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Sample records for diabetes patients experiences

  1. Exploring Canadian Physicians' Experiences with Diabetes Care for Indigenous Patients.

    PubMed

    Crowshoe, Lynden Lindsay; Henderson, Rita I; Green, Michael E; Jacklin, Kristen M; Walker, Leah M; Calam, Betty

    2017-08-15

    The perspectives of physicians caring for Indigenous patients with diabetes offer important insights into the provision of health-care services. The purpose of this study was to describe Canadian physicians' perspectives on diabetes care of Indigenous patients, a preliminary step in developing a continuing medical education intervention described elsewhere. Through in-depth semistructured interviews, Canadian family physicians and specialists with sizeable proportions of Indigenous clientele shared their experiences of working with Indigenous patients who have type 2 diabetes. Recruitment involved a purposive and convenience sampling strategy, identifying participants through existing research and the professional relationships of team members in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario. Participants addressed their understanding of factors contributing to the disease, approaches to care and recommendations for medical education. The research team framed a thematic analysis through a collaborative, decolonizing lens. The participants (n=28) included 3 Indigenous physicians, 21 non-Indigenous physicians and 4 non-Indigenous diabetes specialists. They practised in urban, reserve and rural adjacent-to-reserve contexts in 5 Canadian provinces. The physicians constructed a socially framed understanding of the complex contexts influencing Indigenous patients with diabetes in tension with structural barriers to providing diabetes care. As a result, physicians adapted care focusing on social factors and conditions that take into account the multigenerational impacts of colonization and the current social contexts of Indigenous peoples in Canada. Adaptations in diabetes care by physicians grounded in the historical, social and cultural contexts of their Indigenous patients offer opportunities for improving care quality, but policy and health system supports and structural competency are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  2. Patients' Experiences with and Attitudes towards a Diabetes Patient Web Portal.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Maaike C M; Dijkhorst-Oei, Lioe-Ting; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    A diabetes patient web portal allows patients to access their personal health record and may improve diabetes outcomes; however, patients' adoption is slow. We aimed to get insight into patients' experiences with a web portal to understand how the portal is being used, how patients perceive the content of the portal and to assess whether redesign of the portal might be needed. A survey among 1500 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a login to a patient portal. 62 primary care practices and one outpatient hospital clinic, using a combined patient portal. We compared patients who requested a login but never used it or once ('early quitters') with patients who used it at least two times ('persistent users'). 632 patients (42.1%) returned the questionnaire. Their mean age was 59.7 years, 63.1% was male and 81.8% had type 2 diabetes. 413 (65.3%) people were persistent users and 34.7% early quitters. In the multivariable analysis, insulin use (OR2.07; 95%CI[1.18-3.62]), experiencing more frequently hyperglycemic episodes (OR1.30;95%CI[1.14-1.49]) and better diabetes knowledge (OR1.02, 95%CI[1.01-1.03]) do increase the odds of being a persistent user. Persistent users perceived the usefulness of the patient portal significantly more favorable. However, they also more decisively declared that the patient portal is not helpful in supporting life style changes. Early quitters felt significantly more items not applicable in their situation compared to persistent users. Both persistent users (69.8%) and early quitters (58.8%) would prefer a reminder function for scheduled visits. About 60% of both groups wanted information about medication and side-effects in their portal. The diabetes patient web portal might be improved significantly by taking into account the patients' experiences and attitudes. We propose creating separate portals for patients on insulin or not.

  3. [Ukrainian experience of health care for patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Матюха, Лариса Ф; Титова, Тетяна А; Бухановська, Тетяна М; Смаль, Богдан О

    diabetes mellitus is among the main challenges in the establishment of an effective health care system. A significant prevalence of disease and, consequently, a large number of complications, caused by it, provokes a constant searching for new measures and means for the struggle. In Ukraine, as in other countries, among methods of such a struggle is to standardize medical care. explore the state of health care for patients with diabetes in Ukraine. to study the frequency of the measurement of certain quality indicators of patients with diabetes it was organized cross-sectional trial by the anonymous survey of 242 patients with a previously verified diagnosis of more than 2 years, at services of primary and secondary health care. obtained results are showed the presence of significant weaknesses in the providing of quality health care for patients with diabetes, in comparison with the requirements of national standards. Considering the features of detected flaws, they should be regarded as a result of an insufficient level of knowledge of their disease among patients and, possibly, the low average level of their income. the level of health care for patients of both types of diabetes does not meet recommended. Recommendations, which does not require personal expenses, are realized more efficiently, but not at the target level. Among the Ukrainian population level of implementation of the recommendations related to personal costs spending is at a critically low level, regardless of the type of disease. Solving of the identified problems could be achieved through the development of the network of primary health care services, closer to the patients, in conjunction with the organization and promotion of self-educational projects for patients and their physicians.

  4. [Ukrainian experience of health care for patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Матюха, Лариса Ф; Титова, Тетяна А; Бухановська, Тетяна М; Смаль, Богдан О

    2016-01-01

    diabetes mellitus is among the main challenges in the establishment of an effective health care system. A significant prevalence of disease and, consequently, a large number of complications, caused by it, provokes a constant searching for new measures and means for the struggle. In Ukraine, as in other countries, among methods of such a struggle is to standardize medical care. explore the state of health care for patients with diabetes in Ukraine. to study the frequency of the measurement of certain quality indicators of patients with diabetes it was organized cross-sectional trial by the anonymous survey of 242 patients with a previously verified diagnosis of more than 2 years, at services of primary and secondary health care. obtained results are showed the presence of significant weaknesses in the providing of quality health care for patients with diabetes, in comparison with the requirements of national standards. Considering the features of detected flaws, they should be regarded as a result of an insufficient level of knowledge of their disease among patients and, possibly, the low average level of their income. the level of health care for patients of both types of diabetes does not meet recommended. Recommendations, which does not require personal expenses, are realized more efficiently, but not at the target level. Among the Ukrainian population level of implementation of the recommendations related to personal costs spending is at a critically low level, regardless of the type of disease. Solving of the identified problems could be achieved through the development of the network of primary health care services, closer to the patients, in conjunction with the organization and promotion of self-educational projects for patients and their physicians.

  5. Experience of Home Telehealth Technology in Older Patients With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of diabetes, a common chronic disease among older adults, is increasing annually. The lack of blood glucose regulation can result in severe diabetes-related complications and substantial healthcare costs, making self-care programs specific to this population especially important. Combined with reduced numbers of healthcare professionals, the integration of healthcare and information technology and the older adults' adoption of telehealth services have become increasingly important. This study used a qualitative method to interview 18 older study participants who used a telehealth service. Subject perceptions and suggestions regarding using such a service for diabetes management were investigated. Content analysis was used to examine the interview data and determine the older patients' acceptance and perceived benefits of telehealth service. Four main themes emerged: (1) initial trial encouragement from the doctors, nurses, and financial incentives; (2) enhanced self-management capability through continuous device use for better outcomes; (3) ambivalent feelings regarding dependence on others for problem solving; and (4) consideration for continual technology use for an uncertain future. These results serve as a reference for promoting, assessing, and verifying telehealth models for older patients with diabetes.

  6. Facilitators and barriers of adaptation to diabetes: experiences of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging and burdensome chronic diseases of the 21st century and More than 1% of the Iranian urban population older than 20 years develops Type 2 diabetes each year. Living with diabetes mellitus has been described as a dynamic personal transitional adaptation, based on restructuring of the illness perceived experience and management of the self. Adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is an integral part of diabetes care. This study explored the experiences of facilitators and barriers adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes by Iranian patients. Methods This study was conducted by using qualitative content analysis. Data were collected via in-depth, semi-structured and face to face interviews with 15 patients with type2 diabetes. Results Three themes emerged from collected data, including a) individual context with Beliefs, personal background, and previous experience subthemes. b) supportive system with Family, Society and Health organizations subthemes and c) self-comparison with comparison with other diabetes and comparison with other diseases subthemes. Conclusions Identifying and managing Facilitators and Barriers adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus are an integral part of diabetes care. This study provides a better understanding of the factors from perspective of patients and it can be utilized by health care providers to adapt their health care and education contents to better meet the needs of people with diabetes. PMID:24401490

  7. Patient involvement in diabetes care: experiences in nine diabetes care groups

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Simone R.; Struijs, Jeroen N.; Rijken, Mieke; Nijpels, Giel; Baan, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the expected beneficial effects on quality of care, patient involvement in diabetes care groups, which deliver a bundled paid integrated care programme for diabetes type 2, seems to be limited. The aim of this study was to gain insight into levels and methods of patient involvement, into facilitators and barriers, and into the future preferences of care groups and patient representatives. Theory and methods Semi-structured interviews were held with 10 representatives of care groups and 11 representatives of patient advocacy groups. An adapted version of Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation was used to define five levels of patient involvement. Results Patient involvement in care groups was mostly limited to informing and consulting patients. Higher levels, i.e., advising, co-producing and decision-making, were less frequently observed. Care groups and patient representatives perceived largely the same barriers and facilitators and had similar preferences regarding future themes and design of patient involvement. Conclusion Constructive collaboration between diabetes care groups and patient representatives to enhance patient involvement in the future seems viable. Several issues such as the lack of evidence for effectiveness of patient involvement, differences in viewpoints on the role and responsibilities of care groups and perceived barriers need to be addressed. PMID:27118961

  8. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiological, therapeutic aspects and patient experience.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Youssouf; Bensghir, Rajaa; Ihbibane, Fatima; OuladLashen, Ahd; Sodqi, Mustapha; Marih, Latifa; Chakib, Abdelfattah; Marhoum, Kamal El Filali

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, no data on the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes have been published. To review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data and evaluate the experience of people living with HIV and suffering from diabetes. Our study population was composed of 190 outpatients (87 males and 103 females) attending the Infectious Diseases department of the University Hospital Center of Casablanca (Ibn Rochd). Using the computerized medical records, we identified patients with HIV-Diabetes and collected their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data. At the enrollment date of each patient, we measured anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and arm circumference). We also asked each patient, about the impression on their bodies' appearance and the degree of concern with regard to the diabetes. The population of patients with HIV, the prevalence of diabetes was 10.5%, among the patients taking an antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence was 13.5%. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 113 patients before the discovery of their HIV infection. At time of recruitment, 111 of them were under antiretroviral therapy for a mean period of 3.1years. Zidovudine was the most prescribed drug followed by lamivudine. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 144 patients. Eighty-seven patients feel conscious about their body appearance which makes them feel bad about the way they look. Metformin was prescribed in 46 cases. The majority of patients (73.1%) considered diabetes as a second health problem. Only 46 patients were well balanced. The multidisciplinary consultation and patient education should enable an appropriate management of diabetes in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Active-Learning Diabetes Simulation in an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience to Develop Patient Empathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop and integrate an active-learning diabetes simulation into an advanced pharmacy practice experience to improve pharmacy students’ empathy toward patients with diabetes mellitus. Design. Students simulated the experience of having diabetes mellitus by conducting activities commonly prescribed to those with this disease state for 7 days, after which they submitted a standardized diabetes log and narrative reflection. Interpretive phenomenology design with thematic analysis was used to determine the impact of this experience on the students. Assessment. As shown in student reflections, 95% developed empathy, 97% found the experience beneficial, and 67% improved their ability to relate to and counsel patients. Most (95%) found difficulty adhering to the regimen. On average, students consumed 179 grams of carbohydrates per day and exercised 5 days or 215 minutes per week. Additionally, 69% decided to modify their personal habits to become healthier. Conclusions. Inclusion of the 7-day active-learning exercise greatly impacted student pharmacists’ self-reported empathy toward and ability to relate to patients with diabetes mellitus. Completion of this experience may result in long-lasting personal behavior modifications. PMID:23275668

  10. [Thoughts about patient education: the experience of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, André; Simon, Dominique; Sachon, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Patient education is not simply information or teaching or coaching. It is learning that is both practical and specialized, intended to help patients acquire therapeutic skills and to support them in changing their self-care practices to attain personalized objectives. It is therapeutic. An effective strategy to overcome health problems requires that patients not avoid the problem by denying the disease. Health prevention behavior requires that the patient be simultaneously confident in the prescribed treatments and able to project into the future. It is more difficult for asymptomatic patients to have a mental representation of the disease and thus be able to modify their lifestyle. Self-measurement of blood glucose can create anxiety and make the risk of complications more tangible, but it is beneficial only if it induces action or reassurance. Changing behavior is possible only to the extent that it does not challenge the patient's own well-being. It may be unreasonable but it is also rational to refuse what the patient perceives as a threat to his or her own identity. Thus, physicians caring for patients with a chronic disease must be skilled in three different fields: biomedicine, pedagogy, and psychology.

  11. Patients’ Experiences with and Attitudes towards a Diabetes Patient Web Portal

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Maaike C. M.; Dijkhorst-Oei, Lioe-Ting; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A diabetes patient web portal allows patients to access their personal health record and may improve diabetes outcomes; however, patients’ adoption is slow. We aimed to get insight into patients’ experiences with a web portal to understand how the portal is being used, how patients perceive the content of the portal and to assess whether redesign of the portal might be needed. Materials and Methods A survey among 1500 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a login to a patient portal. Setting: 62 primary care practices and one outpatient hospital clinic, using a combined patient portal. We compared patients who requested a login but never used it or once (‘early quitters’) with patients who used it at least two times (‘persistent users’). Results 632 patients (42.1%) returned the questionnaire. Their mean age was 59.7 years, 63.1% was male and 81.8% had type 2 diabetes. 413 (65.3%) people were persistent users and 34.7% early quitters. In the multivariable analysis, insulin use (OR2.07; 95%CI[1.18–3.62]), experiencing more frequently hyperglycemic episodes (OR1.30;95%CI[1.14–1.49]) and better diabetes knowledge (OR1.02, 95%CI[1.01–1.03]) do increase the odds of being a persistent user. Persistent users perceived the usefulness of the patient portal significantly more favorable. However, they also more decisively declared that the patient portal is not helpful in supporting life style changes. Early quitters felt significantly more items not applicable in their situation compared to persistent users. Both persistent users (69.8%) and early quitters (58.8%) would prefer a reminder function for scheduled visits. About 60% of both groups wanted information about medication and side-effects in their portal. Conclusions The diabetes patient web portal might be improved significantly by taking into account the patients’ experiences and attitudes. We propose creating separate portals for patients on insulin or not. PMID:26086272

  12. Diabetes Screening at the Periodontal Visit: Patient and Provider Experiences with Two Screening Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rosedale, Mary T.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined patient and dental provider experiences during the periodontal visit of a novel diabetes screening approach using gingival crevicular blood (GCB) compared with finger stick blood (FSB) for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods At a large Periodontics and Implant clinic, FSB samples from 120 patients and GCB samples from 102 of these patients were collected on special blood collection cards and sent to a laboratory for HbA1c testing, with test results sent to the patients from the laboratory. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analyses of patients and providers were conducted. Results Quantitative and qualitative data support the feasibility and acceptability of the novel approach described. Themes that arose from the interviews with providers and patients include “a good chance to check,” “patient choice,” “FSB versus GCB testing,” and “a new way of interacting and viewing the dental visit.” Conclusions Periodontal patients and dental providers believe that the dental visit is an opportune site for diabetes screening and generally prefer GCB to FSB collection. GCB testing is well-tolerated, convenient and acceptable to patients and reduces time and liability obstacles for dental providers to conduct diabetes screening. PMID:22284167

  13. Experiences of food abstinence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Maike; Wermeling, Matthias; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with type 2 diabetes often report pressure to abstain from many of life's pleasures. We tried to reconstruct these patients’ sense of pressure to better understand how people with diabetes make sense of, and integrate, these feelings into their life. Design, setting and participants A secondary analysis of narrative interviews with 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who are part of a website project. Main outcome measures Grounded theory-based analysis of narrative interviews, consisting of open, axial and selective coding. Results People with type 2 diabetes felt obliged to give up many pleasures and live a life of abstinence. They perceived a pressure to display a modest culinary lifestyle via improved laboratory test results and weight. Their verbal efforts to reassure and distance themselves from excessiveness indicate a high moral pressure. With regard to the question of how to abstain, food and behaviour were classified into healthy and unhealthy. Personal rules sometimes led to surprising experiences of freedom. Conclusions People with diabetes have internalised that their behaviour is a barrier to successful treatment. They experience an intensive pressure to show abstinence and feel misjudged when their efforts have no visible effect. Taking into account this moral pressure, and listening to patients’ personal efforts and strategies to establish healthy behaviours, might help to build a trusting relationship with healthcare providers. PMID:26739724

  14. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  15. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Lindeberg, Staffan; Hallberg, Ann-Christine

    2013-07-29

    We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants' other experiences of the two diets from the same study. In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: "What thoughts do you have about this diet?", "Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet" and "How do you think this diet has affected your health?". The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a diabetes diet in

  16. The influence of literacy on patient-reported experiences of diabetes self-management support.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrea S; Carlson, John R; Malone, Robb M; Joyner, James; Dewalt, Darren A

    2010-01-01

    Variability in disease-related outcomes may relate to how patients experience self-management support in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with experiences of self-management support during primary care encounters. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 208 patients seen in a multidisciplinary diabetes program in an academic medicine clinic. Multiple regression analysis was used to test associations between patient-rated experiences of self-management support (Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care) and race, gender, insurance status, literacy, duration of diabetes, and intensity of care management. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care ratings decreased with age (r = -.235, p = .001), were higher for women than for men (3.95 vs. 3.65, t = 2.612, p= .010), and were greater for those with more education (F= 3.927, p = .009) and greater literacy skills (t = 3.839, p< .001). The ratings did not vary between racial (t = -1.108, p = .269) or insurance (F = 1.045, p = .374) groups and were unaffected by the duration of diabetes (r= .052, p = .466) and the intensity of care management (F = 1.028, p = .360). In multivariate models, literacy was the only variable contributing significantly to variation in self-management support ratings. Even when considering the objective intensity of health services delivered, literacy was the sole variable contributing to differences in patient ratings of self-management support. Although conclusions are limited by the cross-sectional nature of this study, the results emphasize the need to consider literacy when developing and communicating treatment plans requiring self-management skills.

  17. Secure messaging and diabetes management: experiences and perspectives of patient portal users

    PubMed Central

    Wade-Vuturo, Ashley E; Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient portal use has been associated with favorable outcomes, but we know less about how patients use and benefit from specific patient portal features. Objective Using mixed-methods, we explored how adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) use and benefit from secure messaging (SM) within a patient portal. Methods Adults with T2DM who had used a patient portal participated in a focus group and completed a survey (n=39) or completed a survey only (n=15). We performed thematic analysis of focus group transcripts to identify the benefits of and barriers to using SM within a portal. We also examined the association between use of various patient portal features and patients’ glycemic control. Results Participants were on average 57.1 years old; 65% were female; 76% were Caucasian/White, and 20% were African American/Black. Self-reported benefits of SM within a portal included enhanced patient satisfaction, enhanced efficiency and quality of face-to-face visits, and access to clinical care outside traditional face-to-face visits. Self-reported barriers to using SM within a portal included preconceived beliefs or rules about SM and prior negative experiences with SM. Participants’ assumptions about providers’ opinions about SM and providers’ instructions about SM also influenced use. Greater self-reported use of SM to manage a medical appointment was significantly associated with patients’ glycemic control (ρ=−0.29, p=0.04). Conclusion SM within a portal may facilitate access to care, enhance the quality of office visits, and be associated with patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes for patients with diabetes, but provider communication about SM is essential. PMID:23242764

  18. A Qualitative Study of Confusing Experiences among Japanese Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Ikuko; Chujo, Masami; Kataoka, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the powerlessness of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and described the structure of powerlessness that these individuals experienced. In order for patients to recover from this state, we recommend that they take steps to regain their power. Methods Fifteen Japanese adults with T1D participated in this study. Data were collected from all subjects between July 2013 and March 2014 via in-depth semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data analysis was conducted according to a grounded theory approach. Finally, the core category was identified, which allowed us to build a new powerlessness structure for T1D. Results The results suggested a core category, ‘Wandering a tangled path,’ comprising four categories, eight subcategories, and twenty-six concepts. These four categories were as follows: ‘being burdened by T1D,’ ‘suffering from insulin-related troubles,’ ‘being unable to cope with difficulties in self-management,’ and ‘facing social prejudice.’ In the state of powerlessness, negative emotional experiences snowballed, with patients feeling more and more depressed until they ultimately reached ‘rock bottom.’ Conclusion We found that as negative emotional experiences related to powerlessness increased, negative feelings intensified until the patients reached rock bottom. Powerlessness is like ‘wandering a tangled path,’ a state in which T1D patients struggle to cope with reality on their own when faced with both internal and external events. ‘Wandering a tangled path’ is at the core of powerlessness. A primary characteristic of the structure of powerlessness is suffering from confusing experiences. To help patients cope with T1D without being crushed by powerlessness, nurses must pay attention to signs of powerlessness. Powerlessness is not just an emotional state, but a combination of feelings, perceptions, and thoughts; therefore, it is important to comprehensively understand patients

  19. What is important for you? A qualitative interview study of living with diabetes and experiences of diabetes care to establish a basis for a tailored Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

    PubMed

    Svedbo Engström, Maria; Leksell, Janeth; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2016-03-24

    There is a growing emphasis on the perspective of individuals living with diabetes and the need for a more person-centred diabetes care. At present, the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) lacks patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) based on the perspective of the patient. As a basis for a new PROM, the aim of this study was to describe important aspects in life for adult individuals with diabetes. Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using content analysis. Hospital-based outpatient clinics and primary healthcare clinics in Sweden. 29 adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=15) and type 2 DM (n=14). Swedish adults (≥ 18 years) living with type 1 DM or type 2 DM (duration ≥ 5 years) able to describe their situation in Swedish. Purposive sampling generated heterogeneous characteristics. To live a good life with diabetes is demanding for the individual, but experienced barriers can be eased by support from others in the personal sphere, and by professional support from diabetes care. Diabetes care was a crucial resource to nurture the individual's ability and knowledge to manage diabetes, and to facilitate life with diabetes by supplying support, guidance, medical treatment and technical devices tailored to individual needs. The analysis resulted in the overarching theme 'To live a good life with diabetes' constituting the two main categories 'How I feel and how things are going with my diabetes' and 'Support from diabetes care in managing diabetes' including five different categories. Common aspects were identified including the experience of living with diabetes and support from diabetes care. These will be used to establish a basis for a tailored PROM for the NDR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Quality of outpatient care provided to diabetic patients. A health maintenance organization experience.

    PubMed

    Peters, A L; Legorreta, A P; Ossorio, R C; Davidson, M B

    1996-06-01

    To document the quality of diabetes care provided to patients in a large health maintenance organization (HMO) from 1 January 1993 to 1 January 1994 and compare it to the standards of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). To meet a Health Plan and Employer Data Information Set (HEDIS) requirement, a major HMO in California identified 14,539 members with diabetes and randomly selected 384 individuals for review. Charts were available on 353 of these patients, and after obtaining the information for the HEDIS review, additional information was extracted from the charts by an outside chart reviewer. This data set was used for an analysis of the quality of diabetic care provided by the participating medical groups to these HMO members during 1 year. Documentation of follow-up and measures of glycemic and lipid control was examined both for absolute values and for the frequency of measurement over the year. These results were compared to the ADA standards of care. Although patients averaged 4.5 visits to their primary care physicians (PCPs) over the year, 21% had one or fewer visits per year. Glycated hemoglobin levels were not documented in 56% of patients (ADA recommends two to four measurements per year), and of those with a glycated hemoglobin level measured. 39% had at least one value > or = 10%. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations were not documented in 65% of patients (four to six per year recommended). Foot exams (which should be performed at each regular visit) were not documented for 94% of patients. Urine protein measurements were not performed in 52% of patients. Additionally, many patients had elevated and untreated lipid abnormalities. In spite of the frequency of PCP visits during the year for many of these patients, diabetes management was inadequate. This lack of adequate preventive care will lead to an increased risk of the development of the acute and chronic complications of diabetes, creating an even greater future burden on the health care

  1. [Diabetes and alternative medicine: diabetic patients experiences with Ayur-Ved, "clinical ecology" and "cellular nutrition" methods].

    PubMed

    Vanelli, M; Chiari, G; Gugliotta, M; Capuano, C; Giacalone, T; Gruppi, L; Condò, M

    2002-04-01

    In the last two years we discovered that three of our patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (0.8%) suffered an unexpected worsening in their glycemic control due to a reduction of their insulin dosage in favour of some "alternative" diabetes treatments using herbs, vitamins, fantastic diets and trace elements prescribed by non-medical practitioners. The first patient, a 6.6 year old boy, was admitted to hospital because of a severe ketoacidosis with first degree coma as a result of his parents having reduced his insulin dosage by 77% and replacing the insulin with an ayurvedic herbal preparation (Bardana Actium Lapp). The second patient, a 10.4 year old boy, was admitted to hospital after his teachers noticed that he appeared tired, thinner and polyuric. During hospital admission for mild ketoacidosis the mother, reluctant at first, finally confessed that her son was under the care of a "clinical ecologist". Having identified several food allergies this "clinical ecologist" had placed the child on a spartan diet of bread, water and salt, and had reduced his insulin dosage by 68%. The third patient, a 21 year old male, upon transfer to the Adult Diabetic Center, reported that he had been under the care of a pranotherapist for several years. The pranotherapist had prescribed a cellular nutrition preparation (called "Madonna drops"), a meditation program and also a 50% reduction in his insulin dosage. During this period his HbAlc values had increased from 6.4% to 12%. Current orthodox diabetes treatments are considered unsatisfactory by many people and it is thus not surprising that they search for "miracle" cures. It is important, however, that hospital staff do not ridicule the patients or their parents for trying these alternative therapies. Nevertheless, it would be useful for staff to discuss in advance these "therapies" with patients, highlighting their ineffectiveness and strongly discouraging cures that call for a reduction or elimination of the insulin

  2. The disease management program for type 2 diabetes in Germany enhances process quality of diabetes care - a follow-up survey of patient's experiences.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Küver, Claudia; Gedrose, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Falk; Russ-Thiel, Barbara; Brose, Hans-Peter; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2010-03-03

    In summer 2003 a disease management program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes was introduced on a nationwide basis in Germany. Patient participation and continuity of care within the DMP are important factors to achieve long-term improvements in clinical endpoints. Therefore it is of interest, if patients experience any positive or negative effects of the DMP on their treatment that would support or hamper further participation. The main objective of the study was to find out if the German Disease Management Program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes improves process and outcome quality of medical care for patients in the light of their subjective experiences over a period of one year. Cohort study with a baseline interview and a follow-up after 10.4 +/- 0.64 months. Data on process and outcome measures were collected by telephone interviews with 444 patients enrolled and 494 patients not enrolled in the German DMP for type 2 diabetes. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. DMP enrolment was significantly associated with a higher process quality of care. At baseline enrolled patients more often reported that they had attended a diabetes education course (OR = 3.4), have > or = 4 contacts/year with the attending physician (OR = 3.3), have at least one annual foot examination (OR = 3.1) and one referral to an ophthalmologist (OR = 3.4) and possess a diabetes passport (OR = 2.4). Except for the annual referral to an ophthalmologist these parameters were also statistically significant at follow-up. In contrast, no differences between enrolled and not enrolled patients were found concerning outcome quality indicators, e.g. self-rated health, Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and blood pressure. However, 16-36% of the DMP participants reported improvements of body weight and/or GHb and/or blood pressure values due to enrolment - unchanged within one year of follow-up. In the light of patient's experiences the DMP enhances the process quality of medical care for type 2

  3. The disease management program for type 2 diabetes in Germany enhances process quality of diabetes care - a follow-up survey of patient's experiences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In summer 2003 a disease management program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes was introduced on a nationwide basis in Germany. Patient participation and continuity of care within the DMP are important factors to achieve long-term improvements in clinical endpoints. Therefore it is of interest, if patients experience any positive or negative effects of the DMP on their treatment that would support or hamper further participation. The main objective of the study was to find out if the German Disease Management Program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes improves process and outcome quality of medical care for patients in the light of their subjective experiences over a period of one year. Methods Cohort study with a baseline interview and a follow-up after 10.4 ± 0.64 months. Data on process and outcome measures were collected by telephone interviews with 444 patients enrolled and 494 patients not enrolled in the German DMP for type 2 diabetes. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results DMP enrolment was significantly associated with a higher process quality of care. At baseline enrolled patients more often reported that they had attended a diabetes education course (OR = 3.4), have ≥ 4 contacts/year with the attending physician (OR = 3.3), have at least one annual foot examination (OR = 3.1) and one referral to an ophthalmologist (OR = 3.4) and possess a diabetes passport (OR = 2.4). Except for the annual referral to an ophthalmologist these parameters were also statistically significant at follow-up. In contrast, no differences between enrolled and not enrolled patients were found concerning outcome quality indicators, e.g. self-rated health, Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and blood pressure. However, 16-36% of the DMP participants reported improvements of body weight and/or GHb and/or blood pressure values due to enrolment - unchanged within one year of follow-up. Conclusions In the light of patient's experiences the DMP enhances the process

  4. Manoeuvring between anxiety and control: patients' experience of learning to live with diabetes: a lifeworld phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Karin; Österberg, Sofia Almerud; Leksell, Janeth; Berglund, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that people with diabetes want their lives to proceed as normally as possible, but some patients experience difficulty in reaching their desired goals with treatment. The learning process is a complex phenomenon interwoven into every facet of life. Patients and healthcare providers often have different perspectives in care which gives different expectations on what the patients need to learn and cope with. The aim of this study, therefore, is to describe the experience of learning to live with diabetes. Interviews were conducted with 12 patients afflicted with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were then analysed with reference to the reflective lifeworld research approach. The analysis shows that when the afflicted realize that their bodies undergo changes and that blood sugar levels are not always balanced as earlier in life, they can adjust to their new conditions early. The afflicted must take responsibility for balancing their blood sugar levels and incorporating the illness into their lives. Achieving such goals necessitates knowledge. The search for knowledge and sensitivity to changes are constant requirements for people with diabetes. Learning is driven by the tension caused by the need for and dependence on safe blood sugar control, the fear of losing such control, and the fear of future complications. The most important responsibilities for these patients are aspiring to understand their bodies as lived bodies, ensuring safety and security, and acquiring the knowledge essential to making conscious choices.

  5. Mental health and relational self-management experiences of patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sakraida, Teresa Joan; Robinson, Marylou V

    2012-11-01

    Self-management (SM) behaviors reduce disease burden from advancing diabetic kidney disease. From a parent study about patients' transition experience to SM, this study report presents coping resources that support SM and barriers from two focus group interviews (n = 6). Ethnographic analysis identified two patterns: (a) mental health self-management characterized by coping, and (b) relational self-management characterized by social support. Practice implications include focused assessment of perceived social support and social network, dating advisement, and workplace management. Future study considerations include inquiry about diabetes and dating relationships and workplace resources for SM support.

  6. [Applying the transtheoretical model to a patient on a diabetes control diet: a nursing experience].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ti-Chen; Chan, Hui-Ya; Chiang, Yuan-Ping

    2010-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires lifelong self-management. The author used a transtheoretical model to help improve the self-care abilities of one diabetes mellitus patient who lacked initial appreciation / understanding of self-care needs. During hospitalization, the author employed observation and communication to evaluate subject needs with regard to transforming her dietary behavior in order to better stabilize her medical condition. The author educated the subject on a one-to-one basis in dietary control using change tactics, and recommended that she adjust her 12 portions and food exchange. The patient was instructed to operate the blood sugar machine to monitor the effects of diet control. This method was designed to help the patient build self-care decision-making abilities during the action phase and bolster confidence during the maintenance phase through self-efficacy promotion, and to increase confidence in her self-care abilities. Telephone interview follow-ups demonstrated that the patient was able to self-comply with 12 portion rules and monitor her blood sugar on a daily basis. With blood sugar measurements at 70-105mg/dl and 110-160mg/dl, respectively, before and after meals, her diet control remained in the action phase. The patient was able to self-monitor her personal health status via blood sugar level and conduct personal healthcare maintenance work. Results support the effectiveness of applying the transtheoretical model to self-care strategies for diabetic patients.

  7. Patients' experience of a telephone booster intervention to support weight management in Type 2 diabetes and its acceptability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihua; Forbes, Angus; While, Alison

    2010-01-01

    We studied the patient experience of a telephone booster intervention, i.e. weekly reinforcement of the clinic advice regarding lifestyle modification advice to support weight loss. Forty six adults with Type 2 diabetes and a body mass index >28 kg/m(2) were randomised into either intervention (n = 25) or control (n = 21) groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the intervention group participants to explore their views and experiences. The patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the telephone calls and most would recommend the intervention to others in a similar situation. The content of the telephone follow-up met their need for on-going support. The benefits arising from the telephone calls included: being reminded to comply with their regimen; prompting and motivating adherence to diabetes self-care behaviours; improved self-esteem; and feeling 'worthy of interest'. The convenience and low cost of telephone support has much potential in chronic disease management.

  8. Amputation in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurjit; Chawla, S

    2006-01-01

    Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. The present study examines the amputation risk criterion and the long term outcome in terms of amputations and mortality in patients with diabetic foot. 27 patients with diabetic foot lesions were studied. There were 15 patients with early lesions and 10 with advanced lesions. 15 patients were managed conservatively including local amputations and 12 with lower extremity amputations. 80% patients were males in 45-59 years of age group and all patients had more than 6 years of poorly controlled diabetes. Precipitating factors included walking barefoot, history of minor trauma, infection, callosities or burns in 86% of patients. Major lower limb amputations were common in irregularly treated, poorly controlled diabetics due to infection in a limb devitalized by angiopathy and desensitised by neuropathy. Diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mortality was higher in ischaemic ulcers than neuropathic ulcers.

  9. A cultural lens to understanding daily experiences with type 2 diabetes self-management among clinic patients in M'bour, Senegal.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Diaw, Mor; Ndao, Fatou; Okoror, Titilayo; Degboe, Arnold; Abiero, Beatrice

    Diabetes is a steadily increasing threat in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Factors such as urbanization, obesity, physical inactivity, and inadequate access to healthcare are believed to contribute to the increasing burden of diabetes. Interventions that optimize diabetes self-management are critically important since obtaining diabetes medications is challenging due to cost constraints and availability. Culture is a significant factor in shaping health behaviors such as diabetes self-management, where individual health behaviors operate in confluence with family, community, and social structures. This study examined experiences with diabetes self-management among clinic patients residing in M'bour, Senegal, using the PEN3 model as a cultural framework. Results indicate that financial challenges related to accessing medical care and adhering to the prescribed diabetic diet were the main barriers to diabetes management. Family dynamics serve as both supportive and inhibiting forces that influence the aforementioned barriers.

  10. The association of weight loss with patient experience and outcomes in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus prescribed canagliflozin

    PubMed Central

    Gerlanc, Nicole M; Cai, Jennifer; Tkacz, Joseph; Bolge, Susan C; Brady, Brenna L

    2017-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic condition complicated by being overweight or obese. This study used a patient survey to assess health, satisfaction, and diabetes self-management in relation to weight management. Methods A survey including the Current Health Satisfaction Questionnaire, Diabetes Distress Scale, and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered using an online platform to a sample of 205 patients with T2DM prescribed canagliflozin. Patients were placed into 5 groups based on their self-reported weight change since initiation of canagliflozin: Lost >10 lbs, Lost 5–10 lbs, Lost <5 lbs, No Change, and Gained Weight. One-way ANOVAs, Kruskall–Wallis tests, and multivariable regression were used to explore differences between weight loss groups. Results The majority of patients (66.8%) reported losing weight. Compared to other groups, patients who lost >10 lbs were more likely to be engaged in a weight loss program for at least 6 months. Patients in the Lost >10 lbs and Lost 5–10 lbs groups reported the greatest satisfaction with canagliflozin (p<0.05 for both). Multivariable analyses controlling for patient demographic and treatment characteristics revealed that losing >10 lbs was associated with reduced diabetes distress, improved A1c and blood glucose levels, and decreased perceived frequency of hyperglycemia (p<0.05). Conclusion Increased positive patient outcomes, engagement in diabetes self-management, and medication satisfaction were observed among patients who reported weight loss. These findings suggest that a T2DM regimen that includes canagliflozin as part of a weight loss regimen can help improve patient outcomes and experiences with T2DM. PMID:28360528

  11. When a diabetic foot ulcer results in amputation: a qualitative study of the lived experience of 15 patients.

    PubMed

    Foster, DeSales; Lauver, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that can lead to complications resulting in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), foot infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations. Almost 50,000 amputations performed every year in the United States are due to DFUs. A qualitative analysis using Colaizzi's step-by-step approach to phenomenology was conducted to describe the experiences of 15 patients with diabetes living with a foot amputation. Semi-structured interviews were recorded digitally,transcribed, and analyzed. The analysis included reading transcripts multiple times, identifying noteworthy verbatim statements, then abstracting key words and phrases; similar key words and phrases were grouped into a meaning unit. The researchers rereviewed original transcripts, verbatim statements, and extracted key words and phrases and devised meaning units to identify main themes. Rigor in this study was ensured by developing an audit trail that linked the meaning units and themes back to key words and verbatim statements in the original transcripts and then allowing the participant to ensure accuracy of recounted information. Five major themes emerged from the data regarding patient concern about the ability to be productive members of society (i.e., transitioning from having a nonhealing wound to living as a new amputee)--financial burden, powerlessness, social support, placing blame, and uncertainty in one's continued ability--each having implications for health care providers as well as patients. By considering the experience from the patient perspective, health care professionals may be better prepared to discuss patient concerns with follow-up care and day to-day living, especially in getting help with finances. Additional research is needed to uncover models of care that may help these patients remain productive members of society and reduce the burden of amputation on patient quality of life.

  12. Initial experience and evaluation of reusable insulin pen devices among patients with diabetes in emerging countries.

    PubMed

    Tschiedel, Balduino; Almeida, Oscar; Redfearn, Jennifer; Flacke, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Many individuals with type 2 diabetes in emerging countries are transitioning from vial-and-syringe insulin delivery to that of insulin pens (disposable or reusable). As with all insulin delivery methods, patient preferences and comfort are of utmost importance to optimize adherence to treatment. Patient-preferred characteristics for reusable insulin pens and barriers to appropriate injection, particularly in these regions, have not been widely reported in the clinical literature, highlighting a key information gap for clinicians considering these methods as part of a comprehensive diabetes management approach. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with type 1/2 diabetes, including insulin-naïve and established insulin users. After moderator demonstration, participants were evaluated on their ability to perform a six-step process to inject a 10-unit dose into a pad with the AllStar(®) (AS; Sanofi, Mumbai, India), HumaPen Ergo II(®) (HE2; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, USA), and NovoPen 4(®) (NP4; Novo Nordisk, Bagsværd, Denmark) pens. Local pens were also tested in India, China and Brazil. A total of 503 people from India, Malaysia, Brazil, Egypt, and China participated. Participants completed the six-step process in an average, 2-3 min per pen. Participants ranked ease of overall use and ease of self-injection and dialing/reading dose as most important features for new insulin pens. When using the pens, the most difficult step was priming/safety testing, with 7-12% failing and 28-40% having difficulty; 6%, 18%, and 22% failed to hold the injection button down for the required period of time using AS, NP4, and HE2, respectively. Participants ranked AS significantly higher for nine of 12 ease-of-use features including three of the top four features considered the most important for reusable pens, while HE2 was ranked higher for two features. Local pens were ranked lowest. Priming the pen and injecting the dose imparted most difficulty for people with

  13. [Morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis. Twenty-five years of experience at a single centre].

    PubMed

    Coronel, F; Cigarrán, S; Herrero, J A

    2010-01-01

    difference in HD discontinuation. Age and cardiovascular comorbidity are the factors involved in mortality. Technological advances and cumulative center experience may achieve dialysis outcome improvements in diabetic patients. 

  14. US Healthcare Experiences of Hispanic Patients with Diabetes and Family Members: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Amirehsani, Karen A; Hu, Jie; Wallace, Debra C; Silva, Zulema A; Dick, Sarah; West-Livingston, Lauren N; Hussami, Christina R

    2017-01-01

    Hispanics in the United States experience significant health disparities. Using focus groups conducted in Spanish, we explored the perspectives of 172 Hispanic adults regarding their healthcare experiences. Many participants were women (64.5%) and primarily from Mexico (80%). Four major qualitative themes emerged: (a) provide us with information, (b) want attentive and respectful relationships, (c) want better care, and (d) perceived discrimination. Suboptimal patient-provider interactions were described. Research is needed to explore interventions that address these issues. Incorporating person-centered care principles and practices such as clear and understandable communication, culturally competent care, and customer service skills may benefit provider interactions with Hispanics.

  15. Quality of care provided to patients with diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico; managed care versus fee-for-service experience.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vigil, Efraín; Kianes-Pérez, Zaira

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the quality of diabetes care in a large managed care system and fee-for-service payment system in Puerto Rico. This retrospective cross-sectional study assessed the adherence to standards of diabetes care in 1,687,202 subjects--226,210 from a fee-for-service population and 1,460,992 from a managed care group. Patients with diabetes mellitus were identified from insurance claims reports. Type of health-care provider, service location, number of visits, and laboratory utilization were also assessed. From the analysis, we identified 90,616 patients with diabetes (5.4% of the overall study group). Of these, 66,587 (73.5%) were found to have at least one encounter with a physician in a medical visit. Of the 66,586 patients with diabetes who visited a physician, only 4% were treated by an endocrinologist. General laboratory utilization was 34% for the entire population of patients with diabetes studied. In the group of patients with documented laboratory tests, 93% had a documented fasting blood glucose test; in contrast, hemoglobin A lc testing was performed in only 9% of the patients. The fee-for-service group had a higher rate of visits to medical specialists and general laboratory utilization, whereas the managed care group had a higher rate of hospital admissions and emergency department visits. The quality of diabetes management and the subsequent outcomes are related to patient and health-care provider adherence to standards of care. In this analysis, we found that patients and physicians are responsible for low compliance with recognized standards of diabetes care in Puerto Rico. The lack of adequate management will lead to increased mortality, development and severity of chronic complications, and increased emergency department utilization. Therefore, health-care providers and payers should find ways to achieve more effective promotion of adherence to accepted standards of care for patients with diabetes.

  16. Barriers and facilitators to evidence based care of type 2 diabetes patients: experiences of general practitioners participating to a quality improvement program

    PubMed Central

    Goderis, Geert; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Mathieu, Chantal; Van Den Broeke, Carine; Hannes, Karen; Heyrman, Jan; Grol, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the barriers and facilitators to high-quality diabetes care as experienced by general practitioners (GPs) who participated in an 18-month quality improvement program (QIP). This QIP was implemented to promote compliance with international guidelines. Methods Twenty out of the 120 participating GPs in the QIP underwent semi-structured interviews that focused on three questions: 'Which changes did you implement or did you observe in the quality of diabetes care during your participation in the QIP?' 'According to your experience, what induced these changes?' and 'What difficulties did you experience in making the changes?' Results Most GPs reported that enhanced knowledge, improved motivation, and a greater sense of responsibility were the key factors that led to greater compliance with diabetes care guidelines and consequent improvements in diabetes care. Other factors were improved communication with patients and consulting specialists and reliance on diabetes nurse educators. Some GPs were reluctant to collaborate with specialists, and especially with diabetes educators and dieticians. Others blamed poor compliance with the guidelines on lack of time. Most interviewees reported that a considerable minority of patients were unwilling to change their lifestyles. Conclusion Qualitative research nested in an experimental trial may clarify the improvements that a QIP may bring about in a general practice, provide insight into GPs' approach to diabetes care and reveal the program's limits. Implementation of a QIP encounters an array of cognitive, motivational, and relational obstacles that are embedded in a patient-healthcare provider relationship. PMID:19624848

  17. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  18. Predisposing Factors for Mucormycosis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus; An Experience of 21 Years in Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    S Sarvestani, Amene; Pishdad, Gholamreza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of mucormycosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Shiraz referral centers. This retrospective case control study, reviewed the medical records of 162 patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of mucormycosis hospitalized in two major Shiraz University hospitals during the last 21 years. For each diabetic patient, two patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) matched for age, sex and the date of admission was selected as control group. Age, type of diabetes mellitus (DM) and duration of involvement as well as paraclinical findings were compared between cases and controls. There were 162 patients with murormycosis of which 30 (18.5%) had DM as predisposing factor. Diabetes was the second common predisposing disease next to leukemia. There were 19 (63.3%) women and 11 (36.7%) men among the patients. The overall mortality rate was 53.33% mortality rate. The mean age of the patients was 45.3 ± 17.6 years. The mean duration of diabetes in case and control groups were 5.75 ± 5.43 and 7.2 ± 7.85 years respectively, without any statistical significance between them (p=0.063). Blood sugar in patients was lower than control group (p=0.012). Serum bicarbonate level in case group was higher than in control group (p<0.001). Arterial pH in control group was more acidic than case group (p<0.001). Insulin dependent DM was significantly more prevalent in control group compared to case group (73.4% vs. 36.6%; p=0.002). Our study showed that the number of hospitalized patients with mucormycosis over the last 7 years has been decreased which is due to better control of infection in diabetics. In addition to hyperglycemia and acidosis, several other unknown factors like immune defects may predispose diabetics to this fungal infection.

  19. The Importance of Weight Change Experiences for Performance of Diabetes Self-Care: A Patient-Centered Approach to Evaluating Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Traina, Shana B; Slee, April; Woo, Sangsoon; Canovatchel, William

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight change experiences over time on motivation to perform diabetes self-care behaviors using data from a study of canagliflozin (an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2) versus glimepiride in dual therapy with metformin and background diet/exercise. Weight and motivation for performing healthy behaviors were collected at baseline and over time. The motivation questionnaire enabled categorization into two groups: those performing or not performing health behaviors. Four distinct patterns of weight change were determined: losing weight, gaining weight, and two patterns for fluctuating weight. The relationships between these patterns and motivation for weight loss, following a diet, and exercise were examined using logistic regression models. Of 1182 subjects, more than half were already performing behaviors to lose weight, diet, and exercise at baseline. Among those who were not, 52% (246/474) started taking action to lose weight after baseline, 54% (241/448) started following a diet, and 42% (232/556) started exercising. Weight change patterns were significantly related to performance of healthy behaviors at follow-up (week 36). Compared to the weight gain pattern, those who experienced a continuous weight loss pattern from baseline to week 36 were 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.49, 3.37) times more likely to perform the healthy behaviors. Baseline behavior and confidence were also predictive of performing healthy behaviors. The current work highlights the importance of weight change patterns for performance of diabetes self-care. Tracking weight patterns over time, assessing confidence for performance of healthy behaviors, and being aware of the relationship between weight changes and diabetes self-care behaviors are viable, concrete ways to practice patient-centered care. Janssen Global Services, LLC.

  20. Medicine-taking experiences and associated factors: comparison between Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Mamara, K; Chapman, C; Stevenson, V; Marriott, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare medication-taking experiences and associated issues in Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with Type 2 diabetes in Australia. Various healthcare settings in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were purposefully selected to obtain a diverse group of participants with Type 2 diabetes. Recruitment occurred at diabetes outpatient clinics in two tertiary referral hospitals, six primary care practices and ten community centres. Face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews and group interviews were employed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and coded thematically. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. In total, 100 participants were recruited into two groups: 60 were Arabic-speaking and 40 were Caucasian English-speaking. Both groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Only 5% of the Arabic-speaking participants had well-controlled diabetes compared with 17.5% of the participants in the English-speaking group. Arabic-speaking participants actively changed medication regimens on their own without informing their healthcare professionals. Arabic-speaking patients had more knowledge gaps about their prescribed treatments, compared with the English-speaking group. Their use of diabetes medicines was heavily influenced by peers with diabetes and family members; conversely, they feared revealing their diagnosis within the wider Arabic community due to stigma and collective negative social labelling of diabetes. Confidence in non-Arabic-speaking healthcare providers was lacking. Findings yielded new insights into medication-taking practices and associated factors in Arabic-speaking patients with diabetes. It is vital that healthcare professionals working with Arabic-speaking patients adapt their treatment approaches to accommodate different beliefs and views about medicines. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  1. Family and Friend Participation in Primary Care Visits of Patients with Diabetes or Heart Failure: Patient and Physician Determinants and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D; Choi, HwaJung; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Professional and patient groups have called for increased participation of patients’ informal support networks in chronic disease care, as a means to improve clinical care and self-management. Little is known about the current level of participation of family and friends in the physician visits of adults with chronic illnesses or how that participation affects the experience of patients and physicians. Methods Written survey of 439 functionally independent adults with diabetes or heart failure and 88 of their primary care physicians (PCPs). Patients were ineligible if they had a memory disorder, needed help with activities of daily living, or were undergoing cancer treatment. Results Non-professional friends or family (“companions”) regularly participated in PCP visits for nearly half (48%) of patients. In multivariable models, patients with low health literacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.9, CI 1.4-5.7), more depressive symptoms (AOR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.6), and 4 or more comorbid illnesses (AOR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.5) were more likely to report companion participation. Patients reported that they were more likely to understand PCP advice (77%) and discuss difficult topics with the physician (44%) when companions participated in clinic visits. In multivariable models, companion participation was associated with greater patient satisfaction with their PCP (AOR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.7). While most PCPs perceived visit companions positively, 66% perceived one or more barriers to increasing companion participation, including increased physician burden (39%), inadequate physician training (27%), and patient privacy concerns (24%). Conclusion Patients’ companions represent an important source of potential support for the clinical care of functionally independent patients with diabetes or heart failure, particularly for patients vulnerable to worse outcomes. Companion participation in care was associated with positive patient and physician experiences. Physician concerns

  2. What matters in type 2 diabetes mellitus oral treatment? A discrete choice experiment to evaluate patient preferences.

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel; Bethge, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this empirical study is to evaluate patient preferences for different characteristics of oral type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. As T2DM treatment requires strict adherence, patient needs and preferences should be taken into consideration. Based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied to identify patient preferences. Apart from six identical attributes (adjustment of glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], prevention of hypoglycemia, risk of genital infection, risk of gastrointestinal problems, risk of urinary tract infection, and weight change), one continuous variable of either "additional healthy life years" (AHY) or "additional costs" attribute (AC) was included. The DCE was conducted using a fractional factorial design, and the statistical data analysis used random effect logit models. In total, N = 626 (N = 318 AHY + N = 308 AC) T2DM patients participated in the survey. The estimation revealed a clear dominance for prevention of hypoglycemia (coefficient 0.937) and adjustment of HbA1c (coefficient 0.541). The attributes, "additional healthy life years" (coefficient 0.458) or "additional costs" (coefficient 0.420), were in the middle rank and both of significant impact. The side effects, risk of genital infection (coefficient 0.301), risk of gastrointestinal problems (coefficient 0.296), and risk of urinary tract infection (coefficient 0.241) followed in this respective order. Possible weight change (coefficient 0.047) was of less importance (last rank) to the patients in this evaluation. These survey results demonstrate how much a (hypothetical) T2DM oral treatment characteristic affects the treatment decision. The preference data can be used for risk-benefit assessment, cost-benefit assessment, and the establishment of patient-oriented evidence. Understanding how patients perceive and value different aspects of diabetes oral treatment is vital to the optimal design and evaluation of treatment

  3. Measuring Preferences for a Diabetes Pay-for-Performance for Patient (P4P4P) Program using a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Tai; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Tsai, Ming-Han; Liang, Hsiu-Mei; Li, Kay-Lun; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2015-07-01

    To elicit a patient's willingness to participate in a diabetes pay-for-performance for patient (P4P4P) program using a discrete choice experiment method. The survey was conducted in March 2013. Our sample was drawn from patients with diabetes at five hospitals in Taiwan (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 250). The sample size was 838 patients. The discrete choice experiment questionnaire included the attributes monthly cash rewards, exercise time, diet control, and program duration. We estimated a bivariate probit model to derive willingness-to-accept levels after accounting for the characteristics (e.g., severity and comorbidity) of patients with diabetes. The preferred program was a 3-year program involving 30 minutes of exercise per day and flexible diet control. Offering an incentive of approximately US $67 in cash per month appears to increase the likelihood that patients with diabetes will participate in the preferred P4P4P program by approximately 50%. Patients with more disadvantageous characteristics (e.g., elderly, low income, greater comorbidity, and severity) could have less to gain from participating in the program and thus require a higher monetary incentive to compensate for the disutility caused by participating in the program's activities. Our result demonstrates that a modest financial incentive could increase the likelihood of program participation after accounting for the attributes of the P4P4P program and patients' characteristics. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients' and physicians' preferences for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatments in Spain and Portugal: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Carlos; Feliciano, Rosa; Catalina, Pablo Fernández; Ponte, Carla; Botella, Marta; Rodrigues, João; Esmatjes, Enric; Lafita, Javier; Lizán, Luis; Llorente, Ignacio; Morales, Cristóbal; Navarro-Pérez, Jorge; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Paz, Silvia; Ramirez de Arellano, Antonio; Cardoso, Cristina; Tribaldos Causadias, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    To assess Spanish and Portuguese patients' and physicians' preferences regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments and the monthly willingness to pay (WTP) to gain benefits or avoid side effects. An observational, multicenter, exploratory study focused on routine clinical practice in Spain and Portugal. Physicians were recruited from multiple hospitals and outpatient clinics, while patients were recruited from eleven centers operating in the public health care system in different autonomous communities in Spain and Portugal. Preferences were measured via a discrete choice experiment by rating multiple T2DM medication attributes. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model. Three-hundred and thirty (n=330) patients (49.7% female; mean age 62.4 [SD: 10.3] years, mean T2DM duration 13.9 [8.2] years, mean body mass index 32.5 [6.8] kg/m(2), 41.8% received oral + injected medication, 40.3% received oral, and 17.6% injected treatments) and 221 physicians from Spain and Portugal (62% female; mean age 41.9 [SD: 10.5] years, 33.5% endocrinologists, 66.5% primary-care doctors) participated. Patients valued avoiding a gain in bodyweight of 3 kg/6 months (WTP: €68.14 [95% confidence interval: 54.55-85.08]) the most, followed by avoiding one hypoglycemic event/month (WTP: €54.80 [23.29-82.26]). Physicians valued avoiding one hypoglycemia/week (WTP: €287.18 [95% confidence interval: 160.31-1,387.21]) the most, followed by avoiding a 3 kg/6 months gain in bodyweight and decreasing cardiovascular risk (WTP: €166.87 [88.63-843.09] and €154.30 [98.13-434.19], respectively). Physicians and patients were willing to pay €125.92 (73.30-622.75) and €24.28 (18.41-30.31), respectively, to avoid a 1% increase in glycated hemoglobin, and €143.30 (73.39-543.62) and €42.74 (23.89-61.77) to avoid nausea. Both patients and physicians in Spain and Portugal are willing to pay for the health benefits associated with improved diabetes treatment, the most important

  5. Group participants' experiences of a patient-directed group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Odgers-Jewell, Kate; Isenring, Elisabeth A; Thomas, Rae; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals who participated in a group-based education program, including their motivators in relation to their diabetes management, and the perceived impact of group interactions on participants' experiences and motivation for self-management. Understanding individuals diagnosed with diabetes experiences of group-based education for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may guide the development and facilitation of these programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all individuals who participated in the intervention. Using thematic analysis underpinned by self-determination theory, we developed themes that explored participants' motivators in relation to diabetes management and the impact of group interactions on their experiences and motivation. The key themes included knowledge, experience, group interactions and motivation. Participants perceived that the group interactions facilitated further learning and increased motivation, achieved through normalization, peer identification or by talking with, and learning from the experience of others. The results support the use of patient-centred programs that prioritize group interactions over the didactic presentation of content, which may address relevant psychological needs of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improve their motivation and health behaviours. Future group-based education programs may benefit from the use of self-determination theory as a framework for intervention design to enhance participant motivation.

  6. Minimally Disruptive Medicine for Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Valentina; Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Boehmer, Kasey R; Montori, Victor M

    2017-09-23

    Patients with diabetes must deal with the burden of symptoms and complications (burden of illness). Simultaneously, diabetes care demands practical and emotional work from patients and their families, work to access and use healthcare and to enact self-care (burden of treatment). Patient work must compete with the demands of family, job, and community life. Overwhelmed patients may not have the capacity to access care or enact self-care and will thus experience suboptimal diabetes outcomes. Minimally disruptive medicine (MDM) is a patient-centered approach to healthcare that prioritizes patients' goals for life and health while minimizing the healthcare disruption on patients' lives. In patients with diabetes, particularly in those with complex lives and multimorbidity, MDM coordinates healthcare and community responses to improve outcomes, reduce treatment burden, and enable patients to pursue their life's hopes and dreams.

  7. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  8. Do experiences consistent with a medical-home model improve diabetes care measures reported by adult Medicaid patients?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gregory D; Shi, Leiyu; Vane, Christina; Peters, Anne L

    2014-09-01

    The patient-centered medical home has gained much traction. Little is known about the relationship between the model and specific health care processes for chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study assesses the impact of features of a medical home on diabetes care. A cross-sectional survey of 540 patients with Medicaid (Medi-Cal) health insurance and type 2 diabetes in Los Angeles County was performed. The Primary Care Assessment Tools was used to measure seven features of medical-home performance. The response rate of the patient survey was 68.9%. Patient-reported medical-home performance averaged a score of 2.85 ± 0.29 (on a 1-4 scale, with 4 equaling the best care). Patients who received more timely and thorough diabetes care reported higher medical-home performance in every feature except for the comprehensiveness-services available. For example, the first-contact access feature score was higher among patients who had an HbA1c test in the past 6 months versus those who did not (2.38 vs. 2.25; P < 0.05). Before and after adjusting for sociodemographics and health status, total medical-home performance was positively associated with each diabetes care measure. A 1-point increase in total medical-home score was associated with 4.53 higher odds of an HbA1c test in the past 6 months and 1.88 higher odds of an eye exam in the past year. Features consistent with higher medical-home performance are associated with improvements in patient-reported diabetes care process measures, even in this low socioeconomic status setting. The patient-centered medical-home model may help in caring for people with type 2 diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Patients' Experience of therapeutic footwear whilst living at risk of neuropathic diabetic foot ulceration: an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).

    PubMed

    Paton, Joanne S; Roberts, Anne; Bruce, Graham K; Marsden, Jonathan

    2014-02-22

    Previous work has found that people with diabetes do not wear their therapeutic footwear as directed, but the thinking behind this behaviour is unclear. Adherence to therapeutic footwear advice must improve in order to reduce foot ulceration and amputation risk in people with diabetes and neuropathy. Therefore this study aimed to explore the psychological influences and personal experiences behind the daily footwear selection of individuals with diabetes and neuropathy. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach was used to explore the understanding and experience of therapeutic footwear use in people living at risk of diabetic neuropathic foot ulceration. This study benefited from the purposive selection of a small sample of four people and used in-depth semi structured interviews because it facilitated the deep and detailed examination of personal thoughts and feelings behind footwear selection. Four overlapping themes that interact to regulate footwear choice emerged from the analyses: a) Self-perception dilemma; resolving the balance of risk experienced by people with diabetes and neuropathy day to day, between choosing to wear footwear to look and feel normal and choosing footwear to protect their feet from foot ulceration; b) Reflective adaption; The modification and individualisation of a set of values about footwear usage created in the minds of people with diabetes and neuropathy; c) Adherence response; The realignment of footwear choice with personal values, to reinforce the decision not to change behaviour or bring about increased footwear adherence, with or without appearance management; d) Reality appraisal; A here and now appraisal of the personal benefit of footwear choice on emotional and physical wellbeing, with additional consideration to the preservation of therapeutic footwear. For some people living at risk of diabetic neuropathic foot ulceration, the decision whether or not to wear therapeutic footwear is driven by the

  10. The decision to intensify therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from an experiment using a clinical case vignette.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard W; Lutfey, Karen E; Gerstenberger, Eric; Link, Carol L; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2009-01-01

    Lack of medication intensification is a widely recognized but poorly understood barrier to effective diabetes care. We used a video case vignette to assess whether patient or physician demographic variables influence the decision to intensify therapy. One hundred ninety-two US primary care physicians each viewed one case vignette of an actor portraying a patient who had type 2 diabetes and borderline indications for medication intensification. Case vignettes were clinically identical and differed only by patient age (35 or 65 years old); sex; race/ethnicity (white, Hispanic, or black); and socioeconomic status (occupation of lawyer or janitor). After viewing the vignette and indicating their management plans, physicians were also asked to discuss the challenges related to managing such a patient. Just over half (53%) of physicians indicated that they would recommend a medication prescription for the vignette patient. Demographic characteristics (of the patient, physician, or practice) did not significantly influence this decision (P > .1 for all comparisons). Compared with physicians who did not recommend a diabetic-related prescription, physicians recommending therapy more often identified patient medication costs (74% vs 43% of physicians who would not increase therapy); medication adherence (63% vs 49%); and subsequent complications (34% vs 22%) as important clinical issues in managing diabetes. Physicians not intensifying therapy more often indicated that they needed more clinical information (16% vs 9%). Using an experimental design we found that differences in the decision to intensify therapy were not significantly explained by patient, physician, or practice demographic variables. Physicians who intensified therapy were more likely to consider issues such as medication costs, patient adherence, and downstream complications.

  11. Diabetes patient management by pharmacists during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al Tawengi, Kawthar; Remoden, Eman

    2014-03-10

    Many Muslim diabetes patients choose to participate in Ramadan despite medical advice to the contrary. This study aims to describe Qatar pharmacists' practice, knowledge, and attitudes towards guiding diabetes medication management during Ramadan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed among a convenience sample of 580 Qatar pharmacists. A web-based questionnaire was systematically developed following comprehensive literature review and structured according to 4 main domains: subject demographics; diabetes patient care experiences; knowledge of appropriate patient care during Ramadan fasting; and attitudes towards potential pharmacist responsibilities in this regard. In the 3 months prior to Ramadan (July 2012), 178 (31%) pharmacists responded to the survey. Ambulatory (103, 58%) and inpatient practices (72, 41%) were similarly represented. One-third of pharmacists reported at least weekly interaction with diabetes patients during Ramadan. The most popular resources for management advice were the internet (94, 53%) and practice guidelines (80, 45%); however only 20% were aware of and had read the American Diabetes Association Ramadan consensus document. Pharmacist knowledge scores of appropriate care was overall fair (99, 57%). Pharmacists identified several barriers to participating in diabetes management including workload and lack of private counseling areas, but expressed attitudes consistent with a desire to assume greater roles in advising fasting diabetes patients. Qatar pharmacists face several practical barriers to guiding diabetes patient self-management during Ramadan, but are motivated to assume a greater role in such care. Educational programs are necessary to improve pharmacist knowledge in the provision of accurate patient advice.

  12. Patients' experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being: A lifeworld phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Karin; Österberg, Sofia Almerud; Leksell, Janeth; Berglund, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Learning to live with diabetes in such a way that the new conditions will be a normal and natural part of life imposes requirements on the person living with diabetes. Previous studies have shown that there is no clear picture of what and how the learning that would allow persons to incorporate the illness into their everyday life will be supported. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being, from the patient's perspective. Data were collected by interviews with patients living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were analysed using a reflective lifeworld approach. The results show that reflection plays a central role for patients with diabetes in achieving a new understanding of the health process, and awareness of their own responsibility was found to be the key factor for such a reflection. The constituents are responsibility creating curiosity and willpower, openness enabling support, technology verifying bodily feelings, a permissive climate providing for participation and exchanging experiences with others. The study concludes that the challenge for caregivers is to create interactions in an open learning climate that initiates and supports reflection to promote health and well-being.

  13. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion as an Effective Method of Desensitization Therapy for Diabetic Patients with Insulin Allergy: A 4-year Single-center Experience.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Zhao, Weigang; Wang, Lianglu; Dong, Yingyue; Li, Naishi

    2016-11-01

    This article summarizes our experiences in the application of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) as a method of rapid desensitization therapy for diabetic patients with insulin allergy that was subsequently switched to a regimen of multiple-dose injections for long-term insulin therapy. The clinical data of 11 diabetic patients with insulin allergy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from April 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. All 11 conditions were diagnosed by case history, skin testing, determination of serum specific anti-insulin IgE, and reaction to withdrawal of insulin. Seven patients accepted the traditional injection method of desensitization, and 5 patients accepted CSII with the protocol designed for this study (1 patient accepted CSII after failure by the formal method). Six of the 7 patients who accepted the traditional method and all 5 patients who accepted CSII had successful results. All 5 patients in the CSII group switched to a regimen of multiple dosage injections. In a survey of 28 nurses, both experienced nurses and practical nurses preferred to use CSII as the method of desensitization. It is feasible and effective for diabetic patients with insulin allergy to use CSII as a method of rapid desensitization with subsequent switching to a regimen of multiple-dose injections for long-term insulin therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing a Text Messaging Intervention to Improve Physical Activity Behavior Among Low-Income Latino Patients With Diabetes: A Discrete-Choice Experiment, Los Angeles, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shinyi; Beale, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Automated text messaging can deliver self-management education to activate self-care behaviors among people with diabetes. We demonstrated how a discrete-choice experiment was used to determine the features of a text-messaging intervention that are important to urban, low-income Latino patients with diabetes and that could support improvement in their physical activity behavior. Methods In a discrete-choice experiment from December 2014 through August 2015 we conducted a survey to elicit information on patient preferences for 5 features of a text-messaging intervention. We described 2 hypothetical interventions and in 7 pairwise comparisons asked respondents to indicate which they preferred. Respondents (n = 125) were recruited in person from a diabetes management program of a safety-net ambulatory care clinic in Los Angeles; clinicians referred patients to the research assistant after routine clinic visits. Data were analyzed by using conditional logistic regression. Results We found 2 intervention features that were considered by the survey respondents to be important: 1) the frequency of text messaging and 2) physical activity behavior-change education (the former being more important than the latter). Physical activity goal setting, feedback on physical activity performance, and social support were not significantly important. Conclusion A discrete-choice experiment is a feasible way to elicit information on patient preferences for a text-messaging intervention designed to support behavior change. However, discrepancies may exist between patients’ stated preferences and their actual behavior. Future research should validate and expand our findings. PMID:28005532

  15. Outcome of pregnancy in type 1 diabetic patients treated with insulin lispro or regular insulin: an Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, M G; Spezia, R; Anichini, R; Bonomo, M; Bruttomesso, D; Di Cianni, G; Franzetti, I; Galluzzo, A; Mello, G; Menato, G; Napoli, A; Noacco, G; Parretti, E; Santini, C; Scaldaferri, E; Scaldaferri, L; Songini, M; Tonutti, L; Torlone, E; Gentilella, R; Rossi, A; Valle, D

    2008-03-01

    Some studies have shown that fetal outcome observed in patients using insulin lispro is much the same as in pregnant women using regular insulin. This study aims to analyze the Italian data emerging from a multinational, multicenter, retrospective study on mothers with type 1 diabetes mellitus before pregnancy, comparing those treated with insulin lispro for at least 3 months before and 3 months after conception with those treated with regular insulin. The data collected on pregnant women with diabetes attending 15 Italian centers from 1998 to 2001 included: HbA1c at conception and during the first and third trimesters, frequency of severe hypoglycemic episodes, spontaneous abortions, mode and time of delivery, fetal malformations and mortality. Seventy-two diabetic pregnancies treated with lispro and 298 treated with regular insulin were analyzed, revealing a trend towards fewer hypoglycemic episodes in the former, who also had a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c during the first trimester. The rate of congenital malformations was similar in the offspring of the two groups of women treated with insulin lispro or regular insulin. These findings suggest that insulin lispro could be useful for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnant women.

  16. [Depressive disorders in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Benhima, I; Asri, F; Diouri, A; Tazi, I

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes is a public health problem. Its global prevalence was 2.8% in 2000 and it will reach 4.4% in 2030 to be 366 million diabetics. In Morocco, this true "epidemic" affects 6.6% of the population. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to depression. Diabetes and depression align in a non-accidental way and complicate one another. We report a cross-sectional study conducted in association with the endocrinology department of the Mohammed VI university hospital during the period spread between April and September 2006. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders in patients with diabetes and to describe their sociodemographic and clinical profile. The study included 187 patients. The scales used were the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Hamilton's depression. Sociodemographics and diabetic characteristics were evaluated by self-questionnaire. The average age of our patients was 53±14 years and the percentage of females was high: 71.2%. Diabetes type 2 was the most representative (85.6%), diabetes type 1 (11.8%) and gestational diabetes (2.7%). Half of diabetics were treated with an association of healthy dietary measures (MHD) and oral anti-diabetics; 31.6% were under MHD and insulin therapy; 33.2% of patients had acute complications and 43.5% had degenerative complications. Only 11 patients (5.9%) had antecedents of depression. The prevalence of major depressive episode was 41.2%; 27.8% of patients suffered from dysthymia and 21.9% from double depression. Hamilton's depression scale indicates that all depressed patients had mild depression (total of 17 items from 8 to 17). Major depressive episode and dysthymia were frequent in out patients. Dysthymia was predominant in diabetic patients in the 46 to 55 years age group, never been schooled and without any comorbidity. The vast majority of patients with EDM had type 2 diabetes with 89.6%, 7.8% type 1 diabetes and 2

  17. Health education to diabetic patients before the start of Ramadan: Experience from a teaching hospital in Dammam.

    PubMed

    Al-Musally, Rayyan M; Al-Sardi, Mais A; Al-Elq, Zainab A; Elahi, Afnan H; Alduhailan, Rawan K; Al-Elq, Muslim A; Zainuddin, Fatma A; Alsafar, Noura A; Altammar, Jannat A; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen H

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that pre-Ramadan structured educational program for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is beneficial. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the degree of adherence of treating physicians to such programs and their influence on the patient's knowledge and behavior. This cross-sectional study was carried out on adult patients with DM attending a university hospital, who were observed while fasting during Ramadan 1436/2015. Data was collected using a questionnaire-based interview. Baseline characteristics were obtained, and patients were asked whether they had had pre-Ramadan education or not and who the provider was. Patients' knowledge of the components of the recommended structured pre-Ramadan educational program was also tested. Comparison between patients who had the education and those who did not was done using Chi-square test and independent samples Student's t-test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 298 patients with type 1 or type 2 DM were included in the study; 75.5% of the patients were aged 40 years or older. Only 30% had pre-Ramadan education delivered mainly by diabetic educators or the treating physicians (52% and 44%, respectively). Patients who had the education were younger (mean age: 45.6 ± 17.4 vs. 50.3 ± 14.4, respectively, p = 0.0048), had higher educational qualifications, were more likely to be employed, and self-monitored their blood glucose more frequently (p = 0.0001). There was no difference between the two groups with regard to their knowledge of diet and exercise. The adherence to the pre-Ramadan educational program by the treating physician was low. It is necessary to increase the awareness about the importance of these programs among health-care professionals. The programs should target the less educated, the unemployed, and older patients.

  18. Experience with DPP-4 inhibitors in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Anja; Halimi, Serge; Dejager, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    A large proportion of Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) elect to fast during the holy month of Ramadan. For these patients hypo- and hyperglycemia constitute two major complications associated with the profound changes in food pattern during the Ramadan fast, and efficacious treatment options with a low risk of hypoglycemia are therefore needed to manage their T2DM as effectively and safely as possible. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors modulate insulin and glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and consequently a low propensity of hypoglycemia has consistently been reported across different patient populations with these agents. Promising data with DPP-4 inhibitors have now also started to emerge in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the currently available evidence and potential role of DPP-4 inhibitors in the management of patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan whose diabetes is treated with oral antidiabetic drugs, and to discuss the mechanistic basis for their beneficial effects in this setting.

  19. Type 1 diabetes patients' experiences of, and need for, social support after attending a structured education programme: a qualitative longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Rankin, David; Barnard, Kath; Elliott, Jackie; Cooke, Debbie; Heller, Simon; Gianfrancesco, Carla; Taylor, Carolin; Lawton, Julia

    2014-10-01

    To explore patients' experiences of, views about and need for, social support after attending a structured education programme for type 1 diabetes. Patients who attend structured education programmes attain short-term improvements in biomedical and quality-of-life measures but require support to sustain self-management principles over the longer term. Social support can influence patients' self-management practices; however, little is known about how programme graduates use other people's help. This study was informed by the principles of grounded theory and involved concurrent data collection and analysis. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. In-depth interviews were undertaken postcourse, six and 12 months later, with 30 adult patients with type 1 diabetes recruited from Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating courses in the United Kingdom. Patients' preferences for social support from other people ranged from wanting minimal involvement, to benefiting from auxiliary forms of assistance, to regular monitoring and policing. New self-management skills learnt on their courses prompted and facilitated patients to seek and obtain more social support. Support received/expected from parents varied according to when patients were diagnosed, but parents' use of outdated knowledge could act as a barrier to effective support. Support sought from others, including friends/colleagues, was informed by patients' domestic/employment circumstances. This study responds to calls for deeper understanding of the social context in which chronic illness self-management occurs. It highlights how patients can solicit and receive more social support from family members and friends after implementing self-care practices taught on education programmes. Health professionals including diabetes specialist nurses and dietitians should explore: patients' access to and preferences for social support; how patients might be encouraged to capitalise on social support postcourse; and

  20. Perspectives of Non-Hispanic Black and Latino Patients in Boston’s Urban Community Health Centers on their Experiences with Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gurrola, Edith; Ndumele, Chima D.; Landon, Bruce E.; O’Malley, James A.; Keegan, Tom; Ayanian, John Z.; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence and outcomes of diabetes and hypertension in the U.S. A better understanding of the health beliefs and experiences of non-Hispanic Blacks and Latinos with these diseases could help to improve their care outcomes. Methods We conducted eight focus groups stratified by participants’ race/ethnicity, with 34 non-Hispanic Blacks and Latinos receiving care for diabetes and/or hypertension in one of 7 community health centers in Boston. Focus groups were designed to determine participants’ levels of understanding about their chronic illness, assess their barriers to the management of their illness, and inquire about interventions they considered may help achieve better health outcomes. Results Among both groups of participants, nutrition (traditional diets), genetics and environmental stress (e.g. neighborhood crime and poor conditions) were described as primary contributors to diabetes and hypertension. Unhealthy diets were reported as being a major barrier to disease management. Participants also believed that they would benefit from attending groups on management and education for their conditions that include creative ways to adopt healthy foods that complement their ethnic diets, exercise opportunities, and advice on how to prevent disease manifestation among family members. Conclusions Interactive discussion groups focused on lifestyle modification and disease management should be created for patients to learn more about their diseases. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of interactive diabetes and hypertension groups that apply patient racial/ethnic traditions should be considered. PMID:20180156

  1. Perspectives of non-Hispanic Black and Latino patients in Boston's urban community health centers on their experiences with diabetes and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Russell, Beverley E; Gurrola, Edith; Ndumele, Chima D; Landon, Bruce E; O'Malley, James A; Keegan, Tom; Ayanian, John Z; Hicks, Leroi S

    2010-06-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence and outcomes of diabetes and hypertension in the U.S. A better understanding of the health beliefs and experiences of non-Hispanic Blacks and Latinos with these diseases could help to improve their care outcomes. We conducted eight focus groups stratified by participants' race/ethnicity, with 34 non-Hispanic Blacks and Latinos receiving care for diabetes and/or hypertension in one of 7 community health centers in Boston. Focus groups were designed to determine participants' levels of understanding about their chronic illness, assess their barriers to the management of their illness, and inquire about interventions they considered may help achieve better health outcomes. Among both groups of participants, nutrition (traditional diets), genetics and environmental stress (e.g. neighborhood crime and poor conditions) were described as primary contributors to diabetes and hypertension. Unhealthy diets were reported as being a major barrier to disease management. Participants also believed that they would benefit from attending groups on management and education for their conditions that include creative ways to adopt healthy foods that complement their ethnic diets, exercise opportunities, and advice on how to prevent disease manifestation among family members. Interactive discussion groups focused on lifestyle modification and disease management should be created for patients to learn more about their diseases. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of interactive diabetes and hypertension groups that apply patient racial/ethnic traditions should be considered.

  2. Effect of a French experiment of team work between general practitioners and nurses on efficacy and cost of type 2 diabetes patients care.

    PubMed

    Mousquès, Julien; Bourgueil, Yann; Le Fur, Philippe; Yilmaz, Engin

    2010-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and the cost of a French team work experiment between nurses and GPs for managing type 2 diabetes patients. Based on a case control study design we compare the evolution of process (standard follow-up procedures) and final (glycemic control) outcomes, and of cost, between two consecutive periods between type 2 diabetes patients followed within the team work experiment (intervention group) or by "standard" GPs (controlled group). After a 11 months of follow-up, patients in the intervention group, compared with those in the controlled group, have more chances to remain or to become: correctly followed-up (with OR comprise between 2.1 and 6.8, p≤5%) and under glycemic control (with OR comprise between 1.8 and 2.7, p≤5%). The latter result is obtained only when a visit for education and counselling has been delivered by a nurse in supplement to systematic electronic patient registry and electronic clinical GPs reminder. All these results are obtained without difference in costs between the intervention and the controlled group. This experimentation of team working can be considered both effective and efficient. Our findings may have implications in the design of future larger primary care team work experiment to be launched by French health authorities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing diabetes in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A

    2012-03-01

    Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with

  4. Diabetes Educators: Perceived Experiences, Supports and Barriers to Use of Common Diabetes-Related Technologies.

    PubMed

    James, Steven; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Lowe, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Various technologies are commonly used to support type 1 diabetes management (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy, continuous glucose monitoring systems, smartphone and tablet applications, and video conferencing) and may foster self-care, communication, and engagement with health care services. Diabetes educators are key professional supporters of this patient group, and ideally positioned to promote and support technology use. The aim of this study was to examine diabetes educators' perceived experiences, supports, and barriers to use of common diabetes-related technologies for people with type 1 diabetes. This qualitative ethnographic study recruited across metropolitan, regional and rural areas of Australia using purposive sampling of Australian Diabetes Educators Association members. Data were collected by semistructured telephone interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants (n = 31) overwhelmingly indicated that overall the use of technology in the care of patients with type 1 diabetes was burdensome for them. They identified 3 themes involving common diabetes-related technologies: access to technology, available support, and technological advances. Overall, these themes demonstrated that while care was usually well intentioned it was more often fragmented and inconsistent. Most often care was provided by a small number of diabetes educators who had technology expertise. To realize the potential benefits of these relatively new but common diabetes technologies, many diabetes educators need to attain and retain the skills required to deliver this essential component of care. Furthermore, policy and strategy review is required, with reconfiguration of services to better support care delivery. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. In search of patient-centred care in middle income countries: the experience of diabetes care in the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Kühlbrandt, Charlotte; Balabanova, Dina; Chikovani, Ivdity; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Kizilova, Kseniya; Ivaniuto, Oksana; Danii, Olga; Makarova, Noune; McKee, Martin

    2014-11-01

    In this study we apply the principles of patient-centred care to assess how health systems in middle income countries shape the experiences of patients with a common chronic disease and their care providers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with diabetes, health professionals and key informants. We selected interviewees by purposive and snowball sampling. In total 340 respondents were interviewed in five countries: Armenia, Belarus, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Data were analysed according to a coding framework that was developed by three researchers, who then uncovered salient themes, similarities and differences between the five countries. Access to and consistent use of services was hampered by the lack of coordination and the financial weaknesses in the health systems. In many cases, lack of external support for individual patients left friends and family as the main providers of support. Patients were not expected to have a say or challenge the decisions concerning their treatment. Our study suggests the need for a radically different way of delivering care for people with diabetes and, by extension, other chronic diseases. Reforms should focus on improving self-management, the coordination of care, involving patients in decisions about their care, and providing emotional and practical support for patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gallbladder function in diabetic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shreiner, D.P.; Sarva, R.P.; Van Thiel, D.; Yingvorapant, N.

    1986-03-01

    Gallbladder emptying and filling was studied in eight diabetic and six normal control patients. None of the patients had gallstones. Cholescintigraphy was performed using (/sup 99m/Tc)disofenin, and gallbladder emptying was studied using a 45-min i.v. infusion of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) 20 ng/kg X hr. The peak filling rate was greater in diabetic than in normal subjects; however, emptying of the gallbladder in response to OP-CCK was significantly less in the diabetic subjects (51.6 +/- 10.4% compared with 77.2 +/- 4.9%). When the diabetic group was subdivided into obese and nonobese diabetics, the obese diabetics had a much lower percentage of emptying than the nonobese diabetics (30.0 +/- 10.4% compared with 73.1 +/- 9.3%). These findings suggest that obese diabetics may have impaired emptying of the gallbladder even in the absence of gallstones. The more rapid rate of gallbladder filling in obesity may indicate hypotonicity of the gallbladder. The combination of these abnormalities may predispose the obese diabetic to the development of gallstones.

  7. Hallux ulceration in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    ElMakki Ahmed, Mohamed; Tamimi, Abdulhakim O; Mahadi, Seif I; Widatalla, Abubakr H; Shawer, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a prospective cohort study to assess risk factors associated with hallux ulceration, and to determine the incidence of healing or amputation, in consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated over the observation period extending from September 2004 to March 2005, at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre, Khartoum City, Sudan. There were 122 diabetic patients in the cohort (92 males and 30 females) with an overall mean age of 58 +/- 9 years. Fifty-three percent of patients had complete healing within 8 weeks and 43% healed within 20 weeks. The overall mean time to healing was 16 +/- 8 weeks. In 32 (26.2%) patients, osteomyelitic bone was removed, leaving a healed and boneless hallux. The hallux was amputated in 17 (13.9%) patients; in 2 (1.6%) patients it was followed by forefoot amputation and in 7 (5.7%) patients by below-the-knee amputation. In 90 (73.8%) patients the initial lesion was a blister. In conclusion, hallux ulceration is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and is usually preceded by a blister. Neuropathy, foot deformity, and wearing new shoes are common causative factors; and ischemia, osteomyelitis, any form of wound infection, and the size of the ulcer are main outcome determinants. Complete healing occurred in 103 (85%) of diabetic patients with a hallux ulcer. Vascular intervention is important relative to limb salvage when ischemia is the main cause of the ulcer.

  8. "I don't have options but to persevere." Experiences and practices of care for HIV and diabetes in rural Tanzania: a qualitative study of patients and family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Mwangome, Mary N; Geubbels, Eveline; Klatser, Paul; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2016-04-02

    important and, strengthening of community involvement is warranted for continuity of care and patient centeredness in care. While considering differences between HIV and diabetes, we have shown that Tanzania's rich experiences in community involvement in health can be leveraged for care and treatment of diabetes and other NCDs.

  9. Experience with Vildagliptin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Fasting During Ramadan in France: Insights from the VERDI Study.

    PubMed

    Halimi, Serge; Levy, Marc; Huet, Dominique; Quéré, Stéphane; Dejager, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    To assess in real life the rate of hypoglycemia during Ramadan in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in France, according to their ongoing dual therapy of metformin-vildagliptin or metformin-sulfonylurea/glinide (IS). Prospective, non-interventional study with 2 visits (within 8 weeks before and 6 weeks after the end of Ramadan 2012). Study diaries were not used to collect events or record values of glucose monitoring. One hundred and ninety-eight patients on stable oral dual therapy for ≥2 months and with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤8.0% were recruited by 62 centers: 83 in the IS cohort and 115 in the vildagliptin cohort. Approximately 90% of patients were from Maghreb. The two cohorts were well balanced: 60% men, mean age 59 years, BMI 28 kg/m(2), metformin dose ~2,000 mg/day, and HbA1c 7.2%. Distinct therapeutic management was planned in view of Ramadan with drug-adaptation intended in 61.4% of IS and 18.3% of vildagliptin patients. Hypoglycemia was reported in 37% of IS and 34% of vildagliptin patients; episodes declared as confirmed in 30.8% and 23.5%, respectively, and episodes documented as adverse event (AE) in 17.9% (22 episodes) and 7.5% (13 episodes), respectively (P = 0.025). Severe episodes were reported in 3.9% of IS and 1.7% of vildagliptin patients. 10.4% of IS and 2.6% of vildagliptin patients reported severe episodes and/or unscheduled medical visits due to hypoglycemia (P = 0.029). Glycemic control remained stable in both cohorts. Compliance with fasting was high, as well as adherence to drug with ≥5 missed-dose for 15.4% of IS and 8.5% of vildagliptin patients. Although the overall frequency of malaise suggestive of hypoglycemia was high, which would be expected with prolonged fasting in a well-controlled T2DM population during hot summer days, the incidence of more severe and better-documented episodes (AE, severe event, event leading to unscheduled medical visit) were much lower, with consistently less events with

  10. Diabetes in Patients With Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hannon, A M; Thompson, C J; Sherlock, M

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a clinical syndrome which results from growth hormone excess. Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with cardiovascular mortality, due to an excess of risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiomegaly. Diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of acromegaly with a prevalence of 12-37%. This review will provide an overview of a number of aspects of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in acromegaly including the following: 1. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis 2. The impact of different management options for acromegaly on glucose homeostasis 3. The management options for diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly RECENT FINDINGS: Growth hormone and IGF-1 have complex effects on glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and increased gluconeogenesis combine to produce a metabolic milieu which leads to the development of diabetes in acromegaly. Treatment of acromegaly should ameliorate abnormalities of glucose metabolism, due to reversal of insulin resistance and a reduction in gluconeogenesis. Recent advances in medical therapy of acromegaly have varying impacts on glucose homeostasis. These adverse effects influence management choices in patients with acromegaly who also have diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance. The underlying mechanisms of disorders of glucose metabolism in patients with acromegaly are complex. The aim of treatment of acromegaly is normalisation of GH/IGF-1 with reduction of co-morbidities. The choice of therapy for acromegaly should consider the impact of therapy on several factors including glucose metabolism.

  11. Clinical profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sodium- glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and experience in real-world clinical practice in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cuatrecasas, Gabriel; Goñi-Goicoechea, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of the treatment of type 2 diabetes is overall control of cardiovascular risk factors. Almost 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes do not achieve glycaemic targets, and a much higher percentage do not achieve weight and blood pressure targets, despite the therapeutic arsenal that has appeared in the last decade for the treatment of this disease. In addition, antidiabetic secretatogues and insulin are associated with weight gain and an increased risk of hyperglycaemic episodes. Clinical practice guidelines recommend sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as an alternative in the same therapeutic step as the other options after initiation of metformin therapy. The present study reviews the most appropriate patient profile for SGLT2i therapy, based on their safety and efficacy demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. The article discusses which patients are at risk of experiencing the possible secondary effects due to the mechanism of action of this new therapeutic class, in whom SGLT2i should be used with caution. These considerations on the profile of patients suitable for SGLT2i therapy are contrasted with the results obtained in daily clinical practice, both in retrospective studies from other countries and from real-world experiences in Spain. This article presents a selection of studies performed in distinct centres with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and compares their results with those from clinical trials. SGLT2i are used in clinical practice in any therapeutic step and the efficacy results are very similar to those reported by controlled clinical trials, with a slightly higher proportion of genitourinary infections and a low dropout rate. Half the reported patients are diabetics receiving insulin therapy plus a gliflozin, showing the wide uptake of this therapeutic strategy by clinicians. SGLT2i are especially attractive due to their additional effectiveness in weight and blood pressure control and the possibility of using them

  12. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  13. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  14. Managing multiple chronic conditions in Singapore - Exploring the perspectives and experiences of family caregivers of patients with diabetes and end stage renal disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vanessa Y W; Seah, Wei Ying; Kang, Augustine W C; Khoo, Eric Y H; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the commonest cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite increasing DM-ESRD prevalence and high dependency on care, there is a lack of literature on DM-ESRD caregivers. We sought to explore the perspectives and experiences of caregivers of patients with DM undergoing haemodialysis in Singapore. This study employed an exploratory, qualitative design comprising in-depth interviews with caregivers of DM-ESRD patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 20 family caregivers (54.2 ± 12.6 years; 75% female) of DM-ESRD patients. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Key caregiving challenges identified were managing diet, care recipients' emotions and mobility dependence. Patients' emotional reactions caused interpersonal conflicts and hindered treatment management. Difficulties in dietary management were linked to patients' erratic appetite, caregivers' lack/poor understanding of the dietary guidelines and caregivers' low perceived competence. Limited resources in terms of social support and finances were also noted. Physical and psychological well-being and employment were adversely affected by caregiving role. This study highlights distinctive aspects of the DM-ESRD caregiving experience, which impact on caregivers' health and challenge care. Disease management programmes should be expanded to support caregivers in dealing with multimorbidity.

  15. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Budget impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes who experience severe recurrent hypoglycemic episodes in Spain.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Marga; Elías, Isabel; Álvarez, María; Quirós, Carmen; Conget, Ignacio

    Hypoglycemia is one of the most common complications to achieve a good metabolic control, and has been listed by several scientific associations as a common indication to start treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Use of CSII is still residual in Spain as compared to neighbouring countries, and cost of acquisition cost is one of the main reasons. This study estimates the budget impact of treatment with CSII, as compared to multiple daily insulin injections, of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who experience recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes from the National Healthcare System perspective. Budget impact was based on a retrospective, observational study evaluating the efficacy of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus conducted at Hospital Clínic i Universitari in Barcelona, where one of the main indications for switching to CSII were recurrent severe hypoglycemia episodes. The mean number of annual episodes was 1.33 in the two years prior to CSII start and 0.08 in the last two years of follow up (p=0.003). Costs of treatment and major hypoglycemic events over a four-year period were considered. Costs were taken from different Spanish data sources and expressed in € of 2016. Treatment with CSII increased costs by €9,509 per patient as compared to multiple daily insulin injections (€11,902-€2,393). Cost associated to severe hypoglycemic events decreased by €19,330 per patient treated with CSIII (€1,371-€20,701). Results suggest mean total savings of €9,821 per patient during the four-year study period. The higher costs associated to CSII therapy may be totally offset by the severe hypoglycemic events prevented. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Patients’ Age on Their Preferences for Choosing Additional Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sieta T.; de Vries, Folgerdiena M.; Dekker, Thijs; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether patients’ willingness to add a blood pressure-lowering drug and the importance they attach to specific treatment characteristics differ among age groups in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients being prescribed at least an oral glucose-lowering and a blood pressure-lowering drug completed a questionnaire including a discrete choice experiment. This experiment contained choice sets with hypothetical blood pressure-lowering drugs and a no additional drug alternative, which differed in their characteristics (i.e. effects and intake moments). Differences in willingness to add a drug were compared between patients <75 years (non-aged) and ≥75 years (aged) using Pearson χ2-tests. Multinomial logit models were used to assess and compare the importance attached to the characteristics. Results Of the 161 patients who completed the questionnaire, 151 (72%) could be included in the analyses (mean age 68 years; 42% female). Aged patients were less willing to add a drug than non-aged patients (67% versus 84% respectively; P = 0.017). In both age groups, the effect on blood pressure was most important for choosing a drug, followed by the risk of adverse drug events and the risk of death. The effect on limitations due to stroke was only significant in the non-aged group. The effect on blood pressure was slightly more important in the non-aged than the aged group (P = 0.043). Conclusions Aged patients appear less willing to add a preventive drug than non-aged patients. The importance attached to various treatment characteristics does not seem to differ much among age groups. PMID:26445349

  18. Preoperative Evaluation of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Richman, Deborah C

    2016-03-01

    There are more than 29 million people in the United States with diabetes; it is estimated that by 2050, one in 3 individuals will have the disease. At least 50% of patients with diabetes are expected to undergo surgery in their lifetime. Complications from uncontrolled diabetes can impact multiple organ systems and affect perioperative risk. In this review, the authors discuss principles in diabetes management that will assist the perioperative clinician in caring for patients with diabetes.

  19. [Changes in cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Szémán, Barbara; Nagy, Géza; Varga, Tímea; Veres-Székely, Anna; Sasvári, Mária; Fitala, Dávid; Szollosi, Adrienn; Katonai, Rózsa; Kotyuk, Eszter; Somogyi, Anikó

    2012-03-04

    Patients with diabetes are approximately 1.5 times more likely to experience cognitive decline than individuals without diabetes mellitus. Most of the data suggest that patients with diabetes have reduced performance in numerous domains of cognitive function. In patients with type 1 diabetes, specific and global deficits involving speed of psychomotor efficiency, information processing, mental flexibility, attention, and visual perception seem to be present, while in patients with type 2 diabetes an increase in memory deficits, a reduction in psychomotor speed, and reduced frontal lobe (executive) functions have been found. The complex pathophysiology of changes in the central nervous system in diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. It is important to consider the patient's age at the onset of diabetes, the glycemic control status, and the presence of diabetic complications. Neurological consequences of diabetes appear parallel to those observed in the aging brain. Neuroimaging studies highlight several structural cerebral changes, cortical and subcortical atrophy, beside increased leukoaraiosis that occurs in association with diabetes. There is supporting evidence from many hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of cognitive decline associated with diabetes. The main hypotheses pointing to the potential, implied mechanisms involve hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, microvascular disease, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and amyloid-β deposition.

  20. Patients' perceptions and experiences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes prevention programmes: A systematic review and framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rachel L; Holland, Carol; Pattison, Helen M; Cooke, Richard

    2016-05-01

    This review provides a worked example of 'best fit' framework synthesis using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) of health psychology theories as an a priori framework in the synthesis of qualitative evidence. Framework synthesis works best with 'policy urgent' questions. The review question selected was: what are patients' experiences of prevention programmes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes? The significance of these conditions is clear: CVD claims more deaths worldwide than any other; diabetes is a risk factor for CVD and leading cause of death. A systematic review and framework synthesis were conducted. This novel method for synthesizing qualitative evidence aims to make health psychology theory accessible to implementation science and advance the application of qualitative research findings in evidence-based healthcare. Findings from 14 original studies were coded deductively into the TDF and subsequently an inductive thematic analysis was conducted. Synthesized findings produced six themes relating to: knowledge, beliefs, cues to (in)action, social influences, role and identity, and context. A conceptual model was generated illustrating combinations of factors that produce cues to (in)action. This model demonstrated interrelationships between individual (beliefs and knowledge) and societal (social influences, role and identity, context) factors. Several intervention points were highlighted where factors could be manipulated to produce favourable cues to action. However, a lack of transparency of behavioural components of published interventions needs to be corrected and further evaluations of acceptability in relation to patient experience are required. Further work is needed to test the comprehensiveness of the TDF as an a priori framework for 'policy urgent' questions using 'best fit' framework synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahammam, Maha A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Results The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05) was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05) between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05) was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source. Conclusion Customized educational programs should be planned for

  2. Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

  3. KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Fahim; Afridi, Ayesha Khan; Rahim, Fawad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sheema; Shabbier, Ghulam; Rahman, Sadiq Ur

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 +/- 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 +/- 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus.

  4. Identifying knowledge deficits of food insecure patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Eva M; Ejebe, Ifna H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the self-care needs of adults with diabetes who experience food insecurity. A cross-sectional study design and methodology were used to attain the study data. We invited 153 adults with diabetes who utilized the St Vincent de Paul Food Pantry to complete the diabetes knowledge test. The reliability of the sample was calculated using Cronbach's coefficient α. To determine validity, differences in test scores were examined by diabetes type and treatment, educational attainment, and receipt of diabetes education. The coefficient α for the general test and the insulin-use subscale indicated that both were moderately reliable, α> 0.60. General test scores were significantly associated with educational attainment (p<0.01) and prior diabetes education (p<0.05). We found that participants who attained education beyond high school or previously received diabetes education scored significantly higher on the test compared to those with less than high school education or not receiving diabetes education (p<0.05). Adults with type 1 diabetes had higher general and insulin use scores compared to adults with type 2 diabetes, however the difference was not statistically significant. While general knowledge about diabetes is not a predictor of self-care behavior, it is needed to perform daily self-care activities. Health care providers should assess diabetes knowledge in low income patients who experience food insecurity regularly to identify any gaps in knowledge that can compromise self-care behaviors.

  5. Mothers’ experience of having children with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Abolhassani, Shahla; Babaee, Sima; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major health problem, which has a wide prevalence in the world. There is no sign of its stopping, but it is increasing. Diabetes in children is three to four times more common than other childhood diseases. Diagnosis of diabetes for children causes emotional responses in parents and family members. Interventions for children with diabetes involve the family, child, and professionals including physicians, nurses, and nutritionist. Self-care is difficult without direct parents’ participation. According to studies, burden of diabetes for mothers is more than for fathers. This study aimed to explore mothers’ experience of children with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative content analysis. Study population was recruited through purposeful sampling. Eleven mothers who have a child with diabetes and referring to the “Glands and Metabolism Research Center” and “Al-Zahra Hospital” were selected. Participants were aged 28 to 42 years. Data gathering was done through deep interviews with participants in 2007 that was tape-recorded. Mean average of interviews was 45 minutes. Data analysis was done using conventional qualitative content analysis. Results: Participants’ experience was classified in the two main concepts including reaction at the time of diagnosis and disease consequences for mothers. Conclusion: Mothers of children with diabetes expressed some reactions at the time of diagnosis, which was mainly due to lack of information, and lack of attention to their needs at the time of diagnosis, especially it was due to the sudden diagnosis and lack of enough opportunities for mothers to accept the disease. The disease causes some consequences for mothers that affect their lives. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the needs of families of children with diabetes and to provide support and sufficient information about their child's illness for them. PMID:24403927

  6. Making sense of change: patients' views of diabetes and GP-led integrated diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Letitia H; Foster, Michele M; Donald, Maria; Zhang, Jianzhen; Russell, Anthony W; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-02-01

    Health system reform is directed towards better management of diabetes. However, change can be difficult, and patients' perspectives are a key aspect of implementing change. This study investigated patients' perceptions and experiences of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), self-care and engagement with GP-led integrated diabetes care. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected patients with T2DM following their initial medical appointment in the new model of care. Normalization process theory was used to orientate the thematic analysis, to explain the work of implementing change. Two specialist GP-based complex diabetes services in primary care in Brisbane, Australia. Intervention group patients (n = 30) in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a model of GP-led integrated care for complex T2DM. Participants' experiences and perceptions of diabetes management and a GP-led model of care. Three themes were identified: sensibility of change, 'diabetic life' and diabetes care alliance. The imperative of change made sense, but some participants experienced dissonance between this rational view and their lived reality. Diabetes invaded life, revealing incongruities between participants' values and living with diabetes. They appreciated a flexible and personalized approach to care. Participants responded to advice in ways that seemed rational within the complexities of their life context. Their diabetes partnerships with health professionals coupled providers' biomedical expertise with patients' contextual expertise. Learning to manage relationships with various health professionals adds to patients' diabetes-related work. Providers need to adopt a flexible, interactive approach and foster trust, to enable better diabetes care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multiple fractures in a young diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Varmarken, J E; Olsen, C A; Kristiansen, B

    1988-07-01

    Multiple fractures in a patient with juvenile diabetes mellitus are reported. The fractures could be spontaneous due to osteopenia caused by reduced bone mass found in diabetic patients. Bone and joint changes had a severe progression due to diabetic neuropathy. The importance of clinical and radiological examination is emphasized.

  8. A disease-specific questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes and experiences in the Swedish National Diabetes Register: Development and evaluation of content validity, face validity, and test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    Svedbo Engström, Maria; Leksell, Janeth; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Borg, Sixten; Palaszewski, Bo; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2017-07-14

    To describe the development and evaluation of the content and face validity and test-retest reliability of a disease-specific questionnaire that measures patient-reported outcomes and experiences for the Swedish National Diabetes Register for adult patients who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In this methodological study, a questionnaire was developed over four phases using an iterative process. Expert reviews and cognitive interviews were conducted to evaluate content and face validity, and a postal survey was administered to evaluate test-retest reliability. The expert reviews and cognitive interviews found the disease-specific questionnaire to be understandable, with relevant content and value for diabetes care. An item-level content validity index ranged from 0.6-1.0 and a scale content validity/average ranged from 0.7-1.0. The fourth version, with 33 items, two main parts and seven dimensions, was answered by 972 adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (response rate 61%). Weighted Kappa values ranged from 0.31-0.78 for type 1 diabetes and 0.27-0.74 for type 2 diabetes. This study describes the initial development of a disease-specific questionnaire in conjunction with the NDR. Content and face validity were confirmed and test-retest reliability was satisfactory. With the development of this questionnaire, the NDR becomes a clinical tool that contributes to further understanding the perspectives of adult individuals with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid gland diseases in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vondra, K; Vrbikova, J; Dvorakova, K

    2005-12-01

    This review concerns the relation between most frequent thyroid gland diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult patients. Special attention is paid to autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant diabetic women, and iodine metabolism. We focused on mechanisms leading to coexistence of both endocrine disorders, and on distinctions in the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients is 2-3 times higher than in nondiabetic subjects; it raises with age, and is strongly influenced by female gender and autoimmune diabetes. Clinical relevance of thyroid diseases, especially in diabetic patients, significantly increases if it is associated with deteriorated function, which always cause a number problems with metabolic compensation of diabetes. Most serious consequences are increased frequency of hypoglycaemia in hypothyroidism and development of potentially life-threatening ketoacidosis in thyrotoxicosis. In spite of that, little attention is paid to the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in diabetics, as they are diagnosed in only about half of the patients. At the end, we provide recommendations for the thyroid disease screening and diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus based on our experience.

  10. Evaluating Diabetes Health Policies Using Natural Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Ronald T.; Duru, O. Kenrik; Albu, Jeanine B.; Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Soumerai, Stephen B.; Wharam, James F.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mangione, Carol M.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative polices intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies. PMID:25998925

  11. The relationship between diabetes attitudes and treatment among free clinic patients and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Nourian, Maziar M; Myers, Kyl; Saunders, AnnMarie; Solis, Silvia P; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-12-01

    Free clinics provide free primary care to the under or uninsured and have been playing an important role in serving the socio-economically disadvantaged. Free clinic patients represent a group of people who experience significant barriers to receiving diabetes prevention and intervention. This study examined diabetes attitudes among free clinic patients and volunteers. English or Spanish speaking patients and volunteers (N = 384), aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes compared to non-diabetic patients. Among patients, ethnicity, education level, diabetes education, and family history affected diabetes attitudes. Among volunteers, diabetes education was an important factor associated with positive diabetes attitudes. Whether the volunteer is a healthcare professional or student was related only to one aspect of diabetes attitudes, seriousness of type 2 diabetes. The results, indicating free clinic diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes, were positive for maintaining and developing diabetes education programs at a free clinic. Unfortunately, the average length of volunteering at this free clinic was short and student volunteers likely leave the clinic upon graduation. Future research should examine issues of volunteer retention in free clinics. Diabetes education for patients may need to be diversified according to ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and educational level. Finally, non-healthcare professional volunteers could potentially be involved in diabetes education at a free clinic.

  12. Reaching positive diabetes outcomes for patients with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Kleinbeck, Connie

    2005-01-01

    Many persons with diabetes are labeled noncompliant, experience repeated hospital admissions, and have multiple complications due to poor disease control. These problems may result from unrecognized low health literacy. When communication and patient education materials are appropriate to literacy needs and preferences, people can succeed in managing their disease. This article describes low health literacy; consequences, and implications, and offers suggestions for improving health education efforts and materials for patients with diabetes.

  13. Health and diabetes self-efficacy: a study of diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Myers, Kyl; Nourian, Maziar M; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-08-01

    Free clinics across the country provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. This study examined perceived health status among diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members of the patients. Diabetes self-efficacy among diabetic free clinic patients was also investigated with the goal of developing appropriate diabetes health education programs to promote diabetes self-management. English or Spanish speaking patients and family members (N = 365) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical and mental health and diabetes self-efficacy were measured using standardized instruments. Diabetic free clinic patients reported poorer physical and mental health and higher levels of dysfunction compared to non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members. Having a family history of diabetes and using emergency room or urgent care services were significant factors that affected health and dysfunction among diabetic and non-diabetes free clinic patients and family members. Diabetic free clinic patients need to receive services not only for diabetes, but also for overall health and dysfunction issues. Diabetes educational programs for free clinic patients should include a component to increase diabetes empowerment as well as the knowledge of treatment and management of diabetes. Non-diabetic patients and family members who have a family history of diabetes should also participate in diabetes education. Family members of free clinic patients need help to support a diabetic family member or with diabetes prevention.

  14. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masato; Ogata, Nahoko; Matsuyama, Kayako; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients. Methods The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma. Results A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error) IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206), and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497) in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001). The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.202; P = 0.024) in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015) in the group with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes. PMID:22815643

  15. Diabetes Patients' Experiences With the Implementation of Insulin Therapy and Their Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Self-Management Systems for Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Wouter T; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost BL; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted decision support is an emerging modality to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in insulin self-titration (ie, self-adjusting insulin dose according to daily blood glucose levels). Computer-assisted insulin self-titration systems mainly focus on helping patients overcome barriers related to the cognitive components of insulin titration. Yet other (eg, psychological or physical) barriers could still impede effective use of such systems. Objective Our primary aim was to identify experiences with and barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose, insulin injection, and insulin titration among patients with T2DM. Our research team developed a computer-assisted insulin self-titration system, called PANDIT. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ perceptions of computer-assisted insulin self-titration. We included patients who used PANDIT in a 4-week pilot study as well as patients who had never used such a system. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with patients on insulin therapy who were randomly recruited from a university hospital and surrounding general practices in the Netherlands. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. To classify the textual remarks, we created a codebook during the analysis, in a bottom-up and iterative fashion. To support examination of the final coded data, we used three theories from the field of health psychology and the integrated model of user satisfaction and technology acceptance by Wixom and Todd. Results When starting insulin therapy, some patients feared a lifelong commitment to insulin therapy and disease progression. Also, many barriers arose when implementing insulin therapy (eg, some patients were embarrassed to inject insulin in public). Furthermore, patients had difficulties increasing the insulin dose because they fear hypoglycemia, they associate higher insulin doses with disease progression

  16. CUTANEOUS DISORDERS IN 500 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING DIABETIC CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    Ragunatha, Shivanna; Anitha, Bhaktavatsalam; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Devarmani, Shashidhar S

    2011-01-01

    Background: The metabolic complications and pathologic changes that occur in diabetes mellitus (DM) influence the occurrence of various dermatoses. Aim: To study the impact of control of diabetes on the pattern of cutaneous disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of patients attending diabetic clinic in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 500 consecutive patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done to diagnose diabetic complications and cutaneous disorders. Dermatoses with or without known pathogenesis were correlated with age, gender, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), duration of diabetes, and complications of DM. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student “t” test and Chi-square test with 5% confidence interval (P value 0.05). Results: Majority of patients had well-controlled (FPG<130 mg/ml, 60%) type 2 DM (98.8%). No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the patients with or without DM specific cutaneous disorders was noticed with reference to age and gender distribution, duration of DM and FPG. Signs of insulin resistance, acrochordon (26.2%), and acanthosis nigricans (5%) were common, followed by fungal (13.8%) and bacterial (6.8%) infections. Eruptive xanthoma (0.6%), diabetic foot (0.2%), diabetic bulla (0.4%), diabetic dermopathy (0.2%), generalized granuloma annulare (0.2%), and insulin reactions (6.2%) and lipodystrophy (14%) were also seen. Conclusion: Well-controlled diabetes decreases the prevalence of DM-specific cutaneous disorders associated with chronic hyperglycemia. It is necessary to have a dermatologist in the diabetic clinic for early detection of potentially grave or predisposing conditions. PMID:21716540

  17. Efficacy of Osteoporosis Therapies in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is characterized by increased fracture risk and by reduced bone strength for a given density. Contributing factors may include lower bone turnover and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts. There are concerns that the pharmacological therapies for osteoporosis, particularly anti-resorptive therapies that suppress bone turnover, may not be as effective in the setting of diabetes. This review considers clinical trials and observational studies that have assessed the efficacy of anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies in diabetic patients. Post hoc analyses of randomized trials indicate that raloxifene has similar efficacy for prevention of vertebral fractures in diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Evidence from randomized clinical trials is lacking for anti-fracture efficacy of other osteoporosis therapies in diabetes. However, observational studies suggest that bisphosphonates are effective in preventing fractures in diabetic patients. The great majority of diabetic patients in studies to date have been type 2, and efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in type 1 diabetic patients remains to be addressed. Further evaluation of the efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in the setting of diabetes is needed to provide optimal fracture prevention for this population.

  18. Arterial disease and vascular access in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Baktiroglu, Selcuk; Yanar, Fatih; Ozata, Ibrahim H; Oner, Gizem; Ercan, Damla

    2016-03-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effects of diabetes on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. While some found no negative effects, others reported deleterious effects of diabetes on vascular access outcomes. Why is there concern about diabetes and related vascular problems on vascular access procedures? What are the differences of diabetic patients and their vasculature from that of nondiabetics? Do they have an effect on hemodialysis vascular access outcomes? We will try to find answers to these questions in light of the available evidence. Recent literature on arterial disease in diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the effects on vascular access outcomes were searched in order to find answers to above questions. There are conflicting and controversial reports on the effects of preexisting vascular problems due to diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. Diabetic vasculature, especially in patients with ESRD, has some specific problems, the most important of which seem to be the calcification and stiffening of the arteries. Although some authors report inferior outcomes of vascular access procedures in diabetic patients, there is evidence that most of the problems encountered can be dealt with by careful patient selection, surgical skill, and experience.

  19. Cataracts in Diabetic Patients: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2008-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes mellitus is increasing and cataracts are one of the most common causes of visual impairment in these subjects. Advances in cataract surgical techniques and instrumentation have generally improved the outcomes; however,surgery may not be safe and effective in certain individuals with pre-existing retinal pathology or limited visual potential. This review article aims to address different aspects surrounding cataracts in diabetic patients. In a computerized MEDLINE search,relevant studies were selected by two authors using the keywords “diabetes mellitus”, “cataract”, “diabetic retinopathy” and “diabetic maculopathy”. PMID:23479523

  20. Patients' concepts and attitudes about diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Amulya R; Sircar, Sudeep; Sircar, Joydeep; Misra, Sheela

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the concepts and attitudes of patients and their immediate family members towards diabetes, its complications, and treatment. A total of 654 patients with poorly controlled diabetes and 216 of their immediate family members were interviewed regarding their concept about diabetes, its complications, diet, exercise, drug therapy, and understanding about insulin. There was lack of awareness about diabetes and its complications among the patients of diabetes. Majority of obese patients and their close family members failed to accept that they were obese. Child birth, menopause, and tubal ligation in female patients were wrongly attributed as a cause of obesity. There were major misconceptions about diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. More than 90% of study subjects had a misconception that all sweet fruits are prohibited and all bitter vegetables are beneficial. Temporary discontinuation of drug therapy was found in 189 cases. The lack of awareness and various misconceptions had no statistical relationship with the educational background of the patients. Among patients of poorly controlled diabetes and their close family members, there was a gross lack of knowledge of complications of diabetes, causes of obesity, treatment of diabetes, and use of insulin. Denial of obesity was commonly observed. Linking obesity with tubal ligation in female patients not only is appalling but may possibly be a hindrance to family planning program. Level of education had no bearing on these misconceptions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Multicenter international registry to evaluate the clinical practice delivered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a sub-analysis of the experience in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fanghänel Salmón, Guillermo; Sánchez-Reyes, Leticia; Chiquete Anaya, Erwin; de la Luz Castro, Julieta; Escalante Herrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of information on the characteristics of the medical attention delivered to Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to describe the current state on the medical management of T2D in Mexico. Among 17,232 patients included in the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS), 2,620 (15%) corresponded to Mexico. Information regarding clinical, demographics and management characteristics, as well as the impact of T2D in the patient is clinical and social condition was registered. The metabolic control and achievement of therapeutic goals were also analyzed. Diagnosis of T2D was performed by the general practitioner in 76% of cases. Only about a quarter of the cohort had a blood pressure goal of < 130/80 mmHg, although 97% had anti-hypertensive treatment. Management of T2D was with diet and exercise exclusively in 5%, with oral glucose-lowering drugs (OGLD) in 66% (alone or combined), with OGLD and insulin in 18%, and with insulin alone in 11%. Only 31% of patients reached the goal of HbA1c < 7. Self-monitoring was practiced in 50% of patients and 26% received education on diabetes. The managing physician is personal impression about the quality of the metabolic control was not in accordance with HbA1c. Eight percent of patients had work absences in the last 3 months due to complications of T2D (mean of 15 days lost). In Mexico, quality of metabolic control of T2D patients could have important deficiencies. The personal impression of the physician on the patient is metabolic control is not consistent with objective data.

  2. Diabetes insipidus in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, M F; Chin, N M; Lew, T W

    1998-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon but important complication in the neurosurgical population. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence, profile and outcome of patients admitted to an 18-bedded neurosurgical intensive care unit who developed DI. The overall incidence was 3.7% (29/792 admissions). Aetiologies included subarachnoid haemorrhage (12/29), severe head injury (11/29), post-surgical excision of craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma (5/29) and acute haemorrhagic stroke (1/29). All patients were treated with a regime of fluid replacement, electrolyte correction, parenteral or intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP), or parenteral pitressin. Overall mortality was 72.4%. There were no deaths in the patients who underwent excision of tumours. Complications included acute pulmonary oedema, hypernatremia and hypokalaemia. The development of DI was found to be associated with impending brain death and mortality in the majority of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and severe head injury. However, careful diagnosis and management of DI after hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal surgery did not result in any permanent neurological sequelae.

  3. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  4. Bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes matched with patients without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Malmartel, Alexandre; Ghasarossian, Christian

    2016-01-01

    With bacterial resistances having increased, patients with diabetes who are at higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) need to be studied. The study aim was to compare bacterial resistances to ofloxacin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in UTI between patients with and without diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ambulatory laboratories, including patients over 18 coming for urinalyses. Patients with diabetes were matched with two patients without diabetes based on risk factors for UTI using a propensity score. Among 1119 patients with UTI, 124 patients with diabetes were matched with 246 patients without diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the bacteria identified were: Escherichia coli (71%), Klebsiella (6%), Staphylococcus (5%), Enterococcus (4%), Proteus (2%) and Pseudomonas (1%); these findings were similar to those found in patients without diabetes. Resistances to ofloxacin and cefixim regardless of the bacteria were increased in patients with diabetes after matching on age, sex and history of UTI (respectively: OR=2.09; p=0.04 and OR=3.67; p=0.05). Regarding E. coli resistance, there was no difference whatever the antibiotic. The increased ofloxacin and cefixim resistance in patients with diabetes should be considered when prescribing probabilistic antibiotics, and could lead to changes in first-line treatments in UTI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Experience of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pertsov, V I; Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    In The Clinic of Cathedra of The Catastrophes Medicine, Military Medicine, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 53 patients, ageing 23-65 yrs, were treated for diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) of neuropathic and mixed forms. Diagnostic-treatment algorithm was proposed for determination of level and degree of a circulation and neuropathic disorders, introduction of which have promoted optimization of surgical and local treatment, improvement of the complex treatment results in patients, suffering DFS. A new method of treatment application, using combined preparation of hyaluronic acid with the sodium succinic, have permitted to achieve a complete healing of the ulcer defect.

  6. Insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: improvements in glycemic control and patients' satisfaction -- Hospital UKM experience.

    PubMed

    Ooi, H L; Wu, L L

    2011-10-01

    Hospital UKM (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) introduced the use of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes in Malaysia in April 2004. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of pump therapy and its impact on metabolic control among patients from our institution. Insulin pump therapy resulted in sustainable improvement in glycemic control throughout the six years of treatment with reduction in HbA1c in the first two years of pump use was statistically significant. The BMI SDS showed an increase trend but the changes before and after pump use was insignificant. There is also high level of treatment satisfaction reported among our insulin pump patients.

  7. DENTAL LOSS AMONG AMBULATORY PATIENTS WITH DIABETES.

    PubMed

    Izuora, Kenneth E; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Neubauer, Michael F; Gewelber, Civon L; Allenback, Gayle L; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2016-06-01

    There is a high prevalence of dental loss among patients with diabetes. Understanding the factors that impact dental loss in this population will aid with developing new strategies for its prevention. Using a cross-sectional study design, diabetes patients presenting for routine clinic visit were evaluated with an investigator-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on demographics, dental history, duration, control and complications of diabetes. Among 202 subjects, 100 were female, mean age: 58.9 ± 13.2 years, duration of diabetes: 15.8 ± 11.0 years, and hemoglobin A1c: 7.7 ± 1.6%. Thirty-one patients (15.3%) had lost all their teeth and only 13 (6.4%) had all 32 of their natural teeth. Using multiple linear regression, older age (β= - 0.146; 95% CI: - 0.062 to - 0.230), not flossing (β= - 3.462; 95% CI: - 1.107 to - 5.817), and presence of diabetic retinopathy (β= - 4.271; 95% CI: - 1.307 to - 7.236) were significant predictors of dental loss. Dental loss is common in patients with diabetes and is associated with older age, diabetic retinopathy and not flossing. In order to reduce dental loss among patients with diabetes, regular flossing should be emphasized as an important component of dental care.

  8. Musculoskeletal manifestations in diabetic versus prediabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Alimohammad; Iraj, Bijan; Barzanian, Jafar; Maracy, Mohammadreza; Smiley, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and those with prediabetes and compare the findings between the two groups. One hundred and eighty-eight patients with DM and 125 prediabetic subjects were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data and past history were recorded. Musculoskeletal physical examinations were done by a single rheumatologist. Regression analyses were employed to assess the crude and adjusted effects of determinants on DM musculoskeletal manifestations (DMMMs). Female/male ratio was not significantly different between diabetic and prediabetic patients (4.4 vs. 4.7, respectively, P = 0.9). However, diabetic patients were significantly older than the prediabetic ones (56.6 vs. 52 years, respectively, P = 0.0001); 83.5% of diabetic patients and 52.8% of prediabetic ones had at least one musculoskeletal manifestation (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and shoulder involvement were almost two times more common (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.015) in diabetic patients than in prediabetic ones (73.4% vs. 38% and 21.2% vs. 9.5%, respectively). Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was 48% and 36.5% in patients with diabetes and prediabetes, respectively (P = 0.053). Multivariate backward regression analysis showed age, sex, BMI (body mass index) and DM as the significant determinants in development of musculoskeletal manifestations in all subjects. Age and BMI were the only significant factors associated with musculoskeletal manifestations in both diabetic and prediabetic patients. Diabetic and prediabetic patients may show high prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations. In non-diabetic patients diagnosed with CTS, prediabetes might be ruled out. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Illness experiences of diabetes in the context of malaria in settings experiencing double burden of disease in southeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Metta, Emmy; Bailey, Ajay; Kessy, Flora; Geubbels, Eveline; Haisma, Hinke

    2017-01-01

    Background Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman’s eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. Methods We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences. To gain in-depth understanding of the individual illness experiences, we conducted 41 in-depth interviews with malaria or diabetes patients and family members of diabetes patients. The analysis followed grounded theory principles and the illness experiences were derived from the emerging themes. Results The illness experiences showed that malaria and diabetes are both perceived to be severe and fatal conditions, but over the years people have learned to live with malaria and the condition is relatively manageable compared with diabetes. In contrast, diabetes was perceived as a relatively new disease, with serious life-long consequences. Uncertainty, fear of those consequences, and the increased risk for severe malaria and other illnesses impacted diabetes patients and their families’ illness experiences. Unpredictable ailments and loss of consciousness, memory, libido, and functional incapability were common problems reported by diabetes patients. These problems had an effect on their psychological and emotional health and limited their social life. Direct and indirect costs of illness pushed individuals and their families further into poverty and were more pronounced for diabetes patients. Conclusion The illness experiences revealed both malaria and diabetes as distressing conditions, however, diabetes showed a higher level of stress because of its chronicity. Strategies

  10. Illness experiences of diabetes in the context of malaria in settings experiencing double burden of disease in southeastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Metta, Emmy; Bailey, Ajay; Kessy, Flora; Geubbels, Eveline; Haisma, Hinke

    2017-01-01

    Tanzania is doubly burdened with both non-communicable and infectious diseases, but information on how Tanzanians experience the co-existence of these conditions is limited. Using Kleinman's eight prompting questions the study synthesizes explanatory models from patients to describe common illness experiences of diabetes in a rural setting where malaria is the predominant health threat. We conducted 17 focus group discussions with adult members of the general community, diabetes patients, neighbours and relatives of diabetes patients to gain insight into shared experiences. To gain in-depth understanding of the individual illness experiences, we conducted 41 in-depth interviews with malaria or diabetes patients and family members of diabetes patients. The analysis followed grounded theory principles and the illness experiences were derived from the emerging themes. The illness experiences showed that malaria and diabetes are both perceived to be severe and fatal conditions, but over the years people have learned to live with malaria and the condition is relatively manageable compared with diabetes. In contrast, diabetes was perceived as a relatively new disease, with serious life-long consequences. Uncertainty, fear of those consequences, and the increased risk for severe malaria and other illnesses impacted diabetes patients and their families' illness experiences. Unpredictable ailments and loss of consciousness, memory, libido, and functional incapability were common problems reported by diabetes patients. These problems had an effect on their psychological and emotional health and limited their social life. Direct and indirect costs of illness pushed individuals and their families further into poverty and were more pronounced for diabetes patients. The illness experiences revealed both malaria and diabetes as distressing conditions, however, diabetes showed a higher level of stress because of its chronicity. Strategies for supporting social, emotional, and

  11. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Shital; Khatu, Swapna

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that typically presents in immunocompromised patients, most commonly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It rarely has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Defects in the host defense mechanisms due to hyperglycemia predispose diabetic patients to opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis. We present a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a 48-year-old HIV-negative man with DM.

  12. Mucormycosis in a diabetic ketoacidosis patient.

    PubMed

    Vijayabala, G Sree; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Sudarshan, Ramachandran

    2013-10-01

    Oral cavity is considered to be a kaleidoscope for body's general health. Many systemic conditions do present with diverse oral manifestations. Mucormycosis involving the oral cavity is one such entity that presents as necrosis of bone in immunocompromised patients. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that mainly affects the patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Hereby, we report a case of mucormycosis involving the palate in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  13. Evaluating diabetes health policies using natural experiments: the natural experiments for translation in diabetes study.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Ronald T; Kenrik Duru, O; Albu, Jeanine B; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Soumerai, Stephen B; Wharam, James F; Ali, Mohammed K; Mangione, Carol M; Gregg, Edward W

    2015-06-01

    The high prevalence and costs of type 2 diabetes makes it a rapidly evolving focus of policy action. Health systems, employers, community organizations, and public agencies have increasingly looked to translate the benefits of promising research interventions into innovative policies intended to prevent or control diabetes. Though guided by research, these health policies provide no guarantee of effectiveness and may have opportunity costs or unintended consequences. Natural experiments use pragmatic and available data sources to compare specific policies to other policy alternatives or predictions of what would likely have happened in the absence of any intervention. The Natural Experiments for Translation in Diabetes (NEXT-D) Study is a network of academic, community, industry, and policy partners, collaborating to advance the methods and practice of natural experimental research, with a shared aim of identifying and prioritizing the best policies to prevent and control diabetes. This manuscript describes the NEXT-D Study group's multi-sector natural experiments in areas of diabetes prevention or control as case examples to illustrate the selection, design, analysis, and challenges inherent to natural experimental study approaches to inform development or evaluation of health policies.

  14. [Epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge among diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Dias, Alana Ferreira Gomes; Vieira, Márcio Fragoso; Rezende, Marcussi Palata; Oshima, Akioshi; Muller, Maria Emília Wendler; Santos, Maria Emília Xavier dos; Serracarbassa, Pedro Duraes

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge of diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Cross-sectional study with patients seen at Retina and Vitreous sector of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. The subjects were assigned into two groups: diabetic patients sent for first ophthalmologic evaluation (G1) and patient already followed in the sector (G2). The patients answered a questionnaire and were submitted to ophthalmologic examination. It had been used chi-square (x²), exact of Fisher and non-parametric of Mann-Whitney tests, with level of significance of 5%. The total sample was composed for 357 patients (109 in G1 and 248 in G2). The majority of the patients were female, married, with incomplete basic education, age average of 63.3 years and affirmed to know what it is diabetes. However, 53.2% did not know their type of diabetes. The visual complications of diabetes are most known. Less of one third of the patients had heard of DR and 77.3% did not know if they had it. The majority of the patients had never received any explanation or lecture about diabetes or DR. Only 3.6% of the patients had participated of programs of education on diabetes. The visual acuity, in logMAR scale, was of 0.57 in OD and 0.51 in the OS. Half of the patients did not have DR. The majority of the patients have low knowledge about diabetes and its complications.

  15. Unenhanced MR angiography of the foot: initial experience of using flow-sensitive dephasing-prepared steady-state free precession in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Na; Yang, Qi; Feng, Fei; Liu, Pengcheng; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Debiao

    2014-09-01

    To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with use of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) of the foot arteries in patients with diabetes. This prospective study was approved by institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Thirty-two healthy volunteers and 38 diabetic patients who had been scheduled for lower-extremity contrast material-enhanced MR angiography were recruited to undergo unenhanced MR angiography with a 1.5-T MR unit. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography in the detection of significant arterial stenosis (≥50%) were assessed by two independent reviewers. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used as the reference standard. The difference in the percentage of diagnostic arterial segments at unenhanced MR angiography between healthy volunteers and diabetic patients was evaluated with the McNemar test and generalized estimating equation for correlated data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of pedal arteries were measured and compared between the two MR angiography techniques by using the paired t test. All subjects successfully underwent unenhanced MR angiography of the foot. Unenhanced MR angiography yielded a high percentage of diagnostic arterial segments in both healthy volunteers (303 of 320 segments, 95%) and patients (341 of 370 segments, 92%), and there was no difference in the percentage between the two populations (P = .195). In patients, the average SNR and CNR at unenhanced MR angiography were higher than those at contrast-enhanced MR angiography (SNR: 90.7 ± 38.1 vs 81.7 ± 34.7, respectively, P = .023; CNR: 85.2 ± 33.2 vs 76.6 ± 33.5, respectively, P = .013). The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography were 88% (35 of 40 segments), 93% (107 of

  16. Unenhanced MR Angiography of the Foot: Initial Experience of Using Flow-Sensitive Dephasing–prepared Steady-State Free Precession in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Na; Yang, Qi; Feng, Fei; Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Debiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess image quality and diagnostic performance of unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with use of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)–prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) of the foot arteries in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by institutional review board. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Thirty-two healthy volunteers and 38 diabetic patients who had been scheduled for lower-extremity contrast material–enhanced MR angiography were recruited to undergo unenhanced MR angiography with a 1.5-T MR unit. Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography in the detection of significant arterial stenosis (≥50%) were assessed by two independent reviewers. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography was used as the reference standard. The difference in the percentage of diagnostic arterial segments at unenhanced MR angiography between healthy volunteers and diabetic patients was evaluated with the McNemar test and generalized estimating equation for correlated data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of pedal arteries were measured and compared between the two MR angiography techniques by using the paired t test. Results All subjects successfully underwent unenhanced MR angiography of the foot. Unenhanced MR angiography yielded a high percentage of diagnostic arterial segments in both healthy volunteers (303 of 320 segments, 95%) and patients (341 of 370 segments, 92%), and there was no difference in the percentage between the two populations (P = .195). In patients, the average SNR and CNR at unenhanced MR angiography were higher than those at contrast-enhanced MR angiography (SNR: 90.7 ± 38.1 vs 81.7 ± 34.7, respectively, P = .023; CNR: 85.2 ± 33.2 vs 76.6 ± 33.5, respectively, P = .013). The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced MR angiography

  17. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Klinik Kesihatan Seremban.

    PubMed

    Ding, C H; Teng, C L; Koh, C N

    2006-10-01

    The Malaysian Ministry of Health has undertaken various campaigns on healthy lifestyle and health promotion over the years. The impact of these campaigns has been mixed and not well documented. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge level of patients with and without diabetes in a large urban polyclinic using a 41-item questionnaire. One hundred and forty-nine adults (83 with diabetes, 66 without diabetes) participated in this study. Patients with diabetes had higher overall knowledge scores than those without diabetes (81.8% vs 64.0%, p < 0.001). While the overall knowledge of patients without diabetes appeared to be acceptable, several areas of knowledge deficiency were identified in this group--areas that should be filled by the on-going health promotion activities.

  18. The large spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Sheila; Pascual, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among diabetic patients seems to be overestimated. Recent studies with renal biopsies show that the incidence of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) among diabetic patients is higher than expected. Renal impairment of diabetic patients is frequently attributed to DN without meeting the KDOQI criteria or performing renal biopsy to exclude NDN. In this editorial, we update the spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients and the impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

  19. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Without Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ki-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Kim, Joon-Sung; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the factors that might influence the development of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). From January 2000 to December 2005, a total of 595 patients who had type 2 diabetes without DPN between the ages of 25 and 75 years, and had no prior history of DFUs were consecutively enrolled in the study. A cardiovascular autonomic function test was performed to diagnose cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) using heart rate variability parameters. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years. Among the 449 (75.4%) patients who completed the follow-up evaluation, 22 (4.9%) patients developed new ulcers, and 6 (1.3%) patients underwent the procedure for lower extremity amputations. The patients in the DFUs group had a longer duration of diabetes, higher baseline HbA1c levels, higher rates of nephropathy, and CAN. A Cox hazard regression analysis results revealed that the development of DFUs was significantly associated with the presence of CAN (normal vs definite CAN; HR, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–15.33) after adjusting for possible confounding factors. The development of DFUs was independently associated with CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes without DPN. We suggested the importance of CAN as a predictor of DFUs even in the patients without DPN, and the need to pay attention to patients with definite CAN and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27015188

  20. Vitreoretinal surgery in diabetic patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, J; Chrzanowski, W; Koch, D; Dziegielewski, K

    1997-01-01

    The present paper reports our first results after pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic retinopathy and hemodialysis with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months. Between January 1992 and October 1994 we performed vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil tamponade in nine eyes of seven patients with diabetic nephropathy on hemodialysis. All patients had had type I diabetes for 19-32 years. Over the observation period the retina was completely attached in eight eyes. Final visual acuity of 0.1-0.7 was attained in four eyes, 0.06 two, hand movements in one eye. Two eyes had no useful final visual acuity because of redetachment of the retina or secondary glaucoma with rubeosis iridis. The small number of complications shows that pars plana vitrectomy can be done in diabetic patients with nephropathy on hemodialysis. This significantly improves their quality of life.

  1. [Diabetes in patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Zoltán; Boér, Katalin; Halászlaki, Csaba; Németh, Zsuzsanna

    2013-09-01

    Disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism are fairly common is patients with malignancy. On the other hand, diabetes appears to have an effect on the development and progression of various tumors. Malignant diseases and the therapies used in their treatment often have an impact on carbohydrate metabolism, while diabetes may hinder specific oncotherapy or influence oncological therapeutic decisions. Several complications of malignant diseases and some of the medications used in their treatment, such as steroids or parenteral nutrition, may raise blood glucose levels. The various obstacles of oral nutrition frequently seen in patients with malignancy can lead to hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Our article endeavours to review the pathophysiological and clinical connection between diabetes and malignant diseases and the use of insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs and diet in patients with malignant disease.

  2. Somatotype in elderly type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; Putzu, Paolo F; Carboni, Luciano; Marini, Elisabetta

    2007-09-01

    Somatotyping is a practical technique for the description of physique. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are characterized by physical peculiarities, such as overweight, obesity and a central pattern of body fat distribution. Somatotype applications to diabetes are limited. The objective of this study is to describe the somatotype of elderly type 2 diabetes patients. The sample consisted of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (45 men, mean age 69.4 +/- 7.0 years; 65 women, mean age 72.9 +/- 7.1 years). The pathological subjects were compared with a control group consisting of 280 healthy individuals (134 men, mean age 74.2 +/- 7.3 years; 146 women, mean age 74.9 +/- 7.4 years). The Heath-Carter somatotype was applied. Diabetic men and women (mean somatotype, respectively: 6.8-5.6-0.6 and 8.6-6.4-0.2) presented significantly higher values of endomorphy than the controls (p = 0.043 in men, p = 0.003 in women); men also had a lower mesomorphic component (p = 0.000). The somatotype method revealed physical peculiarities in type 2 diabetes patients. The marked endomorphy in the pathological individuals can be related to general fatness, which is a well known disease risk factor. The somatotype appears to be a suitable technique for the assessment of physique in type 2 diabetes patients.

  3. Osteoporosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Brueck, Carolin C; Singh, Shiv K; Dobnig, Harald

    2007-09-01

    Demographic trends with longer life expectancy and a lifestyle characterized by low physical activity and high-energy food intake contribute to an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Patients with recent onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus may have impaired bone formation because of the absence of the anabolic effects of insulin and amylin, whereas in long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus, vascular complications may account for low bone mass and increased fracture risk. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. Strategies to improve BMD and to prevent osteoporotic fractures in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may include optimal glycemic control and aggressive prevention and treatment of vascular complications. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls.

  4. Seven years experience with a computerized diabetes clinic database.

    PubMed

    Flack, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the emergence of information technology applications in medicine, a computerized medical record system that could be used to : (1) maintain patients' clinical records over time, (2) communicate with referring practitioners, and (3) form the basis of a potential research database of information, was sought. In 1987, we developed such a clinical database to register patients attending our busy Diabetes Clinic, now seeing in excess of 300 new referrals and, on average, 3,000 clinic visits per year. Baseline demographic data, clinical history, and examination and investigation results are recorded. We also record diabetes therapy and other medication dosage and changes, monitor follow-up, assess health outcome information (such as stroke or amputation), and generate results, summaries, and reports to referring practitioners and other health professionals. We now have almost seven years of experience using the system. Initially established on a single PC with paper-based data collection and subsequent data entry (running as a DOS application), it is now established on a PC Local Area Network [LAN] with terminals in the clinic consultation rooms enabling direct data entry and allowing patients to view their results in graphic form on screen. From its inception, the Diabetes Clinic Database System has maintained patient demographic and clinical data (which facilitates efficient clinic management) with patient clinic lists and adhesive address labels generated from appropriate menus. Batch mode processing produces daily work sheets which facilitate the running of clinics as well as ad hoc, daily, and weekly reports for all patients (as required). This expedites correspondence with referring doctors. A quality assurance report to the clinic doctor highlights missing clinical information which must be obtained in order to ensure data completeness. The initial system was relatively inefficient in that it required data entry following patient consultation and provided no

  5. Issues of Cause and Control in Patient Accounts of Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, O.; Peel, E.; Douglas, M.; Lawton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Patients experience considerable difficulties in making and sustaining health-related lifestyle changes. Many Type 2 diabetes patients struggle to follow disease risk-management advice even when they receive extensive information and support. Drawing on a qualitative study of patients with Type 2 diabetes, the paper uses discourse analysis to…

  6. Issues of Cause and Control in Patient Accounts of Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, O.; Peel, E.; Douglas, M.; Lawton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Patients experience considerable difficulties in making and sustaining health-related lifestyle changes. Many Type 2 diabetes patients struggle to follow disease risk-management advice even when they receive extensive information and support. Drawing on a qualitative study of patients with Type 2 diabetes, the paper uses discourse analysis to…

  7. Medicare Coverage for Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, R; Abrahamson, MJ

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. Medicare population is growing at an alarming rate. From 1980 to 2004, the number of people aged 65 or older with diagnosed diabetes increased from 2.3 million to 5.8 million. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS), 32% of Medicare spending is attributed to the diabetes population. Since its inception, Medicare has expanded medical coverage of monitoring devices, screening tests and visits, educational efforts, and preventive medical services for its diabetic enrollees. However, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin were excluded from reimbursement. In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Modernization Act that includes a drug benefit to be administered either through Medicare Advantage drug plans or privately sponsored prescription drug plans for implementation in January 2006. In this article we highlight key patient and drug plan characteristics and resources that providers may focus upon to assist their patients choose a coverage plan. Using a case example, we illustrate the variable financial impact the adoption of Medicare part D may have on beneficiaries with diabetes due to their economic status. We further discuss the potential consequences the legislation will have on diabetic patients enrolled in Medicare, their providers, prescribing strategies, and the diabetes market. PMID:16686819

  8. Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M M; Cureton, P A; Fasano, A

    2015-01-01

    The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Treating the elderly diabetic patient: special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kezerle, Louise; Shalev, Leah; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the >65 year-old group. The challenge of defining the goals of therapy arises from the heterogeneity of the aging process and the sparse clinical data in this patient population. In light of these challenges, the clinician should be aware of the pitfalls of caring for the older diabetic patient and prioritize an individualized treatment plan to ensure an optimal glycemic control, without placing the patient at unnecessary risk. We present a review of the current guidelines and literature that deal specifically with the treatment of the older diabetic patient in order to establish the principles of treatment in this age group and help the clinician make decisions regarding the care of these patients. PMID:25210468

  10. Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Pascual, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, kidney transplantation (KT) with or without a pancreas transplant is the treatment of choice. We aimed to review current data regarding kidney and pancreas transplant options in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes and the outcomes of different treatment modalities. In general, pancreas transplantation is associated with long-term survival advantages despite an increased short-term morbidity and mortality risk. This applies to simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation or pancreas after KT compared to KT alone (either living donor or deceased). Other factors as living donor availability, comorbidities, and expected waiting time have to be considered whens electing one transplant modality, rather than a clear benefit in survival of one strategy vs. others. In selected type 2 diabetic patients, data support cautious utilization of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation when a living kidney donor is not an option. Pancreas and kidney transplantation seems to be the treatment of choice for most type 1 diabetic and selected type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26239558

  11. Diabetes mellitus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alves, Crésio de Aragão Dantas; Aguiar, Renata Arruti; Alves, Ana Cláudia S; Santana, Maria Angélica

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the principal extra-pulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis, occurring in 15-30% of adult cystic fibrosis patients. The number of cystic fibrosis patients who develop diabetes is increasing in parallel with increases in life expectancy. The aim of this study was to review the physiopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CFRD. A bibliographic search of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases was made. Articles were selected from among those published in the last twenty years. Insulin deficiency, caused by reduced beta-cell mass, is the main etiologic mechanism, although insulin resistance also plays a role. Presenting features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, CFRD typically affects individuals of approximately 20 years of age. It can also be accompanied by fasting, non-fasting or intermittent hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is associated with worsening of nutritional status, increased morbidity, decreased survival and reduced pulmonary function. Microvascular complications are always present, although macrovascular complications are rarely seen. An oral glucose tolerance test is recommended annually for patients > or = 10 years of age and for any patients presenting unexplained weight loss or symptoms of diabetes. Patients hospitalized with severe diseases should also be screened. If fasting hyperglycemia persists for more than 48 h, insulin therapy is recommended. Insulin administration remains the treatment of choice for diabetes and fasting hyperglycemia. Calories should not be restricted, and patients with CFRD should be managed by a multidisciplinary team.

  12. Study on simple reaction and choice times in patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Medina, Jose A; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Amador-Licona, Norma; Cardona-Torres, Luz M; Galicia-Resendiz, Delia; Diaz-Carmona, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A study on simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time in patients having diabetes is described in this paper. The study was applied to fourteen patients with type I diabetes, as well as to fourteen non-diabetic persons. The research is based on two visual signal perception experiments, both implemented on a computer based environment. The SRT experiment consisted on measuring participants' reaction times to a light change event in a simulated traffic light scenario. The choice reaction time was studied through the performance indexes (d') achieved by participants in a two alternative forced experiment, where a known visual signal is identified from two noisy images. According to the obtained results, the diabetic patients' SRTs were an average of 24% longer than the reaction time of non-diabetic persons, in the same way a significant average difference of 41% was obtained in the efficient index d' too. A positive correlation of 0.6594 between the time periods since diabetes has been diagnosed and the average SRTs of diabetic patients was obtained, also significant correlation differences between age of all experiments participants and resulting variables, SRTs and d', were observed; for instance the correlation factor between participants' ages and their average SRTs was -0.8529 for diabetic patients, meanwhile a value of -0.2905 was obtained for non-diabetic persons. The evidence suggests that the time period since diabetes has been diagnosed notably affects motor and sensorial systems maturity, and consequently conduction speed of sural and peroneal nerves.

  13. In-Hospital Breastfeeding Experiences Among Women with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Gunderson, Erica P

    2017-06-01

    In-hospital experiences among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could impact breastfeeding success. We sought (1) to determine changes in the prevalence of hospital breastfeeding experiences between 2004-2008 and 2009-2011 among women with GDM and women without diabetes; (2) to determine whether GDM is associated with higher occurrence of experiencing Baby-Friendly hospital practices because of their known higher rates of breastfeeding difficulties. Data from the 2004 to 2011 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a survey of women with a recent live birth from 16 states and New York City, were used based on inclusion of an optional survey question about hospital breastfeeding experiences. We examined the association of in-hospital experiences with GDM within each survey phase using chi-square tests. Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between GDM and hospital breastfeeding experiences. Among 157,187 (8.8% GDM), there were crude differences by GDM status for at least 60% of hospital experiences despite increases in positive hospital experiences between time periods. Women with GDM were less likely to report breastfeeding in the first hour (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83, confidence interval [95% CI] 0.73-0.94), feeding only breast milk in the hospital (0.73, 0.65-0.82), and feeding on demand (0.86, 0.74-0.99) compared with women without diabetes. Women with GDM were significantly more likely to report receiving a pump (1.28, 1.07-1.53) and a formula gift pack (1.17, 1.03-1.34) compared with women without diabetes. Although women with GDM experienced improvements in-hospital breastfeeding experiences over time, disparities in breastfeeding practices remained for five in-patient (hospital) practices that included four negative practices (breastfeeding in the first hour, feeding only breast milk in the hospital, told to feed per mother's preference, receiving a formula gift pack) and one positive practice

  14. Knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of Dominicans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Alcantara, Robinson

    2014-01-01

    Dominicans, one of the fastest growing Hispanic subgroups in New York City (NYC), have a high rate of diabetes. A qualitative study exploring Dominicans’ knowledge, perceptions, and experiences in managing their diabetes was conducted. There were a total of 40 participants who were Spanish speaking Dominicans, 40 to 74 years of age, diagnosed with diabetes and NYC residents. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish, which were recorded and then transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to analyze the text of the focus groups. Different themes emerged from the data, with apparent gaps in diabetes knowledge and of awareness of risk for diabetes complications. PMID:22562620

  15. Chronic Salmonella Osteomyelitis in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis in patients without hemoglobulinopathy is quite uncommon. Osteal involvement is seen in only 0.8% of all Salmonella infection cases. We describe the case of a 67-year-old diabetic woman who developed Salmonella osteomyelitis and subsequently underwent a surgical excision of a tibial lesion followed by two months of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. The patient responded very well to the treatment. This case is exemplary for the successful treatment of chronic Salmonella osteomyelitis in a diabetic patient with a vascular complication. PMID:28680773

  16. Assessment of diabetes acceptance can help identify patients with ineffective diabetes self-care and poor diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A; Reimer, A; Kulzer, B; Haak, T; Gahr, A; Hermanns, N

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the associations between insufficient diabetes acceptance and relevant diabetes outcomes. A total of 320 patients completed questionnaires on diabetes non-acceptance (the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire), diabetes distress (the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale), depressive mood (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), coping with illness (the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness), self-care activities (the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure) and quality of life (the Short Form-36 Health Questionnaire). A six-item version of the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire showing good reliability and validity was established, and the associations between insufficient acceptance and clinical outcomes were estimated. Higher diabetes non-acceptance correlated significantly with less active coping (-0.37), reduced self-care (-0.43) and higher HbA1c levels (0.31), higher diabetes distress (0.53) and more depressive symptoms (0.36). Correlations of diabetes non-acceptance with diabetes self-care/glycaemic control were significantly higher than were those of depressive mood or diabetes distress with these criteria. Low diabetes acceptance is associated with impaired self-care and glycaemic control. Assessment of diabetes acceptance may facilitate the detection of patients at high risk and may present an essential target for treatments to improve diabetes control that is more relevant than elevated depressive mood or diabetes distress. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  17. Positive association between serious psychiatric outcomes and complications of diabetes mellitus in patients with depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyung-Mee; Woo, Jong-Min; Jung, Sun-Young; Shin, Sangjin; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Jooyeon; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Depression and diabetes are closely biologically and behaviorally intertwined. We examined the impact of comorbid diabetes mellitus on the incidence of serious psychiatric outcomes among patients with depression. We used claims data from the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service database of patients who were diagnosed with depression within one year of an index prescription for antidepressants between January 2007 and June 2008. We investigated the association between the comorbidity of diabetes mellitus and serious psychiatric outcomes of depression, such as psychiatric hospitalization, psychiatric emergency room visits, and suicide attempts. Among 200,936 patients with depression, 74,160 (36.9%) had diabetes mellitus, including 57,418 (28.6%) with complications. The incidence of serious psychiatric outcomes was 3.3% in patients with depression without diabetes and 6.7% in patients with depression and diabetes mellitus. Patients with depression and diabetes mellitus complications showed higher rates of serious outcomes than that did those without diabetes mellitus complications (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.13). Similarly, depressed patients with micro and macrovascular diabetic complications were more likely to experience serious outcomes than those without diabetes mellitus complications (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-2.34). Our results showed that comorbid diabetes mellitus can increase the risk of serious outcomes of depression, such as suicide and hospitalization, and thus may alter the antidepressants prescription patterns and healthcare service use among patients with depressive disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Study of Irisin Hormone Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shelbaya, Salah; Abushady, Manal Mohamed; Nasr, Merhan Samy; Bekhet, Meram Mohamed; Mageed, Yasmine Abd-Al; Abbas, Magdy

    2017-08-29

    Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy are associated with multifactorial abnormal energy metabolism. Irisin has been recently introduced as a hormone that is exercise induced and is secreted by skeletal muscles. It is hypothesized that patients with chronic kidney disease usually have abnormal irisin levels. We aimed to study the level of Irisin hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes and to document if it is related to diabetic nephropathy. The current study included 60 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 30 healthy subjects as a control group. Diabetic subjects were divided into 30 without diabetic complications and 30 with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Serum Irisin levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2hours plasma glucose (2hPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), kidney functions including serum creatinine and albumin/ creatinine ratio were assessed. There was a statistical significant decrease in Irisin levels in diabetic patients compared to controls (34.46 ± 15.28 ng/ml vs. 152.600 ± 39.581 ng/ml, p<0.001). Irisin levels were lower in diabetic patients with DN than in those without complications (20.967 ± 4.476 ng/ml vs. 47.967 ± 8.853 ng/ml, p<0.01).There was a statistical significant negative correlation between irisin and serum creatinine (r=-0.729), systolic blood pressure (r=-0.493), diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.625), duration of diabetes (r=-0.942), BMI(r=-0.396), albumin/creatinine ratio (r=-0.696), and HbA1c (r=-0.305) in all type 2 diabetic patients (p<0.05). On performing multivariate regression analysis, we found that duration of diabetes was the only independent determinant of irisin level. There is a decrease in serum irisin level in type 2 diabetic patients with even more significant reduction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Anesthetic considerations in diabetic patients. Part I: preoperative considerations of patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common disease that affects people of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic patients require perioperative care more frequently than their nondiabetic counterparts. The major risk factors for diabetics undergoing surgery are the associated end-organ diseases: cardiovascular disease, autonomic neuropathy, joint collagen tissue, and immune deficiency. Physicians need to pay extra attention to preoperative and preprocedure evaluation and treatment of these diseases to ensure optimal perioperative management.

  20. Diabetes Health Literacy Among Somali Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in a US Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Njeru, Jane W; Hagi-Salaad, Misbil F; Haji, Habibo; Cha, Stephen S; Wieland, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe diabetes literacy among Somali immigrants with diabetes and its association with diabetes outcomes. Among Somali immigrants in North America, the prevalence of diabetes exceeds that of the general population, and their measures of diabetes control are suboptimal when compared with non-Somali patients. Diabetes literacy is an important mediator of diabetes outcomes in general populations that has not been previously described among Somali immigrants and refugees. Diabetes literacy was measured using a translated version of the spoken knowledge in low literacy in diabetes (SKILLD) scale among Somali immigrants and refugees with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes outcome measures, including hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure, were obtained for each patient. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Among 50 Somali patients with diabetes who completed the survey, the mean SKILLD score was low (42.2 %). The diabetes outcome measures showed a mean hemoglobin A1C of 8 %, LDL cholesterol of 99.17 mg/dL (2.57 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure of 130.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure of 70.2 mmHg. There was no association between diabetes literacy scores and diabetes outcome measures. Somali patients with diabetes mellitus had low diabetes literacy and suboptimal measures of diabetes disease control. However, we found no association between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Future work aimed at reduction of diabetes-related health disparities among Somali immigrants and refugees to high-income countries should go beyond traditional means of patient education for low-literacy populations.

  1. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services

    PubMed Central

    Riza, Anca Lelia; Pearson, Fiona; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van de Vijver, Steven; Panduru, Nicolae M; Hill, Philip C; Ruslami, Rovina; Moore, David; Aarnoutse, Rob; Critchley, Julia A; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management of patients with both diseases can be difficult. Tuberculosis patients with diabetes have a lower concentration of tuberculosis drugs and a higher risk of drug toxicity than tuberculosis patients without diabetes. Good glycaemic control, which reduces long-term diabetes complications and could also improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes, is hampered by chronic inflammation, drug-drug interactions, suboptimum adherence to drug treatments, and other factors. Besides drug treatments for tuberculosis and diabetes, other interventions, such as education, intensive monitoring, and lifestyle interventions, might be needed, especially for patients with newly diagnosed diabetes or those who need insulin. From a health systems point of view, delivery of optimum care and integration of services for tuberculosis and diabetes is a huge challenge in many countries. Experience from the combined tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS epidemic could serve as an example, but more studies are needed that include economic assessments of recommended screening and systems to manage concurrent tuberculosis and diabetes. PMID:25194887

  2. Clinical management of concurrent diabetes and tuberculosis and the implications for patient services.

    PubMed

    Riza, Anca Lelia; Pearson, Fiona; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van de Vijver, Steven; Panduru, Nicolae M; Hill, Philip C; Ruslami, Rovina; Moore, David; Aarnoutse, Rob; Critchley, Julia A; van Crevel, Reinout

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes triples the risk for active tuberculosis, thus the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes will help to sustain the present tuberculosis epidemic. Recommendations have been made for bidirectional screening, but evidence is scarce about the performance of specific tuberculosis tests in individuals with diabetes, specific diabetes tests in patients with tuberculosis, and screening and preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infections in individuals with diabetes. Clinical management of patients with both diseases can be difficult. Tuberculosis patients with diabetes have a lower concentration of tuberculosis drugs and a higher risk of drug toxicity than tuberculosis patients without diabetes. Good glycaemic control, which reduces long-term diabetes complications and could also improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes, is hampered by chronic inflammation, drug-drug interactions, suboptimum adherence to drug treatments, and other factors. Besides drug treatments for tuberculosis and diabetes, other interventions, such as education, intensive monitoring, and lifestyle interventions, might be needed, especially for patients with newly diagnosed diabetes or those who need insulin. From a health systems point of view, delivery of optimum care and integration of services for tuberculosis and diabetes is a huge challenge in many countries. Experience from the combined tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS epidemic could serve as an example, but more studies are needed that include economic assessments of recommended screening and systems to manage concurrent tuberculosis and diabetes.

  3. Promoting health literacy in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Ella

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex long-term condition. To achieve best outcomes, patients must have a good understanding of the condition and should adopt a vigilant self-care approach. However, this may be difficult for patients with low health literacy because they may struggle with obtaining, understanding and applying health information. Health literacy encompasses factors such as culture, empowerment, motivation and the quality of the individual's exchanges with the health system. Nurses' understanding of health literacy as a concept is key to helping patients achieve self-management of long-term conditions. Health literacy strategies should focus on improving communication between healthcare providers and people with diabetes, providing information in a variety of formats and seeking to improve access to healthcare services. This article suggests how nurses can help people with diabetes improve their health literacy.

  4. Management of critically ill patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Perez, Livier Josefina; Benitez-Lopez, Mario Alberto; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis, such as stress-induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are common complications in patients in the intensive care unit. Patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to hyperglycemia, as well as a higher risk from glucose overcorrection, that may results in severe hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients with DM, it is recommended to maintain a blood glucose range between 140-180 mg/dL. In neurological patients and surgical patients, tighter glycemic control (i.e., 110-140 mg/d) is recommended if hypoglycemia can be properly avoided. There is limited evidence that shows that critically ill diabetic patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin levels above 7% may benefit from looser glycemic control, in order to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and significant glycemic variability. PMID:28344751

  5. Patients' health education and diabetes control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ezenwaka, C E; Offiah, N V

    2003-12-01

    We previously reported poor metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending 2 primary care clinics in Trinidad. In an attempt to explain the poor metabolic control, we assessed primary care patients' theoretical knowledge of diabetes control and risk factors. Two hundred fifty-four diabetic out-patients recruited consecutively were asked by questionnaire: (i) if they were aware that family history of diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity and cigarette smoking were diabetes risk factors; (ii) if they knew the benefits of weight loss, exercise and healthy diet in diabetes management, and (iii) what where their common sources of diabetes health information. Although the majority of the patients (81.1%) were unaware that cigarette smoking is a diabetes risk factor, a majority were aware that obesity (66.3%), physical inactivity (73.5%) and being a relative of a diabetic patient (78.7%) constitute diabetes risk factors. Again, the majority of the patients were aware that healthy diet (94.9%), exercise (94.5%) and weight loss (87.4%) are beneficial in diabetes control. While media (48.6%) was the commonest source of diabetes information, doctors and nurses were consulted by 39.9% and 11.0% of patients, respectively. Type 2 diabetic patients in these clinics were well informed about diabetes risk factors and benefits of healthy lifestyle. Given our recent reports on poor metabolic control, application of this theoretical knowledge in controlling their diabetes remains doubtful.

  6. Present Insights on Cardiomyopathy in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Felício, João Soares; Koury, Camila Cavalcante; Carvalho, Carolina Tavares; Neto, João Felício 
Abrahão; Miléo, Karem Barbosa; Arbage, Thaís Pontes; Silva, Denisson Dias; Ferreira de Oliveira, Alana; Peixoto, Amanda Soares; Junior, Antônio Bentes Figueiredo; Ribeiro dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is partially understood and is likely to be multifactorial, involving metabolic disturbances, hypertension and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). Therefore, an important need remains to further delineate the basic mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy and to apply them to daily clinical practice. We attempt to detail some of these underlying mechanisms, focusing in the clinical features and management. The novelty of this review is the role of CAN and reduction of blood pressure descent during sleep in the development of DCM. Evidence has suggested that CAN might precede left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes, serving as an early marker for the evaluation of preclinical cardiac abnormalities. Additionally, a prospective study demonstrated that an elevation of nocturnal systolic blood pressure and a loss of nocturnal blood pressure fall might precede the onset of abnormal albuminuria and cardiovascular events in hypertensive normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, existing microalbuminuria could imply the presence of myocardium abnormalities. Considering that DCM could be asymptomatic for a long period and progress to irreversible cardiac damage, early recognition and treatment of the preclinical cardiac abnormalities are essential to avoid severe cardiovascular outcomes. In this sense, we recommend that all type 2 diabetic patients, especially those with microalbuminuria, should be regularly submitted to CAN tests, Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and echocardiography, and treated for any abnormalities in these tests in the attempt of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26364799

  7. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Chi-Juei; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of current study aims to investigate the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a nationwide population-based cohort in Taiwan. Newly diagnosed DN patients and age- and sex-matched controls were identified from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010. We studied the effects of age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), and medications on the development of nonproliferative DR (NPDR), proliferative DR (PDR), and diabetic macular edema (DME) in patients with DN. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the development of DR. Our results show that the adjusted HRs of NPDR and PDR were 5.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.68–5.37) and 9.7 (95% CI = 8.15–11.5), respectively, in patients with DN as compared with patients in the non-DN cohort. At 5-year follow-up, patients with DN showed an increased HR of NPDR progression to PDR (HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.68–3.03), and the major comorbidities were hypertension (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10–1.38 with NPDR; HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02–1.72 with PDR) and DPN (HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.72–2.41 in NPDR; HR = 2.95, 95% CI = 2.16–4.03 in PDR). Dyslipidemia increased the HR of developing NPDR but not PDR or DME. Moreover, DN did not significantly affect DME development (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 0.87–2.48) or progression (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.11–1.20). We concluded that DN was an independent risk factor for DR development and progression; however, DN did not markedly affect DME development in this study, and the potential association between these disorders requires further investigation. PMID:27564383

  9. The Adult Diabetic Patient: An Education Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    finding that he/she, too, must care for sicker patients. To better prepare these patients for life after discharge, patient education must be initiated as...admitted, patient education often begins at the physicians’ office. This paper explores diabetes mellitus in relation to concepts of self-care and adult...betting foj.L eduuation and iio.w, wore ofteni, patient education and follow-up sercvices- a:leL beiny p~rovided on ani outpatient bcdtsis" (p. 36) . Thet

  10. Primary Infrainguinal Subintimal Angioplasty in Diabetic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bargellini, Irene Petruzzi, Pasquale; Scatena, Alessia; Cioni, Roberto; Cicorelli, Antonio; Vignali, Claudio; Rizzo, Loredana; Piaggesi, Alberto; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate technical and clinical results of infrainguinal subintimal angioplasty in a series of diabetic patients with limb-threatening ischemia. From July 2003 to December 2007, 60 consecutive diabetic patients (M/F = 41/19; mean age, 69.4 {+-} 9.4 years) with Fontaine stage IV critical limb ischemia, not suitable for surgical recanalization, underwent primary infrainguinal subintimal angioplasty. The technical success, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and clinical success (defined by ulcer healing) were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis was obtained for cumulative clinical success, limb salvage, and survival rates. The procedure was technically successful in 55 of 60 (91.7%) patients; in 5 cases we were not able to achieve a reentry. Periprocedural mortality was 5% (3 patients); three patients (5%) required major amputation periprocedurally. Mean follow-up was 23 months (range, 0-48 months). On an intention-to-treat basis, the limb salvage rate was 93.3% (56/60 patients); ulcer healing was observed in 45 of 60 (75%) patients and it was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with serum creatinine and HbA1c levels, diabetes duration, and infrapopliteal recanalization. One- and three-year cumulative survival rates were 91.5% and 83.1%, respectively; serum creatinine levels, patient age, and clinical success were significant predictors of survival. In conclusion, infrainguinal primary subintimal angioplasty is a safe and effective treatment in diabetic patients with limb-threatening ischemia not suitable for surgical recanalization. This procedure is aimed to create a 'temporary bypass' that facilitates ulcer healing.

  11. Interleukin 2 Topical Cream for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Experiment Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is estimated there are 2.9 million diabetic patients in the United Kingdom, and around 5%-7% of patients have diabetic ulcers. This number will continue to increase globally. Diabetic ulcers are a major economic burden on the healthcare system. More than £650 million is spent on foot ulcers or amputations each year, and up to 100 people a week have a limb amputated due to diabetes. In T1DM, the level of IL-2 is reduced, and hence, wound healing is in a prolonged inflammatory phase. It is not known if IL-2 topical cream can shorten the healing process in T1DM patients. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the pathophysiology in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and investigate possible future treatment based on its clinical features. The hypothesis is that IL-2 cream can speed up wound healing in NOD mice and that this can be demonstrated in a ten-week study. An experiment protocol is designed in a mouse model for others to conduct the experiment. The discussion is purely based on diabetic conditions; lifestyle influences like smoking and drinking are not considered. Methods Skin incisions will be created on 20 nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and IL-2 topical cream will be applied in a 10-week study to prove the hypothesis. Mice will be randomly and equally divide into two groups with one being the control group. Results T1DM patients have a decreased number of T regulatory (Treg) cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2). These are the keys to the disease progression and delay in wound healing. Diabetic ulcer is a chronic wound and characterized by a prolonged inflammatory phase. Conclusions If the experiment is successful, T1DM patients will have an alternative, noninvasive treatment of foot ulcers. In theory, patients with other autoimmune diseases could also use IL-2 topical cream for treatment. PMID:26276522

  12. Assessment of a National Diabetes Education Program diabetes management booklet: The GRADE experience.

    PubMed

    Devchand, Roshni; Nicols, Christina; Gallivan, Joanne M; Tiktin, Margaret; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Larkin, Mary; Tuncer, Diane M

    2017-05-01

    The National Diabetes Education Program created the 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life (4 Steps) booklet to help patients with diabetes learn the basics of self-management and care recommendations. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of 4 Steps on participants' diabetes management knowledge and self-efficacy in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE). A sample of 348 adults with type 2 diabetes enrolled in GRADE was included in this analysis. Participants took a pretest, were sent home with 4 Steps, then took a posttest at their next visit. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to detect differences in knowledge and self-efficacy between scale scores pre- and posttest. Analyses revealed increases in participants' diabetes management knowledge (p < .001) and self-efficacy (p < .001) from pre- to posttest. Participants who reported no formal previous diabetes education showed a statistically significant increase in knowledge scores compared to those with previous diabetes education (p < .05). Appropriate, relevant diabetes education materials may improve self-management knowledge and self-efficacy among adults with type 2 diabetes. Providers should feel confident using 4 Steps as a resource for clinical practice. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: Effects on Weight Loss and Metabolic Control.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Pauline; Poitou, Christine; Carette, Claire; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Barsamian, Charles; Touati, Eliabelle; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Torcivia, Adriana; Czernichow, Sébastien; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Ciangura, Cécile

    2016-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients, although typically lean, experience an increased prevalence of obesity, and bariatric surgery is considered in severe cases. Bariatric surgery in such patients leads to significant weight loss and decreased insulin requirements; however, effects on glycemic control remain discussed. We assessed, in obese patients with type 1 diabetes, the effects of bariatric surgery upon body weight, body composition, and glycemic control, including the occurrence of hypoglycemic events. Thirteen obese patients with type 1 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 6, sleeve gastrectomy n = 7) were matched with obese patients without diabetes and with type 2 diabetes patients during 12 months of follow-up. Outcomes included body weight, DXA-assessed body composition, HbA1c, and incidence of hypoglycemia. At 12 months, median surgery-induced weight loss was 27.9 % (21.1-33.3), 26.1 % (24.8-29.7), and 27.5 % (21.8-32.1) in patients with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively, with no significant differences across the groups. Similar findings were observed for body fat changes. At 12 months, median HbA1c decreased from 8.3 to 7.6 % in type 1 diabetes patients versus 8.0 to 5.9 % in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.04 between the groups). In type 1 diabetes patients, the number of reported minor hypoglycemia increased transiently only at 6 months. Two patients reported severe hypoglycemia (one episode each). Type 1 diabetes patients benefit from bariatric surgery in terms of weight loss and glycemic control. Close monitoring of insulin therapy appears warranted to prevent minor hypoglycemia in the first months post-surgery.

  14. Telemedicine in diabetes foot care delivery: health care professionals' experience.

    PubMed

    Kolltveit, Beate-Christin Hope; Gjengedal, Eva; Graue, Marit; Iversen, Marjolein M; Thorne, Sally; Kirkevold, Marit

    2016-04-18

    Introducing new technology in health care is inevitably a challenge. More knowledge is needed to better plan future telemedicine interventions. Our aim was therefore to explore health care professionals' experience in the initial phase of introducing telemedicine technology in caring for people with diabetic foot ulcers. Our methodological strategy was Interpretive Description. Data were collected between 2014 and 2015 using focus groups (n = 10). Participants from home-based care, primary care and outpatient hospital clinics were recruited from the intervention arm of an ongoing cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01710774). Most were nurses (n = 29), but the sample also included one nurse assistant, podiatrists (n = 2) and physicians (n = 2). The participants reported experiencing meaningful changes to their practice arising from telemedicine, especially associated with increased wound assessment knowledge and skills and improved documentation quality. They also experienced more streamlined communication between primary health care and specialist health care. Despite obstacles associated with finding the documentation process time consuming, the participants' attitudes to telemedicine were overwhelmingly positive and their general enthusiasm for the innovation was high. Our findings indicate that using a telemedicine intervention enabled the participating health care professionals to approach their patients with diabetic foot ulcer with more knowledge, better wound assessment skills and heightened confidence. Furthermore, it streamlined the communication between health care levels and helped seeing the patients in a more holistic way.

  15. Treatment of Patients With Diabetic Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, Henry P.; Fass, Ronnie; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Gastroparesis, or chronic delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction, affects about 40% of patients with type 1 diabetes and up to 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) typically causes nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and postprandial fullness. These symptoms can be extremely troubling and result in poor quality of life. The diagnosis of DGP is made by documenting the presence of chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, ruling out mechanical obstruction, and demonstrating delayed gastric emptying. The usual treatment for DGP includes dietary modifications, prokinetic agents, and antiemetic agents. Although the majority of patients have mild-to-moderate disease that can be managed using these measures, a substantial percentage of patients have severe DGP that is characterized by inadequate oral intake, malnutrition, weight loss, and frequent hospitalizations. Optimal management of these patients presents a difficult challenge for the clinician, although emerging treatment options, such as gastric neurostimulation, are encouraging. Patients with DGP often present with gastric comorbidities, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal dysmotility, and fungal and bacterial infections of the GI tract. This monograph will present an overview of the pathophysiology of DGP, review diagnostic testing with a discussion of emerging technology, and present the latest research in treatment options for DGP. In addition, management strategies for refractory DGP and gastric comorbidities will be described. PMID:20733935

  16. Diabetes insipidus in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Paulose, K P; Padmakumar, N

    2002-09-01

    The association of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Diabetes Insipidus (DI) without any congenital defects is very rare and we report here a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) whose blood sugar was controlled by insulin, developing central diabetes insipidus 2 years later, which could be successively controlled by synthetic vasopressin.

  17. A Clinical Trial of the Accuracy and Treatment Experience of the Dexcom G4 Sensor (Dexcom G4 System) and Enlite Sensor (Guardian REAL-Time System) Tested Simultaneously in Ambulatory Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Matuleviciene, Viktorija; Joseph, Jeffrey I.; Andelin, Mervi; Hirsch, Irl B.; Attvall, Stig; Pivodic, Aldina; Dahlqvist, Sofia; Klonoff, David; Haraldsson, Börje

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a tool widely used in the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether accuracy and patient treatment satisfaction differ between the Enlite™ (Medtronic MiniMed, Inc., Northridge, CA) and Dexcom® (San Diego, CA) G4 PLATINUM CGM sensors. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-eight ambulatory patients with type 1 diabetes used the Dexcom G4 and Enlite sensors simultaneously for a minimum of 4 and maximum of 6 days. Patients measured capillary glucose levels with a HemoCue® (Ängelholm, Sweden) system six to 10 times a day. In addition, two inpatient studies were performed between Days 1–3 and 4–6. Results: The mean absolute relative difference (MARD) in blood glucose for the Dexcom G4 was significantly lower (13.9%) than for the Enlite sensor (17.8%) (P<0.0001). The corresponding MARDs for Days 1–3 were 15.0% versus 19.4% (P=0.0027) and 13.6% versus 15.9% (P=0.026) for Days 4–6. For glucose levels in the hypoglycemic range (<4.0 mmol/L), the MARD for the Dexcom G4 was 20.0% compared with 34.7% for the Enlite (P=0.0041). On a visual analog scale (VAS) (0–100), patients rated the Dexcom G4 more favorably than the Enlite in 12 out of the 13 user experience questions. For example, more patients rated their experience with the Dexcom G4 as positive (VAS, 79.7 vs. 46.6; P<0.0001) and preferred to use it in their daily lives (VAS, 79.1 vs. 42.1; P<0.0001). Conclusions: The Dexcom G4 sensor was associated with greater overall accuracy than the Enlite sensor during initial (Days 1–3) and later (Days 4–6) use and for glucose levels in the hypoglycemic range. Patients reported a significantly more positive experience using the Dexcom G4 than the Enlite. PMID:25233297

  18. Diabetes mellitus in patients with cirrhosis: clinical implications and management.

    PubMed

    Elkrief, Laure; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sarin, Shiv; Valla, Dominique; Paradis, Valérie; Moreau, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of glucose metabolism, namely glucose intolerance and diabetes, are frequent in patients with chronic liver diseases. In patients with cirrhosis, diabetes can be either a classical type 2 diabetes mellitus or the so-called hepatogenous diabetes, i.e. a consequence of liver insufficiency and portal hypertension. This review article provides an overview of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms explaining diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is associated with portosystemic shunts as well as reduced hepatic mass, which can both impair insulin clearance by the liver, contributing to peripheral insulin resistance through insulin receptors down-regulation. Moreover, cirrhosis is associated with increased levels of advanced-glycation-end products and hypoxia-inducible-factors, which may play a role in the development of diabetes. This review also focuses on the clinical implications of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. First, diabetes is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Specifically, diabetes is associated with the occurrence of major complications of cirrhosis, including ascites and renal dysfunction, hepatic encephalopathy and bacterial infections. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver diseases. Last, the management of patients with concurrent diabetes and liver disease is also addressed. Recent findings suggest a beneficial impact of metformin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Insulin is often required in patients with advanced cirrhosis. However, the favourable impact of controlling diabetes in patients with cirrhosis has not been demonstrated yet.

  19. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient's health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic.

  1. Young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of diabetes management and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lin; James, Steven; Steinbeck, Katharine; Dunbabin, Janet; Lowe, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII; insulin pump) use is increasing. However, there is little information about how this technology is used compared with other insulin delivery methods (ie, injections) by young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Australia. This study explored young people's attitudes, perceptions, and experiences with diabetes management comparing those using with those not using CSII, and proportions likely to transition to adult services requiring initiation and/or support for CSII use. A survey was undertaken of young people (aged 12 to 18 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents/guardians living in Hunter New England, Australia, using a questionnaire designed to collect quantitative, descriptive, and demographic data. Most questions were based on previously developed and validated instruments. In total, 107 respondents returned partially or fully completed questionnaires. Respondents had positive attitudes and perceptions of their self-efficacy and diabetes management, but were moderately disturbed by their diabetes and reported experiencing suboptimal management outcomes. Patterns of associations were demonstrated between knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of diabetes modeled by regression analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in responses between users and nonusers of CSII. Over 40% indicated their intention to use the technology as adults. Opportunities for enhanced diabetes service support were clear, and CSII did not appear to be used to its full potential. Service redesign could enhance support for this young population using all preferred insulin delivery methods and should align to patients' goals and preferences to maximize service and patient gain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Diabetic patients have abnormal cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Croughwell, N.; Lyth, M.; Quill, T.J.; Newman, M.; Greeley, W.J.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with coronary artery bypass graft surgery experience altered coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption. In a study of 23 patients (11 diabetics and 12 age-matched controls), cerebral blood flow was measured using 133Xe clearance during nonpulsatile, alpha-stat blood gas managed cardiopulmonary bypass at the conditions of hypothermia and normothermia. In diabetic patients, the cerebral blood flow at 26.6 +/- 2.42 degrees C was 25.3 +/- 14.34 ml/100 g/min and at 36.9 +/- 0.58 degrees C it was 27.3 +/- 7.40 ml/100 g/min (p = NS). The control patients increased cerebral blood flow from 20.7 +/- 6.78 ml/100 g/min at 28.4 +/- 2.81 degrees C to 37.6 +/- 8.81 ml/100 g/min at 36.5 +/- 0.45 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.005). The oxygen consumption was calculated from jugular bulb effluent and increased from hypothermic values of 0.52 +/- 0.20 ml/100 g/min in diabetics to 1.26 +/- 0.28 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.001) at normothermia and rose from 0.60 +/- 0.27 to 1.49 +/- 0.35 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.0005) in the controls. Thus, despite temperature-mediated changes in oxygen consumption, diabetic patients did not increase cerebral blood flow as metabolism increased. Arteriovenous oxygen saturation gradients and oxygen extraction across the brain were calculated from arterial and jugular bulb blood samples. The increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference between temperature conditions in diabetic patients and controls was significantly different (p = 0.01). These data reveal that diabetic patients lose cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and compensate for an imbalance in adequate oxygen delivery by increasing oxygen extraction.

  3. A systematic review of studies of web portals for patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Williams, Lovoria B; Hatzigeorgiou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Patient web portals are password-protected online websites that offer patients 24-hour access to personal health information from anywhere with an Internet connection. Due to advances in health information technologies, there has been increasing interest among providers and researchers in patient web portals for use by patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions. This article, which is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed, reviews web portals for patients with diabetes mellitus including patient web portals tethered to electronic medical records and web portals developed specifically for patients with diabetes. Twelve studies of the impact of patient web portals on the management of diabetes patients were identified. Three had a cross-sectional design, 1 employed mixed-methods, one had a matched-control design, 3 had a retrospective cohort design, and 5 were randomized controlled trials. Six (50%) of the studies examined web portals tethered to electronic medical records and the remainder were web portals developed specifically for diabetes patients. The results of this review suggest that secure messaging between adult diabetic patients and their clinician is associated with improved glycemic control. However, results from observational studies indicate that many diabetic patients do not take advantage of web portal features such as secure messaging, perhaps because of a lack of internet access or lack of experience in navigating web portal resources. Although results from randomized controlled trials provide stronger evidence of the efficacy of web portal use in improving glycemic control among diabetic patients, the number of trials is small and results from the trials have been mixed. Studies suggest that secure messaging between adult diabetic patients and their clinician is associated with improved glycemic control, but negative findings have also been reported. The number of randomized controlled trials that have examined the efficacy of web

  4. Counseling and depression among diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Essmat A; Gemeay, Essmat M; Moussa, Ihab M

    2013-03-01

    To determine the level of depression in diabetic patients and investigate the effect of a counseling program on the level of depression. A pre-post experimental study was conducted at the outpatient medical clinics of the Health Insurance Hospital affiliated to the Ministry of Health, Mansoura, Egypt. The study was carried out between June 2011 and September 2011. One hundred and twenty type II diabetic patients were recruited in this study. We used 2 tools for data collection: a) A structured interview questionnaire including socio-demographic and disease related data. b) The Zung self-rating depression scale. We classified the subjects into 2 equal groups of 60 patients each (group A--control and group B--experimental). Both groups were interviewed after 3 months to assess the level of depression. On initial assessment, depression was found in approximately 57.5% of the control group, and severe depression in 32.5%. On second assessment, the depression rate in the control group increased to 67.5%, while the severe depression rate decreased to 25%. In the experimental group, at initial assessment, it was noticed that the percentage of subjects with no depressions increase to be 39.7% instead of 27%, also, the level of mild and severe depression decrease to be 56.1% post assessment instead of 58.4% and 14.6%. Counseling, as a nursing intervention, is helpful in reducing the level of depression among diabetic patients.

  5. Personal models for diabetes in context and patients' health status.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lori J; Piette, John D

    2006-06-01

    In a diverse sample of 452 adult diabetes patients, we investigated: (1) personal model dimensions for diabetes and expanded upon the literature by indexing fatalism, (2) the relationship between contextual factors and patients' beliefs about the seriousness and controllability of diabetes, and (3) the unique contribution of illness representation combinations to clinical outcomes when controlling for baseline disease severity. Major categories of predictors included patients' sociocultural characteristics, illness history (e.g., co-morbidities, diabetes complications) and recent physical symptoms. Illness representations were measured using the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview and questions that index fatalistic beliefs. Clinical outcome measures included patients' glycemic control (HbA1c) and the patient's physical and mental functions as measured by the SF-12. Analyses corroborated the literature by identifying seriousness and treatment effectiveness cognitive model dimensions for diabetes. Physical symptoms and other disease-related factors were strong predictors of patients' seriousness beliefs for diabetes, whereas sociocultural factors (education, ethnicity) best explained representations related to the controllability of diabetes (i.e., treatment effectiveness, fatalism). Seriousness beliefs were good indicators of actual glucose control, except for cases in which patients were more fatalistic and believed diabetes to be less serious. Although patients had medically consistent views of their diabetes, variations in personal models of diabetes were related to specific contextual factors and independently explained diabetes control.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Y. T.; Kuang, Y. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Gu, P. C.; Wei, H. J.; Chen, K.

    2017-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to noninvasively monitor the blood glucose concentration (BGC) in healthy subjects with good accuracy and acceptable specificity. Based on this, the paper further considered the possibility of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients. The OCT signal slope (OCTSS) changed with variation of BGC. The correlation coefficient R between BGC and OCTSS in diabetic patients was 0.91; while the correlation coefficient R in healthy volunteers was 0.78. Thus, a better linear dependence of OCTSS on BGC in diabetic patients was presented in the experiment. The results showed that the capability and accuracy of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC of diabetic patients, and the noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients may be better than the monitoring in the healthy subjects.

  7. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient’s health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. PMID:25657590

  8. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  9. Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters What Is Coronary Artery Disease? Atherosclerosis is the disease process that narrows large ... heart attack, and possibly sudden death. Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Patients with diabetes mellitus have more extensive atherosclerosis ...

  10. Diabetes nurse educators' experiences of providing care for women, with gestational diabetes mellitus, from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    To explore diabetes nurse educators' experiences of providing care for women, with gestational diabetes mellitus, from disadvantaged backgrounds and to gather information which would assist with the development of an educational programme that would support both women and diabetes educators. Rates of gestational diabetes mellitus have increased dramatically in recent years. This is concerning as gestational diabetes mellitus is linked to poorer pregnancy outcomes including hypertension, stillbirth, and nursery admission. Poorest outcomes occur among disadvantaged women. gestational diabetes mellitus is also associated with maternal type 2 diabetes and with child obesity and type 2 diabetes among offspring. Effective self-management of gestational diabetes mellitus reduces these risks. Diabetes nurse educators provide most education and support for gestational diabetes mellitus self-management. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, as espoused by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51), provided the framework for this study. The views of six diabetes educators were explored through in-depth interviewing. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed according to steps outlined by Smith and Osborn (Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods, 2008, Sage, London, 51). Three themes emerged from the data: (1) working in a suboptimal environment, (2) working to address the difficulties and (3) looking to the future. Throughout, the diabetes nurse educators sought opportunities to connect with women in their care and to make the educational content understandable and meaningful. Low literacy among disadvantaged women has a significant impact on their understanding of gestational diabetes mellitus information. In turn, catering for women with low literacy contributes to increased workloads for diabetes nurse educators, making them vulnerable to burnout. There is a need

  11. Having their say: patients' perspectives and the clinical management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leonard; Liburd, Leandris C; Tucker, Pattie; Cockrell, Tarisha

    2014-04-01

    Using an illness narratives framework, we provide 1 method that health care providers can use to obtain insight into the perceptions and experiences of their patients living with diabetes. We propose that understanding patients' cultural perspectives help explains their health behavior and can lead to more productive partnering between provider, patient, and community health resources that support adherence and improved health outcomes. We conclude with resources available to assist health care providers in their efforts to deliver culturally appropriate diabetes care and examples of culturally tailored community-based public health initiatives that have been effective in improving diabetes outcomes among African-American patients. Published by EM Inc USA.

  12. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: do stress and coping matter?

    PubMed

    Shah, Bijal M; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W; Knapp, Katherine K

    2012-04-01

    This article examines the relationship among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the transactional model of stress and coping (TMSC) as the theoretical framework. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 201 patients with T2DM was recruited from three outpatient clinics. Patients with depressive symptoms reported significantly more diabetes-related stress than patients without depressive symptoms. The results of path analysis suggest that patients who experience greater diabetes-related stress or greater depressive symptoms have a negative appraisal of their diabetes. Negative appraisal is, in turn, associated with greater use of avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping and lesser use of problem-focused coping. Avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping are, in turn, related to greater depressive symptoms or greater diabetes-related stress. Overall, the results of this study support the TMSC as a framework to elucidate the relationships among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with T2DM. However, given the cross-sectional nature of the study, we are unable to elucidate the directionality of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings and the need for longitudinal studies to evaluate these relationships are discussed.

  14. Patient perspectives of an individualized diabetes care management plan.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Ashley N; Ansa, Benjamin; Coffin, Janis; Akhtar, Mariam; Miller, Andre; Mahoney, Holly; Hodo, Denise M; Duffie, Carla; Fontenot, Brittney; Andrews, Holly E; Smith, Selina A

    2017-01-01

    This cross sectional study examines patients' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about a diabetic care management plan (DCMP) that was developed to provide patient education on diabetes guidelines and display individual diabetic core measures. Secondary objectives included a comparison of diabetic core measures [hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and urine microalbumin (Um)] before and after DCMP implementation. We hypothesize this tool will contribute to patients' awareness of current disease status, diabetes knowledge and diabetic core value improvement over time. A consecutive sample of 102 adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a primary care setting participated. Patients' perspectives on the care plan and knowledge about diabetes was collected via survey after care plan implementation. A comparison of selected diabetic core measures was conducted at baseline and post-DCMP. Descriptive statistics summarized survey response and diabetic core measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess change in diabetic core measures over time. Participants understood the DCMP (96%), found it important because it explained their laboratory results and medications (89%) and believed it would help them to have better diabetic control (99%). There was a significant interaction between time and being at goal pre-DCMP for HbA1c, SBP and LDL. Patients not at goal pre-DCMP for the above measures decreased significantly over time (P = <0.01 for HbA1c, SBP and LDL). Participants at goal for all diabetic core measures increased pre- to post-DCMP from 13% to 20% (P = 0.28). Patients perceived the diabetic care management plan favorably and their diabetic core measurements improved over time. This simple and reproducible self-management intervention can enhance self-management in a patient population with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  15. A cohort study of diabetic patients and diabetic foot ulceration patients in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Xuemei; Xia, Lei; Fu, Xiaobing; Xu, Zhangrong; Ran, Xingwu; Yan, Li; Li, Qiu; Mo, Zhaohui; Yan, Zhaoli; Ji, Qiuhe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the annual incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for foot ulceration in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in China. To investigate a cohort of 1,333 patients comprising 452 DFU patients and 881 DM patients, who underwent foot screening, physical examination, and laboratory tests in eight hospitals. The patients were assessed at baseline in terms of their demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy disease (PND) screening, periphery artery disease (PAD) screening, assessment of nutritional status, and diabetic control. One year later, the patients were followed up to determine the incidence of new foot ulcers, amputation, and mortality. By univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in age, location, gender, living alone (yes/no), occupation, smoking, hypertension, PND, PAD, nephropathy, retinopathy, cataracts, duration of diabetes, Glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial blood glucose level, insulin level, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyeride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum albumin, white blood cell, and body mass index. A binary logistic regression model was used to examine which of these risk factors were independent risk factors for foot ulceration. A total of 687 (51.5%) of the 1,333 patients were followed up for an average of 12 months; there were 458 DM patients and 229 DFU patients. A total of 46 patients died during the follow-up period; 13 were DM patients, and 33 were DFU patients. Of the 641 patients, 445 (69.4%) patients were DM patients, and 196 (30.6%) were DFU patients. At follow-up, 36/445 DM patients (8.1%), and 62/196 DFU patients (31.6%), developed new ulcers; 10/196 DFU patients underwent an amputation. The annual incidence of ulceration for DM patients and amputation for DFU patients were 8.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The annual mortality of

  16. Sociodemographic factors responsible for blindness in diabetic Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Abueleinen, Khaled Gamal Ibraheem; El-Mekawey, Hany; Saif, Yasser Sayed; Khafagy, Amr; Rizk, Hoda Ibrahim; Eltahlawy, Eman M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy. Methods Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors. Results A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%). A total of 158 (39.8%) patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2%) were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1%) had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education. PMID:22125407

  17. Improving Diabetes Management With a Patient Portal: Qualitative Study of a Diabetes Self-Management Portal

    PubMed Central

    Dupak, Kourtney; Kuehner, Zachary; Leonard, Kevin; Lovrics, Emily; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective management and care of diabetes is crucial to reducing associated risks such as heart disease and kidney failure. With increasing access and use of the Internet, online chronic disease management is being explored as a means of providing patients with support and the necessary tools to monitor and manage their disease. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the experience of patients and providers using an online diabetes management portal for patients. Methods Participants were recruited from a large sample population of 887 for a follow-up questionnaire to be completed after 6 months of using the patient portal. Participants were presented with the option to participate in an additional interview and, if the participant agreed, a time and date was scheduled for the interview. A 5-item, open-ended questionnaire was used to capture providers' opinions of the patient portal. Providers included general practitioners (GPs), nurses, nurse practitioners (NPs), dieticians, diabetes educators (DECs), and other clinical staff. Results A total of 854 patients were consented for the questionnaire. Seventeen (8 male, 9 female) patients agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Sixty-four health care providers completed the five open-ended questions; however, an average of 48.2 responses were recorded per question. Four major themes were identified and will be discussed in this paper. These themes have been classified as: facilitators of disease management, barriers to portal use, patient-provider communication and relationship, and recommendations for portal improvements. Conclusions This qualitative study shows that online chronic disease management portals increase patient access to information and engagement in their health care, but improvements in the portal itself may improve usability and reduce attrition. Furthermore, this study identifies a grey area that exists in the roles that GPs and AHPs should play in the facilitation of

  18. Hyperglycemia induces attention and gait deficits in diabetic mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sattar, L; Renneboog, B; Decaux, G

    2017-08-23

    Patients with diabetes mellitus experience a large number of falls and bone fractures that are not related solely to complications of the disease. The purpose of our study was to determine whether transient hyperglycemia affects attentional functions and gait. This was a case-control study. We asked 17 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus to perform three visual tests and one visual and auditory attention test (Phasic Alert A1-4 and A2-3, Go/No Go, Intermodal Comparison). Mean response time (ms) and total number of errors were assessed. Ten of the patients also performed a tandem gait test consisting of three steps. The total distance travelled (TDT, in mm) by the center of pressure was measured with a pressure-sensitive calibrated platform. Transient hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level greater than 13, 8 mmol/L at the time of the test. These same patients were retested 1-3 days later at a blood glucose level at least 5, 5 mmol/L lower than the initial values (T24-72h). Nineteen patients with diabetes mellitus were matched with the original participants and performed the same test under normoglycemic conditions. During transient hyperglycemia, the mean response time (ms) and the TDT were significantly longer. The mean response time for the four tests increased by 53, 5 ms (P < 0.001). There was no increase in the number of errors. The TDT of the center of pressure increased significantly by 102 mm (P < 0.001). Transient hyperglycemia alters attention and gait in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  19. Pharmacological treatment of the obese diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J

    1993-01-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for non-insulin-dependent (or Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Consequently, reduction of weight excess comes to the front line in the prevention and management of NIDDM. It is only when diet and physical exercise fail that drug treatment should be considered. Pharmacological treatment of obesity should favour drugs which not only promote weight loss, by reducing caloric intake and/or increasing thermogenesis and energy expenditure, but also, and especially, improve insulin sensitivity. Serotoninergic anorectic compounds (dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine) appear to possess, to some extent, all these properties. Metformin significantly reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control without inducing weight gain, and even favouring some weight loss. This biguanide is now considered as the first line drug for the obese diabetic patient. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors may help to reduce post-prandial glucose excursions but do not promote weight loss per se. Sulfonylureas can be prescribed to an obese patient when hyperglycaemia persists despite diet and the above-mentioned oral agents, but their use should be associated with reinforcement of dietary advices in order to prevent further weight increase; it is also the case for insulin therapy. Finally, drugs specifically stimulating thermogenesis and energy expenditure, new agents sensitizing tissues to the action of insulin and various compounds interfering with lipid metabolism are currently under extensive investigation with promising preliminary results in the obese diabetic patient. In conclusion, obesity remains a major problem in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and this justifies the search for new, safe and effective, pharmacological approaches.

  20. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009–December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  1. Anesthetic considerations in diabetic patients. Part II: intraoperative and postoperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji

    2010-10-01

    Some studies have reported that tight glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing major surgery improves perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, however, large randomized studies have shown such control increases the mortality rate, since aggressive glycemic control induces more frequent incidences of hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients have cerebral complications during the perioperative period more often than their nondiabetic counterparts. Further, anesthetic agents have some effects on cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity. Hence, anesthesiologists should have adequate knowledge about anesthetic agents that maintain the integrity of the cerebral circulation. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased susceptibility to perioperative infections. Recent work confirmed that a combination of intravenous and subcutaneous insulin as a glucose management strategy had beneficial effects identical with intravenous insulin therapy alone on the reduction of infection rates during the postoperative period.

  2. Zinc Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Relation to the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Dhia M; Hussen, Kajeen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Zinc deficiency often occurs in patients with diabetes. Therefore, the relationship between zinc status and progression of nephropathy in diabetes has been explored. Materials and Methods: Total 300 diabetic patients and 100 non-diabetic healthy subjects (age matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into five groups as I: non-diabetic normotensive control; II: diabetic normotensive; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic normotensive with microalbuminuria; V: diabetic hypertensive with microalbuminuria. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum zinc, serum creatinine, and estimated-glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). Urine zinc, creatinine and microalbuminuria concentrations were determined. Results: The serum zinc levels were low (p<0.01) in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic control subjects. The lower levels (p<0.001) of serum zinc were observed in Group IV and V as compared to group I-III. Significantly low levels of e-GFR (p<0.05) and high levels of microalbuminuria (p<0.001) were observed in diabetic patients with low serum zinc level as compared to normal serum zinc level. Serum zinc level in diabetic patients was inversely correlated with serum creatinine(r=-0.331, p<0.001), microalbuminuria (r=-0.587, p<0.001) and positively with e-GFR (r=0.194, p<0.01). Conclusion: It is evident from this study that advancing diabetic nephropathy represented by decreasing GFR and increasing microalbuminuria is associated with lower serum zinc levels. It thus indicates the need for determining serum zinc levels and the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in diabetic patients, particularly during the assessment of kidney damage. PMID:25584209

  3. Effect of the diabetes outpatient intensive management programme on glycaemic control for type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Sun; Kim, Hee-Seung

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the diabetes outpatient intensive management programme (DOIMP) on glycaemic control over a 12 week follow-up period for type 2 diabetic patients in Korea. Diabetic complications can be prevented if the glycaemic status of diabetes patients is maintained within a nearly normal range. Patient education is critical in controlling blood glucose levels of patients with diabetes within the optimal range. DOIMP was composed of multidisciplinary education, complication monitoring and telephone counselling. Twenty-five patients in the intervention group participated in the DOIMP and 24 patients in the control group were briefed on the conventional description of diabetes mellitus by diabetes education nurses. Patients in the intervention group had a mean decrease of 2.3%, which those in the control group having a mean decrease 0.4% in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1)c). There was no difference between the two groups in the change in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and two-hour postprandial blood glucose (2-h PBG). The proportion of the patients with HbA(1)c <7% was higher in the intervention group than in the control group at the post-test compare with the pretest. DOIMP can reduce HbA(1)c in type 2 diabetes patients. These findings indicated that DOIMP could be effective in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.

  4. Implementing Community-Based Diabetes Programs: The Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes affects a large and growing segment of the US population. Ethnic and racial minorities are at disproportionate risk for diabetes, with Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks showing a near doubling of risk relative to non-Hispanic whites. There is an urgent need to identify low cost, effective, and easily implementable primary and secondary prevention approaches, as well as tertiary strategies that delay disease progression, complications, and associated deterioration in function in patients with diabetes. The Chronic Care Model provides a well-accepted framework for improving diabetes and chronic disease care in the community and primary care medical home. A number of community-based diabetes programs have incorporated this model into their infrastructure. Diabetes programs must offer accessible information and support throughout the community and must be delivered in a format that is understood, regardless of literacy and socioeconomic status. This article will discuss several successful, culturally competent community-based programs and the key elements needed to implement the programs at a community or health system level. Health systems together with local communities can integrate the elements of community-based programs that are effective across the continuum of the care to enhance patient-centered outcomes, enable patient acceptability and ultimately lead to improved patient engagement and satisfaction. PMID:24390404

  5. A novel case of diabetic muscle necrosis in a patient with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Sreelatha; Bettadahalli, Shankar S; Bhupathi, Satya V; Aswani, Vijay H

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a common comorbidity of cystic fibrosis. Diabetic myonecrosis is a rare self-limited complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus that commonly presents with acute, intense pain and swelling of lower extremities and responds well to conservative management. We report the first case of diabetic myonecrosis in a patient with CFRD.

  6. A clinical analysis of diabetic patients with hand ulcer in a diabetic foot centre

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Lv, L; Wen, X; Chen, D; Cen, S; Huang, H; Li, X; Ran, X

    2010-01-01

    Aims The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hand ulcer in hospitalized patients with diabetes. Methods We analysed 17 subjects with hand ulcer among diabetic inpatients, who were admitted to the Diabetic Foot Care Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from April 2003 to December 2008. Results The prevalence of diabetic hand ulcer among hospitalized patients (0.37%) was significantly lower than that of diabetic foot ulcers (9.7%, P= 0.000). The mean age was 62.1 ± 9.4 years. The average known durations of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were 5.3 ± 4.9 years and 10.9 ± 2.4%, respectively. All patients lived in the subtropical zone. Fifteen patients (88.2%) were diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ten patients had hand infection. After therapy, the ulcers healed in 13 patients (76.5%) and none of them experienced amputation. The average hospital stay for patients with local infection was characteristically longer than that for patients without infection (P= 0.012). The prognosis of the hand ulcer was poorer in the patients who had diabetes for > 3 years compared with those who had diabetes for < 3 years (P= 0.009). Conclusions Diabetic hand ulcer is a relatively rare complication of diabetes in South-West China. Long duration of diabetes, poorly controlled blood glucose, minor trauma and delayed treatment are the risk factors. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hand ulcer. Early control of blood glucose with insulin and early anti-microbial therapy with appropriate antibiotics are crucial. Debridement and drainage are necessary for hand abscesses. PMID:20636968

  7. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Also, more diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  8. Patient perspectives of an individualized diabetes care management plan

    PubMed Central

    Saucier, Ashley N.; Ansa, Benjamin; Coffin, Janis; Akhtar, Mariam; Miller, Andre; Mahoney, Holly; Hodo, Denise M.; Duffie, Carla; Fontenot, Brittney; Andrews, Holly E.; Smith, Selina A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This cross sectional study examines patients’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about a diabetic care management plan (DCMP) that was developed to provide patient education on diabetes guidelines and display individual diabetic core measures. Secondary objectives included a comparison of diabetic core measures [hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and urine microalbumin (Um)] before and after DCMP implementation. We hypothesize this tool will contribute to patients’ awareness of current disease status, diabetes knowledge and diabetic core value improvement over time. Methods A consecutive sample of 102 adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a primary care setting participated. Patients’ perspectives on the care plan and knowledge about diabetes was collected via survey after care plan implementation. A comparison of selected diabetic core measures was conducted at baseline and post-DCMP. Descriptive statistics summarized survey response and diabetic core measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess change in diabetic core measures over time. Results Participants understood the DCMP (96%), found it important because it explained their laboratory results and medications (89%) and believed it would help them to have better diabetic control (99%). There was a significant interaction between time and being at goal pre-DCMP for HbA1c, SBP and LDL. Patients not at goal pre-DCMP for the above measures decreased significantly over time (P = <0.01 for HbA1c, SBP and LDL). Participants at goal for all diabetic core measures increased pre- to post-DCMP from 13% to 20% (P = 0.28). Conclusion Patients perceived the diabetic care management plan favorably and their diabetic core measurements improved over time. This simple and reproducible self-management intervention can enhance self-management in a patient population with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:28835847

  9. [Eating behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, I E; Tarlovskaia, E I; Vedenskaia, T P

    2012-01-01

    To study the specific features of eating behavior (EB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). One hundred and seventy-eight patients, including 128 with type 2 DM and 50 with type 1 DM, were examined. Questionnaire survey, general clinical, and laboratory studies were conducted. The patient groups did not differ in educational level and gender. In the patients with type 1 DM, the duration of the disease was longer and the incidence of complications was higher than in those with type 2 DM. Carbohydrate metabolism was decompensated in the majority of the patients with types 1 and 2 DM. A higher normative score if only by one of the disordered EB (DEB) scales (according to the DEBQ), was found in 68 and 78.9% with type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively. The patients with type 2 DM were more frequently ascertained to have restrictive EB. The patients with type 2 DM and restrictive EB were more aware of the disease, more often checked blood glucose levels themselves, and were better compensated. The proportion of patients with external and emotiogenic EB did not differ between the groups, the latter type was registered less frequently. Disordered EBs were detected in many patients with DM. The found features of EB may be taken into account while teaching the patients.

  10. A qualitative follow-up study of diabetes patients' appraisal of an integrated diabetes service in primary care.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Letitia H; Foster, Michele M; Donald, Maria; Zhang, Jianzhen; Russell, Anthony W; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-10-26

    As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to escalate, health system reform is seeking better patient outcomes through new models of care that aim to provide the most appropriate care when needed. Patients' experiences of service innovations can shed light on the successes and challenges of implementing change. This paper explores patients' views of a new model of integrated care for patients with type 2 diabetes. A mixed-methods, randomised control trial evaluated a beacon clinic model of care for complex type 2 diabetes led by specialist general practitioners (GPs) in primary care settings in Brisbane, Australia. In this qualitative sub-study conducted between May 2014 and January 2015, 25 consenting participants were re-interviewed after 12 months using semi-structured questions, to explore their experiences of the new model of care. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. In the first theme, Organised for patient-centred care, patients appraised the structural elements of the clinic. For most, it was an enabling experience which included convenience, flexibility and prompt communication back to the referring GPs. The preferences of a minority were partly realised, as they tried to understand the clinical purpose in comparison with traditional care. The second theme, Positioned as partners in care, revealed the pivotal role of patient-clinician relationships in patients' engagement with advice and self-care. Most found clinicians' collaborative approach engaging and motivating. A small minority with contextual concerns were disappointed with the focus on diabetes and struggled to engage fully with the model. Most participants valued this model of care, which reflects a capacity to manage the variable and complex needs of most patients referred for care. However, multi-level strategies are also needed to enhance patients' engagement with care and the sustainability of integrated diabetes care.

  11. Dental students' glucometer experience and attitudes toward diabetes counseling, monitoring, and screening: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare glucometer experience and attitudes toward counseling, monitoring, and screening for diabetes between two classes of graduating students at one dental school to determine if there were differences by experience and year of graduation. Dental students graduating in 2010 and 2013 completed a survey about their experience with use of a glucometer as well as their attitudes toward and perceived barriers to performing glucose monitoring, screening, and counseling. Response rates for the two classes were 100 percent and 95.7 percent, respectively. Students in the two classes were in general agreement that activities related to glucose monitoring and counseling of patients with diabetes are within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. Examination of their attitudes toward diabetes monitoring and counseling activities by level of glucometer experience indicated that students with more experience using a glucometer were more likely to consider these activities to be within the scope of dental practice and less likely to perceive barriers to such activities compared to those with little or no experience. In addition, regardless of experience, there was significantly higher endorsement for monitoring of patients who had already been diagnosed than for screening of patients who had not been diagnosed. This study suggests that any strategy to encourage dental students' and dentists' involvement in nontraditional health promotion activities should include ample direct clinical experience with these activities.

  12. [Quality of life in patients with diabetes using the Diabetes 39 (D-39) instrument].

    PubMed

    Zulian, Luana Rosas; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Veras, Vívian Saraiva; Rodrigues, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti; Arrelias, Clarissa Cordeiro Alves; Zanetti, Maria Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the specific quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted from August 2-28, 2012 in two basic health units, in the interior of São Paulo. A convenience sample, made up of 75 patients, 18 years old or older, both sexes, in a group of self-monitoring of blood glucose, was used. The Diabetes 39 (D-39) Instrument Evaluation, containing five dimensions: energy and mobility (15 items), diabetes control (12), anxiety and worry (4) social overload (5) and sexual behavior (3), was used. Quality of life proved to be highly affected in the items related to the social overload dimension, embarrassment for having diabetes, being called diabetic and diabetes interfering with family life. The elucidation of the assessed factors contributes to the planning of educational programs, insofar as they may hinder the achievement of metabolic control in patients with diabetes.

  13. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of Carpal Tunnel Release in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Kagan; Malay, Sunitha; Toker, Serdar; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for patient-reported outcomes questionnaires is essential in outcomes research to evaluate patients’ perspective of treatment effectiveness. We aim to determine (MCID) after carpal tunnel release in diabetic and non-diabetic patients using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Methods We prospectively evaluated 114 patients (87 non-diabetic, 27 diabetic) undergoing carpal tunnel release. In addition to standard history and physical examination, we obtained preoperative electrodiagnostic studies to confirm Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The BCTQ was administered before and after the surgery at 3 and 6 months. Patients were asked about their level of satisfaction at the final follow-up period. We applied the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach to determine the MCID of symptom and function severity scales of the questionnaire. We used patient satisfaction as the reference standard to compare against the standardized change in scores after surgery for the 2 groups. Results For both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, symptom and function severity scales showed large effect size of >0.8 at 3 and 6 months after the surgery. At 6 months after surgery to be satisfied, diabetic patients required an MCID of 1.55 and 2.05 points for symptom and function scales, whereas non-diabetic patients required 1.45 and 1.6 points, respectively. Conclusion Diabetic patients needed a greater improvement in BCTQ score to be satisfied on functional and symptom severity scales than non-diabetic patients. Overall diabetic patients had less improvement in BCTQ final scores compared to non-diabetics. PMID:23416439

  14. Psychological Adjustment and Neuropsychological Performance in Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skenazy, Judy A.; Bigler, Erin D.

    1985-01-01

    Compared diabetic (N=39) with nondiabetic chronic illness patients (N=20) and healthy controls (N=24). The chronic illness and the diabetic groups had significant elevations on the Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria scales of the Feschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI. For diabetics, results demonstrated a negligible effect of poor adjustment on…

  15. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Janus, Dominika Malgorzata; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Zygmunt-Górska, Agata; Wyrobek, Lukasz; Urbanik, Andrzej; Starzyk, Jerzy Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    To present symptoms, complications and proposition of management protocol in children diagnosed with adipsic diabetes insipidus (aDI). Clinical and biochemical analysis of six pediatric patients diagnosed with aDI, four boys aged 5, 13, 16, and 17 y and two girls aged 2.5 and 10 y. The etiology of aDI was germinoma (n = 2), extensive surgery due to optic glioma (n = 1) and astrocytoma (n = 1), congenital brain malformations (n = 1) and complications secondary to bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Two patients had severely impaired vision and two had hemiparesis. In all the patients, loss of thirst reflex was observed. The serum electrolytes in all patients showed sodium concentration from 159 to 176.6 mmol/L with plasma osmolality from above 297 mOsmol/kg. Polyuria was absent in three most severely dehydrated patients on admission. In two patients in whom DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin; Desmopressin) therapy was withdrawn based on lack of polyuria deep venous thrombosis developed. Lack of polydipsia and polyuria, the key symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI), may delay the diagnosis of aDI and may lead to severe complications of chronic hyperosmolar status. The fluid intake in patients diagnosed with aDI need to be supervised daily based on calculated constant volume of oral fluids, daily measurements of fluid balance, body weight and sodium levels, especially in patients whose vision is compromised or who are physically unable to take care of themselves.

  16. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Martín; Hannon, Mark J; Thompson, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI. A literature search was performed to review the background, etiology, management and associated complications of this rare condition. ADI has been reported to occur in association with clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm following subarachnoid haemorrhage, major hypothalamic surgery, traumatic brain injury and toluene exposure among other conditions. Management is very difficult and patients are prone to marked changes in plasma sodium concentration, in particular to the development of severe hypernatraemia. Associated hypothalamic disorders, such as severe obesity, sleep apnoea and thermoregulatory disorders are often observed in patients with ADI. The management of ADI is challenging and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is variable; hypothalamic complications lead to early death in some patients, but recent reports highlight the possibility of recovery of thirst.

  17. The impact of diabetic retinopathy: perspectives from patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Karin S; Margolis, Mary Kay; Kennedy-Martin, Tessa; Baker, Timothy M; Klein, Ronald; Paul, Matthew D; Revicki, Dennis A

    2004-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects 50-85% of people with diabetes and may result in visual impairment or blindness. This exploratory qualitative research was conducted to evaluate the symptom experience of DR, its impact on daily activities and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and the applicability of two vision-specific questionnaires. Four focus groups (n = 15) were conducted with people with DR to explore their symptom experience and the impact on functioning and HRQL. Adults with type I or II diabetes and mild, moderate or severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) or proliferative DR (PDR) were recruited. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Participants described a range of symptoms and impact. Difficulty driving, especially at night, and trouble reading were noted with all levels of severity. Participants with PDR and decreased visual acuity have foregone many other important life aspects such as work, reading and sports. For the severely affected, diabetic care activities (e.g. exercising, reading nutritional labels, preparing insulin injections and glucose testing) were difficult to accomplish. Loss of independence, especially mobility and increased fear of accidents, had a profound impact on social activities. For those patients who had not experienced other complications of diabetes, the threat of vision loss was the most devastating. The loss of independence and mobility associated with decreased visual functioning and visual loss were major concerns. Moderate, severe NPDR and PDR associated with visual impairment have a significant impact on HRQL, particularly in the areas of independence, mobility, leisure and self-care activities.

  18. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Young Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjia; Cai, Xiaoling; Han, Xueyao; Ji, Linong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in the young population. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis are not fully explicated. The aim of the present study was to investigate various clinical and biochemical characteristics of young type 2 diabetic patients with atherosclerosis. Design and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. The study involved 2199 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. The young patients were classified into the atherosclerotic group or the non-atherosclerotic group, and we also enrolled an older group with peripheral atherosclerosis disease and an age of at least 45 years. Comparisons were made between the different groups to investigate the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles of young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis. We also used logistic regression models to assess the atherosclerosis risk factors for young patients. Results Compared to older type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis, young patients with atherosclerosis had more deleterious profiles of weight and hyperlipidemia. Only age and diabetes duration were found to be significant independent risk factors for atherosclerosis in young patients. The ratio of the presence of atherosclerosis in the lower extremity arteries alone was significantly higher in young patients than older patients (26.4% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.000). Conclusion Young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis have more adverse cardiovascular risk profiles and inadequate control of these risk factors. Lower extremity examination is of high importance in young patients. PMID:27391819

  20. Diabetes Remission after Nonsurgical Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mottalib, Adham; Sakr, Mahmoud; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Partial or complete remission from type 2 diabetes was recently observed after bariatric surgeries. Limited data is available about the possibility of inducing diabetes remission through intensive weight reduction. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes remissions after one year of the Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment (Why WAIT) program, a 12-week intensive program for diabetes weight management in real-world clinical practice. Among 120 obese patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the program, 88 patients returned for follow-up at one year. Nineteen patients (21.6%) had major improvement in their glycemic control, defined as achieving an A1C <6.5% after one year. Four patients (4.5%) achieved either partial or complete diabetes remission defined as A1C <6.5% and <5.7%, respectively, on no antihyperglycemic medications for one year; 2 achieved partial remission (2.3%) and 2 achieved complete remission (2.3%). At the time of intervention, patients who achieved diabetes remission had shorter diabetes duration (<5 years) and lower A1C (<8%) and were treated with fewer than 2 oral medications. They achieved a weight reduction of >7% after 12 weeks. These results indicate that a subset of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is appropriate for intensive lifestyle intervention with the aim of inducing diabetes remission. PMID:26114120

  1. [Malnutrition incidence in surgical diabetic and non diabetic patients in general surgery department].

    PubMed

    Solóirzano-Pineda, O M; Rivera-López, F A; Rubio-Martínez, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hyponutrition among hospitalized patients varies between 30 to 50%, increasing both the morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of hyponutrition in diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the General Surgery Department. Prospective, observation, and longitudinal study assessing the nutritional status by means of VGS, CONUT, and MNA. 384 patients: 97 surgical diabetic patients, incidence of hyponutrition assessed by VGS 28.8%, by MNA among patients older than 65 years 54.28%. Two hundred and eighty seven non-diabetic surgical patients were assessed with an incidence of hyponutrition of 12.9%, and of 52.94% by MNA. The incidence of hyponutrition in surgical diabetic patients is twofold higher than in non-diabetic patients. Elder diabetic and non-diabetic surgical patients show the same incidence of hyponutrition. Given the high incidence of hyponutrition in surgical patients admitted to the General Surgery Department, the nutritional status should be assessed by means of a protocolled method, at admission by VSG or MNA if they are older than 65 years, and admitted patients should be followed by using CONUT.

  2. Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, G; Debska-Slizien, A; Zazgornik, J

    1999-03-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation.

  3. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shin; Todo, Yasuhiko; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Miyake, Teruki; Ueda, Teruhisa; Niiya, Tetsuji; Senba, Takatoshi; Torisu, Masamoto; Kumagi, Teru; Miyauchi, Syozo; Sakai, Takenori; Minami, Hisaka; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is unknown whether common complications of type 2 diabetes, such as diabetic nephropathy, are also present with SCH. Here, we investigated the association between SCH and diabetic nephropathy among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited 414 such patients who had no previous history of thyroid disease. Serum thyroid hormone levels and the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio were measured. SCH was defined as an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (>4.0 mIU/L), and diabetic nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g. The prevalence of SCH was 8.7% (n = 36) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SCH group had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (p = 0.008) and diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.014) than the euthyroid group. Multivariate analysis identified significant positive associations between diabetic nephropathy and SCH (odds ratio [OR], 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-10.0; p = 0.034), hypertension (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.69-14.7; p = 0.001), and smoking (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.14-7.91; p = 0.026). SCH may be independently associated with diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Pancreas transplantation using type I and type II spontaneously diabetic rats--our experimental experience.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshinori; Shimada, Kazunori; Gang, Miao; Uchikoshi, Fumihiro; Tori, Masayuki; Komoda, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Yuichi; Ohmori, Ken; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tanemura, Masahiro; Nozawa, Masumi

    2007-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation (PTx) is the only therapy that can cure type 1 diabetes mellitus. With the recent advance of surgical procedures and immunosuppression, the outcome of PTx has become better than it used to be before, but some problems still remain. It is rather difficult to induce tolerance and to reverse rejection once it occurred because pancreas graft itself has a strong immunogenicity. Another important issue is regarding the recurrence of autoimmune disease in the pancreatic graft, therefore, some animal models are necessary to delineate and regulate those immune responses specific for PTx. Recently, PTx is also clinically applicable for type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. It has been shown that insulin resistance was improved by PTx in type 2 diabetic recipients. In the current study, we have introduced some useful type 1 and type 2 diabetic models mainly based on our experimental experiences.

  5. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  6. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  7. Urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fünfstück, Reinhard; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Hanefeld, Markolf; Naber, Kurt G

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection occurs with increased frequency and severity in patients with diabetes mellitus. General host factors enhancing risk for urinary tract infection in diabetics include age, metabolic control, and long term complications, primarily diabetic nephropathy and cystopathy. Alterations in the innate immune system have been described and may also contribute. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetic patients is not indicated. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention is recommended to limit morbidity of symptomatic infection. Clinical studies comparing management of urinary tract infection in persons with diabetes compared to those without as well as diabetic patients with good or poor glucose control will be necessary to improve care of urinary infection in persons with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Exploring the value of clinical pharmacy services for patients with diabetes in safety net settings.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Yardlee; Jonkman, Lauren; Lupu, Ana; Connor, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The role of the pharmacist in safety net settings has not been well studied, specifically in meeting unmet needs of vulnerable patients with diabetes. To identify unmet management and medication-related needs of patients with diabetes who are receiving care in two distinct underserved practices in Pittsburgh, PA. Individual, semi-structured interviews with patients from a free clinic (FC) and a federally qualified community health center (FQHC) in Pittsburgh were conducted. Inclusion criteria included: adults at least 18 years old with uncontrolled diabetes (A1C > 7%) who received health care services from either the FC or the FQHC. Participants completed a short demographic survey and answered questions about their perceptions and attitudes in four thematic areas: (1) self-management of diabetes; (2) medication-related needs; (3) the role of the pharmacist in their care; and (4) how pharmacists can be better integrated in their diabetes management. Transcripts were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants were from the FC, and 14 were from the FQHC. Five main themes emerged from each site including: patients experience challenges managing their diabetes, patients identify the emotional struggle associated with living with diabetes, patients feel that they are "on their own" to care for their diabetes, patients desire a personal and caring relationship with their pharmacist, and patients value a pharmacist who is knowledgeable about diabetes care. These results will help provide guidance to pharmacists working in safety net settings who are interested in expanding clinical pharmacy services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Traumatic injuries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients sustained traumatic injuries. Identification of risk factors of traumatic injuries that lead to hospital admissions and death in DM patients is crucial to set effective preventive strategies. We aimed to conduct a traditional narrative literature review to describe the role of hypoglycemia as a risk factor of driving and fall-related traumatic injuries. DM poses significant burden as a risk factor and predictor of worse outcomes in traumatic injuries. Although there is no consensus on the impact and clear hazards of hyperglycemia in comparison to the hypoglycemia, both extremes of DM need to be carefully addressed and taken into consideration for proper management. Moreover, physicians, patients, and concerned authorities should be aware of all these potential hazards to share and establish the right management plans. PMID:27162438

  10. [Preoperative assessment of patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The perioperative morbidity of diabetic patients is related to preoperative end-organ damage. Due to the microvascular pathology, autonomic neuropathy is common and cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypertension, painless myocardial ischemia, and orthostatic hypotension may predispose patients to perioperative cardiovascular instability. Autonomic dysfunction also contributes to delayed gastric emptying, and preoperative administration of a histamine antagonist and a gastric emptying agent is needed. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to glycosylation of tissue proteins and the accumulation of abnormal collagen can cause stiff joint syndrome resulting in difficult tracheal intubation. The primary goal of pre and intraoperative blood glucose control is to avoid hypoglycemia and ketosis. Moreover, the tight glycemic control has been reported to improve survival in critically ill patients who were treated in the intensive care unit.

  11. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17–2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  12. Healer shopping in Africa: new evidence from rural-urban qualitative study of Ghanaian diabetes experiences

    PubMed Central

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide counterevidence to existing literature on healer shopping in Africa through a systematic analysis of illness practices by Ghanaians with diabetes; to outline approaches towards improving patient centred health care and policy development regarding diabetes in Ghana. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with individual interviews, group interviews, and ethnographies. Settings Two urban towns (Accra, Tema) and two rural towns (Nkoranza and Kintampo) in Ghana. Participants 26 urban people and 41 rural people with diabetes with diverse profiles (sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, diabetes status). Results Six focus groups, 20 interviews, and three ethnographical studies were conducted to explore experiences and illness practices. Analysis identified four kinds of illness practice: biomedical management, spiritual action, cure seeking (passive and active), and medical inaction. Most participants privileged biomedicine over other health systems and emphasised biomedical management as ideal self care practice. However, the psychosocial impact of diabetes and the high cost of biomedical care drove cure seeking and medical inaction. Cure seeking constituted healer shopping between biomedicine, ethnomedicine, and faith healing; medical inaction constituted passive disengagement from medical management and active engagement with faith healing. Crucially, although spiritual causal theories of diabetes existed, they were secondary to dietary, lifestyle, and physiological theories and did not constitute the primary motivation for cure seeking. Cure seeking within unregulated ethnomedical systems and non-pharmacological faith healing systems exacerbated the complications of diabetes. Conclusions To minimise inappropriate healer shopping and maximise committed biomedical and regulated ethnomedical management for Ghanaians with diabetes, the greatest challenges lie in providing affordable pharmaceutical drugs, standardised ethnomedical drugs

  13. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J.; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A.; Berman, Daniel S.; Druz, Regina S.; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H.; Weigold, Wm. Guy; Soman, Prem

    2017-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a “coronary risk equivalent,” implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937

  14. Candida Colonization on the Denture of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kamran, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Abbas Ali; Falah-Tafti, Abbas; Tavakoli, Ehsan; Falahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Presence of denture in the oral cavity of diabetic patients can promote Candida colonization and results in the higher incidence of oral and systemic candidiasis. The general purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare Candida colonization in denture of diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group. Methods: In current case-control study, samples for mycological examinations were collected from the palatal impression surface of maxillary dentures from 92 edentulous patients including 46 dia-betic and 46 non-diabetic denture wearers. All samples were cultured directly on sabouraud agar me-dium and isolated colonies were counted and identified based on specific tests. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The higher density of isolated colonies was seen in diabetic group in compare with control group (P = 0.0001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the blood glucose level (P = 0.0001) and the duration of denture usage (P = 0.022) with the colonization of Candida on denture of diabetic patients. C. albicans was the most common isolated Candida species in both groups, though diabetic patients with dentures had more non-albicans Candida isolated from their dentures compared to non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: Mycological findings from the present study revealed that diabetes mellitus can in-crease colonization of Candida in denture and mouth. By elimination of local and systemic factors in diabetic patients and improving their oral health care, Candida colonization and the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis will be decreased. PMID:21528026

  15. Postgraduate education needs of Nurses’ who are caregivers for patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Uğur, Esra; Demir, Hulya; Akbal, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic management process requires nurses with expert knowledge and patient care skills. This study was carried out to identify nurses’ diabetic care approaches and their post graduate education needs in order to develop a “Basic Diabetes Patient Care Education Program” in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods: The descriptive study, using the survey technique, was carried out in a university hospital with 87 bedside nurses who were caring for diabetic patients. Investigators developed data collection tool consisting of closed ended questions and opportunities for open-ended responses. Results: Among the 87 nurses, 88.5% were staff nurses, and 11.5% were nurse managers. The mean age was 27.41 ± 4.82 and years of professional experience was 6.86 ± 4.23. The 41.4% of nurses stated that they were caring for 1-2 patients with diabetes per week and 72.4% of nurses stated that they had attended an educational session about diabetes after graduation. The 95.4% of nurses reported a need for a continuous education program for diabetes patient care. Medication regimen (69.0%) and special care applications such as wound care (54.0%) were the most needed educational requirements. There were no difference in educational needs based on basic education or years of professional experience (p>0.05). Conclusions: Nurses caring for patients with diabetes should be supported by orientation, in-service education and continuing education programs. Additionally, the placement of patient care courses for chronic diseases, like diabetes, into the core curriculum of nursing schools would be useful in responding to actual patient care and family needs. PMID:26150859

  16. Diabetes knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study among Iranian in-patients with type-2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Mahtab; Ghasemi, Seyedeh Najmeh; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Kazempour-Ardebili, Sara; Amiri, Parisa; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies highlight barriers of diabetes educational programs in Iran and also present some successful experiences carried out for improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of type-2 diabetic patients. Hence, evaluation of patients' KAP seems to be needed. We designed a multicenter study evaluating level of KAP in type-2 diabetic patients in the capital city of Tehran and identifying variables that affect this KAP level. This multicenter analytical cross-sectional study was approved by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee. Questionnaires were designed for evaluation of diabetes-related KAP in patients. After validating the questionnaires by endocrinologists, test-retest method was used for questionnaire reliability by checking in 15 diabetic patients. Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients admitted to 4 hospitals of Tehran filled out the questionnaires. Using SPSS software, the level of KAP and its confounders were evaluated in patients. Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients with the mean age of 60.17 years were evaluated (106 male and 94 female). The mean diabetes duration was 13.06 years. The levels of patients' good knowledge, attitude, and practice were 61.41%, 50.44% and 52.23%, respectively. Age, treatment methods, DM duration, and existence of diabetic retinopathy had significant correlations with KAP level. The results of this study showed that recent educational programs in Iran improved KAP level. Patients' KAP increases as their condition worsens/progresses. Hence education should be considered as a priority for newly diagnosed patients and those with lower KAP levels before occurrence of diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with diabetes: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Ma, Seung Hyun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Boyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify factors associated with screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Of 24,871 participants, 1,288 patients diagnosed with diabetes at ≥30 years of age were included. 36.3% received screening for diabetic retinopathy, and 40.5% received screening for diabetic nephropathy during the previous year. Patients living in rural areas, those with less education, those who had not received education about diabetes care, and those who did not receive medical care for diabetes were screened less often for retinopathy or nephropathy. Patients with poorer self-reported health status were screened more often. Occupation, smoking status, and diabetes duration were associated with retinopathy screening. Lower family income was associated with decreased nephropathy screening. Receiving education about diabetes care and receiving medical care for diabetes were significant factors in patients with a shorter duration of diabetes (the significant odds ratio [OR] of not receiving education varied between 0.27 and 0.51, and that of not receiving medical care varied between 0.34 and 0.42). Sociodemographic factors and health-related factors as well as education and medical care influenced screening for diabetic complications among those with a longer duration of diabetes (for retinopathy and nephropathy, the significant OR of living in a rural area varied between 0.56 and 0.61; for retinopathy, the significant OR of current smokers was 0.55, and the p-trend of subjective health status was <0.001; for nephropathy, the significant OR of a monthly household income of <3000 dollars was 0.61 and the p-trends of education and subjective health status were 0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Efforts to decrease sociodemographic disparities should be combined with education about diabetes care to increase the screening, especially for those with a

  18. High levels of anxiety and depression in diabetic patients with Charcot foot

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims Charcot foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes. Little research is available on the mental health impact of Charcot foot. Aim of the study is to assess mental health in diabetes patients with Charcot foot and to investigate the moderating effects of socio-demographic factors. The severity of the problem will be statistically evaluated with the help of a reference data set. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire data using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and demographic background were collected from 50 patients with diabetes and Charcot complications (males 62%; mean age 62.2 ± 8.5 years). Statistical comparisons with a large data set of general diabetes patients acting as a point of reference were carried out. Results Anxiety and depression levels were high, (anxiety and depression scores 6.4 ± 4 and 6.3 ± 3.6 respectively). Females reported more severe anxiety and depression. Ethnic minorities and patients out of work reported more severe anxiety. Comparisons with published HADS data indicate that diabetes patients with Charcot foot experience more serious levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusions The high levels of mental health problems which were found in this study in diabetes patients with Charcot foot require recognition by researchers and clinicians. The findings imply the need to screen for mental health problems in diabetes patients with Charcot foot. PMID:24650435

  19. Caring for Students with Type 1 Diabetes: School Nurses' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yueh-Ling; Volker, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used a Husserlian phenomenological approach to obtain an understanding of the essences of five experienced Taiwanese school nurses' lived experience of caring for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Data analysis entailed a modified method from…

  20. Caring for Students with Type 1 Diabetes: School Nurses' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yueh-Ling; Volker, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study used a Husserlian phenomenological approach to obtain an understanding of the essences of five experienced Taiwanese school nurses' lived experience of caring for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Data analysis entailed a modified method from…

  1. [Better coordination between primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic for patients with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Gjessing, Hans Jørgen; Jørgensen, Ulla Linding; Møller, Charlotte Chrois; Huge, Lis; Dalgaard, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Wendelboe; Thomsen, Lis; Buch, Martin Sandberg

    2014-06-02

    Integrated care programmes for patients with type 2 diabetes can be successfully implemented by planning the programmes in coordination between the sectors primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic, and with involvement of leaders and employees. Our project has resulted in: 1) more patients with type 2 diabetes receiving diabetes management courses, 2) improved diabetes management of primary care, and 3) improved confidence and respect between sectors involved in diabetes care.

  2. Improving adherence and outcomes in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Renu; Joshi, Disha; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2017-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence in diabetes is a problem leading to wasted resources and preventable deaths each year. Remedies for diminishing nonadherence are many but marginally effective, and outcomes remain suboptimal. Aim The aim of this study was to test a new iOS “app”, PatientPartner. Derived from complexity theory, this novel technology has been extensively used in other fields; this is the first trial in a patient population. Methods Physicians referred patients who were “severely non-adherent” with HbA1c levels >8. After consent and random assignment (n=107), subjects in the intervention group were immersed in the 12-min PatientPartner game, which assesses and trains subjects on parameters of thinking that are critical for good decision making in health care: information management, stress coping, and health strategies. The control group did not play PatientPartner. All subjects were called each week for 3 weeks and self-reported on their medication adherence, diet, and exercise. Baseline and 3-month post-intervention HbA1c levels were recorded for the intervention group. Results Although the control group showed no difference on any measures at 3 weeks, the intervention group reported significant mean percentage improvements on all measures: medication adherence (57%, standard deviation [SD] 18%–96%, SD 9), diet (50%, SD 33%–75%, SD 28), and exercise (29%, SD 31%–43%, SD 33). At 3 months, the mean HbA1c levels in the intervention group were significantly lower (9.6) than baseline (10.7). Conclusion Many programs to improve adherence have been proved to be expensive and marginally effective. Therefore, improvements from the single use of a 12-min-long “app” are noteworthy. This is the first ever randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that an “app” can impact the gold standard biological marker, HbA1c, in diabetes. PMID:28243070

  3. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    PubMed

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  4. Psychological insulin resistance in geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bahrmann, Anke; Abel, Amelie; Zeyfang, Andrej; Petrak, Frank; Kubiak, Thomas; Hummel, Jana; Oster, Peter; Bahrmann, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    To determine the extent to which geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus experience psychological insulin resistance (PIR). A total of 67 unselected geriatric patients with diabetes (mean age 82.8±6.7 years, diabetes duration 12.2 [0.04-47.2] years, 70.1% female) were recruited in a geriatric care center of a university hospital. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) was performed including WHO-5, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Barthel-Index. We assessed PIR using the Barriers of Insulin Treatment Questionnaire (BIT) and the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale in a face-to-face interview. Insulin-naïve patients (INP) showed higher PIR scores than patients already on insulin therapy (BIT-sum score: 4.3±1.4 vs. 3.2±1.0; p<0.001). INP reported in the BIT increased fear of injection and self-testing (2.4±2.4 vs. 1.3±0.8; p=0.016), expect disadvantages from insulin treatment (2.7±1.6 vs. 1.9±1.4; p=0.04), and fear of stigmatization by insulin injection (5.2±2.3 vs. 3.6±2.6; p=0.008). Fear of hypoglycemia, however, did not differ significantly (6.3±2.8 vs. 5.1±3.1; p=0.11). Depression was not shown to be a barrier to insulin therapy. INP with diabetes have a significantly more negative attitude toward insulin therapy in comparison to patients already on insulin. Systematic assessment of barriers of insulin therapy, individualized diabetes treatment plans and information of patients may help to overcome such negative attitudes, leading to quicker initiation of therapy, improved adherence to treatment and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental implant survival in diabetic patients; review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Deepesh Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Rising population of diabetic individuals across the world has become a big concern to the society. The persistent hyperglycemia may affect each and every tissue and consequently results in morbidity and eventually mortality in diabetic patients. A direct negative response of diabetes has been observed on oral tissues with few contradictions however, little are known about effect of diabetes on dental implant treatment and the consequent results. Many studies concerned with osteointegration and prognosis of dental implant in diabetic patients have been conducted and published since 1994. These studies have been critically reviewed to understand the impact of diabetes on the success of dental implant and the factors to improve osseointegration and consequently survival of dental implant in diabetic patients. Theoretical literatures and studies in diabetic animals substantiate high failure rate of implants but most of clinical studies indicated statistically insignificant failure of dental implants even in moderately uncontrolled diabetic patients. Success of dental implant in well and fairly controlled diabetic patients with proper treatment planning, prophylactic remedies and adequate postsurgical maintenance appears as good as normal individuals. PMID:24665167

  6. Hospitalization experience of Navajo subjects with type II diabetes and matched controls: an historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Crabtree, B F; Nakamura, R M; Kelley, D

    1990-01-01

    Using an historical cohort study design with a 12 year follow-up, we found that 77 Navajo adults with type II diabetes mellitus were hospitalized at a rate of 335 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years compared to a rate of 167 hospitalizations per 1000 patient years for 77 age, sex, and residence matched non-diabetic controls, yielding a risk ratio of 2.0. Using matched pairs analysis (sign test), the observed difference in number of hospital admissions is statistically significant (z = 2.30, p less than 0.05). The average duration of hospitalization, however, was not statistically different in matched pairs analysis (z = 0.95, p greater than 0.05). The 136 excess hospitalizations of the diabetic subjects included 45 admissions for poor metabolic control of diabetes, 50 excess admissions for infectious disease, and 26 excess admissions for conditions of the heart, eye, kidney, or non-traumatic amputation. In multivariate analyses, variables found to be associated with greater hospitalization experience among the 77 diabetic subjects in the 12 years follow-up period included older age at entry to the study, poorer metabolic control early in the study period, and presence of diabetic complications.

  7. Diabetes Screening, Diagnosis, and Therapy in Pediatric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, Helena W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract The dramatic rise in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pediatric and adolescent populations has been associated with the ongoing epidemic of overweight, obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome seen in these age groups. Although the majority of pediatric patients diagnosed with diabetes are still classified as having type 1 diabetes, almost 50% of patients with diabetes in the pediatric age range (under 18 years) may have type 2 diabetes. Screening of high-risk patients for diabetes and prediabetes is important. Prompt diagnosis and accurate diabetes classification facilitate appropriate and timely treatment and may reduce the risk for complications. This is especially important in children because lifestyle interventions may be successful and the lifelong risk for complications is greatest. Treatment usually begins with dietary modification, weight loss, and a structured program of physical exercise. Oral antidiabetic agents are added when lifestyle intervention alone fails to maintain glycemic control. Given the natural history of type 2 diabetes, most if not all patients will eventually require insulin therapy. In those requiring insulin, improved glycemic control and reduced frequency of hypoglycemia can be achieved with insulin analogs. It is common to add insulin therapy to existing oral therapy only when oral agents no longer provide adequate glycemic control. Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has reached epidemic proportions in the United States.[1] Recent reports indicate that as many as 45% of pediatric patients diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 2 diabetes.[1] Furthermore, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes may be underestimated due to misclassification of the disease.[2] Prior to the late 1990s, only 1% to 2% of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States had type 2 diabetes. Since then, owing to a

  8. Non-diabetic renal disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Sonia; Kashif, Waqar; Hussain, Syed Ather

    2012-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetics worldwide, yet most patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus are not formally evaluated with a renal biopsy. The diagnosis is almost always based on clinical grounds. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is reported to occur in patients with type-2 diabetes. It has been estimated that up to one-third of all diabetic patients who present with proteinuria are suffering from NDRD. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of NDRD in patients with type-2 diabetes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with type-2 diabetes who underwent kidney biopsy on clinical suspicion of NDRD (absence of diabetic retinopathy and/or neuropathy; short duration of diabetes, i.e. less than five years) from January 2003 through December 2007 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Based on the biopsy findings, patients were grouped as Group-I, isolated NDRD; Group-II, NDRD with underlying DN; and Group-III, isolated DN. Of 68 patients studied, 75% were males and the mean age was 56 years. The mean duration of diabetes was nine years. Group-I included 34 patients (52%), Group-II included 11 patients (17%) and Group-III included 23 patients (31%). Among the Group-I patients, the mean age was 56 years (41-77 years). The most common NDRDs were acute interstitial nephritis (32%), diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (17%); membranous nephropathy (12%) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (12%). Among Group-II, the mean age was 60 years (46-71 years), and the most common lesion was interstitial nephritis superimposed on underlying DN (63% cases). Among Group-III, the mean age was 53 years (42- 80 years). The mean proteinuria was 5, 6.3 and 7.3 g/24 h of urine collection in Groups I, II and III, respectively (P = NS). The mean duration of diabetes was 7.3, 11.7 and 10.7 years in Groups I, II and III, respectively. The duration of diabetes

  9. Patient-provider interaction from the perspectives of type 2 diabetes patients in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abdulhadi, Nadia; Al Shafaee, Mohammed; Freudenthal, Solveig; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Wahlström, Rolf

    2007-10-09

    Patients' expectations and perceptions of the medical encounter and interactions are important tools in diabetes management. Some problems regarding the interaction during encounters may be related to a lack of communication skills on the part of either the physician or the patient. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients regarding the medical encounters and quality of interactions with their primary health-care providers. Four focus group discussions (two women and two men groups) were conducted among 27 purposively selected patients (13 men and 14 women) from six primary health-care centres in Muscat, Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. The patients identified some weaknesses regarding the patient-provider communication like: unfriendly welcoming; interrupted consultation privacy; poor attention and eye contact; lack of encouraging the patients to ask questions on the providers' side; and inability to participate in medical dialogue or express concerns on the patients' side. Other barriers and difficulties related to issues of patient-centeredness, organization of diabetes clinics, health education and professional competency regarding diabetes care were also identified. The diabetes patients' experiences with the primary health-care providers showed dissatisfaction with the services. We suggest appropriate training for health-care providers with regard to diabetes care and developing of communication skills with emphasis on a patient-centred approach. An efficient use of available resources in diabetes clinics and distributing responsibilities between team members in close collaboration with patients and their families seems necessary. Further exploration of the providers' work situation and barriers to good interaction is needed. Our findings can help the policy makers in Oman, and countries with similar health systems, to improve the quality and organizational efficiency of diabetes care services.

  10. Patient-provider interaction from the perspectives of type 2 diabetes patients in Muscat, Oman: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhadi, Nadia; Al Shafaee, Mohammed; Freudenthal, Solveig; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Wahlström, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Background Patients' expectations and perceptions of the medical encounter and interactions are important tools in diabetes management. Some problems regarding the interaction during encounters may be related to a lack of communication skills on the part of either the physician or the patient. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients regarding the medical encounters and quality of interactions with their primary health-care providers. Methods Four focus group discussions (two women and two men groups) were conducted among 27 purposively selected patients (13 men and 14 women) from six primary health-care centres in Muscat, Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results The patients identified some weaknesses regarding the patient-provider communication like: unfriendly welcoming; interrupted consultation privacy; poor attention and eye contact; lack of encouraging the patients to ask questions on the providers' side; and inability to participate in medical dialogue or express concerns on the patients' side. Other barriers and difficulties related to issues of patient-centeredness, organization of diabetes clinics, health education and professional competency regarding diabetes care were also identified. Conclusion The diabetes patients' experiences with the primary health-care providers showed dissatisfaction with the services. We suggest appropriate training for health-care providers with regard to diabetes care and developing of communication skills with emphasis on a patient-centred approach. An efficient use of available resources in diabetes clinics and distributing responsibilities between team members in close collaboration with patients and their families seems necessary. Further exploration of the providers' work situation and barriers to good interaction is needed. Our findings can help the policy makers in Oman, and countries with similar health systems, to improve the quality and organizational efficiency of

  11. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Bernard L; Barnes, Christopher J; Campaigne, Barbara N; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes. PMID:18200813

  12. Medication oversupply in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Carolyn T; Johnson, Heather; Dopp, Anna Legreid; Thorpe, Joshua M; Ronk, Katie; Everett, Christine M; Palta, Mari; Mott, David A; Chewning, Betty; Schleiden, Loren; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    Studies in integrated health systems suggest that patients often accumulate oversupplies of prescribed medications, which is associated with higher costs and hospitalization risk. However, predictors of oversupply are poorly understood, with no studies in Medicare Part D. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and predictors of oversupply of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications in adults with diabetes managed by a large, multidisciplinary, academic physician group and enrolled in Medicare Part D or a local private health plan. This was a retrospective cohort study. Electronic health record data were linked to medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment data from Medicare and a local private payer for 2006-2008 to construct a patient-quarter dataset for patients managed by the physician group. Patients' quarterly refill adherence was calculated using ReComp, a continuous, multiple-interval measure of medication acquisition (CMA), and categorized as <0.80 = Undersupply, 0.80-1.20 = Appropriate Supply, >1.20 = Oversupply. We examined associations of baseline and time-varying predisposing, enabling, and medical need factors to quarterly supply using multinomial logistic regression. The sample included 2519 adults with diabetes. Relative to patients with private insurance, higher odds of oversupply were observed in patients aged <65 in Medicare (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.61-6.99), patients 65+ in Medicare (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.37-4.60), patients <65 in Medicare/Medicaid (OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 2.33-8.92), and patients 65+ in Medicare/Medicaid (OR = 5.73, 95% CI = 2.89-11.33). Other factors associated with higher odds of oversupply included any 90-day refills during the quarter, psychotic disorder diagnosis, and moderate versus tight glycemic control. Oversupply was less prevalent than in previous studies of integrated systems, but Medicare Part D enrollees had greater odds of oversupply than privately insured

  13. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    PubMed

    Due-Christensen, M; Zoffmann, V; Hommel, E; Lau, M

    2012-02-01

    To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels. A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample included patients with Type 1 diabetes aged ≥21 years, having been diagnosed ≥1 year earlier. Primary outcome was diabetes-related distress (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale). Secondary outcomes were psychological distress and depressive symptoms (Symptom Check List -90-R/Global Severity Index and depression subscale), well-being (World Health Organization 5) and HbA1c . Equal numbers of patients with HbA1c above and below 64 mmol/mol (8%) joined the support groups (n = 54). Focus group interviews revealed that major benefits were feeling less alone and being intuitively understood among peers. The patients perceived the support groups as a safe environment for sharing experiences. Problem Areas in Diabetes, Global Severity Index and depression subscale scores were significantly reduced post-intervention and maintained at 1-year follow-up. Well-being increased insignificantly. HbA1c was unchanged. Support groups are able to reduce diabetes-related and psychological distress 1 year after the intervention for patients with both good and poor glycaemic control displaying high levels of distress. Although patients with severely high levels of diabetes-related distress might need more extensive therapeutic interventions to further reduce their level of distress. Further, interventions that target specific self-management problems are needed for patients with poor glycaemic control to help them accomplish lower levels of HbA1c. Moreover, healthcare providers must be aware that patients with good glycaemic control might have an unacknowledged psychosocial burden of living with the illness. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  14. Characterization of lipid parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatima; Jamil, Hassan; Anwar, Sanam Saiqa; Wajid, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between lipid profile perturbation and diabetes associated complications has long been an area of interest. Dyslipidemia is a potent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of present study was to investigate relationship between aging and lipid profiles in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients. Five hundred and seventy six individuals (45-75 year age) participated in this study. Among these, 192 were having history of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Individuals are categorized on the base of health (normal, non-diabetic atherosclerosis, diabetic atherosclerosis) and age (45-55 years, 56-65 years, and 66-75 years). All the participants were subjected to the procedures like a detailed history, biochemical analysis for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-(LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). All these parameters were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients of all three age groups. TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were also calculated. Diabetic atherosclerotic individuals (both males and females) had high level of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and low level of HDL in comparison to non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control individuals. Among all three age groups, lipoprotein abnormality was observed to be more frequent in females than males. There was a significant increase in TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratio in diabetic atherosclerotic subjects compared to age and sex matched non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control. Degree of dyslipidemia increases with increase in age in both genders. Female are more prone to diabetic dyslipidemia and hence have more risk of developing atherosclerosis with increasing age.

  15. Preferred haemodialysis vascular access for diabetic chronic kidney disease patients: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Van Biesen, Wim; Nistor, Ionut; Tordoir, Jan; Gallieni, Maurizio; Marti Monros, Anna; Bolignano, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access problems are one of the main concerns in the diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. However, the optimal strategy for the establishment of vascular access in this population remains to be solved. We performed a systematic review in order to clarify the most advisable approach of vascular access planning in diabetic patients with ESKD. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched for English-language articles without time restriction through focused, high-sensitive search strategies. We included all studies providing outcome data on diabetics starting chronic haemodialysis treatment on the basis of the type of primary placed vascular access. A total of 13 studies comprising over 2,800 participants with diabetes were reviewed in detail and included in the review. We found that diabetic patients using a dialysis catheter apparently experience a higher risk of death and infection compared with patients who successfully achieved and maintained an arteriovenous fistula as dialysis access. The comparison between the use of a graft or an autogenous fistula as dialysis access generated conflicting results. Primary patency rates appeared to be lower in diabetics versus non-diabetics. Our study suggests that diabetic ESKD patients with dialysis catheters incur a higher risk of death in comparison to those who achieve an arteriovenous access. It is however unclear whether this is caused by residual selection bias or by a true advantage of native vascular access.

  16. Diabetic Foot Syndrome as a Possible Cardiovascular Marker in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality; in fact, some authors showed a higher prevalence of major, previous and new-onset, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot ulcers than in those without these complications. This is consistent with the fact that in diabetes there is a complex interplay of several variables with inflammatory metabolic disorders and their effect on the cardiovascular system that could explain previous reports of high morbidity and mortality rates in diabetic patients with amputations. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the “adipovascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with diabetic foot, this “adipovascular axis” expression in lower plasma levels of adiponectin and higher plasma levels of IL-6 could be linked to foot ulcers pathogenesis by microvascular and inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to focus on the immune inflammatory features of DFS and its possible role as a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients. PMID:25883983

  17. Polymorphism of catalase gene promoter in Romanian patients with diabetic kidney disease and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Panduru, N M; Moţa, E; Moţa, Maria; Cimponeriu, D; Serafinceanu, C; Cheţa, D M

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia leads to ROS (Reactive oxygen species) generation, affecting the cells that cannot decrease glucose uptake such as: glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells. ROS excess seems to activate important pathogenic pathways of development of diabetic nephropathy. The decrease of CAT activity, one of the most important antioxidant enzymes, following to some genetic defects, may be a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of 21A/T (rs7943316) polymorphism of CAT gene with advanced diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Romania. There have been studied 238 patients with T1D (type 1 diabetes), divided into the group with diabetic nephropathy (DN) (106 patients) and the group without renal affectation (132 patients). The genotyping has been made by using PCR-RFLP technique. The analysis of association has been made by using DeFinetti programme. The value considered significant has been p < 0.05. There has been a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the group with diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.019), the equilibrium being preserved by the control group (p = 0.771). T allele does not confer a risk for advanced diabetic nephropathy (ORT = 0.757, 95% C.I. = 0.405-1.414; P = 0.381), the result being statistically insignificant even taking into consideration the risk allele A (ORA = 0.793, 95% C.I. = 0.465-1.350; P = 0.392). The results remain concordant too after applying the Cochran -Armitage test. Our data do not suggest an effect of 21A/T (rs7943316) polymorphism in the susceptibility for diabetic nephropathy in Romanian patients with type 1 diabetes. Further studies are necessary in order to demonstrate or exclude the role of CAT gene in diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  18. Clinic Workload, the Quality of Staff Relationships and Diabetes Management in Community Health Centers Catering to Latino and Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Martinez, Ana; Chen, Xiao; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2017-06-01

    We examine whether workplace climate-quality of staff relationships (QSR) and manageable clinic workload (MCW) are related to better patient care experiences and diabetes care in community health centers (CHCs) catering to Latino and Chinese patients. Patient experience surveys of adult patients with type 2 diabetes and workplace climate surveys of clinicians and staff from CHCs were included in an analytic sample. Comparisons of means analyses examine patient and provider characteristics. The associations of QSR, MCW and the diabetes care management were examined using regression analyses. Diabetes care process were more consistently provided in CHCs with high quality staff relations and more manageable clinic workload, but HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure outcomes were no different between clinics with high vs. low QSR and MCW. Focusing efforts on improvements in practice climate may lead to more consistent provision of important processes of diabetes care for these patients.

  19. Findings of multidimensional instruments for determining psychopathology in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Gülperi; Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Yılmaz, Mümtaz; Kara, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to expand the research on psychiatric complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as well as to examine the prevalence of a broad range of psychopathology in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods One hundred nineteen HD patients were invited to enter the cross-sectional study. To assess quality of life, quality of sleep, mental status and depression and anxiety symptoms, the 36-item Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini-Mental State Examination and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively, were used. Results The mean age of all patients was 56.9±16.1 years; 54 (45.4%) were female. In the diabetic patients group, 84.8% of the patients had low MCS scores, and 89.2% patients had low PCS scores; 73.9% were poor sleepers; 63.0% had cognitive decline; 62.0% patients were depressive symptoms; and 28.3%had symptoms of anxiety. When comparing the diabetic and non-diabetic patients, the diabetic patients had lower role-emotional, sleep duration, and sleep efficiency scores. Conclusions Incorporating a standard assessment and, eventually, treatment of psychopathologic symptoms into the care provided to diabetic and hemodialysis patients might improve quality of life and sleep, depressive symptoms and, reduce mortality risk. PMID:22993656

  20. Changes in the tear proteins of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Grus, F H; Sabuncuo, P; Dick, H B; Augustin, A J; Pfeiffer, N

    2002-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown a significant increase in tear protein peaks in the tears of diabetic patients suffering from dry eye. The aim of this study was to analyze the tear protein patterns from patients with diabetes mellitus who do not suffer from ocular surface diseases (DIA). Methods A total of 515 patients were examined in this study (255 healthy subjects (controls) and 260 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus). Tear proteins were separated by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After digital image analysis densitometric data files were created and subsequently used for multivariate statistical procedures. Results A significant increase in the number of peaks was detected in diabetic patients compared to controls (P < 0.0003). The analysis of discriminance revealed a highly significant discrimination between diabetic patients and controls (Wilks lambda: 0.27; P < 0.000001). Furthermore, a significant difference in the protein pattern of diabetic patients could be detected between those suffering from dry eye or not (P < 0.002). The changes in protein patterns of diabetic patients increased with the duration of the diabetic disease. In diabetic patients with a disease duration longer than 10 years the changes were significantly more expressed than in patients with a shorter diabetic history (P < 0.003) and in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The tear protein patterns of diabetic patients are very different in the number and intensity of spots from those of healthy subjects. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the differences found in the tear patterns of diabetic patients are not equal to those found in previous studies in patients suffering from dry-eye disease. The alterations in the diabetic tears were correlated with the duration of the diabetic disease. With longer disease, history changes in the tear protein patterns increased. With the course of the disease some protein peaks appeared that are

  1. Clinical questionnaire study of oral health care and symptoms in diabetic vs. non-diabetic predialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Maarit; Ruokonen, Hellevi; Furuholm, Jussi; Honkanen, Eero; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study oral symptoms (burning mouth sensation, xerostomia, dysphagia, and dysgeusia) and background characteristics among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The hypothesis was that patients experience oral discomfort and show interest towards dental care differently depending on the origin of their kidney disease. One hundred thirty-eight CKD patients at predialysis stage (94 men, 44 women, mean age 54 years) at the Helsinki University Central Hospital participated in the study. The patients were divided into a diabetic nephropathy group and a group of patients with other kidney diseases. The patients had a clinical oral examination and filled in a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared between the groups (SPSS for Windows version 15.0). T test was used for parameters normally distributed while binomial data were analyzed with cross-tabulations and chi-square test. Contrary to our study hypothesis, no statistically significant differences were seen in the questionnaire study between the diabetic vs. non-diabetic CKD patients in any other study parameter except in the use of medication (10 ± 2.3 vs. 8 ± 3.1 drugs daily, p < 0.05), and working status (23.5% vs. 50% working full time, p < 0.01). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups. Xerostomia, however, was frequently observed among the predialysis patients investigated (41.7% in diabetic, 48.2% in non-diabetic patients). No difference was seen in the frequency of oral discomfort among the different groups of predialysis patients investigated. Clinicians should be aware of nephropathy patients who frequently suffer from oral discomfort, particularly xerostomia.

  2. Medication Oversupply in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Heather; Dopp, Anna Legreid; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Ronk, Katie; Everett, Christine M.; Palta, Mari; Mott, David A.; Chewning, Betty; Schleiden, Loren; Smith, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in integrated health systems suggest that patients often accumulate oversupplies of prescribed medications, which is associated with higher costs and hospitalization risk. However, predictors of oversupply are poorly understood, with no studies in Medicare Part D. Objective The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and predictors of oversupply of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications in adults with diabetes managed by a large, multidisciplinary, academic physician group and enrolled in Medicare Part D or a local private health plan. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. Electronic health record data were linked to medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment data from Medicare and a local private payer for 2006-2008 to construct a patient-quarter dataset for patients managed by the physician group. Patients’ quarterly refill adherence was calculated using ReComp, a continuous, multiple-interval measure of medication acquisition (CMA), and categorized as <0.80 = Undersupply, 0.80-1.20 = Appropriate Supply, >1.20 = Oversupply. We examined associations of baseline and time-varying predisposing, enabling, and medical need factors to quarterly supply using multinomial logistic regression. Results The sample included 2,519 adults with diabetes. Relative to patients with private insurance, higher odds of oversupply were observed in patients aged <65 in Medicare (OR=3.36, 95% CI=1.61-6.99), patients 65+ in Medicare (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.37-4.60), patients <65 in Medicare/Medicaid (OR=4.55, 95% CI=2.33-8.92), and patients 65+ in Medicare/Medicaid (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.89-11.33). Other factors associated with higher odds of oversupply included any 90-day refills during the quarter, psychotic disorder diagnosis, and moderate versus tight glycemic control. Conclusions Oversupply was less prevalent than in previous studies of integrated systems, but Medicare Part D enrollees had greater odds of oversupply than privately

  3. Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Jones-LeCointe, Altheia; Nwagbara, Emeka; Seales, Dawn; Okali, Fidelis

    2008-01-01

    Background Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for glucose, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and complete blood count. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin < 12 g/dl (F) or < 13 g/dl (M). Kidney function was assessed using glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as estimated by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Subjects were considered to have chronic kidney disease when the estimated GFR was < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Comparisons for within- and between-gender, between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were performed using Student's t-test while chi-square test was employed for categorical variables. Results The diabetic patients were older than the non-diabetic subjects. While male non-diabetic subjects had significantly higher red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations than non-diabetic female subjects (p < 0.001), the RBC and hematocrit concentrations were similar in male and female diabetic patients. Furthermore, irrespective of gender, diabetic patients had significantly higher prevalence rate of anemia than non-diabetic subjects (p < 0.05). Anaemic diabetes patients had significantly lower GFR (67.1 ± 3.0 vs. 87.9 ± 5.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2, p < 0.001) than non-anaemic patients. Conclusion A high prevalence of anaemia was identified in this group of type 2 diabetic patients previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. It is therefore recommended that diagnostic laboratories in developing

  4. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  5. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  6. Effect of ischaemia on somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    López-Alburquerque, T; García Miguel, A; Ruiz Ezquerro, J J; de Portugal Alvarez, J

    1987-01-01

    The nerve action potential at the elbow and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) at the scalp were recorded over 30 minutes of tourniquet-induced limb ischaemia in 10 diabetic patients and 10 controls. According to the SEP changes, an increased resistance to nerve ischaemia in diabetic patients was observed. The pathways involved in SEP conduction are discussed. PMID:3585354

  7. Patients’ perceptions and experiences of transitions in diabetes care: a longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Julia; Rankin, David; Peel, Elizabeth; Douglas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To examine patients’ perceptions and experiences over time of the devolvement of diabetes care/reviews from secondary to primary health‐care settings. Design  Repeat in‐depth interviews with 20 patients over 4 years. Participants and setting  Twenty type 2 diabetes patients recruited from primary‐ and secondary‐care settings across Lothian, Scotland. Results  Patients’ views about their current diabetes care were informed by their previous service contact. The devolvement of diabetes care/reviews to general practice was presented as a ‘mixed blessing’. Patients gained reassurance from their perception that receiving practice‐based care/reviews signified that their diabetes was well‐controlled. However, they also expressed resentment that, by achieving good control, they received what they saw as inferior care and/or less‐frequent reviews to others with poorer control. While patients tended to regard GPs as having adequate expertise to conduct their practice‐based reviews, they were more ambivalent about nurses taking on this role. Opportunities to receive holistic care in general practice were not always realized due to patients seeing health‐care professionals for diabetes management to whom they would not normally present for other health issues. Conclusions  It is important to educate patients about their care pathways, and to reassure them that frequency of reviews depends more on clinical need than location of care and that similar care guidelines are followed in hospital clinics and general practice. A patients’ history of service contact may need to be taken into account in future studies of service satisfaction. PMID:19309488

  8. Health literacy, complication awareness, and diabetic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Ho; Pang, Samantha M C; Chan, Moon Fai; Yeung, Grace S P; Yeung, Vincent T F

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the relationship between health literacy, complication awareness and diabetic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to validate a Chinese version of the Short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. There is a rapidly increasing trend in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Asian countries. Alongside the considerable progress in recent decades of health education in the field of diabetes care, the effects of health literacy and complication awareness have received increasing attention over the past 10 years. This study was conducted from September 2005 to February 2006 with 149 Chinese patients (mean = 59.8 years, range: 27-90 years) who were undergoing/had undergone diabetic complication assessment. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire incorporating demographics; assessment of complication awareness in two sections: a self-developed 10-item patient awareness score and a modified Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure; and health literacy as measured by the Chinese version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Diabetic control was assessed by the most recent HbA1c level. Health literacy (P < 0.001) and patient awareness scores were negatively correlated to diabetic control (P = 0.035), but management of treatment in the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (P = 0.030), gender (P = 0.023) and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001) were positively correlated to HbA1c. To develop effective patient education and improve patients' diabetic control and own complications, educational strategies need to consider patients' health literacy levels and self-care skills.

  9. Ocular Disease, Knowledge, and Technology Applications in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Threatt, Jennifer; Williamson, Jennifer Faye; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 25.8 million children and adults in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. Diabetes prevalence varies by race and ethnicity. African Americans have the highest prevalence (12.6%), followed closely by Hispanics (11.8%), Asian Americans (8.4%), and Whites (7.1%). The purpose of this article is to discuss the ocular complications of diabetes, the cultural and racial differences in diabetes knowledge, and the role of telemedicine as a means to reach the undeserved who are at risk of complications. Information on the pathophysiology of ocular disease in patients with diabetes and the role of telemedicine in diabetes care was derived from a literature review. National Institutes of Health (NIH) on-line resources were queried to present data on the racial and cultural understandings of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. The microvascular ocular complications of diabetes are discussed for retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma and ocular surface disease. Racial and cultural differences in knowledge of recommended self-care practices are presented. These differences in part, may explain health disparities and the increased risk of diabetes and its complications in rural minority communities. Finally, advances in telemedicine technology are discussed that show improvements in metabolic control and cardiovascular risk in adults with type 2 diabetes. Improving provider and patient understanding of diabetes complications may improve management and self care practices that are important for diabetes control. Telemedicine may improve access to diabetes specialists and may improve self-management education and diabetes control particularly in rural and underserved communities. PMID:23531956

  10. Case series of rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurring in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Meidani, Mohsen; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Iraj, Bijan; Hamedani, Pooria; Sayedain, Sayed Mohammad Amin; Mokhtari, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a fatal infection typically affecting diabetic or immunosuppressed patients. In most cases, infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores. Mortality rate of patients is very high (40-85%). Case Presentation: In this study, three diabetic patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis were presented. The etiologic agents of mucormycosis in two patients were isolated and identified by sequence analysis and data were registered in Gene bank database. Conclusion: In patients with mucoreosis, early detection, surgical excision and appropriate debridement, suitable antifungal therapy, and control of risk factors like diabetes mellitus are the main parameters of successful management of this lethal infection. PMID:26644901

  11. Health care experiences of Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jacklin, Kristen M.; Henderson, Rita I.; Green, Michael E.; Walker, Leah M.; Calam, Betty; Crowshoe, Lynden J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indigenous social determinants of health, including the ongoing impacts of colonization, contribute to increased rates of chronic disease and a health equity gap for Indigenous people. We sought to examine the health care experiences of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes to understand how such determinants are embodied and enacted during clinical encounters. METHODS: Sequential focus groups and interviews were conducted in 5 Indigenous communities. Focus groups occurred over 5 sessions at 4 sites; 3 participants were interviewed at a 5th site. Participants self-identified as Indigenous, were more than 18 years of age, lived with type 2 diabetes, had received care from the same physician for the previous 12 months and spoke English. We used a phenomenological thematic analysis framework to categorize diabetes experiences. RESULTS: Patient experiences clustered into 4 themes: the colonial legacy of health care; the perpetuation of inequalities; structural barriers to care; and the role of the health care relationship in mitigating harm. There was consistency across the diverse sites concerning the root causes of mistrust of health care systems. INTERPRETATION: Patients’ interactions and engagement with diabetes care were influenced by personal and collective historical experiences with health care providers and contemporary exposures to culturally unsafe health care. These experiences led to nondisclosure during health care interactions. Our findings show that health care relationships are central to addressing the ongoing colonial dynamics in Indigenous health care and have a role in mitigating past harms. PMID:28246155

  12. Diabetes Attitude Scale: validation in type-2 diabetes patients in multiple centers in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qingqing; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Yuan, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Chun; Shen, Li; Sun, Zilin; Zhao, Fang; Dai, Xia; Huang, Jin; Yang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to report the development and psychometric testing of Diabetes Attitude Scale. A prospective study was performed. The cultural equivalency and content validity of the Diabetes Attitude Scale were determined by panels of endocrinologists, physiologists, nurses and dieticians. An accurate and usable translation was obtained for each of five subscales examining attitudes on need for special training, the seriousness of type-2 diabetes, the need for controlling the condition, its psychosocial impact and the degree of autonomy given to patients in decision making. The validation was derived from 5961 patients with type-2 diabetes, recruited from 50 centers in 29 provinces throughout China between March 1st and September 30th, 2010. The modified Diabetes Attitude Scale showed an acceptable level of internal consistency. The strength of the inter-correlations among the domains of five subscales suggests that the instrument measures related but separate domains of patients' attitudes toward diabetes. Moreover, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were high enough to support the stability of the Chinese version of the third version of the scale. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Diabetes Attitude Scale demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability and appeared to effectively evaluate attitudes toward diabetes in patients with type-2 diabetes.

  13. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients.

    PubMed

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D; Mezuk, Briana R; Avula, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D.; Mezuk, Briana R.; Avula, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Methods Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire–Revised. Results The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Conclusions Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. PMID:26568376

  15. [Screening and management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Sondos; Abassi, Chedly; Annabi, Nizar; Smaali, Ibtissem; Issaa, Inès; Wali, Mouin; Malou, Monia; Hannachi, Sofiane; Longo, Selma; Battikh, Kaies; Slimane, Mohamed Lotfi

    2006-10-01

    Diabetes represents as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognosis in term of survival rates is worse for diabetic patients who have CAD with report to those with CAD but no diabetes. The coronary artery disease in diabetes has specificities and, in particular, more extensive atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients are also more frequently asymptomatic. Due to the extreme complexity of ischemic vascular disease in patients with diabetes, an optimal therapeutic strategy is based on the correction of elevated blood glucose and lipid levels, of blood pressure, of platelet and coagulation abnormalities. Diabetic patients benefit from secondary prevention by drug therapy(aspirin, lipid lowering with statines, beta blocker and ACE inhibitors) to the same extent as, or more than, non-diabetic patients. Both percutaneous and surgical myocardial revascularization have been proved equally effective for CAD treatment in diabetes. A recent randomized trial has shown a significantly improved outcome after surgical revascularization. But, the effects of drug-eluting stents, which dramatically decrease the incidence of re-stenosis, seem promising.

  16. Changes in retinal microvascular diameter in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Andréa Vasconcellos Batista; Gouvea, Sonia Alves; da Silva, Aurélio Paulo Batista; Bortolon, Saulo; Rodrigues, Anabel Nunes; Abreu, Glaucia Rodrigues; Herkenhoff, Fernando Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Diabetic retinopathy is the main microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and needs to be diagnosed early to prevent severe sight-threatening retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to quantify the retinal microvasculature pattern and analyze the influence of blood glucose level and the duration of diabetes mellitus on the retinal microvasculature. Methods Two groups were analyzed: patients with diabetes (N=26) and patients without diabetes, ie, controls (N=26). A quantitative semiautomated method analyzed retinal microvasculature. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured. The total numbers of arterioles and venules were counted. The ratio of arteriole diameter to venule diameter was calculated. The retinal microvasculature pattern was related to clinical and biochemical parameters. Results Patients with diabetes exhibited larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant of the retina compared to the lower temporal quadrant (124.85±38.03 µm vs 102.92±15.69 µm; P<0.01). Patients with diabetes for 5 or more years had larger venule diameters in the upper temporal quadrant than patients without diabetes (141.62±44.44 vs 112.58±32.11 µm; P<0.05). The degree of venodilation in the upper temporal quadrant was positively correlated with blood glucose level and the estimated duration of diabetes mellitus. Interpretation and conclusion The employed quantitative method demonstrated that patients with diabetes exhibited venule dilation in the upper temporal quadrant, and the duration of diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with blood glucose level. Therefore, the early assessment of retinal microvascular changes is possible prior to the onset of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26345217

  17. Structure of Resilience among Japanese Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Ikuko; Chujo, Masami

    2017-03-01

    Resilience is the process of overcoming adversities and difficulties. We clarified the structure of resilience and its motivational power among adult Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. This is likely to help ensure effective nursing support to empower patients with diabetes and help them recuperate and improve their personal lives. Participants were 17 patients with type 1 diabetes, and data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Participants shared their experiences of coping with self-management and diabetes control issues, the meaning of living with diabetes, and their support from family and friends since their diagnosis. Glaser's grounded theory was used to analyze the data and the results were used to create a new model of resilience for type 1 diabetes. Five categories were extracted: "suffering from a guilty conscience," "suffering from an insulin-dependent body," "social disability," "a driving force to advancement," and "possessing a strategy to live with the disease." The five categories formed two stages: preparatory resilience and resilience formation. Once patients recognized the presence of empathetic others, they could obtain better disease comprehension and cooperation. Recognizing this support system served as a "driving force to advancement" and was termed the "resilience battery." Through the resilience battery, patients shifted from preparatory resilience to "resilience formation," or acquiring "a strategy to live with the disease." To forge patient resilience, nurses should encourage disease comprehension and cooperation among patients' significant others. We further propose that high-quality nursing care would involve supporting patients' inner resilience.

  18. Optimal use of peritoneal dialysis in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Hee; Noh, Hyunjin; Ha, Hunjoo; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2009-02-01

    The survival of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) resulting from diabetes continues to improve, but the survival rate among diabetic ESRD patients remains the lowest among all primary diagnoses probably because of the higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidity associated with diabetes. Diabetes, age, and comorbidity all significantly modify the effect of treatment modality on patient survival. As compared with hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) offers an equal or lower risk of death across all subgroups during the first 1-2 years of dialysis. The association of PD with better outcomes than are seen with HD is probably a result of a lower prevalence of infections and congestive heart failure and better preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in PD patients. Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) helps to preserve RRF in ESRD patients and to maintain peritoneal membrane integrity longer in PD patients. Antioxidants can also support preservation of peritoneal membrane function. Peritoneal dialysis should be the initial modality of dialysis in all ESRD patients. Older patients (age > or = 45 years) with diabetes and patients without diabetes may switch to HD or receive a kidney graft in 1-2 years' time; younger patients (age < 45 years) with diabetes may stay on PD longer. Use of ACEI and ARB or antioxidants can help to maintain peritoneal membrane function longer.

  19. Association Between Overactive Bladder and Polyneuropathy in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that often leads to complications. We aimed to correlate two complications of DM, polyneuropathy and hyperactive bladder syndrome, using noninvasive measures, such as screening tests. Methods We included 80 female and 40 male type 2 diabetic patients in this prospective study. Diabetic polyneuropathy evaluations were conducted using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions (DN4), and overactive bladder (OAB) evaluations were performed using the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-V8). The patients were also evaluated for retinopathy and nephropathy. The diabetic male and female patients with or without OAB were chosen and compared for microvascular complications (polyneuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy). Results There were no significant correlations between OAB and retinopathy as well as between OAB and nephropathy among diabetic patients (female patients, P>0.05; male patients, P>0.05). However, the patients with OAB were significantly more likely to develop polyneuropathy (female patients, P<0.05; male patients, P<0.05). Conclusions In diabetic patients, OAB and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are significantly correlated. These correlations were demonstrated using short, understandable, valid, and reliable disease-specific tests without invasive measures. Using these screening tests, both neurologists and urologists can easily diagnose these complications. PMID:27706007

  20. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  1. Platelet volume indices as predictive biomarkers for diabetic complications in Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Archana; Kaur, Supreet; Nair, Rahul; Jain, Ambuj

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet volume indices (PVI) such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) are the indicators of increased platelet activity and can be considered as potential biomarkers for diabetic complications. PURPOSE: To study PVI in Type 2 diabetics with and without complications in comparison to nondiabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case–control study was conducted on 300 Type 2 diabetics and 200 nondiabetics. Detailed clinical history regarding duration, hypertension, and complications was taken. PVI was obtained using automated cell counter. Fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, creatinine were also obtained. Diabetics were further categorized into patients with complications and without complications. Statistical analysis was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 17 (Chicago, IL) Student's t-test and ANOVA test. RESULTS: Platelet count was significantly decreased in diabetics (P = 0.005). MPV was significantly increased in diabetic patients with complications as compared to diabetics without complications and nondiabetic group (P < 0.0001). PDW showed statistically significant difference between diabetics with and without complications and nondiabetics (P < 0.0001). However, no statistically significant difference was observed in platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) among all the three study groups. We found statistically significant correlation of MPV with diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.000), nephropathy (P = 0.005), and diabetic foot (P = 0.048). PDW was significantly increased in diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.035) and nephropathy (P = 0.007). P-LCR had no statistically significant correlation with diabetic complications. CONCLUSION: MPV and PDW are predictive biomarkers of diabetic vascular complications. They are more significant in microvascular complications than macrovascular complications. PMID:28367021

  2. [Screening of early color vision loss in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Peduzzi, M; Longanesi, L; Ascari, A; Cascione, S; Galletti, M; Roncaia, R; Pacchioni, C; Maione, M

    1989-01-01

    Colour vision defects have been claimed to appear in diabetes before any retinopathy is visible. In the present study diabetic patients and non diabetic control subjects were screened with two different colour vision tests which include both red-green and blue-yellow parts, and are suitable for quantitative analysis of scores. The Lanthony 40 Hue test and the Tokyo Medical College--T.M.C. tables were used to assess colour vision in 106 diabetic (50 insulin dependent and 56 non insulin dependent) patients and in 99 non diabetic control subjects. Diabetic patients without visible retinopathy, familiar colour vision defects and/or lens changes, had significantly higher scores than control subjects in both eyes. The differences were more evident in non insulin dependent patients. Statistical analysis showed that early loss of colour vision was correlated with age and duration of diabetes for older patients, while correlation with glycosylated hemoglobin was moderately positive only for younger patients. Both tests (especially the Lanthony 40 Hue) resulted to be highly specific and could be used for the clinical study of colour vision losses in diabetic patients.

  3. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as diabulimia, as a form of weight control. It has been clearly shown that ED in type 1 diabetics are associated with impaired metabolic control, more frequent episodes of ketoacidosis and an earlier than expected onset of diabetes-related microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy. The management of these conditions requires a multidisciplinary team formed by an endocrinologist/diabetologist, a nurse educator, a nutritionist, a psychologist and, frequently, a psychiatrist. The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients with DEB and ED should have the following components: diabetes treatment, nutritional management and psychological therapy. A high index of suspicion of the presence of an eating disturbance, particularly among those patients with persistent poor metabolic control, repeated episodes of ketoacidosis and/or weight and shape concerns are recommended in the initial stage of diabetes treatment, especially in young women. Given the extent of the problem and the severe medical risk associated with it, more clinical and technological research aimed to improve its treatment is critical to the future health of this at-risk population. PMID:22087355

  4. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2011-11-15

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as diabulimia, as a form of weight control. It has been clearly shown that ED in type 1 diabetics are associated with impaired metabolic control, more frequent episodes of ketoacidosis and an earlier than expected onset of diabetes-related microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy. The management of these conditions requires a multidisciplinary team formed by an endocrinologist/diabetologist, a nurse educator, a nutritionist, a psychologist and, frequently, a psychiatrist. The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients with DEB and ED should have the following components: diabetes treatment, nutritional management and psychological therapy. A high index of suspicion of the presence of an eating disturbance, particularly among those patients with persistent poor metabolic control, repeated episodes of ketoacidosis and/or weight and shape concerns are recommended in the initial stage of diabetes treatment, especially in young women. Given the extent of the problem and the severe medical risk associated with it, more clinical and technological research aimed to improve its treatment is critical to the future health of this at-risk population.

  5. Management of hypertension in diabetic patients: outstanding issues.

    PubMed

    Camafort-Babkowski, Miguel; Barrios, Vivencio; Coca, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature mortality in Type 2 diabetes mellitus; consequently, good management of all risk factors is vital. The recent reappraisal of the European Society of Hypertension guidelines on hypertension management reset the blood pressure goal for Type 2 diabetic patients to blood pressure <140/90 mmHg. Although this recommendation is based on the best available evidence, further data are still required to provide a better understanding of the natural history of Type 2 diabetes in order to establish blood pressure goals throughout the natural history of the diabetic patient with hypertension.

  6. Does patient activation predict the course of type 2 diabetes? A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Rebecca M; Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith; Overton, Valerie; Parrotta, Carmen D

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether patient activation is predictive of the course of diabetes over a three year period among patients with and without diabetes. Longitudinal analyses utilized electronic health record data from 2011 to 2014. We examined how the patient activation measure (PAM) was predictive of 2014 diabetes-related outcomes among patients with diabetes (n=10,071); pre-diabetes (n=1804); and neither diabetes nor pre-diabetes (n=46,402). Outcomes were clinical indicators (blood pressure, cholesterol, and trigylcerides), costly utilization, and progression from no diabetes to pre-diabetes or diabetes. Higher PAM level predicted better clinical indicator control in patients with diabetes. In patients with pre-diabetes, PAM level predicted better clinical indicator control, and those in the highest level of PAM in 2011 had lower odds of having a hospitalization compared to those in the lowest level. In patients without diabetes or pre-diabetes in 2011, higher PAM level was associated with lower odds of developing pre-diabetes. More activated patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes had better outcomes than less activated patients. More activated patients without diabetes or pre-diabetes were less likely to develop pre-diabetes over a three year period. Strategies to improve patient activation may be useful to help curb the diabetes epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of type 2 diabetes: evolving strategies for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nyenwe, Ebenezer A.; Jerkins, Terri W.; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at an alarming rate around the world, with even more people being affected by prediabetes. Although the pathogenesis and long-term complications of type 2 diabetes are fairly well known, its treatment has remained challenging, with only half of the patients achieving the recommended hemoglobin A1c target. This narrative review explores the pathogenetic rationale for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the view of fostering better understanding of the evolving treatment modalities. The diagnostic criteria including the role of hemoglobin A1c in the diagnosis of diabetes are discussed. Due attention is given to the different therapeutic maneuvers and their utility in the management of the diabetic patient. The evidence supporting the role of exercise, medical nutrition therapy, glucose monitoring, and antiobesity measures including pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery is discussed. The controversial subject of optimum glycemic control in hospitalized and ambulatory patients is discussed in detail. An update of the available pharmacologic options for the management of type 2 diabetes is provided with particular emphasis on newer and emerging modalities. Special attention has been given to the initiation of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes, with explanation of the pathophysiologic basis for insulin therapy in the ambulatory diabetic patient. A review of the evidence supporting the efficacy of the different preventive measures is also provided. PMID:21134520

  8. Acute pyelonephritis in diabetes mellitus: Single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Mete, U.; Mittal, T.; Dutta, P.; Kumar, V.; Rathi, M.; Jha, V.; Gupta, K. L.; Sakhuja, V.; Kohli, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common cause of pyelonephritis. Both emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) and non-EPN (NEPN) are associated with poor outcome. This study was aimed at analyzing the clinical features, microbiological profile, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of pyelonephritis in diabetic patients. A total of 105 diabetic patients with pyelonephritis were admitted from July 2010 to June 2012. Patients were treated with appropriate antibiotics and percutaneous drainage (PCD) as indicated. Nephrectomy was carried out in patients of EPN who were refractory to conservative measures. NEPN and EPN were seen in 79 (75.2%) and 26 (24.7%) patients, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most common organism. Pyelonephritis was associated with renal abscess and papillary necrosis in 13 (12.4%) and 4 (3.8%) patients with EPN and NEPN, respectively. Worsening of renal functions were seen in 92 and 93% of patients with EPN and NEPN, respectively. Class 1 EPN was seen in 2 (7.7%), Class II in 8 (30.7%), IIIa in 7 (27%), IIIb in 5 (19.3), and IV in 4 (15.4%) patients. Antibiotics alone were sufficient in 38.5% of EPN versus 62% in NEPN; additional PCD was required in 42.3% in EPN and 21.4% in NEPN. Nephrectomy was required in 5 (19.2%) EPN patients with Class IIIB or IV. A total of 13 patients (12.4%) expired, 4 (15.4%) in EPN, and 9 (11.4%) in NEPN group. Patients with EPN had a higher incidence of shock (6% vs. 0; P < 0.05) and poorly controlled blood sugar (26% vs. 50%; P < 0.05) compared with NEPN. Presence of shock and altered sensorium were associated with poor outcome in patients with EPN. Diabetics with pyelonephritis have severe disease. Patients of EPN have poorer treatment outcome compared with those with NEPN. However, there is no difference in the mortality, but a greater need of nephrectomy in EPN compared with NEPN patients. Presence of shock and altered sensorium at presentation were poor prognostic factors in EPN. PMID:25484530

  9. Assessment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Plantar Pressure in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Prevention of Diabetic Foot

    PubMed Central

    Skopljak, Amira; Sukalo, Aziz; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Muftic, Mirsad; Tiric-Campara, Merita; Zunic, Lejla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk assessment for development foot ulcer in diabetics is a key aspect in any plan and program for prevention of non-traumatic amputation of lower extremities. Material and methods: In the prospective research to assessed diabetic neuropathy in diabetic patients, to determined the dynamic function of the foot (plantar pressure), by using pedobarography (Group I), and after the use of orthopedic insoles with help of pedobarography, to determined the connection between the risk factors: deformity of the foot, limited joint movements, diabetic polyneuropathy, plantar pressure in effort preventing changes in the diabetic foot. Results: Out of 1806 patients, who are registered in one Team of family medicine examined 100 patients with diabetes mellitus Type 2. The average age of subjects was 59.4, SD11.38. The average HbA1c was 7.78% SD1.58. Combining monofilament and tuning fork tests, the diagnosis of polyneuropathy have 65% of patients. Comparing Test Symptom Score individual parameters between the first and second measurement, using pedobarography, in Group I, statistically significant difference was found for all of the assessed parameters: pain, burning sensation, paresthesia and insensitivity (p<0,05). The measurements of peak pressure, both first and the second measurement, for all of the subjects in Group I(45) show values above 200kPa. That’s a level of pressure that needs to be corrected. The study finds correlation between the foot deformation, diabetic polyneuropathy and plantar pressure (p>0,05). Conclusion: A detail clinical exam of diabetic food in a family doctor office equipped with pedobarography (plantar pressure measurements), use of orthopedic insoles, significantly reduces clinical symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy in patients with diabetes. PMID:25650237

  10. Prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zomorodian, K; Kavoosi, F; Pishdad, G R; Mehriar, P; Ebrahimi, H; Bandegani, A; Pakshir, K

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes and its relationship with factors such as Candida species, serum glucose level, and the susceptibility rate of isolated yeasts to antifungals. Random samples were obtained from 113 patients with type 2 diabetes, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 105 healthy controls. The samples were taken by swabbing the oral mucosa of patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Afterwards the samples were inoculated onto CHROMagar-Candida. The growing colonies were counted, and the isolated yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP and RapID methods. Various isolated species of Candida were also subjected to susceptibility testing of antibiotic drugs. Blood samples were taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Although the Candida carriage rate and density were statistically higher in diabetics than healthy individuals, no direct association was found between having high Candida-burden and glycosylated hemoglobin. The most commonly isolated species in both diabetics and controls was Candida albicans. Of the tested antifungal drugs, the highest rate of resistance was found against itraconazole, followed in frequency by ketoconazole and fluconazole. This study identified a significant association between the poor glycemic control and the higher prevalence rates of Candida carriage and density in diabetic patients. In addition, a high prevalence of C. dubliniensis in diabetic patients was found, which might be misdiagnosed with its morphologically related species, C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Toe Pinch Force in Male Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroaki; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kitayama, Naomi; Murao, Satoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We compared the toe pinch force in men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty-eight male T2DM patients and 35 apparently healthy men matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We compared the toe pinch force between the subjects with and without T2DM, and we evaluated the effect of diabetic polyneuropathy on toe pinch force in the patients. The toe pinch force of the T2DM patients was significantly lower than that of the subjects without diabetes (3.12±1.22 kg vs. 4.40±1.19 kg, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that T2DM was a determinant of reduced toe pinch force. In addition, the toe pinch force of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was significantly lower than that of patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (2.31±0.93 kg vs. 3.70±1.07 kg, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that diabetic polyneuropathy was a determinant of the toe pinch force in men with T2DM, even after adjusting for age, BMI, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes. Reduced toe pinch force is a fundamental feature of motor dysfunction in men with T2DM, and diabetic polyneuropathy might be associated with toe pinch force in these patients.

  12. Effect of hope therapy on the hope of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Khaledi-Sardashti, Firouz; Kajbaf, Mohamad Bagher; Esmaielzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hope is the most important factor in diabetic patients’ life. The level of hope may be changing among these individuals as a result of chronic nature of diabetes and its complications. When the level of hope increases among these patients, they can resist against physical and psychological complications of diabetes more, accept the treatment better, enjoy life more, and adapt with their situations more efficiently. This study aimed to define the efficacy of hope therapy on hope among diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted on 38 diabetic patients referring to Sedigheh Tahereh Research and Treatment Center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran in 2012. The subjects were selected based on the goals and inclusion criteria of the study and then were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Herth Hope Index (HHI) was completed by both groups before, after, and 1 month after intervention. In the study group, 120-min sessions of hope therapy were held twice a week for 4 weeks. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were adopted to analyze the data through SPSS version 12. Results: Comparison of the results showed that hope therapy significantly increased hope in diabetic patients after intervention in the study group compared to control (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed that hope therapy increased hope among diabetic patients. This method is suggested to be conducted for diabetic patients. PMID:25709694

  13. Creating the ideal patient experience.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, Th.V

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients' satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today's healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients' awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients' needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services' and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders' commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values.

  14. Left ventricular systolic function in selected type 1 diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Bućan, Kajo; Bojić, Lovro; Fabijanić, Damir; Galetović, Davor; Čapkun, Vesna; Utrobičić, Dobrila Karlica; Bućan, Ivona

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a basic etiologic factor for the development of late clinical complications in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy (which is characterized at the very beginning by microalbuminuria), and left ventricular cardiac dysfunction. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and with or without diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria, and to correlate the duration of diabetes with the dynamics of diabetic retinopathy, microalbuminuria and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction development in these patients. One-hundred and twenty selected patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 were examined by ophthalmologist and cardiologist. All patients underwent ergometric testing and two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography with pulsed Doppler. Patients were divided into three groups according to their fundus findings and microalbuminuria: (1) patients without diabetic retinopathy and without microalbuminuria (n = 40); (2) patients with diabetic retinopathy without microalbuminuria (n = 40); and (3) patients with diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria (n = 40). All three groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (with low cardiovascular risk, regulated blood sugar, and without diabetic neuropathy) had echocardiographic values in the normal range. We found no statistically significant correlation between the duration of diabetes mellitus type 1 and echocardiographic values.

  15. [Pathogenetic substantiation of complex treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Чопей, Іван В; Івачевська, Віталіна В; Чубірко, Ксенія І; Гряділь, Тарас І; Гечко, Михайло М

    Thesis is devoted to the optimization of complex treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes by acting on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as providing hepatoprotection. Optimization of diagnostics and treatment in patients treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Examination and treatment of 117 patients with NAFLD and pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes was performed. It has been proved that the use of a therapeutic scheme that includes a balanced diet, taking into account the daily requirement in proteins, fats and carbohydrates, daily 30-minute walks at a brisk pace, rosuvastatin 10 mg/d, omega-3 PUFA 1000 mg/d and ursodeoxycholic acid 10 mg/kg/d in patients with NAFLD and pre-diabetes facilitates regression of signs of steatosis. In patients with NAFLD and type 2 diabetes the above mentioned therapeutic scheme including sitagliptin 100 mg/d promotes regression of steatohepatitis in steatosis. The prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes has been studied. It has been proved that patients with NAFLD and pre-diabetes belong to the group with high cardiovascular risk. The features of metabolic disorders in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes were researched. Differentiated treatment schemes of nonalcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes have been approved for use.

  16. Metformin with everolimus and octreotide in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Buzzoni, Roberto; Vernieri, Claudio; Concas, Laura; Marceglia, Sara; Giacomelli, Luca; Milione, Massimo; Leuzzi, Livia; Femia, Daniela; Formisano, Barbara; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; de Braud, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    A bidirectional relationship seems to exist between diabetes mellitus and development of pancreatic tumors. Metformin, the most widely used drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, has recently emerged as a potentially active agent in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. In this article, we discuss the potential correlation between glycemic status, administration of antiglycemic treatments, such as metformin or insulin, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients treated with everolimus and octreotide, on the basis of existing evidence and our experience.

  17. Oral Disease Burden in Northern Manhattan Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Evanthia; Park, David B.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between diabetes mellitus and oral disease in a low-socioeconomic-status urban population. Methods. Dental records of 150 adults with diabetes and 150 nondiabetic controls from the dental clinic at Columbia University in Northern Manhattan matched by age and gender were studied. Results. There was a 50% increase in alveolar bone loss in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls. Diabetes, increasing age, male gender, and use of tobacco products had a statistically significant effect on bone loss. Conclusions. Our findings provide evidence that diabetes is an added risk for oral disease in this low-income, underserved population of Northern Manhattan. Oral disease prevention and treatment programs may need to be part of the standards of continuing care for patients with diabetes PMID:15117696

  18. Oral Disease Burden in Northern Manhattan Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Evanthia; Park, David B.; Papapanou, Panos N.; Lamster, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between diabetes mellitus and oral disease in a low-socioeconomic-status urban population. Methods. Dental records of 150 adults with diabetes and 150 nondiabetic controls from the dental clinic at Columbia University in Northern Manhattan matched by age and gender were studied. Results. There was a 50% increase in alveolar bone loss in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls. Diabetes, increasing age, male gender, and use of tobacco products had a statistically significant effect on bone loss. Conclusions. Our findings provide evidence that diabetes is an added risk for oral disease in this low-income, underserved population of Northern Manhattan. Oral disease prevention and treatment programs may need to be part of the standards of continuing care for patients with diabetes PMID:18687631

  19. Nrf2 and Redox Status in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica S.; Picazo, Alejandra; González-Reyes, Susana; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha E.; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2014-01-01

    The redox status associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was evaluated in prediabetic and diabetic subjects. Total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and erythrocytes, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured as redox status markers in 259 controls, 111 prediabetics and 186 diabetic type 2 subjects. Nrf2 was measured in nuclear extract fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Nrf2 levels were lower in prediabetic and diabetic patients. TAS, GSH and activity of glutamate cysteine ligase were lower in diabetic subjects. An increase of MDA and superoxide dismutase activity was found in diabetic subjects. These results suggest that low levels of Nrf2 are involved in the development of oxidative stress and redox status disbalance in diabetic patients. PMID:25383674

  20. Nutritional intervention for a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing every year, and also the acute and chronic complications accompanying this disease are increasing. Diabetic nephropathy is one of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and food intake which is burden to kidney function should be limited. At the same time, diet restriction could deteriorate quality of life of patient with diabetic nephropathy. According to the results of previous studies, the aggressive management is important for delaying of the progression to diabetic nephropathy. Also, the implementation of a personalized diet customized to individuals is an effective tool for preservation of kidney function. This is a case report of a patient with diabetic nephropathy who was introduced to a proper diet through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition, uremia and to maintain blood glucose levels.

  1. Nutritional Intervention for a Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing every year, and also the acute and chronic complications accompanying this disease are increasing. Diabetic nephropathy is one of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and food intake which is burden to kidney function should be limited. At the same time, diet restriction could deteriorate quality of life of patient with diabetic nephropathy. According to the results of previous studies, the aggressive management is important for delaying of the progression to diabetic nephropathy. Also, the implementation of a personalized diet customized to individuals is an effective tool for preservation of kidney function. This is a case report of a patient with diabetic nephropathy who was introduced to a proper diet through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition, uremia and to maintain blood glucose levels. PMID:24527422

  2. Psychological skills training to support diabetes self-management: Qualitative assessment of nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Relevance of diabetes in high cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Fernández, Sandra; Ruilope, Luis M

    2013-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) against a group of hypertensives with type 2 diabetes. We included 4,725 hypertensive patients, 62% male, mean age 64 (SD 12) years, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of the number of associated CVRF (N=2,608), or non-diabetics, in which case we required the presence of 3 CVRF (N=2,117). The prevalence of established CVD (clinical interview) and TOD (left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were estimated. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes had an older age and more marked obesity. Furthermore, these patients showed a higher prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and CVD compared with nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of TOD or established CVD were associated independently with the presence of diabetes. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of LOD and CVD compared to nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Although both situations are included in the high cardiovascular risk stratum, it would be expected an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Mobile patient applications within diabetes - from few and easy to advanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Årsand, Eirik; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Hejlesen, Ole; Horsch, Alexander; Godtliebsen, Fred; Grøttland, Astrid; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patient diaries as apps on mobile phones are becoming increasingly common, and can be a good support tool for patients who need to organize information relevant for their disease. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals and can be a tool for lifestyle changes for patients with Type 2 diabetes. The autoimmune disease Type 1 diabetes requires a more intensive management than Type 2 - thus more advanced functionalities is desirable for users. Both simple and easy-to-use and more advanced diaries have their respective benefits, depending on the target user group and intervention. In this poster we summarize main findings and experience from more than a decade of research and development in the diabetes area. Several versions of the mobile health research platform-the Few Touch Application (FTA) are presented to illustrate the different approaches and results.

  5. Metabolic Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Lwin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a current global health priority and Asia is the epicenter of this epidemic disease. Unlike in the west, where older population is most affected, the burden of diabetes in Asian countries is disproportionately high in young to middle-age adults. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is alarmingly high in patients with early onset T2DM, especially in those with poor glycemic control. How to control this chronic and debilitating disease is currently a very important health issue in Asia. Bariatric surgery has proven successful in treating not just obesity but also T2DM in morbid obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >35 kg/m2). Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery recently has been proposed as a new treatment modality for obesity related T2DM for patients with BMI <35 kg/m2. Many studies from Asia reported promising results of metabolic surgery to treat obese patients with T2DM which is not well controlled. It has been demonstrated that changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion after gastrointestinal surgery would favor an early improvement of T2DM in Asians. New procedures have also been designed and proposed specifically for the treatment of diabetes in Asia. This article examines clinical trial data and accepted algorithms with a view toward elucidating the application of metabolic surgery for the treatment of T2DM in the Asia. We propose a systematic approach to surgical treatment, addressing current evidences, patient selection, procedure of choice, and timing and guideline for new procedures. PMID:27990787

  6. Predictors of direct cost of diabetes care in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examines factors that predict elevated direct costs of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: A cohort of 784 children with type 1 diabetes at least 6 months postdiagnosis and managed by pediatric endocrinologists at Texas Children's Hospital were included in this study. Actual...

  7. Morphofunctional characteristics of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; García-Morales, Esther; Cecilia-Matilla, Almudena; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Carabantes-Alarcón, David

    2013-01-01

    To determine the structural and biomechanical characteristics associated with the conditions diabetes mellitus and diabetic neuropathy. Observational study of 788 patients conducted between February 2007 and February 2009, which included subjects with and without diabetes mellitus who had no active ulcer at enrollment. Demographic variables and the general and specific history of diabetes mellitus were recorded. The patient's foot type according to the Foot Posture Index, joint mobility and deformity were recorded. No associations were found between the different foot types (neutral, pronated and supinated) and the structural and demographic variables at a general level, except for the pronated foot that was associated with a higher body mass index, longer suffering from diabetes and the presence of neuropathy [p<0.001, OR (95% CI): 6.017 (4.198-8.624); p<0.001, OR (95% CI): 1.710 (1.266-2.309); p=0.010, OR (95% CI): 0.759 (0.615-0.937), respectively]. The confluence of risk factors such as neuropathy, body mass index, duration of diabetes and limited joint mobility in patients with diabetes mellitus and pronated foot may be a high-risk anthropometric pattern for developing associated complications such as Charcot foot. A prospective analysis of these patients is required to define the risk for developing Charcot neuroarthropathy. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients attending a diabetes center in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Börü, Ulkü Türk; Alp, Recep; Sargin, Haluk; Koçer, Abdulkadir; Sargin, Mehmet; Lüleci, Arda; Yayla, Ali

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients attending a major Turkish diabetes center. Eight hundred and sixty-six consecutive type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. A single observer performed biothesiometry studies on these patients. The presence of diabetic neuropathy was investigated using neurological symptom scale (NSS) and neurological disability score (NDS) performed. Neuropathy was determined with standardized neurological examinations and defined as the presence of abnormal NSS and NDS together with abnormal sensory or motor signs and symptoms as well as decreased great toe vibration perception. Overall, 60% (n = 520) of the patients were diagnosed as having neuropathy. The prevalence of neuropathy increased with age (p < 0.001) and duration of diabetes (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001) and HbA1c levels (p < 0.001) as the risk factors for neuropathy. The overall prevalence of neuropathy in Turkish type 2 diabetic population was 60%. Age, duration of diabetes, and poor glycemic control were considered to be the risk factors for neuropathy.

  9. Characteristics and health behaviors of diabetic patients receiving influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Achtymichuk, Karly A; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Al Sayah, Fatima; Eurich, Dean T

    2015-07-09

    Epidemiological research has posited a 'healthy user' bias in patients receiving influenza vaccination; thus we sought to evaluate potential healthy-user attributes and their associations with influenza vaccination. Between 2011 and 2013, adults with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Information collected included sociodemographics, diabetes-related data (e.g., duration, complications), health behaviors (e.g., smoking status), functional health status, and satisfaction with healthcare. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential healthy-user attributes independently associated with influenza vaccination. From a cohort of 2040 patients, 1287 (63%) reported receiving the influenza vaccine in the previous year. Average age of the cohort was 64 years (standard deviation 11) and 55% were male. In multivariable analysis, attributes independently associated with influenza vaccination included receiving preventive medications: aspirin (64% vs 44%; adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.34-2.04); blood pressure medications (76% vs 56%; aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71); and cholesterol-lowering medications (74% vs 53%; aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.89), as well as having a healthcare professional check feet for lesions (47% vs 31%; aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.74). Additional covariates independently associated with influenza vaccination included: age over 65 years, respiratory disease, the number of additional comorbidities, and higher ratings of healthcare experience. Vaccinated diabetic patients exhibit many postulated attributes of 'healthy users', which has implications for the interpretation of epidemiological studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness, as well as targeting future vaccination campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient beliefs and sense of control among Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes in northeast Colorado.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Loretta V; Hicks, Paul; Salazar, Gilda; Robinson, C Kelet

    2010-06-01

    Latinos have higher diabetes prevalence and complication rates with lower use of self-management compared to other populations. This study evaluated perceived barriers to diabetes control among Spanish-speaking only patients in rural Colorado. Thirty-five Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes were randomly sampled and interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs concerning diabetes, self-management activities, and the care they received. Patients perceived a high level of control over their diabetes. A minority of patients were adherent to recommended dietary changes or levels of exercise. Use of herbal home remedies to maintain glycemic control was common. Almost half of respondents felt that susto played a role in the development of their diabetes. Three fourths of those testing their glucose felt their physician was not interested in reviewing their blood sugar log. Diabetes management programs should recognize the barriers patients may have to self-management and help patients incorporate traditional beliefs into a workable treatment regimen.

  11. Predictors of Glycated Hemoglobin among Jordanian Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    HAMMAD, Sawsan; DARAWAD, Muhammad; HOURANI, Eman; DEMEH, Waddah

    2015-01-01

    Background: We explored the level of Jordanian patients' knowledge, diabetes related distress, self-management activities and these effects on the A1C level. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional correlational design (conducted in 2013) was utilized to recruit 289 diabetic patients from outpatient diabetes clinics, using self-reported questionnaires (Diabetes Knowledge Test, Diabetes Distress Scale, and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire) in addition to chart review for selected variables. Results: Participants' had mean glycated hemoglobin of 7.88%. Good glycemic control was significantly associated with higher self-management activities (r= −.147), high income (r= −.171), older age (r= −.252), shorter duration of illness (r= .153), and low levels of distress. Despite these relationships only age, duration of illness and income significantly predicted A1C (F (5, 284) = 11.57, P<.001, R2 = .17). Further, diabetes knowledge, diabetes-related distress, and self-management could not predict A1C level. Conclusion: Only diabetes-related distress and self-management correlated with patients' A1C, with no predictive power. Thus, further research is required to shed the light on the large unexplained components of the A1C variance. PMID:26744705

  12. A Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience to Improve Pharmacy Students' Empathy and Cultural Competence

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To implement and assess the effectiveness of an exercise designed to develop pharmacy students' empathy toward patients regarding diabetes and obesity and encourage cultural and “economic” competence. Design Students in the Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience attended a nutrition and weight management lecture, monitored their own nutritional intake by maintaining an online nutrition and exercise journal, and grocery shopped based on an assigned patient scenario. Scenarios varied in terms of income, ethnicity, insurance coverage, family size, grocery store, and medication lists. Students completed written reflections and group discussions and completed pre- and post-assignment survey instruments. Assessment The activities improved student confidence levels regarding nutrition and weight-related patient counseling, and knowledge about general nutrition and weight management. The majority of students agreed that the activities improved their ability to empathize with overweight patients regarding the challenges of nutrition and lifestyle changes and enhanced their awareness of the impact that cultural and financial situations have on nutrition and lifestyle. Conclusion The Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience positively impacted the way pharmacy students view the challenges surrounding nutrition and healthy eating in patients with culturally and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. PMID:19513175

  13. A Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience to improve pharmacy students' empathy and cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Jennifer M; Hardy, Yolanda

    2009-04-07

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an exercise designed to develop pharmacy students' empathy toward patients regarding diabetes and obesity and encourage cultural and "economic" competence. Students in the Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience attended a nutrition and weight management lecture, monitored their own nutritional intake by maintaining an online nutrition and exercise journal, and grocery shopped based on an assigned patient scenario. Scenarios varied in terms of income, ethnicity, insurance coverage, family size, grocery store, and medication lists. Students completed written reflections and group discussions and completed pre- and post-assignment survey instruments. The activities improved student confidence levels regarding nutrition and weight-related patient counseling, and knowledge about general nutrition and weight management. The majority of students agreed that the activities improved their ability to empathize with overweight patients regarding the challenges of nutrition and lifestyle changes and enhanced their awareness of the impact that cultural and financial situations have on nutrition and lifestyle. The Nutrition Journal and Diabetes Shopping Experience positively impacted the way pharmacy students view the challenges surrounding nutrition and healthy eating in patients with culturally and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds.

  14. Height at diagnosis of insulin dependent diabetes in patients and their non-diabetic family members.

    PubMed Central

    Songer, T J; LaPorte, R E; Tajima, N; Orchard, T J; Rabin, B S; Eberhardt, M S; Dorman, J S; Cruickshanks, K J; Cavender, D E; Becker, D J

    1986-01-01

    Height at the onset of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 200 newly diagnosed children, 187 non-diabetic siblings, and 169 parents. Diabetic children 5-9 years of age at diagnosis were consistently taller than the national average. Non-diabetic siblings of the same age were also tall. Diabetic children aged 14 or over at diagnosis were short, while their siblings and parents were of normal height. Diabetic children positive for islet cell antibodies were taller than those without islet cell antibodies. No association between height and HLA antigens was found. Non-diabetic siblings at high risk for the disease were closer in height to the diabetic children than were the lower risk, non-diabetic siblings. Siblings, particularly those under 10, were also significantly more obese than the general population. Deviations in growth in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus appear to be related to age at diagnosis and a factor(s) not related to parental height. PMID:3087454

  15. Perception and knowledge of patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia about their disease and medication: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Qazaz, Harith Khalid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Sundram, Shameni

    2011-06-01

    Diabetic patients' experience and knowledge about their medication play an important role in determining the success of long-term adherence in their disease management. This study aimed to explore diabetic patients' experience and knowledge about diabetes and its medication and to understand the factors contributing to medication adherence in Malaysian population. A qualitative research approach was adopted to gain a better understanding of the current perceptions and knowledge held by diabetic patients. Twelve patients were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Saturation point of the interview was reached after the 10th interview, and no more new themes emerged from the subsequent 2 interviews. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by means of a standard content analysis framework. A total of 4 themes were identified from the interview analysis: knowledge about diabetes and its medication, experiences of adverse effects of medication, issues related to adherence, and the impact of medical and family relationships on well-being. Most of the patients were aware of the disease known as diabetes but unaware which type of diabetes they were suffering from. None of the participants knew the adverse effects of their medication, and most of them considered it to be safe. Financial barriers, forgetfulness, self-medication, and quality of relationships with doctor and family members seem to be the factors that challenge adherence in our sample of diabetic patients. This study identified a number of key themes that might be useful in enhancing the awareness of experiences, knowledge, adherence, and attitudes of Malaysian patients with diabetes. More efforts should be taken to estimate how diabetic patients take their medication, and a well-planned educational program is also required to educate and encourage patients to practice a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. General practitioners' and nurses' experiences of using computerised decision support in screening for diabetic foot disease: implementing Scottish Clinical Information - Diabetes Care in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Fay; Bekker, Hilary L; Young, Matthew; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    The Scottish Care Information - Diabetes Collaboration (SCI-DC) developed a computer-based information system to create a shared electronic record for use by all involved in the care of patients with diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this study were to understand primary care practitioners' views towards screening for diabetic foot disease and their experience of the SCI-DC system. We conducted an exploratory study using qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were audiotape-recorded, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Seven practice nurses and six general practitioners (GPs) with special responsibility for diabetes care in NHS Lothian participated. Primary care clinicians reported good systems in place to screen for diabetes-related complications and to refer their patients to specialist care. Foot ulceration was rarely observed; other diabetes related conditions were seen as a higher priority. Most had heard of the SCI-DC foot assessment tool, but its failure to integrate with other primary care information technology (IT) systems meant it was not used in these general practices. Adoption of the SCI-DC foot assessment tool in primary care is not perceived as clinically necessary. Although information recorded by specialist services on SCI-DC is helpful, important structural barriers to its implementation mean the potential benefits associated with its use are unlikely to be realised; greater engagement with primary care priorities for diabetes management is needed to assist its successful implementation and adoption.

  17. [Aspects of perioperative care in patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Pestel, G; Closhen, D; Zimmermann, A; Werner, C; Weber, M M

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a common disease in Germany. Due to diabetes-associated end-organ disease, such as large and small vessel disease and neuropathy, diabetic patients require more intense anesthesia care during the perioperative phase. An in-depth and comprehensive medical history focusing on hemodynamic alterations, gastroparesis, neuropathy and stiff joint syndrome is a cornerstone of perioperative care and may affect outcome of diabetes patients more than specific anesthetic medications or the anesthetic procedure. Intraoperative anesthetic care needs to focus on preservation of hemodynamic stability, perioperative infection control and maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Whereas some years ago strict glucose control by aggressive insulin therapy was adamantly advocated, the results of recent studies have put the risk of such therapeutic algorithms into perspective. Therefore, optimized perioperative care of diabetic patients consists of setting a predefined targeted blood glucose level, evidence-based therapeutic approaches to reach that goal and finally adequate and continuous monitoring and amendment of the therapeutic approach if required.

  18. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Casqueiro, Juliana; Casqueiro, Janine; Alves, Cresio

    2012-01-01

    In general, infectious diseases are more frequent and/or serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, which potentially increases their morbimortality. The greater frequency of infections in diabetic patients is caused by the hyperglycemic environment that favors immune dysfunction (e.g., damage to the neutrophil function, depression of the antioxidant system, and humoral immunity), micro- and macro-angiopathies, neuropathy, decrease in the antibacterial activity of urine, gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility, and greater number of medical interventions in these patients. The infections affect all organs and systems. Some of these problems are seen mostly in diabetic people, such as foot infections, malignant external otitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and gangrenous cholecystitis. In addition to the increased morbidity, infectious processes may be the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus or the precipitating factors for complications inherent to the disease, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. Immunization with anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. PMID:22701840

  19. [Antibiotic treatment in patients amputated for ischemic diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Fernández Montequín, J I; McCook Martínez, J; Lima Santana, B; Velasco Armas, N; Montalvo Diago, J; Mahía Vilas, M

    1991-01-01

    Thirty diabetic patients submitted to a major amputation were tested by humo-celullar assays (retarded hypersensibility assays). Reactive patients were subdivided into two groups: one group was treated postoperatively with antibiotics, and the other group was not treated. Both groups were homogeneous in age, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, total proteins, glucemy and history of sepsis or leukocytosis. Five patients treated with antibiotics (33.3%) presented sepsis, one patient was reamputated and one patient died. Between the not treated patients, only three presented sepsis (20%) without any other complications. Authors conclude that the development of sepsis in reactive, diabetic, amputated patients is independent of antibiotic treatment.

  20. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  1. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear. This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes. Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation. Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated. The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n = 32) and minor lower limb (n = 96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–7.74; P = 0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79–6.61; P < 0.001). DME is strongly and independently associated with lower limb amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26287408

  2. Utilizing Information Technologies for Lifelong Monitoring in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Davide; Lanzola, Giordano

    2011-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies have long been acknowledged to support information sharing along the whole chain of care, from the clinic to the homes of patients and their relatives. Thus they are increasingly being considered for improving the delivery of health care services also in light of clinical and technological achievements that propose new treatments requiring a tighter interaction among patients and physicians. Methods The multiagent paradigm has been utilized within an architecture for delivering telemedicine services to chronic outpatients at their domiciles and enforcing cooperation among patients, caregivers, and different members of the health care staff. The architecture sees each communication device such as a palmtop, smart phone, or personal digital assistant as a separate agent upon which different services are deployed, including telemetry, reminders, notifications, and alarms. Decoupling services from agents account for a highly configurable environment applicable to almost any context that can be customized as needed. Results The architecture has been used for designing and implementing a prototypical software infrastructure, called LifePhone, that runs on several communication devices. A basic set of services has been devised with which we were able to configure two different applications that address long-term and short-term monitoring scenarios for diabetes patients. The long-term scenario encompasses telemetry and reminder services for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, which is a treatment for chronic renal failure, a diabetes complication. The short-term scenario incorporates telemetry and remote alarms and is applicable for training patients to use an artificial pancreas. Conclusions Our experiments proved that an infrastructure such as LifePhone can be used successfully for bridging the interaction gap that exists among all the components of a health care delivery process, improving the quality of service

  3. Severe Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular or All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seon-Ah; Yun, Jae-Seung; Lim, Tae-Seok; Hwang, Seawon; Yim, Eun-Jung; Song, Ki-Ho; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Park, Yong-Moon; Ahn, Yu-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between severe hypoglycemia (SH) and the risk of cardiovascular (CV) or all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study included 1,260 patients aged 25 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes from the Vincent Type 2 Diabetes Resgistry (VDR), who consecutively enrolled (n=1,260) from January 2000 to December 2010 and were followed up until May 2015 with a median follow-up time of 10.4 years. Primary outcomes were death from any cause or CV death. We investigated the association between the CV or all-cause mortality and various covariates using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results Among the 906 participants (71.9%) who completed follow-up, 85 patients (9.4%) had at least one episode of SH, and 86 patients (9.5%) died (9.1 per 1,000 patient-years). Patients who had died were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, received more insulin, and had more diabetic microvascular complications at baseline, as compared with surviving patients. The experience of SH was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 5.02; P=0.003) and CV mortality (HR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.02 to 19.87; P=0.002) after adjusting for sex, age, diabetic duration, hypertension, mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels, diabetic nephropathy, lipid profiles, and insulin use. Conclusion We found a strong association between SH and increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27098504

  4. Benefit of Blood Pressure Control in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kintscher, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The coexistence of arterial hypertension and diabetes represents a devastating partnership for cardiovascular health. Thus, blood pressure and blood glucose control are essential therapeutic goals to reduce cardiovascular risk and other diabetes-related endpoints in these patients. The major benefit of blood pressure lowering in diabetes comes from a marked reduction of cardiovascular and renal endpoints. New target blood pressure values to achieve maximum cardiovascular and renal protection will be discussed. In addition to the reduction of macrovascular endpoints, blood pressure lowering therapy in diabetic patients has also been discussed to improve microvascular diseases during diabetes, in particular microalbuminuria or diabetic retinopathy. However, current clinical trial evidence is less robust than for macrovascular disease. Clinical studies showed controversial results, and will be discussed. Finally, new data from the ADVANCE-ON study about the long-term, sustained benefit of blood pressure lowering in hypertensive, diabetic patients has been recently published, and will be evaluated in the context of previous evidence. In summary, the present article will discuss selected new topics in the field of hypertension and diabetes focusing on the benefits achieved by blood pressure lowering in these patients.

  5. Presence and Risk Factors for Glaucoma in Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Song, Brian J; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pasquale, Louis R

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure-the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While no study has completely addressed the possibility of detection bias, most recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetic populations are likely enriched with glaucoma patients. As the association between diabetes and glaucoma becomes better defined, routine evaluation for glaucoma in diabetic patients, particularly in the telemedicine setting, may become a reasonable consideration to reduce the risk of vision loss in these patients.

  6. Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants’ knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  7. Influence of diabetes mellitus on mortality in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiang; Gu, Chen; Xia, Jiazeng

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumours among women worldwide. Besides, diabetes mellitus is also a major health problem in developed countries. This study explores the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes. A systematic literature search in Embase (http://www.embase.com) and MEDLINE (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) was conducted from January 1960 to April 2014 and systematically identified clinical studies that evaluated the association between breast cancer mortality and diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies investigating the association between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer patients' survival outcomes were included. Twenty publications were chosen for the meta-analysis, of which 16 studies had all-cause mortality data and 12 studies had breast cancer mortality data. Published from 2001 to 2013, all 20 studies followed a total of 2,645,249 patients including more than 207,832 diabetic patients. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus was associated with a 37% increased risk for all-cause mortality in women with breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-1.41; P = 0.02). Diabetes mellitus was associated with a 17% increased risk for breast cancer mortality in women with breast cancer (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.11-1.22; P < 0.01). Women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality after initial breast cancer diagnosis. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Presence and Risk Factors for Glaucoma in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Brian J.; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure – the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. While no study has completely addressed the possibility of detection bias, most recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that diabetic populations are likely enriched with glaucoma patients. As the association between diabetes and glaucoma becomes better-defined, routine evaluation for glaucoma in diabetic patients, particularly in the telemedicine setting, may become a reasonable consideration to reduce the risk of vision loss in these patients. PMID:27766584

  9. Clinical Experience with Insulin Glargine in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Emily; Dain, Marie-Paule; Rodionova, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated the importance of optimal glycemic control achieved through intensive insulin therapy in reducing the microvascular complications associated with type 1 diabetes. However, the DCCT, which was conducted prior to the availability of insulin analogs, also reported a significant increase in severe hypoglycemia with intensive versus conventional therapy. Insulin analogs were developed to aid patients in achieving better diabetes control by providing insulins with optimized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. Insulin glargine was the first long-acting insulin analog with a 24-h duration of action, offering once-daily injection, and has now been in clinical use for over 10 years. The authors performed a systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science (Science Citation Index) to determine the efficacy of insulin glargine in type 1 diabetes in basal–bolus insulin regimens. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that glycemic control with insulin glargine is at least comparable to that with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in adults and in children and adolescents, and with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults. However, these same trials show a significantly lower risk for hypoglycemia with insulin glargine compared with NPH insulin in adults. PMID:20969435

  10. Clinical experience with insulin glargine in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satish; Moser, Emily; Dain, Marie-Paule; Rodionova, Anastasia

    2010-11-01

    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated the importance of optimal glycemic control achieved through intensive insulin therapy in reducing the microvascular complications associated with type 1 diabetes. However, the DCCT, which was conducted prior to the availability of insulin analogs, also reported a significant increase in severe hypoglycemia with intensive versus conventional therapy. Insulin analogs were developed to aid patients in achieving better diabetes control by providing insulins with optimized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. Insulin glargine was the first long-acting insulin analog with a 24-h duration of action, offering once-daily injection, and has now been in clinical use for over 10 years. The authors performed a systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science (Science Citation Index) to determine the efficacy of insulin glargine in type 1 diabetes in basal-bolus insulin regimens. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that glycemic control with insulin glargine is at least comparable to that with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in adults and in children and adolescents, and with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults. However, these same trials show a significantly lower risk for hypoglycemia with insulin glargine compared with NPH insulin in adults.

  11. Implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne diabetes prevention study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many public health interventions based on apparently sound evidence from randomised controlled trials encounter difficulties when being scaled up within health systems. Even under the best of circumstances, implementation is exceedingly difficult. In this paper we will describe the implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study, which is a randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness nested in the state-wide Life! Taking Action on Diabetes program in Victoria, Australia. Discussion The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study sits within an evolving larger scale implementation project, the Life! program. Changes that occurred during the roll-out of that program had a direct impact on the process of conducting this trial. The issues and methods of recovery the study team encountered were conceptualised using an implementation salvage strategies framework. The specific issues the study team came across included continuity of the state funding for Life! program and structural changes to the Life! program which consisted of adjustments to eligibility criteria, referral processes, structure and content, as well as alternative program delivery for different population groups. Staff turnover, recruitment problems, setting and venue concerns, availability of potential participants and participant characteristics were also identified as evaluation roadblocks. Each issue and corresponding salvage strategy is presented. Summary The experiences of conducting such a novel trial as the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study have been invaluable. The lessons learnt and knowledge gained will inform the future execution of this trial in the coming years. We anticipate that these results will also be beneficial to other researchers conducting similar trials in the public health field. We recommend that researchers openly share their experiences, barriers and challenges when conducting randomised controlled

  12. Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Diaz, Nicanor; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Fayna; Marrero-Robayna, Silvia; Santana-Estupiñan, Raquel; Gallego-Samper, Roberto; Henriquez-Palop, Fernando; Perez-Borges, Patricia; Rodriguez-Perez, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN), using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt) relative to distribution volume (V) (or total body water) (Kt/V), or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl) decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively), and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively). Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0.22, 12

  13. Optimizing postpartum care for the patient with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Noelle G; Niznik, Charlotte M; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus poses well-established risks to both the mother and infant. As >50% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus in their lifetime, performing postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing is paramount to initiation of appropriate lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy. Nonetheless, test completion among women with gestational diabetes mellitus is estimated to be <50%, with particularly low rates in Latina patients, as well as patients with public insurance, low education levels, and low health literacy. Data suggest our current health services infrastructure loses patients in the postpartum gap between pregnancy-focused care and primary care. Previous studies have suggested strategies to promote oral glucose tolerance testing completion to identify type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on existing evidence, we propose best practices for the postpartum care of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: (1) enhanced patient support for identifying long-term health care providers, (2) patient-centered medical home utilization when possible, (3) patient and provider test reminders, and (4) formalized obstetrician-primary care provider hand offs using the Situation Background Assessment Recommendation (SBAR) mnemonic. These strategies deserve future investigation to solidify a multilevel approach for identifying and preventing the continuum of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Zheng, Yuxi; Coursey, Terry G.; Zhao, Yinying; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Chen, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate meibomian gland and tear film function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods This prospective study compared changes in meibomian gland and tear film function in type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by measuring lipid layer thickness (LLT), grading of meibomian gland loss, lid margin abnormalities, and expression of meibum. Tear film function was assessed by measuring tear breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer I test, noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), and corneal fluorescein staining. Results Meibography scores were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic group (p = 0.004). The number of expressible glands was significantly lower in the diabetic group in temporal, central, and nasal third of the lower eyelid (nasal: p = 0.002; central: p = 0.040; and temporal: p = 0.039). The lid margin abnormality score was significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in the tear film function parameters between the two groups. Conclusions Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in type 2 diabetic patients is more severe compared with nondiabetic patients. Overall, most of the diabetic patients manifest as having asymptomatic MGD. PMID:28593054

  15. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaolei; Xu, Binbin; Zheng, Yuxi; Coursey, Terry G; Zhao, Yinying; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Chen, Xuewen; Zhao, Yun-E

    2017-01-01

    To investigate meibomian gland and tear film function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This prospective study compared changes in meibomian gland and tear film function in type 2 diabetic patients with nondiabetic patients. Meibomian gland function was evaluated by measuring lipid layer thickness (LLT), grading of meibomian gland loss, lid margin abnormalities, and expression of meibum. Tear film function was assessed by measuring tear breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer I test, noninvasive breakup time (NIBUT), tear meniscus height (TMH), and corneal fluorescein staining. Meibography scores were significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the nondiabetic group (p = 0.004). The number of expressible glands was significantly lower in the diabetic group in temporal, central, and nasal third of the lower eyelid (nasal: p = 0.002; central: p = 0.040; and temporal: p = 0.039). The lid margin abnormality score was significantly higher in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (p = 0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in the tear film function parameters between the two groups. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in type 2 diabetic patients is more severe compared with nondiabetic patients. Overall, most of the diabetic patients manifest as having asymptomatic MGD.

  16. [Patient education: an indispensable element of care of patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Hidvégi, Tibor

    2011-11-27

    Diabetes is a chronic and progressive disorder that impacts upon almost every aspect of life. The number of people with diabetes is continuously growing and diabetes is associated with a high mortality rate. Diabetes education is a critical element of care of people with diabetes in order to improve clinical outcomes. The therapeutic patient education is a planned and structured program that is comprehensive in scope, flexible in content, responsive to an individual's clinical and psychological needs, and adaptable to patients' educational and cultural background. The diabetes educator should control the implementation of education and should evaluate the patient's knowledge. The educator should be trained for care of patients with chronic diseases and for education of patients with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Creating the ideal patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Purcărea, Th.V

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients’ satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today’s healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients’ awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients’ needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services’ and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders’ commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values. PMID:27928442

  18. Study methodology and diabetes control in patients from the non-English diabetes management project (NEDMP).

    PubMed

    Dirani, Mohamed; Dang, Trung M; Xie, Jing; Gnanasekaran, Sivashanth; Nicolaou, Theona; Rees, Gwyneth; Fenwick, Eva; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of non-English speaking patients from the Diabetes Management Project (NEDMP), and compare their diabetes management and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the English-speaking DMP sample (EDMP). A prospective study was conducted on non-English speaking adults with diabetes who attended the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. 136 (90.1%) non-English speaking adults were assessed, with a mean age of 72.2 years (range: 50-88 years); 74 (54.4%) were male. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, biochemistry and anthropometric measurements. The EDMP assessed 609 patients in 2009 using a similar protocol. Type and duration of diabetes, diabetes control and diabetic retinopathy. A total of 127 (93.4%) and 8 (5.9%) participants reported having type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, with a median (IQR) duration of 17 (14) years. The proportion of patients with poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) in the NEDMP was similar to the EDMP (64.0% and 68.2%, respectively; P = 0.411). A significantly higher proportion of patients with DR in the NEDMP were found to have poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) compared to those without DR (80.9% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.003). Almost two-thirds of NEDMP patients (74/118) had DR and 23% (27/115) had diabetic macular edema. The prevalence of DR was similar between the NEDMP and EDMP studies, ranging from 25-30% and 28-29%. The clinical characteristics, diabetes control, and DR severity of English and non-English-speaking patients were similar. The high proportion of poor diabetes management in non-English speaking patients with DR suggests educational and behavioural interventions to improve glycaemic control are warranted. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Transferred to Korean Referral Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Young; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, In Kyu; Baek, Hong Sun; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Min Young

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the disease profile and clinical management, including the status of both glycemic control and complications, in patients with diabetes who were transferred to referral hospitals in Korea. Methods Patients referred to 20 referral hospitals in Gyeongsangnam/Gyeongsangbuk-do and Jeollanam/Jeollabuk-do with at least a 1-year history of diabetes between January and June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed using medical records, laboratory tests, and questionnaires. Results A total of 654 patients were enrolled in the study. In total, 437 patients (67%) were transferred from clinics and 197 (30%) patients were transferred from hospitals. A total of 279 patients (43%) visited higher medical institutions without a written medical request. The main reason for the referral was glycemic control in 433 patients (66%). Seventy-three patients (11%) had received more than one session of diabetic education. Only 177 patients (27%) had been routinely self-monitoring blood glucose, and 146 patients (22%) were monitoring hemoglobin A1c. In addition, proper evaluations for diabetic complications were performed for 74 patients (11%). The most common complication was neuropathy (32%) followed by nephropathy (31%). In total, 538 patients (82%) had been taking oral hypoglycemic agents. A relatively large number of patients (44%) had been taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion We investigated the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients and identified specific problems in diabetic management prior to the transfer. We also found several problems in the medical system, which were divided into three medical institutions having different roles in Korea. Our findings suggested that the relationships among medical institutions have to be improved, particularly for diabetes. PMID:25349826

  20. The under-use of statin in type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Avogaro, Angelo; Guida, Pietro; Giorda, Carlo; Mannucci, Edoardo; Medea, Gerardo; Comaschi, Marco; Velussi, Mario; Armienti, Guglielmo; Zucchetti, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    The greatest decrease in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CAD) that can be achieved with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) is seen in patients with the highest risk for CAD, such as diabetics. Yet, there is evidence for inadequate use of drug therapies to achieve lipid goals. Our aims were to: (1) assess the prevalence of statin use in patients attending diabetic clinics and (2) correlate the use of statins with their risk and clinical status. Of 9921 patients included, only 20.4% of them were receiving statin therapy. Statins were more progressively prescribed in those with risk factors additional to that of diabetes. Patients under statin treatment were older, mostly type 2 diabetics, more hypertensive and hyperlipidemic, had a higher prevalence of both macro- and microvascular disease. Among those with a total cholesterol concentration above 252 mg/dl, statin treatment was given only to 60% of diabetic patients with prior myocardial infarction, 56% of those with angina, 66% of those having had prior revascularization procedure, 54% of those with cerebrovascular disease and 51% of those with peripheral artery disease. At least in Italy, statins are not prescribed to the majority of diabetic patients, and a substantial proportion of patients not treated with statins present significant macro- and microvascular complications.

  1. 'Managing patient involvement': provider perspectives on diabetes decision-making.

    PubMed

    Shortus, Tim; Kemp, Lynn; McKenzie, Suzanne; Harris, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Most studies of shared decision-making focus on acute treatment or screening decision-making encounters, yet a significant proportion of primary care is concerned with managing patients with chronic disease. To investigate provider perspectives on the role of patient involvement in chronic disease decision-making. A qualitative, grounded theory study of patient involvement in diabetes care planning. Interviews were conducted with 29 providers (19 general practitioners, eight allied health providers, and two endocrinologists) who participated in diabetes care planning. Providers described a conflict between their responsibilities to deliver evidence-based diabetes care and to respect patients' rights to make decisions. While all were concerned with providing best possible diabetes care, they differed in the emphasis they placed on 'treating to target' or practicing 'personalized care'. Those preferring to 'treat to target' were more assertive, while 'personalized care' meant being more accepting of the patient's priorities. Providers sought to manage patient involvement in decision-making according to their objectives. 'Treating to target' meant involving patients where necessary to tailor care to their needs and abilities, but limiting patient involvement in decisions about the overall agenda. 'Personalized care' meant involving patients to tailor care to patient preference. Respecting a patient's autonomy and delivering high-quality diabetes care are important to providers. At times it may not be possible to do both, so a careful balance is required. Involving patients in decision-making may be a means to this end, rather than an end in itself. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Plasma proteome analysis of patients with type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background As part of a clinical proteomics program focused on diabetes and its complications we are looking for new and better protein biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. The search for new and better biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy has, with a few exceptions, previously focused on either hypothesis-driven studies or urinary based investigations. To date only two studies have investigated the proteome of blood in search for new biomarkers, and these studies were conducted in sera from patients with type 2 diabetes. This is the first reported in depth proteomic study where plasma from type 1 diabetic patients was investigated with the goal of finding improved candidate biomarkers to predict diabetic nephropathy. In order to reach lower concentration proteins in plasma a pre-fractionation step, either hexapeptide bead-based libraries or anion exchange chromatography, was performed prior to surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Results Proteomic analysis of plasma from a cross-sectional cohort of 123 type 1 diabetic patients previously diagnosed as normoalbuminuric, microalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric, gave rise to 290 peaks clusters of which 16 were selected as the most promising biomarker candidates based on statistical performance, including independent component analysis. Four of the peaks that were discovered have been identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein C1 and cystatin C. Several yet unidentified proteins discovered by this novel approach appear to have more potential as biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion These results demonstrate the capacity of proteomic analysis of plasma, by confirming the presence of known biomarkers as well as revealing new biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy in plasma in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:20205888

  3. Developing and Implementing a Food Insecurity Screening Initiative for Patients Living with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brittany; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Sidani, Souraya; Gucciardi, Enza

    2017-08-07

    Routine food insecurity screening is recommended in diabetes care to inform more tailored interventions that better support diabetes self-management among food-insecure patients. This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of a food insecurity screening initiative within a diabetes care setting in Toronto. A systematic literature review informed the development of a food insecurity screening initiative to help health-care providers tailor diabetes management plans and better support food-insecure patients with type 2 diabetes. Interviews with 10 patients and a focus group with 15 care providers elicited feedback on the relevance and acceptance of the food insecurity screening questions and a care algorithm. Subsequently, 5 care providers at 4 sites implemented the screening initiative over 2 weeks, screening 33 patients. After implementation, 7 patients and 5 care providers were interviewed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the screening initiative. Our findings demonstrate that patients are willing to share their experiences of food insecurity, despite the sensitivity of this topic. Screening elicited information about how patients cope with food insecurity and how this affects their ability to self-manage diabetes. Care providers found this information helpful in directing their care and support for patients. Using a standardized, respectful method of assessing food insecurity can better equip health-care providers to support food-insecure patients with diabetes self-management. Further evaluation of this initiative is needed to determine how food insecurity screening can affect patients' self-management and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Diabetes passport--understanding and use among different ethnic groups of diabetes patients. Interviews with Turkish, Pakistani and Danish patients].

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Vibe-Petersen, Jette; Røjen, Dorrit; Mølvig, Jens C

    2007-11-12

    Diabetes passports for patients have been used for years in hospitals in our region. Since 2004 data have been printed from the electronic database DiabetesRASK and a new edition of the passport is given to patients at each visit. One of the objectives of the passport is to serve as a pedagogic tool. However, patients' understanding and use of the passport has never been studied. Inclusion criteria for patients: type 2 diabetes, born in Turkey (T) or Pakistan (P), regular attendees at the outpatient clinics at Hvidovre Hospital or Amager Hospital and their personal diabetes data in the database DiabetesRASK. A comparable group of Danish diabetes patients was selected. All were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. 14 T, 11 P and 10 D patients participated in the study. 53% T and 73% P had the ability to read in their own language while 15% T and 55% P were able to read in Danish. In the groups fewer than 25% had ever shown their passport to the GP. Between 0% and 36% of any of the given questions were understood or identified correctly by T patients. Similar figures for the P and D patients were 0-55% and 30-100%. It is demonstrated that the diabetes passport is not widely used by patients. Furthermore, we found poor understanding of information on the passport in general but with great individual variability. The poorest understanding was found among immigrants, which might be the result of language problems. However, Danish patients also had insufficient understanding of the information. We recommend that the diabetes passport be rewritten so that it is more easily understood by patients and that outpatient clinics also allocate more resources to the guidance of patients concerning the passport.

  5. Dyslipidemia, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  6. Chromium level in prediction of diabetes in pre-diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Habyby, Zahra; Fouladi, Lootfollah; Najafi, Somayeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Torabi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromium supplementations (Cr) have been shown to exert beneficial effects in the management of type-2 diabetes. Prevalence of Cr deficiency in pre-diabetic patients is not well-understood, therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of this prevalence. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 132 pre-diabetic patients were recruited. The participants were randomly selected from those who referred to the Shariati Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Blood samples are collected for measurement of Cr, insulin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and two-hour post-load plasma glucose. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Determination of Cr was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: Thirty-four (31.5%) patients had Cr deficiency and 74 (68.5%) patients had normal Cr. There was no significant difference between sex, age groups (<50 years and ≥50 years) and between patients with and without a family history of diabetes in both the groups. No significant differences in age, BMI, FBS or insulin were observed between two groups. In the group with a normal level of Cr, there was a significant reversed correlation between the Cr level and age, but no significant correlation existed between the Cr level and other factors in both groups. Conclusion: The levels of Cr deficiency are relatively common in patients with pre-diabetes, and it is necessary to screen patients with diabetes and pre-diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines, with regard to the Cr level and action should be taken to eliminate the Cr deficiency in these patients. PMID:25538921

  7. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study: Global perspectives on access to and experiences of diabetic retinopathy screening and treatment.

    PubMed

    Cavan, D; Makaroff, L; da Rocha Fernandes, J; Sylvanowicz, M; Ackland, P; Conlon, J; Chaney, D; Malhi, A; Barratt, J

    2017-07-01

    To assess the level of awareness, prevention and treatment of Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) comprising Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Macula Edema (DME) retinopathy among adults with diabetes and health professionals. The Diabetic Retinopathy Barometer Study consisted of a qualitative study, which consisted of semi-structured interviews, and a quantitative study using online surveys for adults with diabetes and for health professionals. A total of 4340 adults with diabetes and 2329 health professionals participated in the surveys. Diabetic eye disease (DED) without macular edema (DME) was reported by 19.5% of adults with diabetes and a further 7.6% reported that they had DME. Although 94% of adults with diabetes saw a health care professional for their diabetes, only 79% had ever had an eye examination for DED, and 23% had not had an eye examination in the last year. Moreover, 65% of the ophthalmologists surveyed reported that most patients presented when visual problems had already occurred. Overall, 62% of people with DED had received treatment. Of these, 74% had laser therapy, 29% surgery and 24% anti-VEGF therapy. Strategic investment is required to enhance patient education and professional training on the importance of regular eye examinations; and in providing accessible DR screening programmes and proactive treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Jambart, S; Ammache, Z; Haddad, F; Younes, A; Hassoun, A; Abdalla, K; Selwan, C Abou; Sunna, N; Wajsbrot, D; Youseif, E

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was evaluated in type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 4097) attending outpatient clinics across the Middle East. Overall, 53.7% of 3989 patients with DN4 data met the criteria for painful DPN (Douleur Neuropathique-4 [DN4] scores ≥ 4). Significant predictors of painful DPN included long history (≥ 10 years) of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.43), age ≥ 65 years (OR 2.13), age 50 - 64 years (OR 1.75), presence of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes (OR 1.59), body mass index > 30 kg/m(2) (OR 1.35) and female gender (OR 1.27). Living in one of the Gulf States was associated with the lowest odds of having painful DPN (OR 0.44). The odds of painful DPN were highest among patients with peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.98), diabetic retinopathy (OR 3.90) and diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.23). Because of the high prevalence and associated suffering, disability and economic burden of painful DPN, it is important that diabetic patients are periodically screened, using a simple instrument such as the DN4, and receive appropriate treatment if symptoms develop.

  9. Comparison of Age of Onset and Frequency of Diabetic Complications in the Very Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in elderly people has increased dramatically in the last few decades. This study was designed to clarify the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes in patients aged ≥80 years according to age of onset. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 289 patients aged ≥80 years with type 2 diabetes at the outpatient diabetes clinics of Kangwon National University Hospital from September 2010 to June 2014. We divided the patients into middle-age-onset diabetes (onset before 65 years of age) and elderly-onset diabetes (onset at 65+ years of age). Results There were 141 male and 148 female patients. The patients had a mean age of 83.2±2.9 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 14.3±10.4 years. One hundred and ninety-nine patients had elderly-onset diabetes. The patients with elderly-onset diabetes had a significantly lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, lower serum creatinine levels, lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and similar coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction rates compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. There was no frequency difference in coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction and HbA1c levels between three subgroups (<5, 5 to 15, and ≥15 years) of diabetes duration in elderly onset diabetes. However, both in the elderly onset diabetes and middle-age-onset diabetes, the cumulative incidence of retinopathy was increasing rapidly according to the duration of diabetes. Conclusion We report that individuals with elderly-onset diabetes have a lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy and similar cardiovascular complications compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. PMID:27586451

  10. Diabetes Decision Support: Initial Experience With the Vermont Diabetes Information System

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Charles D.; Littenberg, Benjamin; Gagnon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Interventions that have proven effective in the management of chronic illness have often been difficult to establish in widespread practice. The Chronic Care Model provides a framework for implementing interventions, but it is expensive and difficult to implement. We developed a decision support system based on this model to improve the care of adults who have diabetes and receive primary care in Vermont or adjacent New York. The Vermont Diabetes Information System uses a network of community laboratories for providing data to produce flowsheets, reminders, action alerts, and population reports that are sent to primary care providers by fax and to patients by mail. Currently, 7295 patients are cared for by 124 primary care providers in 62 practices and are enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to study its effects. PMID:16507723

  11. Bringing patient centricity to diabetes medication access in Canada.

    PubMed

    Glennie, Judith L; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Oh, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Canada must become proactive in addressing type 2 diabetes. With the second highest rate of diabetes prevalence in the developed world, the number of Canadians living with diabetes will soon reach epidemic levels. Against international comparisons, Canada also performs poorly with respect to diabetes-related hospitalizations, mortality rates, and access to medications. Diabetes and its comorbidities pose a significant burden on people with diabetes (PWD) and their families, through out-of-pocket expenses for medications, devices, supplies, and the support needed to manage their illness. Rising direct and indirect costs of diabetes will become a drain on Canada's economy and undermine the financial stability of our health care system. Canada's approach to diabetes medication assessment and funding has created a patchwork of medication access across provinces. Access to treatments for those who rely on public programs is highly restricted compared to Canadians with private drug plans, as well in contrast with public payers in other countries. Each person living with diabetes has different needs, so a "patient-centric" approach ensures treatment focused on individual circumstances. Such tailoring is difficult to achieve, with the linear approach required by public payers. We may be undermining optimal care for PWD because of access policies that are not aligned with individualized approaches - and increasing overall health care costs in the process. The scope of Canada's diabetes challenge demands holistic and proactive solutions. Canada needs to get out from "behind the eight ball" and get "ahead of the curve" when it comes to diabetes care. Improving access to medications is one of the tools for getting there. Canada's "call to action" for diabetes starts with effective implementation of existing best practices. A personalized approach to medication access, to meet individual needs and optimize outcomes, is also a key enabler. PWD and prescribers need reimbursement

  12. Approach to diabetes management in patients with CVD.

    PubMed

    Lathief, Sanam; Inzucchi, Silvio E

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have established a clear association between diabetes and macrovascular disease. Vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic abnormalities in patients with diabetes is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Patients with diabetes are at two to four fold higher CV risk as compared to non-diabetic individuals, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with this condition. One strategy to reduce CVD burden in patients with diabetes has been to focus on controlling the major metabolic abnormality in this condition, namely hyperglycemia. However, this has not been unequivocally demonstrated to reduced CV events, in contrast to controlling other CVD risk factors linked to hyperglycemia, such as blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and platelet dysfunction. However, In contradistinction, accrued data from a number of large, randomized clinical trials in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past 3 decades have proven that more intensive glycemic control retards the onset and progression of microvascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the key glucose-lowering CV outcomes trials in diabetes, provide an overview of the different drugs and their impact on the CV system, and describe our approach to management of the frequently encountered patient with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients' perspective of disease and medication adherence for type 2 diabetes in an urban area in Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz A; Mustafa, Kamrun; Islam, Anwar

    2017-03-21

    Patients' perspective of diabetes and adherence to its prescribed medications is a significant predictor of glycemic control and overall management of the disease. However, there is a paucity of such information in Bangladesh. This study aimed to explore patients' perspective of diabetes, their experience of taking oral hypoglycemic medications and explore factors that contribute to medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. We conducted in-depth face-to-face interviews with 12 type 2 diabetes patients attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka city between February and March, 2014. Participants were purposively sampled representing different age groups, education levels, years since diagnosis with diabetes, and glycemic status, to achieve maximum variation sampling. All interviews were conducted using a topic guide and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked for errors, coded and analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis framework. The data analysis generated rich information on the participants' knowledge and perception on diabetes, its causes, self-management, medication use, adverse effects of medication use, medication adherence, and impact of diabetes, Although most of the participants demonstrated substantive knowledge on diabetes and its consequences, they also reported numerous misconceptions about the disease. Knowledge on diabetes medication, their appropriate use and side effects was rather poor. Respondents also reported non-compliance to dietary and physical activity advice by their physicians and concerns on diabetes diabetes-induced psychological stress. High cost of medications, concerns over medication side effects and forgetfulness was noted as factors for non-adherence to medication. Participants' knowledge and perception on diabetes are key factors determining their adherence to medications and, thereby, diabetes management. Healthcare providers should explore to better understand patients' perspective

  14. [Periodontal condition and tooth loss in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Sandra Paola; Ospina, Carlos Andrés; Colorado, Kelly Johana; Montoya, Yenny Paola; Saldarriaga, Andrés Fernando; Miranda Galvis, Marisol; Muñoz Pino, Natalia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Yepes, Fanny Lucía; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a systemic disease which affects the metabolism of glucose,and it has been associated with the development of periodontal disease. The periodontal condition and tooth loss was evaluated in diabetic subjects. At the San Vicente de Paúl Hospital (Medellín, Colombia), 117 subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus were examined. Patients underwent a comprehensive periodontal evaluation, glycosylated hemoglobin analysis, oral hygiene habits and history of diabetes. A descriptive and comparative analysis between the clinical parameters, tooth loss and type of diabetes was performed. The prevalence of gingivitis was 27.4% and periodontitis 72.6%. The most frequent systemic complication was hypertension (51.3%). The most frequently lost teeth were molars and in general, the subjects had lost an average of 7 teeth and had a poor plaque control (55.4%). No differences were seen in clinical parameters between type 1 and 2 diabetes patients. The mean probing depth was 2.6 mm. The first and second upper and lower molars showed the highest values of PD. The mean clinical attachment loss was 3.3 mm . Maxillary teeth 17, 16, and mandibular 37, 47 showed the highest values of clinical attachment loss. In conclusion, the periodontal condition in diabetic patients was poor, presenting periodontitis in most cases. This can be a major cause of tooth loss in diabetic subjects and requires special attention by clinicians.

  15. Explorative study on diabetes neuropathy among type II diabetic patients in Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital.

    PubMed

    Abougalambou, Salwa Selim Ibrahim; Abougalambou, Ayman Selim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors and prevalence of diabetic neuropathy (DN) among type II diabetic patients in Malaysian hospital setting. a observational prospective longitudinal follow up study design was selected, total no of respondents were 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients recruited via attended the diabetes clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent variables that affect the development of neuropathy. The prevalence of nephropathy is 54.3%. Longitudinal logistic regression identified four predictive variables on the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy that are: duration of diabetes, retinopathy, HbA1c at second visit, and creatinine clearance third visit. Findings of this study show high prevalence of diabetic neuropathy. HbA1c and creatinine clearance are two modifiable risk factors for the development of diabetic neuropathy. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis patients with non-diabetic dialysis patients and healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. Objectives: In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. Patients and Methods: During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients’ data were compared before and after dialysis. Results: The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Conclusion: Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria. PMID:27689112

  17. Staphylococcus simulans osteitis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Désidéri-Vaillant, C; Nédelec, Y; Guichon, J-M; Le Louarn, S; Noyer, V; Sapin-Lory, J; Le Guen, P; Nicolas, X

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus simulans was identified as the aetiological agent of osteitis in a diabetic woman. Its identifying characteristics and antibiogram were confirmed. Diabetic foot frequently becomes infected and the spread of infection to bone is a major causal factor behind lower-limb amputation. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential in such cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic analysis of a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Stephen; Mustad, Vikkie A; Lee, James; Sun, Jianqin

    2010-01-01

    This study extends nutritional intervention results reported by short-term clinical trials of a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement by assessing the ten-year impact of the interventions on patient outcomes and costs compared to usual care. We developed and validated a computer simulation of type 2 diabetes based on published data from major clinical trials. The model tracks patients through microvascular and macrovascular health states and reports cumulative costs and quality adjusted life years. We modeled different scenarios that include a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement as part of a structured lifestyle intervention, and also as the only difference between the intervention and usual care treatment groups, and compared them to usual care with diet and physical activity recommendations. We used sensitivity analysis to explore the robustness of results. When a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement is the only treatment difference and is considered an equal cost meal replacement, the diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement interventions are less costly and more effective than usual care. As an added cost meal replacement, the diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between $50,414 and $55,036 depending on improvement in percent glycated hemoglobin. A hypothetical lifestyle intervention using a diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $47,917. The diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement was found to be cost-effective under the various conditions simulated.

  19. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Chahoud, Jad; Mrad, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Asmar, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with arterial hypertension, and indirectly, the crucial impact of adopting screening for diabetes as a standard procedure for all patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension. This cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of hypertensive patients recruited from three different university hospitals in Lebanon. Blood pressure and glycemic blood measurements were determined in all subjects. In addition, a complete clinical history and physical exam were performed. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Frequencies for the different variables were calculated, and the chi-square and independent sample t-tests were conducted. This study included 294 patients. Prevalence of diabetes was 27%, and 23% of diabetic patients were newly diagnosed. More than half of the subjects suffering from DM had uncontrolled blood pressure, contrasted with only one third of the non-diabetic subjects with uncontrolled hypertension. The prevalence of DM in patients with essential hypertension was more than double that of the general population. Therefore, major recommendations would be to adopt strictly the diabetes screening requirements and aggressive management among hypertensive patients to minimize both the health and cost burdens associated with undetected DM.

  20. Comparison of maxillofacial space infection in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dipesh D; Desai, Anilkumar; Kulkarni, R D; Gopalkrishnan, K; Rao, C Bhasker

    2010-10-01

    Orofacial space infections are common presentations in maxillofacial clinics even in the post-antibiotic era. One of the main factors determining the spread of infection is the host defense mechanism. Diabetes is one of the most common systemic illness suppressing the immunity of an individual and increasing their susceptibility to infections. This study was carried out to compare the spaces involved, the severity of infection, the virulent organism, the efficacy of empirical antibiotics, the length of hospital stay, and the complications encountered in the management of maxillofacial space infection of odontogenic origin in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. A 4-year prospective study was carried out on patients with maxillofacial space infection of odontogenic origin. The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of presence or absence of diabetes. A total of 111 patients were identified out of which 31 were diabetic. The organisms commonly isolated were Streptococcus species with submandibular space being the most common space involved in both the groups. The empirical antibiotic used was amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metrogyl in 70.27% cases. Streptococcus species is still the most common causative pathogen irrespective of the diabetic status of the patient. The same empirical antibiotic therapy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metrogyl along with hyperglycemia control and surgical drainage of infection yielded satisfactory resolution of infection in the diabetic patients as well. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How to engage type-2 diabetic patients in their own health management: implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Libreri, Chiara; Bosio, Claudio A

    2014-06-25

    Patient engagement (PE) is increasingly regarded as a key factor in the improvement of health behaviors and outcomes in the management of chronic disease, such as type 2 diabetes. This article explores (1) the reasons for disengagement of diabetic patients and their unique subjective attitudes from their experience and (2) the elements that may hinder PE in health management. 29 Type-2 uncontrolled diabetes patients were asked to keep a one-week diary related to their experience of disease management, according to the narrative inquiry qualitative approach. They were interviewed to ascertain reasons for PE. The elicited narratives were subjected to interpretive content analysis. The findings suggest that patients give meaning to their diabetes and its management through a complex frame of subjective experiential dimensions (cognitive/thinking, behavioral/conative and emotional/feeling), which have an impact on the spheres of daily life that are considered to be crucial in the management of diabetes (diet, physical activity, therapy, doctor-patient relationship) for each patient. These results suggest that PE develops along a continuum featuring four subsequent phases (blackout, arousal, adhesion, eudaimonic project). Several unmet needs related to the different phases of the PE continuum were discovered and illuminated possible types of support. Our findings appear to confirm some features of PE detected by previous research, such as a behavioral component. We were also able to shed light on the synergic roles played by other subjective dimensions of patient experience (the cognitive/thinking and the emotional/feeling components) in orienting PE towards the care process. The article suggests a possible framework to deeply understand the PE process useful to orient really attuned actions to support it. These results suggest the importance of developing patient engagement assessment tools that are more firmly grounded in the individual patient experience.

  2. [Sacubitril / Valsartan in patients with diabetes and heart failure].

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Vincent Matthias; Rocca, Hans-Peter Brunner-La; Marx, Nikolaus

    2016-10-01

    Sacubitril / Valsartan proofed to be an effective treatment compared to enalapril in reducing heart failure hospitalisations and mortality in patients with severe "Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction" (HFREF). Recent European cardiology guidelines attributed a class IB recommendation for Sacubitril / Valsartan in HFREF patients who remain symptomatic despite optimal treatment with ACE-I, a beta-blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. There is a significant overlap between diabetic and HFREF patients and thus, efficacy assessment of Sacubitril / Valsartan is a clinically meaningful issue in the large subgroup of HFREF patients with diabetes. We discuss the present evidence why local authorities speculated about a potential interaction between the two diseases decreasing the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in terms of reducing relevant end-points in this cohort. Overall, Sacubitril / Valsartan is obviously a treatment option in diabetics with HFREF. However, diabetic cardiomyopathy needs to be recognised as a specific disease condition.

  3. Depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Akmal; Sultan, Sayed Mohammad; Nazli, Rubina; Akhtar, Tasleem; Khan, Mudasar Ahmad; Sher, Nabila; Aslam, Hina

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of depression among patients with type-II diabetes mellitus in Peshawar at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from March to September 2010. Depression was assessed by using Beck Depressive Inventory-II (BDI-II). Out of 140 patients with type-II diabetes, 85 (61%) were women and 55 (39%) were men. Mean age was 45±7.45 years. Eighty four (60%) patients presented with severe depression. Depression was higher in females than males and widows. Depression was high in diabetic patients, especially in females and widows. It is of essence that psychiatric attention may be necessary to be incorporated in diabetes care both for prevention and treatment.

  4. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  5. An Update on the Molecular Actions of Fenofibrate and Its Clinical Effects on Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Microvascular End Points in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Jonathan E.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Ma, Jian-Xing; Keech, Anthony C.; Wang, Jie Jin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2013-01-01

    The drug fenofibrate has received major attention as a novel medical treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other diabetes-induced microvascular complications. This interest stems from two recent large, well-designed clinical trials that demonstrated large reductions in the progression of DR and the need for laser intervention, in addition to a reduction in renal and neurological outcomes, in patients with type 2 diabetes. In both trials, the greatest benefit on DR progression was observed in those patients with DR at baseline. Originally considered a lipid-modifying drug, it now appears that multiple mechanisms may underpin the benefit of fenofibrate on diabetic microvascular end points. Fenofibrate regulates the expression of many different genes, with a range of beneficial effects on lipid control, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell apoptosis. These factors are believed to be important in the development of DR regardless of the underlying diabetes etiology. Cell experiments have demonstrated improved survival of retinal endothelial and pigment epithelial cells in conjunction with reduced stress signaling under diabetic conditions. Further, fenofibrate improves retinal outcomes in rodent models of diabetes and retinal neovascularization. Given the results of these preclinical studies, further clinical trials are needed to establish the benefits of fenofibrate in other forms of diabetes, including type 1 diabetes. In DR management, fenofibrate could be a useful adjunctive treatment to modifiable risk factor control and regular ophthalmic review. Its incorporation into clinical practice should be continually revised as more information becomes available. PMID:24264394

  6. Diabetes - tests and checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure Microalbuminuria test Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions ACE inhibitors Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - eye care Diabetes - foot ulcers Diabetes - keeping ...

  7. Lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a phenomenological research.

    PubMed

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant Thai women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential practice among pregnant women with diabetes to prevent complications in pregnancy and the newborn infant. Phenomenological research was employed to understand lived experiences in glycemic control. Thirty participants were approached and interviewed using a semistructured interview guides. Qualitative data were analysed following Colaizzi's method. The findings revealed three themes: being worried about diabetes and blood testing, trying to control it and being patient for the child. Their worry comprised three dimensions: (1) wondering about the impacts of diabetes on the child, (2) concern about maternal health and (3) being worried about doing blood test. Trying to control diabetes was composed of three dimensions: (1) learning to test blood glucose, (2) being afraid of elevated blood sugar and (3) being aware of what to eat. Being patient for the child was composed of three dimensions: (1) overcoming food desires, (2) tolerating the fingerprick pain and (3) satisfaction with the outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes experienced being worried and afraid regarding blood glucose self-monitoring; however, they could overcome and tolerate this with some difficulties. These findings can be used to guide nursing practice in assessment of perception and response towards blood glucose self-monitoring in order to improve achievement of a good glycaemic control among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Among Diabetic Patients: An Emerging Trend.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Sharma, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Mucormycosis is an acute necrotic fungal infection with a fulminant course. Earlier considered a rare entity, mucormycosis is being reported with increasing frequency in recent years, possibly due to the increase in immunocompromised population especially diabetic patients. We report three cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis among poorly controlled diabetic patients. This article emphasizes the need for further awareness of this disease, early diagnosis, and treatment to counter this opportunistic infection.

  9. Periodontal status among patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Schjetlein, Amanda Lamer; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Lauritzen, Torsten; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming more common in the Greenlandic population. Patients with diabetes are more prone to periodontal disease. Periodontal status may have an effect on metabolic control. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis amongst patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland, and secondly, to observe if dental care was associated with improved periodontal status and metabolic control. Study design Observational cross-sectional study and a pilot study of a dental care intervention. Methods Sixty-two Greenlandic patients with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR), in addition to a telephone interview. Patients were offered 3 dental examinations with a 3-month interval. The dental examinations consisted of a full-mouth assessment of number of remaining teeth and assessment of periodontal status. Patients received scaling and root planing, together with information and instructions on oral hygiene. Information on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) values was collected from the EMR at each dental examination. Results In this study, 21.0% (13/62) of patients with diabetes had periodontitis. About 42% had less than 20 teeth. The association between diabetes and periodontitis was known by 20 out of the 62 patients. Over half of the patients had been to a dental examination within the last year. The prevalence of periodontitis decreased significantly from 21.0 to 0% (p<0.001) after 3 dental examinations. No change in HbA1C levels was observed (p=0.440). Conclusion Periodontitis was common among patients with diabetes in Nuuk. Dental health status based on Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) seemed to improve after dental health care, indicating a need for increased awareness among patients and health care professionals. HbA1C levels were not improved among the patients. PMID:25498562

  10. Comparison of the Hospital Arrival Time and Differences in Pain Quality between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic STEMI Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gradišer, Marina; Dilber, Dario; Cmrečnjak, Jasna; Ostrički, Branko; Bilić-Ćurčić, Ines

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether diabetic ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients arrive in the emergency room (ER) later than non-diabetics, compare the differences in pain quality and quantity between those groups, and measure differences in the outcome after an index hospitalization. A total of 266 patients with first presentation of STEMI were included in our study during a period of two years, 62 with diabetes and 204 without diabetes type 2. Pain intensity and quality at admission were measured using a McGill short form questionnaire. Diabetic patients did not arrive significantly later than non-diabetic (χ2; p = 0.105). Most diabetic patients described their pain as “slight” or “none” (χ2; p < 0.01), while most non-diabetic patients graded their pain as “moderate” or “severe” (χ2; p < 0.01). The quality of pain tended to be more distinct in non-diabetic patients, while diabetic patients reported mainly shortness of breath (χ2; p < 0.01). Diabetic patients were more likely to suffer a multi-vessel disease (χ2; p < 0.01), especially in the late arrival group. Therefore, cautious evaluation of diabetic patients and adequate education of target population could improve overall survival while well-organized care like a primary PCI Network program could significantly reduce CV mortality. PMID:25633029

  11. High L-carnitine concentrations do not prevent late diabetic complications in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Skapare, Elina; Vavers, Edijs; Konrade, Ilze; Strele, Ieva; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2012-05-01

    Increased intake of L-carnitine, a cofactor in cellular energy metabolism, is recommended for diabetic patients with late complications. However, its clinical benefits remain controversial. We hypothesized that patients with low L-carnitine levels would have an increased rate of diabetic complications. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the relationship of L-carnitine concentrations in blood with the prevalence and severity of late diabetic complications in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. Human blood samples were collected from 93 and 87 patients diagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes, respectively, and 122 nondiabetic individuals. The determination of free L-carnitine concentrations in whole blood lysates was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In diabetic patients, diabetic complications such as neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, or hypertension were recorded. The average L-carnitine concentration in the blood of control subjects was 33 ± 8 nmol/mL, which was not significantly different from subgroups of patients with type 1 (32 ± 10 nmol/mL) or type 2 diabetes (36 ± 11 nmol/mL). Patients with low (<20 nmol/mL) l-carnitine levels did not have increased occurrences of late diabetic complications. In addition, patient subgroups with higher L-carnitine concentrations did not have decreased prevalence of late diabetic complications. Our results provide evidence that higher L-carnitine concentrations do not prevent late diabetic complications in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients.

  12. [IMSS in Numbers: the Census of Diabetic Patients, 2004].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    The census of diabetic patients at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social describes the state and level of control of biologic markers, such as glucose, BMI and blood pressure of all diabetic patients attending the family medicine units during 2004. The main results show that 2,334,340 diabetic patients visited the health units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with an average of 3.7 visits per year. Around 75% of the patients had their weight and height registered; 73%, their blood pressure, and only 28.8%, their glycemia level. One third of the patients (35.7%) had an unspecified diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and 91.3% had no complications reported. Of those with glycemia reported, 56.9% had a poor blood glucose control. Half of the diabetic patients were also diagnosed as hypertensive though 74% had good blood pressure control. The BMI reported that 40.4% were obese and 39.6% were overweight. All these data are important to measure the impact of different health interventions that point to a better control of diabetes at the IMSS.

  13. Pattern Visual Evoked Potential Changes in Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sungur, Gulten; Yakin, Mehmet; Unlu, Nurten; Balta, Oyku Bezen; Ornek, Firdevs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the different check sizes of pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in diabetic patients without retinopathy according to HbA1c levels and diabetes duration. Methods. Fifty-eight eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Only the right eye of each patient was analyzed. All of the patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, and the PVEPs were recorded. Results. There was a statistically significant difference in P100 latency in 1-degree check size and in N135 latency in 2-degree check size between controls and patient groups which have different HbA1c levels. There were statistically significant, positive, and weak correlations with diabetes duration and P100 latency in 7-minute and 15-minute check sizes and N135 latency in 15-minute check size. Conclusions. It was showed that there were prolongations in P100 latency only in 1-degree check size and in N135 only in 2-degree check size in diabetic patients without retinopathy. There was statistically significant correlation between diabetes duration and P100 and N135 latencies in different check sizes. PMID:28392940

  14. [Educational program to type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: basic topics].

    PubMed

    Leite, Silmara A Oliveira; Zanim, Ligia Maria; Granzotto, Paula Carolina D; Heupa, Sabrina; Lamounier, Rodrigo N

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes incidence has been increasing worldwide, however the vast majority of patients do not have a good glycaemic control. This review focuses on diabetes educational programs designed for children, young adults and their families, as well as regular pump users educational tips, collected from papers published between 2000 and 2007. A comprehensive review of the literature has identified 40 articles describing the methods and the evaluation of diabetes self-management education interventions. Three research questions are posed. First: what are the recommendations and standards for diabetes self-management education from the different diabetes institutions/associations? Second: is there sufficient evidence to recommend any adaptation of any particular program? And third: Are the educational programs effective in lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)? The patient and his family should be instructed and trained to take appropriate decisions for diabetes management regarding their daily care. Diabetes self-management education improves glicaemic control (both in an individual basis as well as in groups) in such a way that the longer the education training in diabetes the better is the effect on glycaemic control is.

  15. A Framework for Instrument Development of a Choice Experiment: An Application to Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ellen M; Segal, Jodi B; Bridges, John F P

    2016-10-01

    Choice experiments are increasingly used to obtain patient preference information for regulatory benefit-risk assessments. Despite the importance of instrument design, there remains a paucity of literature applying good research principles. We applied a novel framework for instrument development of a choice experiment to measure type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment preferences. Applying the framework, we used evidence synthesis, expert consultation, stakeholder engagement, pretest interviews, and pilot testing to develop a best-worst scaling (BWS) and discrete choice experiment (DCE). We synthesized attributes from published DCEs for type 2 diabetes, consulted clinical experts, engaged a national advisory board, conducted local cognitive interviews, and pilot tested a national survey. From published DCEs (n = 17), ten attribute categories were extracted with cost (n = 11) having the highest relative attribute importance (RAI) (range 6-10). Clinical consultation and stakeholder engagement identified six attributes for inclusion. Cognitive pretesting with local diabetes patients (n = 25) ensured comprehension of the choice experiment. Pilot testing with patients from a national sample (n = 50) identified nausea as most important (RAI for DCE: 10 [95 % CI 8.5-11.5]; RAI for BWS: 10 [95 % CI 8.9-11.1]). The developed choice experiment contained five attributes (A1c decrease, blood glucose stability, low blood glucose, nausea, additional medicine, and cost). The framework for instrument development of a choice experiment included five stages of development and incorporated multiple stakeholder perspectives. Further comparisons of instrument development approaches are needed to identify best practices. To facilitate comparisons, researchers need to be encouraged to publish or discuss their instrument development strategies and findings.

  16. Quality of previous diabetes care among patients receiving services at ophthalmology hospitals in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Saldana, Joel; Rosales-Campos, Andrea C; Rangel León, Carmen B; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Laura I; Martínez-Castro, Francisco; Piette, John D

    2010-12-01

    To survey a large sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Mexico City to determine if patient experience, access to basic services, treatment, and outcomes differed between those with social security coverage and those without. From 2001-2007 a total of 1 000 individuals with T2DM were surveyed in outpatient clinics of the three largest public ophthalmology hospitals in Mexico City. Patients reported information about their health status and receipt of basic diabetes services, such as laboratory glycemic monitoring and diabetes education. Rates were compared between those with (n = 461) and without (n = 539) social security. Almost half of the patients (46%) in these public facilities were social security patients that were unable to access other services and had to pay out-of-pocket for care. Half of respondents were originally identified as potentially diabetic based on symptom complaints (51%), including 11% with visual impairment. Most patients (87.9%) reported that their glycemic level was being monitored exclusively via fasting blood glucose testing or random capillary blood glucose tests; only 5.3% reported ever having a glycated hemoglobin test. While nearly all respondents reported an individual physician encounter ever, only 39% reported ever receiving nutrition counseling and only 21% reported attending one or more sessions of diabetes education in their lifetime. Processes of care and outcomes were no different in patients with and those without social security coverage. In Mexico, the quality of diabetes care is poor. Despite receiving social security, many patients still have to pay out-of-pocket to access needed care. Without policy changes that address these barriers to comprehensive diabetes management, scientific achievements in diagnosis and pharmacotherapy will have limited impact.

  17. Caring for students with type 1 diabetes: school nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueh-Ling; Volker, Deborah L

    2013-02-01

    This qualitative study used a Husserlian phenomenological approach to obtain an understanding of the essences of five experienced Taiwanese school nurses' lived experience of caring for students with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Audio-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted. Data analysis entailed a modified method from Colaizzi. Four intertwined themes were discovered: (a) I try to put myself in the parents' and students' shoes, (b) I am not a diabetes expert, (c) managing T1DM requires teamwork, and (d) caring for students with T1DM is a struggle with practical limitations. The findings show that these school nurses encountered many challenges as they implemented their roles and responsibilities in caring for students with T1DM. The findings suggest that increasing school nurses' competence in caring for students with T1DM and developing effective strategies to overcome the challenges faced may be useful. Multidisciplinary teamwork could benefit the diabetes management activities in school settings.

  18. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianping; Wang, Jufang; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Han, Liyuan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of serum miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum miRNA expression profiles from diabetic retinopathy cases (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy) and type 2 diabetes mellitus controls (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy) were examined by miRNA-specific microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs from the microarray analysis of 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and 45 age-, sex-, body mass index- and duration-of-diabetes-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. The relative changes in serum miRNA expression levels were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCt method. A total of 5 diabetic retinopathy cases and 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus controls were included in the miRNA-specific microarray analysis. The serum levels of miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p differed significantly between the two groups in the screening stage; however, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not reveal significant differences in miRNA expression for 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and their matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. Our findings indicate that miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p may not play important roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our findings.

  19. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016. PMID:28490797

  20. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-05-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016.

  1. Diabetes literacy and informal social support: a qualitative study of patients at a diabetes centre.

    PubMed

    Black, Stephen; Maitland, Catherine; Hilbers, Julieanne; Orinuela, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    To explore the resources that patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes drew upon to manage the disease in their daily lives. Type 2 diabetes is a disease affecting Australian adults at a rate described as an 'epidemic'. Treatment usually focuses on patient self-management, which may require daily blood sugar monitoring, oral medications or injectable therapies, and regulating diet and exercise. Health research studies of patient self-management, including those involving type 2 diabetes, have focused largely on individual-centred definitions, though a number of studies, in particular qualitative studies, have indicated the positive role of social relationships and informal social networks. Exploratory, qualitative. The project focused on 26 patients attending a diabetes centre for clinical consultations with centre staff including doctors, diabetes educators, podiatrists and dietitians. The consultations were observed and audio recorded, followed by semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with the patients and separate interviews with the consulting professional staff. Overwhelmingly the patients drew on informal social networks of support to manage the disease. Spouses were significant, sometimes presenting with the patient as a 'team' approach to managing the disease. Sons and daughters also played a significant support role, especially interpreting during consultations and explaining health information. In some cases neighbours and also local community organisations provided informal support. Only two patients claimed not to use informal social support. Informal social support in patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes was found to be an important factor to be considered by clinicians. The study suggested the need for a more deliberate or pro-active policy to involve patients' family and other informal social networks in treatment programs. Clinicians may need document and incorporate informal social support in the development and implementation of

  2. An Analysis, Using Concept Mapping, of Diabetic Patients' Knowledge, before and after Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, C.; d'Ivernois, J. F.; Assal, J. P.; Slama, G.; Hivon, R.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses whether concept maps used with diabetic patients could describe their cognitive structure, before and after having followed an educational program. Involves 10 diabetic patients and shows that concept maps can be a suitable technique to explore the type and organization of the patients' prior knowledge and to visualize what they have…

  3. Evaluating older patients with diabetes for insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth A; Heffner, John

    2010-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes among elderly patients underscores the importance of matching the most effective therapy for diabetes self-management with patients' cognitive and motor skills, as these diminish with advancing age. Although many geriatric patients state interest in insulin pump therapy for tight glycemic control, few studies have examined the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of insulin pumps compared to traditional injected insulin therapy in older age groups. It is important, therefore, for physicians to recognize the indications and the age-related barriers to insulin pump therapy in geriatric patients. Indications include glucose variability, hypoglycemia, and poor glycemic control with traditional insulin regimens. Common barriers include poor vision, dexterity, and cognitive status. Successful implementation of insulin pump therapy for older patients requires an experienced diabetes management team that can assess patient needs and tailor therapy in the context of age-related disabilities.

  4. Complications of foot and ankle surgery in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marks, R M

    2001-10-01

    Treatment of the foot and ankle in patients with diabetes often is fraught with complications, frequently multifactorial in nature. Because of the multidisciplinary approach to the patient with diabetes, it is imperative that the patient and all healthcare professionals who are treating the patient recognize the foot at risk, and the clinical hallmarks of Charcot neuroarthropathy. Failure to do so often leads to disastrous results, such as ulceration, destruction of normal foot architecture, and progressive deformity too severe to accommodate a brace, thereby necessitating surgical intervention. The surgical treatment of the foot in a patient with diabetes requires knowledge of the pathophysiology of the neuroarthropathic (Charcot) foot, so that the appropriate timing, extent of surgical intervention, and postoperative treatment in this unique population assures a higher success rate. One also must recognize associated factors that may be present in these patients, such as peripheral vascular compromise and poor nutritional status.

  5. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V

    1989-10-01

    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation.

  6. ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN NORTHERN GREECE.

    PubMed

    Zioga, Efrosini; Kazakos, Kyriakos; Dimopoulos, Evagelos; Koutras, Christos; Marmara, Kalliopi; Marmara, Eleni-Efrosini; Marmaras, Athanasios; Lavdaniti, Maria

    2016-07-24

    Adherence as a concept includes various types of health-related behavior. Better medical adherence leads to improved disease control and fewer diabetes-related complications. Quality of life and medication adherence are interrelated. Patients with diabetes who adhere to their treatment can experience an improvement in quality of life and vice versa. To assess treatment adherence in patients with type II diabetes, as well as the connection between adherence and quality of life. A descriptive non-experimental study was conducted in a provincial hospital in Northern Greece. The sample examined was a convenience sample consisting of 108 patients with type II diabetes mellitus. They completed the "Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire" and SF-36 "Quality of Life Questionnaire". Participants demonstrated good adherence to diet and blood test / blood glucose test routines, but did not experience high levels of quality of life. The type of treatment affected the adherence to blood tests with a statistically significant difference (p=0,000). Also, marital status affected mental health with a statistically significant difference (p=0,032). The adherence sub scales are correlated with the all domains of quality of life. According to our findings, it is important to plan interventions to enhance adherence to other types of treatment and to help patients to further improve their quality of life.

  7. A comprehensive review of urologic complications in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arrellano-Valdez, Fernando; Urrutia-Osorio, Marta; Arroyo, Carlos; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, as a result of abnormal insulin production, insulin function, or both. DM is associated with systemic complications, such as infections, neuropathy and angiopathy, which involve the genitourinary tract. The three most significant urologic complications include: bladder cystopathy, sexual dysfunction and urinary tract infections. Almost half of the patients with DM have bladder dysfunction or cystopathy, which can be manifested in women as hypersensitivity (in 39-61% of the diabetic women) or neurogenic bladder. In males it can be experienced as lower urinary tract symptoms (in 25% of diabetic males with a nearly twofold increased risk when seen by age groups). Additionally, an increased prostate volume affects their micturition as well as their urinary tract. Involving sexual dysfunction in women, it includes reduced libido, decreased arousal, clitoral erectile dysfunction and painful or non-sensitive intercourse; and in diabetic males it varies from low libido, ejaculatory abnormalities and erectile dysfunction. Globally, sexual disorders have a prevalence of 18-42%. Erectile dysfunction is ranked as the third most important complication of DM. Urinary tract infections are observed frequently in diabetic patients, and vary from emphysematous infections, Fournier gangrene, staghorn infected lithiasis to repetitive bacterial cystitis. The most frequent finding in diabetic women has been lower urinary tract infections. Because of the high incidence of obesity worldwide and its association with diabetes, it is very important to keep in mind the urologic complication associated with DM in patients, in order to better diagnose and treat this population.

  8. Blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Grossman, Ehud

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and essential hypertension are common conditions that are frequently present together. Both are considered risk factors for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications and therefore treatment of both conditions is essential. Many papers were published on blood pressure (BP) targets in diabetic patients, including several works published in the last 2 years. As a result, guidelines differ in their recommendations on BP targets in diabetic patients. The method by which to control hypertension, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological, is also a matter of debate and has been extensively studied in the literature. In recent years, new medications were introduced for the treatment of DM, some of which also affect BP and the clinician treating hypertensive and diabetic patients should be familiar with these medications and their effect on BP. In this manuscript, we discuss the evidence supporting different BP targets in diabetics and review the various guidelines on this topic. In addition, we discuss the various options available for the treatment of hypertension in diabetics and the recommendations for a specific treatment over the other. Finally we briefly discuss the new diabetic drug classes and their influence on BP.

  9. Serum lipoprotein(a) levels and diabetic nephropathy among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Senba, Hidenori; Furukawa, Shinya; Sakai, Takenori; Niiya, Tetsuji; Miyake, Teruki; Yamamoto, Shin; Ueda, Teruhisa; Torisu, Masamoto; Minami, Hisaka; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Onji, Morikazu; Tanaka, Keiko; Matsuura, Bunzo; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Hiasa, Yoichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and diabetic nephropathy among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study included 581 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum Lp(a) levels were divided into four groups; the cut-off points were at the 30th, 60th, and 90th percentile values on the basis of the distribution for all subjects. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as present when the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio was ≥33.9mg/mmol creatinine and/or the estimated glomerular filtration rate was <30ml/min/1.72m(2). Adjustment was made for age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, duration of diabetes mellitus, current drinking, current smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Higher serum Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetic nephropathy: the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for diabetic nephropathy in relation to serum Lp(a) levels of ≤6, 7-15, 16-38, and ≥39mg/dl were 1.00 (reference), 2.74 (1.08-7.00), 3.31 (1.28-8.54), and 4.80 (1.57-14.60), respectively (P for trend=0.004). The results suggest that serum Lp(a) levels may be positively associated with diabetic nephropathy among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Paawan; Hira, Angela; Prasad, Shanti; Wang, Xiangbing; Chokhavatia, Sita

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the known pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbid gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the diabetic patient, discusses therapeutic options in care, and provides an approach to its evaluation and management. We searched for review articles published in the past 10 years through a PubMed search using the filters diabetes mellitus, GERD, pathophysiology, and management. The search only yielded a handful of articles, so we independently included relevant studies from these review articles along with related citations as suggested by PubMed. We found diabetic patients are more prone to developing GERD and may present with atypical manifestations. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the connection between these two diseases. Studies involving treatment options for comorbid disease suggest conflicting drug-drug interactions. Currently, there are no published guidelines specifically for the evaluation and management of GERD in the diabetic patient. Although there are several proposed mechanisms for the higher prevalence of GERD in the diabetic patient, this complex interrelationship requires further research. Understanding the pathophysiology will help direct diagnostic evaluation. In our review, we propose a management algorithm for GERD in the diabetic patient. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a LDL-like particle consisting of an ApoA moiety linked to one molecule of ApoB100. Recent data from large-scale prospective studies and genetic association studies provide highly suggestive evidence for a potentially causal role of Lp(a) in affecting risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations. Patients with Type 2 diabetes display clustered metabolic abnormalities and elevated risk of CVD. Lower plasma Lp(a) levels were observed in diabetic patients in several recent studies. Epidemiology studies of Lp(a) and CVD risk in diabetic patients generated inconsistent results. We recently found that Lp(a)-related genetic markers did not predict CVD in two diabetic cohorts. The current data suggest that Lp(a) may differentially affect cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients and in the general population. More prospective studies, Mendelian randomization analysis and functional studies are needed to clarify the causal relationship of Lp(a) and CVD in diabetic patients. PMID:23136583

  12. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Testing for diabetes in hospitalised patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; Young, Corina; Esop, Raadiyya; Paton, Carol; Walwyn, Rebecca

    2004-08-01

    Studies using computer databases suggest that atypical antipsychotic agents are more likely to be associated with diabetes than are conventional drugs. To discover the extent of testing for diabetes mellitus in hospital in-patients prescribed antipsychotics. Prescription charts were screened to identify patients prescribed antipsychotics. Case notes were then searched for evidence of testing for diabetes. In all, 606 patients were prescribed antipsychotics, of whom 250 (41.3%) had evidence of prior testing for diabetes. Patients prescribed atypicals were 40% more likely to have been tested than those prescribed conventional drugs (RR =1.4,95% CI1.1-1.9). Adjusted odds ratios v. conventional antipsychotics for conventional antipsychotics for testing were significantly higher for clozapine (OR=4.64,95% CI 2.42-8.90), olanzapine (OR=1.85,95% CI1.04-3.30) and antipsychotic polypharmacy (OR=2.96,95% CI1.59-5.52). Testing for diabetes was undertaken in less than half of the patients studied. Testing was more common in those receiving atypical antipsychotics. Apparent differences in claimed causal association of the use of some antipsychotics with diabetes may in part reflect different rates of testing.

  14. Adipsia in a Diabetes Insipidus Patient.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Conceição; Vieira, Margarida M; Pereira, Joana Simões; Salgado, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a very common disorder after brain surgery or/trauma or even in the presence of brain inflammatory diseases. Polyuria and polydipsia are the clinical markers, but sometimes clinical situations are presenting with no thirst. These are not frequent but are life-treating conditions. Diagnosis is not easy, and for this reason some cases are treated late. We describe here a very infrequent oncological case of dangerous adipsic diabetes insipidus in a young girl who survived.

  15. [Coping styles, psychosocial factors and adjustment processes in patients with type I and II diabetes].

    PubMed

    Poerio, V; Merenda, M T; Congedo, M L

    2007-01-01

    Coping is defined by Perlin and Shooler as "... that behavior that protects people from psychological pressure due to social situations and problems". This intention Lazarus and Folkman affirm: "... the coping allows people to use different abilities to manage the difficulties (stressors) that they experience in daily existence..." When the stressor is diabetes, the requirements and pressures due to the illness and its physiological and psychosocial consequences are continuous and become chronic. In numerous studies, the coping, suitable or not, has been linked to different medical consequences of the diabetes: changes in glycosylated hemoglobin levels, in the physiological functionality, in the specific symptomatology, in body weight and body mass index. In other research, as in the present contribution, the coping and specific socio-cognitive dimensions have been correlated with the psychosocial consequences of the diabetes, particularly with quality of life and psychological and social adaptation (PSA). This last concept refers, within the illness process, to the attainment of the characteristic behavioral and psychological objectives of recovery. The purpose of the present work is to individualize the coping styles and to note the correlations with socio-cognitive dimensions in diabetic patients, and to measure their incidence on the APS, answering to a series of questions, such as: "What are the modalities of a more functional coping? Are they correlated with the socio-cognitive dimensions? Together do they influence the APS processes?". To 123 diabetic patients (51 with diabetes type 1; 72 with diabetes type 2), with a middle age of 63.7 and 54.9, respectively, have been administered, in sequence, two questionnaires: an adaptation of the Bernese Coping Modes (BECOMO) of Heim et coll. and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) of Talbot et coll. The results, by using descriptive statistics and data analysis techniques, seem to point out that, in the

  16. Comparative analysis of resected prostate weight in diabetic and non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia Patients.

    PubMed

    Moudi, Emadoddin; Akbarzadeh-Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in men. The etiology of BPH is still unresolved and multiple systems are likely to be involved. The effects of diabetes on urinary system are a risk factor for BPH. We then assessed the effects of diabetes on the parameters related to BPH, especially weight and volume. This study was conducted on patients with BPH who underwent surgery during 2010-2013. The patients' demographic and clinical data including age, height, weight, history of diabetes, abdominal sonography, prostate-specific antigen(PSA), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride, and cholesterol, resected sample weight, and pathological diagnosis were extracted. The mean age of all 225 patients (35 (15.6%) diabetic patients and 190 (84.4%) non-diabetic patients) who entered the study was 71.5±8.7 years. The patients were divided in to 3 body mass index (BMI) groups: 48 (21.3%) were normal, 151 (67.1%) were overweight and 26 (11.6%) were obese. The mean weight of resected prostate was higher in diabetic patients (22.9±6.9 vs 21.7±14.3, P=0.02). The resected prostate weight had a significant relationship with BMI (P=0.001), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (P=0.001), and prostate volume sonography (P=0.001). No significant relationship was detected between resected prostate weight with age, FBS and triglyceride however, it is significant with cholesterol. We concluded that diabetes has a role in the development and progression of BPH with effect on prostate weight and volume. As well, BMI is a risk factor in BPH progression.

  17. The Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes scale: a diabetes knowledge scale for vulnerable patients.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Russell L; Malone, Robb; Bryant, Betsy; Wolfe, Catherine; Padgett, Penelope; DeWalt, Darren A; Weinberger, Morris; Pignone, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new knowledge scale for patients with type 2 diabetes and poor literacy: the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy patients with Diabetes (SKILLD). The authors evaluated the 10-item SKILLD among 217 patients with type 2 diabetes and poor glycemic control at an academic general medicine clinic. Internal reliability was measured using the Kuder-Richardson coefficient. Performance on the SKILLD was compared to patient socioeconomic status, literacy level, duration of diabetes, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Respondents' mean age was 55 years, and they had diabetes for an average of 8.4 years; 38% had less than a sixth-grade literacy level. The average score on the SKILLD was 49%. Less than one third of patients knew the signs of hypoglycemia or the normal fasting blood glucose range. The internal reliability of the SKILLD was good (0.72). Higher performance on the SKILLD was significantly correlated with higher income (r = 0.22), education level (r = 0.36), literacy status (r = 0.33), duration of diabetes (r = 0.30), and lower A1C (r = -0.16). When dichotomized, patients with low SKILLD scores (< or = 50%) had significantly higher A1C (11.2% vs 10.3%, P < .01). This difference remained significant when adjusted for covariates. The SKILLD demonstrated good internal consistency and validity. It revealed significant knowledge deficits and was associated with glycemic control. The SKILLD represents a practical scale for patients with diabetes and low literacy.

  18. Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chao; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Szu-Chia; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao

    2016-08-02

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015-1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084-1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM.

  19. Novel and emerging diabetes mellitus drug therapies for the type 2 diabetes patient

    PubMed Central

    Rochester, Charmaine D; Akiyode, Oluwaranti

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of deranged fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia as a result of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. Although a wide variety of diabetes therapies is available, yet limited efficacy, adverse effects, cost, contraindications, renal dosage adjustments, inflexible dosing schedules and weight gain significantly limit their use. In addition, many patients in the United States fail to meet the therapeutic HbA1c goal of < 7% set by the American Diabetes Association. As such new and emerging diabetes therapies with different mechanisms of action hope to address some of these drawbacks to improve the patient with type 2 diabetes. This article reviews new and emerging classes, including the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors, glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors, G Protein-Coupled receptor agonists and glucokinase activators. These emerging diabetes agents hold the promise of providing benefit of glucose lowering, weight reduction, low hypoglycemia risk, improve insulin sensitivity, pancreatic β cell preservation, and oral formulation availability. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their safety profile, cardiovascular effects, and efficacy durability in order to determine their role in type 2 diabetes management. PMID:24936252

  20. Helping patients with diabetes: resources from the National Diabetes Education Program.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Philip T

    2012-01-01

    To familiarize pharmacists with the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) and to demonstrate the value of NDEP materials in the care of patients with diabetes. The NDEP website (www.ndep.nih.gov) and PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). NDEP is a collaboration between the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many organization partners. Since 1997, a large number of materials have been created by NDEP using an evidence-based, expert- and patient-reviewed approach to development. Materials are nonbranded and reflect current medical knowledge and practice. Educational materials are available for persons at risk for diabetes, those with diabetes, family members of persons with diabetes, employers, and professionals. The Pharmacy, Podiatry, Optometry, and Dentistry (PPOD) workgroup of NDEP promotes the value of pharmacists and other professionals in diabetes education and management. Resources are available to educate about the value of the PPOD professionals. NDEP provides evidence-based, high-quality educational materials that pharmacists will find useful in the counseling of persons with diabetes.

  1. Thyroid Cancer Risk Is Not Increased in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated thyroid cancer risk with regards to diabetes status and diabetes duration, and with the use of anti-diabetic drugs including sulfonylurea, metformin, insulin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, by using a population-based reimbursement database in Taiwan. Methods A random sample of 1,000,000 subjects covered by the National Health Insurance was recruited. After excluding patients with type 1 diabetes, 999730 subjects (495673 men and 504057 women) were recruited into the analyses. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for independent variables including age, sex, diabetes status/duration, anti-diabetic drugs, other medications, comorbidities, living regions, occupation and examinations that might potentially lead to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in various models. Results The diabetic patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving potential detection examinations (6.38% vs. 5.83%, P<0.0001). After multivariable-adjustment, the OR (95% CI) for diabetes status was 0.816 (0.652–1.021); and for diabetes duration <1 year, 1–3 years, 3–5 years and ≥5 years vs. non-diabetes was 0.071 (0.010–0.507), 0.450 (0.250–0.813), 0.374 (0.203–0.689) and 1.159 (0.914–1.470), respectively. Among the anti-diabetic agents, only sulfonylurea was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, OR (95% CI): 1.882 (1.202–2.947). The OR (95% CI) for insulin, metformin, acarbose, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone was 1.701 (0.860–3.364), 0.696 (0.419–1.155), 0.581 (0.202–1.674), 0.522 (0.069–3.926) and 0.669 (0.230–1.948), respectively. Furthermore, patients with benign thyroid disease or other cancer, living in Kao-Ping/Eastern regions, or receiving potential detection examinations might have a significantly higher risk; and male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, vascular complications or use of statin, aspirin or non

  2. Predicting adverse outcomes after myocardial infarction among patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Spertus, John A.; Jones, Philip G.; McGuire, Darren K.; Lipska, Kasia J.; Xu, Yaping; Stolker, Joshua M.; Goyal, Abhinav; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Background Although patients with diabetes mellitus experience high rates of adverse events after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including death and recurrent ischemia, some diabetic patients are likely at low risk, while others are at very high risk. We sought to develop prediction models to stratify risk after AMI in patients with diabetes. Methods and Results We developed prediction models for long-term mortality and angina among 1613 patients with diabetes discharged alive after AMI from 24 US hospitals and then validated the models in a separate, multi-center registry of 786 patients with diabetes. Event rates in the derivation cohort were 27% for 5-year mortality and 27% for 1-year angina. Parsimonious prediction models demonstrated good discrimination (c-indices=0.78 and 0.69, respectively) and excellent calibration. Within the context of the predictors we estimated, the strongest predictors for mortality were higher creatinine, not working at the time of the AMI, older age, lower hemoglobin, left ventricular dysfunction, and chronic heart failure. The strongest predictors for angina were angina burden in the 4 weeks prior to the AMI, younger age, history of prior coronary bypass graft surgery, and non-Caucasian race. The lowest and highest deciles of predicted risk ranged from 4–80% for mortality and 12–59% for angina. The models also performed well in external validation (c-indices=0.78 and 0.73, respectively). Conclusion We found a wide range of risk for adverse outcomes after AMI in diabetic patients. Predictive models can identify patients with diabetes for whom closer follow-up and aggressive secondary prevention strategies should be considered. PMID:27220369

  3. Quality of life in patients with diabetic foot ulcer in Visegrad countries.

    PubMed

    Nemcová, Jana; Hlinková, Edita; Farský, Ivan; Žiaková, Katarína; Jarošová, Darja; Zeleníková, Renáta; Bužgová, Radka; Janíková, Eva; Zdzieblo, Kazimiera; Wiraszka, Grazyna; Stepien, Renata; Nowak-Starz, Grazyna; Csernus, Mariann; Balogh, Zoltan

    2017-05-01

    To identify the quality of life of patients with diabetic foot ulcers in the Visegrad countries. The diabetics with foot ulcers are principally evaluated on the basis of physical parameters, but this does not always reveal much about the patient's experience of life with ulceration. The cross-sectional study. The standardised generic questionnaire World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF was used. The sample was made up of 525 participants and the calculations were performed using the IBM spss statistical program. The significant negative correlations between demographic data such as age, duration of diabetes mellitus, duration of diabetic ulceration treatment and a lower level of quality of life were found across the sample. The statistically significant differences according to clinical characteristics such as Wagner classification, frequency of foot ulcers, present peripheral vascular disease and pain in terms of quality of life were also revealed. Significant differences of quality of life among Visegrad countries were revealed: Hungary's participants had a worse quality of life than others, while Slovak participants expressed lower satisfaction with their health than Czech. Socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics influence the quality of life of patients with diabetic foot ulcer. Significant differences between patients of Visegrad countries were found in all domains of quality of life: physical, psychological, social and environmental. The quality of life of patients with diabetic foot ulcer reflects the conditions and healthcare system in each of the Visegrad countries. We have to respect socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics in nursing care. This could have an impact on managing patient care not only with regard to their diabetic foot ulcer but also with regard to the patient as a personality with their own problems in relation to physical, psychosocial and environmental conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Use of social media to support patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca; Whitley, Heather P

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, especially in the elderly population. Unfortunately, many seniors have limited access to ongoing health care, which may hinder improvements in these chronic disease states. Use of social media continues to increase among all populations. Thus, use of this venue to reach patients, including those with diabetes, is a reasonable undertaking. Countryside Diabetes is a Facebook page created and administered by Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy faculty and students to reach this growing and often underserved demographic. The aim is to provide ongoing education and support for people affected by diabetes. Information posted on the Web site began addressing usual diabetes-related topics such as nutrition, exercise, and selfcare. Each week the site focused on an individual topic, and specialists collaborated on these efforts, fortifying the site content through a multidisciplinary approach. Membership in the senior population continues to grow and garner participation.

  5. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  6. Estimation of Salivary Amylase in Diabetic Patients and Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Early Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, L.; Masthan, K.M.K.; Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Rajesh, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the salivary amylase levels in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients and to correlate these findings with those in normal individuals, in order to provide salivary amylase level as a bio-chemical indicator for diagnosing and monitoring the glucose levels. Material and Methods: The study samples consisted of 60 individuals. Both males and females participated in the study. Thirty non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients of age group of 30 to 60 years and healthy individuals of same number and age group were included in this study. The data obtained in this study were statistically analyzed by using Student’s t–test. Results: In estimation of salivary amylase levels, the comparison of mean and standard deviation showed the highest mean score (2739.48 +1525.20) among the diabetic patients and lowest mean score (1740.38 + 638.51) among the non-diabetic patients. The p-value obtained was less than 0.01. Hence, a highly significant difference in the mean scores regarding salivary amylase (u/l) was found among the two groups. Conclusion: The mean scores of age, fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, HbA1c and salivary amylase levels were greater in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. PMID:24392426

  7. Dysregulation and containment in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a poorly controlled diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Ginieri-Coccossis, Maria; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulation, as a phenomenon of disruption in the psychotherapeutic setting, may be evidenced in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy of diabetic patients presenting poor metabolic and treatment control. In the case of a female patient, violations of the setting via acting out behaviors provided an opportunity for working through and understanding in depth the patient's unconscious attempts to activate traumatic childhood experiences and introduce loss and confusion into the relationship with the psychotherapist. Dysregulation was considered in connection with the patient's pathological containment function, in conflicting part self and object representations, and in relation to traumatic experiences of maternal desertion. Improvement of the patient was identified in her relationships with the psychotherapist, significant others, and the medical health providers, as well as in the overall management of her diabetic treatment.

  8. Attitudinal determinants of fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Fatim, Jalees; Karoli, Ritu; Chandra, Ashok; Naqvi, Nigar

    2011-10-01

    Fasting during Ramadan has been dissuaded by the physicians for patients of Diabetes, yet fasting being a religious issue can not be made a contraindication for those who are determined. The aim of present study was to find out whether counseling prior to Ramadan can result in successful fasting with lesser adverse events. We have also studied clinical, social and demographic factors causing attitudinal difference in patients and its effect on fasting and diabetes control. We recruited 96 (males 54, Females 42) Muslim patients of Type 2 Diabetes, 2-3 weeks prior to Ramadan. Patients were educated about lifestyle, diet and medications. Awareness regarding diabetes management during fasting was assessed by a scored questionnaire prior to and after Ramadan. Last year Ramadan's experiences were recorded for comparison, on a recall basis. There was increase in post Ramadan awareness score. Average increase in awareness score was more in rural patients (1.23 +/- 3.76; n = 52) than in urban (1.09 +/- 2.01; n = 44). Average number of fasts had positive correlation with duration of Diabetes. There was significant increase (p < 0.05) in the number of fasts kept this year. Maximum increase was in the age group 40-60 year (25.74%). Fifteen days fast was completed by all patients on diet control, 81.3% patients on OHA and 35.7% on insulin. Hypertensive patients had more hypoglycemic episodes. Lesser number of tobacco addicts could fast for > 15 days. No patient needed hospitalization or emergency care. Fasting in Type2 Diabetes patients during Ramadan can be facilitated with safer outcomes and lesser adverse events. Individual attitude is important as increases in awareness and education are not linked to specific improved end-points.

  9. Plantar Pressure as a Risk Assessment Tool for Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Egyptian Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Olfat A; Arafa, Asmaa I; El Wakeel, Mervat A; Abdul Kareem, Shaimaa H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetic foot ulceration is a preventable long-term complication of diabetes. In the present study, peak plantar pressures (PPP) and other characteristics were assessed in a group of 100 Egyptian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers. The aim was to study the relationship between plantar pressure (PP) and neuropathy with or without ulceration and trying to clarify the utility of pedobarography as an ulceration risk assessment tool in patients with diabetes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 100 patients having diabetes were selected. All patients had a comprehensive foot evaluation, including assessment for neuropathy using modified neuropathy disability score (MNDS), for peripheral vascular disease using ankle brachial index, and for dynamic foot pressures using the MAT system (Tekscan). The studied patients were grouped into: (1) diabetic control group (DC), which included 37 patients who had diabetes without neuropathy or ulceration and MNDS ≤2; (2) diabetic neuropathy group (DN), which included 33 patients who had diabetes with neuropathy and MNDS >2, without current or a history of ulceration; and (3) diabetic ulcer group (DU), which included 30 patients who had diabetes and current ulceration, seven of those patients also gave a history of ulceration. RESULTS PP parameters were significantly different between the studied groups, namely, forefoot peak plantar pressure (FFPPP), rearfoot peak plantar pressure (RFPPP), forefoot/rearfoot ratio (F/R), forefoot peak pressure gradient (FFPPG) rearfoot peak pressure gradient (RFPPG), and forefoot peak pressure gradient/rearfoot peak pressure gradient (FFPPG/RFPPG) (P < 0.05). FFPPP and F/R were significantly higher in the DU group compared to the DN and DC groups (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between DN and DC. FFPPG was significantly higher in the DU and DN groups compared to the DC group (P < 0.05). RFPPP and FFPPG/RFPPG were significantly higher in the DU and DN

  10. Combined insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring significantly improves glycemic control compared to multiple daily injection therapy in pump naïve patients with type 1 diabetes; single center pilot study experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott W; Sweeney, Tom; Clausen, Debbie; Kolbach, Celia; Hassen, Allen; Firek, Anthony; Brinegar, Charles; Petrofsky, Jerrold

    2007-05-01

    This study assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of the training protocol for initiating insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System) in a stepwise approach on pump naive subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to a control group who remained on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. This was a 15-week treat-to-target pilot study of 16 adult subjects (n = 50% male, age 45.9 +/- 16 years) with type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes 21.9 +/- 11 years) on MDI therapy with hemoglobin A1c levels at or above 7.5% at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either the study arm (using a combined insulin pump and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system) or the control arm [which continued on MDI therapy with self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) only]. All subjects dosed insulin according to results of SMBG by finger stick and uploaded data into the CareLink data management software. Significant improvements in glycemic control were observed from baseline in both study groups-study arm: pre-A1c 9.45 +/- 0.55 and post-A1c 7.4 +/- 0.66 (p = 0.00037); control arm: pre-A1c 8.58 +/- 1.30 and post-A1c 7.5 +/-1.01 (p = 0.04). Both arms had no incidence of severe hypoglycemia. In this pilot study, the Paradigm REAL-Time System was initiated safely and effectively in type 1 diabetes patients who were pump naïve using a stepwise educational protocol.

  11. Combined Insulin Pump Therapy with Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Significantly Improves Glycemic Control Compared to Multiple Daily Injection Therapy in Pump Naïve Patients with Type 1 Diabetes; Single Center Pilot Study Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Scott W.; Sweeney, Tom; Clausen, Debbie; Kolbach, Celia; Hassen, Allen; Firek, Anthony; Brinegar, Charles; Petrofsky, Jerrold

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of the training protocol for initiating insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System) in a stepwise approach on pump naive subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to a control group who remained on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. Methods This was a 15-week treat-to-target pilot study of 16 adult subjects (n = 50% male, age 45.9 ± 16 years) with type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes 21.9 ± 11 years) on MDI therapy with hemoglobin A1c levels at or above 7.5% at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either the study arm (using a combined insulin pump and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system) or the control arm [which continued on MDI therapy with self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) only]. All subjects dosed insulin according to results of SMBG by finger stick and uploaded data into the CareLink data management software. Results Significant improvements in glycemic control were observed from baseline in both study groups—study arm: pre-A1c 9.45 ± 0.55 and post-A1c 7.4 ± 0.66 (p = 0.00037); control arm: pre-A1c 8.58 ± 1.30 and post-A1c 7.5 ±1.01 (p = 0.04). Both arms had no incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusion In this pilot study, the Paradigm REAL-Time System was initiated safely and effectively in type 1 diabetes patients who were pump naïve using a stepwise educational protocol. PMID:19885096

  12. Epidemiology and outcome in patients of diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M Naeem; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, Kamran Ishaque; Iqbal, Ghulam Sabir

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study was detailed analysis of the presentation of diabetic foot ulcers, characteristics and predictors of outcome (incidence of amputation in neuropathic, ischemic, neuro ischemic) in patients presenting with diabetic foot at our hospital. This prospective analytic study was conducted from January 2009-August 2010 at POF Hospital Wah Cantt. Diabetic patients who presented with foot ulcers were enrolled in this study. Demographics of patients along with ulcer size, type, site and Grade according to Wagner Classification were recorded. Wounds were managed with daily dressings, nursing care and de-sloughing of necrotic tissue along with appropriate antibiotic cover. Patients were followed over period until wound healed completely or a lower limb amputation performed, the outcome noted and patient was deemed to have completed study. One hundred and fifteen patients with mean age 55.46 +/- 8.23 years, both male and female were included in this study. Out of 115 patients 111 patients had Type-II diabetes while only 4 p resented with Type-I. Mean Duration of diabetes was 14.61 +/- 2.17 years. With respect to underlying causes 18.3% foot ulcers were ischemic, 22.6% were neuropathic and 59% were neuro-ischemic. Median ulcer size was 74% of ulcer classified as Wagner grade-II and III while 24% were of Grade-V. Lower limb amputation were performed in 25% of patients whereas limb salvage achieved in 75% of patients with wounds healed (median healing time 5 (3-10 weeks). Preservation of the limb function without endangering the patient must be a goal of treating diabetic foot. Once foot amputation is successful, rehabilitation with orthotic or prosthetic devices may allow years of a functional extremity along with preventive measures like cessation of smoking, dailyfoot hygiene and foot inspection.

  13. Dentists' management of the diabetic patient: contrasting generalists and specialists.

    PubMed

    Kunzel, Carol; Lalla, Evanthia; Lamster, Ira

    2007-04-01

    We measured and contrasted general dentists' and periodontists' involvement in 3 areas of managing diabetic patients-assessment of health status, discussion of pertinent issues, and active management of patients--and identified and contrasted predictors of active management of diabetic patients. We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of random samples of general dentists and periodontists in the northeastern United States during fall 2002, using lists from the 2001 American Dental Directory and the 2002 American Academy of Periodontology Directory. Responses were received from 105 of 132 eligible general dentists (response rate=80%) and from 103 of 142 eligible periodontists (response rate=73%). Confidence, involvement with colleagues and medical experts, and professional responsibility were influential predictors of active management for periodontists (R2=0.46, P<.001). Variables pertaining to patient relations were significant predictors for general dentists (R2=0.55, P<.001). Our findings permitted us to assess and compare general dentists' and periodontists' behavior in 3 realms--assessment of diabetic patients' health status, discussion of pertinent issues, and active management of diabetic patients--and to identify components of potentially effective targeted interventions aimed at increasing specialists' and generalist dentists' involvement in the active management of diabetic patients.

  14. Colon cancer modulation by a diabetic environment: A single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nieves; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Zazo, Sandra; Corton, Marta; Minguez, Pablo; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Arce, Jose Miguel; Sanz, Ana Belen; Mas, Sebastian; Aguilera, Oscar; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Esbrit, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Ayuso, Carmen; Egido, Jesus; Rojo, Federico; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple observational studies suggest an increased risk of colon cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This can theoretically be the result of an influence of the diabetic environment on carcinogenesis or the tumor biologic behavior. Aim To gain insight into the influence of a diabetic environment on colon cancer characteristics and outcomes. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of clinical records in an academic tertiary care hospital with detailed analysis of 81 diabetic patients diagnosed of colon cancer matched with 79 non-diabetic colon cancer patients. The impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the growth of colon cancer xenografts was studied in mice. Results The incidence of DM in 1,137 patients with colorectal cancer was 16%. The diabetic colon cancer cases and non-diabetic colon cancer controls were well matched for demographic and clinical variables. The ECOG Scale Performance Status was higher (worse) in diabetics (ECOG ≥1, 29.1% of controls vs 46.9% of diabetics, p = 0.02), but no significant differences were observed in tumor grade, adjuvant therapy, tumor site, lymphovascular invasion, stage, recurrence, death or cancer-related death. Moreover, no differences in tumor variables were observed between patients treated or not with metformin. In the xenograft model, tumor growth and histopathological characteristics did not differ between diabetic and nondiabetic animals. Conclusion Our findings point towards a mild or negligible effect of the diabetes environment on colon cancer behavior, once cancer has already developed. PMID:28253286

  15. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income <236 euros (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.8), and a glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 7.0% (OR 2.8; 95%CI: 1.5-5.0). It is necessary that all DM patients seen in a family medicine clinic have a yearly screening for the early detection of diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between information sources and level of knowledge about diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cántaro, Katherine; Jara, Jimena A; Taboada, Marco; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the association between the type of information source and the level of knowledge about diabetes mellitus in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a reference diabetes and hypertension center in Lima, Peru, during 2014. Level of knowledge was measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire-24 and 12 information sources. Patients with 75% correct answers were considered to have a good knowledge. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Of the total 464 patients enrolled, 52.2% were females, and 20.3% used the Internet as information source. Mean knowledge was 12.9±4.8, and only 17.0% had a good knowledge, which was associated with information on diabetes obtained from the Internet (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.14), and also from other patients (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.31). Good knowledge was also associated with postgraduate education (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.21 to 11.09), disease duration longer than 12 years (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1,22 to 3.01), and age older than 70 years (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.21-0.72). Search for information in the Internet was positively associated to a good level of knowledge. It is suggested to teach patients with diabetes to seek information on the Internet and, on the other hand, to develop virtual spaces for interaction of patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW

  18. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving

  19. [Diagnosis and assessment of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2014-02-01

    Hypoglycaemic episodes are rather common among diabetic patients, especially those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin (more in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes). The presentation of hypoglycaemia may considerably vary from patient-to-patient and from time-to-time in a given patient. With the illustration of a clinical case, we will describe the characteristics of the three main types of hypoglycaemia: severe hypoglycaemia (with or without coma), symptomatic hypoglycaemia (with or without confirmation) and asymptomatic hypoglycaemia ("hypoglycaemia unawareness") discovered as a low blood glucose measurement. We will also briefly analyse the reasons of such differences and the potential clinical consequences that these three main types of hypoglycaemia may exert in the real life of diabetic patients.

  20. [The hemodynamic characterization of the diabetic patient with arterial calcifications].

    PubMed

    Vega Gómez, M E; Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Lima Santana, B; Montalvo Diago, J; Bustillo, C; Fernández Boloña, A; Gutiérrez Jiménez, O; Ramirez Muñoz, O; Martínez Hernández, R

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the presence of calcifications according to the clinical features of the diabetic patient and the hemodynamics of the calcified arteries. With this purpose, 197 lower limbs from diabetic patients (type I and II) and carbon-hydrate intolerant patients, were studied. In all of the patients, the pressure ratio leg/arm was measured. On the same way, the arterial flow velocity was recorded using the Doppler ultrasonography on the pedia and postero-tibial arteries. The arterial calcifications, evident on the radiography of the foot, were more frequent between the type I patients and the neuro-infections diabetic foot. According to the hemodynamics point of view, we found a trend of association of more pathologic arterial flow velocity curves with the presence of calcifications (specially on the intima layer). It was also remarkable that an arterial incomprensibility was always associated with arterial calcifications.

  1. Visualizing desirable patient healthcare experiences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sandra S; Kim, Hyung T; Chen, Jie; An, Lingling

    2010-01-01

    High healthcare cost has drawn much attention and healthcare service providers (HSPs) are expected to deliver high-quality and consistent care. Therefore, an intimate understanding of the most desirable experience from a patient's and/or family's perspective as well as effective mapping and communication of such findings should facilitate HSPs' efforts in attaining sustainable competitive advantage in an increasingly discerning environment. This study describes (a) the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the experience desired by patients and (b) the application of two visualization tools that are relatively new to the healthcare sector, namely the "spider-web diagram" and "promotion and detraction matrix." The visualization tools are tested with primary data collected from telephone surveys of 1,800 patients who had received care during calendar year 2005 at 6 of 61 hospitals within St. Louis, Missouri-based, Ascension Health. Five CQAs were found by factor analysis. The spider-web diagram illustrates that communication and empowerment and compassionate and respectful care are the most important CQAs, and accordingly, the promotion and detraction matrix shows those attributes that have the greatest effect for creating promoters, preventing detractors, and improving consumer's likelihood to recommend the healthcare provider.

  2. Are diabetic patients being screened for sleep related breathing disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of both diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high among general population. Both of these conditions are associated with significant morbidity. OSA affects approximately 25% of men and 9% of women, and its prevalence is even higher among obese, Hispanics, African American and diabetic patients. Diabetes on the other hand besides having high prevalence in general population has even higher prevalence among ethnic populations as Hispanics and African American. Despite the availability of several simple screening tools for OSA, as Berlin questionnaire, STOP-BANG questionnaire, NAMES Criteria, the utility for screening of OSA among the diabetic population remains marginal. This in turn can lead to significant morbidity and complications related to OSA as well as worsening of diabetes mellitus and increase in diabetic complications due to untreated sleep related breathing disorder. It is therefore imperative for the primary care giver to screen for OSA among the diabetic population as a part of their routine evaluation to prevent worsening of diabetes, and its cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmologic and neurological complications. PMID:24147199

  3. Improving School Experiences for Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Saori S.; Hopkins, Amanda; Burke, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is one of the most common metabolic diseases in children worldwide and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is growing. T1D is complicated to manage and adolescents with diabetes face unique, age-specific challenges. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways in which schools can create a positive…

  4. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodont