patterns in the cross sections which were first discussed by Menzel and coworkers [Phys. Rev. A 54, 2080 (1996)]. The existence of these patterns can easily be understood in terms of propensity rules for autoionization. As the photon energy is increased the regular patterns are locally interrupted by perturber states until they fade out indicating the progressive breakdown of the propensity rules and the underlying approximate quantum numbers. We demonstrate that the destructive influence of isolated perturbers can be compensated with an energy-dependent quantum defect.

  1. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not req