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Sample records for diabetes self-management education

  1. Internet delivered diabetes self-management education: a review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Katherine; Phillips, Beth; Johnson, Constance; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of successful diabetes management. Various methods have been used to reach the increasing numbers of patients with diabetes, including Internet-based education. The purpose of this article is to review various delivery methods of Internet diabetes education that have been evaluated, as well as their effectiveness in improving diabetes-related outcomes. Literature was identified in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science databases through searches using the following terms: "type 2 diabetes AND internet/web based AND education" and "type 2 diabetes AND diabetes self-management education (DSME) AND web-based/internet OR technology assisted education." The search was limited to English language articles published in the last 10 years. The search yielded 111 articles; of these, 14 met criteria for inclusion in this review. Nine studies were randomized controlled trials, and study lengths varied from 2 weeks to 24 months, for a total of 2,802 participants. DSME delivered via the Internet is effective at improving measures of glycemic control and diabetes knowledge compared with usual care. In addition, results demonstrate that improved eating habits and increased attendance at clinic appointments occur after the online DSME, although engagement and usage of Internet materials waned over time. Interventions that included an element of interaction with healthcare providers were seen as attractive to participants. Internet-delivered diabetes education has the added benefit of easier access for many individuals, and patients can self-pace themselves through materials. More research on the cost-benefits of Internet diabetes education and best methods to maintain patient engagement are needed, along with more studies assessing the long-term impact of Internet-delivered DSME.

  2. Enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education: the diabetes literacy project.

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H

    2014-12-01

    Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels.

  3. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  4. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  5. Building a Virtual Environment for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Constance; Feenan, Kevin; Setliff, Glenn; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Beresford, Henry F.; Epps, Shelly; Nicollerat, Janet; Tatum, William; Feinglos, Mark; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed an immersive diabetes community to provide diabetes self-management education and support for adults with type 2 diabetes. In this article the authors describe the procedures used to develop this virtual environment (VE). Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education & Self-Management (SLIDES), the VE for our diabetes community was built in Second Life. Social Cognitive Theory, behavioral principles and key aspects of virtual environments related to usability were applied in the development in this VE. Collaboration between researchers, clinicians and information technology (IT) specialists occurred throughout the development process. An interactive community was successfully built and utilized to provide diabetes self-management education and support. VEs for health applications may be innovative and enticing, yet it must be kept in mind that there are substantial effort, expertise, and usability factors that must be considered in the development of these environments for health care consumers. PMID:25699133

  6. Building a Virtual Environment for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Constance; Feenan, Kevin; Setliff, Glenn; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Beresford, Henry F; Epps, Shelly; Nicollerat, Janet; Tatum, William; Feinglos, Mark; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    The authors developed an immersive diabetes community to provide diabetes self-management education and support for adults with type 2 diabetes. In this article the authors describe the procedures used to develop this virtual environment (VE). Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education & Self-Management (SLIDES), the VE for our diabetes community was built in Second Life. Social Cognitive Theory, behavioral principles and key aspects of virtual environments related to usability were applied in the development in this VE. Collaboration between researchers, clinicians and information technology (IT) specialists occurred throughout the development process. An interactive community was successfully built and utilized to provide diabetes self-management education and support. VEs for health applications may be innovative and enticing, yet it must be kept in mind that there are substantial effort, expertise, and usability factors that must be considered in the development of these environments for health care consumers.

  7. How can structured self-management patient education improve outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, J; Skinner, T C; Carey, M E; Davies, M J

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a long-term chronic condition that is complex to manage, with the majority of management being done by the person with diabetes outside of the clinical setting. Because of its complexities, effective self-management requires skills, confidence and the ability to make decisions and choices about treatments and lifestyle on a day-to-day basis. Equipping a person with these self-management skills is in itself challenging and it is now widely accepted that structured education is an integral part of the management of T2DM. This paper explores whether structured self-management education can improve outcomes in people with diabetes. The authors explore what self-management education is, why it is needed and then go on to examine the recent evidence from clinical trials from 2006 onwards.

  8. Effectiveness of self-management promotion educational program among diabetic patients based on health belief model.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Farzad; Motlagh, Fazel Zinat; Solhi, Mahnaz; Gharibnavaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease; it can cause serious complications. Diabetes self-management is essential for prevention of disease complications. This study was conducted to evaluate self-management promotion educational program intervention efficiency among diabetic patients in Iran and health belief model (HBM) was applied as a theoretical framework. Overall, 120 Type 2 diabetic patients referred to rural health centers in Gachsaran, Iran participated in this study as randomly divided into intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to promotion self-management among diabetic patients. Cross-tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 16 was used for the statistical analysis. Mean age was 55.07 years (SD = 9.94, range: 30-70). Our result shows significant improvements in average response for susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-management among intervention group. Additionally, after intervention, average response of the barrier to self-management was decreased among intervention group. Our result showed education program based on HBM was improve of self-management and seems implementing these programs can be effective in the and prevention of diabetes complications.

  9. A Systematic Review of Reviews Evaluating Technology-Enabled Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Deborah A; Gee, Perry M; Fatkin, Kathy J; Peeples, Malinda

    2017-09-01

    Since the introduction of mobile phones, technology has been increasingly used to enable diabetes self-management education and support. This timely systematic review summarizes how currently available technology impacts outcomes for people living with diabetes. A systematic review of high quality review articles and meta analyses focused on utilizing technology in diabetes self-management education and support services was conducted. Articles were included if published between January 2013 and January 2017. Twenty-five studies were included for analysis. The majority evaluated the use of mobile phones and secure messaging. Most studies described healthy eating, being active and metabolic monitoring as the predominant self-care behaviors evaluated. Eighteen of 25 reviews reported significant reduction in A1c as an outcome measure. Four key elements emerged as essential for improved A1c: (1) communication, (2) patient-generated health data, (3) education, and (4) feedback. Technology-enabled diabetes self-management solutions significantly improve A1c. The most effective interventions incorporated all the components of a technology-enabled self-management feedback loop that connected people with diabetes and their health care team using 2-way communication, analyzed patient-generated health data, tailored education, and individualized feedback. The evidence from this systematic review indicates that organizations, policy makers and payers should consider integrating these solutions in the design of diabetes self-management education and support services for population health and value-based care models. With the widespread adoption of mobile phones, digital health solutions that incorporate evidence-based, behaviorally designed interventions can improve the reach and access to diabetes self-management education and ongoing support.

  10. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    García, Alexandra A; Brown, Sharon A; Horner, Sharon D; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25-75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.

  11. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25–75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. PMID:25953971

  12. Prevention of diabetes complications in developing countries: time to intensify self-management education.

    PubMed

    Ezenwaka, C; Eckel, J

    2011-12-01

    The IDF report has indicated that about 80% of four million diabetes-related deaths that occur every year comes from the developing world. The IDF report suggests the need to focus more on preventing diabetes complications in poor countries. Thus, considering the economic constraints in combating the explosion of diabetes complications in the developing regions of the world, it appears that exploring culturally adaptable educational intervention programmes for specific regions would be the appropriate strategy. We believe that diabetes-related deaths could be reduced in developing countries through intensified diabetes self-management education.

  13. Diabetes Self-Management and Education of People Living with Diabetes: A Survey in Primary Health Care in Muscat Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maniri, Abdullah A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Oman is high and rising, information on how people were self-managing their disease has been lacking. The objective of this study was therefore to assess diabetes self-management and education (DSME) among people living with type 2 diabetes in Oman. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted in public primary health care centres in Muscat. Diabetes self-management and education was assessed by asking how patients recognized and responded to hypo- and hyperglycaemia, and if they had developed strategies to maintain stable blood glucose levels. Patients' demographic information, self-treatment behaviours, awareness of potential long-term complications, and attitudes concerning diabetes management were also recorded. Associations between these factors and diabetes self-management and education were analysed. Results In total, 309 patients were surveyed. A quarter (26%, n = 83) were unaware how to recognize hypoglycaemia or respond to it (26%, n = 81). Around half (49%, n = 151), could not recognize hyperglycaemia and more than half could not respond to it (60%, n = 184). Twelve percent (n = 37) of the patients did not have any strategies to stabilize their blood glucose levels. Patients with formal education generally had more diabetes self-management and education than those without (p<0.001), as had patients with longer durations of diabetes (p<0.01). Self-monitoring of blood glucose was practiced by 38% (n = 117) of the patients, and insulin was used by 22% (n = 67), of which about one third independently adjusted dosages. Patients were most often aware of complications concerning loss of vision, renal failure and cardiac problems. Many patients desired further health education. Conclusions Many patients displayed dangerous diabetes self-management and education knowledge gaps. The findings suggest a need for improving knowledge transfer to people living with diabetes in the

  14. Effects of a self-management educational program on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Hossein Ali; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Agrawal, Kamal; Kannan, Aanjor Tupil; Agrawal, Kireet

    2016-04-19

    India has 63 million diabetic people and the overall prevalence of diabetes in this country is 8.37%. Lifestyle modification by education is the most cost-effective strategy to have better metabolic control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a self-management educational program on control of type 2 diabetes. It was a randomized controlled interventional study conducted among 306 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Clinic at G.T.B. Hospital, Delhi, from March 2010 to May 2013. The intervention was in the form of group education based on a self-management program, which was earlier developed in the pilot study. The baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. After 6 months, there was a significant improvement in the HbA1c levels (P = 0.0001), physical activity level (P = 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.001) in the study group as compared to the control group and this difference persisted even when analysis was done using generalized estimation equations. The findings of this study proved that a self-management educational program is an essential component in the management of diabetes and provided concrete evidence that this is an effective instrument in the control of body weight, blood pressure, and glycated Hb levels in type 2 diabetes.

  15. Effects of Self-management Education Through Telephone Follow-up in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Namjoo Nasab, Mahmood; Ghavam, Abbas; Yazdanpanah, Abbas; Jahangir, Fereidoun; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    It is expected that the number of people living with diabetes rise especially in low- and middle-income countries. In Iran, more than four million adults have diabetes mellitus, and self-management education is essential for effective diabetes self-care. This study aimed to investigate the effect of self-management education with telephone follow-up in diabetic patients of rural areas of Fars province in Lamerd city, Iran. In this experimental study, 64 participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (32 patients for each group). In the intervention group, the participants attended four educational sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. The control group received the usual care. Outcome measures were clinical variables and the patients' scores in Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) in the preintervention and postintervention phases. Effects of the intervention were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and analysis of covariance. Data of 60 patients (30 in each group) were analyzed. There were significant differences between the two groups in fasting blood sugar after 3 months of intervention. There was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in DSMQ sum scale after adjusting for baseline value. In subscales of DSMQ, there were significant differences between the intervention and control groups in glucose management, dietary control, and physical activity, whereas no significant difference was found in health care use between the intervention and control groups. Self-management education with telephone follow-up in diabetic patients in rural areas is effective, especially in improving fasting blood sugar level and increasing scores of patients based on DSMQ.

  16. The impact of diabetes self-management education on glucose management and empowerment in ethnic Armenians with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Naccashian, Zarmine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of diabetes self-management education on glycemic control and perceptions of empowerment in Armenian American immigrants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre and post design was used to investigate the impact of using education on self-management as measured by A1C levels and empowerment scores. Nine hours of diabetes self-management education classes were offered in the Armenian language to 75 clients at 2 adult health day care centers over 6 weeks. The participants were mostly first-generation Armenian immigrants aged 65 years and older. A1C results, the 8-item Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), and the 15-item Armenian Ethnic Orientation Questionnaire-Revised (AEOQ-R) were used to determine the impact of education on self-care management. After institutional review board approval was obtained, 75 participants completed the study. A paired t test indicated that the postintervention mean A1C level was significantly lower than the preintervention mean A1C level. The postintervention mean DES score was significantly greater than the preintervention mean DES score. No mediating effects of age, gender, acculturation, and number of years with the disease were identified for either A1C or DES score. The findings demonstrate the efficacy of the diabetes self-management education classes in improving diabetes self-care management skills. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. Literacy-appropriate educational materials and brief counseling improve diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrea S; Seligman, Hilary K; Davis, Terry C; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L; Bryant-Shilliday, Betsy; Freburger, Janet K; DeWalt, Darren A

    2009-06-01

    In this pilot study, we evaluated the impact of providing patients with a literacy-appropriate diabetes education guide accompanied by brief counseling designed for use in primary care. We provided the Living with Diabetes guide and brief behavior change counseling to 250 English and Spanish speaking patients with type 2 diabetes. Counseling sessions using collaborative goal setting occurred at baseline and by telephone at 2 and 4 weeks. We measured patients' activation, self-efficacy, diabetes distress, knowledge, and self-care at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Statistically significant (pdiabetes-related distress, self-reported behaviors, and knowledge. Improvements were similar across literacy levels. Spanish speakers experienced both greater improvement in diabetes-related distress and less improvement in self-efficacy levels than English speakers. A diabetes self-management support package combining literacy-appropriate patient education materials with brief counseling suitable for use in primary care resulted in important short-term health-related psychological and behavioral changes across literacy levels. Coupling literacy-appropriate education materials with brief counseling in primary care settings may be an effective and efficient strategy for imparting skills necessary for diabetes self-management.

  18. 2017 National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    PubMed

    Beck, Joni; Greenwood, Deborah A; Blanton, Lori; Bollinger, Sandra T; Butcher, Marcene K; Condon, Jo Ellen; Cypress, Marjorie; Faulkner, Priscilla; Fischl, Amy Hess; Francis, Theresa; Kolb, Leslie E; Lavin-Tompkins, Jodi M; MacLeod, Janice; Maryniuk, Melinda; Mensing, Carolé; Orzeck, Eric A; Pope, David D; Pulizzi, Jodi L; Reed, Ardis A; Rhinehart, Andrew S; Siminerio, Linda; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review the literature for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support (DSMES) to ensure the National Standards for DSMES (Standards) align with current evidence-based practices and utilization trends. Methods The 10 Standards were divided among 20 interdisciplinary workgroup members. Members searched the current research for diabetes education and support, behavioral health, clinical, health care environment, technical, reimbursement, and business practice for the strongest evidence that guided the Standards revision. Results Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support facilitates the knowledge, skills, and ability necessary for diabetes self-care as well as activities that assist a person in implementing and sustaining the behaviors needed to manage their condition on an ongoing basis. The evidence indicates that health care providers and people affected by diabetes are embracing technology, and this is having a positive impact of DSMES access, utilization, and outcomes. Conclusion Quality DSMES continues to be a critical element of care for all people with diabetes. The DSMES services must be individualized and guided by the concerns, preferences, and needs of the person affected by diabetes. Even with the abundance of evidence supporting the benefits of DSMES, it continues to be underutilized, but as with other health care services, technology is changing the way DSMES is delivered and utilized with positive outcomes.

  19. Assessment of implementation fidelity in diabetes self-management education programs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schinckus, Louise; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Housiaux, Marie

    2014-07-01

    As diabetes requires extensive self-care, self-management education is widely recommended to enhance the effectiveness and reduce the costs of treatment. While a variety of diabetes self-management (DSM) programs are available, the conditions for their effective implementation are not well documented. This paper reviews the literature on implementation fidelity (IF), the degree to which programs are delivered as intended, as a factor influencing the effectiveness of diabetes education. Medical, psychological and educational research databases were searched to identify published studies on diabetes education describing the implementation process. Studies detailing the intervention adherence/fidelity/integrity were included to assess the way key elements of IF were addressed. From an initial 418 abstracts, 20 published papers were retained for an in-depth analysis focusing on the components of IF. Intervention content was mainly assessed through observation, whereas intervention dose was more often assessed through self-report measures. Only one study addressed the relationship between IF and intervention effectiveness. Despite the importance of IF to achieve program outcomes, IF of DSM programs remains largely under-investigated. The results of this review suggest that reports on DSM education should systematically describe how the program was implemented. The impact of IF on program outcomes needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Promoting diabetes self-management among African Americans: an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Eleanor A; Stevens, Karen A; Persaud, Sabita

    2010-08-01

    Diabetes is a major national health problem that affects African Americans more seriously than other population groups. The purpose of this project was to increase knowledge and self-management of diabetes among African American adults 40 years of age and older diagnosed with type II diabetes. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test comparison group design was used. Three educational sessions were provided to participants in the intervention group. Content included information about diabetes and its complications, risk factors, proper diet, recommendations for exercise, medications, and monitoring blood glucose. Teaching strategies included discussion, games, and demonstrations. Patient navigators provided follow-up by phone at the scheduled intervals. Preliminary results indicated significantly increased knowledge among intervention group participants between the pre- and post-test and the pre-test and follow-up. Findings for HbA1c values, body mass index, and weight were not significant.

  1. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Dougherty, James R.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes the effects of a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention. Research Design and Methods A prospective, randomized, repeated measures study was conducted on the Texas-Mexico border in Starr County. 256 randomly selected persons with type 2 diabetes were: (1) between 35 and 70 years of age; (2) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after the age of 35 years; and (3) accompanied by a family member or friend. The intervention consisted of 52 contact hours over 12 months and was provided by bilingual Mexican American nurses, dietitians, and community workers. The intervention involved : (1) 3 months of weekly instructional sessions on nutrition, self-monitoring of blood glucose, exercise, and other self-care topics; and (2) 6 months of biweekly support group sessions to promote behavior changes. The approach was culturally competent in terms of language, diet, social emphasis, family participation, and incorporation of cultural health beliefs. Indicators of metabolic control (HbA1c and FBS), diabetes knowledge, and diabetes-related health beliefs. Results Experimental groups showed significantly lower levels of HbA1c and FBS at 6 months and at 12 months and higher diabetes knowledge scores. At 6 months, the mean HbA1c of the experimental subjects was 1.4% below the mean of the control group; however, the mean level of the experimental subjects was still high (over 10%). Conclusions This study confirms the effectiveness of culturally competent diabetes self-management education on improving health outcomes of Mexican Americans, particularly for those individuals with HbA1c levels above 10%. PMID:11815493

  2. The Effects and Costs of a Group-Based Education Programme for Self-Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…

  3. The Effects and Costs of a Group-Based Education Programme for Self-Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…

  4. An assessment of patient education and self-management in diabetes disease management--two case studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Greenwood, Deborah; Payne, Hildegarde; Thomson, John; Vukovljak, Lana; McCulloch, Amber; Specker, James E

    2008-12-01

    Diabetes affects 7.8% of Americans, nearly 24 million people, and costs $174 billion yearly. People with diabetes benefit from self-management; disease management (DM) programs are effective in managing populations with diabetes. Little has been published on the intersection of diabetes education and DM. Our hypothesis was that diabetes educators and their interventions integrate well with DM and effectively support providers' care delivery. A literature review was conducted for papers published within the past 3 years and identified using the search terms "diabetes educator" and "disease management." Those that primarily addressed community health workers or the primary care/community setting were excluded. Two case studies were conducted to augment the literature. Ten of 30 manuscripts identified in the literature review were applicable and indicate that techniques and interventions based on cognitive theories and behavioral change can be effective when coupled with diabetes DM. Better diabetes self-management through diabetes education encourages participation in DM programs and adherence to recommended care in programs offered by DM organizations or those that are provider based. Improved health outcomes and reduced cost can be achieved by blending diabetes education and DM. Diabetes educators are a critical part of the management team and, with their arsenal of goal setting and behavior change techniques, are an essential component for the success of diabetes DM programs. Additional research needs to be undertaken to identify effective ways to integrate diabetes educators and education into DM and to assess clinical, behavioral, and economic outcomes arising from such programs.

  5. Diabetes self-management education reduces risk of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqin; Li, Jie; Wang, Bin; Yao, Qiuming; Li, Ling; Song, Ronghua; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jin-An

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes self-management education is an essential part of diabetes care, but its impact on all-cause mortality risk of type 2 diabetes patients is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to elucidate the impact of diabetes self-management education on all-cause mortality risk of type 2 diabetes patients was performed. Randomised controlled trials were identified though literature search in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, conference abstracts, and reference lists. Only randomised controlled trials comparing diabetes self-management education with usual care in type 2 diabetes patients and reporting outcomes after a follow-up of at least 12 months were considered eligible. Risk ratios with 95 %CIs were pooled. This study was registered at PROSPERO with the number of CRD42016043911. 42 randomised controlled trials containing 13,017 participants were included. The mean time of follow-up was 1.5 years. There was no heterogeneity among those included studies (I (2) = 0 %). Mortality occurred in 159 participants (2.3 %) in the diabetes self-management education group and in 187 (3.1 %) in the usual care group, and diabetes self-management education significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes patients (pooled risk ratios : 0.74, 95 %CI 0.60-0.90, P = 0.003; absolute risk difference: -0.8 %, 95 %CI -1.4 to -0.3). Both multidisciplinary team education and nurse-led education could significantly reduce mortality risk in type 2 diabetes patients, and the pooled risk ratios were 0.66 (95 %CI 0.46-0.96, P = 0.02; I (2) = 0 %) and 0.64 (95 % CI 0.47- 0.88, P = 0.005; I (2) = 0 %), respectively. Subgroup analyses of studies with longer duration of follow-up (≥1.5 years) or larger sample size (≥300) also found a significant effect of diabetes self-management education in reducing mortality risk among type 2 diabetes. Significant effect of diabetes self-management education in reducing mortality risk

  6. Patient level cost of diabetes self-management education programmes: an international evaluation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Gerardine; O'Donnell, Shane; Quigley, Etáin; Cullen, Kate; Gibney, Sarah; Levin-Zamir, Diane; Ganahl, Kristin; Müller, Gabriele; Muller, Ingrid; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Chang, Wushou Peter; Van Den Broucke, Stephan

    2017-06-04

    The objective of this study was to examine the value of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in understanding the process and costs of delivering diabetes self-management education (DSME) programmes in a multicountry comparative study. Outpatient settings in five European countries (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, UK) and two countries outside Europe, Taiwan and Israel. Providers of DSME programmes across participating countries (N=16) including healthcare professionals, administrators and patients taking part in DSME programmes. Primary measure: time spent by providers in the delivery of DSME and resources consumed in order to compute programme costs. Secondary measures: self-report measures of behavioural self-management and diabetes disease/health-related outcomes. We found significant variation in costs and the processes of how DSME programmes are provided across and within countries. Variations in costs were driven by a combination of price variances, mix of personnel skill and efficiency variances. Higher cost programmes were not found to have achieved better relative outcomes. The findings highlight the value of TDABC in calculating a patient level cost and potential of the methodology to identify process improvements in guiding the optimal allocation of scarce resources in diabetes care, in particular for DSME that is often underfunded. This study is the first to measure programme costs using estimates of the actual resources used to educate patients about managing their medical condition and is the first study to map such costs to self-reported behavioural and disease outcomes. The results of this study will inform clinicians, managers and policy makers seeking to enhance the delivery of DSME programmes. The findings highlight the benefits of adopting a TDABC approach to understanding the drivers of the cost of DSME programmes in a multicountry study to reveal opportunities to bend the cost curve for DSME. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  7. Sustainability of Improved Glycemic Control After Diabetes Self-Management Education.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Katie G; Ramser, Kristie L; Campbell, Jennifer D; Suda, Katie J; Lee, Marilyn D; Wood, G Christopher; Sumter, Robert; Hamann, Gale L

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glycemic control as measured by A1C during a 2-year period after patients received diabetes self-management education (DSME). Methods. Patients who completed DSME in 2009 and received medical follow-up with A1C measurements for at least 2 years after DSME were included in the evaluation. Primary endpoints were changes in A1C from before to immediately after, 1 year after, and 2 years after DSME. Secondary outcomes included the effects of the following factors on change in A1C: sex, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes (A1C ≥ 9%), health insurance coverage, and self-reported education level. Results. Forty-three patients were included in the evaluation. Mean A1C before DSME was 10.2 ± 3.7%. Mean A1C after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.2% (P < 0.0001), a 23.5% reduction. Mean A1C at 1 and 2 years after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.1% for each year and remained unchanged from just after DSME to 1 and 2 years after DSME (P > 0.05). Patients with a duration of diabetes of < 1 year had a significantly greater reduction in mean A1C than those with a duration of diabetes ≥ 1 year (28.7 and 20.2%, respectively, P = 0.001). Conclusion. DSME improved glycemic control to a substantial degree, and the effect was sustained for up to 2 years. Although the reduction in A1C was significant for all patients receiving DSME, there was a significantly greater reduction for patients who had a duration of diabetes of < 1 year than for those with a duration of diabetes > 1 year.

  8. The Impact of Arab American Culture on Diabetes Self-management Education.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Elizabeth A; Fritz, Heather; Abbas, Malak; Tarakji, Sandra; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Pociask, Fredrick D; Lysack, Catherine L; Arnetz, Judith; Jaber, Linda A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand barriers and facilitators of diabetes self-management education (DSME) among Arab American patients with diabetes. Little is known about the impact of Arab culture on DSME. Arab American adults (N = 23) with medically managed diabetes participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. An Arabic-speaking, trained moderator conducted video-recorded sessions. Verbatim Arabic transcripts were translated into English. Transcripts underwent a qualitative content analysis approach. Arab American cultural traditions such as food sharing, religious beliefs, and gender roles both facilitated and at times impeded DSME. Patients also held conflicting views about their interactions with their providers; some participants praised the authoritative patient-physician relationship style while others perceived the gaps in communication to be a product of Arab culture. Participants expressed that lack of available educational and supportive resources are key barriers to DSME. Arab American culture affects DSM activities, and culturally sensitive educational resources are lacking. Development of DSME programs tailored to address relevant aspects of Arab culture might improve DSME outcomes in Arab American population. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Diabetes Self-Management Education Enhanced by the Low Vision Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-McKay, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes currently affects 20.8 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 74 years. The author uses a fictional but typical example to explain the ways in which low vision specialists can improve the diabetes self-management program of a person with low vision and demonstrates…

  10. Diabetes Self-Management Education Enhanced by the Low Vision Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-McKay, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes currently affects 20.8 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 74 years. The author uses a fictional but typical example to explain the ways in which low vision specialists can improve the diabetes self-management program of a person with low vision and demonstrates…

  11. A psychological approach to providing self-management education for people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Manual

    PubMed Central

    Sturt, Jackie; Taylor, Hafrun; Docherty, Andrea; Dale, Jeremy; Louise, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were twofold (i) to develop the Diabetes Manual, a self-management educational intervention aimed at improving biomedical and psychosocial outcomes (ii) to produce early phase evidence relating to validity and clinical feasibility to inform future research and systematic reviews. Methods Using the UK Medical Research Council's complex intervention framework, the Diabetes Manual and associated self management interventions were developed through pre-clinical, and phase I evaluation phases guided by adult-learning and self-efficacy theories, clinical feasibility and health policy protocols. A qualitative needs assessment and an RCT contributed data to the pre-clinical phase. Phase I incorporated intervention development informed by the pre-clinical phase and a feasibility survey. Results The pre-clinical and phase I studies resulted in the production in the Diabetes Manual programme for trial evaluation as delivered within routine primary care consultations. Conclusion This complex intervention shows early feasibility and face validity for both diabetes health professionals and people with diabetes. Randomised trial will determine effectiveness against clinical and psychological outcomes. Further study of some component parts, delivered in alternative combinations, is recommended. PMID:17129376

  12. An evaluation of Web-based education as an alternative to group lectures for diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Kim, Keum Soon; Yi, Myung Sun; Lee, Insook; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Mira; Cho, Young Min; Shim, Young Suk

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Web-based diabetes self-management education for newly diagnosed patients with type II diabetes as an alternative to group lectures. Using a non-equivalent control group, pretest-post-test design, the participants in the Web group (n = 15) took part in a Web-based diabetes self-management program, while those in the lecture group (n = 16) attended 3 h of group lectures provided by health-care professionals specializing in diabetes care. The outcome variables were measured at the baseline (T0), and 6 weeks (T1) and 3 months (T2) after the interventions. The glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) percentage and diabetes care knowledge in the Web group improved significantly from T0 to T1, while the diabetes care behavior improved significantly from T0 to T1 and from T1 to T2. The diabetes care knowledge and diabetes care behavior in the lecture group improved significantly from T0 to T1, but the HbA1c percentage did not change significantly between any times. These results show the potential of the Web-based program as an alternative to group lectures for diabetes self-management education.

  13. Implementation of a diabetes self-management education program in primary care for adults using shared medical appointments.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement diabetes self-management education in primary care using the Chronic Care Model and shared medical appointments (SMA) to provide evidence-based interventions to improve process and measure outcomes. A quality improvement project using the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle was implemented in a primary care setting in South Texas to provide diabetes self-management education for adults. Biological measures were evaluated in 70 patients at initiation of the project and thereafter based on current practice guidelines. The results of the project were consistent with the literature regarding the benefits, sustainability, and viability of SMA. As compared with that in studies presented in the literature, the patient population who participated in SMA had similar outcomes regarding improvement in A1C, self-management skills, and satisfaction. SMA are an innovative system redesign concept with the potential to provide comprehensive and coordinated care for patients with multiple and chronic health conditions while still being an efficient, effective, financially viable, and sustainable program. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increase, innovative models of care can meet the growing demand for access and utilization of diabetes self-management education programs. Programs focusing on chronic conditions to improve outcomes can be replicated by health care providers in primary care settings. SMA can increase revenue and productivity, improve disease management, and increase provider and patient satisfaction.

  14. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  15. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  16. Making and Maintaining Lifestyle Changes after Participating in Group Based Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Educations: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Rise, Marit B.; Pellerud, Anneli; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø.; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Methods Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. Results Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. Conclusion Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared “not that scary” or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour. PMID:23671705

  17. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rise, Marit B; Pellerud, Anneli; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Disease management is crucial in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes self-management education aims to provide the knowledge necessary to make and maintain lifestyle changes. However, few studies have investigated the processes after such courses. The aim of this study was to investigate how participants make and maintain lifestyle changes after participating in group-based type 2 diabetes self-management education. Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews with 23 patients who attended educational group programs in Central Norway. The participants were asked how they had used the advice given and what they had changed after the course. Knowledge was essential for making lifestyle changes following education. Three factors affected whether lifestyle changes were implemented: obtaining new knowledge, taking responsibility, and receiving confirmation of an already healthy lifestyle. Four factors motivated individuals to maintain changes: support from others, experiencing an effect, fear of complications, and the formation of new habits. Knowledge was used to make and maintain changes in diet, medication and physical activity. Knowledge also acted as confirmation of an already adequate lifestyle. Knowledge led to no changes if diabetes appeared "not that scary" or if changes appeared too time consuming. Those involved in diabetes education need to be aware of the challenges in convincing asymptomatic patients about the benefits of adherence to self-management behaviour.

  18. Is it possible to predict improved diabetes outcomes following diabetes self-management education: a mixed-methods longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Caroline; Sturt, Jackie; Dale, Jeremy; Walker, Rosie; Caramlau, Isabela; O'Hare, Joseph P; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective To predict the diabetes-related outcomes of people undertaking a type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) programme from their baseline data. Design A mixed-methods longitudinal experimental study. 6 practice nurses and 2 clinical academics undertook blind assessments of all baseline and process data to predict clinical, behavioural and psychological outcomes at 6 months post-DSME programme. Setting Primary care. Participants –31 people with type 2 diabetes who had not previously undertaken DSME. Intervention All participants undertook the Diabetes Manual 1:1 self-directed learning 12-week DSME programme supported by practice nurses trained as Diabetes Manual facilitators. Outcome variables Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes knowledge, physical activity, waist circumference, self-efficacy, diabetes distress, anxiety, depression, demographics, change talk and treatment satisfaction. These variables were chosen because they are known to influence self-management behaviour or to have been influenced by a DSME programme in empirical evidence. Results Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were available for 27 participants of which 13 (48%) were male, 22 (82%) white British, mean age 59 years and mean duration of type 2 diabetes 9.1 years. Significant reductions were found in HbA1c t(26)=2.35, p=0.03, and diabetes distress t(26)=2.30, p=0.03, and a significant increase in knowledge t(26)=−2.06, p=0.05 between baseline and 6 months. No significant changes were found in waist circumference, physical activity, anxiety, depression or self-efficacy. Accuracy of predictions varied little between clinical academics and practice nurses but greatly between outcome (0–100%). The median and mode accuracy of predicted outcome was 66.67%. Accuracy of prediction for the key outcome of HbA1c was 44.44%. Diabetes distress had the highest prediction accuracy (81.48%). Conclusions Clinicians in this small study were unable to identify individuals likely

  19. Venue of receiving diabetes self-management education and training and its impact on oral diabetic medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Davis-Ajami, Mary Lynn; Noxon, Virginia; Lu, Zhiqiang Kevin

    2017-04-01

    To determine predictors associated with the diabetes self-management education and training (DSME) venue and its impact on oral antidiabetic (OAD) medication adherence. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey household component (MEPS-HC) data (2010-2012) identified adults with diabetes prescribed OAD medication(s) who completed a supplemental Diabetes Care Survey (DCS). Based on the DCS responses to questions about the number and type of DSME venue(s), two groups were created: (1) multiple venues (a physician or health professional plus internet and/or group classes) vs (2) single venue (physician or health professional only). The medication possession ratio (MPR) measured medication adherence, with 0.80 the cut-point defining adherent. Logistic regression examined factors associated with the DSME venue and its effect on OAD medication adherence. Of the 2119 respondents, 41.6% received DSME from multiple venues. Age (<65years), education-level (college or higher), high-income, and diet modification were significantly more likely associated with receiving DSME from multiple venues. In single vs multiple venues, medication adherence was suboptimal (mean MPR 0.66 vs 0.64, p=0.245), and venue showed no influence on adherence (OR: 0.92, 95% CI, 0.73-1.16). Sociodemographic characteristics influence where adults with diabetes receive DSME. Adding different DSME venues may not address suboptimal OAD medication adherence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Telehealth--an effective delivery method for diabetes self-management education?

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Moss, Gail

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that is often comorbid with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Its management is complex, requiring ongoing clinical management, lifestyle changes, and self-care. This article examines recent literature on telehealth and emerging technological tools for supporting self-management of diabetes and identifies best practices. The authors conducted a PubMed search (January 2008-2012) that was supplemented by review of meeting materials and a scan of the Internet to identify emerging technologies. Fifty-eight papers were reviewed; 12 were selected for greater analysis. This review supports earlier findings that the delivery of diabetes self-management and training (DSME/T) via telehealth is useful, appropriate, and acceptable to patients and providers. Best practices are emerging; not all technology is appropriate for all populations--interactive technology needs to be appropriate to the patient's age, abilities, and sensitivities. Telehealth is scalable and sustainable provided that it adds value, does not add to the provider's workload, and is fairly reimbursed. However, there are multiple barriers (patient, provider, health system) to remotely provided DSME/T. DSME/T delivered via telehealth offers effective, efficient, and affordable ways to reach and support underserved minorities and other people with diabetes and related comorbidities. The new generation of smartphones, apps, and other technologies increase access, and the newest interventions are designed to meet patient needs, do not increase workloads, are highly appropriate, enhance self-management, and are desired by patients.

  1. Type 2 diabetes self-management education programs in high and low mortality developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dube, Loveness; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Housiaux, Marie; Dhoore, William; Rendall-Mkosi, Kirstie

    2015-02-01

    Although self-management education is a key factor in the care for diabetes patients, its implementation in developing countries is not well documented. This systematic review considers the published literature on diabetes self-management education in high and low mortality developing countries. The aim is to provide a state of the art of current practices and assess program outcomes, cultural sensitivity, and accessibility to low literate patients. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and PsycArticles databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles on type 2 diabetes published in English between 2009 and 2013. The World Bank and WHO burden of disease criteria were applied to distinguish between developing countries with high and low mortality. Information was extracted using a validated checklist. Three reviews and 23 primary studies were identified, 18 of which were from low mortality developing countries. Studies from high mortality countries were mostly quasi-experimental, those from low mortality countries experimental. Interventions were generally effective on behavior change and patients' glycemic control in the short term (≤9 months). While 57% of the studies mentioned cultural tailoring of interventions, only 17% reported on training of providers, and 39% were designed to be accessible for people with low literacy. The limited studies available suggest that diabetes self-management education programs in developing countries are effective in the short term but must be tailored to conform to the cultural aspects of the target population. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs in Nonmetropolitan Counties - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Stephanie A; Masalovich, Svetlana; Blacher, Rachel J; Saunders, Magon M

    2017-04-28

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a clinical practice intended to improve preventive practices and behaviors with a focus on decision-making, problem-solving, and self-care. The distribution and correlates of established DSME programs in nonmetropolitan counties across the United States have not been previously described, nor have the characteristics of the nonmetropolitan counties with DSME programs. July 2016. DSME programs recognized by the American Diabetes Association or accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (i.e., active programs) as of July 2016 were shared with CDC by both organizations. The U.S. Census Bureau's census geocoder was used to identify the county of each DSME program site using documented addresses. County characteristic data originated from the U.S. Census Bureau, compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service into the 2013 Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America data set. County levels of diagnosed diabetes prevalence and incidence, as well as the number of persons with diagnosed diabetes, were previously estimated by CDC. This report defined nonmetropolitan counties using the rural-urban continuum code from the 2013 Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America data set. This code included six nonmetropolitan categories of 1,976 urban and rural counties (62% of counties) adjacent to and nonadjacent to metropolitan counties. In 2016, a total of 1,065 DSME programs were located in 38% of the 1,976 nonmetropolitan counties; 62% of nonmetropolitan counties did not have a DSME program. The total number of DSME programs for nonmetropolitan counties with at least one DSME program ranged from 1 to 8, with an average of 1.4 programs. After adjusting for county-level characteristics, the odds of a nonmetropolitan county having at least one DSME program increased as the percentage insured increased (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.13), the percentage with a high

  3. Telehealth technologies: changing the way we deliver efficacious and cost-effective diabetes self-management education.

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen K; Heckinger, Elizabeth; Tulas, Katrina M; Specker, James; McKoy, June

    2014-11-01

    Nearly 26 million people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the U.S. must actively engage in self-management of the disease. Telehealth is a population-based approach with the potential to optimize resources and increase access to diabetes self-management education/training (DSME/T). We conducted a systematic literature review on diabetes education and telehealth (2009–April 2014) to determine whether remote DSME/T sufficiently improves behavioral, clinical, and economic outcomes and access. Twenty-five out of 213 identified systematic literature reviews or meta-analyses (two on mobile health were identified via a Google search) met our criteria and were fully reviewed; 22 additional studies and reports of diabetes-related technologies and interventions were also identified. Telemedicine has the potential to offer great utility, but guidelines for high research standards must be introduced, adopted, and proactively refined to determine the strengths of this technology for DSME/T, behavioral change, cost-effective care, and improved access in chronic disease self-management.

  4. Effect of peer education on self-management and psychological status in type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Han, Ying; Shi, Jieli; Li, Ruixia; Li, Sufen; Jin, Nana; Gu, Yong; Guo, Honglei

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of peer education in type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders on the metabolic index and psychological status. Materials and Methods Educators use psychological scales to screen type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders. Participants were divided into usual and peer education groups. Both groups received usual diabetes education. Peer leaders were recruited to provide support with the peer education group for 6 months. The metabolic index, diabetes knowledge, self-management, diabetes-related distress, emotional status and quality of life were compared at the end of the study. Results A total of 127 patients participated in the study. There were 20 peer leaders engaged in the study as volunteers for peer education. All participants completed the study and fulfilled the scales. Improvements in the peer education group were significant compared with the usual education group with respect to anxiety (49.0 ± 9.65 vs 54.0 ± 8.48), depression (51.3 ± 7.97 vs 55.8 ± 7.52), diabetes knowledge (18.8 ± 2.46 vs 16.3 ± 2.08), distress (2.67 ± 0.55 vs 3.02 ± 0.56), self-management (66.5 ± 4.26 vs 62.4 ± 5.88) and quality of life (−1.98 ± 0.82 vs −2.50 ± 0.71), whereas no significant difference existed with respect to the metabolic index. Conclusions Peer education, providing more attention to diabetes patients with emotional disorders, is a preferred model for delivering care. PMID:26221528

  5. Evaluation of a peer-led self-management education programme PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail; Botros, Mariam; Kuhnke, Janet L; Greene, Julie

    2013-12-01

    PEP (Peer Education Programme) Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You is a peer-led self-management programme developed to address the problems of growing prevalence of diabetes and its complications, and limited health care dollars. An evaluation of the programme, how it might be situated within a public health perspective and potential bridges for its implementation in communities throughout Canada and worldwide, are presented. The programme consisted of workshops that were conducted by volunteer peer leaders and health care professionals in 12 communities in 10 Canadian provinces; the volunteers were supported through monthly mentoring teleconferences, on-line tips and discussion board conversations. A web portal was developed to be used by the team, volunteers and community participants. Workshop curriculum was developed based on diabetes footcare and self-management best practise guidelines. Community participants answered pre-and post-workshop statements that indicated that learning occurred, as indicated by an increase in the number of statements answered correctly. Participants' feedback about the workshops was positive. In telephone follow-up interviews, 97% of respondents reported having changed their foot self-management behaviours. The portal was commonly used according to website visits, but not as much as expected for registration of community participants. It is recommended that this programme be made widely available and tailored to the specific needs of the communities and that further evaluation be conducted.

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting patient engagement in diabetes self-management: perspectives of a certified diabetes educator.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kellie M

    2013-02-01

    Patients with diabetes are responsible for the vast majority of management requirements of their condition. However, their ability and motivation to engage in required self-management behaviors may be mitigated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic barriers include attitudes and health beliefs, limited diabetes knowledge and technical skill, reduced functional health literacy, and inadequate self-efficacy to promote positive behavior change. Extrinsic barriers include financial considerations, inadequate family and community support systems, ineffective clinical relationships, and limited access to effective diabetes health care delivery. Diabetes providers have opportunities for enhancing patient engagement with clinical recommendations and diabetes self-management through effective communication, including efforts to contextually assess patients' perceptions of diabetes and how the condition fits within the context of their changing lives. This article provides a conceptual framework for establishing and building an effective clinical alliance with patients with the goal of empowering them to take more control of their diabetes and reduce their risks for poor diabetes outcomes.

  7. Technology and diabetes self-management: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Caralise W

    2015-03-15

    Technology can be used to supplement healthcare provider diabetes care by providing both educational and motivational support. Education can be provided using technology allowing patients to learn new practices and routines related to diabetes management. Technology can support daily diabetes self-management activities including blood glucose monitoring, exercising, healthy eating, taking medication, monitoring for complications, and problem-solving. This article describes an integrative review conducted to evaluate the types of technology being used to facilitate diabetes self-management and the effect of that technology on self-management and diabetes outcomes for adults living with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature review was conducted by searching Medline, PubMed, and Psych INFO databases using the search terms: diabetes self-management, technology, type 2 diabetes, smartphones, cell phones, and diabetes mellitus covering the years from 2008-2013. Articles relying on secondary data (editorials, systematic reviews) and articles describing study protocol only were excluded. Fourteen studies including qualitative, quasi-experimental, and randomized controlled trial designs were identified and included in the review. The review found that technological interventions had positive impacts on diabetes outcomes including improvements in hemoglobin A1C levels, diabetes self-management behaviors, and diabetes self-efficacy. Results indicate that technological interventions can benefit people living with diabetes when used in conjunction with diabetes care delivered by healthcare providers.

  8. The association between educational resource utilization and knowledge/self-management among patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Javalkar, Karina; Williamson, Nicole; Vaidya, Saleena; Vaidya, Abhijit; Ferris, Maria

    Patients utilize a variety of sources to learn about their condition. This study assessed the association of these resources with patient knowledge, adherence, and physiologic outcomes. Adults with Type 2 diabetes recruited at an outpatient clinic in Pune, India provided IRB-approved consent and completed surveys measuring diabetes knowledge, self-management, and educational resource utilization. Lab values were obtained from the patient's medical record. Statistical analysis was conducted in SPSS to determine the association between educational resources and outcomes. We enrolled 82 patients with a mean age of 58.3 years. The most commonly used resource was books/pamphlets. The use of television and books/pamphlets as sources of information was significantly associated with greater knowledge and self-management. Use of books and pamphlets and peers with diabetes was associated with lower fasting and postprandial blood glucose. Regression analyses controlling for age, gender, and years with diabetes revealed that use of newspapers and magazines, books and pamphlets, and television were predictors of overall diabetes knowledge and nutrition knowledge. The use of television as a source of information was a predictor of the hours exercised per week. Resources such as books and pamphlets, newspapers and magazines, and television are common ways that people with diabetes learn about their medical conditions. The use of television as a source of information predicted the greatest number of positive outcomes among patients, followed by use of books and pamphlets. These methods should be further explored in order to understand how their benefit may be maximized for patients. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating hospital medical care data with pharmaceutical education materials for diabetes self management.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shwu-Jiuan; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Li, Chun-Chuan; Chiu, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Juei-Fen; Liu, Chien-Tsai

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic patients need long-term treatment and follow-up exams as well as appropriate self-care pharmaceutical education to get the disease under control and to prevent possible complications. Pharmaceutical treatment plays an essential role in diabetes. If patients don't understand the medicines and dosages they take, their blood glucose control may be affected. In addition, the possibility of developing hypoglycemia may be increased. In this paper, we enhance the POEM system, previously developed for diabetic patient education, by providing diabetic patients' pharmaceutical education. The new system integrates both diabetic patients' pharmaceutical education information and medical care information to provide them with more comprehensive personalized medication information so that they can access the on-line system afterwards. It also strengthens patients' understanding of pharmaceutical functions, side-effects and relevant knowledge thus increasing patients' adherence of medication orders and having better control in their blood glucose levels.

  10. Self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of the effect on glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Norris, Susan L; Lau, Joseph; Smith, S Jay; Schmid, Christopher H; Engelgau, Michael M

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of self-management education on GHb in adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched for English language trials in Medline (1980-1999), Cinahl (1982-1999), and the Educational Resources Information Center database (ERIC) (1980-1999), and we manually searched review articles, journals with highest topic relevance, and reference lists of included articles. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials that were published in the English language, tested the effect of self-management education on adults with type 2 diabetes, and reported extractable data on the effect of treatment on GHb. A total of 31 studies of 463 initially identified articles met selection criteria. We computed net change in GHb, stratified by follow-up interval, tested for trial heterogeneity, and calculated pooled effects sizes using random effects models. We examined the effect of baseline GHb, follow-up interval, and intervention characteristics on GHb. On average, the intervention decreased GHb by 0.76% (95% CI 0.34-1.18) more than the control group at immediate follow-up; by 0.26% (0.21% increase - 0.73% decrease) at 1-3 months of follow-up; and by 0.26% (0.05-0.48) at > or = 4 months of follow-up. GHb decreased more with additional contact time between participant and educator; a decrease of 1% was noted for every additional 23.6 h (13.3-105.4) of contact. Self-management education improves GHb levels at immediate follow-up, and increased contact time increases the effect. The benefit declines 1-3 months after the intervention ceases, however, suggesting that learned behaviors change over time. Further research is needed to develop interventions effective in maintaining long-term glycemic control.

  11. Sustaining self-management in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell-Brown, Fay

    2014-01-01

    Successful management of diabetes depends on the individual's ability to manage and control symptoms. Self-management of diabetes is believed to play a significant role in achieving positive outcomes for patients. Adherence to self-management behaviors supports high-quality care, which reduces and delays disease complications, resulting in improved quality of life. Because self-management is so important to diabetes management and involves a lifelong commitment for all patients, health care providers should actively promote ways to maintain and sustain behavior change that support adherence to self-management. A social ecological model of behavior change (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988) helps practitioners provide evidence-based care and optimizes patients' clinical outcomes. This model supports self-management behaviors through multiple interacting interventions that can help sustain behavior change. Diabetes is a complex chronic disease; successful management must use multiple-level interventions.

  12. The effect of diabetes self-management education on body weight, glycemic control, and other metabolic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chuang; Lai, Christopher W K; Chan, Lawrence W C; Chow, Meyrick; Law, Helen K W; Ying, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the effect of a short-term diabetes self-management education (DSME) on metabolic markers and atherosclerotic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. 76 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited in this study. They were divided into the intervention group (n = 36) and control group (n = 40). The patients in the intervention group received a 3-month intervention, including an 8-week education on self-management of diabetes mellitus and subsequent 4 weeks of practice of the self-management guidelines. The patients in the control group received standard advice on medical nutrition therapy. Metabolic markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and carotid arterial stiffness (CAS) of the patients in both groups were assessed before and after the 3-month intervention. There was a significant reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, -0.2 ± 0.56% versus 0.08 ± 0.741%; P < 0.05) and body weight (-1.19 ± 1.39 kg versus -0.61 ± 2.04 kg; P < 0.05) in the intervention group as compared to the control group. However, no significant improvements were found in other metabolic markers, CIMT and CAS (P > 0.05). DSME can improve HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Efficacy of ongoing group based diabetes self-management education for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rygg, Lisbeth Ø; Rise, Marit By; Grønning, Kjersti; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ongoing group based diabetes self-management education (DSME) for patients with type 2 diabetes. 146 patients were randomised to either group education or waiting list control. Primary outcomes were A1C and patient activation measured with patient activation measure (PAM). There were no differences in the primary outcomes between the groups at 12 months, but the control group had an increase in A1C of 0.3% points during follow-up. Diabetes knowledge and some self-management skills improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group. A sub group analysis was conducted for the quartile with the highest A1C at baseline (>7.7, n=18 in both groups). There were significant improvements within the intervention group at 12 month follow-up for both A1C and PAM and a trend for better outcome in the intervention group compared to the control. The locally developed ongoing diabetes self-management education programs prevented an increase in A1C and can have an effect on A1C in patients with higher A1C level. Locally developed programs may be less effective than programs developed for studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Problem solving in diabetes self-management: a model of chronic illness self-management behavior.

    PubMed

    Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2003-01-01

    Management of chronic illnesses is a significant public health concern that is made more challenging by problems of regimen adherence. Effective self-management of chronic illnesses such as diabetes requires not only technical skill to perform regimen behaviors but also problem-solving skills to manage daily barriers to regimen adherence and to make appropriate adjustments to the self-care regimen. A review of the empirical literature on the relation between problem solving and disease self-management in diabetes, a chronic illness exemplar, illuminates methodological limitations that indicate a need for a theoretical framework for problem solving applied to chronic disease self-management. A problem-solving model of chronic disease self-management is proposed, derived from theories of problem solving in cognitive psychology, educational/learning theory, and social problem solving. Four essential components of problem solving in disease self-management are identified: (a). problem-solving skill, (b). problem-solving orientation, (c). disease-specific knowledge, and (d). transfer of past experience. The model is illustrated, and empirical support for this problem-solving model in the diabetes literature is discussed. The model has utility in driving testable hypotheses regarding the relation of disease-specific problem solving to chronic illness management, in developing problem-solving assessment instruments relevant to disease self-management, and in guiding disease self-management training and interventions.

  15. Mortality in an elderly type 2 diabetic patients' cohort who attended a self-management educational workshop.

    PubMed

    Perman, Gastón; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Aliperti, Valeria; Litwak, León; Figar, Silvana; Alvarez, Adriana; Langlois, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    To compare the all-cause mortality rate in elderly type 2 diabetic patients who attended self-management educational workshops compared with those who did not. Retrospective cohort study in a Health Maintenance Organization in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Patients older than 64 years with type 2 diabetes before December 2003 conformed the cohort followed from January 01, 2001 until death, censored date or December 31, 2007. All-cause mortality rate was ascertained from vital status reports and assessed according to educational workshops attendance. Results were adjusted for baseline variables, co-morbidities and A1C levels using Cox proportional hazards model. 1730 elderly diabetic patients were included, yielding 8685 person/years of observation. Educated and non-educated groups were similar regarding sex, co morbidities, diabetes duration, prevalent cases, insulin treatment, tobacco use, clinical and laboratory measures. All-cause mortality rate was 5.53 (4.04-5.07) per 100 person/years for non-attendants and 3.06 (2.39-3.91) for attendants. Crude hazard ratio for exposure to workshops was 0.68 (0.52-0.88); p = 0.004. After adjustment, attendance to diabetic workshops decreased its effect from 33% to 18% (HR 0.82; 95%CI: 0.61-1.08). Workshop attendants had 33% lower all-cause crude mortality rate at 6 years of follow-up. More research is needed to explore whether these findings are explained by education itself, behavioural or personal characteristics of workshop attendants, the intensified participation in an integral diabetes programme, or a combination of them. Copyright © 2011 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What role could community pharmacists in Malaysia play in diabetes self-management education and support? The views of individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, E Lyn; Wong, Pei Se; Tan, Ming Yeong; Sheridan, Janie

    2017-06-02

    This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia. A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services. This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Development of a structured diabetes self-management education program specific to the cultural and ethnic population of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Eirean; Parry-Strong, Amber; Coppell, Kirsten J; McBain, Lynn; Bingham, Lorna J; Dutton, Liz; Tapu-Ta'ala, Sera; Smith, Robert B W; Howells, Joe; Metekingi, Howard; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2017-09-01

    To develop and pilot a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program specific to the needs of New Zealanders with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There were two parts in the present study. The first was the development of the program. This involved a literature review, consultation with end-user groups and drafting the content of the program. In the second part, the program was tested and modified according to feedback provided by both participants and facilitators. The present study achieved its primary goal of developing, piloting and modifying a DSME program specific to the New Zealand population. The DSME program was developed using concepts and content of international DSME programs. The content and concept was extensively tested via discussion groups with 71 individuals with T2DM and practice nurses to ensure the program met the unique cultural needs of New Zealanders with T2DM. Twenty-seven participants with T2DM were recruited into the pilot, of which 13 attended four of six sessions. Feedback from participants, observing nurses and facilitators was incorporated into the final program. DSME programs are an effective vehicle for providing individuals with T2DM the initial information and support to start self-managing their diabetes. However, to ensure DSME programs help individuals with the highest rates of diabetes and diabetes-related complications, it is important end-users participate in the development of the program. This DSME program now requires longitudinal trial to determine if in the New Zealand context it is able generate the same improvements in both clinical and qualitative outcomes as seen in similar international programs. © 2015 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  18. Effectiveness of an intervention to improve diabetes self-management on clinical outcomes in patients with low educational level.

    PubMed

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Bermúdez Tamayo, Clara; Pastor Moreno, Guadalupe; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Johri, Mira; Quesada Jiménez, Fermín; Cruz Vela, Pilar; de Los Ríos Álvarez, Ana M; Prados Quel, Miguel Ángel; Moratalla López, Enrique; Domínguez Martín, Susana; Lopez de Hierro, José Andrés; Ricci Cabello, Ignacio

    To determine whether an intervention based on patient-practitioner communication is more effective than usual care in improving diabetes self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes with low educational level. 12-month, pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Nine physicians and 184 patients registered at two practices in a deprived area of Granada (Andalusia, Spain) participated in the study. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes, low educational level and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) > 7% (53.01 mmol/mol) were eligible. The physicians in the intervention group received training on communication skills and the use of a tool for monitoring glycaemic control and providing feedback to patients. The control group continued standard care. The primary outcome was difference in HbA1c after 12 months. Dyslipidaemia, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were also assessed as secondary outcomes. Two-level (patient and provider) regression analyses controlling for sex, social support and comorbidity were conducted. The HbA1c levels at 12 months decreased in both groups. Multilevel analysis showed a greater improvement in the intervention group (between-group HbA1c difference= 0.16; p=0.049). No statistically significant differences between groups were observed for dyslipidaemia, blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference. In this pragmatic study, a simple and inexpensive intervention delivered in primary care showed a modest benefit in glycaemic control compared with usual care, although no effect was observed in the secondary outcomes. Further research is needed to design and assess interventions to promote diabetes self-management in socially vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes--United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Shrestha, Sundar S; Lipman, Ruth; Burrows, Nilka R; Kolb, Leslie E; Rutledge, Stephanie

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes is a complex chronic disease that requires active involvement of patients in its management. Diabetes self-management education and training (DSMT), "the ongoing process of facilitating the knowledge, skill, and ability necessary for prediabetes and diabetes self-care," is an important component of integrated diabetes care. It is an intervention in which patients learn about diabetes and how to implement the self-management that is imperative to control the disease. The curriculum of DSMT often includes the diabetes disease process and treatment options; healthy lifestyle; blood glucose monitoring; preventing, detecting and treating diabetes complications; and developing personalized strategies for decision making. The American Diabetes Association recommends providing DSMT to those with newly diagnosed diabetes, because data suggest that when diabetes is first diagnosed is the time when patients are most receptive to such engagement. However, little is known about the proportion of persons with newly diagnosed diabetes participating in DSMT. CDC analyzed data from the Marketscan Commercial Claims and Encounters database (Truven Health Analytics) for the period 2009-2012 to estimate the claim-based proportion of privately insured adults (aged 18-64 years) with newly diagnosed diabetes who participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis. During 2011-2012, an estimated 6.8% of privately insured, newly diagnosed adults participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis of diabetes. These data suggest that there is a large gap between the recommended guideline and current practice, and that there is both an opportunity and a need to enhance rates of DSMT participation among persons newly diagnosed with diabetes.

  20. Implementing diabetes self-management education (DSME) in a Nigerian population: perceptions of practice nurses and dieticians.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Clementina U; Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Onuoha, Philip C; Agbakoba, Nneka R

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycaemic complication is the most common cause of hospitalization amongst diabetes patients in Nigeria. Research showed that diabetes self-management education (DSME) assists in controlling hyperglycaemia in diabetes patients. We assessed the opinions of practice nurses and dieticians on implementing DSME in a Nigerian population. 517 nurses and dieticians completed a self-administered questionnaire tool. Results showed that the majority of the participants agreed that DSME in a Nigerian population will assist patients (88.3%) and assist to reduce diabetes complications (91.4%). While only 34% of all participants believed that their establishments were prepared to implement DSME, a large proportion of the participants agreed that their work places do not have enough qualified health personnel (62.4%), educational facilities (65.8%) and economic resources (65.6%) to embark on DSME. These constitute significant barriers for effective DSME and demand that strategic investment in human and material resources for DSME is needed in this population of a developing country.

  1. Diabetes self-management education for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review of the effect on glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Chrvala, Carole A; Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth D

    2016-06-01

    Assess effect of diabetes self-management education and support methods, providers, duration, and contact time on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, and PsycINFO to December 2013 for interventions which included elements to improve participants' knowledge, skills, and ability to perform self-management activities as well as informed decision-making around goal setting. This review included 118 unique interventions, with 61.9% reporting significant changes in A1C. Overall mean reduction in A1C was 0.74 and 0.17 for intervention and control groups; an average absolute reduction in A1C of 0.57. A combination of group and individual engagement results in the largest decreases in A1C (0.88). Contact hours ≥10 were associated with a greater proportion of interventions with significant reduction in A1C (70.3%). In patients with persistently elevated glycemic values (A1C>9), a greater proportion of studies reported statistically significant reduction in A1C (83.9%). This systematic review found robust data demonstrating that engagement in diabetes self-management education results in a statistically significant decrease in A1C levels. The data suggest mode of delivery, hours of engagement, and baseline A1C can affect the likelihood of achieving statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in A1C. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-management in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Mudasiru, Eniola; Schlundt, David G.; Baughman, Cara L.; Fleming, Mary; VanderWoude, Ann; Russell, William E.; Elasy, Tom A.; Rothman, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document barriers and facilitators of self-management as perceived by adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Methods Focus groups were conducted with adolescents diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Adolescents aged 13 to 19 years were recruited from an academic medical center diabetes clinic. Between 2003 and 2005, 6 focus groups were used to elicit responses from the adolescents related to self-management of their diabetes. Questions were asked by trained group facilitators. Transcripts were coded by 3 reviewers. Qualitative analyses were conducted using NVIVO software. Results A total of 24 adolescents participated in 6 focus groups. Coding resulted in 4 common domains affecting self-management: adolescent psychosocial development; the role of others with diabetes; environmental influences; and adolescents’ problem-solving/coping skills. Adolescents identified both barriers to and facilitators of self-management within each domain. Barriers often related to social situations, embarrassment, seeking acceptance or perceived normalcy, and balancing competing interests. Adolescents viewed having another family member with diabetes as both a positive and a negative influence. Environmental influences, including school and family situations, had a large impact on self-management behaviors. Making sensible food choices was a common challenge. Descriptions of problem-solving or coping skills were limited, but cognitive techniques, such as reframing, were described. Conclusion Adolescents with type 2 diabetes identified many barriers to self-management, particularly related to inter-personal interactions, the influence of others with diabetes, and environmental influences. Results suggest that improving self-management in adolescents may require multimodal interventions to address individual, family, and social processes. PMID:18669809

  3. Influence of the Duration of Diabetes on the Outcome of a Diabetes Self-Management Education Program

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Park, Sin-Ae; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Ko, Sun-Hye; Shin, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Song, Ki-Ho; Park, Yong-Moon

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes education and lifestyle modification are critical components in controlling blood glucose levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Until now, available data on the effectiveness of education with respect to the duration of diabetes are limited. We investigated whether adherence to lifestyle behavior modification prompted by diabetes education was influenced by the duration of diabetes. Methods Two hundred and twenty-five people with type 2 diabetes were recruited for an intensive, collaborative, group-based diabetes education program with annual reinforcement. We divided the patients into two groups based on the duration of their diabetes prior to the education program (≤1 year [≤1Y] vs. ≥3 years [≥3Y]). Dietary habits, physical activity, and the frequency of blood glucose self-monitoring were evaluated with a questionnaire prior to education and at the follow-up endpoint. Results The mean follow-up period was 32.2 months. The mean hemoglobin A1c (A1C) value was significantly lower in the ≤1Y group. Self-care behaviors, measured by scores for dietary habits (P=0.004) and physical activity (P<0.001), were higher at the endpoint in the ≤1Y group than in the ≥3Y group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a longer diabetes duration before education was significantly associated with mean A1C levels greater than or equal to 7.0% (53 mmol/mol). Conclusion Diabetes duration influenced the effectiveness of diabetes education on lifestyle behavior modification and glycemic control. More-intense, regular, and sustained reinforcement with encouragement may be required for individuals with longstanding type 2 diabetes. PMID:22737662

  4. Does low well-being modify the effects of PRISMA (Dutch DESMOND), a structured self-management-education program for people with type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Michael; de Wit, Maartje; Bader, Suzanne; Snoek, Frank J

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes self-management education improves behavioural and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients, however little is known about the modifying effects of well-being. This is relevant given high prevalence of depression and distress among diabetes patients. We aimed to test whether low well-being modifies the effects of the PRISMA self-management education program (Dutch DESMOND). 297 primary care type 2 diabetes patients participated in the PRISMA observational study with a pre-post measurement design. Patients were grouped in low (n=63) and normal well-being (n=234). Low well-being was defined as either low mood (WHO-5<50) and/or high diabetes-distress (PAID-5>8). Outcome measures were: diabetes self-efficacy (CIDS), illness perception (IPQ) and diabetes self-care activities (SDSCA). Improvements were found in illness perception (b=1.586, p<0.001), general diet (b=1.508, p=0.001), foot care (b=0.678, p=0.037), weekly average diet (b=1.140, p=0.001), creating action plan (b=0.405, p=0.007). Well-being interaction effects were found for general diet (p=0.009), weekly average diet (p=0.022), and creating an action plan (p=0.002). PRISMA self-management education seems as effective for people with normal well-being as for people with low well-being. Further research should examine whether addressing mood and diabetes-distress as part of self-management education could reduce attrition and maintain or improve well-being among participants. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is adherence a relevant issue in the self-management education of diabetes? A mixed narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Debussche, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    While therapeutic patient education is now recognized as essential for optimizing the control of chronic diseases and patient well-being, adherence to treatment and medical recommendations is still a matter of debate. In type 2 diabetes, the nonadherence to therapy, estimated at more than 40%, is perceived as a barrier for improving the prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances. Interventional studies have barely begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of technical and behavioral actions. The aim of this review is to question the concept of adherence in terms of therapeutic education based on quantitative and qualitative data. The research on therapeutic education has shown the effectiveness of structured actions in type 2 diabetes, but adherence is rarely an end point in randomized trials. A positive but inconsistent or moderate effect of education actions on adherence has been shown in heterogeneous studies of varying quality. Program types, outlines, theoretical bases, and curricula to set up for action effectiveness are still being discussed. Qualitative studies, including sociological studies, provide a useful and constructive focus on this perspective. Adherence is a soft and flexible tool available to the patient in his/her singular chronic disease trajectory, and as such, integrates into individual therapeutic strategies, including socio-cultural interactions, beyond the medical explanation of the disease and the patient. Four key elements for the development of structured therapeutic education are discussed: 1) the access to health literacy, 2) the contextualization of education activities, 3) the long-term chronic dimension of self-management, and 4) the organizational aspects of health and care. Rather than focusing the objective on behavioral changes, structured therapeutic education actions should attempt to provide tools and resources aimed at helping individuals to manage their disease in their own context on a long-term basis, by developing

  6. Is adherence a relevant issue in the self-management education of diabetes? A mixed narrative review.

    PubMed

    Debussche, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    While therapeutic patient education is now recognized as essential for optimizing the control of chronic diseases and patient well-being, adherence to treatment and medical recommendations is still a matter of debate. In type 2 diabetes, the nonadherence to therapy, estimated at more than 40%, is perceived as a barrier for improving the prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances. Interventional studies have barely begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of technical and behavioral actions. The aim of this review is to question the concept of adherence in terms of therapeutic education based on quantitative and qualitative data. The research on therapeutic education has shown the effectiveness of structured actions in type 2 diabetes, but adherence is rarely an end point in randomized trials. A positive but inconsistent or moderate effect of education actions on adherence has been shown in heterogeneous studies of varying quality. Program types, outlines, theoretical bases, and curricula to set up for action effectiveness are still being discussed. Qualitative studies, including sociological studies, provide a useful and constructive focus on this perspective. Adherence is a soft and flexible tool available to the patient in his/her singular chronic disease trajectory, and as such, integrates into individual therapeutic strategies, including socio-cultural interactions, beyond the medical explanation of the disease and the patient. Four key elements for the development of structured therapeutic education are discussed: 1) the access to health literacy, 2) the contextualization of education activities, 3) the long-term chronic dimension of self-management, and 4) the organizational aspects of health and care. Rather than focusing the objective on behavioral changes, structured therapeutic education actions should attempt to provide tools and resources aimed at helping individuals to manage their disease in their own context on a long-term basis, by developing

  7. Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Design Prospective quasi-experimental before–after study. Participants 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Outcome measures Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1 year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Results Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (p<0.001), positive attitude (p=0.013), perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Conclusions Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings

  8. Voluntary Organizations and Community Groups as New Partners in Diabetes Self-management and Education: A Critical Interpretative Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Mari Carmen; Regaira, Elena; Pumar-Méndez, María J; Mujika, Agurtzane; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Foss, Christina; Ruud Knutsen, Ingrid; Todorova, Elka; Roukova, Poli; Kennedy, Anne; Serrano, Manuel; Lionis, Christos; Angelaki, Agapi; Patelarou, Evridiki; Koetsenruijter, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically review the literature on the role and work of voluntary organizations and community groups and volunteers in diabetes self-management programs. It seeks to explain how these organizations are located and could be integrated further within a broader system of support. A critical interpretative synthesis of the literature was undertaken as part of the conceptual development of a European research project. Evidence (2000-November 2014) was searched in databases, with the use of key terms, and limited to the languages of the participating countries. This was supplemented by an additional hand search and snowballing technique. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Evidence regarding the involvement of voluntary organizations in diabetes self-management programs mainly related to: the nature and remit of their work, responsibilities, and attributes; key strategies of programs accounting for success; motivations/barriers for engaging in volunteering participation; relationships between volunteers and users; and connections/tensions with formal services. This review has uncovered a range of facets of voluntary organizations and community groups relevant for supporting diabetes self-management such as the context within which they act and the nature of relationships developed with community and health services. The principles of "assistance, support, sharing, and link" seem essential for this voluntary initiative in self-management to establish effective reciprocal collaboration with health professionals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Training Peer Educators to Promote Self-Management Skills in People with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) and Diabetes (DM) in a Primary Health Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Perzynski, Adam; Kanuch, Stephanie; Dawson, Neal; Kaiser, Denise; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Seeholzer, Eileen; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the training and participant experience of patients with both serious mental illness (SMI) and diabetes (DM) who were enrolled in a Peer Educator Training Program adapted to a primary care setting. Background The mortality of patients with both SMI and DM is high. Illness self-management for SMI includes medications, psychosocial treatments, and healthy behaviors, yet treatment engagement is often sub-optimal with adherence rates of 52% for diabetic medications and 62% for antipsychotic medications among the SMI. To address this problem, a new behavioral intervention study targeting SMI and DM self-management used trained Peer Educators with the same chronic conditions to enhance program effectiveness. A manual facilitated training on intervention topics such as SMI and DM therapies, stress management, and stigma reduction as well as training in group intervention techniques, telephone skills, and crisis management. Methods We assessed participant attitudes and input using in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, coded and analyzed using the classic method of content analysis emphasizing dominant themes. A member-check was conducted where participants commented on analysis results. Findings Six relevant descriptive Themes emerged. Themes were: 1) Positive group experience; 2) Success with learning manual content; 3) Increased knowledge about SMI and DM); 4) Improved self-management skills; 5) Increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in becoming a Peer Educator; and being 6) United in purpose to help others self-manage their SMI and DM. Qualitative evidence supports structured training for SMI-DM peer educators. Key components include written educational materials and the power of the group process to increase knowledge, self-management skills, confidence, and self-efficacy. Recommendations are offered to support further endeavours to mobilize peers with SMI to help other patients with complex comorbidities

  10. Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education: Perspectives From African American Participants, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Brown, Sharon A; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2017-08-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative, focus group study was to further refine the Resilience-based Diabetes Self-management Education (RB-DSME) recruitment process and intervention, build greater trust in the community, and identify strategies to enhance its sustainability as a community-based intervention in African American church settings. Methods Six 2-hour focus groups (N = 55; 10 men and 45 women) were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion. Two sessions were conducted with individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who participated in previous RB-DSME pilot interventions and their family members, two sessions with local church leaders, and two sessions with community healthcare providers who care for patients with T2DM. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a grounded theory approach. The validity of core themes was enhanced by external review and subsequent discussions with two qualitative methods consultants. Results There was expressed interest and acceptability of the RB-DSME program. Church connection and pastor support were noted as key factors in building trust and enhancing recruitment, retention, and sustainability of the program. Core themes across all groups included the value of incentives, the need for foundational knowledge shared with genuine concern, teaching with visuals, dealing with denial, balancing the reality of adverse consequences with hope, the importance of social support, and addressing healthcare delivery barriers. Conclusion Focus groups documented the feasibility and potential effectiveness of RB-DSME interventions to enhance diabetes care in the African American community. In clinical practice, inclusion of these core themes may enhance T2DM self-care and treatment outcomes.

  11. The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-10-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients undergoing treatment by general practitioners (GPs) were included. The education comprised three modules over a 12-month period. It was based on the empowerment philosophy. The education followed a written curriculum, and the educators were given special training in its use. Glycemic control (HbA1c) was found to improve from 7.34 ± 1.34 to 6.88 ± 1.09%, P < 0.001 and body weight decreased from 90.9 ± 19.3 to 87.1 ± 18.1 kg, P < 0.001, following the education programme. Moreover, significant improvements were found in terms of fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, female waist circumference, lipid profile, quality of life, physical activity and the patients' knowledge of diabetes whilst the number of visits to GPs declined. This study supports the use of an empowerment vision as a basis for an interdisciplinary group-based education programme with individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the costs of implementing this education programme were found to be minimal.

  12. Training peer educators to promote self-management skills in people with serious mental illness (SMI) and diabetes (DM) in a primary health care setting.

    PubMed

    Blixen, Carol; Perzynski, Adam; Kanuch, Stephanie; Dawson, Neal; Kaiser, Denise; Lawless, Mary E; Seeholzer, Eileen; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-04-01

    To describe the training and participant experience of patients with both severe mental illness (SMI) and diabetes (DM) who were enrolled in a Peer Educator Training Program adapted to a primary health care setting. The mortality of patients with both SMI and DM is high. Illness self-management includes medications, psychosocial treatments, and healthy behaviors, yet treatment engagement is often sub-optimal with adherence rates of 52% for diabetic medications and 62% for antipsychotic medications among the SMI. To address this problem, a new behavioral intervention study targeting SMI and DM self-management used trained peer educators (PEs) with the same chronic conditions to enhance program effectiveness. A manual facilitated training on intervention topics such as SMI and DM therapies, stress management, and stigma reduction as well as training in group intervention techniques, telephone skills, and crisis management. We assessed PE attitudes and input using in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the classic method of content analysis emphasizing dominant themes. A member check-in was conducted where participants commented on analysis results. Six relevant descriptive themes emerged: (1) positive group experience; (2) success with learning manual content; (3) increased knowledge about SMI and DM; (4) improved self-management skills; (5) increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in becoming a PE; and being (6) united in purpose to help others self-manage their SMI and DM. Qualitative evidence supports structured training for SMI-DM PEs. Key components include written educational materials and the power of the group process to increase knowledge, self-management skills, confidence, and self-efficacy. Recommendations are offered to support further endeavors to mobilize peers with SMI to help other patients with complex comorbidities better manage their own health.

  13. Educating professionals to support self-management in people with asthma or diabetes: protocol for a systematic review and scoping exercise

    PubMed Central

    McCleary, Nicola; Andrews, Amanda; Morrow, Susan; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Fletcher, Monica; Steed, Liz; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supported self-management for asthma helps people adjust their treatment in response to symptom changes. This improves day-to-day control and reduces the risk of asthma attacks and the need for emergency healthcare. However, implementation remains poor in routine clinical practice. This systematic review is part of a programme of work developing an intervention to help primary care practice teams embed self-management support into routine asthma care. The aim of the review is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational interventions for professionals supporting self-management in people with asthma or diabetes (type 1 and type 2). These two conditions have the most robust evidence base for the effectiveness of implementing supported self-management. Methods and analysis Electronic searches will be conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Global Health, WHO Global Health Library, ERIC, BNI, RDRB/CME and Google Scholar. Eligible studies are randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials published between 1990 and 2016 which evaluated professional education interventions facilitating asthma or diabetes supported self-management. Further relevant work will be identified from trial registries, citation searching and through contact with authors of included studies. This will be supplemented by scoping potentially relevant educational packages described in English language policy literature or health service websites. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool) will be completed by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer arbitrating where necessary. We plan a theoretically informed narrative synthesis of the aggregated data as heterogeneity is likely to preclude meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for this systematic review. The results will be described in a paper submitted for peer

  14. Diabetes Self-management Training in a Virtual Environment.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Louise; Pereira, Katherine; Jefferson, Vanessa; Evans Kreider, Kathryn; Totten, Susan; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail; Johnson, Constance; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes self-management training (DSMT) improves diabetes health outcomes. However, low numbers of patients receive DSMT. Using virtual environments (VEs) for DSMT is an innovative approach to removing barriers for patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of health professionals and diabetes educators establishing and teaching DSMT in a VE, Diabetes LIVE© (Learning in Virtual Environments), and the implications for future use of VEs in DSMT. It was found that providing DSMT in a VE preserves real-time interaction between patients and educators. To facilitate ongoing patient learning and engagement, the DSMT curriculum was expanded beyond the core content as "Above and Beyond" topics. Using a VE for DSMT presents challenges and opportunities. Challenges include overcoming technological barriers and improving comfort levels to orient educators and patients to the functionality of the VE. Opportunities include overcoming barriers to reaching patients, particularly given the diabetes epidemic and relatively small number of diabetes educators. Using a VE also affords a simulated community for experiential learning. VEs may become powerful tools for diabetes and other health educators to reach patients. Ongoing education and support are vital to successful self-management of chronic disease.

  15. Theory-based self-management educational interventions on patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Fang; Suhonen, Riitta; Koskinen, Sanna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-04-01

    To synthesize the effects of theory-based self-management educational interventions on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in randomized controlled trials. Type 2 diabetes is a common chronic disease causing complications that put a heavy burden on society and reduce the quality of life of patients. Good self-management of diabetes can prevent complications and improve the quality of life of T2DM patients. Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials following Cochrane methods. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PSYCINFO, and Web of Science databases (1980-April 2015). The risk of bias of these eligible studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. The Publication bias of the main outcomes was examined. Statistical heterogeneity and random-effects model were used for meta-analysis. Twenty studies with 5802 participants met the inclusion criteria. The interventions in the studies were based on one or more theories which mostly belong to mid-range theories. The pooled main outcomes by random-effects model showed significant improvements in HbA1c, self-efficacy, and diabetes knowledge, but not in BMI. As for quality of life, no conclusions can be drawn as the pooled outcome became the opposite with reduced heterogeneity after one study was excluded. No significant publication bias was found in the main outcomes. To get theory-based interventions to produce more effects, the role of patients should be more involved and stronger and the education team should be trained beyond the primary preparation for the self-management education program. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The ABCs of diabetes: diabetes self-management education program for African Americans affects A1C, lipid-lowering agent prescriptions, and emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Magee, Michelle; Bowling, Andrea; Copeland, James; Fokar, Ali; Pasquale, Patricia; Youssef, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a concise community-based program on diabetes self-management education (DSME), according to frequency of emergency department visits and knowledge of, prescriptions for, and control of A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A free community-based DSME program was placed in a public library. Adults with diabetes (N, 360) consented to participate in this prospective nonrandomized cohort study with preintervention-postintervention design. The small-group interactive DSME (two 2.5-hour classes) focused on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors and facilitating communication with the primary care physician. An increase in knowledge of American Diabetes Association-recommended targets for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol from baseline to postintervention was seen among participants. Significant clinical outcomes included reduction in self-reported emergency department visits and reduction in mean A1C. However, despite an increase in prescriptions written for lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol did not change. Participants who started on insulin were more likely to achieve or maintain A1C < 7% compared to those who either did not take or stopped taking insulin during the study. Offering DSME classes for African Americans at a public library was feasible and significantly affected 6-month clinical outcomes, including a reduction in A1C, an increased likelihood of attaining a target A1C of < 7% if insulin was started during the study period, and a two-thirds reduction in emergency department visits for uncontrolled diabetes. Observed results suggest that partnering with community-based organizations such as public libraries offers an accessible and well-received location for offering DSME programs.

  17. Diabetes Camp as Continuing Education for Diabetes Self-Management in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Hye Mi; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the established benefits of diabetes camps for the continuing education of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the long-term metabolic benefits of diabetes camps for middle-aged and elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability. Methods The 1-year mean and variability of HbA1c before and after the diabetes camp was compared between the participants of the diabetes camp (n=57; median age 65 years [range, 50 to 86 years]; median diabetes duration 14 years [range, 1 to 48 years]). Additional case-control analysis compared the metabolic outcomes of the participants of the diabetes camp and their propensity score-matched controls who underwent conventional diabetes education (n=93). Results The levels of HbA1c during the first year after the diabetes camp were comparable to those of the matched controls (P=0.341). In an analysis of all participants of the diabetes camp, the 1-year mean±standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c decreased (P=0.010 and P=0.041) after the diabetes camp, whereas the adjusted SD and coefficient of variance (CV) of HbA1c did not decrease. The adjusted SD and CV significantly decreased after the diabetes camp in participants whose 1-year mean HbA1c was ≥6.5% before the diabetes camp (n=40) and those with a duration of diabetes less than 15 years (n=32). Conclusion The 1-year mean and SD of HbA1c decreased after the diabetes camp, with significant reduction in the adjusted SD and CV in those with higher baseline HbA1c and a shorter duration of diabetes. PMID:28447438

  18. Diabetes Camp as Continuing Education for Diabetes Self-Management in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Hye Mi; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon Kyu; Sim, Kang Hee; Jin, Sang Man

    2017-04-01

    Despite the established benefits of diabetes camps for the continuing education of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the long-term metabolic benefits of diabetes camps for middle-aged and elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) variability. The 1-year mean and variability of HbA1c before and after the diabetes camp was compared between the participants of the diabetes camp (n=57; median age 65 years [range, 50 to 86 years]; median diabetes duration 14 years [range, 1 to 48 years]). Additional case-control analysis compared the metabolic outcomes of the participants of the diabetes camp and their propensity score-matched controls who underwent conventional diabetes education (n=93). The levels of HbA1c during the first year after the diabetes camp were comparable to those of the matched controls (P=0.341). In an analysis of all participants of the diabetes camp, the 1-year mean±standard deviation (SD) of HbA1c decreased (P=0.010 and P=0.041) after the diabetes camp, whereas the adjusted SD and coefficient of variance (CV) of HbA1c did not decrease. The adjusted SD and CV significantly decreased after the diabetes camp in participants whose 1-year mean HbA1c was ≥6.5% before the diabetes camp (n=40) and those with a duration of diabetes less than 15 years (n=32). The 1-year mean and SD of HbA1c decreased after the diabetes camp, with significant reduction in the adjusted SD and CV in those with higher baseline HbA1c and a shorter duration of diabetes.

  19. Structured self-management education maintained over two years in insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes patients: the ERMIES randomised trial in Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management education programs can reduce the complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes. The need to structure these programs for outpatient and community care with a vision for long-term maintenance has been recognised. In Reunion Island, an area affected by epidemiological and nutritional transition, diabetes affects 18% of the adult population over 30 years, with major social disparities, poor glycaemic control and frequent cardiovascular complications. Methods/Design ERMIES is a randomised controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a long-term (2 years) structured group self management educational intervention in improving blood glucose in non-recent, insufficiently controlled diabetes. After an initial structured educational cycle carried out blind for the intervention arm, patients will be randomised in two parallel group arms of 120 subjects: structured on-going group with educational intervention maintained over two years, versus only initial education. Education sessions are organised through a regional diabetes management network, and performed by trained registered nurses at close quarters. The educational approach is theoretically based (socio-constructivism, social contextualisation, empowerment, action planning) and reproducible, thanks to curricula and handouts for educators and learners. The subjects will be recruited from five hospital outpatient settings all over Reunion Island. The main eligibility criteria include: age ≥18 years, type 2 diabetes treated for more than one year, HbA1c ≥ 7.5% for ≥3 months, without any severe evolving complication (ischaemic or proliferative retinopathy, severe renal insufficiency, coronaropathy or evolving foot lesion), and absence of any major physical or cognitive handicap. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c evolution between inclusion and 2 years. The secondary outcome measures include anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, lipids, antidiabetic medications, level of

  20. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  1. Consultation and Collaboration on Health Self-Management for People Who Are Visually Impaired from Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Margaret E.

    1993-01-01

    The expertise of rehabilitation teachers and diabetes nurse educators can complement each other in components of diabetes management for people who have become visually impaired. The role of each professional involves education; integration of diabetes self-management into a comprehensive rehabilitation program; nutrition; exercise; medication,…

  2. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-09-10

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population.

  3. Effectiveness of contextual education for self-management in Thai Muslims with type 2 diabetes mellitus during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Susilparat, Prakaitip; Pattaraarchachai, Junya; Songchitsomboon, Sriwatana; Ongroongruang, Savanit

    2014-08-01

    Fasting in Ramadan has adverse effects on health of Muslims with diabetes. Key strategies to prepare the patients are to provide appropriate health education to the patients prior to Ramadan and to adjust anti-diabetic medicines during Ramadan. To study outcomes of the specific health care services that providing health education in parallel with counseling by Islamic leader The Thai Muslims with type 2 diabetes mellitus were divided into two groups. There were 62patients in experimental group that was provided with specific health care service for Thai Muslims with diabetes in which health education prior to Ramadan and adjustment ofanti-diabetic medicine applied. The other was control group with 28patients that was provided only with original health care service. The results were monitored after Ramadan by interviews, weight and waist measurements, blood pressure measurement and blood tests. Both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were well controlled in both groups and slightly decreased after Ramnadan. The mean diastolic blood pressure of the experimental group decreased after Ramadan (p-value = 0.041). From behavior point of view, it was found that the patients in the experimental group had consumed less sweetenedfood (p-value = 0.002). There was no incidence ofsevere hypoglycemia in either experimental or control group. The number and portion of patients with hypoglycemic symptoms in experimental group were lower than those in controlled group (p-value = 0.013). Specific health care service by providing health education prior to Ramadan and adjustment ofanti-diabetic medicine application resulted in a positive effect as the patients tended to consume less sweetenedfood to keep blood sugar level in control. Fasting could affect the patients 'health in apositive way as it helps to control blood pressure, while in parallel, adjustment of anti-diabetic medicine application helps to prevent hypoglycemia. This health care service, which can be achieved in

  4. A study protocol for a pilot randomised trial of a structured education programme for the self-management of type 2 diabetes for adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Taggart, Laurence; Coates, Vivien; Clarke, Mike; Bunting, Brendan; Davies, Melanie; Carey, Marian; Northway, Ruth; Brown, Michael; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Martin-Stacey, Lorraine; Scott, Gillian; Karatzias, Thanos

    2015-04-10

    The need for structured education programmes for type 2 diabetes is a high priority for many governments around the world. One such national education programme in the United Kingdom is the DESMOND Programme, which has been shown to be robust and effective for patients in general. However, these programmes are not generally targeted to people with intellectual disabilities (ID), and robust evidence on their effects for this population is lacking. We have adapted the DESMOND Programme for people with ID and type 2 diabetes to produce an amended programme known as DESMOND-ID. This protocol is for a pilot trial to determine whether a large-scale randomised trial is feasible, to test if DESMOND-ID is more effective than usual care in adults with ID for self-management of their type 2 diabetes, in particular as a means to reduce glycated haemoglobin (Hb1Ac), improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life and promote a healthier lifestyle. This protocol describes the rationale, methods, proposed analysis plan and organisational and administrative details. This trial is a two arm, individually randomised, pilot trial for adults with ID and type 2 diabetes, and their family and/or paid carers. It compares the DESMOND-ID programme with usual care. Approximately 36 adults with mild to moderate ID will be recruited from three countries in the United Kingdom. Family and/or paid carers may also participate in the study. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions using a secure computerised system with robust allocation concealment. A range of data will be collected from the adults with ID (biomedical, psychosocial and self-management strategies) and from their carers. Focus groups with all the participants will assess the acceptability of the intervention and the trial. The lack of appropriate structured education programmes and educational materials for this population leads to secondary health conditions and may lead to premature deaths. There are

  5. Self-management education for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Savage, Eileen; Beirne, Paul V; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Duff, Alistair; Fitzgerald, Tony; Farrell, Dawn

    2011-07-06

    Self-management education may help patients with cystic fibrosis and their families to choose, monitor and adjust treatment requirements for their illness, and also to manage the effects of illness on their lives. Although self-management education interventions have been developed for cystic fibrosis, no previous systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been conducted. To assess the effects of self-management education interventions on improving health outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis and their caregivers We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register (date of the last search: 23 February 2011).We also searched databases through EBSCO (CINAHL; Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection; PsychInfo; SocINDEX) and Elsevier (EMBASE) and handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings (date of the last searches: 30th March 2011). Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing different types of self-management education for cystic fibrosis or comparing self-management education with standard care or no intervention. Two authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias. Three authors extracted data. Four trials (involving a total of 269 participants) were included. The participants were children with cystic fibrosis and their parents or caregivers in three trials and adults with cystic fibrosis in one trial. The trials compared four different self-management education interventions versus standard treatment: (1) a training programme for managing cystic fibrosis in general; (2) education specific to aerosol and airway clearance treatments; (3) disease-specific nutrition education; and (4) general and disease-specific nutrition education. Training children to manage cystic fibrosis in general had no statistically significant effects on weight after six to eight weeks, mean difference -7.74 lb (95% confidence

  6. Self-management education for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Savage, Eileen; Beirne, Paul V; Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Duff, Alistair; Fitzgerald, Tony; Farrell, Dawn

    2014-09-08

    Self-management education may help patients with cystic fibrosis and their families to choose, monitor and adjust treatment requirements for their illness, and also to manage the effects of illness on their lives. Although self-management education interventions have been developed for cystic fibrosis, no previous systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been conducted. To assess the effects of self-management education interventions on improving health outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis and their caregivers We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register (date of the last search: 22 August 2013).We also searched databases through EBSCO (CINAHL; Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection; PsychInfo; SocINDEX) and Elsevier (Embase) and handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings (date of the last searches: 01 February 2014 ). Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing different types of self-management education for cystic fibrosis or comparing self-management education with standard care or no intervention. Two authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias. Three authors extracted data. Four trials (involving a total of 269 participants) were included. The participants were children with cystic fibrosis and their parents or caregivers in three trials and adults with cystic fibrosis in one trial. The trials compared four different self-management education interventions versus standard treatment: (1) a training programme for managing cystic fibrosis in general; (2) education specific to aerosol and airway clearance treatments; (3) disease-specific nutrition education; and (4) general and disease-specific nutrition education. Training children to manage cystic fibrosis in general had no statistically significant effects on weight after six to eight weeks, mean difference -7.74 lb (i.e. 3.51 kg) (95

  7. Storylines of self-management: narratives of people with diabetes from a multiethnic inner city population.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Collard, Anna; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Malik, Farida; Morris, Joanne; Claydon, Anne

    2011-01-01

    to analyse the narratives of people with diabetes to inform the design of culturally congruent self-management education programmes. the study was based on quasi-naturalistic story-gathering; i.e. making real-time field notes of stories shared spontaneously in diabetes self-management education groups in a socioeconomically deprived London borough. Eighty-two adults aged 25-86, from six minority ethnic groups who were in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial of story-sharing, participated. Stories were translated in real time by the facilitator or group members. Ethnographic field notes were transcribed, and analysed thematically (to identify self-management domains raised by participants) and interpretively for over-arching storylines (i.e. considering how self-management domains were contextualized and made meaningful in personal narratives). Analysis was informed by both biomedical and sociological theories of self-management. people with diabetes identified seven self-management domains: knowledge; diet; exercise; medication; foot care; self-monitoring; and attending check-ups. Interpretive analysis revealed eight illness storylines within which these practical issues acquired social meaning and moral worth: becoming sick; rebuilding spoiled identity; becoming a practitioner of self-management; living a disciplined and balanced life; mobilizing a care network; navigating and negotiating in the health care system; managing the micro-morality of self-management 'choices'; and taking collective action. living with diabetes involves both medically recommended behaviours and complex biographical work to make sense of and cope with illness. Self-management education programmes should take closer account of over-arching storylines that pattern experience of chronic illness and recognize that some elements of self-management knowledge cannot be pre-specified in a structured curriculum. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2011.

  8. Economic evaluation of chronic disease self-management for people with diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, C; Moran, P S; Walshe, S; Smith, S M; Cianci, F; Murphy, L; Harrington, P; Ryan, M

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. Self-management support is the provision of education and supportive interventions to increase patients' skills and confidence in managing their health problems, potentially leading to improvements in HbA1c levels in people with diabetes. Randomized controlled trials, observational studies or economic modelling studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. The target population was adults with diabetes. Interventions had to have a substantial component of self-management support and be compared with routine care. Study quality was evaluated using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria and International Society of Pharmacoeconomic Outcomes Research questionnaires. A narrative review approach was used. A total of 16 costing and 21 cost-effectiveness studies of a range of self-management support interventions were identified. There was reasonably consistent evidence across 22 studies evaluating education self-management support programmes suggesting these interventions are cost-effective or superior to usual care. Telemedicine-type interventions were more expensive than usual care and potentially not cost-effective. There was insufficient evidence regarding the other types of self-management interventions, including pharmacist-led and behavioural interventions. The identified studies were predominantly of poor quality, with outcomes based on short-term follow-up data and study designs at high risk of bias. Self-management support education programmes may be cost-effective. There was limited evidence regarding other formats of self-management support interventions. The poor quality of many of the studies undermines the evidence base regarding the economic efficiency of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  9. Self-management education programmes for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Féline P B; van der Burg, Lennart R A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Johnston, Renea V; Pitt, Veronica

    2014-01-15

    Self-management education programmes are complex interventions specifically targeted at patient education and behaviour modification. They are designed to encourage people with chronic disease to take an active self-management role to supplement medical care and improve outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of self-management education programmes for people with osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PyscINFO, SCOPUS and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform were searched, without language restriction, on 17 January 2013. We checked references of reviews and included trials to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials of self-management education programmes in people with osteoarthritis were included. Studies with participants receiving passive recipients of care and studies comparing one type of programme versus another were excluded. In addition to standard methods we extracted components of the self-management interventions using the eight domains of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ), and contextual and participant characteristics using PROGRESS-Plus and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Outcomes included self-management of osteoarthritis, participant's positive and active engagement in life, pain, global symptom score, self-reported function, quality of life and withdrawals (including dropouts and those lost to follow-up). We assessed the quality of the body of evidence for these outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included twenty-nine studies (6,753 participants) that compared self-management education programmes to attention control (five studies), usual care (17 studies), information alone (four studies) or another intervention (seven studies). Although heterogeneous, most interventions included elements of skill and technique acquisition (94%), health-directed activity (85%) and self-monitoring and insight (79

  10. [Research and application of diabetes self-management scale].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    Scale is the basis and quality assurance of investigation research, and a rigorous process is needed to develop a scale. The establishment of the item pool is the first step, then screening these items by using Delphi expert consultation method or statistical methods to establish the scale. At last, the acceptability, validity, reliability and sensitivity of scale should be evaluated. A scale can be widely applied only if it has a good acceptability, validity, reliability and sensitivity. China National Center for Chronic and Non-communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention have developed "the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB)" and "the brief version of Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB-SF) ". These scales provide a set of scientific evaluation tools to diabetes self-management of Type 2 Diabetes with excellent reliability, validity, sensitivity and acceptability.

  11. Use of Medicare's Diabetes Self-Management Training Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Larisa M.; Lloyd, Jennifer T.; Meadow, Ann; Riley, Gerald F.; Howell, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Medicare began reimbursing for outpatient diabetes self-management training (DSMT) in 2000; however, little is known about program utilization. Individuals diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 were identified from a 20% random selection of the Medicare fee-for-service population (N = 110,064). Medicare administrative and claims files were used to…

  12. Use of Medicare's Diabetes Self-Management Training Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Larisa M.; Lloyd, Jennifer T.; Meadow, Ann; Riley, Gerald F.; Howell, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Medicare began reimbursing for outpatient diabetes self-management training (DSMT) in 2000; however, little is known about program utilization. Individuals diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 were identified from a 20% random selection of the Medicare fee-for-service population (N = 110,064). Medicare administrative and claims files were used to…

  13. Interactive Multimedia Tailored to Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia G; Alley, Elizabeth; Baer, Spencer; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    A pilot program was initiated to improve self-management of type 2 diabetes by rural adults. Using an iOS-based, individually tailored pre-/postintervention to improve diabetes self-management, undergraduate students developed a native mobile application to help participants effectively manage their diabetes. Brief quizzes assessed diabetes knowledge. A diabetes dictionary and physical activity assessment provided additional support to users of the app. On completion of the pilot, data analysis indicated increased diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy, and ease of use of the technology. Native app technology permits ready access to important information for those living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile applications for diabetes self-management: status and potential.

    PubMed

    El-Gayar, Omar; Timsina, Prem; Nawar, Nevine; Eid, Wael

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in smartphone technology coupled with the proliferation of data connectivity has resulted in increased interest and unprecedented growth in mobile applications for diabetes self-management. The objective of this article is to determine, in a systematic review, whether diabetes applications have been helping patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes self-manage their condition and to identify issues necessary for large-scale adoption of such interventions. The review covers commercial applications available on the Apple App Store (as a representative of commercially available applications) and articles published in relevant databases covering a period from January 1995 to August 2012. The review included all applications supporting any diabetes self-management task where the patient is the primary actor. Available applications support self-management tasks such as physical exercise, insulin dosage or medication, blood glucose testing, and diet. Other support tasks considered include decision support, notification/alert, tagging of input data, and integration with social media. The review points to the potential for mobile applications to have a positive impact on diabetes self-management. Analysis indicates that application usage is associated with improved attitudes favorable to diabetes self-management. Limitations of the applications include lack of personalized feedback; usability issues, particularly the ease of data entry; and integration with patients and electronic health records. Research into the adoption and use of user-centered and sociotechnical design principles is needed to improve usability, perceived usefulness, and, ultimately, adoption of the technology. Proliferation and efficacy of interventions involving mobile applications will benefit from a holistic approach that takes into account patients' expectations and providers' needs. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Diabetes: Christian Worldview, Medical Distrust & Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  16. Diabetes: Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management.

    PubMed

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbauh, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-06-01

    To inform the development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N = 44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest that diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African-American community to improve health outcomes.

  17. Mobile Applications for Diabetes Self-Management: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    El-Gayar, Omar; Timsina, Prem; Nawar, Nevine; Eid, Wael

    2013-01-01

    Background Advancements in smartphone technology coupled with the proliferation of data connectivity has resulted in increased interest and unprecedented growth in mobile applications for diabetes self-management. The objective of this article is to determine, in a systematic review, whether diabetes applications have been helping patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes self-manage their condition and to identify issues necessary for large-scale adoption of such interventions. Methods The review covers commercial applications available on the Apple App Store (as a representative of commercially available applications) and articles published in relevant databases covering a period from January 1995 to August 2012. The review included all applications supporting any diabetes self-management task where the patient is the primary actor. Results Available applications support self-management tasks such as physical exercise, insulin dosage or medication, blood glucose testing, and diet. Other support tasks considered include decision support, notification/alert, tagging of input data, and integration with social media. The review points to the potential for mobile applications to have a positive impact on diabetes self-management. Analysis indicates that application usage is associated with improved attitudes favorable to diabetes self-management. Limitations of the applications include lack of personalized feedback; usability issues, particularly the ease of data entry; and integration with patients and electronic health records. Conclusions Research into the adoption and use of user-centered and sociotechnical design principles is needed to improve usability, perceived usefulness, and, ultimately, adoption of the technology. Proliferation and efficacy of interventions involving mobile applications will benefit from a holistic approach that takes into account patients’ expectations and providers’ needs. PMID:23439183

  18. Exploring the connection between self-efficacy and effective diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kathleen; Aarestad, Vivian; Buethe, Marie

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the existing empirical evidence about factors that contribute to effective diabetes self-management as indicated by healthy outcomes in persons with the disease, with a specific focus on self-efficacy, to determine the link between learned self-efficacy and effective diabetes self-management in adults. A systematic review was conducted of the extant literature from 1985-2001 that described factors related to effective self-management of diabetes. The review included theoretical and empirical articles. The search engines included CINAHL, MEDLINE, PUBMED, and COCHRANE. Empirical evidence supports the following factors to improve the education outcomes for adults with diabetes: involve people with diabetes in their own care, guide them in actively learning about the disease, explore their feelings about having the disease, and teach them the skills necessary to adjust their behavior to control their own health outcomes. Thus, the goal for educating people with diabetes is to improve their individual self-efficacy and, accordingly, their self-management ability. Education sessions need to involve fewer lectures and more practical, interactive exercises that focus on developing specific skills. Follow-up contact is a valuable method for helping people make a healthy adjustment to living with diabetes.

  19. MyDiabetesMyWay: An Evolving National Data Driven Diabetes Self-Management Platform.

    PubMed

    Wake, Deborah J; He, Jinzhang; Czesak, Anna Maria; Mughal, Fezan; Cunningham, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    MyDiabetesMyWay (MDMW) is an award-wining national electronic personal health record and self-management platform for diabetes patients in Scotland. This platform links multiple national institutional and patient-recorded data sources to provide a unique resource for patient care and self-management. This review considers the current evidence for online interventions in diabetes and discusses these in the context of current and ongoing developments for MDMW. Evaluation of MDMW through patient reported outcomes demonstrates a positive impact on self-management. User feedback has highlighted barriers to uptake and has guided platform evolution from an education resource website to an electronic personal health record now encompassing remote monitoring, communication tools and personalized education links. Challenges in delivering digital interventions for long-term conditions include integration of data between institutional and personal recorded sources to perform big data analytics and facilitating technology use in those with disabilities, low digital literacy, low socioeconomic status and in minority groups. The potential for technology supported health improvement is great, but awareness and adoption by health workers and patients remains a significant barrier. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. The effect of motivational interviewing on glycaemic control and perceived competence of diabetes self-management in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus after attending a group education programme: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenbek Minet, L K; Wagner, L; Lønvig, E M; Hjelmborg, J; Henriksen, J E

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) compared with usual care on changes in glycaemic control and competence of diabetes self-management in patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients were eligible if they had type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, were over 18 years of age and had participated in a 4 day group education programme offered at a diabetes clinic at a university hospital in Denmark. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy, severe debilitating disease and cognitive deficit. Out of 469 patients who attended the group education programme, 349 patients were randomised to either a usual care control group or an intervention group, which received up to five individual counselling sessions in 1 year based on MI, in addition to usual care. A randomised parallel design was used and open-label allocation was done by random permuted blocks, with allocation concealment by sequentially numbered, sealed, opaque envelopes. The primary outcome was glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). Analysis regarding measurements of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and competence of self-management (using the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale [PAID] and Perceived Competence for Diabetes Scale [PCDS]) was based on 298 participants followed for a 24 month period. Data were collected at the Department of Endocrinology at Odense University Hospital. Our hypotheses were that MI could: (1) reduce HbA(1c) levels; (2) increase self-efficacy; and (3) increase diabetes self-care, compared with usual care. Out of the 176 included in the control group and 173 in the intervention group, 153 and 145 were analysed in the groups, respectively. When using the baseline value as covariate there were no significant differences in change score between the two study groups with regard to mean level of HbA(1c) (0.131, p = 0.221), PAID scores (-1.793, p = 0.191) or PCDS scores (0.017, p = 0.903) at the 24 month follow-up, using a mixed effects regression model. The

  1. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines among diabetes self-management apps.

    PubMed

    Breland, Jessica Y; Yeh, Vivian M; Yu, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Smartphone apps can provide real-time, interactive self-management aid to individuals with diabetes. It is currently unclear whether existing diabetes self-management apps follow evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which existing diabetes self-management apps address the seven self-management behaviors recommended by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (the AADE7™). The term "diabetes" identified relevant self-management apps via the Apple App Store search engine in March 2012. Ratings were based on app descriptions and downloads. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in apps based on developer type. Apps promoted a median of two AADE7™ skills. Overall reliability between description and download ratings was good (kappa = .66). Reliability of individual skills was variable (kappa = .25 to .91). Most diabetes apps do not conform to evidence-based recommendations, and future app reviews would benefit from testing app performance. Future apps may also benefit from theory-based designs.

  2. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  3. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management training...

  4. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  5. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  6. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  7. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support. PMID:23249410

  8. The effects of an educational self-efficacy intervention on osteoporosis prevention and diabetes self-management among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mei; Hu, Jie; Petrini, Marcia A; McCoy, Thomas P

    2014-10-01

    Prevalence of osteoporosis (OP) is high among Chinese adults with diabetes. Assessment of OP and fracture risk as well as patient education should be included as part of the management of diabetes. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an educational self-efficacy intervention on knowledge about OP, dietary calcium intake, the importance of physical activity (PA), and glycemic control among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes residing in Wuhan, China. A quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was employed. Participants were assigned to either the intervention (n = 23) or the control group (n = 23). Intervention participants attended 6 weekly 1-hr educational sessions comprising presentations, demonstration, and discussions. Control participants received standard care. Data were collected via questionnaires at pre- and postintervention and at 3-month follow-up, and blood was drawn at preintervention and 3-month follow-up. Participants in the intervention group had significant improvement in OP knowledge, F(2, 43) = 11.504, p < .001; OP self-efficacy, F(2, 43) = 6.915, p = .003; dietary calcium intake, F(2, 43) = 7.856, p = .002; level of PA, F(2, 43) = 4.787, p = .011; diabetes self-care activities, F(2, 43) = 14.009, p < .001; diabetes self-efficacy, F(2, 43) = 19.722, p < .001; and glycemic control (A1C level; t = 2.809, p = .010) compared to the control group at the 3-month follow-up. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of OP prevention education based on self-efficacy theory among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Use of Gaming in Self-Management of Diabetes in Teens.

    PubMed

    Swartwout, Ellen; El-Zein, Ashley; Deyo, Patricia; Sweenie, Rachel; Streisand, Randi

    2016-07-01

    With the growing prevalence of diabetes in teens and frequent concomitant problems with adherence, adolescents are a frequent target for diabetes self-management support and education. Due to widespread use of technology among teens in general, the use of serious games, games used for purposes beyond entertainment with the intention to educate and support health behavior for teens with diabetes self-management, is an emerging and promising practice. This report explores games intended for teens with diabetes, how the use of games may enhance clinical practice, and provides suggestions for future research and better utilization of these technologies. Current research on the use of gaming for promoting diabetes management in teens is fairly limited, with some initial support for improvements in both behavioral and clinical outcomes among teens. More research is clearly needed in order to further determine how gaming can best be utilized to impact health outcomes in these teens, as well as potential mechanisms of change.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use as Health Self-Management: Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study describes complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among rural older adults with diabetes, delineates the relationship of health self-management predictors to CAM therapy use, and furthers conceptual development of CAM use within a health self-management framework. Methods Survey interview data were collected from a random sample of 701 community dwelling African American, Native American, and White elders residing in two rural North Carolina counties. We summarize CAM use for general use and for diabetes care and use multiple logistic modeling to estimate the effects of health self-management predictors on use of CAM therapies. Results The majority of respondents used some form of CAM for general purpose, whereas far fewer used CAM for diabetes care. The most widely used CAM categories were food home remedies, other home remedies, and vitamins. The following health self-management predictors were related to the use of different categories of CAM therapies: personal characteristics (ethnicity), health status (number of health conditions), personal resources (education), and financial resources (economic status). Discussion CAM is a widely used component of health self-management among rural among older adults with diabetes. Research on CAM use will benefit from theory that considers the specific behavior and cognitive characteristics of CAM therapies. PMID:16497962

  11. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Maneze, D; Everett, B; Astorga, C; Yogendran, D; Salamonson, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05-5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30-4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management.

  12. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Everett, B.; Astorga, C.; Yogendran, D.; Salamonson, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  13. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule...

  14. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule in...

  15. Children's Roles in Parents’ Diabetes Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Helena H.; Davis, Matthew M.; Forman, Jane; Palmisano, Gloria; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Tannas, Cheryl; Spencer, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Family support is important in diabetes self-management. However, children as providers of support have received little attention. This study examines the role of children in their parents’ diabetes self-management, diet, and exercise. Methods This research used community-based participatory research principles. Researchers conducted semi-structured parallel interviews of 24 Latino and African-American adults with diabetes and with a child (age 10–17 years) in their home (2004–06). Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes (2004–07). Results Adults and children perceived that children play many roles related to adults’ diabetes self-management. Parents described children as monitoring parents’ dietary intake and reminding them what they should not be eating. Some children helped with shopping and meal preparation. Families described children reminding parents to exercise and exercising with their parent. Children reminded parents about medications and assisted with tasks such as checking blood sugar. Parents and children perceived that children played a role in tempting parents to stray from their diabetes diet, because children's diets included food that parents desired but tried to avoid. Conclusion Children and parents perceived that children have many roles in both supporting and undermining adults’ diabetes self-management. There is more to learn about the bidirectional relationships between adults and children in this setting and the most beneficial roles children can play. Health-care providers should encourage family lifestyle change, strengthen social support for families and direct children toward roles that are beneficial for both parent and child and do not place an unreasonable level of responsibility on the child. PMID:19896027

  16. Interactive media for diabetes self-management: issues in maximizing public health impact.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Russell E

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes self-management presents a series of challenging tasks, and primary care, where the majority of cases of adult diabetes are treated, is hard-pressed to address these issues given competing demands. This article discusses how interactive media (IM) can be used to support diabetes self-management. Following a brief review of the literature, the 5 As framework for enhancing the effectiveness of health behavior counseling and the RE-AIM model for estimating and enhancing public health impact are used to frame discussion of the strengths and limitations of IM for diabetes shared decision making and self-management support. Data and lessons learned from a series of randomized trials of IM for diabetes self-management education are summarized around 2 key issues. The first is enhancing patient engagement in decision making and includes enhancing user experience and engagement, improving quality of care, and promoting collaborative action planning and follow-up. The second is getting such resources into place and sustaining them in real-world primary care settings and involves enhancing participation at patient, clinician, and health care system levels and enhancing the generalizability of results. . Key opportunities for IM to support diabetes self-management include assessment of information for shared decision making, assistance with problem-solving self-management challenges, and provision of follow-up support. A key current challenge is the linkage of IM supports to the rest of the patient's care, and collection of cost-effectiveness data is a key need for future research.

  17. Ecological Approaches to Self-Management: The Case of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Brownson, Carol A.; O’Toole, Mary L.; Shetty, Gowri; Anwuri, Victoria V.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Diabetes Initiative of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, an ecological perspective helped identify the following key resources and supports for self-management (RSSM): individualized assessment, collaborative goal setting, skills enhancement, follow-up and support, access to resources, and continuity of quality clinical care. These RSSM reflect the grounding of diabetes self-management in the context of social and environmental influences. Research supports the value of each of these key resources and supports. Differences among self-management interventions may be seen as complementary, rather than conflicting, ways of providing RSSM. This way of understanding differences among interventions may aid development of varied programs to reach diverse audiences. In contrast to the “5 A’s” model of key provider services (Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist, and Arrange), RSSM articulate self-management from the perspective of individuals’ needs. Both approaches emphasize identification of goals, teaching of skills, and facilitation and reinforcement of the use of those skills. PMID:16051929

  18. A case study of type 2 diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-i

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been established that careful diabetes self-management is essential in avoiding chronic complications that compromise health. Disciplined diet control and regular exercise are the keys for the type 2 diabetes self-management. An ability to maintain one's blood glucose at a relatively flat level, not fluctuating wildly with meals and hypoglycemic medical intervention, would be the goal for self-management. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c) is a measure of a long-term blood plasma glucose average, a reliable index to reflect one's diabetic condition. A simple regimen that could reduce the elevated A1c levels without altering much of type 2 diabetic patients' daily routine denotes a successful self-management strategy. Methods A relatively simple model that relates the food impact on blood glucose excursions for type 2 diabetes was studied. Meal is treated as a bolus injection of glucose. Medical intervention of hypoglycaemic drug or injection, if any, is lumped with secreted insulin as a damping factor. Lunch was used for test meals. The recovery period of a blood glucose excursion returning to the pre-prandial level, the maximal reach, and the area under the excursion curve were used to characterize one's ability to regulate glucose metabolism. A case study is presented here to illustrate the possibility of devising an individual-based self-management regimen. Results Results of the lunch study for a type 2 diabetic subject indicate that the recovery time of the post-prandial blood glucose level can be adjusted to 4 hours, which is comparable to the typical time interval for non-diabetics: 3 to 4 hours. A moderate lifestyle adjustment of light supper coupled with morning swimming of 20 laps in a 25 m pool for 40 minutes enabled the subject to reduce his A1c level from 6.7 to 6.0 in six months and to maintain this level for the subsequent six months. Conclusions The preliminary result of this case study is encouraging. An individual life

  19. A theoretical framework for a virtual diabetes self-management community intervention.

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M

    2014-10-01

    Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support).

  20. A Systematic Review: Family Support Integrated with Diabetes Self-Management among Uncontrolled Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2017-09-15

    The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were "type 2 diabetes," "self-management," "diabetes self-management education (DSME)," "family support," "social support," and "uncontrolled glycaemia." Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.

  1. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a structured group education programme on biomedical, psychosocial, and lifestyle measures in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design Multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care with randomisation at practice level. Setting 207 general practices in 13 primary care sites in the United Kingdom. Participants 824 adults (55% men, mean age 59.5 years). Intervention A structured group education programme for six hours delivered in the community by two trained healthcare professional educators compared with usual care. Main outcome measures Haemoglobin A1c levels, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, and emotional impact of diabetes at baseline and up to 12 months. Main results Haemoglobin A1c levels at 12 months had decreased by 1.49% in the intervention group compared with 1.21% in the control group. After adjusting for baseline and cluster, the difference was not significant: 0.05% (95% confidence interval −0.10% to 0.20%). The intervention group showed a greater weight loss: −2.98 kg (95% confidence interval −3.54 to −2.41) compared with 1.86 kg (−2.44 to −1.28), P=0.027 at 12 months. The odds of not smoking were 3.56 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 11.45), P=0.033 higher in the intervention group at 12 months. The intervention group showed significantly greater changes in illness belief scores (P=0.001); directions of change were positive indicating greater understanding of diabetes. The intervention group had a lower depression score at 12 months: mean difference was −0.50 (95% confidence interval −0.96 to −0.04); P=0.032. A positive association was found between change in perceived personal responsibility and weight loss at 12 months (β=0.12; P=0.008). Conclusion A structured group education programme for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes resulted in greater

  2. [Breviary of diabetes education for internist].

    PubMed

    Uličiansky, Vladimír

    Diabetes education is an important cornerstone for diabetes care. Patients with diabetes should participate in education to facilitate the knowledge, skill sand ability necessary for diabetes both at diagnosis and there after. Effective self-management can improve clinical outcomes, health status, and quality of life. diabetes mellitus - education - self-management.

  3. Diabetes Self-Management Education and Medical Nutrition Therapy Improve Patient Outcomes: A Pilot Study Documenting the Efficacy of Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Interventions through Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Marincic, Patricia Z; Hardin, Amie; Salazar, Maria V; Scott, Susan; Fan, Shirley X; Gaillard, Philippe R

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and medical nutrition therapy (MNT) improve patient outcomes; poor reimbursement limits access to care. Our aim was to develop methodology for tracking patient outcomes subsequent to registered dietitian nutritionist interventions, document outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes attending an American Diabetes Association-recognized program, and obtain outcome data to support reimbursement and public policy initiatives to improve patient access to DSME and MNT. Retrospective chart review. A random sample of 100 charts was chosen from the electronic medical records of patients with type 2 diabetes completing DSME and individualized MNT, June 2013 to 2014. Data were extracted on body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)), weight, hemoglobin A1c, blood glucose, and lipids. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to determine differences between means for continuous variables; McNemar's tests and γ-statistic trend analysis were used to assess frequency of patients reaching glycemic targets. Significant weight loss was observed from baseline (94.3±21.1 kg) to end of program (91.7±21.2 kg [-1.6±3.9 kg]; P<0.001); weight loss in whites (-5.0±8.4 kg; P<0.001) exceeded that of African Americans (-0.8±9.0 kg; P>0.05). Significant hemoglobin A1c reduction was observed from baseline (8.74%±2.30%) to end of program (6.82%±1.37% [-1.92%±2.25%]; P<0.001) and retained at 1 year (6.90%±1.16%; P<0.001). Comparatively, 72% of patients reached hemoglobin A1c targets (≤7.0%) vs 27% at baseline (P=0.008). When stratified by diet alone and diet plus drug therapy, patients exhibited a 1.08%±1.20% (P<0.001) and 2.36%±2.53% (P<0.001) reduction in hemoglobin A1c, respectively. Triglycerides decreased from baseline 181.6±75.5 mg/dL (2.0±0.9 mmol/L) to 115.8±48.1 mg/dL (1.3±0.5mmol/L) (P=0.023). High-density lipoprotein increased from 41.4±12.4 mg/dL (1.1±0.3 mmol/L) to 47.3±12.4 mg/dL (1.2±0.3 mmol/L) (P=0.007). Retrospective

  4. Learning to do better: the transactional model of diabetes self-management integration.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Heather A

    2015-07-01

    In this article I examine the process by which low-income (mostly minority) women develop the skills to integrate diabetes self-management into daily life and the conditions that affect the process. I present and describe a multimethod approach, including semistructured interviews, photo elicitation, time geographic diaries, and a standardized assessment which were used to collect data from 10 low-income women with type 2 diabetes, ages 40 to 64 years, between July and December 2012. I describe the grounded theory approach to data analysis which facilitated the development of the Transactional Model of Diabetes Self-Management (DSM) Integration. The model depicts the theorized process whereby low-income women accept aspects of diabetes education and training as congruent with their circumstances, act on them, and practice with them until they become integrated into daily life. Inquiry and practice play key roles in assimilating DSM. I discuss the study's implications for facilitating better health-management programs.

  5. Strategies for implementing a promotores-led diabetes self-management program into a clinic structure.

    PubMed

    Sixta, Constance S; Ostwald, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a process for integrating promotores who teach diabetes self-management into a community clinic structure. The Donbedian structure, process, and outcome methodology was used to integrate promotores into a community clinic. The model described here resulted in (1) employment of promotores (community health workers) to teach diabetes self-management courses, (2) integration of provider and nurse oversight of course design and implementation, (3) management of promotora training and the development of teaching competencies and skills, (4) coordination of care through communication and documentation policies and procedures, (5) use of quality control mechanisms to maintain patient safety, and (6) promotion of a culturally competent approach to the educational process. The model presented here provides a systematic approach to safely address the educational needs of large numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes who live in communities that suffer from a lack of health care professionals.

  6. Effectiveness of self-management programmes in diabetes management: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vas, Aldrin; Devi, Elsa Sanatombi; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Acharya, Raviraja; Rau, Nileshwar Radhakrishna; George, Anice; Jose, Tessy; Nayak, Baby

    2017-07-31

    Diabetes is a major noncommunicable disease, which is increasing, and approximately 415 million people are affected around the globe. Since diabetes is a lifelong disease, patients require better understanding and knowledge of the condition to become self-reliant in making diabetes-related decisions. This systematic review was performed to assess the effectiveness of diabetes self-management programs in people with type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to identify all published English language articles through EBSCO discovery services in the following electronic database: Science Direct, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE, and Access Medicine. Studies were published from January 2000 to October 2015. The initial search retrieved 37 566 studies and based on the inclusion criteria, 14 studies were selected for review. Of 14 studies, most findings favoured diabetes self-management. But the overall effectiveness of individual interventions was not conclusive. A wide variety of interventions was used including diabetes education as a major component in self-management programs. Interventions used varied strategies in differing composition, and further work is needed to find out the effectiveness of individual interventions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Personal Discovery in Diabetes Self-Management: Discovering Cause and Effect Using Self-Monitoring Data.

    PubMed

    Mamykina, Lena; Heitkemper, Elizabeth; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Hripcsak, George

    2017-09-30

    To outline new design directions for informatics solutions that facilitate personal discovery with self-monitoring data. We investigate this question in the context of chronic disease self-management with the focus on type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational qualitative study of discovery with personal data among adults attending a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that utilized a discovery-based curriculum. The study included observations of class sessions, and interviews and focus groups with the educator and attendees of the program (n=14). The main discovery in diabetes self-management evolved around discovering patterns of association between characteristics of individuals' activities and changes in their blood glucose levels that the participants referred to as "cause and effect". This discovery empowered individuals to actively engage in self-management and provided a desired flexibility in selection of personalized self-management strategies. We show that discovery of cause and effect involves four essential phases: 1) feature selection, 2) hypothesis generation, 3) feature evaluation, and 4) goal specification. Further, we identify opportunities to support discovery at each stage with informatics and data visualization solutions by providing assistance with: 1) active manipulation of collected data (e.g., grouping, filtering and side-by-side inspection), 2) hypotheses formulation (e.g, using natural language statements or constructing visual queries), 3) inference evaluation (e.g., through aggregation and visual comparison, and statistical analysis of associations), and 3) translation of discoveries into actionable goals (e.g., tailored selection from computable knowledge sources of effective diabetes self-management behaviors). The study suggests that discovery of cause and effect in diabetes can be a powerful approach to helping individuals to improve their self-management strategies, and that self-monitoring data can serve as a

  8. Self-management education: history, definition, outcomes, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lorig, Kate R; Holman, Halsted

    2003-08-01

    Self-management has become a popular term for behavioral interventions as well as for healthful behaviors. This is especially true for the management of chronic conditions. This article offers a short history of self-management. It presents three self-management tasks--medical management, role management, and emotional management--and six self-management skills--problem solving, decision making, resource utilization, the formation of a patient-provider partnership, action planning, and self-tailoring. In addition, the article presents evidence of the effectiveness of self-management interventions and posits a possible mechanism, self-efficacy, through which these interventions work. In conclusion the article discusses problems and solutions for integrating self-management education into the mainstream health care systems.

  9. The influence of cognition on self-management of type 2 diabetes in older people

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Ali; Sinclair, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health issue, increasing in prevalence, eroding quality of life, and burdening health care systems. The complications of diabetes can be avoided or delayed by maintaining good glycemic control, which is achievable through self-management and, where necessary, medication. Older people with diabetes are at increased risk for cognitive impairment. This review aims to bring together current research that has investigated both cognition and diabetes self-management together. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (Cinahl), Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (Medline), and Psychological Information (PsychInfo) databases were searched. Studies were included if they featured older people with type 2 diabetes and had looked for associations between at least one distinct measure of cognition and at least one distinct measure of diabetes self-management. English language publications from the year 2000 were included. Cognitive measures of executive function, memory, and low scores on tests of global cognitive functioning showed significant correlations with multiple areas of diabetes self-management, including diabetes-specific numeracy ability, diabetes knowledge, insulin adjustment skills, ability to learn to perform insulin injections, worse adherence to medications, decreased frequency of self-care activities, missed appointments, decreased frequency of diabetes monitoring, and increased inaccuracies in reporting blood glucose monitoring. The nature of the subjects studied was quite variable in terms of their disease duration, previous medical histories, associated medical comorbidities, and educational level attained prior to being diagnosed with diabetes. The majority of studies were of an associational nature and not findings confirmed by repeat testing or by the effects of an intervention, neither were the majority of studies designed to give a view or conclusion on the clinical

  10. Adolescent Perceptions of Peer Responses to Diabetes Self-Management: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Yun; Lou, Meei-Fang; Lien, Angela Shin-Yu; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2017-10-12

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is more prevalent in adolescents than in adults, and the self-management of insulin-dependent diabetes is complex. T1D requires injections of insulin, self-management of blood testing, regular physical activity, and diet monitoring, which are challenging for growing and developing adolescents. Adolescents are often more concerned with how they are perceived by their peers than how they perceive themselves. Positive peer responses influence the self-care management of adolescents with T1D in school settings. By contrast, negative peer responses and avoidance behaviors threaten to negatively affect the health outcomes of adolescents with T1D. Evidence indicates that peer influence is crucial to the successful self-management of diabetes in adolescents. However, very few studies have investigated the effect of peer influence on adolescents with T1D. This article describes how adolescents with T1D perceive the responses of their peers to their diabetes self-management in school settings. Ten 12- to 17-year-old adolescents with diabetes were recruited from a pediatric endocrinology clinic at a university hospital in Taiwan. Audio-recorded interview data were transcribed verbatim and reviewed for accuracy. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the narrative content of semistructured interviews with participants. The rigor of the data collection and analysis was emphasized. Analysis of peer responses to the diabetes care practices of the participants revealed six themes: knowledge seeking, curiosity, enthusiasm, empathy, fearfulness, and isolation and bullying. Subthemes were categorized to illustrate how adolescents with T1D balance the challenge of diabetes self-care regimens and normal peer interactions. They were coping with the requirements of their T1D regimen and hoping to determine the perceptions of their peers toward this regimen and themselves. Understanding the perception of peer identity for adolescents with T1D provides

  11. Adaptive Workflows for Diabetes Management: Self-Management Assistant and Remote Treatment for Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Iván; Kiefer, Stephan; Vehi, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes self-management is a crucial element for all people with diabetes and those at risk for developing the disease. Diabetic patients should be empowered to increase their self-management skills in order to prevent or delay the complications of diabetes. This work presents the proposal and first development stages of a smartphone application focused on the empowerment of the patients with diabetes. The concept of this interventional tool is based on the personalization of the user experience from an adaptive and dynamic perspective. The segmentation of the population and the dynamical treatment of user profiles among the different experience levels is the main challenge of the implementation. The self-management assistant and remote treatment for diabetes aims to develop a platform to integrate a series of innovative models and tools rigorously tested and supported by the research literature in diabetes together the use of a proved engine to manage workflows for healthcare.

  12. The influence of literacy on patient-reported experiences of diabetes self-management support.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Andrea S; Carlson, John R; Malone, Robb M; Joyner, James; Dewalt, Darren A

    2010-01-01

    Variability in disease-related outcomes may relate to how patients experience self-management support in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with experiences of self-management support during primary care encounters. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 208 patients seen in a multidisciplinary diabetes program in an academic medicine clinic. Multiple regression analysis was used to test associations between patient-rated experiences of self-management support (Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care) and race, gender, insurance status, literacy, duration of diabetes, and intensity of care management. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care ratings decreased with age (r = -.235, p = .001), were higher for women than for men (3.95 vs. 3.65, t = 2.612, p= .010), and were greater for those with more education (F= 3.927, p = .009) and greater literacy skills (t = 3.839, p< .001). The ratings did not vary between racial (t = -1.108, p = .269) or insurance (F = 1.045, p = .374) groups and were unaffected by the duration of diabetes (r= .052, p = .466) and the intensity of care management (F = 1.028, p = .360). In multivariate models, literacy was the only variable contributing significantly to variation in self-management support ratings. Even when considering the objective intensity of health services delivered, literacy was the sole variable contributing to differences in patient ratings of self-management support. Although conclusions are limited by the cross-sectional nature of this study, the results emphasize the need to consider literacy when developing and communicating treatment plans requiring self-management skills.

  13. Time to question diabetes self-management support for Arabic-speaking migrants: exploring a new model of care.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a new model for diabetes self-management support in Arabic-speaking migrants. Two qualitative methods were used: face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. Arabic-speaking migrants with Type 2 diabetes were recruited from several primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare settings in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. These settings were purposefully selected to obtain a diverse group of participants. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. This is the first study that involved members of Arabic-speaking communities in Australia in a formal process of consumer and public involvement to inform research design and recruitment in order to provide evidence for a new model of diabetes self-management for Arabic-speaking migrants. No self-management support was offered to Arabic-speaking migrants beyond the initial diagnosis period. Significant knowledge gaps and skills deficits in all self-management domains were evident. The provision of tailored self-management support was considered crucial. When asked about preferred structure and delivery modalities, a strong preference was reported for face-to-face storytelling interactions over telephone- or internet-based interventions. Gender-specific group education and self-management support sessions delivered by Arabic-speaking diabetes health professionals, lay peers or social workers trained in diabetes self-management were highly regarded. A patient and public involvement approach allows genuine engagement with Arabic-speaking migrants with diabetes. There is urgent need for a new model for self-management support among Arabic-speaking migrants. Findings yielded new recommendations for diabetes health professionals working with these migrant communities to support behaviour change. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  14. Effectiveness of a diabetes education and self management programme (DESMOND) for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: three year follow-up of a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Gray, Laura J; Skinner, Timothy; Carey, Marian E; Realf, Kathryn; Dallosso, Helen; Fisher, Harriet; Campbell, Michael; Heller, Simon; Davies, Melanie J

    2012-04-26

    To measure whether the benefits of a single education and self management structured programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus are sustained at three years. Three year follow-up of a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care, with randomisation at practice level. 207 general practices in 13 primary care sites in the United Kingdom. 731 of the 824 participants included in the original trial were eligible for follow-up. Biomedical data were collected on 604 (82.6%) and questionnaire data on 513 (70.1%) participants. A structured group education programme for six hours delivered in the community by two trained healthcare professional educators compared with usual care. The primary outcome was glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels. The secondary outcomes were blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, smoking status, physical activity, quality of life, beliefs about illness, depression, emotional impact of diabetes, and drug use at three years. HbA(1c) levels at three years had decreased in both groups. After adjusting for baseline and cluster the difference was not significant (difference -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.22 to 0.17). The groups did not differ for the other biomedical and lifestyle outcomes and drug use. The significant benefits in the intervention group across four out of five health beliefs seen at 12 months were sustained at three years (P<0.01). Depression scores and quality of life did not differ at three years. A single programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus showed no difference in biomedical or lifestyle outcomes at three years although there were sustained improvements in some illness beliefs. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17844016.

  15. Women’s experiences of factors that facilitate or inhibit gestational diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes rates have increased dramatically in the past two decades and this pattern of increase appears to relate primarily to the obesity epidemic, older maternal age and migration from world areas of high GDM risk. Women from disadvantaged and migrant backgrounds are most at risk of developing and of mismanaging this condition. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that facilitated or inhibited gestational diabetes self-management among women in a socially deprived area. Methods Fifteen pregnant women, with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, were purposively recruited for this study. Qualitative semi structured interviews and 1 focus group were conducted when participants were approximately 28–38 weeks gestation. The study’s theoretical framework was based on interpretative phenomenology and data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Women in this study identified a number of factors that complicated their task of GDM self-management. Barriers included: (1) time pressures; (2) physical constraints; (3) social constraints; (4) limited comprehension of requirements, and (5) insulin as an easier option. Factors facilitating GDM self-management included: thinking about the baby and psychological support from partners and families. Conclusion Women from low socio economic and migrant backgrounds often struggle to comprehend GDM self-management requirements. To improve adherence to management plans, these women require educational and supportive services that are culturally appropriate and aimed at a low level of literacy. PMID:22988897

  16. Self-management abilities, physical health and depressive symptoms among patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the predictive role of direct resources (educational level and marital status) and self-management abilities on physical health and depressive symptoms in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our cross-sectional questionnaire-based study included 1570 CVD patients, 917 COPD patients, and 412 patients with diabetes. Physical health and depressive symptoms of COPD patients was lower than those of CVD and diabetic patients. Correlation analyses indicated that self-management abilities were strong indicators for physical health and depressive symptoms (all p<0.001). This relationship was strongest for depressive symptoms. Self-management abilities were related to educational level in all groups (all p<0.001). Regression analyses revealed that self-management abilities were strong predictors of physical health and depressive symptoms in all three patient groups (all p<0.001). This research showed that self-management abilities are strong predictors of physical health and depressive symptoms. Interventions that improve self-management abilities may counteract a decline in physical health and depressive symptoms. Such interventions may be important tools in the prevention of the loss of self-management abilities, because they may motivate people who are not yet experiencing serious problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bullying, regimen self-management, and metabolic control in youth with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Geffken, Gary R; Lewin, Adam B; Ohleyer, Vanessa; Freddo, Marianna; Silverstein, Janet H

    2006-06-01

    To determine the association among diabetes-related bullying, diabetes self-management, metabolic control, and depression in children and adolescents with type I diabetes (TID). Measures of diabetes-related bullying and depression were administered to 167 youth with TID at their regularly scheduled diabetes care visits. Parents were administered a clinician-rated index of their child's diabetes self-management. HbA1c levels were assessed. Diabetes-related bullying was positively related to HbA1c concentration and negatively related to overall self-management and specifically to adherence to glucose testing and dietary tasks. Depressive symptoms partially mediated the relation between diabetes-related bullying and overall self-management. Given the associations between diabetes-related bullying and regimen self-management, the issue of illness-related bullying merits serious attention for pediatricians and school personnel.

  18. The relationship between demographic variables and diabetes self-management in diabetic patients in Amman city/Jordan.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Mezyed A; Najjar, Yahya Waleed

    2013-01-24

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that requires routine and complicated self care. Although self care can be managed by most diabetes patients, there are many variables that may make diabetes self-management difficult. The study examined the relationship between clients' demographic variables and diabetes self-management in diabetic clients in Amman city/Jordan. The data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire developed by the researchers and combined with the perceived diabetes self-management scale (PDSMS). The sampling of the investigation comprised 178 diabetes clients from Amman city/Jordan. There was proportional little relationship between income level and diabetes self management, and reversely proportional low relationship between duration of diabetes and diabetes self management. Other variables had no relationship with diabetes self management. The demographic variables related to diabetes self-management in this study are income level and duration of diabetes. As income level increases, diabetes self-management become better, and the longer the duration of diabetes, the worse is diabetes self-management.

  19. A pilot study examining patient attitudes and intentions to adopt assistive technologies into type 2 diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Kathleen G; Hall, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Approximately half of individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have suboptimal self-management, which could be improved by using assistive technologies in self-management regimes. This study examines patient attitudes and intentions to adopt assistive technologies into T2DM self-management. Forty-four participants (M = 58.7 years) with T2DM were recruited from diabetes education classes in the southwestern Ontario, Canada, between February and April 2014. Participants completed a self-reported in-person survey assessing demographic characteristics, current diabetes management, and attitudes toward using assistive technologies in their diabetes self-management. Demographics, disease characteristics, and current technology use and preferences of the cohort were examined, followed by a correlational analysis of descriptive characteristics and attitudes and intentions to use technology in self-management. The majority of (but not all) participants felt that using Internet applications (65%) and smartphone (53.5%) applications for self-management was a good idea. The majority of participants did not currently use an Internet (92.5%) or mobile (96%) application for self-management. Of participants, 77% intended to use an Internet application to manage their diabetes in the future and 58% intended to use mobile applications. Younger age was associated with more positive attitudes (r = -.432, P = .003) and intentions (r = -.425, P = .005) to use assistive technologies in diabetes self-management. Findings suggest that patients, especially those younger in age, are favorable toward adopting assistive technologies into management practice. However, attitudes among older adults are less positive, and few currently make use of such technologies in any age group. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Effectiveness of two interventions based on improving patient-practitioner communication on diabetes self-management in patients with low educational level: study protocol of a clustered randomized trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last decades the presence of social inequalities in diabetes care has been observed in multiple countries, including Spain. These inequalities have been at least partially attributed to differences in diabetes self-management behaviours. Communication problems during medical consultations occur more frequently to patients with a lower educational level. The purpose of this cluster randomized trial is to determine whether an intervention implemented in a General Surgery, based in improving patient-provider communication, results in a better diabetes self-management in patients with lower educational level. A secondary objective is to assess whether telephone reinforcement enhances the effect of such intervention. We report the design and implementation of this on-going study. Methods/Design The study is being conducted in a General Practice located in a deprived neighbourhood of Granada, Spain. Diabetic patients 18 years old or older with a low educational level and inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c > 7%) were recruited. General Practitioners (GPs) were randomised to three groups: intervention A, intervention B and control group. GPs allocated to intervention groups A and B received training in communication skills and are providing graphic feedback about glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Patients whose GPs were allocated to group B are additionally receiving telephone reinforcement whereas patients from the control group are receiving usual care. The described interventions are being conducted during 7 consecutive medical visits which are scheduled every three months. The main outcome measure will be HbA1c; blood pressure, lipidemia, body mass index and waist circumference will be considered as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions will include multilevel regression analysis with three hierarchical levels: medical visit level, patient level and GP level. Discussion The results of

  1. Effectiveness of two interventions based on improving patient-practitioner communication on diabetes self-management in patients with low educational level: study protocol of a clustered randomized trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio; Bolívar-Muñoz, Julia; Pastor-Moreno, Guadalupe; Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Quesada-Jiménez, Fermín; Moratalla-López, Enrique; Domínguez-Martín, Susana; de los Ríos-Álvarez, Ana M; Cruz-Vela, Pilar; Prados-Quel, Miguel A; López-De Hierro, José A

    2013-10-23

    In the last decades the presence of social inequalities in diabetes care has been observed in multiple countries, including Spain. These inequalities have been at least partially attributed to differences in diabetes self-management behaviours. Communication problems during medical consultations occur more frequently to patients with a lower educational level. The purpose of this cluster randomized trial is to determine whether an intervention implemented in a General Surgery, based in improving patient-provider communication, results in a better diabetes self-management in patients with lower educational level. A secondary objective is to assess whether telephone reinforcement enhances the effect of such intervention. We report the design and implementation of this on-going study. The study is being conducted in a General Practice located in a deprived neighbourhood of Granada, Spain. Diabetic patients 18 years old or older with a low educational level and inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c > 7%) were recruited. General Practitioners (GPs) were randomised to three groups: intervention A, intervention B and control group. GPs allocated to intervention groups A and B received training in communication skills and are providing graphic feedback about glycosylated haemoglobin levels. Patients whose GPs were allocated to group B are additionally receiving telephone reinforcement whereas patients from the control group are receiving usual care. The described interventions are being conducted during 7 consecutive medical visits which are scheduled every three months. The main outcome measure will be HbA1c; blood pressure, lipidemia, body mass index and waist circumference will be considered as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions will include multilevel regression analysis with three hierarchical levels: medical visit level, patient level and GP level. The results of this study will provide new knowledge

  2. Perceived barriers and effective strategies to diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerk, Jean; Reick, Kay; Meengs, Leona

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the perceived barriers to and effective strategies for self-management of adults with type 2 diabetes in a rural setting. Worldwide, diabetes is a major public health concern and financial burden. Research shows that, for people with diabetes, adhering to programs of self-care is often problematic. Despite the potential for improved metabolic control and quality of life, little is published on the barriers and effective strategies that people with diabetes successfully use to incorporate plans of care into their lifestyles. Twenty-four adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a rural primary care practice to participate in one of three audiotaped focus groups. Content analysis was conducted on the focus group transcripts and validity was strengthened through independent rankings of barriers and strategies by an expert panel and by the nurse researchers. The data were collected 2002. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of knowledge of a specific diet plan, lack of understanding of the plan of care and helplessness and frustration from lack of glycaemic control and continued disease progression despite adherence. Effective strategies identified were developing a collaborative relationship with a provider, maintaining a positive attitude that prompts proactive learning and having a support person who provides encouragement and promotes accountability. These data highlight the importance of barrier and strategy identification in developing and implementing realistic self-management plans and the significance of collaborative alliances between patients and practitioners. Awareness of barriers, identification of strategies to overcome obstacles and the opportunity to problem solve with practitioners assists patients in managing a chronic illness that requires numerous daily decisions.

  3. Behavioural Change in Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the communication process between diabetes health professionals and people intensively self-managing their type 1 diabetes influenced behavioural change. Design: Telephone interviews to provide insight into the communication process and its influence on diabetes intensive self-management behaviour. Setting:…

  4. Self-Management Abilities of Diabetes in People with an Intellectual Disability Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh A.; Trip, Henrietta T.; Whitehead, Lisa; Conder, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is encouraged; however, it is not an easy task and requires a good understanding of the disease. To determine how to improve the self-management abilities of diabetes in people with an intellectual disability (ID), this study explored the knowledge and understanding of diabetes held by a select group of adults with…

  5. Behavioural Change in Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the communication process between diabetes health professionals and people intensively self-managing their type 1 diabetes influenced behavioural change. Design: Telephone interviews to provide insight into the communication process and its influence on diabetes intensive self-management behaviour. Setting:…

  6. Self-Management Abilities of Diabetes in People with an Intellectual Disability Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh A.; Trip, Henrietta T.; Whitehead, Lisa; Conder, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is encouraged; however, it is not an easy task and requires a good understanding of the disease. To determine how to improve the self-management abilities of diabetes in people with an intellectual disability (ID), this study explored the knowledge and understanding of diabetes held by a select group of adults with…

  7. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee...

  8. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee...

  9. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee...

  10. Characteristics of Chinese m-Health Applications for Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lisa; Xie, Bo; Yang, Yan; Shan, Yan Min

    2016-07-01

    To examine the features and types of health information provided in Chinese diabetes mobile applications (apps) for patients' self-management. Through multiple rounds of screening, we identified a total of 95 relevant iOS (Apple, Cupertino, CA) and Android™ (Google, Mountain View, CA) apps and examined each app's features and health information types based on each app's description in the app stores. We used a 15-feature algorithm to evaluate the apps' abilities for supporting diabetic patients' self-management, based on U.S. national standards for diabetes self-management. We also adapted the health information wants framework to analyze the types of information that the apps provided for diabetic patients. Diabetes education was the most common feature, provided by 75% of the apps. Blood glucose checking was enabled by 65% of the apps. Diet management, insulin checking, and physical activity monitoring were enabled by 53%, 49%, and 44% of the apps, respectively. Only a small percentage of the apps enabled psychosocial support (29%) or tracking of blood pressure (14%), cholesterol (14%), or body mass index (11%). None of the apps provided all seven types of information posited by the health information wants framework. Only a small percentage of the apps provided information about psychosocial support (29%), healthcare providers (24%), or healthcare facilities (24%). Information about complementary and alternative medicine was the least likely type of information provided in the apps, with only 7% of the apps providing this type of information. Our findings have important implications for improving the quality of Chinese diabetes mobile apps to facilitate patients' self-management.

  11. Contribution of income to self-management and health outcomes in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Low income has been established as a risk factor for poorer outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes; however, the effect of moderate income has not been studied. The purpose of this secondary analysis of baseline data from a multi-site study was to compare glycemic control, self-management, and psychosocial outcomes [depression, stress, and quality of life (QOL)] at different income levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Youth (n = 320, mean age = 12.3 + 1.1, 55% female, 64% white, mean A1C = 8.3 ± 1.4) completed established self-management and psychosocial measures. A1C levels were collected from medical records. Caregivers reported annual family income, categorized as high (>$80K), moderate ($40-80K), or low (<$40K). Youth from high-income families had significantly lower A1C (mean = 7.9 ± 1.2) than those from the moderate-income group (8.6 ± 1.7, p < 0.001) or the low-income group (mean A1C = 8.6 ± 1.5, p = 0.003). Youth from the high-income group reported significantly better diabetes problem solving and more self-management goals than those from the moderate- or low-income groups (both p < 0.01). Youth from the high-income group also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression, lower levels of perceived stress, and better QOL than those in the moderate or low-income groups (all p < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression models were used to test psychological and behavioral predictors of A1C and QOL. Parents' education status (p < 0.05) and self-management activities (p < 0.01) were significant predictors of hemoglobin A1c, while income (p < 0.01) and self-management activities (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of QOL.

  12. Problem Solving Interventions for Diabetes Self-management and Control: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Schumann, Kristina P.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Aims Problem solving is deemed a core skill for patient diabetes self-management education. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the published literature on the effect of problem-solving interventions on diabetes self-management and disease control. Data Sources We searched PubMed and PsychINFO electronic databases for English language articles published between November 2006 and September 2012. Reference lists from included studies were reviewed to capture additional studies. Study Selection Studies reporting problem-solving intervention or problem solving as an intervention component for diabetes self-management training and disease control were included. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Study design, sample characteristics, measures, and results were reviewed. Data Synthesis Sixteen intervention studies (11 adult, 5 children/adolescents) were randomized controlled trials, and 8 intervention studies (6 adult, 2 children/adolescents) were quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Studies varied greatly in their approaches to problem-solving use in patient education. To date, 36% of adult problem-solving interventions and 42% of children/adolescent problem-solving interventions have demonstrated significant improvement in HbA1c, while psychosocial outcomes have been more promising. The next phase of problem-solving intervention research should employ intervention characteristics found to have sufficient potency and intensity to reach therapeutic levels needed to demonstrate change. PMID:23312614

  13. Problem solving interventions for diabetes self-management and control: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Schumann, Kristina P; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-05-01

    Problem solving is deemed a core skill for patient diabetes self-management education. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the published literature on the effect of problem-solving interventions on diabetes self-management and disease control. We searched PubMed and PsychINFO electronic databases for English language articles published between November 2006 and September 2012. Reference lists from included studies were reviewed to capture additional studies. Studies reporting problem-solving intervention or problem solving as an intervention component for diabetes self-management training and disease control were included. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Study design, sample characteristics, measures, and results were reviewed. Sixteen intervention studies (11 adult, 5 children/adolescents) were randomized controlled trials, and 8 intervention studies (6 adult, 2 children/adolescents) were quasi-experimental designs. Studies varied greatly in their approaches to problem-solving use in patient education. To date, 36% of adult problem-solving interventions and 42% of children/adolescent problem-solving interventions have demonstrated significant improvement in HbA1c, while psychosocial outcomes have been more promising. The next phase of problem-solving intervention research should employ intervention characteristics found to have sufficient potency and intensity to reach therapeutic levels needed to demonstrate change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A virtual clinic for diabetes self-management: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Amy; Powell, John; Armstrong, Natalie; Sturt, Jackie; Dale, Jeremy

    2009-03-30

    Internet-based interventions to assist in diabetes management have the potential to provide patients with the information and support they need to become effective self-managers. To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an Internet-based virtual clinic designed to facilitate self-management in patients who used insulin pumps to manage their diabetes. For a period of 6 months, 17 patients joined the virtual clinic. The system allowed patients to communicate with health professionals, interact with peers and access information. HbA1c, quality of life, and self-efficacy were monitored at baseline and after 6 months. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews examined patient experiences. Participants found the virtual clinic easy to use and positively rated its design. Peer support was the most valued aspect and the discussion boards the most used component. All participants highly rated the virtual clinic in terms of improving communication with peers, but few agreed it had improved communication with health care professionals. No significant improvements in physiological and psychological measurements were found. Regarding HbA1c measurements, there was no significant difference found between the pre- and post-test results (P = .53). Mean ADDQoL scores at baseline were -2.1 (SD 1.1, range -3.4 to -0.5) compared to -2.0 (SD 1.2, range, -4.6 to -0.4) post-test (n = 12), (P = .62). Surprisingly, patients' confidence in their ability to perform self-care tasks was found to be significantly reduced from baseline to follow up (P = .045). An Internet-based system to aid the management of diabetes appears feasible and well accepted by patients. The pilot study did not identify evidence of an impact on improving quality of life or self-efficacy in patients who used insulin pump therapy.

  16. Factors contributing to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs: A mixed method approach

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; DeMelo, Margaret; Offenheim, Ana; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education is a critical component in diabetes care. Despite worldwide efforts to develop efficacious DSME programs, high attrition rates are often reported in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine factors that may contribute to attrition behavior in diabetes self-management programs. Methods We conducted telephone interviews with individuals who had Type 2 diabetes (n = 267) and attended a diabetes education centre. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with attrition behavior. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 118) withdrew prematurely from the program and were asked an open-ended question regarding their discontinuation of services. We used content analysis to code and generate themes, which were then organized under the Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilization. Results Working full and part-time, being over 65 years of age, having a regular primary care physician or fewer diabetes symptoms were contributing factors to attrition behaviour in our multivariable logistic regression. The most common reasons given by participants for attrition from the program were conflict between their work schedules and the centre's hours of operation, patients' confidence in their own knowledge and ability when managing their diabetes, apathy towards diabetes education, distance to the centre, forgetfulness, regular physician consultation, low perceived seriousness of diabetes, and lack of familiarity with the centre and its services. There was considerable overlap between our quantitative and qualitative results. Conclusion Reducing attrition behaviour requires a range of strategies targeted towards delivering convenient and accessible services, familiarizing individuals with these services, increasing communication between centres and their patients, and creating better partnerships between centres and primary care physicians. PMID:18248673

  17. Diabetes empowerment and needs for self-management support among people with type 2 diabetes in a rural inland community in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Ulf; Hajdarevic, Senada; Abramsson, MaiGreth; Stenvall, Jessica; Hörnsten, Åsa

    2015-09-01

    Self-management among people with T2D includes being responsible for attaining a blood sugar level within the normal range, eating healthy food, exercising and following prescriptions for medication, something that may need support. In rural areas, access to health care may be limited, and support from family members becomes important. The aim of this study was to describe perceptions and associations of diabetes empowerment, self-management ability and needs of self-management support among people with T2D in a northern rural community of Sweden. People with T2D (n = 159) living a rural municipality in northern Sweden answered the SWE-DES-23 questionnaire and additional questions concerning self-management and needs for self-management support. A higher diabetes empowerment was associated with longer diabetes duration and support from healthcare professionals and relatives. Women rated a need for self-management support significantly higher than men did. Nonretired persons rated a significantly higher need for self-management support and a lower perception of support from healthcare professionals compared to retired persons. Cohabitant persons had a significantly higher perception of support from relatives and also estimated a higher need for relatives' involvement in clinical visits compared to persons living alone. Both the newly diagnosed and also those people with a diabetes duration of 10-15 years rated a higher need for group support. Higher self-awareness and readiness to change were apparent among people with short and long diabetes duration. Furthermore, self-management ability, support from healthcare professionals and from relatives and lastly diabetes duration was associated with diabetes empowerment. Not only people newly diagnosed with T2D should be offered patient-centred group support, strengthening patient empowerment. For future, family-focused care and education and training in person-centred care among diabetes specialist nurses is recommended

  18. The role of peer support in diabetes care and self-management.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Carol A; Heisler, Michele

    2009-03-01

    In light of the growing prevalence and healthcare costs of diabetes mellitus, it is critically important for healthcare providers to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their diabetes care. A key element of effective disease management for diabetes is support for patient self-management. Barriers to care exist for both patients and healthcare systems. As a result, many people with diabetes do not get the care and support needed to successfully manage their diabetes.Disease management approaches that incorporate peer support may be a promising way to help provide self-management support to patients with diabetes. Trained peers provide emotional support, instrumental (tangible or material) support, education, and skills training to those they serve, and outreach and care coordination for provider systems. They play a unique role that complements and supports clinical care.To describe how peers are currently supporting diabetes care, a number of databases were searched for studies describing the roles of peers using relevant key words. This paper reviews current literature that describes the roles and duties of peers in interventions to improve diabetes care, with a focus on their contributions to six essential elements of self-management support: (i) access to regular, high-quality clinical care; (ii) an individualized approach to assessment and treatment; (iii) patient-centered collaborative goal setting; (iv) education and skills training; (v) ongoing follow-up and support; and (vi) linkages to community resources.Peers worked under a variety of titles, which did not define their duties. The scope of their work ranged from assisting health professionals to playing a central role in care. Providing education and follow-up support were the two most common roles. In all but one study, these roles were carried out during face-to-face contact, most frequently in community sites.A growing body of literature supports the value of peer models for diabetes

  19. Factors Influencing Diabetes Self-Management Among Medically Underserved Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jimmy; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Parker, Edith; Muller, Brandi; Laroche, Helena

    2017-01-01

    In this study, researchers compare and contrast issues regarding diabetes self-management between persons in good versus poor glycemic control. The sample comprises low-income racially diverse adults with diabetes from four mid-western community health centers; 44 patients participated in eight focus groups divided by control status (HbA1c of > 9 [uncontrolled] or < 7 [controlled]). Themes common to both groups included the impact of dietary restrictions on social interactions, food cravings, the impact of mental health on self-management, and the importance of formal and informal (friends and family) support. Those in the uncontrolled groups described fear about being able to control their diabetes, confusion about self-management, and difficulty managing their diabetes while caring for family members. Although those in the controlled groups acknowledged difficulties, they discussed resisting cravings, making improvements with small changes, positive feelings about their ability to control their diabetes, and enjoying new foods and exercise. Interventions should include mental health support, incorporate formal and informal patient support structures, and address literacy issues. Health care providers and intervention personnel should be very concrete about how to do self-management tasks and guide patients on how to alter their diabetes regimens for social and other important life events. PMID:28660239

  20. Stakeholder engagement in diabetes self-management: patient preference for peer support and other insights.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Bethany M; Jortberg, Bonnie; Warman, Meredith K; Kane, Ilima; Wearner, Robyn; Koren, Romona; Carrigan, Thomas; Martinez, Vincent; Nease, Donald E

    2017-06-01

    Self-management support (SMS) for patients with diabetes can improve adherence to treatment, mitigate disease-related distress, and improve health outcomes. Translating this evidence into real-world practice is needed, as it is not clear which SMS models are acceptable to patients, and feasible and sustainable for primary care practices. To use the Boot Camp Translation (BCT) method to engage patient, practice, community resource and research stakeholders in translation of evidence about SMS and diabetes distress into mutually acceptable care models and to inform patient-centred outcomes research (PCOR). Twenty-seven diabetes care stakeholders, including patients and providers from a local network of federally qualified health centres participated. Stakeholders met in-person and by conference call over the course of 8 months. Subject matter experts provided education on the diabetes SMS evidence. Facilitators engaged the group in discussions about barriers to self-management and opportunities for improving delivery of SMS. BCT participants identified lack of social support, personal resources, trust, knowledge and confidence as barriers to diabetes self-management. Intervention opportunities emphasized peer support, use of multidisciplinary care teams and centralized systems for sharing information about community and practice resources. BCT informed new services and a PCOR study proposal. Patients and family engaged in diabetes care research value peer support, group visits, and multidisciplinary care teams as key features of SMS models. SMS should be tailored to an individual patient's health literacy. BCT can be used to engage multiple stakeholders in translation of evidence into practice and to inform PCOR.

  1. [Support of diabetes dietary management and self-management using mobile applications].

    PubMed

    Szálka, Brigitta; Kósa, István; Vassányi, István; Mák, Erzsébet

    2016-07-01

    The key components of successful diabetes therapy are pharmacotherapy, hospital care and lifestyle education. Lifestyle education, self-management, and composing the right diet can be effectively supported with mobile applications. In this paper Hungarian mobile applications are reviewed and compared to some international competitors. Besides plenty of useful functions some deficiencies are identified, based on dietary recommendations. The related improvements together with clinical trials validating effectiveness and reliability can strengthen medical evidence as well as the penetration of such mobile applications. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1147-1153.

  2. Does an intensive self-management structured education course improve outcomes for children and young people with type 1 diabetes? The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Price, Katherine J; Wales, Jerry; Eiser, Christine; Knowles, Julie; Heller, Simon; Freeman, Jenny; Brennan, Alan; McPherson, Amy; Wellington, Jerry

    2013-01-24

    The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, which aims to determine the efficacy of a 5 day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16-year-olds with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) when compared with standard care, and its cost effectiveness. Less than 15% of children and young people with T1DM in the UK meet the recommended glycaemic target. Self-management education programmes for adults with T1DM improve clinical and psychological outcomes, but none have been evaluated in the paediatric population. KICk-OFF is a 5-day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16- year-olds with T1DM. It was developed with input from young people, parents, teachers and educationalists. 36 paediatric diabetes centres across the UK randomised into intervention and control arms. Up to 560 participants were recruited prior to centre randomisation. KICk-OFF courses are delivered in the intervention centres, with standard care continued in the control arm. Primary outcomes are change in glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life between baseline and 6 months postintervention, and the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia. Sustained change in self-management behaviour is assessed by follow-up at 12 and 24 months. Health economic analysis will be undertaken. Data will be reported according to the CONSORT statement for cluster-randomised clinical trials. All analyses will be by intention-to-treat with a two-sided p value of <0.05 being regarded as statistically significant. The study commenced in 2008. Data collection from participants is ongoing and the study will be completed in 2013. The study has been approved by the Sheffield Research Ethics Committee. Results will be reported in peer reviewed journals and conferences. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN37042683.

  3. Does an intensive self-management structured education course improve outcomes for children and young people with type 1 diabetes? The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Price, Katherine J; Wales, Jerry; Eiser, Christine; Knowles, Julie; Heller, Simon; Freeman, Jenny; Brennan, Alan; McPherson, Amy; Wellington, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, which aims to determine the efficacy of a 5 day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16-year-olds with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) when compared with standard care, and its cost effectiveness. Less than 15% of children and young people with T1DM in the UK meet the recommended glycaemic target. Self-management education programmes for adults with T1DM improve clinical and psychological outcomes, but none have been evaluated in the paediatric population. KICk-OFF is a 5-day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16- year-olds with T1DM. It was developed with input from young people, parents, teachers and educationalists. Methods and analysis 36 paediatric diabetes centres across the UK randomised into intervention and control arms. Up to 560 participants were recruited prior to centre randomisation. KICk-OFF courses are delivered in the intervention centres, with standard care continued in the control arm. Primary outcomes are change in glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life between baseline and 6 months postintervention, and the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia. Sustained change in self-management behaviour is assessed by follow-up at 12 and 24 months. Health economic analysis will be undertaken. Data will be reported according to the CONSORT statement for cluster-randomised clinical trials. All analyses will be by intention-to-treat with a two-sided p value of <0.05 being regarded as statistically significant. The study commenced in 2008. Data collection from participants is ongoing and the study will be completed in 2013. Ethics The study has been approved by the Sheffield Research Ethics Committee. Dissemination Results will be reported in peer reviewed journals and conferences. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN37042683. PMID:23355675

  4. Integrating Diabetes Self-Management with the Health Goals of Older Adults: A Qualitative Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Achilia S.; Haidet, Paul; Skinner, Jessica; Naik, Aanand D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the life and health goals of older adults with diabetes, and explores the factors that influence their diabetes self-management. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 older adults with diabetes and other morbid conditions and/or their caregivers, when appropriate. Results Participants’ provided a consistent set of responses when describing life and health goals. Participants described goals for longevity, better physical functioning, spending time with family, or maintaining independence. Diabetes discordant conditions, but not diabetes, were seen as barriers to life goals for participants with functional impairments. Functionally independent participants described additional health goals that related to diabetes self-management as diabetes was seen often a barrier to life goals. Caregivers, co-morbid conditions, denial and retirement were among the factors that influenced initiation of diabetes self-management. Conclusion Participants endorsed health goals and diabetes self-management practices that they believed would help them accomplish their life goals. Functional capabilities and social support were key factors in the relationship between diabetes self-management and their broader goals. Practice Implications When planning diabetes treatments, clinicians, patients and caregivers should discuss the relationship between diabetes self-management and health and life goals as well as the affects of functional limitations and caregiver support. PMID:18621501

  5. Six-month Outcomes of Mobile Phone Application-based Self-management in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Young Yun; Rha, Mi Yong; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    We report the case in order to examine the effect of a mobile application program ("Diabetes & Nutrition") developed in 2011-2012 for self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and to recommend important considerations when the mobile application program is developed. A 46-year-old man was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2013 and had no complications. The height of the patient was 168 cm and the body weight was 75.6 kg. Nutrition education was conducted according to a medical prescription, and follow-up nutrition education was conducted after 3 and 6 months. After nutrition education, the patient was engaged in self-management using "Diabetes & Nutrition" program during 3 months. At 3 months, the body weight had decreased by 4.4 kg (from 75.6 to 71.2 kg), waist circumference by 5 cm (from 88 to 83 cm) and HbA1c level from 7.9% to 6.1%. Also at 3 months, the medication was reduced from from the dose of 850 mg to the dose of 500 mg metformin per twice a day. Since then, the patient did not continue to use the "Diabetes & Nutrition" because the level of blood glucose had stabilized, and the patient felt inconvenient and annoying to use the program. At 6 months, no significant change in the body weight and body composition was observed in comparison with those at 3 months. The present case demonstrates that the early use of "Diabetes & Nutrition" could be helpful for self-management of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Developing self-management mobile application programs in the future will require strategies of how to promote continuous use of application program and self-management of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Patient Self-Management of Diabetes Care in the Inpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Rushakoff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes by inpatients can be problematic. People with type 1 diabetes often prefer to self-manage their diabetes in the inpatient setting. We report the case of a patient admitted to the surgical service who was self-administering his home insulin, often without telling his nurse or physician. He was aiming for tight glycemic control, which resulted in life-threatening hypoglycemia. While patients can often self-manage their diabetes in the outpatient setting, inpatient management of diabetes is very different. Patients may not be familiar with common scenarios requiring adjustments of insulin therapy. Therefore, we recommend against self-management of diabetes in the hospital. However, the patients should be involved in discussions about management of their diabetes in the hospital to allay their concerns about changes made to their insulin regimens. An example of successful cooperative management is with use of protocols that allow continued use of insulin pumps in the hospital. PMID:25990293

  7. Self-management, health service use and information seeking for diabetes care among Black Caribbean immigrants in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Gucciardi, Enza; Patychuk, Dianne; Rummens, Joanna Anneke; Shakya, Yogendra; Kljujic, Dragan; Bhamani, Mehreen; Boqaileh, Fedaa

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care among Black-Caribbean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. The study population included Black-Caribbean immigrants and Canadian-born participants between the ages of 35 to 64 years with type 2 diabetes. Study participants were recruited from community health centres (CHCs), diabetes education centres, hospital-based diabetes clinics, the Canadian Diabetes Association and immigrant-serving organizations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographics and information related to diabetes status, self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care. Interviews were conducted with 48 Black-Caribbean immigrants and 54 Canadian-born participants with type 2 diabetes. Black-Caribbean immigrants were significantly more likely than the Canadian-born group to engage in recommended diabetes self-management practices (i.e. reduced fat diet, reduced carbohydrate diet, non-smoking and regular physical activity) and receive regular A1C and eye screening by a health professional. Black-Caribbean immigrant participants were significantly more likely to report receiving diabetes information and care through a community health centre (CHC) and nurses and dieticians than their Canadian-born counterparts. CHCs and allied health professionals play an important role in the management of diabetes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community and may contribute to this group's favourable diabetes self-management profile and access to information and care. Additional research is necessary to confirm whether these findings are generalizable to the Black-Caribbean community in general (i.e. immigrant and non-immigrant) and to determine whether the use of CHCs and/or allied health professionals is associated with favourable outcomes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community as well as others. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by

  8. Diabetes self-management support for patients with low health literacy: Perceptions of patients and providers.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Mirjam P; Beune, Erik J A J; Baim-Lance, Abigail M; Bruessing, Raynold C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions and strategies of health care providers regarding diabetes self-management support for patients with low health literacy (LHL), and to compare their self-management support with the needs of patients with LHL and type 2 diabetes. This study serves as a problem analysis for systematic intervention development to improve diabetes self-management among patients with LHL. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews with general practitioners (n = 4), nurse practitioners (n = 5), and patients with LHL (n = 31). The results of the interviews with health care providers guided the patient interviews. In addition, we observed 10 general practice consultations. Providers described patients with LHL as uninvolved and less motivated patients who do not understand self-management. Their main strategy to improve self-management was to provide standard information on a repeated basis. Patients with LHL seemed to have a different view of diabetes self-management than their providers. Most demonstrated a low awareness of what self-management involves, but did not express needing more information. They reported several practical barriers to self-management, although they seemed reluctant to use the information provided to overcome them. Providing and repeating information does not fit the needs of patients with LHL regarding diabetes self-management support. Health care providers do not seem to have the insight or the tools to systematically support diabetes self-management in this group. Systematic intervention development with a focus on skills-based approaches rather than cognition development may improve diabetes self-management support of patients with LHL. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. An exploration of attitudes toward the use of patient incentives to support diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Blondon, Katherine; Klasnja, Predrag; Coleman, Katie; Pratt, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the potential of incentives to enhance diabetes self-management (type 1 and type 2) and to integrate incentives into a conceptual model of diabetes self-management over time. A qualitative analysis of in-depth individual interviews with 12 patients and 9 providers. Influence of time on patients' needs for diabetes self-management technologies and on the use of incentives to drive behavioural changes. Ten of the 12 participants with diabetes (83%) were interested in using financial incentives to improve their diabetes self-management. We found that incentives can play two key roles in diabetes self-management: guide the learning phase during the creation of habits; and serve as an acknowledgement of efforts made in the stable phase, when providers typically only focus on the patients' failures at self-management. Patients seem receptive to the idea of financial incentives, which have the potential to support diabetes self-management through either small monetary amounts or tangible rewards. Incentives hold promise for supporting behaviour changes, especially in early stages of diabetes, but they require careful planning to avoid the undesired consequence of decreased intrinsic motivation.

  10. Type 1 diabetes self-management: developing a web-based telemedicine application.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Haleh; Hasannezhad, Mostafa; Fard, Hedieh Saneei; Haghighi, Mehran Kamkar

    2016-04-01

    Self-management skills are essential for patients with diabetes mellitus to minimise the risks of complications from their condition. The aim of this research was to develop a web-based application for self-management of type 1 diabetes, suitable for use by patients, their carers and physicians. The study was comprised of two phases, the first being analysis of the kind of information and capabilities required by potential users of the system. Based on the results derived from the first phase of the study, the system prototype was designed and then evaluated using the 'think aloud' method and a standard questionnaire. The application was designed for use by patients, their carers and physicians. Patients could enter the level of blood glucose, insulin and activities on a daily basis, and physicians were able to supervise a patient's health status from a distance. Users were generally satisfied with the final version of the system. People with a wide range of literacy skills were able to use the system effectively. Patients or their carers could use the web-based application as a log book by entering the level of blood glucose and insulin doses on a regular basis, and as an educational resource to improve self-management skills. Physicians could use the system at any time convenient to them to support patients by giving medical advice. Further research is needed to report the effectiveness of the system in practice.

  11. Spirituality in African Americans with diabetes: self-management through a relationship with God.

    PubMed

    Polzer, Rebecca L; Miles, Margaret S

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model about how the spirituality of African Americans affects their self-management of diabetes. The sample consisted of 29 African American men and women, ages 40 to 75, with type 2 diabetes. The authors used a grounded theory design and collected data using minimally structured interviews. The method of analysis was constant comparison. The core concept identified was Self-Management Through a Relationship With God. Participants fell into one of three typologies: (a) Relationship and Responsibility: God Is in Background; (b) Relationship and Responsibility: God Is in Forefront: (c) Relationship and Relinquishing of Self-Management: God Is Healer. These typologies varied according to how participants viewed their relationship with God and the impact of this relationship on their self-management. The spirituality of these African Americans was an important factor that influenced the self-management of their diabetes.

  12. Ethnic differences and socio-demographic predictors of illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Jones, Martyn C; Lauder, William; Kirk, Alison; Anderson, John; Devendra, Devasenan; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ethnic differences in diabetes-specific knowledge, illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control among black-African, black-Caribbean,and white-British populations with type 2 diabetes. The study also examined associations between demographic/disease characteristics and diabetes-specific knowledge, illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control in each of the three ethnic groups. Cross-sectional. Diabetes/retinal screening clinics in Hackney and Brent, London. Black-African, black-Caribbean and white-British populations with type 2 diabetes were asked to participate. Questionnaires measuring demographic/disease characteristics, diabetes-specific knowledge, self-management, and illness perceptions were used for data collection. Data for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and microvascular complications were obtained from medical records. Ethnic differences in diabetes-related measures were estimated using analysis of variance/covariance. Multiple regression techniques were used to determine relationships between demographic/disease characteristics and measured diabetes-related outcomes. Three hundred and fifty-nine patients participated in the study. White-British participants had high diabetes-specific knowledge compared to their black-African and black-Caribbean counterparts. Black-Africans reported better adherence to self-management recommendations than the other ethnic groups. Compared to the white-British patients, black-African and black-Caribbean participants perceived diabetes as a benign condition that could be cured. Educational status and treatment category were determinants of diabetes-specific knowledge in all three ethnic groups. However, different demographic/disease characteristics predicted adherence to self-management recommendations in each ethnic group. Clearly, there is disease (diabetes) knowledge-perception variation between different ethnic groups in the UK which may partly influence overall

  13. Ethnic differences and socio-demographic predictors of illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Jones, Martyn C; Lauder, William; Kirk, Alison; Anderson, John; Devendra, Devasenan; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated ethnic differences in diabetes-specific knowledge, illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control among black-African, black-Caribbean,and white-British populations with type 2 diabetes. The study also examined associations between demographic/disease characteristics and diabetes-specific knowledge, illness perceptions, self-management, and metabolic control in each of the three ethnic groups. Design Cross-sectional Setting Diabetes/retinal screening clinics in Hackney and Brent, London. Methods Black-African, black-Caribbean and white-British populations with type 2 diabetes were asked to participate. Questionnaires measuring demographic/disease characteristics, diabetes-specific knowledge, self-management, and illness perceptions were used for data collection. Data for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and microvascular complications were obtained from medical records. Ethnic differences in diabetes-related measures were estimated using analysis of variance/covariance. Multiple regression techniques were used to determine relationships between demographic/disease characteristics and measured diabetes-related outcomes. Results Three hundred and fifty-nine patients participated in the study. White-British participants had high diabetes-specific knowledge compared to their black-African and black-Caribbean counterparts. Black-Africans reported better adherence to self-management recommendations than the other ethnic groups. Compared to the white-British patients, black-African and black-Caribbean participants perceived diabetes as a benign condition that could be cured. Educational status and treatment category were determinants of diabetes-specific knowledge in all three ethnic groups. However, different demographic/disease characteristics predicted adherence to self-management recommendations in each ethnic group. Conclusion Clearly, there is disease (diabetes) knowledge-perception variation between different ethnic groups

  14. Healthy Changes™ for Living with Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Community Diabetes Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Cindy; Toobert, Deborah J.; Fogerty, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article addresses the gap between research and practice by describing the feasibility and outcomes of an evidence-based diabetes self-management health education program. The Healthy Changes™ program used a peer-led group format to promote physical activity and healthful eating practices, employing culturally relevant materials and measures. Methods Older adults (mean age = 69.2 years; SD = 10.7) with type 2 diabetes (N = 243) were recruited from nine communities to participate in the Healthy Changes™ program. Components included goal setting, problem solving, group support, and interactive lectures from experts. Measures of eating patterns, physical activity, body weight, community resources, self-rated health, and self-efficacy were administered at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 months. Results Participants attended on average 13 weekly sessions, and showed improvements in health behaviors, supportive resources, and self-efficacy at 4, 8, and 12 months. Conclusion The Healthy Changes™ program can be successfully translated into community settings and led by trained peer leaders, yielding health improvements similar to those reported in efficacy trials. Trained peer leaders are key to effective program implementation. Peer-led groups enhance goal attainment by giving participants a venue to discuss obstacles and strategize solutions. PMID:19075087

  15. The Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART): process evaluation and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Zgibor, Janice C; Peyrot, Mark; Peeples, Malinda; McWilliams, Janis; Koshinsky, Janice; Noullet, William; Siminerio, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the results of the process evaluation and patient experience in completing the Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART), an instrument within the AADE Outcome System to assist diabetes educators to assess, facilitate, and track behavior change in the provision of diabetes self-management education (DSME). The D-SMART was integrated into computer and telephonic systems at 5 sites within the Pittsburgh Regional Initiative for Diabetes Education (PRIDE) network. Data were obtained from 290 patients with diabetes using the system at these programs via paper-and-pencil questionnaires following baseline D-SMART assessments and electronic system measurement of system performance. Process evaluation included time of completion, understanding content, usability of technology, and satisfaction with the system. Patients were 58% female and 85% Caucasian and had a mean age of 58 years. Fifty-six percent of patients had no more than a high school education, and 78% had Internet access at home. Most patients reported completing the D-SMART at home (78%), in 1 attempt (86%) via the Internet (55%), and in less than 30 minutes. Seventy-six percent believed the questions were easy to understand, and 80% did not need assistance. Age was negatively associated with ease of use. Moreover, 76% of patients believed the D-SMART helped them think about their diabetes, with 67% indicating that it gave the diabetes educator good information about themselves and their diabetes. Most (94%) were satisfied with the D-SMART. Level of satisfaction was independent of the system being used. The D-SMART was easily completed at home in 1 attempt, content was understandable, and patients were generally satisfied with the wording of questions and selection of answers. The D-SMART is easy to use and enhanced communication between the patient and clinician; however, elderly patients may need more assistance. Computer-based and telephonic D

  16. Understanding Cultural Issues in Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors of Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Seok; Yang, Kyeongra; Lee, Jia; Min, Jiwon; Kim, Kevin H.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore potential factors affecting self-management behaviors in Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (KIT2Ds). Methods A qualitative descriptive design guided this study. Semi-structured interviews lasting 45-60 minutes were conducted with 20 KIT2Ds in the participant’s preferred language; in all cases this was Korean. Each interview was audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Data analysis was performed in two steps. The data written in Korean were initially analyzed by three bilingual researchers. A qualitative researcher then participated in the analysis to refine the findings for presentation to an English speaking audience while staying true to the data and preserving the nuanced Korean meanings. Results The mean age of the sample was 64. 5 ± 11.6 years (9 men and 11 women). The mean years of staying in the U. S. and age at diabetes mellitus diagnosis were 23.6 ± 9.7 years and 52.5 ± 12.3 years, respectively. Three major ideas were identified: (a) issues on treatment regimen related to both medications and diet, (b) resources that helped or hindered their ability to manage diabetes, and (c) the physician/patient relationship. Conclusions There were important cultural nuances that need to be addressed to better prepare KIT2Ds to manage their diabetes more effectively. A culture specific program should extend beyond a diabetes self-management education delivered in Korean language. Rather, content and education methods need to consider acculturation effects on diabetes management behaviors. PMID:23019236

  17. Parent and teacher perceptions of the impact of school nurse interventions on children's self-management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peery, Annette I; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this relationship in a sample of 69 school-age children who received case management from school nurses. Our findings suggest that teachers and parents do not always agree on how well a child manages their illness. When school nurses provide more education and counseling, parents are more likely to perceive an improvement in their child's self-management. Teachers are more likely to perceive an improvement when the nurse provides more classroom visits and includes the physical education teacher and guidance counselor. These findings suggest that the roles of educator, counselor, and collaborator are important for school nurses who provide care to school-age children with diabetes.

  18. Community-based peer-led diabetes self-management: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L; Villa, Frank J; Armas, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a community-based diabetes self-management program comparing treatment participants to a randomized usual-care control group at 6 months. A total of 345 adults with type 2 diabetes but no criteria for high A1C were randomized to a usual-care control group or 6-week community-based, peer-led diabetes self-management program (DSMP). Randomized participants were compared at 6 months. The DSMP intervention participants were followed for an additional 6 months (12 months total). A1C and body mass index were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. All other data were collected by self-administered questionnaires. At 6 months, DSMP participants did not demonstrate improvements in A1C as compared with controls. Baseline A1C was much lower than in similar trials. Participants did have significant improvements in depression, symptoms of hypoglycemia, communication with physicians, healthy eating, and reading food labels (P < .01). They also had significant improvements in patient activation and self-efficacy. At 12 months, DSMP intervention participants continued to demonstrate improvements in depression, communication with physicians, healthy eating, patient activation, and self-efficacy (P < .01). There were no significant changes in utilization measures. These findings suggest that people with diabetes without elevated A1C can benefit from a community-based, peer-led diabetes program. Given the large number of people with diabetes and lack of low-cost diabetes education, the DSMP deserves consideration for implementation.

  19. Self management interventions for type 2 diabetes in adult people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McBain, Hayley; Mulligan, Kathleen; Haddad, Mark; Flood, Chris; Jones, Julia; Simpson, Alan

    2016-04-27

    People with severe mental illness are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes as those without severe mental illness. Treatment guidelines for type 2 diabetes recommend that structured education should be integrated into routine care and should be offered to all. However, for people with severe mental illness, physical health may be a low priority, and motivation to change may be limited. These additional challenges mean that the findings reported in previous systematic reviews of diabetes self management interventions may not be generalised to those with severe mental illness, and that tailored approaches to effective diabetes education may be required for this population. To assess the effects of diabetes self management interventions specifically tailored for people with type 2 diabetes and severe mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal, ClinicalTrials.gov and grey literature. The date of the last search of all databases was 07 March 2016. Randomised controlled trials of diabetes self management interventions for people with type 2 diabetes and severe mental illness. Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text articles, extracted data and conducted the risk of bias assessment. We used a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques and the framework for behaviour change theory to describe the theoretical basis of the interventions and active ingredients. We used the GRADE method (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group) to assess trials for overall quality of evidence. We included one randomised controlled trial involving 64 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The average age of participants was 54 years; participants had been living with type 2 diabetes for on average nine years, and with their

  20. Provider- and patient-related determinants of diabetes self-management among recent immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Ilene; Shakya, Yogendra; Jembere, Nathaniel; Gucciardi, Enza; Vissandjée, Bilkis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine provider- and patient-related factors associated with diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. Design Demographic and experiential data were collected using an international survey instrument and adapted to the Canadian context. The final questionnaire was pretested and translated into 4 languages: Mandarin, Tamil, Bengali, and Urdu. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 130 recent immigrants with a self-reported diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus who had resided in Canada for 10 years or less. Main outcome measures Diabetes self-management practices (based on a composite of 5 diabetes self-management practices, and participants achieved a score for each adopted practice); and the quality of the provider-patient interaction (measured with a 5-point Likert-type scale that consisted of questions addressing participants’ perceptions of discrimination and equitable care). Results A total of 130 participants in this study were recent immigrants to Canada from 4 countries of origin—Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and China. Two factors were significant in predicting diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: financial barriers, specifically, not having enough money to manage diabetes expenses (P = .0233), and the quality of the provider-patient relationship (P = .0016). Participants who did not have enough money to manage diabetes were 9% less likely to engage in self-management practices; and participants who rated the quality of their interactions with providers as poor were 16% less likely to engage in self-management practices. Conclusion Financial barriers can undermine effective diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. Ensuring that patients feel comfortable and respected and that they are treated in culturally sensitive ways is also critical to good diabetes self-management. PMID:28209706

  1. Evolution of a web-based, prototype Personal Health Application for diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Stephanie J; Kedziora, Richard J; Vigersky, Robert A; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2010-10-01

    Behaviors carried out by the person with diabetes (e.g., healthy eating, physical activity, judicious use of medication, glucose monitoring, coping and problem-solving, regular clinic visits, etc.) are of central importance in diabetes management. To assist with these behaviors, we developed a prototype PHA for diabetes self-management that was based on User-Centered Design principles and congruent with the anticipatory vision of Project Health Design (PHD). This article presents aspects of the prototype PHA's functionality as conceived under PHD and describes modifications to the PHA now being undertaken under new sponsorship, in response to user feedback and timing tests we have performed. In brief, the prototype Personal Health Application (PHA) receives data on the major diabetes management domains from a Personal Health Record (PHR) and analyzes and provides feedback based on clinically vetted educational content. The information is presented within "gadgets" within a portal-based website. The PHR used for the first implementation was the Common Platform developed by PHD. Key changes include a re-conceptualization of the gadgets by topic areas originally defined by the American Association of Diabetes Educators, a refocusing on low-cost approaches to diabetes monitoring and data entry, and synchronization with a new PHR, Microsoft® HealthVault™. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Demographic, Health and Diabetes Self-management Correlates of Medical Skepticism Among Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Ip, Edward H.; Kirk, Julienne K.; Nguyen, Ha; Saldana, Santiago; Quandt, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the demographic, health, and diabetes self-management correlates of medical skepticism among an ethnically diverse sample of older (>60 years) rural adults. Participants (n=564) received a hemoglobin A1c (A1c) test and completed a survey including measures of diabetes management behaviors and the four-item medical skepticism scale. Significant associations were observed between medical skepticism and demographic and health characteristics; overall greater medical skepticism was associated with lower A1c values. In multivariate analysis, overall medical skepticism scores were inversely associated with participating in diabetes education classes and positively associated with participating in exercise sessions. Two of the four individual medical skepticism items were associated with diabetes management: diabetes class participation and exercising and eating > 5 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. This study shows that a brief medical skepticism tool may be useful in clinical and research settings in assessing the degree to which older adults with diabetes adhere to diabetes management. PMID:28626798

  3. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article.

  4. Tools For Interactive Learning And Self-Management Of Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelo, Rita; Baptista, Carla; Figueiredo, Júlia; Carrilho, Francisco; Furtado, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes is a widespread disease and its control is dependent upon the patient. Although there is no permanent cure for diabetes, there are several available treatments which, when followed regularly, allow the patient to have a good quality of life. Patient education, especially about eating habits, is key to keep glucose levels stable both in the short and in the long term. This should include nutritional counselling, physical exercise, and the self monitoring of glucose levels. The University of Coimbra and the Serviço de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo of Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra started a collaboration to develop interactive tools for the learning and improvement of carbohydrate counting by patients. The approach presented in this paper is an interactive multimedia tool, available to patients through either the web or a smartphone. It helps them to learn how to maintain a healthy diet and how to monitor their insulin levels correctly by measuring the carbo-hidrate “equivalents” in meals. This application will create a more dynamic and interactive way of educating patients, improving solutions currently used in the Serviço de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo of the Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra.

  5. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.

  6. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 ×  N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to “stay well”; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D. PMID:26075285

  7. Comparison of a Mindful Eating Intervention to a Diabetes Self-Management Intervention among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla K.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady

    2014-01-01

    Mindful eating may be an effective intervention for increasing awareness of hunger and satiety cues, improving eating regulation and dietary patterns, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and promoting weight loss. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), which addresses knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations for improving…

  8. Comparison of a Mindful Eating Intervention to a Diabetes Self-Management Intervention among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla K.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady

    2014-01-01

    Mindful eating may be an effective intervention for increasing awareness of hunger and satiety cues, improving eating regulation and dietary patterns, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and promoting weight loss. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), which addresses knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations for improving…

  9. An empirical study of self-efficacy and social support in diabetes self-management: implications for home healthcare nurses.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Caralise W; Grant, Joan S; Pritchard, David A

    2012-04-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate relationships among self-efficacy, social support, social problem solving, and diabetes self-management in people living with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Self-efficacy, social support, and social problem solving were significantly correlated with diabetes self-management. These relationships indicate the importance of including interventions to promote self-efficacy, social support, and social problem solving in diabetes self-management programs.

  10. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.

  11. eHealth technologies to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. PMID:27853384

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Self-management Among Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Smith-Miller, Cheryl A; Berry, Diane C; DeWalt, Darren; Miller, Cass T

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the quantitative findings of a mixed-methods study that examined the relationship among knowledge, self-efficacy, health promoting behaviors, and type 2 diabetes self-management among recent Spanish-speaking, limited English proficient immigrants to the US. This population is at risk for both a higher incidence of disease and increased barriers to successful disease management compared to the general US population. Distinguishing aspects of this study compared to the available literature are the comprehensive nature of the data collected, the theoretical component, and the analysis and modeling approach. Social cognitive theory provides the framework for the study design and analysis. An innovative community-based recruiting strategy was used, a broad range of physiological measures related to health were observed, and instruments related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle behaviors were administered orally in Spanish to 30 participants. A broad range of statistical analysis methods was applied to the data, including a set of three structural equation models. The study results are consistent with the importance of education, health knowledge, and healthy lifestyle practices for type 2 diabetes self-management. With the usual cautions associated with applying structural equation modeling to modest sample sizes, multiple elements of the posited theoretical model were consistent with the data collected. The results of the investigation of this under-studied population indicate that, on average, participants were not effectively managing their disease. The results suggest that clinical interventions focused on improving knowledge, nutrition, and physical activity, reducing stress, and leveraging the importance of interpersonal relations could be effective intervention strategies to improve self-management among this population.

  13. A Diabetes Self-Management Program: 12-Month Outcome Sustainability From a Nonreinforced Pragmatic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lorig, Kate; Turner, Ralph M; English, Kathleen; Laurent, Diana D; Greenberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education has been shown to be effective in controlled trials. The 6-week Better Choices, Better Health-Diabetes (BCBH-D) self-management program was also associated with an improvement in health outcomes in a 6-month translation study. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether a national translation of the BCBH-D self-management program, offered both Web-based and face-to-face, was associated with improvements in health outcomes (including HbA1c) and health behaviors (including recommended medical tests) 1 year after intervention Methods Web-based programs were administered nationally, whereas face-to-face workshops took place in Atlanta, Indianapolis, and St Louis. Self-report questionnaires were either Web-based or administered by mail, at baseline and 1 year, and collected health and health-behavior measures. HbA1c blood samples were collected via mailed kits. A previous 6-month study found statistically significant improvements in 13 of 14 outcome measures, including HbA1c. For this study, paired t test compared baseline with 1-year outcomes. Subgroup analyses determined whether participants with specific conditions improved (high HbA1c, depression, hypoglycemia, nonadherence to medication, no aerobic exercise). The percentage of participants with improvements in effect size of at least 0.4 in at least 1 of the 5 measures was calculated. Results A total of 857 participants with 1-year data (69.7% of baseline participants) demonstrated statistically significant 1-year improvements in 13 of 15 outcome measures; 79.9% (685/857) of participants showed improvements in effect size of 0.4 or greater in at least 1 of the 5 criterial measures. Conclusions Participants had small but significant benefits in multiple measures. Improvements previously noted at 6 months were maintained or amplified at 1 year. PMID:27979790

  14. Towards a conceptual model of diabetes self-management among Chinese immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Sun, Wenjie; Gary, Rebecca A; Li, Changwei; Liu, Tingting

    2014-06-27

    Chinese immigrants have been disproportionally affected by type 2 diabetes. This paper presents the state of science regarding the factors that may influence diabetes self-management among Chinese immigrants in the US and the potential health outcomes. Using Walker and Avant's techniques, a search of the literature was conducted from CINAHL, PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science. Factors most relevant to diabetes self-management were grouped under five categories: socio-demographic characteristics, behavioral and psychological characteristics, social support, linguistic barriers, and cultural characteristics. Potential outcomes derived from improved diabetes self-management include quality of life, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. A conceptual model was provided to guide future research. Based on the review of the literature, specific research topics that need to fill the gaps in the literature were provided, including family-focused interventions for Chinese immigrant patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of these interventions to improve family functioning.

  15. Diabetes affects everything: Type 2 diabetes self-management among Spanish-speaking hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Smith-Miller, Cheryl A; Berry, Diane C; Miller, Cass T

    2017-09-06

    This article is a report of qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study of the relationships among knowledge, self-efficacy, health promoting behaviors, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) self-management among limited-english-proficient recent Hispanic immigrants, a population with increased incidence of T2DM and barriers to successful T2DM management. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants, and physiological and demographic data also were collected. The participants generally attributed developing the disease to strong emotions and viewed T2DM as a serious disease. Although a majority understood the importance of exercise and diet in T2DM self-management, other aspects such as medication adherence were not well-understood. Obstacles to effective T2DM self-management were negative interactions and communications with health care providers and other personnel, cultural stigma related to the disease, financial constraints, immigration status, and the complexity of the disease. Suggested interventions to improve the care and self-management of this at-risk population are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Smaldone, Arlene M; Davidson, Patricia R; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Participatory approach to the development of a knowledge base for problem-solving in diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Lewis, Heather J.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Davidson, Patricia R.; Kukafka, Rita; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Cassells, Andrea; Mynatt, Elizabeth D.; Hripcsak, George; Mamykina, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an expandable knowledge base of reusable knowledge related to self-management of diabetes that can be used as a foundation for patient-centric decision support tools. Materials and methods The structure and components of the knowledge base were created in participatory design with academic diabetes educators using knowledge acquisition methods. The knowledge base was validated using scenario-based approach with practicing diabetes educators and individuals with diabetes recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs) serving economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities in New York. Results The knowledge base includes eight glycemic control problems, over 150 behaviors known to contribute to these problems coupled with contextual explanations, and over 200 specific action-oriented self-management goals for correcting problematic behaviors, with corresponding motivational messages. The validation of the knowledge base suggested high level of completeness and accuracy, and identified improvements in cultural appropriateness. These were addressed in new iterations of the knowledge base. Discussion The resulting knowledge base is theoretically grounded, incorporates practical and evidence-based knowledge used by diabetes educators in practice settings, and allows for personally meaningful choices by individuals with diabetes. Participatory design approach helped researchers to capture implicit knowledge of practicing diabetes educators and make it explicit and reusable. Conclusion The knowledge base proposed here is an important step towards development of new generation patient-centric decision support tools for facilitating chronic disease self-management. While this knowledge base specifically targets diabetes, its overall structure and composition can be generalized to other chronic conditions. PMID:26547253

  18. Strategies for enhancing information, motivation, and skills for self-management behavior changes: a qualitative study of diabetes care for older adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Suyoung; Song, Misoon; Chang, Sun Ju; Kim, Se-an

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe strategies for enhancing information, motivation, and skills related to changes in diabetes self-management behavior among community-dwelling older adults in Korea. Patients and methods A total of five focus group interviews (three separate focus groups) were conducted with 12 older adults with type 2 diabetes and five diabetes educators. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results “One’s own willingness and ability” emerged as a fundamental belief about the strategies for diabetes self-management. Six major themes under three categories were identified. Under the information category, the recurrent themes were: 1) repeatedly offering detailed knowledge regarding self-management, 2) providing information about current health status, and 3) identifying experiential knowledge of blood glucose control. The recurrent themes in the motivation category were: 1) ensuring a positive attitude regarding self-management, and 2) encouragement or feedback from significant others. Furthermore, in the skills category, we found that the following theme emerged: hands-on skills training with numerical standards. Conclusion This study identified six tailored strategies for enhancing information, motivation, and skills for diabetes self-management behavior changes. These strategies can be used in the development of a culturally sensitive diabetes self-management program for older adults. PMID:24627626

  19. Understanding the links between resilience and type-2 diabetes self-management: a qualitative study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; McNaughton, D; Meyer, S B; Ward, P R

    2017-01-01

    Research conducted by Ward, Muller, Tsourtos, et al. (Soc Sci Med 72(7):1140-1148, 2011) has led to the development of the psycho-social interactive model of resilience, which reveals the interaction between individual resilience factors (i.e. coping, confidence and self esteem) and external resilience environments (i.e. employment, supportive family environments and health promoting policies) in facilitating the development of resilience. This present study explored the utility of this model of resilience for understanding how people self-manage type-2 diabetes. Data were collected via 14 semi-structured life-history interviews with women and men living with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Participants varied according to socio-demographics (gender, age, education level, income) and were recruited based on their self-reported management (or lack thereof) of T2DM. The inter-play of internal traits and external resources with additive and subtractive resilience strategies were consistent with the psycho-social interactive model of resilience. Self-management was influenced by life history. Differences in self-management and material disadvantage were also identified. Alongside increased disadvantage are higher levels of external barriers to self-management practices. This paper supports the concepts of additive and subtractive resilience strategies for use with diabetes populations; providing health professionals and policy makers with an increased understanding of how to recognize and foster patient resilience for the improvement of self-care, disease management and ultimately health outcomes.

  20. Diabetes Self-Management Care via Cell Phone: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Santosh; Boren, Suzanne Austin

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the evidence on the impact of cell phone interventions for persons with diabetes and/or obesity in improving health outcomes and/or processes of care for persons with diabetes and/or obesity. Methods We searched Medline (1966–2007) and reviewed reference lists from included studies and relevant reviews to identify additional studies. We extracted descriptions of the study design, sample size, patient age, duration of study, technology, educational content and delivery environment, intervention and control groups, process and outcome measures, and statistical significance. Results In this review, we included 20 articles, representing 18 studies, evaluating the use of a cell phone for health information for persons with diabetes or obesity. Thirteen of 18 studies measured health outcomes and the remaining 5 studies evaluated processes of care. Outcomes were grouped into learning, behavior change, clinical improvement, and improved health status. Nine out of 10 studies that measured hemoglobin A1c reported significant improvement among those receiving education and care support. Cell phone and text message interventions increased patient–provider and parent–child communication and satisfaction with care. Conclusions Providing care and support with cell phones and text message interventions can improve clinically relevant diabetes-related health outcomes by increasing knowledge and self-efficacy to carry out self-management behaviors. PMID:19885219

  1. Modular ICT-based patient empowerment framework for self-management of diabetes: Design perspectives and validation results.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, Ilias; Demski, Hans; Mantwill, Sarah; Kabak, Yildiray; Hildebrand, Claudia; Ploessnig, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that more than 382 million people suffer from diabetes across the globe, most of which are between the age of 40 and 59 years. ICT can play a key role in better management of diabetes and in patient empowerment. Patient empowerment involves patients to a greater extent in their own healthcare process and disease management becomes an integrated part of their daily life. Self-management opens the possibility for patients to contribute to their own healthcare as well as to be more in control of their disease. The objective of our study was to explore the impact of an ICT-based patient empowerment framework in diabetes self-management. A modular patient empowerment framework that fosters diabetes self-management was designed and implemented. The framework incorporates expert knowledge in the form of clinical guidelines, and it supports patients in the specification of personalized activities that are based on medical recommendations and personal goals, and in the collection of observations of daily living. The usability and usefulness of the proposed framework were assessed in a pilot study with the participation of 60 patients and 12 health professionals. The study revealed that a patient empowerment approach based on self-management ICT tools is useful and accepted by both the patients and the physicians. For those patients who were already disciplined in their disease management the piloted solution served as a facilitator for data logging. For the rest, it served as an incentive for better adherence to disease management principles. The ICT tools prompted many patients into becoming more physically active and into making dietary habits' adjustments. However, this impact proved to be tightly correlated with the sociocultural background of the subjects. The study also demonstrated that even in patient-centric self-management interventions the physicians still have a key role to play. However, the acceptance of such interventions by the healthcare

  2. The role of social support in the self-management of diabetes mellitus among a Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Gleeson-Kreig, JoAnn; Bernal, Henrietta; Woolley, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The rising incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to be a major health concern among Hispanic Americans. Social support has been found to be a relevant factor in diabetes self-management, however, it has not been explored within a Hispanic community. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted with 95 insulin-requiring Hispanic adults to explore the composition of the support network, the type of assistance needed, the degree of satisfaction with support received, and the relationship between social support and diabetes self-management. Overall, the participants had fairly large networks, composed primarily of family members. The greatest need for assistance was associated with transportation or interactions that involved speaking English, and the assistance offered in these areas was viewed as highly satisfactory. Participants were least satisfied with the help they received for diabetes-related self-care, personal care, and financial assistance. Social support was not strongly related to diabetes self-management. Community health nurses must be aware that this population may have needs that are unsatisfactorily met. They should provide education and resources for support persons and carefully evaluate the support network, not only for availability, but also for satisfaction. Effort should also be directed toward developing alternative support for those without available family.

  3. What do we know about mobile applications for diabetes self-management? A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Hood, Megan; Wilson, Rebecca; Corsica, Joyce; Bradley, Lauren; Chirinos, Diana; Vivo, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes is a chronic illness with significant health consequences, especially for those who are unable to adhere to the complex treatment regimen. Self-management tasks such as regular medication and insulin use, frequent blood sugar checks, strict diet management, and consistent exercise can be quite challenging. Mobile technologies, specifically mobile applications (apps), present a unique opportunity to help patients improve adherence to these behaviors. The availability of commercial diabetes self-management apps is increasing rapidly, making it difficult for patients and providers to stay informed about app options. A number of reviews have described commercial app technology and use for patients with diabetes. The aims of this article are to summarize the results and themes of those reviews, to review outcomes of apps described in the research literature, and to identify areas for further consideration in the use of mobile apps for diabetes self-management.

  4. "This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Conclusion Self-management

  5. "This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Susan; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-03-29

    Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Self-management of diabetes is physically

  6. Improving Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Overweight and Inactive Patients Through an Educational and Motivational Intervention Addressing Diet and Physical Activity: A Prospective Study in Naples, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Cirella, Assunta; Di Dio, Mirella; Miele, Alessandra; Spinosa, Tiziana; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition and physical activity are key elements in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. A community-based, multidisciplinary educational intervention aimed to improve quality of life and disease self-management in sedentary, overweight/obese type 2 diabetic patients was implemented in Naples, South Italy. The 9-month intervention included a motivational program, a nutrition program, and an exercise program. Satisfaction, worry, and embarrassment regarding their condition, together with disease-related behaviors and propensity towards physical activity, were evaluated through a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention; health status perception was evaluated through the short-form 12 questionnaire. Changes in HbA1c level and weight were also checked. A significant improvement (p < 0.05) was registered in behaviors related to the management of hypoglycemic crisis and food choice; in nearly all the items related to living with the disease (p < 0.01); and in health status perception (p < 0.01). The adoption of healthy behavior was more common among women (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.09, 3.02) and persons with higher educational levels (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.83, 2.17; OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.56, 2.27). About 30% of participants did not modify their emotional status after the intervention. Although not significantly (p = 0.18), the trust of patients towards physical activity increased at the end of the study, together with their active lifestyle (p < 0.01) and with the decrease of perceived barriers (p < 0.01). A significant improvement was registered in glycemic control and weight status (p < 0.01). The intervention was feasible and effective in addressing diet and physical activity among participants, giving consequent improvements in health status. Similar educational interventions including a training program for people with diabetes should be standardized and adopted by the Italian National Health System.

  7. Social barriers to Type 2 diabetes self-management: the role of capital.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Wilson, Christine; Roberts, Louise; Munt, Rebecca; Crotty, Mikaila

    2014-12-01

    Approaches to self-management traditionally focus upon individual capacity to make behavioural change. In this paper, we use Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital to demonstrate the impact of structural inequalities upon chronic illness self-management through exploring findings from 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with people from a lower socioeconomic region of Adelaide, South Australia who have type 2 diabetes. The data suggests that access to capital is a significant barrier to type 2 diabetes self-management. While many participants described having sufficient cultural capital to access and assess health information, they often lacked economic capital and social capital in the form of support networks who promote health. Participants were often involved in social networks in which activities which are contrary to self-management have symbolic value. As a consequence, they entered relationships with health professionals at a disadvantage. We conclude that structural barriers to self-management arising from habitus resulting in the performance of health behaviours rooted in cultural and class background and limited access to capital in the form of economic resources, social networks, health knowledge and prestige may have a negative impact on capacity for type 2 diabetes self-management.

  8. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH)] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight) predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self-management

  9. Changing patterns of self-management in youth with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Lynne S; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret

    2006-12-01

    Self-management of type I diabetes is key to good physical and psychosocial outcomes of the disease, yet little is known about how youth and their parents share responsibility for illness management. This study describes the division of labor between youth and their parents, self-management conflict, and three patterns of self-management in youth across four developmental stages: preadolescence, early adolescence, mid-adolescence, and late adolescence. Twenty-two youth (8-19 years) with type I diabetes and one of their parents were interviewed using semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that parents of preadolescents (8-11 years) performed much of their children's diabetes care. Dyads reported some conflicts, particularly over food, amount of bolus, and blood glucose testing. The dyads demonstrated a self-management pattern that we identified as parent-dominant. Most early adolescents (11-15 years) performed much of their own daily care, but parents actively participated in their self-management and oversaw it. The majority of dyads reported conflict over food and blood glucose testing. Most early adolescents demonstrated a transitional self-management pattern whereby they managed their own daily care, with varying amounts of parental oversight. In mid-adolescence (15-17 years), youth managed nearly all of their diabetes care; however, some dyads reported that parental oversight of illness care was still considerable. Exercise was conflictual for the majority of these dyads. Over half of the youth and, by late adolescence (17-19 years), all youth demonstrated a pattern of adolescent-dominant self-management. In adolescent-dominant self-management, youth independently managed their diabetes. Half of the dyads reported that there were sometimes conflicts over food and blood glucose testing. Understanding the nature of sharing self-management responsibilities, the nature of conflict in carrying out such

  10. Concepts of diabetes self-management in Mexican American and African American low-income patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, E B; Fernandez, A; Lighthouse, N; Mendenhall, E; Jacobs, E

    2012-10-01

    The goal of the study was to explore low-income minority patients' concepts of diabetes self-management and assess the extent to which patient beliefs correspond to evidence-based recommendations. African American and Mexican American patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from safety net clinics that serve the uninsured and under-insured in Chicago and San Francisco to participate in focus group discussions. Grounded theory was used to identify themes related to diabetes self-management. Strategies participants mentioned for diabetes self-care were medication use, diet, weight loss and exercise. Eating more fruit and vegetables and consuming smaller portions were the most commonly mentioned dietary behaviors to control diabetes. African Americans expressed skepticism about taking medications. Mexican Americans discussed barriers to acquiring medications and use of herbal remedies. Mexican Americans frequently mentioned intentional exercise of long duration as a management strategy, whereas African Americans more frequently described exercise as regular activities of daily living. Blood glucose self-monitoring and reducing risks of diabetes complications were rarely mentioned as diabetes self-management behaviors. African American and Mexican American patients have different concepts of diabetes self-management, especially with regard to medication use and physical activity. Consideration of these differences may facilitate design of effective self-management interventions for these high-risk populations.

  11. Development and Validation of PRISM: A Survey Tool to Identify Diabetes Self-Management Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Elizabeth D.; Fritz, Katie A.; Hansen, Kristofer W.; Brown, Roger L.; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Wiles, Kaelyn E.; Fate, Bryan H.; Young, Henry N.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Although most children with type 1 diabetes don’t achieve optimal glycemic control, no systematic method exists to identify and address self-management barriers. This study develops and validates PRISM (Problem Recognition in Illness Self-Management), a survey-based tool for efficiently identifying self-management barriers experienced by children/adolescents with diabetes and their parents. Methods Adolescents 13 years and older and parents of children 8 years and older visiting for routine diabetes management (n=425) were surveyed about self-management barriers. HbA1c was abstracted from the electronic health record. To develop PRISM, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. To assess validity, the association of PRISM scores with HbA1c was examined using linear regression. Results Factor analyses of adolescent and parent data yielded well-fitting models of self-management barriers, reflecting the following domains: 1) Understanding and Organizing Care, 2) Regimen Pain and Bother, 3) Denial of Disease and Consequences, and 4) Healthcare Team, 5) Family, or 6) Peer Interactions. All models exhibited good fit, with X2 ratios<2.21, root mean square errors of approximation<0.09, Confirmatory Fit Indices and Tucker-Lewis Indices both >0.92, and weighted root mean square residuals<1.71. Greater PRISM barrier scores were significantly associated with higher HbA1cs. Conclusions Our findings suggest at least six different domains exist within self-management barriers, nearly all of which are significantly related to HbA1c. PRISM could be used in clinical practice to identify each child and family’s unique self-management barriers, allowing existing self-management resources to be tailored to the family’s barriers, ultimately improving effectiveness of such services. PMID:24552680

  12. Development and validation of PRISM: a survey tool to identify diabetes self-management barriers.

    PubMed

    Cox, Elizabeth D; Fritz, Katie A; Hansen, Kristofer W; Brown, Roger L; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Wiles, Kaelyn E; Fate, Bryan H; Young, Henry N; Moreno, Megan A

    2014-04-01

    Although most children with type 1 diabetes do not achieve optimal glycemic control, no systematic method exists to identify and address self-management barriers. This study develops and validates PRISM (Problem Recognition in Illness Self-Management), a survey-based tool for efficiently identifying self-management barriers experienced by children/adolescents with diabetes and their parents. Adolescents 13 years and older and parents of children 8 years and older visiting for routine diabetes management (n=425) were surveyed about self-management barriers. HbA1c was abstracted from the electronic health record. To develop PRISM, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. To assess validity, the association of PRISM scores with HbA1c was examined using linear regression. Factor analyses of adolescent and parent data yielded well-fitting models of self-management barriers, reflecting the following domains: (1) Understanding and Organizing Care, (2) Regimen Pain and Bother, (3) Denial of Disease and Consequences, and (4) Healthcare Team, (5) Family, or (6) Peer Interactions. All models exhibited good fit, with χ(2) ratios<2.21, root mean square errors of approximation<0.09, Confirmatory Fit Indices and Tucker-Lewis Indices both >0.92, and weighted root mean square residuals<1.71. Greater PRISM barrier scores were significantly associated with higher HbA1cs. Our findings suggest at least six different domains exist within self-management barriers, nearly all of which are significantly related to HbA1c. PRISM could be used in clinical practice to identify each child and family's unique self-management barriers, allowing existing self-management resources to be tailored to the family's barriers, ultimately improving effectiveness of such services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetes self-management among Arab Americans: patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Heather; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Bertran, Elizabeth A; Pociask, Fredrick D; Tarakji, Sandra; Arnetz, Judith; Lysack, Catherine L; Jaber, Linda A

    2016-08-31

    Arab Americans have a high burden of diabetes and poor outcomes compared to the general U.S. Diabetes self-management (DSM) requires a partnership between patients and providers that fosters mutual understanding and shared decision-making. Cultural factors influence this process; however, little is known regarding the cultural impact on DSM or if perceptions differ between patients and providers. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze five focus groups-two groups with Arab American providers (n = 8) and three groups with adult Arab Americans with diabetes (n = 23). Focus groups examined patient and provider perspectives on the meaning of DSM and cultural barriers and facilitators among Arab American patients. Four distinct themes included limited resources for DSM education and support, stigma as a barrier to ongoing support, family support as an opportunity and challenge, and Arab American patient-provider relationships. Findings indicate several domains should be considered for clinical practice including a need to develop linguistically and culturally reliant educational materials and relevant supports for use in the Arab American population. Findings highlight differing views among providers and patients on the familial role in supporting DSM efforts and why some patients feel dissatisfied with clinical encounters.

  14. [Development and Effects of a Motivational Interviewing Self-management Program for Elderly Patients with Diabetes Mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Yeon; Gu, Mee Ock

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to develop and test the effects of a motivational interviewing self-management program for use with elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 42 elderly diabetic patients (experimental group: 21, control group: 21). The motivational interviewing self-management program for elders with diabetes mellitus developed in this study consisted of a 12-week program in total (8 weeks for group motivational interviewing and education and 4 weeks for individual motivational interviewing on the phone). Data were collected between February 13 and May 3, 2013 and were analyzed using t-test, paired t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA with SPSS/WIN 18.0. For the experimental group, significant improvement was found for self-efficacy, self-care behavior, glycemic control and quality of life (daily life satisfaction, influence of disease) as compared to the control group. The study findings indicate that the motivational interviewing self-management program is effective and can be recommended as a nursing intervention for elderly patients with diabetes mellitus.

  15. Globalization, immigration and diabetes self-management: an empirical study amongst immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Thabit, H; Shah, S; Nash, M; Brema, I; Nolan, J J; Martin, G

    2009-10-01

    We have previously reported that immigrants in Ireland have poorer glycemic control compared with a matched population of Irish patients. This may be associated with poor diabetes self-care and low health literacy. To compare the diabetes self-care profile of non-Irish-national patients i.e. immigrant patients (IM) and Irish patients (IR) attending a hospital diabetes clinic and to evaluate differences in health literacy between the two cohorts. We studied the differences in diabetes self-management between 52 randomly selected non-Irish-national patients with type 2 diabetes and 48 randomly selected Irish/Caucasian patients. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) was used to assess health literacy. IM had poorer glycemic control than IR (HbA1c 8.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4%, P < 0.005). A significant proportion of IM forget to monitor their daily blood glucose (42.1% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.05). Family support is more important amongst IM in performing daily blood glucose monitoring (75% vs. 47.7%, P < 0.05), taking medications (81.7% vs. 42.2%, P = 0.01) and following an appropriate meal plan (87.6% vs. 62.2%, P < 0.05). Fifty-three percent can only understand simple or familiar questions about their diabetes care; 65.9% can only provide information on simple or familiar topics about their diabetes. Health literacy was found to be lower in the IM groups when assessed using REALM (52.7 vs. 61.4, P = 0.01). Those providing diabetes education and care need to be aware of differing patient expectations regarding family involvement in the care of their diabetes and the possible contribution of language problems and lower health literacy to a limited understanding of diabetes self-care.

  16. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support.

  17. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  18. Benefits of Diabetes Self-Management for Health Plan Members: A 6-Month Translation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorig, Kate; Turner, Ralph M; English, Kathleen; Laurent, Diana D; Greenberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education has been shown to be effective in controlled trials. However, few programs that meet American Association of Diabetes Educators standards have been translated into widespread practice. Objective This study examined the translation of the evidence-based Better Choices, Better Health-Diabetes program in both Internet and face-to-face versions. Methods We administered the Internet program nationally in the United States (n=1010). We conducted face-to-face workshops in Atlanta, Georgia; Indianapolis, Indiana; and St. Louis, Missouri (n=232). Self-report questionnaires collected health indicator, health behavior, and health care utilization measures. Questionnaires were administered on the Web or by mail. We determined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from blood samples collected via mailed kits. Paired t tests determined whether changes between baseline and 6 months differed significantly from no change. Subgroup analyses determined whether participants with specific conditions benefited (high HbA1c, depression, hypoglycemia, nonadherence to medication taking, and no aerobic exercise). We calculated the percentage of participants with improvements of at least 0.4 effect size in at least one of the 5 above measures. Results Of the 1242 participants, 884 provided 6-month follow-up questionnaires. There were statistically significant improvements in 6 of 7 health indicators (including HbA1c) and in 7 of 7 behaviors. For each of the 5 conditions, there were significant improvements among those with the condition (effect sizes 0.59–1.1). A total of 662 (75.0%) of study participants improved at least 0.4 effect size in at least one criterion, and 327 (37.1%) improved in 2 or more. Conclusions The Diabetes Self-Management Program, offered in two modes, was successfully disseminated to a heterogeneous national population of members of either insured or administered health plans. Participants had small but significant benefits in multiple

  19. Diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Navicharern, Rungrawee

    2012-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a negative impact on quality of life and diabetes self-management of the condition is a key component of diabetes treatment. However no study has yet been conducted to determine the relationship between diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers in Thailand. To examine the relationship between diabetes self-management, fasting blood sugar and quality of life (QOL) among type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers who received the diabetes treatment in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. This was a cross-sectional study of 80 participants with type 2 diabetes who had foot ulcers in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Participants with diabetic foot ulcers were given a questionnaire regarding demographic data, fasting blood sugar, diabetes self-management and quality of life. Self-management was assessed by evaluating dietary intake, exercise, medication, self-monitoring, hygienic and foot care. WHOQOL-BREF-THAI, comprising of 26 items, was used to investigate quality of life. A purposive sampling technique was used for selecting patients from two outpatient departments, surgical and rehabilitation. Data were collected between September 2009 and October 2010. Simple descriptive statistics were used to provide the basic information and Pearson's product moment was applied. The majority (51.3%) of study participants were males and in the age group of > 60 years (50%). Over half (61.5%) of the participants had a severity of foot ulcer at the first level. The analysis revealed that there was a negative significant association between fasting blood sugar and quality of life (r = -0.30, p < 0.05). Furthermore, diabetes self-management had a significant association with quality of life (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). The results in the present study suggest that good quality of life is significantly related to good diabetes self-management and fasting blood

  20. Developing self-management education in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Janey C; Link, Alissa R; Jobe, Jared B; Winston, Ginger J; Marina Klimasiewfski, E; Allegrante, John P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a three-step approach to develop and evaluate a novel coronary artery disease (CAD) self-management educational workbook. First, we conducted interviews using grounded theory methods with a diverse CAD cohort (n = 61) to identify needs and perceptions. Second, we developed the workbook, incorporating themes that emerged from the qualitative interviews. Finally, 225 people with CAD used the workbook in a longitudinal study and we evaluated their use of and experience with the workbook at 12 months. 12-month evaluation data revealed that the workbook: provided practical health information; enhanced behavior-specific self-efficacy; and reinforced that healthy behaviors decrease risk. Participants who read the workbook had greater within-patient increases in physical activity at 12-months compared with non-readers (p = 0.093) and among Black/Hispanic participants, workbook readers' increases were significant (592 vs. -645 kilocalories per week, p = 0.035). A self-management educational workbook developed using qualitative methods can provide relevant, disease-specific health information for patients with CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes Self-Management Interventions for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Living in Rural Areas: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lepard, Morgan Griesemer; Joseph, Alessandra L.; Agne, April A.; Cherrington, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    In rural communities, high rates of diabetes and its complications are compounded by limited access to health care and scarce community resources. We systematically reviewed the evidence for the impact of diabetes self-management education interventions designed for patients living in rural areas on glycemic control and other diabetes outcomes. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. Ten were randomized controlled trials. Intervention strategies included in-person diabetes (n=9) and telehealth (n=6) interventions. Four studies demonstrated between group differences for biologic outcomes, four studies demonstrated changes in behavior, and three studies demonstrated changes in knowledge. Intervention dose was associated with improved A1c or weight loss in two studies and session attendance in one study. Interventions that included collaborative goal-setting were associated with improved metabolic outcomes and self-efficacy. Telehealth and face-to-face diabetes interventions are both promising strategies for rural communities. Effective interventions included collaborative goal-setting. Intervention dose was linked to better outcomes and higher attendance. PMID:25948497

  2. Telehealth Interventions to Support Self-Management of Long-Term Conditions: A Systematic Metareview of Diabetes, Heart Failure, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Peter; Daines, Luke; Campbell, Christine; McKinstry, Brian; Weller, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions. Objective The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support. Methods We performed a metareview (a systematic review of systematic reviews) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of telehealth interventions to support self-management in 6 exemplar long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases for reviews published from January 2000 to May 2016 and screened identified studies against eligibility criteria. We weighted reviews by quality (revised A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews), size, and relevance. We then combined our results in a narrative synthesis and using harvest plots. Results We included 53 systematic reviews, comprising 232 unique RCTs. Reviews concerned diabetes (type 1: n=6; type 2, n=11; mixed, n=19), heart failure (n=9), asthma (n=8), COPD (n=8), and cancer (n=3). Findings varied between and within disease areas. The highest-weighted reviews showed that blood glucose telemonitoring with feedback and some educational and lifestyle interventions improved glycemic control in type 2, but not type 1, diabetes, and that telemonitoring and telephone interventions reduced mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure, but these findings were not consistent in all reviews. Results for the other conditions were mixed, although no reviews showed evidence of harm. Analysis of the mediating role of self-management, and

  3. Telehealth Interventions to Support Self-Management of Long-Term Conditions: A Systematic Metareview of Diabetes, Heart Failure, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Peter; Daines, Luke; Campbell, Christine; McKinstry, Brian; Weller, David; Pinnock, Hilary

    2017-05-17

    Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions. The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support. We performed a metareview (a systematic review of systematic reviews) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of telehealth interventions to support self-management in 6 exemplar long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases for reviews published from January 2000 to May 2016 and screened identified studies against eligibility criteria. We weighted reviews by quality (revised A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews), size, and relevance. We then combined our results in a narrative synthesis and using harvest plots. We included 53 systematic reviews, comprising 232 unique RCTs. Reviews concerned diabetes (type 1: n=6; type 2, n=11; mixed, n=19), heart failure (n=9), asthma (n=8), COPD (n=8), and cancer (n=3). Findings varied between and within disease areas. The highest-weighted reviews showed that blood glucose telemonitoring with feedback and some educational and lifestyle interventions improved glycemic control in type 2, but not type 1, diabetes, and that telemonitoring and telephone interventions reduced mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure, but these findings were not consistent in all reviews. Results for the other conditions were mixed, although no reviews showed evidence of harm. Analysis of the mediating role of self-management, and of components of successful

  4. Health-Literacy-Sensitive Diabetes Self-Management Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Low health literacy is a potential barrier to self-management among patients with diabetes. A variety of strategies for low health literacy have been proposed for diabetes self-management interventions, but interventions accommodating low health literacy have been heterogeneous in terms of content and have produced mixed results. To systematically review health-literacy-sensitive diabetes management interventions, with a focus on identifying strategies for accommodating patients with low health literacy, and to examine the efficacy of these interventions to improve health outcomes. PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched for intervention studies published between January 2000 and January 2015. Two authors separately identified full-texts according to the inclusion criteria and assessed study quality using the quantitative components of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The final list of studies to be analyzed was made through discussion. The meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model. Thirteen studies were selected from the 490 studies found in our initial search. We identified a range of strategies for accommodating those with low health literacy in diabetes self-management interventions, which encompassed four domains: written communication, spoken communication, empowerment, and language/cultural consideration. Using at least one of the spoken communication strategies led to positive cognitive/psychological, self-care, and health outcomes. We found that, overall, health-literacy-sensitive diabetes management interventions were effective in reducing HbA1C level in the meta-analysis. Healthcare providers should consider active implementation of strategies for accommodating people with low health literacy in diabetes self-management interventions. The routine use of spoken communication strategies would be necessary to achieve the best health outcomes in diabetes self-management interventions. More research is needed to determine the individual

  5. Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS) for Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Cheryl P; Williams, Joni S; J Ruggiero, Kenneth; G Knapp, Rebecca; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-03-22

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) show that behavioral lifestyle interventions are effective in improving diabetes management and that comprehensive risk factor management improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The role of technology has been gaining strong support as evidence builds of its potential to improve diabetes management; however, evaluation of its impact in minority populations is limited. This study intends to provide early evidence of a theory-driven intervention, Tablet-Aided BehavioraL intervention EffecT on Self-management skills (TABLETS), using real-time videoconferencing for education and skills training. We examine the potential for TABLETS to improve health risk behaviors and reduce CVD risk outcomes among a low-income African American (AA) population with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. The study is a two-arm, pilot controlled trial that randomizes 30 participants to the TABLETS intervention and 30 participants to a usual care group. Blinded outcome assessments will be completed at baseline, 2.5 months (immediate post-intervention), and 6.5 months (follow-up). The TABLETS intervention consists of culturally tailored telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training delivered via videoconferencing on tablet devices, with two booster sessions delivered via tablet-based videoconferencing at 3 months and 5 months to stimulate ongoing use of the tablet device with access to intervention materials via videoconferencing slides and a manual of supplementary materials. The primary outcomes are physical activity, diet, medication adherence, and self-monitoring behavior, whereas the secondary outcomes are HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), BP, CVD risk, and quality of life. This study provides a unique opportunity to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven, tablet-aided behavioral intervention that utilizes real-time videoconferencing technology for education and skills training on self-management

  6. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-Ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn…

  7. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-Ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn…

  8. Understanding Challenges, Strategies, and the Role of Support Networks in Medication Self-management Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Gerda; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Seidling, Hanna M; Stützle, Marion; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel; Mahler, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM was recruited from local self-help groups, general practitioner practices, and a university hospital in southwestern Germany. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to identify the challenges patients experienced, the strategies they used, and their collaboration with support networks to assist them in self-managing their medication regimen. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, fully transcribed, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis, guided by the Self- and Family Management Framework (SFMF). Results Patients with T2DM experienced numerous challenges affecting medication self-management arising from their personal situation, health status and resources, characteristics of their regimen, and how health care is currently organized. Patients' self-initiated strategies included activating health care, community, social, and online resources; taking ownership of medication-related needs; and integrating medication-taking into daily life. Patients drew on self-help groups, family, and friends to discuss concerns regarding medication safety and receive experience-based information and advice for navigating within the health care system as well as practical hands-on support with daily medication self-management. Conclusions Understanding the challenges and building on strategies patients with T2DM devised help diabetes educators to better address patients' needs and priorities and guide patient-centered interventions to support patients' self-management activities. Community and social support networks operating in patients' lives need to be engaged in the self-management support.

  9. The impact of a social network based intervention on self-management behaviours among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nijpels, Giel; Uitewaal, Paul; Middelkoop, Barend; Stronks, Karien

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to explore the effect of the social network based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes on diabetes self-management among socioeconomically deprived patients. This 10-month group intervention targeting patients and significant others aimed to improve self-management by stimulating social support and diminishing social influences that hinder self-management. This intervention was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study using a mixed methods approach. Of 131 socioeconomically deprived patients with suboptimal glycaemic control, 69 were assigned to the intervention group and 62 to the control group (standard diabetes education). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with the participants and 24 with their group leaders were held to study the subjective impact of the intervention. Further, self-management behaviours (medication adherence, diet and physical activity) were assessed at baseline, 10 and 16 months. Data were analysed using framework analyses and a linear mixture model. Qualitative data showed that the intervention group had a better understanding of the way self-management influences diabetes. The intervention group showed more complex self-management behaviours, such as planning ahead, seeking adequate food and physical activity alternatives, and consistently taking their diabetes into consideration when making choices. In participants with complete follow-up data, we found a significant increase in physical activity in the intervention group (3.78 vs. 4.83 days) and no changes in medication adherence and diet. This study indicates that an intensive support group and simultaneously involving significant others might improve diabetes self-management behaviours among socioeconomically deprived patients. More studies are needed to justify further implementation of the intervention. This study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register NTR1886. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1886.

  10. The impact of a social network based intervention on self-management behaviours among patients with type 2 diabetes living in socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; van Valkengoed, Irene; Nijpels, Giel; Uitewaal, Paul; Middelkoop, Barend; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper aims to explore the effect of the social network based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes on diabetes self-management among socioeconomically deprived patients. This 10-month group intervention targeting patients and significant others aimed to improve self-management by stimulating social support and diminishing social influences that hinder self-management. Methods: This intervention was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study using a mixed methods approach. Of 131 socioeconomically deprived patients with suboptimal glycaemic control, 69 were assigned to the intervention group and 62 to the control group (standard diabetes education). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with the participants and 24 with their group leaders were held to study the subjective impact of the intervention. Further, self-management behaviours (medication adherence, diet and physical activity) were assessed at baseline, 10 and 16 months. Data were analysed using framework analyses and a linear mixture model. Results: Qualitative data showed that the intervention group had a better understanding of the way self-management influences diabetes. The intervention group showed more complex self-management behaviours, such as planning ahead, seeking adequate food and physical activity alternatives, and consistently taking their diabetes into consideration when making choices. In participants with complete follow-up data, we found a significant increase in physical activity in the intervention group (3.78 vs. 4.83 days) and no changes in medication adherence and diet. Conclusions: This study indicates that an intensive support group and simultaneously involving significant others might improve diabetes self-management behaviours among socioeconomically deprived patients. More studies are needed to justify further implementation of the intervention. This study is registered in the Dutch Trial Register NTR1886. http

  11. Predictors of Diabetes Self-Management among Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern in Malaysia. Treatment of diabetes is costly and can lead to complications if disease is poorly controlled. Diabetes self-management (DSM) is found to be essential for optimal glycemic control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among samples from four randomly selected diabetes clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The aim was to determine the predictors for DSM. Face-to-face interview using questionnaire was used to collect data. Four hundred respondents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. Majority of the respondents were Sarawak Bumiputra (Iban and Bidayuh, 48.6%) and female (68.6%). The mean age was 58.77 years (SD = 11.46) and approximately half of the respondents (50.6%) had T2DM for six years (SD = 4.46). The mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) was 8.06 mmol/L (SD = 2.94), with majority (76.1%) having the level higher than 6.1 mmol/L. Multiple logistic regression tests showed significant linear relationship between DSM and belief in treatment effectiveness (p = 0.001), family support (p = 0.007), and self-efficacy (p = 0.027). Health care personnel must convince patients with T2DM of the effectiveness of the treatment, empower and enhance their self-efficacy, and enlist the family support so as to ensure patients sustain their DSM efforts. PMID:27563681

  12. Problem solving and diabetes self-management: investigation in a large, multiracial sample.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Russell E; Fisher, Lawrence; Skaff, Marilyn; Mullan, Joe; Toobert, Deborah J

    2007-01-01

    Problem solving is a core aspect of effective diabetes and chronic illness self-management, yet there are relatively few objective evaluations of problem-solving skills, especially in large, multiracial samples. A multiracial sample of 506 adults who have type 2 diabetes were assessed on a variety of patient characteristics, self-management behaviors, and biological and psychosocial measures. They also completed the Diabetes Problem-Solving Interview (DPSI). DPSI scores revealed significant variability across patients in problem-solving skill and were related to a number of comorbid conditions and complications but not to several other demographic factors, including race/ethnicity. Problem solving was also related to self-management behaviors (eating and exercise patterns), biological variables (A1C and lipids), and psychosocial measures (Diabetes Distress Scale) in multivariable analyses controlling for a variety of potential confounding factors. Diabetes problem solving, as measured by the DPSI, is an important patient skill related to several key diabetes management variables that appears applicable across racial and ethnic groups. Future research is needed to identify the generality versus specificity of diabetes problem solving and practical interventions to enhance problem-solving skills.

  13. Validation of a structured interview for the assessment of diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Harris, M A; Wysocki, T; Sadler, M; Wilkinson, K; Harvey, L M; Buckloh, L M; Mauras, N; White, N H

    2000-09-01

    The authors developed and validated a semi-structured interview; the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP), to measure self-management of type 1 diabetes. The DSMP includes the following regimen components: exercise, management of hypoglycemia, diet, blood glucose testing, and insulin administration and dose adjustment. Families of youths with type 1 diabetes (n = 105) who were entering a controlled trial of intensive therapy (IT) versus usual care (UC) were administered the DSMP Analyses assessed the reliability and validity of the DSMP, including its associations with HbA1c and quality of life. The DSMP total score has adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.76), 3-month test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation, r = 0.67), inter-interviewer agreement (r = 0.94), and parent-adolescent agreement (r = 0.61). DSMP total scores (r = -0.28) and 3 subscales correlated significantly with HbA1c (diet [r = -0.27], blood glucose testing [r = -0.37], and insulin administration and dose adjustment [r = -0.25 ]). Adolescents' reports of self-management did not differ from parental reports. Higher DSMP scores were associated with more favorable quality of life for mothers and youths. The DSMP is a convenient measure that yields a reliable and valid assessment of diabetes self-management. Compared with extant similar measures, the DSMP is more strongly correlated with HbA1c.

  14. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  15. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  16. Diabetes self-management arrangements in Europe: a realist review to facilitate a project implemented in six countries.

    PubMed

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Patelarou, Evridiki; Shea, Sue; Foss, Christina; Ruud Knutsen, Ingrid A; Todorova, Elka; Roukova, Poli; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Pumar-Méndez, María J; Mujika, Agurtzane; Rogers, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Serrano-Gil, Manuel; Lionis, Christos

    2014-10-02

    Self-management of long term conditions can promote quality of life whilst delivering benefits to the financing of health care systems. However, rarely are the meso-level influences, likely to be of direct relevance to these desired outcomes, systematically explored. No specific international guidelines exist suggesting the features of the most appropriate structure and organisation of health care systems within which to situate self-management approaches and practices. This review aimed to identify the quantitative literature with regard to diabetes self-management arrangements currently in place within the health care systems of six countries (The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Bulgaria, and Greece) and explore how these are integrated into the broader health care and welfare systems in each country. The methodology for a realist review was followed. Publications of interest dating from 2000 to 2013 were identified through appropriate MeSH terms by a systematic search in six bibliographic databases. A search diary was maintained and the studies were assessed for their quality and risk of bias. Following the multi-step search strategy, 56 studies were included in the final review (the majority from the UK) reporting design methods and findings on 21 interventions and programmes for diabetes and chronic disease self-management. Most (11/21, 52%) of the interventions were designed to fit within the context of primary care. The majority (11/21, 52%) highlighted behavioural change as an important goal. Finally, some (5/21, 24%) referred explicitly to Internet-based tools. This review is based on results which are derived from a total of at least 5,500 individuals residing in the six participating countries. It indicates a policy shift towards patient-centred self-management of diabetes in a primary care context. The professional role of diabetes specialist nurses, the need for multidisciplinary approaches and a focus on patient education emerge as

  17. EMPOWER--pathways for supporting the self-management of diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Plößnig, Manuela; Kabak, Yildiray; Lamprinos, Ilias; Pabst, Alexander; Hildebrand, Claudia; Mantwill, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious world-wide medical challenge and there is a recognised need for improved diabetes care outcomes. This paper describes results of the EMPOWER project, to foster the self-management of diabetes patients by integration of existing and new services offered to patients after having been diagnosed with diabetes. The Self-Management Pathway described in this paper helps patients in the specification of personalized activities based on medical recommendations and personal goals, as well as self-monitoring of the results. The whole process is supported by innovative ICT services that motivate patients to change their lifestyle and adhere to defined medication and activity plans. We describe the approach and present the findings of the validation phase in Germany and Turkey.

  18. Knowledge of A1c Predicts Diabetes Self-Management and A1c Level among Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengnan; Kong, Weimin; Hsue, Cunyi; Fish, Anne F; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Lou, Qingqing; Anderson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study was to identify current A1c understanding status among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, assess if knowledge of A1c affects their diabetes self-management and their glycemic control and recognize the factors influencing knowledge of A1c among patients with type 2 diabetes. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and July 2010 in 50 medical centers in the Mainland China. Participants were recruited from inpatients and outpatients who were admitted to or visited those medical centers. The survey included core questions about their demographic characteristics, diabetes self-management behavior, and A1c knowledge. Overall, of 5957 patients, the percentage of patients with good understanding was 25.3%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the variables related to the knowledge of A1c status are presented. We discovered that patients with longer diabetes duration (OR = 1.05; 95%CI = 1.04-1.06) and having received diabetes education (OR = 1.80; 95%CI = 1.49-2.17) were overrepresented in the good understanding of A1c group. In addition, compared to no education level, higher education level was statistically associated with good understanding of A1c (P<0.001). The percentage of patients with good understanding varied from region to region (P<0.001), with Eastern being highest (OR = 1.54; 95%CI = 1.32-1.80), followed by Central (OR = 1.25; 95%CI = 1.02-1.53), when referring to Western. Only a minority of patients with type 2 diabetes in China understood their A1c value. The patients who had a good understanding of their A1c demonstrated significantly better diabetes self-management behavior and had lower A1c levels than those who did not.

  19. When knowing is not enough: Emotional distress and depression reduce the positive effects of health literacy on diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Schinckus, Louise; Dangoisse, Florence; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2017-08-12

    Adequate self-management activities are important predictors of diabetes outcomes. As diabetes literacy and self-efficacy are strong predictors of diabetes self-care, self-management education programs focus essentially on these factors. This study investigated whether emotional distress or depression moderates the relation between health literacy, self-efficacy and diabetes self-care behaviors. 128 people with type 2 diabetes were recruited in hospitals, through general practitioners and via a diabetes website, and completed a questionnaire assessing health literacy, self-efficacy, diabetes-related distress, depression and self-care behaviors. Multiple regression analysis confirms that health literacy and self-efficacy significantly predict reported self-care behaviors. Additional regression analyses reveal that distress or depression do not predict self-care behaviors directly, but moderate the effect of health literacy, which has a weaker impact in patients experiencing distress or depression. In contrast, distress and depression do not moderate the effect of self-efficacy on diabetes self-care behaviors. Emotional distress, whether related to diabetes or not, prevents patients from acting on their competence to perform adequate self-management behaviors. Diabetes Professionals should pay more attention to the patients' affective state and its influence on self-care. Psychological support should be integrated in the care for people suffering from type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Video games for diabetes self-management: examples and design strategies.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra A

    2012-07-01

    The July 2012 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology includes a special symposium called "Serious Games for Diabetes, Obesity, and Healthy Lifestyle." As part of the symposium, this article focuses on health behavior change video games that are designed to improve and support players' diabetes self-management. Other symposium articles include one that recommends theory-based approaches to the design of health games and identifies areas in which additional research is needed, followed by five research articles presenting studies of the design and effectiveness of games and game technologies that require physical activity in order to play. This article briefly describes 14 diabetes self-management video games, and, when available, cites research findings on their effectiveness. The games were found by searching the Health Games Research online searchable database, three bibliographic databases (ACM Digital Library, PubMed, and Social Sciences Databases of CSA Illumina), and the Google search engine, using the search terms "diabetes" and "game." Games were selected if they addressed diabetes self-management skills.

  1. The Use of Videogames, Gamification, and Virtual Environments in the Self-Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Theng, Yin-Leng; Lee, Jason W Y; Patinadan, Paul V; Foo, Schubert S B

    2015-10-01

    The use of videogames in healthcare interventions is gaining popularity, but there is still a gap in the understanding on how these types of interventions are used for the management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine published research on the use of videogames for diabetes management. With the increased use of mobile technology, the review was expanded to understand whether games, gamification, and virtual environments can be used for diabetes self-management. Out of the 307 articles identified, only 10 articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The duration of most studies was short, with small sample sizes. All interventions targeted behavioral changes examining risk reduction of diabetes-related risk and promotion of healthy behavior among study participants. Videogames appeared to be helpful tools for education in some interventions, whereas gamification and virtual environments increased extrinsic motivation and provided positive reinforcement. This review concludes by discussing the potential of using videogames and gamification for the self-management of diabetes.

  2. An evaluation of the effectiveness of self-management interventions for people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tanash, Mu'ath Ibrahim; Fitzsimons, Donna; Coates, Vivien; Deaton, Christi

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in patients with acute coronary syndrome and impacts negatively on health outcomes and self-management. Both conditions share similar risk factors. However, there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of combined interventions to promote self-management behaviour for people with diabetes and cardiac problems. Identifying critical features of successful interventions will inform future integrated self-management programmes for patients with both conditions. To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of existing interventions to promote self-management behaviour for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes in secondary care settings and postdischarge. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library and AMED for randomised controlled trials published between January 2005-December 2014. The search was performed using the following search terms of 'acute coronary syndrome', 'type 2 diabetes' and 'self-management intervention' and their substitutes combined. Of 4275 articles that were retrieved, only four trials met all the inclusion criteria (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) and were analysed. Overall, the results show that providing combined interventions for patients with both conditions including educational sessions supported by multimedia or telecommunication technologies was partially successful in promoting self-management behaviours. Implementation of these combined interventions during patient's hospitalisation and postdischarge was feasible. Intervention group subjects reported a significant improvement in self-efficacy, level of knowledge, glycated haemoglobin, blood pressure and fasting glucose test. However, there are many threats have been noticed around internal validity of included studies that could compromise the conclusions drawn. With limited research in this area, there was no final evidence to support effectiveness of combined

  3. Discovering successful strategies for diabetic self-management: a qualitative comparative study.

    PubMed

    Weller, Susan C; Baer, Roberta; Nash, Anita; Perez, Noe

    2017-01-01

    This project explored lifestyles of patients in good and poor control to identify naturally occurring practices and strategies that result in successful diabetes management. Semistructured interviews with adult patients with type 2 diabetes explored diet, food preparation, physical activity, medication use and glucose monitoring. Patients (n=56) were classified into good (A1C <7.0%), fair (7.0%8.0%) control groups and matched across groups on diabetes duration (±5 years) and medication modality (none, oral, insulin±oral) to control for non-lifestyle factors. A qualitative comparative analysis identified practices that distinguished glycemic groups. Good control patients were more likely to test their glucose two or more times a day and reduce their sodium intake, as well as increase fruits and vegetables and limit portion sizes, some attaining good control without exercise. Fair control patients discussed several dietary strategies including limiting sweets, drinking non-caloric beverages, reducing carbs, 'cheating' (eating only a few sweets/limiting carbs in one meal to have more in another meal) and tested their glucose once a day. Poor control patients were more likely to skip antidiabetic medications and not test their glucose. Although clinical trials indicate most self-management practices have limited effectiveness over time, increased glucose monitoring is a valuable component in daily management. Research is needed on effectiveness of dietary strategies that emphasize sodium monitoring and allow some degree of cheating. Reoffering diabetes education classes and providing pill boxes as memory aids may help improve poor control.

  4. Discovering successful strategies for diabetic self-management: a qualitative comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Roberta; Nash, Anita; Perez, Noe

    2017-01-01

    Objective This project explored lifestyles of patients in good and poor control to identify naturally occurring practices and strategies that result in successful diabetes management. Research design and methods Semistructured interviews with adult patients with type 2 diabetes explored diet, food preparation, physical activity, medication use and glucose monitoring. Patients (n=56) were classified into good (A1C <7.0%), fair (7.0%8.0%) control groups and matched across groups on diabetes duration (±5 years) and medication modality (none, oral, insulin±oral) to control for non-lifestyle factors. A qualitative comparative analysis identified practices that distinguished glycemic groups. Results Good control patients were more likely to test their glucose two or more times a day and reduce their sodium intake, as well as increase fruits and vegetables and limit portion sizes, some attaining good control without exercise. Fair control patients discussed several dietary strategies including limiting sweets, drinking non-caloric beverages, reducing carbs, ‘cheating’ (eating only a few sweets/limiting carbs in one meal to have more in another meal) and tested their glucose once a day. Poor control patients were more likely to skip antidiabetic medications and not test their glucose. Conclusions Although clinical trials indicate most self-management practices have limited effectiveness over time, increased glucose monitoring is a valuable component in daily management. Research is needed on effectiveness of dietary strategies that emphasize sodium monitoring and allow some degree of cheating. Reoffering diabetes education classes and providing pill boxes as memory aids may help improve poor control. PMID:28761649

  5. Patient attitudes about financial incentives for diabetes self-management: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Blondon, Katherine S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the acceptability of incentives for behavior changes in individuals with diabetes, comparing financial incentives to self-rewards and non-financial incentives. METHODS: A national online survey of United States adults with diabetes was conducted in March 2013 (n = 153). This survey was designed for this study, with iterative testing and modifications in a pilot population. We measured the demographics of individuals, their interest in incentives, as well as the perceived challenge of diabetes self-management tasks, and expectations of incentives to improve diabetes self-management (financial, non-financial and self-rewards). Using an ordered logistic regression model, we assessed the association between a 32-point score of the perceived challenge of the self-management tasks and the three types of rewards. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of individuals were interested in financial incentives, 60% in non-financial incentives and 72% in self-rewards. Patients were less likely to use financial incentives when they perceived the behavior to be more challenging (odds ratio of using financial incentives of 0.82 (95%CI: 0.72-0.93) for each point of the behavior score). While the effectiveness of incentives may vary according to the perceived level of challenge of each behavior, participants did not expect to need large amounts to motivate them to modify their behavior. The expected average amounts needed to motivate a 5 lb weight loss in our population and to maintain this weight change for a year was $258 (interquartile range of $10-100) and $713 (interquartile range of $25-250) for a 15 lb weight loss. The difference in mean amount estimates for 5 lb and 15 lb weight loss was significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Individuals with diabetes are willing to consider financial incentives to improve diabetes self-management. Future studies are needed to explore incentive programs and their effectiveness for diabetes. PMID:26069724

  6. Food insecurity and diabetes self-management among food pantry clients.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Matthew M; Lyles, Courtney R; Prendergast, Kimberly; Marshall, Michelle Berger; Waxman, Elaine; Seligman, Hilary Kessler

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between level of food security and diabetes self-management among food pantry clients, which is largely not possible using clinic-based sampling methods. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Community-based food pantries in California, Ohio and Texas, USA, from March 2012 through March 2014. Convenience sample of adults with diabetes queuing at pantries (n 1237; 83 % response). Sampled adults were stratified as food secure, low food secure or very low food secure. We used point-of-care glycated Hb (HbA1c) testing to determine glycaemic control and captured diabetes self-management using validated survey items. The sample was 70 % female, 55 % Latino/Hispanic, 25 % white and 10 % black/African American, with a mean age of 56 years. Eighty-four per cent were food insecure, one-half of whom had very low food security. Mean HbA1c was 8·1 % and did not vary significantly by food security status. In adjusted models, very-low-food-secure participants, compared with both low-food-secure and food-secure participants, had poorer diabetes self-efficacy, greater diabetes distress, greater medication non-adherence, higher prevalence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes, higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, more medication affordability challenges, and more food and medicine or health supply trade-offs. Few studies of the health impact of food security have been able to examine very low food security. In a food pantry sample with high rates of food insecurity, we found that diabetes self-management becomes increasingly difficult as food security worsens. The efficacy of interventions to improve diabetes self-management may increase if food security is simultaneously addressed.

  7. Development and testing of the Diabetes Self-management Instrument: a confirmatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Anderson, Robert M; Chang, Chao-Sung; Hagerty, Bonnie M; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a new instrument for measuring self-management of adults with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected from 634 diabetic adults recruited from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Construct validity was determined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Tests of internal consistency and test-retest were used to assess the reliability of the diabetes self-management instrument (DSMI). Initial results of CFA did not fully support the proposed five-factor model. After the model was modified, the fit indices indicated that this model fits the data best. This model was further cross validated in a second sample. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the DSMI total scale was .94. The test-retest correlations for the DSMI total scale were acceptable (r = .73, p < .01).

  8. Diabetes LIVE (Learning in Virtual Environments): Testing the Efficacy of Self-Management Training and Support in Virtual Environments (RCT Protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A.; Melkus, Gail; Pan, Wei; Lewinski, Allison A.; Johnson, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ongoing self-management improves outcomes for those with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, there are many barriers to patients receiving assistance in this from the healthcare system and peers. Findings from our pilot study showed that a virtual diabetes community on the Internet with real-time interaction among peers with T2D—and with healthcare professionals—is feasible and has the potential to influence clinical and psychosocial outcomes. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the protocol for the Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments (LIVE) trial. Protocol Diabetes LIVE is a two-group, randomized, controlled trial to compare effects of a virtual environment (VE) and traditional website on diet and physical activity. Our secondary aims will determine the effects on: metabolic outcomes; effects of level of engagement and social network formation in LIVE on behavioral outcomes; potential mediating effects of changes in self-efficacy; diabetes knowledge, diabetes-related distress, and social support on behavior change and metabolic outcomes. We will enroll 300 subjects at two sites (Duke/Raleigh-Durham and NYU/New York) who have T2D and do not have serious complications or comorbidities. Those randomly assigned to the intervention group have access to the LIVE site where they can find information, synchronous classes with diabetes educators, and peer support to enhance self-management. Those in the control group have access to the same informational and educational content in a traditional asynchronous web format. Measures of self-management, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Discussion Should LIVE prove effective in improved self-management of diabetes, similar interventions could be applied to other prevalent chronic diseases. Innovative programs such as LIVE have potential for improving healthcare access in an easily disseminated alternative model of care that potentially

  9. Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments: Testing the Efficacy of Self-Management Training and Support in Virtual Environments (Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol).

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Melkus, Gail D; Pan, Wei; Lewinski, Allison A; Johnson, Constance M

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing self-management improves outcomes for those with Type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, there are many barriers to patients receiving assistance in this from the healthcare system and peers. Findings from our pilot study showed that a virtual diabetes community on the Internet with real-time interaction among peers with T2D-and with healthcare professionals-is feasible and has the potential to influence clinical and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this article is to present the protocol for the Diabetes Learning in Virtual Environments (LIVE) trial. Diabetes LIVE is a two-group, randomized controlled trial to compare effects of a virtual environment and traditional Web site on diet and physical activity. Our secondary aims will determine the effects on metabolic outcomes; effects of level of engagement and social network formation in LIVE on behavioral outcomes; potential mediating effects of changes in self-efficacy; and diabetes knowledge, diabetes-related distress, and social support on behavior change and metabolic outcomes. We will enroll 300 subjects at two sites (Duke University/Raleigh-Durham, NC and New York University/New York, NY) who have T2D and do not have serious complications or comorbidities. Those randomly assigned to the intervention group have access to the LIVE site where they can find information, synchronous classes with diabetes educators, and peer support to enhance self-management. Those in the control group have access to the same informational and educational content in a traditional asynchronous Web format. Measures of self-management, clinical outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes are assessed at baseline and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Should LIVE prove effective in improved self-management of diabetes, similar interventions could be applied to other prevalent chronic diseases. Innovative programs such as LIVE have potential for improving healthcare access in an easily disseminated alternative model of care that potentially improves

  10. Towards a Conceptual Model of Diabetes Self-Management among Chinese Immigrants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bin; Sun, Wenjie; Gary, Rebecca A.; Li, Changwei; Liu, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chinese immigrants have been disproportionally affected by type 2 diabetes. This paper presents the state of science regarding the factors that may influence diabetes self-management among Chinese immigrants in the US and the potential health outcomes. Design: Using Walker and Avant’s techniques, a search of the literature was conducted from CINAHL, PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science. Findings: Factors most relevant to diabetes self-management were grouped under five categories: socio-demographic characteristics, behavioral and psychological characteristics, social support, linguistic barriers, and cultural characteristics. Potential outcomes derived from improved diabetes self-management include quality of life, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Discussion: A conceptual model was provided to guide future research. Based on the review of the literature, specific research topics that need to fill the gaps in the literature were provided, including family-focused interventions for Chinese immigrant patients with diabetes and the effectiveness of these interventions to improve family functioning. PMID:24978878

  11. Peer Support For Self-Management Of Diabetes Improved Outcomes In International Settings

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Boothroyd, Renée I.; Coufal, Maggy Muchieh; Baumann, Linda; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Sanguanprasit, Boosaba; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2014-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is essential to reducing the risks of associated disabilities. But effective self-management is often short-lived. Peers can provide the kind of ongoing support that is needed for sustained self-management of diabetes. In this context, peers are nonprofessionals who have diabetes or close familiarity with its management. Key functions of effective peer support include assistance in daily management, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and ongoing availability of support. Using these four functions as a template of peer support, project teams in Cameroon, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda developed and then evaluated peer support interventions for adults with diabetes. Our initial assessment found improvements in symptom management, diet, blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar levels for many of those taking part in the programs. For policy makers, the broader message is that by emphasizing the four key peer support functions, diabetes management programs can be successfully introduced across varied cultural settings and within diverse health systems. PMID:22232103

  12. Peer support for self-management of diabetes improved outcomes in international settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Boothroyd, Renée I; Coufal, Muchieh Maggy; Baumann, Linda C; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Sanguanprasit, Boosaba; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2012-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is essential to reducing the risks of associated disabilities. But effective self-management is often short-lived. Peers can provide the kind of ongoing support that is needed for sustained self-management of diabetes. In this context, peers are nonprofessionals who have diabetes or close familiarity with its management. Key functions of effective peer support include assistance in daily management, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and ongoing availability of support. Using these four functions as a template of peer support, project teams in Cameroon, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda developed and then evaluated peer support interventions for adults with diabetes. Our initial assessment found improvements in symptom management, diet, blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar levels for many of those taking part in the programs. For policy makers, the broader message is that by emphasizing the four key peer support functions, diabetes management programs can be successfully introduced across varied cultural settings and within diverse health systems.

  13. Video Games for Diabetes Self-Management: Examples and Design Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    The July 2012 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology includes a special symposium called “Serious Games for Diabetes, Obesity, and Healthy Lifestyle.” As part of the symposium, this article focuses on health behavior change video games that are designed to improve and support players’ diabetes self-management. Other symposium articles include one that recommends theory-based approaches to the design of health games and identifies areas in which additional research is needed, followed by five research articles presenting studies of the design and effectiveness of games and game technologies that require physical activity in order to play. This article briefly describes 14 diabetes self-management video games, and, when available, cites research findings on their effectiveness. The games were found by searching the Health Games Research online searchable database, three bibliographic databases (ACM Digital Library, PubMed, and Social Sciences Databases of CSA Illumina), and the Google search engine, using the search terms “diabetes” and “game.” Games were selected if they addressed diabetes self-management skills. PMID:22920805

  14. Instrument for assessing mobile technology acceptability in diabetes self-management: a validation and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Frandes, Mirela; Deiac, Anca V; Timar, Bogdan; Lungeanu, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Background Nowadays, mobile technologies are part of everyday life, but the lack of instruments to assess their acceptability for the management of chronic diseases makes their actual adoption for this purpose slow. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a survey instrument for assessing patients’ attitude toward and intention to use mobile technology for diabetes mellitus (DM) self-management, as well as to identify sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life factors that affect them. Methods We first conducted the documentation and instrument design phases, which were subsequently followed by the pilot study and instrument validation. Afterward, the instrument was administered 103 patients (median age: 37 years; range: 18–65 years) diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 DM, who accepted to participate in the study. The reliability and construct validity were assessed by computing Cronbach’s alpha and using factor analysis, respectively. Results The instrument included statements about the actual use of electronic devices for DM management, interaction between patient and physician, attitude toward using mobile technology, and quality of life evaluation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for attitude toward using mobile technology and 0.97 for attitude toward using mobile device applications for DM self-management. Younger patients (Spearman’s ρ=−0.429; P<0.001) with better glycemic control (Spearman’s ρ=−0.322; P<0.001) and higher education level (Kendall’s τ=0.51; P<0.001) had significantly more favorable attitude toward using mobile assistive applications for DM control. Moreover, patients with a higher quality of life presented a significantly more positive attitude toward using modern technology (Spearman’s ρ=0.466; P<0.001). Conclusion The instrument showed good reliability and internal consistency, making it suitable for measuring the acceptability of mobile technology for DM self-management. Additionally, we found that even

  15. Mobile Applications for Control and Self Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brzan, Petra Povalej; Rotman, Eva; Pajnkihar, Majda; Klanjsek, Petra

    2016-09-01

    Mobile applications (apps) can be very useful software on smartphones for all aspects of people's lives. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, can be made manageable with the support of mobile apps. Applications on smartphones can also help people with diabetes to control their fitness and health. A systematic review of free apps in the English language for smartphones in three of the most popular mobile app stores: Google Play (Android), App Store (iOS) and Windows Phone Store, was performed from November to December 2015. The review of freely available mobile apps for self-management of diabetes was conducted based on the criteria for promoting diabetes self-management as defined by Goyal and Cafazzo (monitoring blood glucose level and medication, nutrition, physical exercise and body weight). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed. Three independent experts in the field of healthcare-related mobile apps were included in the assessment for eligibility and testing phase. We tested and evaluated 65 apps (21 from Google Play Store, 31 from App Store and 13 from Windows Phone Store). Fifty-six of these apps did not meet even minimal requirements or did not work properly. While a wide selection of mobile applications is available for self-management of diabetes, current results show that there are only nine (5 from Google Play Store, 3 from App Store and 1 from Windows Phone Store) out of 65 reviewed mobile apps that can be versatile and useful for successful self-management of diabetes based on selection criteria. The levels of inclusion of features based on selection criteria in selected mobile apps can be very different. The results of the study can be used as a basis to prvide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for mobile apps for self-management of diabetes with more features in order to increase the number of long-term users and thus influence better self-management of the disease.

  16. A nurse-led interdisciplinary approach to promote self-management of type 2 diabetes: a process evaluation of post-intervention experiences.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Lisa C; Crowe, Marie T; Carter, Janet D; Maskill, Virginia R; Carlyle, Dave; Bugge, Carol; Frampton, Chris M A

    2017-04-01

    Self-management of type 2 diabetes through diet, exercise and for many medications, are vital in achieving and maintaining glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. A number of interventions have been designed to improve self-management, but the outcomes of these are rarely explored from a qualitative angle and even fewer through a process evaluation. A process evaluation was conducted using a qualitative design with participants randomized to an intervention. Seventy-three people living with type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia for a minimum of 1 year, randomized to one of two interventions (n = 34 to an education intervention and n = 39 to an education and acceptance and commitment therapy intervention) completed stage one of the process evaluation, immediately following the intervention through written feedback guided by open-ended questions. A purposive sample of 27 participants completed semi-structured interviews at 3 and 6 months post intervention. Interview data were transcribed and data analysed using a thematic analysis. The majority of participants described an increase in knowledge around diabetes self-management and an increased sense of personal responsibility. Participants also described changes in self-management activities and reflected on the challenges in instigating and maintaining change to improve diabetes management. The complexities of implementing change in daily life to improve glycaemic control indicate the need for ongoing support post intervention, which may increase and maintain the effectiveness of the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  18. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  19. Challenges to developing diabetes self-management skills in a low-income sample in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Heather Ann

    2017-01-01

    High rates of diabetes diagnosis and poor diabetes outcomes are particularly significant in low-income, socially disadvantaged populations. Although many social and economic predictors of poor self-management outcomes are known, few studies have examined how these elements impact the ability to develop self-management capacities in low-income populations. This article presents new insights into low-income women's challenges and successes to becoming more adept self-managers. Interview data were collected in 2012 with a sample of low-income, middle-age women with type II diabetes recruited from a non-profit medical clinic serving low-income clients in North Carolina, United States. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Developing self-management skills within disadvantaged life contexts involved negotiating three related, overlapping sub-processes: negotiating access to care systems, negotiating disruptions to diabetes self-management patterns, and negotiating self-care knowledge. Developing diabetes self-management skills is a long and arduous process. Data and analysis presented here help explain how disadvantaged life contexts can impact self-managers' efforts to develop self-management skills and why continued support is important for reducing and preventing future problems. These initial findings suggest that future studies and intervention development on the topic are warranted.

  20. Impact on Diabetes Self-Management and Glycemic Control of a New Color-Based SMBG Meter.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Oliver; Klausmann, Gerd; Gutschek, Bettina; Garcia-Verdugo, Rosa Maria; Hummel, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key pillar of personal diabetes management. The objective of this observational study was to analyze diabetes self-management (DSM) and glycemic outcomes before and during system implementation in real-life settings of a blood glucose meter system with a color-coded display of glucose levels, which helps identify out-of-range levels. A total of 193 insulin-treated diabetes patients (11% T1DM; 55% male, age 60 ± 4 years, mean diabetes duration 14 ± 9 years, HbA1c 8.68 ± 1.2%) were enrolled into the study. Both the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) and glycemic control were analyzed at baseline and 3 and 6 months after study initiation. DSMQ general perception improved significantly by the end of the study period ("Sum Scale," P < .05). Moreover, after 6 months patient's attitudes on self-care (Q16, P = .0046) and nutrition ("Dietary Control," P = .004) showed significant improvements. Use of the blood glucose meter resulted in improved glycemic control, as shown by mean HbA1c levels, which decreased from 8.68 ± 1.2% at baseline to 8.13 ± 1.02% after 3 months ( P < .0001) and to 7.9 ± 1.1% at 6 months ( P < .0001). Both patients and diabetes educators agreed in the advantages of the color-coded indicator and on its helpfulness in assisting patients on their diabetes management, as drawn from the results of the self-reported satisfaction questionnaire. This real-world study demonstrates that SMBG implemented via this new blood glucose meter not only leads to an improvement in metabolic control, but also is associated with a significant improvement in diabetes management.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based, Self-Management Tool for People Recently Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alison O.; Lowis, Carole; Hunter, Steven J.; Dean, Moira; Cardwell, Chris R.; McKinley, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based, dietary, and physical activity self-management program for people recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The computer-based program was developed in conjunction with the target group and evaluated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were randomised to the intervention (computer-program) or control group (usual care). Primary outcomes were diabetes knowledge and goal setting (ADKnowl questionnaire, Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ)) measured at baseline and week 12. User feedback on the program was obtained via a questionnaire and focus groups. Results. Seventy participants completed the 12-week RCT (32 intervention, 38 control, mean age 59 (SD) years). After completion there was a significant between-group difference in the “knowledge and beliefs scale” of the DOQ. Two-thirds of the intervention group rated the program as either good or very good, 92% would recommend the program to others, and 96% agreed that the information within the program was clear and easy to understand. Conclusions. The computer-program resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in diet-related knowledge and user satisfaction was high. With some further development, this computer-based educational tool may be a useful adjunct to diabetes self-management. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT number NCT00877851. PMID:27446961

  2. A Middle-Range Theory for Diabetes Self-management Mastery.

    PubMed

    Fearon-Lynch, Jennifer A; Stover, Caitlin M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of death in America and affects 382 million people worldwide. Individuals with diabetes must manage the complexity of the disease, its treatment, and complications to avert deleterious consequences associated with the illness. However, not all patients with diabetes successfully gain mastery to positively impact self-management. A new middle-range theory is proposed that merges 2 extant theories, theory of mastery and organismic integration theory, to better understand this human response. The theories' philosophical, theoretical, and conceptual perspectives were examined and relational properties synthesized to provide a conceptual representation of the phenomenon of interest.

  3. A Culturally Appropriate Self-Management Program for Hispanic Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and Low Health Literacy Skills.

    PubMed

    Brunk, Debra R; Taylor, Ann Gill; Clark, Myra L; Williams, Ishan C; Cox, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of adapting a patient-centered educational intervention for type 2 diabetes (T2D) self-management for a Hispanic population with low health literacy skills. A descriptive qualitative study design and phenomenological analyses were used. Nine Hispanic adults with T2D recruited from a rural community health center participated in an educational program that instructed on low glycemic food choices, meaningful glucose self-monitoring, and physical activity to decrease blood glucose spikes. Participants' feedback was recorded during four 2-hour focus group sessions. Findings/Results: Participants' feedback clustered around four themes: information and knowledge, motivation and barriers to change, experiences with new behaviors, and personal responsibility. Data support the feasibility of adapting an established health-enhancing approach for promoting self-management of T2D to a low health literacy Spanish-speaking population. The findings may help in further development of tools and strategies for improved T2D self-management in the study population.

  4. Interventions to improve diabetes self-management: utility and relevance for practice.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review publications of research on diabetes self-management interventions and assess whether the interventions are relevant for practice. A content analysis was performed on research reports published between 1993 and 2004 of interventions designed to improve patients' diabetes self-management. Information was abstracted relevant to the intervention's generalizability to other settings and its compatibility and feasibility in practice. Publications included only limited information relevant to an intervention's generalizability across populations and settings. Many of the interventions tested were not designed to be compatible with the realities of current practice or to be delivered in the settings in which most diabetes care is provided. Many of the interventions were very complex, requiring multiple delivery modes and contacts, proactive scheduling, and coordination across disciplines. In view of the prevalence of diabetes, it is critical that effective self-management interventions be adopted and implemented. Interventions need to be designed so that their findings have greater relevance and utility for practice and can be generalized across practice settings.

  5. Insulin algorithms in the self-management of insulin-dependent diabetes: the interactive 'Apple Juice' program.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G

    1996-01-01

    The 'Apple Juice' program is an interactive diabetes self-management program which runs on a lap-top Macintosh Powerbook 100 computer. The dose-by-dose insulin advisory program was initially designed for children with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus. It utilizes several different insulin algorithms, measurement formulae, and compensation factors for meals, activity, medication and the dawn phenomenon. It was developed to assist the individual with diabetes and/or care providers, in determining specific insulin dosage recommendations throughout a 24 h period. Information technology functions include, but are not limited to automated record keeping, data recall, event reminders, data trend/pattern analyses and education. This paper highlights issues, observations and recommendations surrounding the use of the current version of the software, along with a detailed description of the insulin algorithms and measurement formulae applied successfully with the author's daughter over a six year period.

  6. The relative effect of self-management practices on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetic patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garcia de Alba Garcia, Javier E; Dallo, Florence J; Salcedo Rocha, Ana L; Colunga Rodriguez, Cecilia; Perez, Noe; Baer, Roberta D; Weller, Susan C

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we examined the relative impact of self-management activities on glycaemic control in a population at high risk for developing complications. Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus of at least 1 year in duration at 30 years of age or older were sampled from the Instituto de Mexico Seguro Social (IMSS) Family Medicine Clinics in Guadalajara, Mexico (n=800). Demographic, clinical and health behaviour variables were used to predict good/poor glycaemic control, as measured by haemoglobin Alc (A1C). Most (72.24%) patients had poor control (A1C > or = 7.0). Hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with factors not under patient control, such as having diabetes for a longer time [odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39, 4.14], having a first-degree relative with diabetes (OR= 1.52; 95% CI 1.06, 2.19), and being prescribed anti-diabetic medications, e.g. insulin (OR = 7.88, 95% CI 2.42, 25.63). After controlling for these variables, the only self-management variable that reduced the likelihood of hyperglycaemia was following a special diet (OR=0.49; 95% CI 0.32, 0.76). Furthermore, depression had an important effect on self-management, as those with lower levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to follow a diet and exercise. While patients in this population have little control over many factors associated with glycaemic control, an important exception is diet. However, because of the adverse effect of depression on dieting, both depression management and dietary education are important for this population.

  7. Self-management of type 2 diabetes: perspectives of Vietnamese Americans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anna Thao

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore diabetes self-management strategies and underpinnings of behaviors among Vietnamese with type 2 diabetes. Using Leventhal's illness representation model, semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 23 participants, 14 women and 9 men. NVivo 8 software was used for content analysis. Data revealed that participants constructed implicit theories of the identity, causes, consequences, timeline, and controllability of diabetes, which were inconsistent with the biomedical literature. Participants labeled diabetes by their symptoms of hypo-/hyperglycemia, and they focused on the relief of these symptoms. However, the participants' focus on symptomatology undermined their use of blood glucose monitoring to manage diabetes as a majority of the participants had diabetes-related complications. Participants integrated the continuum of Eastern and Western treatment belief systems to achieve a balance to create harmony between the two systems.

  8. Self-management education interventions for patients with cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Howell, Doris; Harth, Tamara; Brown, Judy; Bennett, Cathy; Boyko, Susan

    2017-04-01

    This systematic review was intended to identify the effectiveness and inclusion of essential components of self-management education interventions to support patients with cancer in developing the skills needed for effective self-management of their disease and the acute or immediate, long-term, and late harmful effects of treatments. Self-management education interventions were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing at least one of the eight core elements outlined by the research team. A systematic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (2005 through April 2015), Embase (2005 to 2015, week 15), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 4, April 2015), CINAHL (2005 to 2015) and PsychINFO (2005 to 2015). Keywords searched include 'self-management patient education' or 'patient education'. Forty-two RCTs examining self-management education interventions for patients with cancer were identified. Heterogeneity of interventions precluded meta-analysis, but narrative qualitative synthesis suggested that self-management education interventions improve symptoms of fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and quality of life. Results for specific combinations of core elements were inconclusive. Very few studies used the same combinations of core elements, and among those that did, results were conflicting. Thus, conclusions as to the components or elements of self-management education interventions associated with the strength of the effects could not be assessed by this review. Defining the core components of cancer self-management education and the fundamental elements for inclusion in supporting effective self-management will be critical to ensure consistent and effective provision of self-management support in the cancer system.

  9. Development of diabetes telephone-linked care system for self-management support and acceptability test among type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kulnawan, Nittayawan; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompong; Kittisopee, Tanattha; Meksawan, Kulwara; Thadpitakkul, Natthanan; Mongkung, Kattiya

    2011-10-01

    Develop the diabetes telephone-linked care system for self-management support and test acceptability in terms of system uses, satisfaction and perception of easiness, helpfulness, and emotion with the system. The automated telephone system with diabetes knowledge interactive voice response (IVR) subsystem was developed to provide diversified curriculum arrangement including general knowledge module (Knowledge IVR, suggestive segment module (Suggestive IVR) and 10 QA sets for assessment with tailored information feedback (QA IVR). The system could deliver 1,120 messages over five weeks among 112 intervened participants of the on-going randomized controlled trial on its impact on glycemic control. The system analyzed the level of completed responses. Overall, 25.9% of the responses were intermittent, 46.4% had consistent adherences, 14.3% were poor responses, and 13.4% were non-responses. The total time use of the system, among 97/112 participants, was 6,189 minutes (mean 63.80, SD 26 63). The degree of call completeness did not vary according to the participant's socio-economic status, glycemic level, or years of diabetes diagnosis. The satisfaction of participants to the program was done by interviewed by telephone among 95 of 112 participants. Most study participants reported that they were very/moderately satisfied with the program (89.5%) regarding its usefulness and helpfulness on awareness, understanding and reminding behavior change attempts. In all, 95.8% of the responders planned to participate in the next program. Duration of time uses of the TLC was significantly correlated to the total scores of helpfulness and of emotion (p < 0.01; r = 0.38 and 0.31 respectively). This prototype of diabetes telephone-linked care for Thai diabetes is a step forward in response to diabetes self-management education need. Further studies are needed about its efficacies on diabetes self-management improvement and glycemic control, as well as its cost-effectiveness.

  10. Application of a theoretical framework to foster a cardiac-diabetes self-management programme.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-J Jo; Chang, A M

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyses and illustrates the application of Bandura's self-efficacy construct to an innovative self-management programme for patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Using theory as a framework for any health intervention provides a solid and valid foundation for aspects of planning and delivering such an intervention; however, it is reported that many health behaviour intervention programmes are not based upon theory and are consequently limited in their applicability to different populations. The cardiac-diabetes self-management programme has been specifically developed for patients with dual conditions with the strategies for delivering the programme based upon Bandura's self-efficacy theory. This patient group is at greater risk of negative health outcomes than that with a single chronic condition and therefore requires appropriate intervention programmes with solid theoretical foundations that can address the complexity of care required. The cardiac-diabetes self-management programme has been developed incorporating theory, evidence and practical strategies. This paper provides explicit knowledge of the theoretical basis and components of a cardiac-diabetes self-management programme. Such detail enhances the ability to replicate or adopt the intervention in similar or differing populations and/or cultural contexts as it provides in-depth understanding of each element within the intervention. Knowledge of the concepts alone is not sufficient to deliver a successful health programme. Supporting patients to master skills of self-care is essential in order for patients to successfully manage two complex, chronic illnesses. Valuable information has been provided to close the theory-practice gap for more consistent health outcomes, engaging with patients for promoting holistic care within organizational and cultural contexts. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Supported self-management for adults with type 2 diabetes and a learning disability (OK-Diabetes): study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, Rebecca E A; Russell, Amy M; Bryant, Louise D; Farrin, Amanda J; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra M; Graham, Elizabeth H; Hulme, Claire; O'Dwyer, John L; Latchford, Gary J; Stansfield, Alison J; Nagi, Dinesh; Ajjan, Ramzi A; House, Allan O

    2015-08-08

    Individuals with a learning disability (LD) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but LD is not straightforward to define or identify, especially at the milder end of the spectrum, which makes case finding difficult. While supported self-management of health problems is now established, current material is largely educational and didactic with little that facilitates behavioural change. The interaction between the person with diabetes and others supporting their care is also largely unknown. For these reasons, there is considerable work needed to prepare for a definitive trial. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this preparatory work. Phase I is a prospective case-finding study (target n = 120 to 350) to identify and characterise potential participants, while developing a standardised supported self-management intervention. Phase II is a randomised feasibility trial (target n = 80) with blinded outcome assessment. Patients identified in Phase I will be interviewed and consented prior to being randomised to (1) standard treatment, or (2) supported self-management. Both arms will also be provided with an 'easy read' accessible information resource on managing type 2 diabetes. The intervention will be standardised but delivered flexibly depending on patient need, including components for the participant, a supporter, and shared activities. Outcomes will be (i) robust estimates of eligibility, consent and recruitment rates with refined recruitment procedures; (ii) characterisation of the eligible population; (iii) a standardised intervention with associated written materials, (iv) adherence and negative outcomes measures; (v) preliminary estimates of adherence, acceptability, follow-up and missing data rates, along with refined procedures; and (vi) description of standard treatment. Our study will provide important information on the nature of type 2 diabetes in adults with LD living in the community, on the challenges of

  12. Effects of an educational program on self-management in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Aliasgharpour, Mansooreh; Dehgahn Nayeri, Nahid; Yadegary, Mohammad Ali; Haghani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Self-management majorly determines the health status of patients with epilepsy because the most important strategies for controlling seizures include receiving and adhering to prescribed therapies, and making appropriate lifestyle adjustments. Patients with epilepsy have various educational needs and must adopt many self-management behaviors to control their condition. This study was a clinical trial that evaluated the effects of an educational program on self-management in patients with epilepsy. Participants (n=60) were recruited from the Neurology Clinic in Zanjan, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups (n=30 in each). The intervention group received four educational sessions on epilepsy, including a self-management plan. All participants completed the Epilepsy Self-Management Scale before the intervention and 1 month post-intervention. The chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test, and paired samples t-test were used to compare the groups. At baseline, demographic characteristics and self-management scores did not differ significantly. One month after the intervention, self-management scores differed significantly (p<0.001) between the two groups. The educational program had beneficial effects on self-management behaviors in patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of a Self-Management System for Students with Disabilities in General Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that self-management procedures have a robust literature base attesting to their efficacy with students with disabilities, the use of these strategies in general education settings remains limited. This mixed methods study examined the implementation of self-management procedures using both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  14. Implementation of a Self-Management System for Students with Disabilities in General Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that self-management procedures have a robust literature base attesting to their efficacy with students with disabilities, the use of these strategies in general education settings remains limited. This mixed methods study examined the implementation of self-management procedures using both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  15. Patterns of Self-Management in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Predict Level of Glycemic Control Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Jennifer M.; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Dolan, Lawrence; Reeves, Grafton; Drotar, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if three distinct self-management patterns (i.e., maladaptive, moderate/mixed, and adaptive) observed at baseline, one, and two years in a sample of youth with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers predicted mean differences in adolescent’s subsequent glycemic control. Methods This study is a descriptive, multisite, prospective study that examined a sample of youth diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (ages 9–11 years at baseline). Youth and their maternal and paternal caregivers provided information about the youth’s self-management patterns at baseline, one, and two years using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) structured interview. Glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c: HbA1c) was examined at baseline, six, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results Three distinct self-management patterns were observed at one and two years that were conceptually consistent with previously reported baseline self-management patterns. Youth identified by their maternal caregivers as having adaptive self-management patterns at baseline had better glycemic control across two years compared to those in the maladaptive and mixed self-management groups. Similarly, maternal reports suggested that youth with less adaptive self-management patterns generally had worse glycemic control over time as well as HbA1c values above the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Youth and paternal caregiver reports yielded more variable findings. Conclusions Findings underscore the stability of self-management patterns in pediatric type 1 diabetes and the need for preventive interventions that are tailored to specific patterns of self-management associated with risk for problematic glycemic control. PMID:23572169

  16. Provider- and patient-related determinants of diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: Implications for systemic change.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Shakya, Yogendra; Jembere, Nathaniel; Gucciardi, Enza; Vissandjée, Bilkis

    2017-02-01

    To examine provider- and patient-related factors associated with diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. Demographic and experiential data were collected using an international survey instrument and adapted to the Canadian context. The final questionnaire was pretested and translated into 4 languages: Mandarin, Tamil, Bengali, and Urdu. Toronto, Ont. A total of 130 recent immigrants with a self-reported diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus who had resided in Canada for 10 years or less. Diabetes self-management practices (based on a composite of 5 diabetes self-management practices, and participants achieved a score for each adopted practice); and the quality of the provider-patient interaction (measured with a 5-point Likert-type scale that consisted of questions addressing participants' perceptions of discrimination and equitable care). A total of 130 participants in this study were recent immigrants to Canada from 4 countries of origin-Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and China. Two factors were significant in predicting diabetes self-management among recent immigrants: financial barriers, specifically, not having enough money to manage diabetes expenses (P = .0233), and the quality of the provider-patient relationship (P = .0016). Participants who did not have enough money to manage diabetes were 9% less likely to engage in self-management practices; and participants who rated the quality of their interactions with providers as poor were 16% less likely to engage in self-management practices. Financial barriers can undermine effective diabetes self-management among recent immigrants. Ensuring that patients feel comfortable and respected and that they are treated in culturally sensitive ways is also critical to good diabetes self-management. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Twelve-Month Outcomes of an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Woolley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Objective Internet-based programs offer potential for practical, cost-effective chronic illness self-management programs. Methods We report 12-month results of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, with and without additional support, compared to enhanced usual care in a 3-arm practical randomized trial. Patients (n= 463) were randomized: 77.3% completed 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were changes in health behaviors of healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes were hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, and psychosocial factors. Results Internet conditions improved health behaviors significantly vs. usual care over the 12-month period (d for effect size = .09 – .16). All conditions improved moderately on biological and psychosocial outcomes. Latinos, lower literacy, and higher cardiovascular disease risk patients improved as much as other participants. Conclusions The Internet intervention meets the reach and feasibility criteria for a potentially broad public health impact. However, 12-month magnitude of effects was small, suggesting that different or more intensive approaches are necessary to support long-term outcomes. Research is needed to understand the linkages between intervention and maintenance processes and downstream outcomes. Practice Implications Automated self-management interventions should be tailored and integrated into primary care; maintenance of patient self-management can be enhanced through links to community resources. PMID:21924576

  18. A patient-centric, provider-assisted diabetes telehealth self-management intervention for urban minorities.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ernest L; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Callender, Clive

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of an online diabetes self-management intervention for a sample of inner-city African Americans with diabetes. Study participants were randomly assigned to the treatment (26) and control (21) conditions. The results indicate that treatment group participants were more likely to achieve positive outcomes in terms of lowered hemoglobin A1c and body mass index measurements than were control group members. These findings support the development of telehealth interventions to promote effective chronic disease management in medically underserved communities.

  19. Randomised controlled trial of an automated, interactive telephone intervention to improve type 2 diabetes self-management (Telephone-Linked Care Diabetes Project): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An estimated 285 million people worldwide have diabetes and its prevalence is predicted to increase to 439 million by 2030. For the year 2010, it is estimated that 3.96 million excess deaths in the age group 20-79 years are attributable to diabetes around the world. Self-management is recognised as an integral part of diabetes care. This paper describes the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an automated interactive telephone system aiming to improve the uptake and maintenance of essential diabetes self-management behaviours. Methods/Design A total of 340 individuals with type 2 diabetes will be randomised, either to the routine care arm, or to the intervention arm in which participants receive the Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) Diabetes program in addition to their routine care. The intervention requires the participants to telephone the TLC Diabetes phone system weekly for 6 months. They receive the study handbook and a glucose meter linked to a data uploading device. The TLC system consists of a computer with software designed to provide monitoring, tailored feedback and education on key aspects of diabetes self-management, based on answers voiced or entered during the current or previous conversations. Data collection is conducted at baseline (Time 1), 6-month follow-up (Time 2), and 12-month follow-up (Time 3). The primary outcomes are glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey version 2). Secondary outcomes include anthropometric measures, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, psychosocial measures as well as measures of diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care and medication taking. Information on utilisation of healthcare services including hospital admissions, medication use and costs is collected. An economic evaluation is also planned. Discussion Outcomes will provide evidence concerning the efficacy of a telephone-linked care intervention for self-management of diabetes. Furthermore

  20. Mental health and relational self-management experiences of patients with type 2 diabetes and stage 3 chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Sakraida, Teresa Joan; Robinson, Marylou V

    2012-11-01

    Self-management (SM) behaviors reduce disease burden from advancing diabetic kidney disease. From a parent study about patients' transition experience to SM, this study report presents coping resources that support SM and barriers from two focus group interviews (n = 6). Ethnographic analysis identified two patterns: (a) mental health self-management characterized by coping, and (b) relational self-management characterized by social support. Practice implications include focused assessment of perceived social support and social network, dating advisement, and workplace management. Future study considerations include inquiry about diabetes and dating relationships and workplace resources for SM support.

  1. Food insecurity is associated with hypoglycemia and poor diabetes self-management in a low-income sample with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Hilary K; Davis, Terry C; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S

    2010-11-01

    More than 14% of the American population is food insecure, or at risk of going hungry because of an inability to afford food. Food-insecure (FI) adults often reduce food intake or substitute inexpensive, energy-dense carbohydrates for healthier foods. We hypothesized these behaviors would predispose FI adults with diabetes to hypoglycemia and impaired diabetes self-management. We therefore assessed whether food insecurity was associated with multiple indicators of diabetes self-management (self-efficacy, medication- and glucose-monitoring adherence, hypoglycemia, or glycemic control) among 40 low-income adults with diabetes. Mean self-efficacy score was lower among FI than food-secure (FS) participants (34.4 vs. 41.2, p=.02). Food-insecure participants reported poorer adherence to blood glucose monitoring (RR=3.5, p=.008) and more hypoglycemia-related emergency department visits (RR=2.2, p=.007). Mean hemoglobin A1c was 9.2% among FI and 7.7% among FS participants (p=.08). Food insecurity is a barrier to diabetes self-management and a risk factor for clinically significant hypoglycemia.

  2. Effect of problem-solving-based diabetes self-management training on diabetes control in a low income patient sample.

    PubMed

    Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana; Peyrot, Mark; Doswell, Angela; Chang, Yi-Ting; Hill, Martha N; Levine, David; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Frederick L

    2011-09-01

    Lower socioeconomic status is associated with excess disease burden from diabetes. Diabetes self-management support interventions are needed that are effective in engaging lower income patients, addressing competing life priorities and barriers to self-care, and facilitating behavior change. To pilot test feasibility, acceptability, and effect on disease control of a problem-based diabetes self-management training adapted for low literacy and accessibility. Two-arm randomized controlled trial powered to detect a 0.50% change in A1C at follow-up with a 2-sided alpha of 0.05 in a pooled analysis. Fifty-six urban African-American patients with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal blood sugar, blood pressure, or cholesterol control recruited from a diabetes registry within a university-affiliated managed care organization. A group, problem-based diabetes self-management training designed for delivery in an intensive and a condensed program format. Three intensive and three condensed program groups were conducted during the trial. Clinical (A1C, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL and HDL cholesterol) and behavioral (knowledge, problem solving, self-management behavior) data were measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention (corresponding with 6-9 months following baseline). Adoption of both programs was high (>85% attendance rates, 95% retention). At 3 months post-intervention, the between-group difference in A1C change was -0.72% (p = 0.02), in favor of the intensive program. A1C reduction was partially mediated by problem-solving skill at follow-up (ß = -0.13, p = 0.04). Intensive program patients demonstrated within-group improvements in knowledge (p < 0.001), problem-solving (p = 0.01), and self-management behaviors (p = 0.04). Among the subsets of patients with suboptimal blood pressure or lipids at baseline, the intensive program yielded clinically significant individual improvements in SBP

  3. Keys to successful diabetes self-management for uninsured patients: social support, observational learning, and turning points: a safety net providers' strategic alliance study.

    PubMed

    Madden, Melissa Hanahan; Tomsik, Philip; Terchek, Joshua; Navracruz, Lisa; Reichsman, Ann; Clark, Terri Clemons; Cella, Peggi; Weirich, Stephen A; Munson, Michelle R; Werner, James J

    2011-03-01

    To examine how medically uninsured patients who receive health care at federally qualified health centers and free clinics are able to successfully self-manage diabetes compared to patients who are less successful. Two distinct groups of patients with diabetes for 6 months or longer were enrolled: (1) successful, defined as those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7% or less or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and (2) unsuccessful, defined as patients with HbAlc of at least 9% (n=9) and without recent improvement. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivators, resources, and barriers to diabetes self-management. Data from interviews, chart reviews, and clinician surveys were analyzed using qualitative methods and statistical techniques. African Americans comprised 57.7% of the sample and whites 38.5% (N=26). No significant differences were detected between successful and unsuccessful groups in age, race, education, or employment status. Clinicians rated unsuccessful patients as having more severe diabetes and significantly lower levels of control than successful patients. Compared to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, more frequently sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held more accurate perceptions of their own diabetes control, and experienced "turning point" events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from diabetic family members and interpreted disease-related events as motivational turning points. It may be beneficial to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients' motivation for improved levels of self-management.

  4. Self-Management Training With Families of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Children: A Controlled Long-Term Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetic children and their parents were trained in behavioral self management and conducted behavior change projects designed to enhance compliance with the medical regimen and reduce diabetes-related conflicts. Participating families experienced fewer arguments concerning diabetes, and the children displayed an increase in…

  5. The relationship between depressive symptoms, diabetes symptoms, and self-management among an urban, low-income Latino population.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Annie L; Green, Janelle; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of depression symptoms among Latinos with diabetes following transition from hospital to home and the relationship of depressive symptoms to diabetes symptom severity and self-management activities. 203 Latino patients with diagnosed diabetes completed a survey assessing depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), diabetes symptom severity, and diabetes self-management activities (SDSCA). Characteristics and diabetes outcomes between patients with and without probable major depression were compared. Associations between PHQ-9 scores and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Multivariate regression models evaluated the relationship between depressive symptoms and diabetes outcomes and exercise after controlling for patient characteristics. 31.5% of participants indicated probable major depression (PHQ-9≥10). More severe diabetes symptoms and less reported exercise were associated with higher PHQ-9 scores. Regression models showed no relationship between self-management and depression. More severe diabetes symptoms were significantly associated with being female, married, and having probable major depression. Odds of exercising were reduced by 6% for every one-unit increase in PHQ-9 score. The prevalence of probable depressive symptoms is high in this population. Having depressive symptoms is an indicator of poorer diabetes symptoms. Screening for depressive symptoms may help identify individuals who need additional support with diabetes symptom and self-management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A pilot test of the Self-Management and Research Technology project: A text message-based diabetes self-management program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Collier, Suzanne; Stern, Alexa; Monaghan, Maureen; Streisand, Randi

    2015-09-22

    The aims of this study are to: (1) examine the preliminary utility of the Self-Management and Research Technology (SMART) pilot project, (2) identify which adolescents were most likely to benefit from participation, and (3) examine interview feedback to inform future program iterations. Twenty-three adolescents (M age = 15.13 years) were enrolled in the six-week text message pilot program consisting of daily interactive blood glucose (BG) prompts and type 1 diabetes-related educational text messages. Medical charts were reviewed for hemoglobin A1c and to corroborate medical record and demographic data. Glucometer data were downloaded to calculate an average monthly BG level and daily BG monitoring frequency. No statistically significant improvements were observed pre-intervention to post-intervention in glycemic outcomes. Participants with a high text message response rate were more likely to demonstrate improvement in average monthly BG levels and daily BG monitoring frequency than those with a low text message response rate. Participants reported satisfaction with the text message program. The text message-based SMART pilot project demonstrated preliminary efficacy for a targeted subset of adolescents who were engaged with the program. Continued research with a larger sample and longer trial duration is warranted to evaluate the potential utility of text message-based interventions.

  7. Self-management of diabetes in children and young adults using technology and smartphone applications.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Siobhan; Cohen, Georgia; Owen, Katharine R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment compliance and adherence are often a challenge in patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly for adolescent and young adult patients. With the availability of the internet and smart phone applications (apps) there is a hope that such technology could provide a means to encourage treatment adherence in this group of patients. This review focuses on whether telemedicine and smartphone technology in diabetes can influence self-management in young people with diabetes. A large number of smartphone apps are targeted at people with diabetes, but a limited number of well designed evaluation studies have been performed. As our review shows, the evidence base for efficacy of most of these applications is minimal and improvement in hard outcomes such as HbA1c and complication development is largely lacking.

  8. Integrating diabetes self-management interventions for mexican-americans into the catholic church setting.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arshiya A; Locklin, Cara A; Wilkes, Abigail E; Oborski, Donna Dempsey; Acevedo, John C; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Quinn, Michael T; Burnet, Deborah L; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-02-01

    Churches provide an innovative and underutilized setting for diabetes self-management programs for Latinos. This study sought to formulate a conceptual framework for designing church-based programs that are tailored to the needs of the Latino community and that utilize church strengths and resources. To inform this model, we conducted six focus groups with mostly Mexican-American Catholic adults with diabetes and their family members (N = 37) and found that participants were interested in church-based diabetes programs that emphasized information sharing, skills building, and social networking. Our model demonstrates that many of these requested components can be integrated into the current structure and function of the church. However, additional mechanisms to facilitate access to medical care may be necessary to support community members' diabetes care.

  9. The role of adherence in the relationship between self-efficacy and self-management in diabetic patients undergoing CABG in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lien, Ru-Yu; Wei, Jeng; Clinciu, Daniel L; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Hui-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the role of adherence and its significance in the relationship between self-efficacy and self-management of diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in Taiwan. Design Descriptive and correlational survey design. Setting Three outpatient clinics in Taiwan. Participants Patients diagnosed with diabetes undergoing CABG at least 6 months before the study, 18 years of age or older, able to communicate verbally without any psychiatric problems, and with a life expectancy longer than 1 year. Main outcome measures Self-management assessment (self-efficacy for managing disease and adherence to guidelines and medication measured on a scale of 0–8), the higher aspects of self-management (keeping appointments, taking medication properly and keeping follow-up appointments) and the lower aspects of self-management (inability to share decisions with primary physician, inability to take correct actions when symptoms worsen and inability to adapt habits to improve health). Results The mean score obtained for self-management among the 166 participants was 6.48, with 57 (34.3%) of them showing non-adherent behaviour. Self-efficacy accounts for 38% (R2=0.380, F(1,103)=63.124, p < 0.001), and 54% of good self-management was explained by self-efficacy and adherence in managing disease (R2=0.540, F(2,102)=56.937, p<0.001). Adherence accounts for 16% of better self-management, age and education combined account for 4.9% (R2=0.589, F(6.98)=23.399, p<0.001), and lifestyle items account for 5.2% (R2=0.641, F(14,90)=11.457, p<0.001). Disease-related variables contribute 3.4% (R2=0.674, F(17,87)=10.599, p<0.001). Thus self-efficacy, adherence, age, education, primary care provider and systolic pressure are considered significant predictors of self-management. With the exception of adherence, none of the variables had a statistically significant mediating effect. Conclusions The results confirm strong relationships between self

  10. Improving Diabetes Self-Management through Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Values: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jennifer A.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Hayes, Steven C.; Glenn-Lawson, June L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients in a low-income community health center with Type 2 diabetes (N = 81) taking a one-day education workshop as part of their diabetes medical management were randomly assigned either to education alone or to a combination of education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both groups were taught how to manage their diabetes, but…

  11. Improving Diabetes Self-Management through Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Values: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jennifer A.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Hayes, Steven C.; Glenn-Lawson, June L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients in a low-income community health center with Type 2 diabetes (N = 81) taking a one-day education workshop as part of their diabetes medical management were randomly assigned either to education alone or to a combination of education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both groups were taught how to manage their diabetes, but…

  12. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a design thinking case study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-06-26

    Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6

  13. Improvements in illness self-management and psychological distress associated with telemonitoring support for adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Aikens, James E; Rosland, Ann-Marie; Piette, John D

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this observational open label trial was to characterize changes in diabetes self-management and psychological distress associated with a mobile health (mHealth) interactive voice response (IVR) self-management support program. For 3-6 months, 301 patients with diabetes received weekly IVR calls assessing health status and self-care and providing tailored pre-recorded self-management support messages. Patients could participate together with an informal caregiver who received suggestions on self-management support, and patients' clinicians were notified automatically when patients reported significant problems. Patients completed 84% of weekly calls, providing 5682 patient-weeks of data. Thirty-nine percent participated with an informal caregiver. Outcome analyses adjusted for study design factors and sociodemographics indicated significant pre-post improvement in medication adherence, physical functioning, depressive symptoms, and diabetes-related distress (all p values <0.001). Analyses of self-management problems indicated that as the intervention proceeded, there were significant improvements in patients' IVR-reported frequency of weekly medication adherence, SMBG performance, checking feet, and frequency of abnormal self-monitored blood glucose readings (all p values <0.001). We conclude that the combined program of automated telemonitoring, clinician notification, and informal caregiver involvement was associated with consistent improvements in medication adherence, diabetes self-management behaviors, physical functioning, and psychological distress. A randomized controlled trial is needed to verify these encouraging findings. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile Phone and Smartphone Technologies for Diabetes Care and Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Laura F; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank

    2015-12-01

    Mobile and smartphone (mHealth) technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care and self-management, but little is known about their effectiveness and how patients, providers, and payers currently interact with them. We conducted a systematic review and found only 20 peer-reviewed articles, published since 2010, with robust evidence about the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for diabetes. The majority of these interventions showed improvement on primary endpoints, such as HbA1c; mHealth technologies that interacted with both patients and providers were more likely to be effective. There was little evidence about persistent use by patients, use by a patient's health care provider, or long-term effectiveness. None of the studies discussed regulatory oversight of mHealth technologies or payer reimbursement for them. No robust studies evaluated the more than 1100 publicly available smartphone apps for diabetes. More research with valid study designs and longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of mHealth technologies for diabetes care and self-management.

  15. The Relative Importance of Physician Communication, Participatory Decision Making, and Patient Understanding in Diabetes Self-management

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Michele; Bouknight, Reynard R; Hayward, Rodney A; Smith, Dylan M; Kerr, Eve A

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients' self-management practices have substantial consequences on morbidity and mortality in diabetes. While the quality of patient-physician relations has been associated with improved health outcomes and functional status, little is known about the impact of different patient-physician interaction styles on patients' diabetes self-management. This study assessed the influence of patients' evaluation of their physicians' participatory decision-making style, rating of physician communication, and reported understanding of diabetes self-care on their self-reported diabetes management. DESIGN We surveyed 2,000 patients receiving diabetes care across 25 Veterans' Affairs facilities. We measured patients' evaluation of provider participatory decision making with a 4-item scale (Provider Participatory Decision-making Style [PDMstyle]; α = 0.96), rating of providers' communication with a 5-item scale (Provider Communication [PCOM]; α = 0.93), understanding of diabetes self-care with an 8-item scale (α = 0.90), and patients' completion of diabetes self-care activities (self-management) in 5 domains (α = 0.68). Using multivariable linear regression, we examined self-management with the independent associations of PDMstyle, PCOM, and Understanding. RESULTS Sixty-six percent of the sample completed the surveys (N = 1,314). Higher ratings in PDMstyle and PCOM were each associated with higher self-management assessments (P < .01 in all models). When modeled together, PCOM remained a significant independent predictor of self-management (standardized β: 0.18; P < .001), but PDMstyle became nonsignificant. Adding Understanding to the model diminished the unique effect of PCOM in predicting self-management (standardized β: 0.10; P = .004). Understanding was strongly and independently associated with self-management (standardized β: 0.25; P < .001). CONCLUSION For these patients, ratings of providers' communication effectiveness were more important than a

  16. Type 2 Diabetes and Depression: A Pilot Trial of an Integrated Self-management Intervention for Latino Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kaltman, Stacey; Serrano, Adriana; Talisman, Nicholas; Magee, Michelle F; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Pulgar-Vidal, Olga; Peraza, Dorys

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of an integrated self-management intervention that simultaneously targets diabetes and depression self-management in a primary care clinic that serves the Latino immigrant community. The integrated intervention included behavioral activation and motivational interviewing techniques. It was developed with patient, family member, and provider stakeholders, and it comprised 6 individual sessions, followed by 2 monthly booster sessions. Eighteen Latino immigrants participated in an open trial of the intervention. A1C levels were examined at baseline and postintervention. Participants also completed measures of depression, diabetes self-management behaviors, patient activation, and diabetes-related self-efficacy and gave open-ended feedback about the intervention. Feasibility of delivering the intervention in the primary care setting and acceptability to the target population were demonstrated. Among participants completing the intervention, A1C levels decreased significantly from baseline. A significant reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in diabetes self-management behaviors, patient activation, and diabetes-related self-efficacy were observed. Qualitative responses from participants indicated unilateral positive responses to the intervention and endorsed its continuation in the clinic. This pilot trial demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated self-management intervention for diabetes and depression. In addition, preliminary data suggest that the intervention may have a positive impact on diabetes and depression-related outcomes. Further evaluation is warranted. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Moving the journey towards independence: Adolescents transitioning to successful diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, C. June

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To gain a greater understanding of adolescent’s experiences living with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and create a theoretical paradigm. Methods Grounded theory as described by Glaser was used. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with adolescent’s ages 11 to 15 with T1DM. Symbolic interactionism is the theoretical framework for grounded theory. Data were collected; transcribed, coded, and analyzed simultaneously using constant comparative analysis and findings were grounded in the words of participants. Results A theoretical model was created with the concept of “normalizing”. Normalizing was defined as the ability to integrate diabetes into one’s daily life to make diabetes ‘part of me’. Phase four of the model, and the focus of this manuscript was “Moving the Journey towards Independence” and included: 1) taking over care, 2) experiencing conflict with parents, and 3) realizing diabetes is hard. The major task for adolescents in this phase was separating from parents to independently manage diabetes. The normalizing task for this phase was: “taking on the burden of care”. Adolescents described challenges with independent care and increased parental conflict including: fearing needles, forgetting insulin, feeling embarrassed and believing that diabetes was a burden in their life. Additionally, juggling the multiple responsibilities of home, school and work along with managing a chronic illness during adolescence is challenging. Conclusions Transitioning to diabetes self-management is a challenge for adolescents. This model advances understanding of the moving processes in adolescents transitioning; additionally, hypotheses are presented that may be used for developing interventions to promote success in self-management. PMID:26190456

  18. Stressors in Teens with Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: Immediate and Long-Term Implications for Transition to Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Ersig, Anne L; Tsalikian, Eva; Coffey, Julie; Williams, Janet K

    2016-01-01

    Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents experience every day and illness-related stress; however, understanding of how these stressors relate to the transition to adulthood is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors of teens with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their parents related to the impending transition to adulthood. This study used open-ended questions to identify every day and illness-related stressors among 15 teens with T1DM and 25 parents seen in one pediatric diabetes clinic. Qualitative descriptive analysis identified themes in interview transcripts. The primary teen stressor related to impending transition centered on ineffective self-management, often when they were taking over responsibility for T1DM management. Parents' concerns included immediate and long-term negative outcomes of teen self-management as well as financial resources and health insurance for the teen. Teens and parents both expressed specific concerns about outcomes and prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and identified uncertainties related to teen health and diabetes-focused health care when no longer living in the parent's home. Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents understand that independent teen self-management is a component of transition to adulthood, but worry about teen self-management outcomes. Concerns specific to health care transition included health insurance, T1DM resources, and teens' abilities to handle new situations. Identifying current and future self-management concerns of individuals and families can facilitate targeted education and interventions to support successful transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  20. Integrating support persons into diabetes telemonitoring to improve self-management and medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Aikens, James E; Trivedi, Ranak; Aron, David C; Piette, John D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential benefits for medication adherence of integrating a patient-selected support person into an automated diabetes telemonitoring and self-management program, and to determine whether these benefits vary by patients' baseline level of psychological distress. The study was a quasi-experimental patient preference trial. The study included patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in three to six months of weekly automated telemonitoring via interactive voice response (IVR) calls, with the option of designating a supportive relative or friend to receive automated updates on the patient's health and self-management, along with guidance regarding potential patient assistance. We measured long-term medication adherence using the four-point Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4, possible range 0-4), weekly adherence with an IVR item, and psychological distress at baseline with the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) of the SF-12. Of 98 initially nonadherent patients, 42% opted to involve a support person. Participants with a support person demonstrated significantly greater improvement in long-term adherence than those who participated alone (linear regression slopes: -1.17 vs. -0.57, respectively, p =0.001). Among distressed patients in particular, the odds of weekly nonadherence tended to decrease 25% per week for those with a support person (p =0.030), yet remained high for those who participated alone (p =0.820). Despite their multiple challenges in illness self-management, patients with diabetes who are both nonadherent and psychologically distressed may benefit by the incorporation of a support person when they receive assistance via automated telemonitoring.

  1. Engaging teens and parents in collaborative practice: perspectives on diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Bova, Carol; Johnson, Kimberly; Cullen, Karen; Jaffarian, Carol; Quinn, Diane; Aroke, Edwin N; Crawford, Sybil; Lee, Mary M; Gupta, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory focus group study was to describe the perspectives of teens and their parents about self-management knowledge, behaviors (including division of labor associated with T1D management), and resources used to manage T1D. The overall goal is to use this information to develop a teen-family transition clinic. The self and family management behaviors framework undergirded the separate teen-parent focus groups that were conducted concurrently. Note-based qualitative content analysis was used, resulting in several important messages. From the teens' perspective there was variation in interest in learning more about T1D and management. Those teens who had been diagnosed at a very young age reported not knowing anything else but diabetes, while those diagnosed later developmentally embraced the active learning process. Diabetes camp and peer group support were not seen as beneficial. All the teens were interested in "helping others" with diabetes. Parents shared the common struggle with transition of self-management, with variation in parenting styles. A small group of parents reported their "job" as a parent was to make sure their child was self-sufficient in self-management, but felt pressure from the health care providers (HCPs) to physically do the care, defeating the purpose. Parents and teens reported wanting HCPs to be less focused on "numbers" (blood glucose levels) and more on the whole person. Scheduling appointment changes and long waiting times were reported as problematic by all participants. Teen and parent perspectives are critical in designing future well-received adolescent-family transition clinics. Development from the ground up with family recommendations may contribute to high-quality health outcomes.

  2. Teaching how, not what: the contributions of community health workers to diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kia L; O'Toole, Mary L; Brownson, Carol A; Llanos, Patricia; Fisher, Edwin B

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe ways in which community health workers (CHWs) are used in various clinic and community settings to support diabetes self-management. Descriptive quantitative data were collected from logs completed by CHWs. Logs described mode, place, type, duration, and focus of individual contact between the CHW and the patient. Qualitative data were collected from semistructured interviews with patients. Interviews were conducted on site from June to August 2006. Interviewees included a purposeful sample of 47 patients who perceived being helped by CHWs. CHWs reported providing assistance and teaching or practicing skills as the focus of most of the 1859 individual contacts. The assistance CHWs reported providing was most often in the form of encouragement/motivation. During interviews, patients shared that CHWs were helpful in demonstrating how to incorporate diabetes self-management (DSM) into their daily lives. The information patients shared also provided insight into what they perceived as encouragement/motivation from the CHWs. Quotes from interviews provide specific examples of how support from CHWs was different from that received from family and health care team members. Both CHWs and patients perceived assistance being provided in similar ways, with consistent emphasis on encouragement/motivation. Interviews with the patients revealed that a personal connection along with availability and provision of key resources and supports for self-management made the CHW-patient interaction successful for DSM. Examples provide insight into the valuable contributions of CHWs to DSM. This insight should encourage guidelines that make CHWs a routine, standard part of the diabetes care team.

  3. Relationships among self-efficacy, social support, social problem solving, and self-management in a rural sample living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Caralise W; Wilder, Barbara; Steele, Michael M; Grant, Joan S; Pryor, Erica R; Moneyham, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Self-management behaviors are important for control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, determining factors that promote effective self-management behaviors may be significant for improving the well-being of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined relationships among self-efficacy, social support, social problem solving, and diabetes self-management behaviors. Further, this study evaluated whether social support and social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors in those living with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design, data from a convenience sample of 152 rural people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus were examined. Findings indicated that self-efficacy was a strong predictor of diabetes self-management. The effect of social support on diabetes self-management differed among men and women in the sample. Social support and social problem solving were significantly associated with diabetes self-management in men. Neither social support nor social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between self-efficacy and diabetes self-management in this sample. These findings suggest that nurses need to consider implementing interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy and potentially influence diabetes self-management.

  4. The relationship between patients' knowledge of diabetes therapeutic goals and self-management behaviour, including adherence.

    PubMed

    Waheedi, Mohammad; Awad, Abdelmoneim; Hatoum, Hind T; Enlund, Hannes

    2017-02-01

    Background The Middle East region has one the highest prevalence rates of diabetes in the world. Little is known about the determinants of adherence and the role of knowledge in diabetes self-management within these populations. Objective To investigate the relationship between patients knowledge of diabetes therapeutic targets with adherence to self-care measures in a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kuwait. Setting Primary care chronic care clinics within the Ministry of Health of Kuwait. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out with 238 patients from six clinics. A multistage stratified clustered sampling method was used to first randomly select the clinics and the patients. Self-reported adherence to three behaviours: medication taking, diet and physical activity. Results Respondents were able to correctly report a mean (SD) of 1.6 (1.3) out of 5 of the pre-specified treatment targets. Optimal adherence to physical activity, diet and medications was reported in 25, 33 and 47 % of the study cohort, respectively. A structural equation model analysis showed better knowledge of therapeutic goals and own current levels translated into better adherence to medications, diet and physical activity. Conclusion Knowledge of therapeutic goals and own recent levels is associated with adherence to medications, diet, or physical activity in this Kuwaiti cohort of patients with diabetes. Low adherence to self-care management and poor overall knowledge of diabetes is a big challenge to successful diabetes care in Kuwait.

  5. Comparing effectiveness of generic and disease-specific self-management interventions for people with diabetes in a practice context.

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Setareh; Packer, Tanya; Boldy, Duncan; Melling, Lauren; Parsons, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of self-management interventions has been demonstrated. However, the benefits of generic vs. disease-specific programs are unclear, and their efficacy within a practice setting has yet to be fully explored. To compare the outcomes of the diabetes-specific self-management program (Diabetes) and the generic chronic disease Self-management Program (Chronic Condition) and to explore whether program characteristics, evaluated using the Quality Self-Management Assessment Framework (Q-SAF), provide insight into the results of the outcome evaluation. A pragmatic pretest, post-test design with 12-week follow up was used to compare the 2 self-management interventions. Outcomes were quality of life, self-efficacy, loneliness, self-management skills, depression, and health behaviours. People with diabetes self-selected attendance at the Diabetes or Chronic Condition program offered as part of routine practice. Participants with diabetes in the 2 programs (Diabetes=200; Chronic Condition=90) differed significantly in almost all demographic and clinical characteristics. Both programs yielded positive outcomes. Controlling for baseline and demographic characteristics, random effects modelling showed an interaction between time and program for 1 outcome: self-efficacy (p=0.029). Participants in the Chronic Condition group experienced greater improvements over time than did those in the Diabetes group. The Q-SAF analysis showed differences in program content, delivery and workforce capacity. People with diabetes benefited from both programs, but participation in the generic program resulted in greater improvements in self-efficacy for participants who had self-selected that program. Both programs in routine care led to health-related improvements. The Q-SAF can be used to assess the quality of programs. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of key workers in supporting people with intellectual disability in the self-management of their diabetes: a qualitative New Zealand study.

    PubMed

    Trip, Henrietta; Conder, Jenny; Hale, Leigh; Whitehead, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of diabetes in people with an intellectual disability, although unknown, is indicated to be higher than the general population. Given the challenges individuals with intellectual disability may face, this population is often dependent upon key workers to manage their health and well-being. One aim of a wider study on the self-management of diabetes by people with intellectual disability was to explore how key workers supported their self-management. That aim was the focus of this paper. Between 2009 and 2010, 17 staff from five residential intellectual disability services and two supported independent living services within New Zealand, consented to a semi-structured interview. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using Thomas' General Inductive Approach. Three overarching themes emerged; having knowledge and understanding, being lifestyle police and ensuring future well-being. While knowledge, skills and perspectives varied, all participants were committed to ensuring that the lifestyle of the person concerned was compatible with the management of their diabetes. A range of perspectives existed between the expectations they had of themselves, colleagues and the individual with diabetes. There was an identified need for initial and ongoing education of permanent and casual staff and the people themselves with diabetes in collaboration with health and disability services to build confidence and promote self-management practices. In so doing, the impacts of this long-term condition may be reduced and the health outcomes improved for people with intellectual disability.

  7. Parent and Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of School Nurse Interventions on Children's Self-Management of Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…

  8. Parent and Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of School Nurse Interventions on Children's Self-Management of Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…

  9. Psychological skills training to support diabetes self-management: Qualitative assessment of nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mastery and perceived autonomy support are correlates of Dutch diabetes patients' self-management and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Martens, Marloes K; Hesselink, Arlette E; de Weerdt, Inge; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between type 2 diabetes patients' mastery and perceived autonomy support and their self-management skills and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 3352 patients with type 2 diabetes. Key variables were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' mastery and perceived autonomy support correlated positively with their self-management skills (r=0.34, p<0.001; r=0.37, p<0.001) and HRQOL (r=0.37, p<0.001; r=0.15, p<0.001). In the linear regression analysis, mastery and perceived autonomy support were positive correlates of self-management (β=0.23; p<0.001; β=0.25; p<0.001). Patients with more physical or psychological complications had significantly lower scores on mastery, perceived autonomy support, self-management and HRQOL. Our results indicate the importance of mastery in relation to diabetes patients' perceived autonomy support, self-management skills and HRQOL. Since a greater sense of mastery is likely to increase patients' autonomous motivation to cope with their disease, interventions can aim to influence patients' motivational regulation. In addition, we confirmed the need for autonomy support to improve patients' self-management skills. Professionals can be trained to be autonomy-supportive, which relates to person-centered approaches such as motivational interviewing (MI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gender, ethnocultural, and psychosocial barriers to diabetes self-management in Italian women and men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ponzo, Marisa G; Gucciardi, Enza; Weiland, Mary; Masi, Ralph; Lee, Ruth; Grace, Sherry L

    2006-01-01

    Although several ethnic groups experience a greater burden of diabetes, this has not been examined in first-generation Italians, who compose one of the largest ethnocultural groups in Canada. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examined the relationship among gender and ethnocultural factors, family support, depressive symptomatology, and illness perceptions on diabetes self-management (DSM) in 50 Italian women and men with type 2 diabetes. The authors first conducted a focus group to explore cultural barriers. They then assessed gender, ethnocultural, and psychosocial barriers quantitatively by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Compared with Italian men, Italian women reported significantly greater depressive symptomatology and perceived disease seriousness. Greater depressive symptomatology was significantly associated with perceived family sabotage and DSM barriers. In univariate analyses, shorter duration of diabetes and greater perceived treatment effectiveness significantly predicted better DSM. In conclusion, certain illness perceptions and culturally relevant gender-specific barriers should be addressed by health care providers to maximize DSM in this population. Index Terms: diabetes, diet, gender, self-management

  12. Diabetes self-management, depressive symptoms, metabolic control and satisfaction with quality of life over time in Chinese youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; He, Guo-Ping; Luo, Zi-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    To describe the patterns of diabetes self-management, depressive symptoms, metabolic control and satisfaction with quality of life over time in a cohort of Chinese youth with type 1 diabetes and to determine the relationships between these variables over time. Nurses have an important role in facilitating optimal self-management and health outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. Only a few studies have focused on patterns of diabetes adaptation over time in youth with type 1 diabetes, especially in China. Understanding changes in diabetes self-management, depressive symptoms, metabolic control and satisfaction with quality of life can facilitate assessment and intervention. This is a multi-site longitudinal descriptive study. Data for this report were collected at baseline with 136 eligible Chinese youth and 86 of them were followed up for the second time, 6-12 months after baseline data collection. Instruments to measure diabetes self-management, depressive symptoms, metabolic control and satisfaction with quality of life were collected at two time points. The data were collected from July 2009-October 2010. Linear mixed model analysis was used to analyse the longitudinal data. Self-management decreased over time; however, depressive symptoms, metabolic control and satisfaction with quality of life did not change from baseline to 6-12 months in this sample of Chinese youth with type 1 diabetes. A decrease in diabetes self-management over time was associated with worse metabolic control, while an increase in depressive symptoms over time was associated with poorer quality of life satisfaction in this sample. Chinese youth faced difficulties with diabetes adaptation, especially with the deterioration of diabetes self-management. Improving self-management and decreasing depressive symptoms may enhance diabetes adaptation with respect to metabolic control and quality of life. The deterioration of diabetes self-management over time in youth with type 1 diabetes in

  13. Using Patient-Generated Health Data From Mobile Technologies for Diabetes Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Nundy, Shantanu; Lu, Chen-Yuan E.; Hogan, Patrick; Mishra, Anjuli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile health and patient-generated health data are promising health IT tools for delivering self-management support in diabetes, but little is known about provider perspectives on how best to integrate these programs into routine care. We explored provider perceptions of a patient-generated health data report from a text-message-based diabetes self-management program. The report was designed to relay clinically relevant data obtained from participants’ responses to self-assessment questions delivered over text message. Methods: Likert-type scale response surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted with primary care physicians and endocrinologists who pilot tested the patient-generated health data report in an actual clinical encounter. Interview guides were designed to assess providers’ perceptions of the feasibility and utility of patient-generated health data in routine clinical practice. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Twelve providers successfully piloted the summary report in clinic. Although only a minority of providers felt the report changed the care they provided (3 of 12 or 25%), most were willing to use the summary report in a future clinical encounter (9 of 12 or 75%). Perceived benefits of patient-generated health data included agenda setting, assessment of self-care, and identification of patient barriers. Major themes discussed included patient selection, reliability of patient-generated health information, and integration into clinical workflow. Conclusion: Providers perceived multiple benefits of patient-generated health data in overcoming common barriers to self-management support in clinical practice and found the summary report feasible and usable in a clinical context. PMID:24876541

  14. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A Jantine; Baan, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly type 2 diabetes patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Diabetes self-management was indicated by HbA1c level, glucose self-control and self-reported monitoring of glucose levels, physical activity, and smoking. Multilevel analyses were applied based on multiple imputed data. Lower health literacy was significantly associated with less diabetes knowledge, higher HbA1c level, less self-control of glucose level, and less physical activity. Participants with more diabetes knowledge were less likely to smoke and more likely to control glucose levels. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator in the association between health literacy and glucose self-control and between health literacy and smoking. This study indicates that higher health literacy may contribute to participation in certain self-management activities, in some cases through diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge and health literacy skills may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-management.

  15. The business case for a diabetes self-management intervention in a community general hospital.

    PubMed

    Micklethwaite, Ashley; Brownson, Carol A; O'Toole, Mary L; Kilpatrick, Kerry E

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing and increasingly compelling body of evidence that self-management interventions for persons with type 2 diabetes can be both effective and cost-effective from a societal perspective. Yet, the evidence is elusive that these interventions can produce a positive business case for a sponsoring provider organization in the short term. The lack of a business case limits the enthusiasm for provider organizations to implement these proven quality-enhancing interventions more widely. This article provides a case example of a self-management intervention in a community general hospital targeting an underserved population who have significant barriers to receiving regular health care. The 3-component program sought to improve meaningful access to care, increase health literacy related to type 2 diabetes, and partner with the enrollees to make long-term lifestyle changes. The intervention not only resulted in significant improvements in HbA1c levels (-0.77%) but saved the hospital an average of $551 per active patient per year, primarily by reducing hospital visits. With only 255 actively enrolled patients, the hospital can recover fully its total direct annual personnel and operating costs for the program. Because the program serves patients who would have been seen at other hospitals, it also enhanced care quality and reduced costs for the broader community in which the program is embedded.

  16. Self-management problem solving for adolescents with type 1 diabetes: intervention processes associated with an Internet program.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y; Lybarger, Cindy; Dietrich, Mary S; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2011-11-01

    Describe intervention processes associated with an Internet self-management problem solving program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes, and relate participant characteristics to program use. Forty-one adolescents with type 1 diabetes, aged 13-17, participated in an Internet intervention. Participants reported psychosocial self-management barriers related to social issues (45%), time pressures (22%), and emotions (25%). Most adolescents (76%) completed the two guided problem solving cycles, and most (97%) problems were appropriate and specific to diabetes. Of the 61 diabetes problems reported, 92% were mostly or completely solved. Baseline hemoglobin A1c, diabetes duration, and age were not related to online activities, however females posted more often to the forum (U=130.0, Z=2.13, p=.033). The majority of parents (87%) interacted with their child about the website. Adolescents experience psychosocial barriers to self-management that can be addressed by teaching problem solving via the Internet. An Internet self-management problem solving program with minimal external support provides a viable option for diabetes clinics to improve pediatric diabetes outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing a self-determination theory process model for promoting glycemic control through diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey C; McGregor, Holly A; Zeldman, Allan; Freedman, Zachary R; Deci, Edward L

    2004-01-01

    A longitudinal study tested the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health behavior change for glycemic control within a randomized trial of patient activation versus passive education. Glycosylated hemoglobin for patients with Type 2 diabetes (n=159) was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Autonomous motivation and perceived competence were assessed at baseline and 6 months, and the autonomy supportiveness of clinical practitioners was assessed at 3 months. Perceptions of autonomy and competence were promoted by perceived autonomy support, and changes in perceptions of autonomy and competence, in turn, predicted change in glycemic control. Self-management behaviors mediated the relation between change in perceived competence and change in glycemic control. The self-determination process model fit the data well.

  18. Flexible eating and flexible insulin dosing in patients with diabetes: Results of an intensive self-management course.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J; Linjawi, S; Mensch, M; James, K; Attia, J

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of an established programme to teach patients to match their insulin dose to their carbohydrate intake. A prospective observational study in Australia (Newcastle, NSW) of 137 consecutive patients with type 1 (n=82) or type 2 diabetes (n=55) over two successive years. Four educational principles were used to teach intensive insulin management and diabetes self-care skills including: carbohydrate counting and insulin dose adjustment, exercise, appropriate treatment of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, managing sickness, problem solving, communication with health professionals, goal setting, and the importance of support. Outcomes included changes at 4 and 12 months in HbA1c, self-efficacy measured by a diabetes empowerment scale (DES), diabetes specific quality of life (ADDQoL), and problem solving. Both intention to treat and efficacy analyses were performed. Diabetes-related quality of life and diabetes problem solving skills improved significantly. Excluding 16 people who failed to adopt intensive insulin management and 24 who started with an HbA1c less than 7%, intention to treat analysis showed the average HbA1c fell from 8.7% initially to 8.1% at 12 months and the number of people with an HbA1c of less than 8% rose from 67 (48.9%) before the program to 86 (62.8%) afterwards. An intensive diabetes self-management program led to improvements in HbA1c, empowerment, and quality of life that were largely sustained at 1 year. This is all the more remarkable given that the intervention was once only, entailed no long-term follow-up, and took place in normal clinical operations.

  19. New models of self-management education for minority ethnic groups: pilot randomized trial of a story-sharing intervention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Collard, Anna; Malik, Farida; Griffin, Mark; Morris, Joanne; Claydon, Anne; Macfarlane, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    no model of self-management education or peer support has yet achieved widespread reach and acceptability with minority ethnic groups. We sought to refine and test a new complex intervention in diabetes education: informal story-sharing groups facilitated by bilingual health advocates. pilot randomized trial with in-depth process evaluation in a socioeconomically deprived area. 157 people referred for diabetes education were randomized by concealed allocation to an intervention (story-sharing group in their own language) or control ('usual care' self-management education, through an interpreter if necessary) arm. Story-sharing groups were held in five ethnic languages and English (for African Caribbeans), and ran fortnightly for six months. Primary outcome was UKPDS (UK Prospective Diabetes Study) risk score. Secondary outcomes included attendance, HbA1c, well-being and enablement. Process measures included ethnographic observation, and qualitative interviews with staff and patients. some follow-up data were obtained on 87% of participants. There was no significant difference between intervention and control arms in biomedical outcomes. Attendance was 79% in the story-sharing arm and 35% in the control arm (p < 0.0001), and patient enablement scores were significantly higher (8.3 compared to 5.9, p < 0.005). The model was very popular with clinicians, managers and patients, which helped overcome numerous challenges to its successful embedding in a busy public sector diabetes service. people from minority ethnic groups in a socioeconomically deprived area were keen to attend informal story-sharing groups and felt empowered by them, but clinical outcomes were no better than with conventional education. Further research is needed to maximize the potential and evaluate the place of this appealing service model before it is introduced as a part of mainstream diabetes services. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd 2011.

  20. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, E; van der Valk, P; van der Palen, J; van Herwaarden, C; Partridge, M; Zielhuis, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: The idea of self-management is to teach patients how to carry out the activities of daily living optimally in the face of their physiological impairment, and to prevent or decrease the severity of exacerbations by means of life style adaptation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the value of self-management education is not clear. This review was undertaken to clarify the effectiveness of self-management programmes in COPD. Methods: A search was made of the Cochrane Airways Group trial registers, Medline, reference lists, and abstracts of medical conferences for controlled trials of self-management education in patients with COPD. Two reviewers independently assessed each paper for methodological quality and extracted the data. Results: The reviewers included 12 articles describing eight randomised controlled trials and one controlled clinical trial in which self-management education was compared with usual care. The studies assessed a broad spectrum of outcome measures with different follow up times so meta-analysis could not be undertaken. Self-management education had no effect on hospital admissions, emergency room visits, days lost from work, and lung function. Inconclusive results were observed on health related quality of life, COPD symptoms, and use of healthcare facilities such as doctor and nurse visits. Self-management education reduced the need for rescue medication and led to increased use of courses of oral steroids and antibiotics for respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Insufficient data were obtained to make recommendations because of the wide variation in outcome measures used and other limitations to generalisations in the current published literature. Further research in this area is needed. PMID:12728158

  1. [Development on the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Bo; Li, Changfeng; Feng, Nongping

    2016-01-01

    To develop The Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Scale (DSKAB) with Chinese population social culture character in a good validity and reliability after Delphi method and pilot study. This study based on former knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaires, an index list was established through literature search, group discussion, and expert in-depth interviews. Then we identified the core indexes and developed a primary scale through the Delphi. We selected 24 experts who specialized in the field of diabetes related clinical medicine, non-communicable diseases self-management, non-communicable diseases control and prevention, and public health. The consultation tables were delivered by EMS and Email. All the experts were asked to grade the evaluation indexes based on overall consideration finality, scientificity, importance, applicability, and to explain the extent of similarity and the basis of judgment. The core indexes of the scale were determined through the positive coefficient, the degree of concentration, the harmonious coefficient, the authoritative coefficient. We selected 27 diabetes patients from the community, and interviewed them face to face. After finishing the field survey, we organized the staff who investigated the patients to participate the panel discussion, to modify and adjust the items formed the scale knowledge attitude behavior of self-management for patients with diabetes mellitus. Two rounds of Delphi both reclaimed 20 experts(') responses, the positive coefficients were 83% and 100% respectively, the authoritative coefficients were 0.85 ± 0.10 and 0.87 ± 0.09, the harmonious coefficients were 0.16 and 0.23 (χ(2) were 283.49 and 398.00, P<0.001) respectively. We identified 75 core indexes through two-round Delphi, 86.30% (63/75) indexes had the importance of full marks than in 0.50 above, it developed the primary scale which included 100 items. Based on the pilot study, we increased 2 items, deleted 4 items

  2. Outcomes from a diabetes self-management intervention for Native Hawaiians and Pacific People: Partners in Care.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Ka'imi A; Makahi, Emily K; Shea-Solatorio, Cappy; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Townsend, Claire K M; Kaholokula, J Keawe'aimoku

    2013-02-01

    Culturally adapted interventions are needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality among Native Hawaiian and Pacific People. The purpose of this study is to pilot test the effectiveness of a culturally adapted diabetes self-management intervention. Participants were randomly assigned in an unbalanced design to the Partners in Care intervention (n = 48) or wait list control group (n = 34). Assessments of hemoglobin A1c, understanding of diabetes self-management, performance of self-care activities, and diabetes-related distress were measured at baseline and 3 months (post intervention). Analysis of covariance was used to test between-group differences. The community steering committee and focus group data informed the cultural adaptation of the intervention. There were significant baseline adjusted differences at 3 months between the Partners in Care and wait list control group in intent-to-treat (p < 0.001) and complete case analyses (p < 0.0001) for A1c, understanding (p < 0.0001), and performing diabetes self-management (p < 0.0001). A culturally adapted diabetes self-management intervention of short duration was an effective approach to improving glycemic control among Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders.

  3. Diabetes self-management among low-income Spanish-speaking patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Milagros C; Olendzki, Barbara; Reed, George W; Gumieniak, Olga; Scavron, Jeffrey; Ockene, Ira

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related morbidity and mortality is higher among low-income Hispanics when compared to that of Whites. However, little is known about how to effectively promote self-management in this population. The objectives were first to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial of an innovative self-management intervention to improve metabolic control in low-income Spanish-speaking individuals with type 2 diabetes and second to obtain preliminary data of possible intervention effects. Participants for this pilot study were recruited from a community health center, an elder program, and a community-wide database developed by the community health center, in collaboration with other agencies serving the community, by surveying households in the entire community. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 15) or a control (n = 10) condition. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 3 months and 6 months postrandomization. The intervention consisted of 10 group sessions that targeted diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and self-management skills through culturally specific and literacy-sensitive strategies. The intervention used a cognitive-behavioral theoretical framework. Recruitment rates at the community health center, elder program, and community registry were 48%, 69%, and 8%, respectively. Completion rates for baseline, 3-month, and 6-month assessments were 100%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Each intervention participant attended an average of 7.8 out of 10 sessions, and as a group the participants showed high adherence to intervention activities (93% turned in daily logs, and 80% self-monitored glucose levels at least daily). There was an overall Group x Time interaction (p = .02) indicating group differences in glycosylated hemoglobin over time. The estimated glycosylated hemoglobin decrease at 3 months for the intervention group was -0.8% (95% confidence intervals = -1.1%, -0

  4. Age at asthma onset and asthma self-management education among adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Beavers, Suzanne F.; Shepler, Samantha H.; Chatterjee, Arjun B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Asthma self-management education improves asthma-related outcomes. We conducted this analysis to evaluate variation in the percentages of adults with active asthma reporting components of asthma self-management education by age at asthma onset. Methods Data from 2011 to 2012 Asthma Call-back Surveys were used to estimate percentages of adults with active asthma reporting six components of asthma self-management education. Components of asthma self-management education include having been taught to what to do during an asthma attack and receiving an asthma action plan. Differences in the percentages of adults reporting each component and the average number of components reported across categories of age at asthma onset were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and years since asthma onset. Results Overall, an estimated 76.4% of adults with active asthma were taught what to do during an asthma attack and 28.7% reported receiving an asthma action plan. Percentages reporting each asthma self-management education component declined with increasing age at asthma onset. Compared with the referent group of adults whose asthma onset occurred at 5–14 years of age, the percentage of adults reporting being taught what to do during an asthma attack was 10% lower among those whose asthma onset occurred at 65–93 years of age (95% CI: −18.0, −2.5) and the average number of components reported decreased monotonically across categories of age at asthma onset of 35 years and older. Conclusions Among adults with active asthma, reports of asthma self-management education decline with increasing age at asthma onset. PMID:26291134

  5. Assessment of problem-solving: a key to successful diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Russell E; Toobert, Deborah J; Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A

    2004-10-01

    Problem-solving skill is important for chronic illness self-management. This project prospectively evaluated a measure of diabetes problem-solving skill for its reliability, convergent validity, sensitivity to intervention, and relationship to change in behavior. Postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (N = 279) participated in a RCT to evaluate a lifestyle modification program. The 9-item Diabetes Problem-Solving Inventory (DPSI) was used to assess how patients cope with challenges to diabetes self-care. The DPSI was found to have good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency for a brief scale, be moderately stable over time, and relate significantly to hypothesized variables. DPSI scores improved significantly more in the lifestyle change condition than in controls and were related to improved outcomes. Mediation analyses indicated that the increase in problem-solving was a partial mediator of outcomes. Results support the reliability, predictive ability, and sensitivity to change of the DPSI. Directions for future research on problem-solving and chronic illness are discussed.

  6. Self-management education programs for people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Millard, Tanya; Elliott, Julian; Girdler, Sonya

    2013-02-01

    The effectiveness of self-management programs to improve physical, psychosocial, health knowledge, and behavioral outcomes for adults living with HIV has not been well established. This article reviews the effectiveness of self-management education programs to improve physical, psychosocial, health knowledge, and behavior outcomes for adults living with HIV/AIDS. A systematic review of English articles using CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were used to identify and retrieve relevant studies. Each database was searched from its earliest record to October 2010. Search terms included HIV/AIDS, self-management, self-care, patient education, and education programs. Only studies that (1) reported on a HIV-specific intervention that aimed to increase participants HIV-related knowledge through a self-management component, (2) included a control group, (3) provided skills training or targeted behavior change, and (4) reported clinical outcomes were included. Independent data extraction by one author using the methods described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. A second reviewer checked the data extraction. Six protocols were reported in eight publications (n=1178), all contained elements of self-management interventions. Effect size calculations were not conducted due to limitations in the available data. The review found randomized controlled trials (RCT) evidence sufficient to infer that self-management programs for people living with HIV/AIDS result in short-term improvements in physical, psychosocial, and health knowledge and behavioral outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were reported for intervention participants compared to control participants across most outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to provide conclusions regarding the long-term outcomes of HIV-specific self-management interventions.

  7. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn from a population-based sample aged 65 years or older with diabetes. The sample was stratified by sex and ethnic group (African American, American Indian, and White) from the low (A1C <6%) and high (A1C >8%) extremes of the glycemic control distribution. Case-based text analysis was guided by a model, including six self-management domains and four resource types (self-care, informal support, formal services, and medical care). Results: A “structured” approach to self-management differentiated respondents in good glycemic control from those in poor glycemic control. Those in good glycemic control were more likely to practice specific food behaviors to limit food consumption and practice regular blood glucose monitoring with specific target values. This approach was facilitated by a greater use of home aides to assist with diabetes care. Respondents in poor glycemic control demonstrated less structure, naming general food categories and checking blood glucose in reaction to symptoms. Implications: Results provide evidence that degree of structure differentiates self-management approaches of persons with good and poor glycemic control. Findings should provide a foundation for further research to develop effective self-management programs for older adults with diabetes. PMID:20110333

  8. A Comparison of an Individually Tailored and a Standardized Asthma Self-Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Judy; Bachman, Jean H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States and can be life-threatening. There are a rising number of adults with asthma that cannot be prevented or cured but may be controlled. Self-management education is essential for long-term asthma control; however, the most effective type of education is unknown.…

  9. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  10. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  11. Four Types of School Environment: Multilevel Self-Management and Educational Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Cheung, Wing Ming

    2004-01-01

    How school-based management in the form of multilevel self-management is related to educational quality is a crucial issue in current educational reforms. An empirical study was conducted to explore this issue in a sample of 68 primary schools in Hong Kong. It was found that the school environment of sampled schools could be classified into 4…

  12. Barriers to Self-management of Serious Mental Illness and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Blixen, Carol E; Kanuch, Stephanie; Perzynski, Adam T; Thomas, Charles; Dawson, Neal V; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia), and diabetes (DM), face significant challenges in managing their physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to assess perceived barriers to self-management among patients with both SMI and DM in order to inform healthcare delivery practices. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with persons who had diagnoses of both SMI and DM. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Transcript-based analysis generated 3 major domains of barriers to disease self-management among patients with both DM and SMI: (1) personal level barriers (stress, isolation, stigma); (2) family and community level barriers (lack of support from family and friends); and (3) provider and health care system level barriers (poor relationships and communication with providers, fragmentation of care). Care approaches that provide social support, help in managing stress, optimize communication with providers, and reduce compartmentalization of medical and psychiatric care are needed to help these vulnerable individuals avoid health complications and premature mortality.

  13. A Survey of Self-Management and Intrusiveness of Illness in Native Americans with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ann F; Page, Evaren E; Norris, Ann I; Kim, Sue E; Thompson, David M; Roswell, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as an important focus of national public health efforts because of the rapid increase in the burden of this disease. In particular, DM disproportionately affects Native Americans. Adequate management of DM requires that patients participate as active partners in their own care and much of patient activation and empowerment can be attributed to their experience with DM and self-care. That is, the degree to which the patient feels the disease intrudes on his or her daily life would impact the motivation for self-care. We conducted a study in collaboration with 2 tribal nations in Oklahoma, collecting data on survey questions regarding intrusiveness of illness and self-management behaviors from a sample of 159 members of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations. Previously validated variables measuring intrusiveness of illness and self-care were included in the survey. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses illustrated the distribution of these variables and identified possible tribal and gender differences. Our findings showed that our sample adjusted well to DM and in general exhibited high compliance to self-care. However, our findings also revealed striking gender differences where female respondents were better adjusted to their disease, whereas male respondents reported higher adherence to self-management. Findings from our study, particularly those that describe tribal differences and gender disparities, can inform strategies for case management and patient interactions with providers and the health care system.

  14. Social organization of self-management support of persons with diabetes: A health systems comparison

    PubMed Central

    Schiøtz, Michaela; Frølich, Anne; Krasnik, Allan; Taylor, Warren; Hsu, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identify important organizational elements for providing self-management support (SMS). Design Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in two healthcare systems. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the Danish Health Care System. Subjects 36 managers and healthcare professionals in the two healthcare systems. Main outcome measures Elements important to providing self-management support to persons with diabetes. Results Healthcare professionals’ provision of SMS was influenced by healthcare system organization and their perceptions of SMS, the capability and responsibility of healthcare systems, and their roles in the healthcare organization. Enabling factors for providing SMS included: strong leadership; aligned incentives; use of an integrated health information technology (HIT) system; multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams; ongoing training for healthcare professionals; outreach; and quality goals. Barriers to providing SMS included lack of collaboration between providers and skeptical attitudes towards prevention and outreach. Conclusions and implications Implementation of SMS can be improved by an understanding of the elements that enhance its provision: (1) initiatives seeking to improve collaboration and integration between providers; (2) implementation of an integrated HIT system; and (3) ongoing training of healthcare professionals. PMID:22839353

  15. The Role of Digital Engagement in the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sora; Burford, Sally; Nolan, Christopher; Hanlen, Leif

    2016-12-01

    Mobile tablet devices and applications have the potential to help type 2 diabetes patients in the self-management of their disease. However, users must be equipped with an appropriate level of digital literacy in order to use the tools and technologies effectively. This study reports from an exploratory mobile health (mHealth) pilot program that was conducted at a large, local clinic in Canberra, Australia. The research team provided digital training and support opportunities to participants as part of the longitudinal study. The aim of the research project was to examine the diverse range of participant digital literacy and how it impacted on self-management and the adoption of mHealth. Mid-study results from online surveys conducted at 2 and 5 months after enrolling 28 participants in the pilot program revealed that digital engagement is crucial to the patients' participation in mHealth activities. Support, by way of digital training, was essential to the patients' sustainable use of the devices and applications for health care.

  16. Social organization of self-management support of persons with diabetes: a health systems comparison.

    PubMed

    Schiøtz, Michaela; Frølich, Anne; Krasnik, Allan; Taylor, Warren; Hsu, John

    2012-09-01

    Identify important organizational elements for providing self-management support (SMS). Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in two healthcare systems. Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the Danish Health Care System. 36 managers and healthcare professionals in the two healthcare systems. Elements important to providing self-management support to persons with diabetes. Healthcare professionals' provision of SMS was influenced by healthcare system organization and their perceptions of SMS, the capability and responsibility of healthcare systems, and their roles in the healthcare organization. Enabling factors for providing SMS included: strong leadership; aligned incentives; use of an integrated health information technology (HIT) system; multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams; ongoing training for healthcare professionals; outreach; and quality goals. Barriers to providing SMS included lack of collaboration between providers and skeptical attitudes towards prevention and outreach. Implementation of SMS can be improved by an understanding of the elements that enhance its provision: (1) initiatives seeking to improve collaboration and integration between providers; (2) implementation of an integrated HIT system; and (3) ongoing training of healthcare professionals.

  17. Incorporating Cultural Perspectives into Diabetes Self-Management Programs for East Asian Immigrants: A Mixed-Study Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2016-04-01

    It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care.

  18. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  19. Effect of a Health Literacy-Considered Diabetes Self-Management Program for Older Adults in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jin; Song, Misoon; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-09-01

    The current randomized controlled study evaluated the effects of a health literacy-considered diabetes self-management program on diabetes-related parameters: diabetes self-management knowledge (DSK), diabetes health beliefs (DHB), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), diabetes self-management behavior (DSMB), and diabetes biomarkers. Fifty-one Korean older adults with diabetes completed 12 weekly sessions that were developed based on their health literacy and health-related characteristics. The results indicate significant posttest differences between groups in DSK (p = 0.046), DSE (p = 0.046), DSMB (p = 0.012), and the DSMB self-monitored blood glucose subscale (p = 0.002). Significant pre-post changes between groups were observed in the DHB benefit subscale (p = 0.043), DSE (p = 0.006), DSMB (p = 0.008), DSMB diet (p = 0.029), and the self-monitored blood glucose subscale (p < 0.001). A significant pre-post difference was observed in the intervention group's HbA1c levels (p = 0.008). The program effectively improved participants' DSK, DHB, DSE, and DSMB values, which may be helpful for improving HbA1c levels. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(5):215-225.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Comorbidity "depression" in heart failure - Potential target of patient education and self-management.

    PubMed

    De Vecchis, Renato; Manginas, Athanassios; Noutsias, Ewa; Tschöpe, Carsten; Noutsias, Michel

    2017-02-15

    The progress of the pharmacological and device treatment of heart failure (HF) has led to a substantial improvement of mortality and rehospitalization. Further potential for improvement may be heralded in the post-discharge management of HF patients, including patient education for self-management of HF. The study by Musekamp et al. is among the first publications providing evidence that improvements in self-management skills may improve outcomes of HF patients. It is concluded that multimodal approaches addressing comorbidities in HF patients with novel concepts, and by optimal and specific HF management, including patient education, may ultimately contribute to substantial improvement of HF prognosis.

  1. Improving Diabetes Management With a Patient Portal: Qualitative Study of a Diabetes Self-Management Portal

    PubMed Central

    Dupak, Kourtney; Kuehner, Zachary; Leonard, Kevin; Lovrics, Emily; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective management and care of diabetes is crucial to reducing associated risks such as heart disease and kidney failure. With increasing access and use of the Internet, online chronic disease management is being explored as a means of providing patients with support and the necessary tools to monitor and manage their disease. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the experience of patients and providers using an online diabetes management portal for patients. Methods Participants were recruited from a large sample population of 887 for a follow-up questionnaire to be completed after 6 months of using the patient portal. Participants were presented with the option to participate in an additional interview and, if the participant agreed, a time and date was scheduled for the interview. A 5-item, open-ended questionnaire was used to capture providers' opinions of the patient portal. Providers included general practitioners (GPs), nurses, nurse practitioners (NPs), dieticians, diabetes educators (DECs), and other clinical staff. Results A total of 854 patients were consented for the questionnaire. Seventeen (8 male, 9 female) patients agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Sixty-four health care providers completed the five open-ended questions; however, an average of 48.2 responses were recorded per question. Four major themes were identified and will be discussed in this paper. These themes have been classified as: facilitators of disease management, barriers to portal use, patient-provider communication and relationship, and recommendations for portal improvements. Conclusions This qualitative study shows that online chronic disease management portals increase patient access to information and engagement in their health care, but improvements in the portal itself may improve usability and reduce attrition. Furthermore, this study identifies a grey area that exists in the roles that GPs and AHPs should play in the facilitation of

  2. Twice- rather than once-daily basal insulin is associated with better glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes mellitus 12 months after skills-based structured education in insulin self-management.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, H E; Jacques, R M; Gardner, K J; Amiel, S A; Mansell, P

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the relationship between basal insulin regimen and glycaemic outcomes 12 months after skills-based structured education in the UK Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme for Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Retrospective analysis of data from 892 DAFNE participants from 11 UK centres. Mean HbA1c 12 months after DAFNE was lower in those using twice- rather than once-daily basal insulin after correcting for differences in baseline HbA1c , age and duration of diabetes; difference -2 (95% CI -3 to -1) mmol/mol [-0.2 (-0.3 to -0.1)%], P = 0.009. The greatest fall in HbA1c of -5 (-7 to -3) mmol/mol [-0.4 (-0.6 to -0.3)%], P < 0.001 occurred in those with less good baseline control, HbA1c  ≥ 58 mmol/mol, who switched from once- to twice-daily basal insulin. There was no difference in the 12-month HbA1c between users of glargine, detemir and NPH insulin after correcting for other variables. Relative risk of severe hypoglycaemia fell by 76% and ketoacidosis by 63% 12 months after DAFNE. The rate of severe hypoglycaemia fell from 0.82 to 0.23 events/patient year in twice-daily basal insulin users. In the group with greatest fall in HbA1c , the estimated relative risk for severe hypoglycaemia in twice-daily basal insulin users versus once daily at 12 months was 1.72 (0.88-3.36, P = 0.110). After structured education in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, use of basal insulin twice rather than once daily was associated with lower HbA1c , independent of insulin type, with significant reductions in severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis in all groups. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  3. The Asheville Project: participants' perceptions of factors contributing to the success of a patient self-management diabetes program.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Daniel G; Martin, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    To ascertain patients', providers', and managers' perceptions of the factors that contributed to the success of the Asheville Project. One-time focus groups of patients and diabetes care providers and individual interviews with managers involved in the project. The City of Asheville and Mission-St. Joseph's Health System (MSJ), Asheville, N.C. Twenty-one patients with diabetes who were employees of the two self-insured employers participating in the Asheville Project; four specially trained pharmacists who provided diabetes-related pharmaceutical care and one diabetes educator, all of whom received reimbursement for their services; six managers employed by the City of Asheville or MSJ who were involved in the project. A trained facilitator conducted four focus groups and six manager interviews in September 2001. Each session lasted 60 to 90 minutes, and the facilitator used a standard list of open-ended questions. The focus group sessions were recorded for subsequent analysis. Perceptions of focus group participants and managers of how the Asheville Project enabled patients with diabetes to become more responsible and successful in self-managing their condition. Focus group participants and managers were enthusiastic about their experiences with the project. Patients valued the relationships they established with their pharmacist or diabetes educator; as a result of these providers' support, patients felt more in control of their lives and were healthier. The waived co-payments for diabetes medications and related supplies was the decisive incentive for getting many patients to enroll in the project. For the providers, the project was a source of professional growth and satisfaction. Managers felt the project helped them fulfill their health care responsibilities to their employees, reduced overall costs, enhanced their organizations' reputations in health care delivery, and resulted in less absenteeism. Patients, providers, and managers in the Asheville Project

  4. Engagement in a diabetes self-management website: usage patterns and generalizability of program use.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Russell E; Christiansen, Steven M; Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane K; Woolley, Tim; Faber, Andrew J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Strycker, Lisa; Toobert, Deborah; Dickman, Jennifer

    2011-01-25

    Increased access to the Internet and the availability of efficacious eHealth interventions offer great promise for assisting adults with diabetes to change and maintain health behaviors. A key concern is whether levels of engagement in Internet programs are sufficient to promote and sustain behavior change. This paper used automated data from an ongoing Internet-based diabetes self-management intervention study to calculate various indices of website engagement. The multimedia website involved goal setting, action planning, and self-monitoring as well as offering features such as "Ask an Expert" to enhance healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence. We also investigated participant characteristics associated with website engagement and the relationship between website use and 4-month behavioral and health outcomes. We report on participants in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) who were randomized to receive (1) the website alone (n = 137) or (2) the website plus human support (n = 133) that included additional phone calls and group meetings. The website was available in English and Spanish and included features to enhance engagement and user experience. A number of engagement variables were calculated for each participant including number of log-ins, number of website components visited at least twice, number of days entering self-monitoring data, number of visits to the "Action Plan" section, and time on the website. Key outcomes included exercise, healthy eating, and medication adherence as well as body mass index (BMI) and biological variables related to cardiovascular disease risk. Of the 270 intervention participants, the average age was 60, the average BMI was 34.9 kg/m², 130 (48%) were female, and 62 (23%) self-reported Latino ethnicity. The number of participant visits to the website over 4 months ranged from 1 to 119 (mean 28 visits, median 18). Usage decreased from 70% of participants visiting at least weekly during the first 6 weeks

  5. Self-management practices among type 2 diabetes patients attending primary health-care centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Johani, K A; Kendall, G E; Snider, P D

    2015-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of self-management activities among people who have type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities questionnaire was used to identify self-management practices among 210 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only 15% of participants had a blood glucose level indicative of good glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin ≤ 7 mmol/L). Most reported that they took their medication as prescribed, but many demonstrated low levels of compliance with other self-management practices (overall mean 3.7 days per week). Males and those with lower incomes were less likely to practise self-care activities. Most were given basic advice to undertake self-care activities, but only some were given more detailed information. There are opportunities to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus self-management practices in Saudi Arabia and increase the proportion of patients who achieve good glycaemic control.

  6. Comparison of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Kristeller, Jean L; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady

    2014-04-01

    Mindful eating may be an effective intervention for increasing awareness of hunger and satiety cues, improving eating regulation and dietary patterns, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and promoting weight loss. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), which addresses knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations for improving food choices, also may be an effective intervention for diabetes self-care. Yet few studies have compared the impact of mindful eating to a DSME-based treatment approach on patient outcomes. Adults 35 to 65 years old with type 2 diabetes for ≥1 year not requiring insulin therapy were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to treatment group. The impact of a group-based 3-month mindful eating intervention (MB-EAT-D; n = 27) to a group-based 3-month DSME "Smart Choices" (SC) intervention (n = 25) postintervention and at 3-month follow-up was evaluated. Repeated-measures ANOVA with contrast analysis compared change in outcomes across time. There was no significant difference between groups in weight change. Significant improvement in depressive symptoms, outcome expectations, nutrition and eating-related self-efficacy, and cognitive control and disinhibition of control regarding eating behaviors occurred for both groups (all p < .0125) at 3-month follow-up. The SC group had greater increase in nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy than the MB-EAT-D group (all p < .05) at 3-month follow-up. MB-EAT-D had significant increase in mindfulness, whereas the SC group had significant increase in fruit and vegetable consumption at study end (all p < .0125). Both SC and MB-EAT-D were effective treatments for diabetes self-management. The availability of mindful eating and DSME-based approaches offers patients greater choices in meeting their self-care needs.

  7. Prediction of Self-Management Behavior among Iranian Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action along with Self-Efficacy (ETRA).

    PubMed

    Didarloo, A R; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Habibzadeh, H; Niknami, Sh; Pourali, R

    2012-02-01

    Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy to control diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors of self-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women with type 2 diabetes in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobability sampling was enrolled. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention along with self- care behaviors). Reliability and validity of the instruments using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (the values of them were more than 0.70) and a panel of experts were tested. A statistical significant correlation existed between independent constructs of proposed model and modelrelated dependent constructs, as ETRA model along with its related external factors explained 41.5% of variance of intentions and 25.3% of variance of actual behavior. Among constructs of model, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes, as it lonely explained 31.3% of variance of intentions and 11.4% of variance of self-care behavior. The high ability of the extended theory of reasoned action with self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining diabetes mellitus self management can be a base for educational intervention. So to improve diabetes self management behavior and to control the disease, use of educational interventions based on proposed model is suggested.

  8. Self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative investigation from the perspective of participants in a nurse-led, shared-care programme in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Moser, Albine; van der Bruggen, Harry; Widdershoven, Guy; Spreeuwenberg, Cor

    2008-03-18

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem. Little is known about how people with type 2 diabetes experience self-management in a nurse-led, shared-care programme. The purpose of this article is to report an empirically grounded conceptualization of self-management in the context of autonomy of people with type 2 diabetes. This study has a qualitative descriptive, and exploratory design with an inductive approach. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews. The sample consisted of older adults with type 2 diabetes in a nurse-led, shared-care setting. The data analysis was completed by applying the constant comparative analysis as recommended in grounded theory. People with type 2 diabetes use three kinds of self-management processes: daily, off-course, and preventive. The steps for daily self-management are adhering, adapting, and acting routinely. The steps for off-course self-management are becoming aware, reasoning, deciding, acting, and evaluating. The steps for preventive self-management are experiencing, learning, being cautious, and putting into practice. These processes are interwoven and recurring. Self-management consists of a complex and dynamic set of processes and it is deeply embedded in one's unique life situation. Support from diabetes specialist nurses and family caregivers is a necessity of self-managing diabetes.

  9. Enterprising Career Education: The Power of Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Anki

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an account of how people's career management is given prominence in contemporary European policy documents pertaining to career education for entrepreneurship in higher education and in vocational education and training. This study concerns the ways in which policy discourses of career management and governmental practices…

  10. Enterprising Career Education: The Power of Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Anki

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an account of how people's career management is given prominence in contemporary European policy documents pertaining to career education for entrepreneurship in higher education and in vocational education and training. This study concerns the ways in which policy discourses of career management and governmental practices…

  11. Self-Management Skills: An Important Link to Successful Special Education Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process of teaching the self-management strategies, self-determination, and self-monitoring to chronically misbehaved students from the perspective of a secondary special education teacher. The investigation used a purposeful sample to select an urban high school setting and a tenured special education…

  12. Self-Management of Social Initiations by Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brooke M.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social…

  13. Self-Management Skills: An Important Link to Successful Special Education Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process of teaching the self-management strategies, self-determination, and self-monitoring to chronically misbehaved students from the perspective of a secondary special education teacher. The investigation used a purposeful sample to select an urban high school setting and a tenured special education…

  14. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  15. Patient education. Timeless principles of learning: a solid foundation for enhancing chronic disease self-management.

    PubMed

    Suter, Paula M; Suter, W Newton

    2008-02-01

    The use of evidence-based principles of learning can contribute to the empowerment of patients as they adopt self-management skills aligned with healthy behaviors. This article, jointly written by a nurse and an educator, describes these timeless principles and how home care clinicians and patients benefit from their use.

  16. Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students' Perceptions of Process and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2005-01-01

    Background: Self-managed learning groups are increasingly used in higher education. There is a need for more systematic investigation of university students' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of this learning method. Aims: This study aimed to identify the domains of process issues that students perceive as relevant to their participation…

  17. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  18. Mobile Phone-Based Self-Management Tools for Type 2 Diabetes: The Few Touch Application

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Tatara, Naoe; Østengen, Geir; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Background Mobile phones and other mobile information and communication technology applications and technologies hold great potential as a basis for powerful patient-operated self-management tools within diabetes. The work presented shows how such tools can be designed for supporting lifestyle changes among people with type 2 diabetes and how these were perceived by a group of 12 patients during a 6-month period. Method The study used focus groups, interviews, feasibility testing, questionnaires, paper prototyping, and prototyping of both software and hardware components. The design process was iterative, addressing the various elements several times at an increasing level of detail. The final test of the application was done qualitatively in everyday settings in a cohort of 12 people with type 2 diabetes, aged 44–70 (four men and eight women). Results A mobile phone-based system called the Few Touch application was developed. The system includes an off-the-shelf blood glucose (BG) meter, a tailor-made step counter, and software for recording food habits and providing feedback on how users perform in relation to their own personal goals. User feedback from the 6-month user intervention demonstrated good usability of the tested system, and several of the participants adjusted their medication, food habits, and/or physical activity. Of the five different functionalities, the cohort considered the BG sensor system the best. Conclusions It was shown that it is possible and feasible to design an application where several sensors and feedback applications are integrated in an overall system. The presented Few Touch application challenges people with type 2 diabetes to think about how they can improve their health, providing them with a way to capture and analyze relevant personal information about their disease. The half-year user intervention demonstrated that the system had a motivational effect on the users. PMID:20307393

  19. An empowering approach to promote the quality of life and self-management among type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Azar; Alhani, Fatemeh; Shojaeazadeh, Davoud; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Moazam, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most serious health concerns and policy agendas around the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that it will likely continue to increase globally. Diabetes is strongly associated with the patients’ unhealthy lifestyle and behavioral patterns and socio-economic changes. New model of thinking is required to recognize whether the patients are in control of and responsible for the daily self-management of diabetes. Such a new approach should be based on ‘empowerment and involvement’ to be more applicable to daily activities in diabetic patients. Rapid changes toward patient empowerment and increasing involvement of patients in their care plan indicate more emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion and education than on mere disease and its treatment. Such changes make a step toward pervasive sense of responsibility among patients about their illness for their daily activities. Using the empowerment approach, healthcare professionals would help patients make informed decisions in accordance with their particular circumstances. Patient empowerment implies a patient-centered, collaborative approach that helps patients determine and develop the inherent capacity to be responsible for their own life. Empowerment is something more than certain health behaviors. Empowerment is more than an intervention, technique or strategy. It is rather a vision that helps people change their behavior and make decisions about their health care. It has the potential to improve the overall health and well-being of individuals and communities, and to change the socio-environmental factors that cause poor health conditions. The main concept of this change is the tendency to change. PMID:25861658

  20. Evaluating the Effect of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Self-Management in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Shima; Amouzegar, Atieh; Amiri, Parisa; Karbalaeifar, Ronak; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran. PMID:27478845

  1. Improved self-management skills in Chinese diabetes patients through a comprehensive health literacy strategy: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang Hong; Rothman, Russell L; Li, Rui; Chen, Yingyao; Xia, Qinghua; Fang, Hong; Gao, Junling; Yan, Yujie; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yinan; Zhou, Fangjia; Wang, Wei; Chen, Minling; Liu, Xiao Yu; Liu, Xiao Na

    2014-12-20

    Diabetes self-management often involves the interpretation and application of oral, written, or quantitative information. Numerous diabetes patients in China have limited health literacy, which likely leads to poorer clinical outcomes. This study is designed to examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of addressing health literacy to improve self-management skills and glycemic control in Chinese diabetes patients. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in 20 community healthcare sites in Shanghai, China. Overall, 800 diabetes patients will be randomized into intervention and control arms and will have a baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) assay and undergo a baseline survey which includes measures of health literacy and diabetes numeracy using revised Chinese versions of the Health Literacy Management Scale and Diabetes Numeracy Test Scale. During the 1-year period of intervention, while the control group will receive usual care, the intervention group will be supplemented with a comprehensive health literacy strategy which includes i) training healthcare providers in effective health communication skills that address issues related to low literacy, and ii) use of an interactive Diabetes Education Toolkit to improve patient understanding and behaviors. Assessments will be conducted at both patient and healthcare provider levels, and will take place upon admission and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of intervention. The primary outcome will be the improvement in HbA1c between Intervention group and Control group patients. Secondary outcomes at the patient level will include improvement in i) clinical outcomes (blood pressure, fasting lipids, body mass index, weight, smoking status), ii) patient reported self-management behaviors, and iii) patient-reported self-efficacy. Outcomes at the provider level will include: i) provider satisfaction and ii) intensity and type of care provided. The effects of the intervention will be examined in

  2. The 600-step program for type 1 diabetes self-management in youth: the magnitude of the self-management task.

    PubMed

    Coffen, Ronald D

    2009-09-01

    This article demonstrates the complexity of the type 1 diabetes regimen and describes the physician's role in safely promoting self-management of diabetes by youth. Literature describing type 1 diabetes and the required regimen, issues related to regimen adherence by youth, demonstration of the magnitude of the regimen, and implications for physicians are addressed. A task analysis and tool for physicians is presented that contains over 600 tasks. Given the magnitude of the regimen, issues related to the physician's promotion of the gradual transfer of regimen control to youth are illustrated. The importance of understanding broad areas of the regimen (eg, "insulin injection") as not one task but many is emphasized, as is the need to explore adherence within regimen areas to pinpoint problems related to poor metabolic control. The article also examines how managed care influences the approach that a physician may take to communicate the requirements of the complex regimen to youth and parents. It is concluded that a developmentally sensitive approach must be taken that promotes youths' internalization of the importance of regimen tasks, and suggestions are provided for accomplishing this in a gradual manner that promotes developmentally appropriate involvement of youth in the regimen without premature responsibility.

  3. Willingness of patients with diabetes to use an ICT-based self-management tool: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Igarashi, Ayumi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Satoko; Fujita, Hideo; Kimura, Shigeko; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Waki, Hironori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of the willingness of patients with diabetes to use a self-management tool based on information and communication technology (ICT) such as personal computers, smartphones, and mobile phones; and to examine the patient characteristics associated with that willingness. Research design and methods We conducted a cross-sectional interview survey of 312 adults with diabetes at a university hospital in an urban area in Japan. Participants were classified into 2 groups: those who were willing to use an ICT-based self-management tool and those who were unwilling. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the willingness, including clinical and social factors, current use of ICT, self-management practices, self-efficacy, and diabetes-related emotional distress. Results The mean age of the 312 participants was 66.3 years (SD=11.5) and 198 (63%) were male. Most of the participants (93%) had type 2 diabetes. Although only 51 (16%) currently used ICT-based self-management tools, a total of 157 (50%) expressed the willingness to use such a tool. Factors associated with the willingness included: not having nephropathy (OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.58); outpatient visits once a month or more (vs less than once a month, OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.99); current use of personal computers and/or smartphones (OR=4.91, 95% CI 2.69 to 8.98); and having greater diabetes-related emotional distress (OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20). Conclusions Approximately half of the patients showed interest in using an ICT-based self-management tool. Willing patients may expect ICT-based self-management tools to complement outpatient visits and to make self-management easier. Starting with patients who display the willingness factors might optimize programs based on such tools. PMID:28243450

  4. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes.

  5. Self-Management Support Interventions That Are Clinically Linked and Technology Enabled: Can They Successfully Prevent and Treat Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D. Patnoe

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. PMID:21722596

  6. An evaluation framework and a pilot study of a mobile platform for diabetes self-management: insights from pediatric users.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Jaladi, Sravani; Kim, Sean; Kumar, Saumitra; Orbeta, Philip; Rudolph, Kate; Tran, Tony

    2013-01-01

    According to WHO, pediatric diabetes is a rising global public health problem, with increasing impact on developing nations. This study summarizes a multidimensional, scalable pilot evaluation of a diabetes self-management platform combining mobile technology with social networking to capture four key metrics of Type 1 diabetes self-management, associated social interactions, and gaming features providing targeted feedback to 8 pediatric users. Based on their 2-month interaction with the application, we analyze click-stream data from social interactions, key health metrics, text comments, and usability and satisfaction surveys to evaluate engagement with the platform and effectiveness in controlling blood glucose using a product-process-program framework. Our preliminary results indicate that this framework was successful in demonstrating the potential of the mobile health platform to effectively leverage the growing use of mobile applications and social media to present a unique benefit that engaged pediatric users and provided useful insights for self-health management.

  7. Education project to improve venous stasis self-management knowledge.

    PubMed

    González, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' knowledge of chronic venous disease, venous ulcer occurrence and recurrence, and self-care at baseline, immediately following, 2, and 9 weeks after an educational intervention. The study sample comprised 30 patients diagnosed with venous ulcers. The research setting was an outpatient facility specializing in wound care located in South Florida; the educational intervention occurred in subjects' homes. Single group before and after intervention research design. Patients diagnosed with a first-time venous ulcer were assessed regarding their disease and self-care knowledge. Assessments were completed at baseline, immediately following an educational intervention, and during 2- and 9-week follow-up home visits. In addition to evaluating patient knowledge, wound healing (evaluated by the treating nurse or reported by the patient) was assessed at 2- and 9-week follow-up and wound recurrence was assessed at 9-week follow-up. The educational intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in knowledge scores (P = .002). This change persisted when patients were evaluated during 2- and 9-week follow-up visits (P = .003). In addition, half of patients who completed the educational intervention remained free of recurrence when evaluated at 9 weeks. Results suggest that patient education related to venous ulcers improves knowledge regarding the disease process and self-care and reduces recurrence when measured at 9 weeks postintervention.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of automated telephone self-management support with nurse care management among patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Handley, Margaret A; Shumway, Martha; Schillinger, Dean

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of an automated telephone self-management support with nurse care management (ATSM) intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes, which was tested among patients receiving primary care in publicly funded (safety net) clinics, focusing on non-English speakers. We performed cost analyses in the context of a randomized trial among primary care patients comparing the effects of ATSM (n = 112) and usual care (n = 114) on diabetes-related outcomes in 4 San Francisco safety net clinics. ATSM uses interactive phone technology to provide surveillance, patient education, and one-on-one counseling, and was implemented in 3 languages for a 9-month period. Cost utility was examined using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) derived from changes in scores on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. We also examined cost-effectiveness for costs associated with a 10% increase in the proportion of patients meeting diabetes-specific public health goals for increasing exercise, as recommended by Healthy People 2010 and the American Diabetes Association. The annual cost of the ATSM intervention per QALY gained, relative to usual care, was $65,167 for start-up and ongoing implementation costs combined, and $32,333 for ongoing implementation costs alone. In sensitivity analyses, costs per QALY ranged from $29,402 to $72,407. The per-patient cost to achieve a 10% increase in the proportion of intervention patients meeting American Diabetes Association exercise guidelines was estimated to be $558 when all costs were considered and $277 when only ongoing costs were considered. The ATSM intervention for diverse patients with diabetes had a cost utility for functional outcomes similar to that of many other accepted interventions targeted at diabetes prevention and treatment, and achieved public health physical activity objectives at modest costs. Because a considerable proportion of costs were fixed, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness estimates

  9. Diabetes Medication Assistance Service: the pharmacist's role in supporting patient self-management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of self-management educational interventions for osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Pelling, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability, and is the most common form of arthritis in the Western world. The most common joint to be affected is the knee. Pain and functional disability are common symptoms, which can lead to reduced quality of life and increase the risk of further morbidity.Current treatment aims to educate patients about the management of OA, reduce pain, improve function, decrease disability and reduce the progression of the disease. Education with clients has been described as a set of planned educational activities designed to improve patients' health behaviours and/or health status. The purpose of self-education is to maintain or improve health, or, in some cases, to slow deterioration by increasing participant's perception of self efficacy defined as an ability to control or manage various aspects of OA. To date, there is no systematic review of the literature undertaken to identify the effectiveness of self-management educational activities for osteoarthritis of the knee. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management educational interventions on function and quality of life for adult subjects with OA of the knee. A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken on databases available from University of South Australia from their inception to January 2007. Randomised controlled trials or clinical controlled trials were sought which evaluated any self management interventions for osteoarthritis knee.Critical appraisal of study quality was undertaken using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instruments. Data extraction was via the Joanna Briggs Institute standard data extraction form for evidence of effectiveness, and Review Manager Software was used to calculate comparative statistics. Thirteen trials were included in the review. Trials were clinically and methodologically heterogeneous. Pooled results indicate evidence of a beneficial effect from self management

  11. Web-based self-management with and without coaching for type 2 diabetes patients in primary care: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-management is recognized as the cornerstone of overall diabetes management. Web-based self-management programs have the potential of supporting type 2 diabetes patients with managing their diabetes and reducing the workload for the care provider, where the addition of online coaching could improve patient motivation and reduce program attrition. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a web-based self-management program with coaching will prove more effective on improving patient self-management behavior and clinical outcome measures than a web-based self-management program without coaching. Methods The effects of a web-based self-management program with and without coaching will be tested with a nested randomized controlled trial within a healthcare group in the Netherlands. In one year 220 type 2 diabetes patients will be randomized into an intervention group (n = 110) or a control group (n = 110). The control group will receive only the online self-management program. The intervention group will receive the online self-management program and additional online coaching. Participants will be followed for one year, with follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The intervention being tested is set to support type 2 diabetes patients with their diabetes self-management and is expected to have beneficial effects on self-care activities, well being and clinical outcomes. When proven effective this self-management support program could be offered to other health care groups and their type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4064 PMID:24238104

  12. Education from a Workplace Perspective: Issues of Self-Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfer, Ruth

    Changing conditions in the workplace and the impact of these changes on the individual worker are examined in this paper, which also discusses the implications of these changes for education and training. Major workplace trends likely to continue through the year 2000 include changes in work force demographics, in the industry mix, and in the…

  13. Perceived Barriers and Potential Strategies to Improve Self-Management Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Community-Engaged Research Approach.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Tanjala S; Lynch, Thomas J; Bone, Lee; Segal, Jodi B; Evans, Crystal; Longo, Daniel R; Bridges, John F P

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality that disproportionately affects adults living in urban areas in the USA. Our goal was to actively engage community members in research to identify strategies to improve T2D self-management in an urban community in Baltimore, MD. We partnered with the Johns Hopkins Community Research Advisory Council to establish our stakeholder advisory board-the Diabetes Action Board (DAB). In response to input from DAB members regarding the best approaches for conducting community-centered T2D research, we conducted three 90-min focus groups of local adults living with T2D to identify ways to improve self-management. DAB members were involved in each stage of the research, including development of the protocol and materials, participant recruitment, and interpretation and dissemination of findings. In total, 24 adults with self-reported T2D (75 % participation rate; 79 % female) residing in the local area participated in focus groups. Participants reported that barriers within their daily home and work environments, inadequate neighborhood resources, and suboptimal healthcare quality hindered their self-management. Reported strategies that may help to improve self-management included social support from family members, providers, and community members; improved access to healthy food; and wide availability of free or low-cost T2D educational materials and classes within the local area. Our study demonstrates a successful mechanism for engaging community members in the design, implementation, and dissemination of T2D research. This research approach was beneficial for building a sustainable partnership to support future work in the local community.

  14. The influence of culture on diabetes self-management: perspectives of Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Elizabeth; Carter, Bernie; Pettigrew, Judith

    2008-03-01

    To present the findings of a study which explored the influence of culture on (type 2) diabetes self-management in Gujarati Muslim men who reside in northwest England. This study was informed by an embodied perspective of culture, in which culture is grounded in the body and self. This contrasts with some contemporary health research and policy which adopts an oversimplified perspective, portraying culture as static and deterministic and being responsible for non-adherent self-management behaviours. A case-study approach was used, which combined interview and participant observation methods. Data were collected from Gujarati Muslim men about their lived experiences of diabetes self-management. These accounts, along with further narrative data from 'significant other' participants, were analysed over several cycles. Two central concepts guide the results: embodied culture and dynamic culture. These concepts reflect the subjective and contextual nature of culture and are illustrated in the themes 'past experiences and socio-economic factors', 'social and gendered roles' and 'personal choice and contextual factors'. The findings highlight that the complexity of life means that culture never exists in isolation, but is one of the many factors that a man negotiates to inform his diabetes self-management. We draw attention to the dissonance between the way culture is presented in some government policy and research, and the way it is understood in an embodied approach. The National Service Framework for Diabetes advocates the provision of individualized culturally appropriate care, and in this paper, we make suggestions as to how an embodied approach can be incorporated within the framework. Nurses have an integral role in implementing the National Service Framework for Diabetes. This paper contributes to the debate about how nurses can best deliver this framework to a diverse patient population.

  15. Addressing the needs of Latinos with type 2 diabetes through online patient education.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Sharon A; Gutierrez Ocampo, Alejandro; Blanco, Kenia Yazmin Reyna; Lewis, Virginia; Cupertino, A Paula; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Type 2 diabetes are increasingly turning to the Web for information about diabetes and self-management. These sites, however, fail to address the cultural and linguistic needs of the growing community of Latinos with diabetes. The Juntos Controlamos la Diabetes Web site was designed as a low-cost patient education tool to be used by patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers to provide ongoing information about diabetes self-management tailored to the needs of the regional Latino community.

  16. Impact of a social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived patients: a qualitative evaluation of the intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vissenberg, C; Stronks, K; Nijpels, G; Uitewaal, P J M; Middelkoop, B J C; Kohinor, M J E; Hartman, M A; Nierkens, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a need for effective interventions that improve diabetes self-management (DSM) among socioeconomically deprived patients with type 2 diabetes. The group-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes (PTWD) aimed to increase social support for DSM and decrease social influences hindering DSM (eg, peer pressure, social norms) in patients living in deprived neighbourhoods. Through a qualitative process evaluation, this paper aims to study whether this intervention changed social support and social influences, and which elements of the intervention contributed to this. Methods The intervention group (IG) was compared with a standard group-based educational intervention (control group, CG). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with participants (multiethnic sample) and 24 interviews with group leaders were conducted. Interviews were coded and analysed using MAXQDA according to framework analysis. Results Patients in the IG experienced more emotional support from group members and more instrumental and appraisal support from relatives than those in the CG. Also, they were better able to recognise and cope with influences that hinder their DSM, exhibited more positive norms towards DSM and increased their priority regarding DSM and their adherence. Finally, the engagement in DSM by relatives of participants increased. Creating trust between group members, skills training, practising together and actively involving relatives through action plans contributed to these changes. Conclusions A group-based intervention aimed at creating trust, practising together and involving relatives has the potential to increase social support and diminish social influences hindering DSM in socioeconomically deprived patients with diabetes. Promising elements of the intervention were skills training and providing feedback using role-playing exercises in group sessions with patients, as well as the involvement of patients' significant others in self-management tasks, and

  17. Association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and number of attendances in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Soati, Fatemeh; Khanegha, Atefeh Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and Number of attendances in type 1 diabetic patients in Rasht, Guilan Province - North of Iran. Data was derived from chart reviews of 92 patients. Patients' glycosylated hemoglobin level and their number of health care attendances during the last 6 months were recorded. The four part questionnaires covered patients' demographic data, knowledge, perceived control and health belief of diabetes. A blood sample was taken from each patient. There was no significant relationship between demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, duration of the disease, place of living and family history with knowledge, health belief and locus of control (P > 0.05). Also the results didn't show any significant association between the complicated group and their knowledge and health belief (P > 0.05) while it was significantly related to their locus of control (P < 0.004). The majority of the samples had poor knowledge (59.8%), health belief (71.7%) and locus of control (62%). There was no significant relationship between patients' knowledge, health belief and locus of control with their glycosylated hemoglobin level, number of referrals and self-management. It is suggested by the present survey that locus of control, health belief and knowledge of patients are not found to have no practical effect upon diabetic self-management behavior or outcomes, according to the variables used and care for the diabetic patients must be tailored to individual requirements.

  18. Association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and number of attendances in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Soati, Fatemeh; Khanegha, Atefeh Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and Number of attendances in type 1 diabetic patients in Rasht, Guilan Province - North of Iran. Data was derived from chart reviews of 92 patients. Patients’ glycosylated hemoglobin level and their number of health care attendances during the last 6 months were recorded. The four part questionnaires covered patients’ demographic data, knowledge, perceived control and health belief of diabetes. A blood sample was taken from each patient. There was no significant relationship between demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, duration of the disease, place of living and family history with knowledge, health belief and locus of control (P > 0.05). Also the results didn’t show any significant association between the complicated group and their knowledge and health belief (P > 0.05) while it was significantly related to their locus of control (P < 0.004). The majority of the samples had poor knowledge (59.8%), health belief (71.7%) and locus of control (62%). There was no significant relationship between patients’ knowledge, health belief and locus of control with their glycosylated hemoglobin level, number of referrals and self-management. It is suggested by the present survey that locus of control, health belief and knowledge of patients are not found to have no practical effect upon diabetic self-management behavior or outcomes, according to the variables used and care for the diabetic patients must be tailored to individual requirements. PMID:23844271

  19. A cultural lens to understanding daily experiences with type 2 diabetes self-management among clinic patients in M'bour, Senegal.

    PubMed

    BeLue, Rhonda; Diaw, Mor; Ndao, Fatou; Okoror, Titilayo; Degboe, Arnold; Abiero, Beatrice

    Diabetes is a steadily increasing threat in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Factors such as urbanization, obesity, physical inactivity, and inadequate access to healthcare are believed to contribute to the increasing burden of diabetes. Interventions that optimize diabetes self-management are critically important since obtaining diabetes medications is challenging due to cost constraints and availability. Culture is a significant factor in shaping health behaviors such as diabetes self-management, where individual health behaviors operate in confluence with family, community, and social structures. This study examined experiences with diabetes self-management among clinic patients residing in M'bour, Senegal, using the PEN3 model as a cultural framework. Results indicate that financial challenges related to accessing medical care and adhering to the prescribed diabetic diet were the main barriers to diabetes management. Family dynamics serve as both supportive and inhibiting forces that influence the aforementioned barriers.

  20. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    disease self-management, and health.

  1. Effectiveness of asthma education with and without a self-management plan in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Palma, Tatiana; Zamorano, Alejandra; Arancibia, Francisca; Bustos, María-Francisca; Silva, Maria José; Cardenas, Consuelo; De La Barra, Pedro; Puente, Victoria; Cerda, Jaime; Castro-Rodriguez, José A; Prado, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Background. Formal education in primary care can reduce asthma exacerbations. However, there are few studies in hospitalized children, with none originating in Latin America. Methods. A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate whether a full education with self-management plan (ESM) was more effective than an education without self-management plan (E) in reducing asthma hospitalization. Children (5 to 15 years of age) who were hospitalized for an asthma attack were divided in two groups. Children in the E group received general instructions based on a booklet. Those in the ESM group received the same booklet plus a self-management guide and a puzzle game that reinforces the lessons learned in the booklet. Patients were interviewed every 3 months, by telephone, for one year. Interviewers recording the number of hospitalizations, exacerbations, and emergency visits for asthma and oral steroid burst uses. Results. From 88 children who met the inclusion criteria, 77 (86%) completed one year of follow-up (41 from E and 36 from ESM group). Overall, after one year, the hospitalization decreased by 66% and the inhaled corticosteroids therapy increased from 36% to 79%. At the end of the study, there was no difference in exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, or hospitalizations between the two groups. Conclusions. Asthma education with or without a self-management plan during asthma hospitalization were effective in reducing exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, and future rehospitalizations. This evidence supports the importance of providing a complete asthma education plan in any patient who is admitted for asthma exacerbation.

  2. The Systematic Design of a Behavioural Mobile Health Application for the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shivani; Morita, Plinio; Lewis, Gary F; Yu, Catherine; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-02-01

    Patients with diabetes often face serious complications due to limited self-management skills, the inability to adhere to care regimens, and psychosocial factors. Although regular self-monitoring of blood glucose is known to benefit patients receiving insulin therapy, its role in patients not treated with insulin has been unclear. However, recent studies have demonstrated that structured self-monitoring of blood glucose can significantly benefit patients who are not taking insulin, facilitating improved self-awareness and clinical decision making. We hypothesize that effective self-management by patients with type 2 diabetes who do not need insulin requires a behavioural intervention that enables the association between lifestyle behaviours, such as dietary intake and physical activity, and overall glycemic control. Mobile health applications (apps), coupled with wireless medical peripheral devices, can facilitate self-monitoring; deliver tailored, actionable knowledge; elicit positive behaviour changes and promote effective self-management of diabetes. Although existing apps incorporate tracking and feedback from healthcare providers, few attempt to elicit positive behaviour changes for the purposes of developing patients' self-care skills. The purpose of this article is to present a systematic approach to the design and development a diabetes self-management mobile app, which included 1) a scoping review of literature; 2) the development of an overarching theoretical approach and 3) validation of the app features through user-centred design methods. The resulting app, bant II, facilitates 1) self-monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, diet and weight; 2) identification of glycemic patterns in relation to lifestyle; 3) remedial decision making and 4) positive behaviour change through incentives.

  3. Analysis of social networks supporting the self-management of type 2 diabetes for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Mikaila M; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Fuller, Jeffrey; Rogers, Anne; Kralik, Debbie; Gregory, Sue

    2015-07-04

    People with mental illness have been identified as being more likely to experience type 2 diabetes and the complications arising from this, necessitating more complex chronic illness self-management. Social support has been identified as a significant factor in the successful adoption of lifestyle change for people with type 2 diabetes, however people with mental illness often have impoverished social networks leading to greater reliance upon professional care givers. This study maps the support provided by formal (paid and professional carers) and informal networks to people with mental illness and type 2 diabetes, comparing the experiences of people with a spouse with those without one. Interviews were conducted with 29 clients of a community nursing service with mental health problems who receive professional support to self-manage type 2 diabetes. Participants were asked to complete an egocentric social network map which involved mapping the people and services who support them to manage their health. Demographic data was collected as was data about co-morbidities and service use within the last 6 months. Network maps were supplemented by a series of open-ended questions about self-management practices, who supports these practices and what support they provide. Participants identified small social networks with few friendship ties. These networks had diminished due to illness. For people with a spouse, this person provided significant support for chronic illness self-management performing a range of daily care and illness management tasks. People without a spouse were more reliant on professional and paid care givers for daily care and illness management. People without a spouse also demonstrated greater reliance upon weak social ties for emotional support and social connection and often developed friendships with formal caregivers. Spousal support reduces the need for professional services. In the absence of a spouse, participants were more reliant upon paid

  4. Tailored Communication Within Mobile Apps for Diabetes Self-Management: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Cvancarova Småstuen, Milada; Ribu, Lis

    2017-06-23

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing and with the requirements for self-management and risk of late complications, it remains a challenge for the individual and society. Patients can benefit from support from health care personnel in their self-management, and the traditional communication between patients and health care personnel is changing. Smartphones and apps offer a unique platform for communication, but apps with integrated health care personnel communication based on patient data are yet to be investigated to provide evidence of possible effects. Our goal was to systematically review studies that aimed to evaluate integrated communication within mobile apps for tailored feedback between patients with diabetes and health care personnel in terms of (1) study characteristics, (2) functions, (3) study outcomes, (4) effects, and (5) methodological quality. A systematic literature search was conducted following our International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) protocol, searching for apps with integrated communication for persons with diabetes tested in a controlled trial in the period 2008 to 2016. We searched the databases PubMed, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The search was closed in September 2016. Reference lists of primary articles and review papers were assessed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we applied the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess methodological quality. We identified 2822 citations and after duplicate removal, we assessed 1128 citations. A total of 6 papers were included in this systematic review, reporting on data from 431 persons participating in small trials of short

  5. Tailored Communication Within Mobile Apps for Diabetes Self-Management: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Cvancarova Småstuen, Milada; Ribu, Lis

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes is increasing and with the requirements for self-management and risk of late complications, it remains a challenge for the individual and society. Patients can benefit from support from health care personnel in their self-management, and the traditional communication between patients and health care personnel is changing. Smartphones and apps offer a unique platform for communication, but apps with integrated health care personnel communication based on patient data are yet to be investigated to provide evidence of possible effects. Objective Our goal was to systematically review studies that aimed to evaluate integrated communication within mobile apps for tailored feedback between patients with diabetes and health care personnel in terms of (1) study characteristics, (2) functions, (3) study outcomes, (4) effects, and (5) methodological quality. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted following our International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) protocol, searching for apps with integrated communication for persons with diabetes tested in a controlled trial in the period 2008 to 2016. We searched the databases PubMed, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Central, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The search was closed in September 2016. Reference lists of primary articles and review papers were assessed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we applied the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess methodological quality. Results We identified 2822 citations and after duplicate removal, we assessed 1128 citations. A total of 6 papers were included in this systematic review, reporting on data from 431 persons

  6. [Study on developing a Brief Version of Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB-SF)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Wu, Yongze; Feng, Nongping; Chen, Bo; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Jiawu; Liu, Huilin; Yang, Youyuan

    2016-01-01

    To develop a brief version scale with good validity and reliability to evaluate self-management knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of diabetes patients in a shorter time. 20 authority experts who specialized in the field of diabetes clinical and non-communicable disease self-management, and familiar with the relevant content of diabetes self-management were selected. Face to face and Email consultation methods were applied in two rounds delphi expert consultations to choose items from the Diabetes Self-management Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Assessment Scale (DSKAB, total scale, 98 items). In the first round of expert consultation, experts were asked to select the core items from every dimension and score the extent of familiarity and basis of judgment. In the second round of expert consultation, the significance of the core items which were selected by experts in first round, were graded. The items which entered into the brief scale were determined by harmonious condition of expert opinions. Two rounds of consultation reclaimed 16 and 15 responses respectively, Positive coefficients of experts were 80% and 94% respectively, and both authoritative coefficients were 0.90. In the first round of consultation, experts selected 44.3 ± 6.2 items on average, 42 items were selected according to the integrity of the scale for measuring dimension and content at last. In the second round of consultation, experts thought that the 42 items could measure the important contents of each dimension comprehensive and representative, the item importance scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior subscale were 8.42 ± 1.17, 8.61 ± 1.24, 8.61 ± 1.02 respectively, and the coordination coefficients of the three subscale were 0.36, 0.20, 0.49 (χ(2) were 89.74, 11.13, 96.03, P<0.05). The total coordination coefficient was 0.38 (χ(2) =199.36, P<0.001), which indicated the concentration of experts(')opinion was acceptable, showed the brief scale with good face validity and

  7. Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hood, Korey K; Laffel, Lori; Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Lybarger, Cindy K; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2015-12-29

    For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents' technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social networking and website use (≤1 time per

  8. Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hood, Korey K; Laffel, Lori; Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Lybarger, Cindy K

    2015-01-01

    Background For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. Objective This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents’ technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Results Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social

  9. Modelling of diabetes knowledge, attitudes, self-management, and quality of life: a cross-sectional study with an Australian sample.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Yee Cheng; Morris, Tony; Borkoles, Erika; Shee, Himanshu

    2015-08-19

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important aspect of wellbeing for people with chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes, making it a noteworthy outcome. Knowledge about diabetes, attitudes, and self-management of diabetes are key factors that might directly or indirectly impact QoL. However, little is known about the inter-relationships between diabetes knowledge, attitudes, self-management and QoL among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine a model describing the relationship between diabetes knowledge, attitudes, self-management, and QoL of people with T2DM that is based on previous research linking pairs of these variables. A cross-sectional study design was employed in this research. A total of 291 participants, 192 males and 99 females, with T2DM, whose mean age was 55.8 (standard deviation = 11.09) completed questionnaires measuring diabetes knowledge (Diabetes Knowledge Scale), attitudes (Diabetes Integration Scale -19), self-management (Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities Scale), including the aspects of diet, exercise, blood glucose testing, and foot care, and QoL (Diabetes Quality of Life Scale), comprising the aspects of satisfaction and impact on QoL respectively. To examine the model we proposed relating these variables, data were analysed using the path analysis. In the final model, diabetes knowledge was a significant predictor for attitudes and self-management in terms of blood glucose testing. Attitudes was a significant predictor for self-management in terms of diet. In addition, self-management in terms of blood glucose testing was a significant predictor of impact of QoL, and self-management in terms of diet was a significant predictor of satisfaction and impact of QoL. Self-management in terms of exercise was a significant predictor of satisfaction in QoL. The final model reflected a good fit (χ(2) (14) = 22.52, p = 0.069; CFI = 0.983; GFI = 0.983; RMSEA = 0.046). Diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and

  10. Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Inform the Development of Targeted COPD Self-Management Education DVDs for Rural Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed the self-management learning needs, experiences, and perspectives of COPD patients treated at a Certified Federal Rural Health Clinic to inform the development of a COPD self-management DVD. A purposive, homogeneous sample of COPD patients participated in focus group interviews. Data from these interviews were referenced to edit a library of Rvision COPD self-management DVDs into a single condensed DVD containing only the most pertinent self-management topics. Patients reported a lack of knowledge and skill development related to purse lipped breathing, controlled coughing, and stress management; while medication management skills were found to be quite adequate. Engaging rural communities in formal qualitative inquiries to describe COPD specific needs for self-management may lead to future use of educational technologies aimed at improving quality of life for these rural, hard to reach populations. PMID:20672021

  11. Sociodemographic Factors and Self-Management Practices Related to Type 2 Diabetes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby; Chen, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Context: Hispanics in the United States have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and experience more complications for the disease than non-Hispanic whites. Differences in medical management or self-management practices may, in part, explain the relative high risk for diabetes complications among…

  12. Sociodemographic Factors and Self-Management Practices Related to Type 2 Diabetes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby; Chen, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Context: Hispanics in the United States have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and experience more complications for the disease than non-Hispanic whites. Differences in medical management or self-management practices may, in part, explain the relative high risk for diabetes complications among…

  13. Lay educators in asthma self management: reflections on their training and experiences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Clare; Hennings, Jean; Caress, A-L; Partridge, M R

    2007-10-01

    To capture the experiences and feelings of lay educators in an asthma self-management programme to aid understanding of optimal methods of recruitment, training and retention, and to enhance their value within the programme. A multi site randomised controlled equivalence trial of asthma educators and primary care practice based nurses during which the educators were asked to keep a diary of their experience. A qualitative thematic analysis of these diaries was undertaken. Eight lay educators supplied diaries. From these diaries emerged personal reasons for involvement in the programme, constructive comments on the training programme, a need for preparation for the realities of clinical practice and significant ongoing support and training. Lay educators are a potential resource for giving self-management education to patients with long-term conditions such as asthma. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account regarding contracts, retention and continual support. Lay educators need a flexible but comprehensive training programme, contracts, on site mentoring and support. They seem most contented when welcomed by health professionals and treated as part of the team.

  14. Structured scaffolding for reflection and problem solving in diabetes self-management: qualitative study of mobile diabetes detective.

    PubMed

    Mamykina, Lena; Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Goodman, Carrie; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    To investigate subjective experiences and patterns of engagement with a novel electronic tool for facilitating reflection and problem solving for individuals with type 2 diabetes, Mobile Diabetes Detective (MoDD). In this qualitative study, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals from economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities who are participating in a randomized controlled trial of MoDD. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis; usage logs were analyzed to determine how actively the study participants used MoDD. Fifteen participants in the MoDD randomized controlled trial were recruited for the qualitative interviews. Usage log analysis showed that, on average, during the 4 weeks of the study, the study participants logged into MoDD twice per week, reported 120 blood glucose readings, and set two behavioral goals. The qualitative interviews suggested that individuals used MoDD to follow the steps of the problem-solving process, from identifying problematic blood glucose patterns, to exploring behavioral triggers contributing to these patterns, to selecting alternative behaviors, to implementing these behaviors while monitoring for improvements in glycemic control. This qualitative study suggested that informatics interventions for reflection and problem solving can provide structured scaffolding for facilitating these processes by guiding users through the different steps of the problem-solving process and by providing them with context-sensitive evidence and practice-based knowledge related to diabetes self-management on each of those steps. This qualitative study suggested that MoDD was perceived as a useful tool in engaging individuals in self-monitoring, reflection, and problem solving. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Structured scaffolding for reflection and problem solving in diabetes self-management: qualitative study of mobile diabetes detective

    PubMed Central

    Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Goodman, Carrie; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate subjective experiences and patterns of engagement with a novel electronic tool for facilitating reflection and problem solving for individuals with type 2 diabetes, Mobile Diabetes Detective (MoDD). Methods In this qualitative study, researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with individuals from economically disadvantaged communities and ethnic minorities who are participating in a randomized controlled trial of MoDD. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis; usage logs were analyzed to determine how actively the study participants used MoDD. Results Fifteen participants in the MoDD randomized controlled trial were recruited for the qualitative interviews. Usage log analysis showed that, on average, during the 4 weeks of the study, the study participants logged into MoDD twice per week, reported 120 blood glucose readings, and set two behavioral goals. The qualitative interviews suggested that individuals used MoDD to follow the steps of the problem-solving process, from identifying problematic blood glucose patterns, to exploring behavioral triggers contributing to these patterns, to selecting alternative behaviors, to implementing these behaviors while monitoring for improvements in glycemic control. Discussion This qualitative study suggested that informatics interventions for reflection and problem solving can provide structured scaffolding for facilitating these processes by guiding users through the different steps of the problem-solving process and by providing them with context-sensitive evidence and practice-based knowledge related to diabetes self-management on each of those steps. Conclusion This qualitative study suggested that MoDD was perceived as a useful tool in engaging individuals in self-monitoring, reflection, and problem solving. PMID:26769910

  16. Implementing a central venous catheter self-management education program for patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Yun

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of the central venous catheter self-management education program (CVC S-MEP) in improving knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding CVC and in decreasing CVC-related complications in patients with cancer during homecare service. A quasi-experimental, sequential cohort design study of patients with cancer and who have CVCs was performed to compare the effect of CVC S-MEP with usual care. The study group consisted of 45 participants (26 male and 19 female), and the mean age was 46.1 (SD, 10.5) years. The subjects of the CVC S-MEP had significantly high mean levels of self-management knowledge (p = 0.007), attitude (p < 0.001), and behavior (p = 0.002). Also, the participants in the CVC S-MEP had significantly lower frequency of catheter-related complications (p = 0.030). The CVC S-MEP helped improve patients' ability to resolve problems and adequately respond to CVC-related emergency situations by fostering greater self-care ability. Additionally, providing practical information for CVC self-management in a gradual and repetitive manner had a notable positive effect on patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Musenge, Emmanuel Mwila; Michelo, Charles; Mudenda, Boyd; Manankov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol) was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol). Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence.

  18. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michelo, Charles; Mudenda, Boyd; Manankov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol) was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol). Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence. PMID:26798654

  19. Chronic disease self-management education courses: utilization by low-income, middle-aged participants.

    PubMed

    Horrell, Lindsey N; Kneipp, Shawn M; Ahn, SangNam; Towne, Samuel D; Mingo, Chivon A; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-06-27

    Individuals living in lower-income areas face an increased prevalence of chronic disease and, oftentimes, greater barriers to optimal self-management. Disparities in disease management are seen across the lifespan, but are particularly notable among middle-aged adults. Although evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Education courses are available to enhance self-management among members of this at-risk population, little information is available to determine the extent to which these courses are reaching those at greatest risk. The purpose of this study is to compare the extent to which middle-aged adults from lower- and higher-income areas have engaged in CDSME courses, and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of lower-income, middle aged participants. The results of this study were produced through analysis of secondary data collected during the Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. During this initiative, data was collected from 100,000 CDSME participants across 45 states within the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Of the entire sample included in this analysis (19,365 participants), 55 people lived in the most impoverished counties. While these 55 participants represented just 0.3% of the total study sample, researchers found this group completed courses more frequently than participants from less impoverished counties once enrolled. These results signal a need to enhance participation of middle-aged adults from lower-income areas in CDSME courses. The results also provide evidence that can be used to inform future program delivery choices, including decisions regarding recruitment materials, program leaders, and program delivery sites, to better engage this population.

  20. Family Influences on Self-Management Among Functionally Independent Adults with Diabetes or Heart Failure: Do Family Members Hinder As Much As They Help?

    PubMed Central

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Choi, HwaJung; Silveira, Maria J.; Piette, John D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Among functionally independent patients with diabetes or heart failure, we examined family member support and family-related barriers to self-care. We then identified patient characteristics associated with family support and family barriers and how each was associated with self-management adherence. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 patients with diabetes or heart failure (74% response rate). Results 75% of respondents reported supportive family involvement in self-care, however 25% reported frequent family-related barriers to self-care. Women reported family support less often (64% vs. 77%) and family barriers to self-care more often (30% vs. 21%) than men. 78% of respondents reported involved family members nagged or criticized them about illness care. In multivariate models, low health literacy, partnered status, and higher family function were associated with higher family support levels, while female gender, older age, higher education, and more depression symptoms were associated with family barriers to self-care. Family barriers were associated with lower disease care self-efficacy (p<.0.01), and both barriers and family support were associated with patients’ self-management adherence (both p<0.05). Discussion Family members are highly involved in the self-care of these higher-functioning patients. Interventions should help patients with chronic illness overcome family barriers to self-care and help families use positive and effective support techniques. PMID:20308348

  1. Combining iGoogle and personal health records to create a prototype personal health application for diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Stephanie J; Kedziora, Richard J; Vigersky, Robert A; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this project is to create a prototype for a personal health application (PHA) for patients (i.e., consumers) with diabetes by employing a user-centered design process. This article describes the design process for and resulting architecture, workflow, and functionality of such a PHA. For the design process, we conducted focus groups with people who have diabetes (n = 21) to ascertain their needs for a PHA. We then developed a prototype in response to these needs, and through additional focus groups and step-by-step demonstrations for people with diabetes as well as healthcare providers, we obtained feedback about the prototype. The feedback led to changes in the PHA's presentation and function. Focus group participants said they wanted a tool that could give them timely, readily available information on how diabetes-related domains interact, how their behaviors affect them, and what to do next. Thus, the prototype PHA is Internet-based, retrieves data for diabetes self-management from a personal health record, displays those data using gadgets in the consumer's iGoogle page, and makes the data available to a decision-support component that provides lifestyle-oriented advice. Manipulation of the data enables consumers to anticipate the results of future actions and to see interrelationships. A user-centered design process resulted in a PHA that uses technology that is publicly available, employs a personal health record, and is Internet based. This PHA can provide the backbone for a decision support system that can bring together the cornerstones of diabetes self-management and integrate them into the life of the person with diabetes.

  2. Development of patient-centric linguistically tailored psychoeducational messages to support nutrition and medication self-management in type 2 diabetes: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Connor, Ulla; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external), agency (high/low), and affect (positive/negative), which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication) were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect. The messages developed in this study should be tested in a larger more representative sample. The present study did not explore whether tailored messages were better understood. This research will serve as preliminary evidence to develop future studies

  3. Diabetes educator mentorship program: mentors requested.

    PubMed

    Beck, Joni K; Traficano, Sheryl E

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Diabetes Educator Mentorship Program, communicate mentors' experiences and perceptions during the first 3 years following implementation, and provide strategies to encourage mentoring. Creation of this collaborative program has fostered successful attainment of additional certified diabetes educators who obtained diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) practice requirement hours through a voluntary Diabetes Educator Mentorship Program. There is a significant need for additional mentors to meet the growing need for mentoring partnerships. Increasing the number of mentors will provide more opportunities to those seeking to gain DSMES experience and will ultimately expand the number of health professionals available to educate those with diabetes or prediabetes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  4. Does improvement in self-management skills predict improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms? A prospective study in patients with heart failure up to one year after self-management education.

    PubMed

    Musekamp, Gunda; Schuler, Michael; Seekatz, Bettina; Bengel, Jürgen; Faller, Hermann; Meng, Karin

    2017-02-15

    Heart failure (HF) patient education aims to foster patients' self-management skills. These are assumed to bring about, in turn, improvements in distal outcomes such as quality of life. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that change in self-reported self-management skills observed after participation in self-management education predicts changes in physical and mental quality of life and depressive symptoms up to one year thereafter. The sample comprised 342 patients with chronic heart failure, treated in inpatient rehabilitation clinics, who received a heart failure self-management education program. Latent change modelling was used to analyze relationships between both short-term (during inpatient rehabilitation) and intermediate-term (after six months) changes in self-reported self-management skills and both intermediate-term and long-term (after twelve months) changes in physical and mental quality of life and depressive symptoms. Short-term changes in self-reported self-management skills predicted intermediate-term changes in mental quality of life and long-term changes in physical quality of life. Intermediate-term changes in self-reported self-management skills predicted long-term changes in all outcomes. These findings support the assumption that improvements in self-management skills may foster improvements in distal outcomes.

  5. An educational intervention to promote self-management and professional socialization in graduate nurse anesthesia students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, Debra A.

    Traditionally, nurse anesthesia educators have utilized prior academic achievement to predict student success. However, research has indicated that prior academic achievement offers an inadequate assessment of student success in graduate healthcare programs with extensive clinical residencies. The educational literature has identified many non-cognitive factors, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, that may provide a more holistic prediction model of student success. An experimental study with pretest-posttest design and stratified random assignment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to promote self-management, professional socialization, and academic achievement among first semester graduate nurse anesthesia students. Participants (N = 66) were demographically similar to the national graduate nurse anesthesia student body, though Hispanics and younger students were a little over-represented in the sample (56% female, 75.8% White, 15.2% Hispanic, 6% Other, 59% ≤ 30-years-old, 67% ≤ 3 years of ICU). The results showed that most graduate anesthesia students had strong self-management and professional socialization characteristics on admission. The results did not support the effectiveness of this educational intervention. Thus, ceiling effect may have accounted in part for statistically non-significant results regarding self-efficacy (p = .190, o2 = .03), locus of control (p = .137, o2 = .04), professional socialization (p = .819, o2 = .001), and academic achievement (p = .689, o2 = .003). Future researchers may need to expand the scope of the intervention, use a more powerful and sensitive instrument, and utilize a larger sample.

  6. The Association Between Self-Management Barriers and Self-Efficacy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: The Mediating Role of Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Sit, Janet W H; Leung, Doris Y P; Li, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    Patients with higher levels of self-management barriers are more likely to exhibit a lower level of self-efficacy. However, the theoretically meaningful mechanisms underlying the association between the two variables have not yet been established. Informed by the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, this study aimed to examine the potential role of diabetes appraisal on the association of self-management barriers and self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article presents the secondary data analyses of a multicenter, cross-sectional study. A sample of 346 adults with type 2 diabetes was interviewed, using the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire, the Appraisal of Diabetes scale, the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. Structure equation modeling was performed with 10,000 bootstrap samples using Mplus 7. The hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data (χ(2) = 22.975, df = 33; p = .1144; CFI = 0.989; SRMR = 0.036; RMSEA = 0.042). The mediating effect of diabetes appraisal on the association of self-management barriers and self-efficacy was significant (β = -0.521; 95% CI: -0.865, -0.283), explaining 44.82% of the total effect of barriers on self-efficacy. Significant associations were also detected between diet knowledge and diabetes appraisal (β = 0.148, p = .047). Diabetes appraisal plays a mediating role in the association between self-management barriers and self-efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reflecting on patients' appraisal of diabetes can help to develop evidence-based and patient-centered interventions. Interventions that enhance individuals' positive appraisal of diabetes have the potential to buffer the negative effects of self-management barriers on self-efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Use of and Beliefs About Mobile Phone Apps for Diabetes Self-Management: Surveys of People in a Hospital Diabetes Clinic and Diabetes Health Professionals in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Leah; Grainger, Rebecca; Hall, Rosemary M

    2017-01-01

    Background People with diabetes mellitus (DM) are using mobile phone apps to support self-management. The numerous apps available to assist with diabetes management have a variety of functions. Some functions, like insulin dose calculators, have significant potential for harm. Objectives The study aimed to establish (1) whether people with DM in Wellington, New Zealand, use apps for DM self-management and evaluate desirable features of apps and (2) whether health professionals (HPs) in New Zealand treating people with DM recommend apps to patients, the features HPs regard as important, and their confidence with recommending apps. Methods A survey of patients seen at a hospital diabetes clinic over 12 months (N=539) assessed current app use and desirable features. A second survey of HPs attending a diabetes conference (n=286) assessed their confidence with app recommendations and perceived usefulness. Results Of the 189 responders (35.0% response rate) to the patient survey, 19.6% (37/189) had used a diabetes app. App users were younger and in comparison to other forms of diabetes mellitus, users prominently had type 1 DM. The most favored feature of the app users was a glucose diary (87%, 32/37), and an insulin calculator was the most desirable function for a future app (46%, 17/37). In non-app users, the most desirable feature for a future app was a glucose diary (64.4%, 98/152). Of the 115 responders (40.2% response rate) to the HPs survey, 60.1% (68/113) had recommended a diabetes app. Diaries for blood glucose levels and carbohydrate counting were considered the most useful app features and the features HPs felt most confident to recommend. HPs were least confident in recommending insulin calculation apps. Conclusions The use of apps to record blood glucose was the most favored function in apps used by people with diabetes, with interest in insulin dose calculating function. HPs do not feel confident in recommending insulin dose calculators. There is an urgent

  8. Use of and Beliefs About Mobile Phone Apps for Diabetes Self-Management: Surveys of People in a Hospital Diabetes Clinic and Diabetes Health Professionals in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Leah; Grainger, Rebecca; Hall, Rosemary M; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2017-06-30

    People with diabetes mellitus (DM) are using mobile phone apps to support self-management. The numerous apps available to assist with diabetes management have a variety of functions. Some functions, like insulin dose calculators, have significant potential for harm. The study aimed to establish (1) whether people with DM in Wellington, New Zealand, use apps for DM self-management and evaluate desirable features of apps and (2) whether health professionals (HPs) in New Zealand treating people with DM recommend apps to patients, the features HPs regard as important, and their confidence with recommending apps. A survey of patients seen at a hospital diabetes clinic over 12 months (N=539) assessed current app use and desirable features. A second survey of HPs attending a diabetes conference (n=286) assessed their confidence with app recommendations and perceived usefulness. Of the 189 responders (35.0% response rate) to the patient survey, 19.6% (37/189) had used a diabetes app. App users were younger and in comparison to other forms of diabetes mellitus, users prominently had type 1 DM. The most favored feature of the app users was a glucose diary (87%, 32/37), and an insulin calculator was the most desirable function for a future app (46%, 17/37). In non-app users, the most desirable feature for a future app was a glucose diary (64.4%, 98/152). Of the 115 responders (40.2% response rate) to the HPs survey, 60.1% (68/113) had recommended a diabetes app. Diaries for blood glucose levels and carbohydrate counting were considered the most useful app features and the features HPs felt most confident to recommend. HPs were least confident in recommending insulin calculation apps. The use of apps to record blood glucose was the most favored function in apps used by people with diabetes, with interest in insulin dose calculating function. HPs do not feel confident in recommending insulin dose calculators. There is an urgent need for an app assessment process to give

  9. Outcomes of Minimal and Moderate Support Versions of an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Wooley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Internet and other interactive technology-based programs offer great potential for practical, effective, and cost-efficient diabetes self-management (DSM) programs capable of reaching large numbers of patients. This study evaluated minimal and moderate support versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, compared to an enhanced usual care condition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A three-arm practical randomized trial was conducted to evaluate minimal contact and moderate contact versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, offered in English and Spanish, compared to enhanced usual care. A heterogeneous sample of 463 type 2 patients was randomized and 82.5% completed a 4-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were behavior changes in healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, and blood pressure. RESULTS The Internet-based intervention produced significantly greater improvements than the enhanced usual care condition on three of four behavioral outcomes (effect sizes [d] for healthy eating = 0.32; fat intake = 0.28; physical activity= 0.19) in both intent-to-treat and complete-cases analyses. These changes did not translate into differential improvements in biological outcomes during the 4-month study period. Added contact did not further enhance outcomes beyond the minimal contact intervention. CONCLUSIONS The Internet intervention meets several of the RE-AIM criteria for potential public health impact, including reaching a large number of persons, and being practical, feasible, and engaging for participants, but with mixed effectiveness in improving outcomes, and consistent results across different subgroups. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes, enhance effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and understand the linkages between intervention processes and outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version

  10. Older adults' fears about diabetes: using common sense models of disease to understand fear origins and implications for self-management.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Reynolds, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Kirk, Julienne K; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines older adults' fears of diabetes complications and their effects on self-management practices. Existing models of diabetes self-management posit that patients' actions are grounded in disease beliefs and experience, but there is little supporting evidence. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 74 African American, American Indian, and white older adults with diabetes. Analysis uses Leventhal's Common Sense Model of Diabetes to link fears to early experience and current self-management. Sixty-three identified fears focused on complications that could limit carrying out normal activities: amputation, blindness, low blood glucose and coma, and disease progression to insulin use and dialysis. Most focused self-management on actions to prevent specific complications, rather than on managing the disease as a whole. Early experiences focused attention on the inevitability of complications and the limited ability of patients to prevent them. Addressing older adults' fears about diabetes may improve their diabetes self-management practices.

  11. Conceptual Model for the Design of a Serious Video Game Promoting Self-Management among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the potential to be an effective method for promoting self-management behaviors among youth with diabetes. This article presents a conceptual model of how this may be achieved. It concludes by identifying research needed to refine our knowledge regarding how to develop effective serious video games for health. PMID:20513343

  12. Educating Patients about CKD: The Path to Self-Management and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Narva, Andrew S; Norton, Jenna M; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-04-07

    Patient education is associated with better patient outcomes and supported by international guidelines and organizations, but a range of barriers prevent widespread implementation of comprehensive education for people with progressive kidney disease, especially in the United States. Among United States patients, obstacles to education include the complex nature of kidney disease information, low baseline awareness, limited health literacy and numeracy, limited availability of CKD information, and lack of readiness to learn. For providers, lack of time and clinical confidence combine with competing education priorities and confusion about diagnosing CKD to limit educational efforts. At the system level, lack of provider incentives, limited availability of practical decision support tools, and lack of established interdisciplinary care models inhibit patient education. Despite these barriers, innovative education approaches for people with CKD exist, including self-management support, shared decision making, use of digital media, and engaging families and communities. Education efficiency may be increased by focusing on people with progressive disease, establishing interdisciplinary care management including community health workers, and providing education in group settings. New educational approaches are being developed through research and quality improvement efforts, but challenges to evaluating public awareness and patient education programs inhibit identification of successful strategies for broader implementation. However, growing interest in improving patient-centered outcomes may provide new approaches to effective education of people with CKD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Educating Patients about CKD: The Path to Self-Management and Patient-Centered Care

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Jenna M.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2016-01-01

    Patient education is associated with better patient outcomes and supported by international guidelines and organizations, but a range of barriers prevent widespread implementation of comprehensive education for people with progressive kidney disease, especially in the United States. Among United States patients, obstacles to education include the complex nature of kidney disease information, low baseline awareness, limited health literacy and numeracy, limited availability of CKD information, and lack of readiness to learn. For providers, lack of time and clinical confidence combine with competing education priorities and confusion about diagnosing CKD to limit educational efforts. At the system level, lack of provider incentives, limited availability of practical decision support tools, and lack of established interdisciplinary care models inhibit patient education. Despite these barriers, innovative education approaches for people with CKD exist, including self-management support, shared decision making, use of digital media, and engaging families and communities. Education efficiency may be increased by focusing on people with progressive disease, establishing interdisciplinary care management including community health workers, and providing education in group settings. New educational approaches are being developed through research and quality improvement efforts, but challenges to evaluating public awareness and patient education programs inhibit identification of successful strategies for broader implementation. However, growing interest in improving patient-centered outcomes may provide new approaches to effective education of people with CKD. PMID:26536899

  14. Interdisciplinary Diabetes Care: A New Model for Inpatient Diabetes Education.

    PubMed

    Hardee, Sandra G; Osborne, Kim Crickmore; Njuguna, Njeri; Allis, Dustin; Brewington, Daphne; Patil, Shivajirao P; Hofler, Linda; Tanenberg, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    A patient-centered interdisciplinary diabetes care model was implemented at Vidant Medical Center in Greenville, N.C., a 909-bed tertiary care teaching hospital, for the purpose of providing all patients with diabetes clear and concise instructions on diabetes survival skills. Survival skills education during hospitalization is needed for safe transition to community resources for continued and expanded diabetes self-management education. This article describes the process used to develop, implement, and evaluate the model. This initiative achieved substantial cost savings, with no significant changes in length of stay (LOS) or diabetes readmission rates. This patient-centered model demonstrates how a team of interdisciplinary health care professionals can integrate services in providing care for a large population of patients with chronic disease.

  15. Improvements in Care and Reduced Self-Management Barriers Among Rural Patients With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Nancy; Flook, Benjamin N.; Pessl, Erich; Quesenberry, Kim; Loh, Johnson; Harris, Colleen; McDowall, Janet M.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Improved preventive care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes can reduce complications and costs; however, diabetes care continues to be suboptimal. Few studies have described effective strategies for improving care among rural populations with diabetes. In 2000, the Park County Diabetes Project and the Montana Diabetes Control…

  16. Improvements in Care and Reduced Self-Management Barriers Among Rural Patients With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Nancy; Flook, Benjamin N.; Pessl, Erich; Quesenberry, Kim; Loh, Johnson; Harris, Colleen; McDowall, Janet M.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Improved preventive care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes can reduce complications and costs; however, diabetes care continues to be suboptimal. Few studies have described effective strategies for improving care among rural populations with diabetes. In 2000, the Park County Diabetes Project and the Montana Diabetes Control…

  17. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  18. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  19. Factors Predictive of Knowledge and Self-Management Behaviors among Male Military Veterans with Diabetes Residing in a Homeless Shelter for People Recovering from Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah M.; Lee, Rebecca; Bernard, Amy; King, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects individuals with lower income in the U.S. (CDC, 2012). Specifically the control of diabetes through self-management has been found to be sub-par and an important contributor to complications (Seligman, Davis, Schillinger, & Wolf, 2010). People experiencing homelessness also experience barriers. One such…

  20. Nurse-Led Self-Management Educational Intervention Improves Symptoms of Patients With Functional Constipation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiong; Zhu, Hongqin; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Xueqin

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of self-management educational intervention on the symptoms of patients with functional constipation. From January 2014 to April 2015, 66 patients with functional constipation were randomly assigned into intervention group receiving intensive educational interventions and control group receiving routine nursing care. The constipation score of all clinical symptoms (Bristol stool form scale, defecation interval, incomplete evacuation, evacuatory difficulty) at 1 month postdischarge were all significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (all, p < .05). At 1 month postdischarge, the intervention group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with good health habits (reasonable diet, regular exercise, good defecation habits, proper use of laxatives) as compared with the control group (all, p < .05). These data suggest educational intervention can effectively improve constipation symptoms and compliance with treatment of patients, and lead to the development of good health habits.

  1. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and

  2. Impact of a social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived pa