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Sample records for diabetes self-management education

  1. Diabetes Self-Management Education in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoun, Joanah; Stern, Marianne; Butkiewicz, Elise; Wegner, Elfie; Reinisch, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes self-management education and home visits have been found to improve clinical outcomes in individuals living with diabetes. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of conducting self-management education in patients' homes. Methods Baseline biometric data was collected from a cohort of adult patients with diabetes. Home visits to 19 patients were conducted by doctoral students from Rutgers University School of Nursing. The visits included knowledge assessment, review of foods in the home, diabetes self-management education, and teaching the proper use of monitoring tools such as the glucometer and blood pressure monitor. Biomarkers were obtained post-intervention and were compared to baseline biomarkers. Descriptive lifestyle data was collected and opportunities for customized patient education were provided. Results The biomarkers improved overall during the four months after the education intervention. The mean A1C reduced 12% (p=0.0107), the mean glucose reduced 12% (p=0.0994), the mean BMI reduced 2% (p=0.1490), the systolic pressure reduced 1% (p=0.4196), and the diastolic pressure remained stable. Specific goal setting further increased the improvement in the area the individual planned to address.  Conclusions This project supports prior studies that found that in-home educational programs can improve the self-management of diabetes and lead to improvement in health indicators. The benefits of the study included personal attention in ensuring the correct use of home health monitoring devices, building self-management confidence, and identifying treatment barriers that may not be easily discerned in a clinic setting. PMID:27588231

  2. Enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education: the diabetes literacy project.

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H

    2014-12-01

    Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels.

  3. Enhancing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education: the diabetes literacy project.

    PubMed

    Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H

    2014-12-01

    Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. PMID:25337960

  4. Home-Based Diabetes Symptom Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated…

  5. Care Utilization Patterns and Diabetes Self-Management Education Duration

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer; Churilla, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that receiving diabetes self-management education (DSME) is associated with increased care utilization. However, the relationship between DSME duration and care utilization patterns remains largely unexamined. Our purpose is to characterize DSME duration and examine the relationship between DSME duration and clinical- and self-care utilization patterns. Methods. The study sample included 1,446 adults who were ≥18 years of age, had diabetes, and had participated in the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Clinical- and self-care outcomes were derived using responses to the survey’s diabetes module and were based on minimum standards of care established by the American Diabetes Association. The outcomes examined included self-monitoring of blood glucose at least once per day; receiving at least one eye exam, one foot exam, A1C tests, and an influenza vaccination in the past year; and ever receiving a pneumococcal vaccination. DSME duration was categorized as no DSME, >0 to <4 hours, 4–10 hours, and >10 hours. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, compared to those who did not receive DSME, those who had 4–10 or 10+ hours of DSME were more likely to receive two A1C tests (odds ratio [95% CI] 2.69 [1.30–5.58] and 2.63 [1.10–6.31], respectively) and have a pneumococcal vaccination (1.98 [1.03–3.80] and 1.92 [1.01–3.64], respectively). Those receiving 10+ hours of DSME were 2.2 times (95% CI 1.18–4.09) as likely to have an influenza vaccination. Conclusion. These data reveal a positive relationship between DSME duration and utilization of some diabetes clinical care services. PMID:26300613

  6. Building a Virtual Environment for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Constance; Feenan, Kevin; Setliff, Glenn; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Beresford, Henry F.; Epps, Shelly; Nicollerat, Janet; Tatum, William; Feinglos, Mark; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed an immersive diabetes community to provide diabetes self-management education and support for adults with type 2 diabetes. In this article the authors describe the procedures used to develop this virtual environment (VE). Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education & Self-Management (SLIDES), the VE for our diabetes community was built in Second Life. Social Cognitive Theory, behavioral principles and key aspects of virtual environments related to usability were applied in the development in this VE. Collaboration between researchers, clinicians and information technology (IT) specialists occurred throughout the development process. An interactive community was successfully built and utilized to provide diabetes self-management education and support. VEs for health applications may be innovative and enticing, yet it must be kept in mind that there are substantial effort, expertise, and usability factors that must be considered in the development of these environments for health care consumers. PMID:25699133

  7. An Audit of Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Van den Broucke, Stephan; Dhoore, William; Kalweit, Kerry; Housiaux, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a significant contributor to the burden of disease worldwide. Since its treatment requires extensive self-care, self-management education is widely recommended, particularly in resource limited settings. This study aimed to review the current state of policies and implementation of diabetes self-management education (DSME) in South Africa, with a specific focus on cultural appropriateness. Design and Methods: The audit involved a review of policy documents and semi-structured questionnaires with providers and experts in public and private health services. Forty-four respondents were interviewed. Documents were analysed with reference to the International Standards for Diabetes Education from the International Diabetes Federation. Data were entered and analysed in excel to give a description of the DSME programs and ad hoc interventions. Results: Three guidelines for Type 2 diabetes and two for chronic diseases were retrieved, but none were specifically dedicated to DSME. Five structured programs and 22 ad-hoc interventions were identified. DSME is mostly provided by doctors, nurses and dieticians and not consistently linked to other initiatives such as support groups. Health education materials are mainly in English with limited availability. Conclusions: DSME in South Africa is limited in scope, content and consistency, especially in the public services. A National curricula and materials for diabetes education need to be developed and adapted to the socio-economic context, culture and literacy levels of the target populations. It is recommended that DSME would be addressed in national policies and guidelines to guide the development and implementation of standardised programs. Significance for public health Diabetes significantly contributes to the global burden of disease. This burden is especially felt in developing countries, where resources are limited and the health system simultaneously has to deal with communicable and non

  8. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25–75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. PMID:25953971

  9. Persian Diabetes Self-Management Education (PDSME) program: evaluation of effectiveness in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shakibazadeh, Elham; Bartholomew, Leona Kay; Rashidian, Arash; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing rate of diabetes, no standard self-management education protocol has been developed in Iran. We designed Persian Diabetes Self-Management Education (PDSME) program using intervention mapping. Effectiveness of program was assessed in newly diagnosed people with type 2 diabetes and those who had received little self-management education. Individuals aged 18 and older (n = 350) were recruited in this prospective controlled trial during 2009-2011 in Tehran, Iran. Patients were excluded if they were pregnant, were housebound or had reduced cognitive ability. Participants were randomly allocated in intervention and control groups. PDSME patients attended eight workshops over 4-week period following two follow-up sessions. Validated questionnaires assessed cognitive outcomes at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks. HbA1c was assessed before and 18-21 months after intervention in both groups. The CONSORT statement was adhered to where possible. A total of 280 individuals (80%) attended the program. By 18-21 months, the PDSME group showed significant improvements in mean HbA1c (-1.1 versus +0.2%, p =0.008, repeated measure ANOVA (RMA)). Diabetes knowledge improved more in PDSME patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents than in those receiving usual care over time (RMA, F = 67.08, p < 0.001). Statistically significant improvements were seen in PDSME patients for self-care behaviors, health beliefs, attitudes toward diabetes, stigma, self-efficacy and patient satisfaction. PDSME program was effective in improving self-management cognitive and clinical outcomes. Results support use of intervention mapping for planning effective interventions. Given the large number of people with diabetes and lack of affordable diabetes education, PDSME deserves consideration for implementation.

  10. Literacy-appropriate educational materials and brief counseling improve diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Andrea S.; Seligman, Hilary K.; Davis, Terry C.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Bryant-Shilliday, Betsy; Freburger, Janet K.; DeWalt, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In this pilot study, we evaluated the impact of providing patients with a literacy-appropriate diabetes education guide accompanied by brief counseling designed for use in primary care. Methods We provided the Living with Diabetes guide and brief behavior change counseling to 250 English and Spanish speaking patients with type 2 diabetes. Counseling sessions using collaborative goal setting occurred at baseline and by telephone at 2 and 4 weeks. We measured patients' activation, self-efficacy, diabetes distress, knowledge, and self-care at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results Statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) and clinically important (effect sizes = 0.29–0.42) improvements were observed in participants' activation, self-efficacy, diabetes-related distress, self-reported behaviors, and knowledge. Improvements were similar across literacy levels. Spanish speakers experienced both greater improvement in diabetes-related distress and less improvement in self-efficacy levels than English speakers. Conclusion A diabetes self-management support package combining literacy-appropriate patient education materials with brief counseling suitable for use in primary care resulted in important shortterm health-related psychological and behavioral changes across literacy levels. Practice implications Coupling literacy-appropriate education materials with brief counseling in primary care settings may be an effective and efficient strategy for imparting skills necessary for diabetes self-management. PMID:19167857

  11. Effect of different types of self-management education in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Maria de Fátima Ferreira; Neumann, Cristina Rolin; Scain, Suzana Fiore; Rozeno, Raquel Farias; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2013-01-01

    Education plays an important role in diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment, as it enables patients to manage their disease. There is a wide range of tested educational interventions, and, to date, no universal model that can be standardized and recognized as effective for all individuals with the disease has been defined. This article aims to review the effect of different types of educational interventions for self-management of glycemic control in patients with DM type 2, in addition to define general recommendations for this treatment strategy. PMID:23850026

  12. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Dougherty, James R.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes the effects of a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention. Research Design and Methods A prospective, randomized, repeated measures study was conducted on the Texas-Mexico border in Starr County. 256 randomly selected persons with type 2 diabetes were: (1) between 35 and 70 years of age; (2) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes after the age of 35 years; and (3) accompanied by a family member or friend. The intervention consisted of 52 contact hours over 12 months and was provided by bilingual Mexican American nurses, dietitians, and community workers. The intervention involved : (1) 3 months of weekly instructional sessions on nutrition, self-monitoring of blood glucose, exercise, and other self-care topics; and (2) 6 months of biweekly support group sessions to promote behavior changes. The approach was culturally competent in terms of language, diet, social emphasis, family participation, and incorporation of cultural health beliefs. Indicators of metabolic control (HbA1c and FBS), diabetes knowledge, and diabetes-related health beliefs. Results Experimental groups showed significantly lower levels of HbA1c and FBS at 6 months and at 12 months and higher diabetes knowledge scores. At 6 months, the mean HbA1c of the experimental subjects was 1.4% below the mean of the control group; however, the mean level of the experimental subjects was still high (over 10%). Conclusions This study confirms the effectiveness of culturally competent diabetes self-management education on improving health outcomes of Mexican Americans, particularly for those individuals with HbA1c levels above 10%. PMID:11815493

  13. Diabetes Self-Management Education Patterns in a US Population-based Cohort of Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Lawrence, Jean M.; Saydah, Sharon; Yi-Frazier, Joyce; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe: 1) the receipt of diabetes self-management education (DSME) in a large, diverse cohort of US youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM); 2) the segregation of self-reported DSME variables into domains; and 3) the demographic and clinical characteristics of youth who receive DSME. Methods Data are from the US population-based cohort, SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. A cross-sectional analysis was employed using data from 1273 youth < 20 years of age at time of diagnosis of T1DM. Clusters of 19 self-reported DSME variables were derived using factor analysis and their associations with demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Nearly all participants reported receiving DSME content consistent with ‘survival skills’ (e.g., target blood glucose and what to do for low or high blood glucose), yet gaps in continuing education were identified [e.g., fewer than half of participants reported receiving specific medical nutrition therapy (MNT) recommendations]. Five DSME clusters were explored: Receipt of Specific MNT Recommendations, Receipt of Diabetes Information Resources, Receipt of Clinic Visit Information, Receipt of Specific Diabetes Information, and Met with Educator or Nutritionist. Factor scores were significantly associated with demographic and clinical characteristics, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and diabetes self-management practices. Conclusions Health care providers should work together to address reported gaps in DSME in order to improve patient care. PMID:24248833

  14. The Effects and Costs of a Group-Based Education Programme for Self-Management of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molsted, Stig; Tribler, Jane; Poulsen, Peter B.; Snorgaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes necessitates evidence-based self-management education programmes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and costs of an empowerment-based structured diabetes self-management education programme in an unselected group of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seven hundred and two patients…

  15. An assessment of patient education and self-management in diabetes disease management--two case studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Greenwood, Deborah; Payne, Hildegarde; Thomson, John; Vukovljak, Lana; McCulloch, Amber; Specker, James E

    2008-12-01

    Diabetes affects 7.8% of Americans, nearly 24 million people, and costs $174 billion yearly. People with diabetes benefit from self-management; disease management (DM) programs are effective in managing populations with diabetes. Little has been published on the intersection of diabetes education and DM. Our hypothesis was that diabetes educators and their interventions integrate well with DM and effectively support providers' care delivery. A literature review was conducted for papers published within the past 3 years and identified using the search terms "diabetes educator" and "disease management." Those that primarily addressed community health workers or the primary care/community setting were excluded. Two case studies were conducted to augment the literature. Ten of 30 manuscripts identified in the literature review were applicable and indicate that techniques and interventions based on cognitive theories and behavioral change can be effective when coupled with diabetes DM. Better diabetes self-management through diabetes education encourages participation in DM programs and adherence to recommended care in programs offered by DM organizations or those that are provider based. Improved health outcomes and reduced cost can be achieved by blending diabetes education and DM. Diabetes educators are a critical part of the management team and, with their arsenal of goal setting and behavior change techniques, are an essential component for the success of diabetes DM programs. Additional research needs to be undertaken to identify effective ways to integrate diabetes educators and education into DM and to assess clinical, behavioral, and economic outcomes arising from such programs.

  16. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs.

  17. Intervention mapping protocol for developing a theory-based diabetes self-management education program.

    PubMed

    Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288

  18. Sustainability of Improved Glycemic Control After Diabetes Self-Management Education.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Katie G; Ramser, Kristie L; Campbell, Jennifer D; Suda, Katie J; Lee, Marilyn D; Wood, G Christopher; Sumter, Robert; Hamann, Gale L

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate glycemic control as measured by A1C during a 2-year period after patients received diabetes self-management education (DSME). Methods. Patients who completed DSME in 2009 and received medical follow-up with A1C measurements for at least 2 years after DSME were included in the evaluation. Primary endpoints were changes in A1C from before to immediately after, 1 year after, and 2 years after DSME. Secondary outcomes included the effects of the following factors on change in A1C: sex, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled diabetes (A1C ≥ 9%), health insurance coverage, and self-reported education level. Results. Forty-three patients were included in the evaluation. Mean A1C before DSME was 10.2 ± 3.7%. Mean A1C after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.2% (P < 0.0001), a 23.5% reduction. Mean A1C at 1 and 2 years after DSME was 7.8 ± 2.1% for each year and remained unchanged from just after DSME to 1 and 2 years after DSME (P > 0.05). Patients with a duration of diabetes of < 1 year had a significantly greater reduction in mean A1C than those with a duration of diabetes ≥ 1 year (28.7 and 20.2%, respectively, P = 0.001). Conclusion. DSME improved glycemic control to a substantial degree, and the effect was sustained for up to 2 years. Although the reduction in A1C was significant for all patients receiving DSME, there was a significantly greater reduction for patients who had a duration of diabetes of < 1 year than for those with a duration of diabetes > 1 year.

  19. Diabetes Self-Management Education Enhanced by the Low Vision Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-McKay, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes currently affects 20.8 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in people between the ages of 20 and 74 years. The author uses a fictional but typical example to explain the ways in which low vision specialists can improve the diabetes self-management program of a person with low vision and demonstrates…

  20. The comparative experiences of women in control: diabetes self-management education in a virtual world.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Suzanne E; Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C; Wiecha, John

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants' experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted.

  1. Culturally Competent Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.

    2002-01-01

    In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…

  2. Is it possible to predict improved diabetes outcomes following diabetes self-management education: a mixed-methods longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Caroline; Sturt, Jackie; Dale, Jeremy; Walker, Rosie; Caramlau, Isabela; O'Hare, Joseph P; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Objective To predict the diabetes-related outcomes of people undertaking a type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) programme from their baseline data. Design A mixed-methods longitudinal experimental study. 6 practice nurses and 2 clinical academics undertook blind assessments of all baseline and process data to predict clinical, behavioural and psychological outcomes at 6 months post-DSME programme. Setting Primary care. Participants –31 people with type 2 diabetes who had not previously undertaken DSME. Intervention All participants undertook the Diabetes Manual 1:1 self-directed learning 12-week DSME programme supported by practice nurses trained as Diabetes Manual facilitators. Outcome variables Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes knowledge, physical activity, waist circumference, self-efficacy, diabetes distress, anxiety, depression, demographics, change talk and treatment satisfaction. These variables were chosen because they are known to influence self-management behaviour or to have been influenced by a DSME programme in empirical evidence. Results Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were available for 27 participants of which 13 (48%) were male, 22 (82%) white British, mean age 59 years and mean duration of type 2 diabetes 9.1 years. Significant reductions were found in HbA1c t(26)=2.35, p=0.03, and diabetes distress t(26)=2.30, p=0.03, and a significant increase in knowledge t(26)=−2.06, p=0.05 between baseline and 6 months. No significant changes were found in waist circumference, physical activity, anxiety, depression or self-efficacy. Accuracy of predictions varied little between clinical academics and practice nurses but greatly between outcome (0–100%). The median and mode accuracy of predicted outcome was 66.67%. Accuracy of prediction for the key outcome of HbA1c was 44.44%. Diabetes distress had the highest prediction accuracy (81.48%). Conclusions Clinicians in this small study were unable to identify individuals likely

  3. Telehealth--an effective delivery method for diabetes self-management education?

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Moss, Gail

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that is often comorbid with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Its management is complex, requiring ongoing clinical management, lifestyle changes, and self-care. This article examines recent literature on telehealth and emerging technological tools for supporting self-management of diabetes and identifies best practices. The authors conducted a PubMed search (January 2008-2012) that was supplemented by review of meeting materials and a scan of the Internet to identify emerging technologies. Fifty-eight papers were reviewed; 12 were selected for greater analysis. This review supports earlier findings that the delivery of diabetes self-management and training (DSME/T) via telehealth is useful, appropriate, and acceptable to patients and providers. Best practices are emerging; not all technology is appropriate for all populations--interactive technology needs to be appropriate to the patient's age, abilities, and sensitivities. Telehealth is scalable and sustainable provided that it adds value, does not add to the provider's workload, and is fairly reimbursed. However, there are multiple barriers (patient, provider, health system) to remotely provided DSME/T. DSME/T delivered via telehealth offers effective, efficient, and affordable ways to reach and support underserved minorities and other people with diabetes and related comorbidities. The new generation of smartphones, apps, and other technologies increase access, and the newest interventions are designed to meet patient needs, do not increase workloads, are highly appropriate, enhance self-management, and are desired by patients.

  4. Effect of peer education on self-management and psychological status in type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Han, Ying; Shi, Jieli; Li, Ruixia; Li, Sufen; Jin, Nana; Gu, Yong; Guo, Honglei

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of peer education in type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders on the metabolic index and psychological status. Materials and Methods Educators use psychological scales to screen type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders. Participants were divided into usual and peer education groups. Both groups received usual diabetes education. Peer leaders were recruited to provide support with the peer education group for 6 months. The metabolic index, diabetes knowledge, self-management, diabetes-related distress, emotional status and quality of life were compared at the end of the study. Results A total of 127 patients participated in the study. There were 20 peer leaders engaged in the study as volunteers for peer education. All participants completed the study and fulfilled the scales. Improvements in the peer education group were significant compared with the usual education group with respect to anxiety (49.0 ± 9.65 vs 54.0 ± 8.48), depression (51.3 ± 7.97 vs 55.8 ± 7.52), diabetes knowledge (18.8 ± 2.46 vs 16.3 ± 2.08), distress (2.67 ± 0.55 vs 3.02 ± 0.56), self-management (66.5 ± 4.26 vs 62.4 ± 5.88) and quality of life (−1.98 ± 0.82 vs −2.50 ± 0.71), whereas no significant difference existed with respect to the metabolic index. Conclusions Peer education, providing more attention to diabetes patients with emotional disorders, is a preferred model for delivering care. PMID:26221528

  5. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM.

  6. Incorporating Cultural Sensitivity into Interactive Entertainment-Education for Diabetes Self-Management Designed for Hispanic Audiences.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kimberly N; Montealegre, Jane R; Rustveld, Luis O; Glover, Talar L; Chauca, Glori; Reed, Brian C; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes self-management education can improve outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, Hispanics, a group that carries a large burden of disease, may not participate in diabetes education programs. Audience engagement with entertainment-education has been associated with improved health education outcomes and may engage and empower Hispanic users to active self-care. Successful use of entertainment-education relies on the use of characters and situations with whom the viewers can feel some sense of involvement and for Hispanic audiences is encouraged when storylines and characters are culturally sensitive. In this study, we used a mixed methods approach that included descriptive statistics of closed-ended and content analysis of open-ended questions to measure the cultural sensitivity of the telenovela portion of a novel technology-based application called Sugar, Heart, and Life (SHL). Specifically, we analyzed the responses of 123 male and female patients diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM to determine viewer involvement with characters and situations in the telenovela, viewer perceived self-efficacy in following recommendations, as well as viewer satisfaction with the program. Our findings indicate that the SHL application achieved its goal of creating a user-friendly program that depicted realistic, culturally sensitive characters and storylines that resonated with Hispanic audiences and ultimately fostered perceived self-efficacy related to following recommendations given about healthy lifestyle changes for diabetes self-management. These findings suggest that the SHL application is a culturally sensitive health education intervention for use by Hispanic male and female individuals that may empower them in self-management of T2DM. PMID:27166651

  7. Evaluation of a peer-led self-management education programme PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail; Botros, Mariam; Kuhnke, Janet L; Greene, Julie

    2013-12-01

    PEP (Peer Education Programme) Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You is a peer-led self-management programme developed to address the problems of growing prevalence of diabetes and its complications, and limited health care dollars. An evaluation of the programme, how it might be situated within a public health perspective and potential bridges for its implementation in communities throughout Canada and worldwide, are presented. The programme consisted of workshops that were conducted by volunteer peer leaders and health care professionals in 12 communities in 10 Canadian provinces; the volunteers were supported through monthly mentoring teleconferences, on-line tips and discussion board conversations. A web portal was developed to be used by the team, volunteers and community participants. Workshop curriculum was developed based on diabetes footcare and self-management best practise guidelines. Community participants answered pre-and post-workshop statements that indicated that learning occurred, as indicated by an increase in the number of statements answered correctly. Participants' feedback about the workshops was positive. In telephone follow-up interviews, 97% of respondents reported having changed their foot self-management behaviours. The portal was commonly used according to website visits, but not as much as expected for registration of community participants. It is recommended that this programme be made widely available and tailored to the specific needs of the communities and that further evaluation be conducted.

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting patient engagement in diabetes self-management: perspectives of a certified diabetes educator.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Kellie M

    2013-02-01

    Patients with diabetes are responsible for the vast majority of management requirements of their condition. However, their ability and motivation to engage in required self-management behaviors may be mitigated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic barriers include attitudes and health beliefs, limited diabetes knowledge and technical skill, reduced functional health literacy, and inadequate self-efficacy to promote positive behavior change. Extrinsic barriers include financial considerations, inadequate family and community support systems, ineffective clinical relationships, and limited access to effective diabetes health care delivery. Diabetes providers have opportunities for enhancing patient engagement with clinical recommendations and diabetes self-management through effective communication, including efforts to contextually assess patients' perceptions of diabetes and how the condition fits within the context of their changing lives. This article provides a conceptual framework for establishing and building an effective clinical alliance with patients with the goal of empowering them to take more control of their diabetes and reduce their risks for poor diabetes outcomes. PMID:23411000

  9. Dosage Effects of Diabetes Self-Management Education for Mexican Americans: The Starr County Border Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Blozis, Shelley A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Winchell, Maria; Hanis, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare 2 diabetes self-management interventions designed for Mexican Americans: “extended” (24 hours of education, 28 hours of support groups) and “compressed” (16 hours of education, 6 hours of support groups). Both interventions were culturally competent regarding language, diet, social emphasis, family participation, and incorporating cultural beliefs. Research Design and Methods We recruited 216 persons between 35 and 70 years of age, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes ≥1 year. Intervention groups of 8 participants and 8 support persons were randomly assigned to the “compressed” or “extended” conditions. The interventions differed in total number of contact hours over the yearlong intervention period, with the major difference being the number of support group sessions held. The same information provided in the educational sessions of the “extended” intervention was “compressed” into fewer sessions, thus providing more information during each group meeting. Results The interventions were not statistically different in reducing HbA1c; however, both were effective. A “dosage effect” of attendance was detected with the largest HbA1c reductions achieved by those who attended more of the “extended” intervention. For individuals who attended ≥50% of the intervention, baseline-to-12-month HbA1c change was −0.6%-age points for the “compressed” and −1.7%-age points for the “extended.” Conclusions Both culturally competent diabetes self-management education interventions were effective in promoting improved metabolic control and diabetes knowledge. A “dosage effect” was evident; attending more sessions resulted in greater improvements in metabolic control. PMID:15735182

  10. Diabetes self-management education and training among privately insured persons with newly diagnosed diabetes--United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Shrestha, Sundar S; Lipman, Ruth; Burrows, Nilka R; Kolb, Leslie E; Rutledge, Stephanie

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes is a complex chronic disease that requires active involvement of patients in its management. Diabetes self-management education and training (DSMT), "the ongoing process of facilitating the knowledge, skill, and ability necessary for prediabetes and diabetes self-care," is an important component of integrated diabetes care. It is an intervention in which patients learn about diabetes and how to implement the self-management that is imperative to control the disease. The curriculum of DSMT often includes the diabetes disease process and treatment options; healthy lifestyle; blood glucose monitoring; preventing, detecting and treating diabetes complications; and developing personalized strategies for decision making. The American Diabetes Association recommends providing DSMT to those with newly diagnosed diabetes, because data suggest that when diabetes is first diagnosed is the time when patients are most receptive to such engagement. However, little is known about the proportion of persons with newly diagnosed diabetes participating in DSMT. CDC analyzed data from the Marketscan Commercial Claims and Encounters database (Truven Health Analytics) for the period 2009-2012 to estimate the claim-based proportion of privately insured adults (aged 18-64 years) with newly diagnosed diabetes who participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis. During 2011-2012, an estimated 6.8% of privately insured, newly diagnosed adults participated in DSMT during the first year after diagnosis of diabetes. These data suggest that there is a large gap between the recommended guideline and current practice, and that there is both an opportunity and a need to enhance rates of DSMT participation among persons newly diagnosed with diabetes.

  11. Problem solving in diabetes self-management: a model of chronic illness self-management behavior.

    PubMed

    Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2003-01-01

    Management of chronic illnesses is a significant public health concern that is made more challenging by problems of regimen adherence. Effective self-management of chronic illnesses such as diabetes requires not only technical skill to perform regimen behaviors but also problem-solving skills to manage daily barriers to regimen adherence and to make appropriate adjustments to the self-care regimen. A review of the empirical literature on the relation between problem solving and disease self-management in diabetes, a chronic illness exemplar, illuminates methodological limitations that indicate a need for a theoretical framework for problem solving applied to chronic disease self-management. A problem-solving model of chronic disease self-management is proposed, derived from theories of problem solving in cognitive psychology, educational/learning theory, and social problem solving. Four essential components of problem solving in disease self-management are identified: (a). problem-solving skill, (b). problem-solving orientation, (c). disease-specific knowledge, and (d). transfer of past experience. The model is illustrated, and empirical support for this problem-solving model in the diabetes literature is discussed. The model has utility in driving testable hypotheses regarding the relation of disease-specific problem solving to chronic illness management, in developing problem-solving assessment instruments relevant to disease self-management, and in guiding disease self-management training and interventions.

  12. Implementing diabetes self-management education (DSME) in a Nigerian population: perceptions of practice nurses and dieticians.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Clementina U; Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Onuoha, Philip C; Agbakoba, Nneka R

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycaemic complication is the most common cause of hospitalization amongst diabetes patients in Nigeria. Research showed that diabetes self-management education (DSME) assists in controlling hyperglycaemia in diabetes patients. We assessed the opinions of practice nurses and dieticians on implementing DSME in a Nigerian population. 517 nurses and dieticians completed a self-administered questionnaire tool. Results showed that the majority of the participants agreed that DSME in a Nigerian population will assist patients (88.3%) and assist to reduce diabetes complications (91.4%). While only 34% of all participants believed that their establishments were prepared to implement DSME, a large proportion of the participants agreed that their work places do not have enough qualified health personnel (62.4%), educational facilities (65.8%) and economic resources (65.6%) to embark on DSME. These constitute significant barriers for effective DSME and demand that strategic investment in human and material resources for DSME is needed in this population of a developing country. PMID:26112931

  13. Is adherence a relevant issue in the self-management education of diabetes? A mixed narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Debussche, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    While therapeutic patient education is now recognized as essential for optimizing the control of chronic diseases and patient well-being, adherence to treatment and medical recommendations is still a matter of debate. In type 2 diabetes, the nonadherence to therapy, estimated at more than 40%, is perceived as a barrier for improving the prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances. Interventional studies have barely begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of technical and behavioral actions. The aim of this review is to question the concept of adherence in terms of therapeutic education based on quantitative and qualitative data. The research on therapeutic education has shown the effectiveness of structured actions in type 2 diabetes, but adherence is rarely an end point in randomized trials. A positive but inconsistent or moderate effect of education actions on adherence has been shown in heterogeneous studies of varying quality. Program types, outlines, theoretical bases, and curricula to set up for action effectiveness are still being discussed. Qualitative studies, including sociological studies, provide a useful and constructive focus on this perspective. Adherence is a soft and flexible tool available to the patient in his/her singular chronic disease trajectory, and as such, integrates into individual therapeutic strategies, including socio-cultural interactions, beyond the medical explanation of the disease and the patient. Four key elements for the development of structured therapeutic education are discussed: 1) the access to health literacy, 2) the contextualization of education activities, 3) the long-term chronic dimension of self-management, and 4) the organizational aspects of health and care. Rather than focusing the objective on behavioral changes, structured therapeutic education actions should attempt to provide tools and resources aimed at helping individuals to manage their disease in their own context on a long-term basis, by developing

  14. Characteristics and effectiveness of diabetes self-management educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear to what extent educational programs aimed at promoting diabetes self-management in ethnic minority groups are effective. The aim of this work was to systematically review the effectiveness of educational programs to promote the self-management of racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes, and to identify programs’ characteristics associated with greater success. Methods We undertook a systematic literature review. Specific searches were designed and implemented for Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, Current Contents and nine additional sources (from inception to October 2012). We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies assessing the impact of educational programs targeted to racial/ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes. We only included interventions conducted in countries members of the OECD. Two reviewers independently screened citations. Structured forms were used to extract information on intervention characteristics, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness. When possible, we conducted random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size with 95% confidence intervals. Two reviewers independently extracted all the information and critically appraised the studies. Results We identified thirty-seven studies reporting on thirty-nine educational programs. Most of them were conducted in the US, with African American or Latino participants. Most programs obtained some benefits over standard care in improving diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes. A meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials (3,094 patients) indicated that the programs produced a reduction in glycated hemoglobin of -0.31% (95% CI -0.48% to -0.14%). Diabetes knowledge and self-management measures were too heterogeneous to pool. Meta-regressions showed larger reduction in glycated hemoglobin in individual and face to face delivered

  15. Training Peer Educators to Promote Self-Management Skills in People with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) and Diabetes (DM) in a Primary Health Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Perzynski, Adam; Kanuch, Stephanie; Dawson, Neal; Kaiser, Denise; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Seeholzer, Eileen; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe the training and participant experience of patients with both serious mental illness (SMI) and diabetes (DM) who were enrolled in a Peer Educator Training Program adapted to a primary care setting. Background The mortality of patients with both SMI and DM is high. Illness self-management for SMI includes medications, psychosocial treatments, and healthy behaviors, yet treatment engagement is often sub-optimal with adherence rates of 52% for diabetic medications and 62% for antipsychotic medications among the SMI. To address this problem, a new behavioral intervention study targeting SMI and DM self-management used trained Peer Educators with the same chronic conditions to enhance program effectiveness. A manual facilitated training on intervention topics such as SMI and DM therapies, stress management, and stigma reduction as well as training in group intervention techniques, telephone skills, and crisis management. Methods We assessed participant attitudes and input using in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, coded and analyzed using the classic method of content analysis emphasizing dominant themes. A member-check was conducted where participants commented on analysis results. Findings Six relevant descriptive Themes emerged. Themes were: 1) Positive group experience; 2) Success with learning manual content; 3) Increased knowledge about SMI and DM); 4) Improved self-management skills; 5) Increased self-confidence and self-efficacy in becoming a Peer Educator; and being 6) United in purpose to help others self-manage their SMI and DM. Qualitative evidence supports structured training for SMI-DM peer educators. Key components include written educational materials and the power of the group process to increase knowledge, self-management skills, confidence, and self-efficacy. Recommendations are offered to support further endeavours to mobilize peers with SMI to help other patients with complex comorbidities

  16. Health coaching in diabetes: empowering patients to self-manage.

    PubMed

    Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Rieger, Francis P

    2013-02-01

    To effectively manage diabetes mellitus, patients must adhere to treatment recommendations and healthy lifestyle behaviors, but research shows many patients do not do this. Education is effective when combined with self-management support but peer-support programs do not lead to lasting changes. Health coaching, or professional support, can be highly effective if it focuses on developing self-efficacy and skills such as goal-setting, problem-solving and managing cognitive and emotional barriers. This overview discusses the benefits of patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes, core competencies for health coaching, theoretical bases and principles of health coaching interventions, delivery methods and the evidence that health coaching works for diabetes self-management.

  17. Strategies for reducing morbidity and mortality from diabetes through health-care system interventions and diabetes self-management education in community settings. A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    2001-09-28

    Reducing morbidity and mortality and improving quality of life for persons with diabetes is an ongoing challenge for health-care providers and organizations and public health practitioners. Interventions are available that focus on persons with diabetes, health-care systems, families, and public policies. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) has conducted systematic reviews of seven population-oriented interventions that can be implemented by health-care organizations and communities. Two of these interventions focus on health-care systems (disease and case management), and five focus on persons with diabetes (diabetes self-management education delivered in community settings). On the basis of these reviews, the Task Force has made recommendations regarding use of these seven interventions. The Task Force strongly recommends disease and case management in health-care systems for persons with diabetes. Diabetes self-management education is recommended in community gathering places (e.g., community centers or faith institutions) for adults and in the home for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Evidence was insufficient to recommend diabetes self-management education interventions in other settings (i.e., schools, work sites, and recreational camps) or in the home for adults with type 2 diabetes. This report provides additional information regarding these recommendations, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides sources of full reviews of interventions and information to assist in applying the interventions locally, and describes additional diabetes-related work in progress.

  18. Delivering the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dallosso, H M; Dixon, S; Brennan, A; Carey, M E; Campbell, M J; Heller, S; Khunti, K; Skinner, T C; Davies, M J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the long term clinical and cost effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) intervention compared with usual care in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Design We undertook a cost-utility analysis that used data from a 12 month, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial and, using the Sheffield type 2 diabetes model, modelled long term outcomes in terms of use of therapies, incidence of complications, mortality, and associated effect on costs and health related quality of life. A further cost-utility analysis was also conducted using current “real world” costs of delivering the intervention estimated for a hypothetical primary care trust. Setting Primary care trusts in the United Kingdom. Participants Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Intervention A six hour structured group education programme delivered in the community by two professional healthcare educators. Main outcome measures Incremental costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Results On the basis of the data in the trial, the estimated mean incremental lifetime cost per person receiving the DESMOND intervention is £209 (95% confidence interval −£704 to £1137; €251, −€844 to €1363; $326, −$1098 to $1773), the incremental gain in QALYs per person is 0.0392 (−0.0813 to 0.1786), and the mean incremental cost per QALY is £5387. Using “real world” intervention costs, the lifetime incremental cost of the DESMOND intervention is £82 (−£831 to £1010) and the mean incremental cost per QALY gained is £2092. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the likelihood that the DESMOND programme is cost effective at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY is 66% using trial based intervention costs and 70% using “real world” costs. Results from a one way sensitivity analysis suggest that the DESMOND intervention is cost effective even under more modest

  19. Structured self-management education maintained over two years in insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes patients: the ERMIES randomised trial in Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management education programs can reduce the complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes. The need to structure these programs for outpatient and community care with a vision for long-term maintenance has been recognised. In Reunion Island, an area affected by epidemiological and nutritional transition, diabetes affects 18% of the adult population over 30 years, with major social disparities, poor glycaemic control and frequent cardiovascular complications. Methods/Design ERMIES is a randomised controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a long-term (2 years) structured group self management educational intervention in improving blood glucose in non-recent, insufficiently controlled diabetes. After an initial structured educational cycle carried out blind for the intervention arm, patients will be randomised in two parallel group arms of 120 subjects: structured on-going group with educational intervention maintained over two years, versus only initial education. Education sessions are organised through a regional diabetes management network, and performed by trained registered nurses at close quarters. The educational approach is theoretically based (socio-constructivism, social contextualisation, empowerment, action planning) and reproducible, thanks to curricula and handouts for educators and learners. The subjects will be recruited from five hospital outpatient settings all over Reunion Island. The main eligibility criteria include: age ≥18 years, type 2 diabetes treated for more than one year, HbA1c ≥ 7.5% for ≥3 months, without any severe evolving complication (ischaemic or proliferative retinopathy, severe renal insufficiency, coronaropathy or evolving foot lesion), and absence of any major physical or cognitive handicap. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c evolution between inclusion and 2 years. The secondary outcome measures include anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, lipids, antidiabetic medications, level of

  20. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  1. Consultation and Collaboration on Health Self-Management for People Who Are Visually Impaired from Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Margaret E.

    1993-01-01

    The expertise of rehabilitation teachers and diabetes nurse educators can complement each other in components of diabetes management for people who have become visually impaired. The role of each professional involves education; integration of diabetes self-management into a comprehensive rehabilitation program; nutrition; exercise; medication,…

  2. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-09-10

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population.

  3. Factors Influencing Self-Management in Chinese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoping; Liu, Tingting; Yuan, Xiaojing; Ge, Song; Yang, Jing; Li, Changwei; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem in China. Diabetes self-management is critical for patients to achieved better health outcomes, however, previous studies have shown suboptimal diabetes self-management performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify factors associated with diabetes self-management in Chinese adults. The results showed that confrontation, resignation, overall health beliefs, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy were factors associated with overall diabetes self-management performance and six aspects of diabetes self-management behaviors. There is some limited evidence to suggest that provider-patient communication, married individuals, higher educational level, and higher household income level may also be linked to better diabetes self-management practice. Having healthcare insurance and utilizing chronic illness resources generally appeared to have a favorable effect on diabetes self-management performance. In addition, there were a number of factors for which the evidence is too limited to be able to ascertain its strength of association with diabetes self-management practice. The findings of this review suggest that diabetes self-management behaviors are affected by a wide range of personal and environmental factors, which allow health care providers to develop theory-based strategies to improve diabetes-self-management behaviors in this population. PMID:26378555

  4. Interactive Multimedia Tailored to Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia G; Alley, Elizabeth; Baer, Spencer; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    A pilot program was initiated to improve self-management of type 2 diabetes by rural adults. Using an iOS-based, individually tailored pre-/postintervention to improve diabetes self-management, undergraduate students developed a native mobile application to help participants effectively manage their diabetes. Brief quizzes assessed diabetes knowledge. A diabetes dictionary and physical activity assessment provided additional support to users of the app. On completion of the pilot, data analysis indicated increased diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy, and ease of use of the technology. Native app technology permits ready access to important information for those living with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26333610

  5. Interactive Multimedia Tailored to Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia G; Alley, Elizabeth; Baer, Spencer; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    A pilot program was initiated to improve self-management of type 2 diabetes by rural adults. Using an iOS-based, individually tailored pre-/postintervention to improve diabetes self-management, undergraduate students developed a native mobile application to help participants effectively manage their diabetes. Brief quizzes assessed diabetes knowledge. A diabetes dictionary and physical activity assessment provided additional support to users of the app. On completion of the pilot, data analysis indicated increased diabetes knowledge and self-efficacy, and ease of use of the technology. Native app technology permits ready access to important information for those living with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Development and validation of a diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans.

    PubMed

    McCaskill, Gina M; Bolland, Kathleen A; Burgio, Kathryn L; Leeper, James

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans 65 years of age and older. The Self-Care Utility Geriatric African-American Rating (SUGAAR) was developed using the American Diabetes Association's standards for the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults and cognitive interviews with older African-Americans. The instrument underwent extensive review by a panel of experts, two rounds of cognitive interviews, and a pilot test before it was administered in an interview format to 125 community-dwelling older African-Americans. The instrument demonstrated content validity and significant, but modest, convergent validity with items from an established diabetes self-management instrument. Social workers and health care professionals can use the SUGARR to assess diabetes self-management and to identify areas for education and support for older African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Use of Medicare's Diabetes Self-Management Training Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Larisa M.; Lloyd, Jennifer T.; Meadow, Ann; Riley, Gerald F.; Howell, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Medicare began reimbursing for outpatient diabetes self-management training (DSMT) in 2000; however, little is known about program utilization. Individuals diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 were identified from a 20% random selection of the Medicare fee-for-service population (N = 110,064). Medicare administrative and claims files were used to…

  8. Diabetes: Christian Worldview, Medical Distrust & Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  9. Mobile Applications for Diabetes Self-Management: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    El-Gayar, Omar; Timsina, Prem; Nawar, Nevine; Eid, Wael

    2013-01-01

    Background Advancements in smartphone technology coupled with the proliferation of data connectivity has resulted in increased interest and unprecedented growth in mobile applications for diabetes self-management. The objective of this article is to determine, in a systematic review, whether diabetes applications have been helping patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes self-manage their condition and to identify issues necessary for large-scale adoption of such interventions. Methods The review covers commercial applications available on the Apple App Store (as a representative of commercially available applications) and articles published in relevant databases covering a period from January 1995 to August 2012. The review included all applications supporting any diabetes self-management task where the patient is the primary actor. Results Available applications support self-management tasks such as physical exercise, insulin dosage or medication, blood glucose testing, and diet. Other support tasks considered include decision support, notification/alert, tagging of input data, and integration with social media. The review points to the potential for mobile applications to have a positive impact on diabetes self-management. Analysis indicates that application usage is associated with improved attitudes favorable to diabetes self-management. Limitations of the applications include lack of personalized feedback; usability issues, particularly the ease of data entry; and integration with patients and electronic health records. Conclusions Research into the adoption and use of user-centered and sociotechnical design principles is needed to improve usability, perceived usefulness, and, ultimately, adoption of the technology. Proliferation and efficacy of interventions involving mobile applications will benefit from a holistic approach that takes into account patients’ expectations and providers’ needs. PMID:23439183

  10. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  11. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  12. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  13. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  14. 42 CFR 410.141 - Outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient diabetes self-management training. 410... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.141 Outpatient diabetes self-management...

  15. Self-management experiences among men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC) in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4%) were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG); diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support. PMID:23249410

  16. MyDiabetesMyWay: An Evolving National Data Driven Diabetes Self-Management Platform.

    PubMed

    Wake, Deborah J; He, Jinzhang; Czesak, Anna Maria; Mughal, Fezan; Cunningham, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    MyDiabetesMyWay (MDMW) is an award-wining national electronic personal health record and self-management platform for diabetes patients in Scotland. This platform links multiple national institutional and patient-recorded data sources to provide a unique resource for patient care and self-management. This review considers the current evidence for online interventions in diabetes and discusses these in the context of current and ongoing developments for MDMW. Evaluation of MDMW through patient reported outcomes demonstrates a positive impact on self-management. User feedback has highlighted barriers to uptake and has guided platform evolution from an education resource website to an electronic personal health record now encompassing remote monitoring, communication tools and personalized education links. Challenges in delivering digital interventions for long-term conditions include integration of data between institutional and personal recorded sources to perform big data analytics and facilitating technology use in those with disabilities, low digital literacy, low socioeconomic status and in minority groups. The potential for technology supported health improvement is great, but awareness and adoption by health workers and patients remains a significant barrier.

  17. MyDiabetesMyWay: An Evolving National Data Driven Diabetes Self-Management Platform.

    PubMed

    Wake, Deborah J; He, Jinzhang; Czesak, Anna Maria; Mughal, Fezan; Cunningham, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    MyDiabetesMyWay (MDMW) is an award-wining national electronic personal health record and self-management platform for diabetes patients in Scotland. This platform links multiple national institutional and patient-recorded data sources to provide a unique resource for patient care and self-management. This review considers the current evidence for online interventions in diabetes and discusses these in the context of current and ongoing developments for MDMW. Evaluation of MDMW through patient reported outcomes demonstrates a positive impact on self-management. User feedback has highlighted barriers to uptake and has guided platform evolution from an education resource website to an electronic personal health record now encompassing remote monitoring, communication tools and personalized education links. Challenges in delivering digital interventions for long-term conditions include integration of data between institutional and personal recorded sources to perform big data analytics and facilitating technology use in those with disabilities, low digital literacy, low socioeconomic status and in minority groups. The potential for technology supported health improvement is great, but awareness and adoption by health workers and patients remains a significant barrier. PMID:27162192

  18. Use of Gaming in Self-Management of Diabetes in Teens.

    PubMed

    Swartwout, Ellen; El-Zein, Ashley; Deyo, Patricia; Sweenie, Rachel; Streisand, Randi

    2016-07-01

    With the growing prevalence of diabetes in teens and frequent concomitant problems with adherence, adolescents are a frequent target for diabetes self-management support and education. Due to widespread use of technology among teens in general, the use of serious games, games used for purposes beyond entertainment with the intention to educate and support health behavior for teens with diabetes self-management, is an emerging and promising practice. This report explores games intended for teens with diabetes, how the use of games may enhance clinical practice, and provides suggestions for future research and better utilization of these technologies. Current research on the use of gaming for promoting diabetes management in teens is fairly limited, with some initial support for improvements in both behavioral and clinical outcomes among teens. More research is clearly needed in order to further determine how gaming can best be utilized to impact health outcomes in these teens, as well as potential mechanisms of change.

  19. Experiences of self-management support from GPs among Australian ethnically diverse diabetes patients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Vanessa K; Harris, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Ethnically diverse diabetes patients face significant challenges in diabetes self-management ranging from cultural expectations to inequalities in health care provision. This study explored the experiences of ethnically diverse patients with diabetes attending group diabetes education in receiving self-management support from GPs. An approach based on phenomenology was used to analyse participants' experiences in self-management support across three group interviews comprising 28 Australian ethnically diverse diabetes patients: Arabic-speaking group (n = 11), English-speaking group (n = 9) and Vietnamese-speaking group (n = 8). Two themes emerged related to the poor quality of information to support self-management and challenges in negotiating traditional consultation styles. In particular, participants believed they knew more about diabetes self-management than their GPs but felt unable to influence consultation style and communicate their changing needs in self-management support. The health care and information needs of ethnically diverse patients continue to be marginalised within health systems. This small exploratory study highlights the need for further research to illuminate interactions between ethnically diverse diabetes patients and GPs in supporting long-term diabetes self-management.

  20. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Everett, B.; Astorga, C.; Yogendran, D.; Salamonson, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management.

  1. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Everett, B.; Astorga, C.; Yogendran, D.; Salamonson, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  2. The Influence of Health Literacy and Depression on Diabetes Self-Management: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Maneze, D; Everett, B; Astorga, C; Yogendran, D; Salamonson, Y

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a) have lower educational attainment; (b) be migrants; and (c) have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a) younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24-4.64); (b) having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05-5.01); (c) low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.20); and (d) having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30-4.06). The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people's understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management. PMID:27595113

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use as Health Self-Management: Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study describes complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among rural older adults with diabetes, delineates the relationship of health self-management predictors to CAM therapy use, and furthers conceptual development of CAM use within a health self-management framework. Methods Survey interview data were collected from a random sample of 701 community dwelling African American, Native American, and White elders residing in two rural North Carolina counties. We summarize CAM use for general use and for diabetes care and use multiple logistic modeling to estimate the effects of health self-management predictors on use of CAM therapies. Results The majority of respondents used some form of CAM for general purpose, whereas far fewer used CAM for diabetes care. The most widely used CAM categories were food home remedies, other home remedies, and vitamins. The following health self-management predictors were related to the use of different categories of CAM therapies: personal characteristics (ethnicity), health status (number of health conditions), personal resources (education), and financial resources (economic status). Discussion CAM is a widely used component of health self-management among rural among older adults with diabetes. Research on CAM use will benefit from theory that considers the specific behavior and cognitive characteristics of CAM therapies. PMID:16497962

  4. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule...

  5. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management..., payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician fee schedule...

  6. Children's Roles in Parents’ Diabetes Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Helena H.; Davis, Matthew M.; Forman, Jane; Palmisano, Gloria; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Tannas, Cheryl; Spencer, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Family support is important in diabetes self-management. However, children as providers of support have received little attention. This study examines the role of children in their parents’ diabetes self-management, diet, and exercise. Methods This research used community-based participatory research principles. Researchers conducted semi-structured parallel interviews of 24 Latino and African-American adults with diabetes and with a child (age 10–17 years) in their home (2004–06). Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes (2004–07). Results Adults and children perceived that children play many roles related to adults’ diabetes self-management. Parents described children as monitoring parents’ dietary intake and reminding them what they should not be eating. Some children helped with shopping and meal preparation. Families described children reminding parents to exercise and exercising with their parent. Children reminded parents about medications and assisted with tasks such as checking blood sugar. Parents and children perceived that children played a role in tempting parents to stray from their diabetes diet, because children's diets included food that parents desired but tried to avoid. Conclusion Children and parents perceived that children have many roles in both supporting and undermining adults’ diabetes self-management. There is more to learn about the bidirectional relationships between adults and children in this setting and the most beneficial roles children can play. Health-care providers should encourage family lifestyle change, strengthen social support for families and direct children toward roles that are beneficial for both parent and child and do not place an unreasonable level of responsibility on the child. PMID:19896027

  7. Effectiveness of a Culturally Tailored Diabetes Self-Management Program for Chinese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Angela C.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Saw, Anne; Chan, Joanne L.; Cheng, Joyce W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of a diabetes self-management and education program for Chinese Americans in a support group format. The rationale for the study was to create culturally appropriate diabetes education and management programs in response to the growing diabetes prevalence among Chinese Americans. The investigators hypothesized that participants will have improved diabetes knowledge and practices, hemoglobin A1C, and social support. The study objectives were at least: 50% will have significant improvements in diabetes knowledge and practice activities, 30% of participants will have significant improvements in A1C, and 50% will report a gain in emotional support. Methods The program consisted of 12 90-minute diabetes education and support group sessions offered in a medical office setting. The sample included 23 Chinese Americans with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Using a single-group, pre-post test design, A1C and diabetes knowledge were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Data were collected through clinical assessments and written questionnaires. Results The results indicated high attendance and statistically significant increases in glycemic control and diabetes knowledge. Statistically insignificant differences were shown in diabetes management practices. Secondary outcomes assessed participants’ perceived diabetes management and emotional and social support. Conclusions Diabetes Self-Management: A Cultural Approach (DSMCA) support group model demonstrates that a culturally tailored support group utilizing a community-based participatory research approach is an effective format to improve diabetes self-management skills among Chinese Americans. The program can be adapted for other ethnic populations. The efficacy of the intervention can be further tested in larger randomized trials. PMID:22722610

  8. Self-management among Patients Living with Diabetes in the United States Virgin Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Maxine A.; Yarandi, Hossein; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    The United States Virgin Islands (USVI) is facing a diabetes epidemic similar to the one on the U.S. mainland, yet little is known regarding the cultural context relevant to self-management in this U.S. territory. We conducted in-home interviews (n = 53) supplemented by self-administered questionnaire and A1c testing with U.S. Virgin Islanders to characterize self-management knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among patients living with diabetes. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) was 7.63 (Range = 5–13); a composite score of traditional self-management behaviors was not associated with A1c. Several recurrent themes emerged from qualitative analysis including: 1) cultural nuances shaped perspectives on self-management, 2) culturally-specific challenges were barriers to effective self-management, 3) medical homes were rarely viewed as the primary source of education and support, and 4) fear largely motivated or stalled self-management practices. This study highlights the need for culturally-tailored measures and interventions to address the specific needs within this population. PMID:21317521

  9. A theoretical framework for a virtual diabetes self-management community intervention.

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M

    2014-10-01

    Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support).

  10. The influence of cognition on self-management of type 2 diabetes in older people

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, Ali; Sinclair, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health issue, increasing in prevalence, eroding quality of life, and burdening health care systems. The complications of diabetes can be avoided or delayed by maintaining good glycemic control, which is achievable through self-management and, where necessary, medication. Older people with diabetes are at increased risk for cognitive impairment. This review aims to bring together current research that has investigated both cognition and diabetes self-management together. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (Cinahl), Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (Medline), and Psychological Information (PsychInfo) databases were searched. Studies were included if they featured older people with type 2 diabetes and had looked for associations between at least one distinct measure of cognition and at least one distinct measure of diabetes self-management. English language publications from the year 2000 were included. Cognitive measures of executive function, memory, and low scores on tests of global cognitive functioning showed significant correlations with multiple areas of diabetes self-management, including diabetes-specific numeracy ability, diabetes knowledge, insulin adjustment skills, ability to learn to perform insulin injections, worse adherence to medications, decreased frequency of self-care activities, missed appointments, decreased frequency of diabetes monitoring, and increased inaccuracies in reporting blood glucose monitoring. The nature of the subjects studied was quite variable in terms of their disease duration, previous medical histories, associated medical comorbidities, and educational level attained prior to being diagnosed with diabetes. The majority of studies were of an associational nature and not findings confirmed by repeat testing or by the effects of an intervention, neither were the majority of studies designed to give a view or conclusion on the clinical

  11. The influence of cognition on self-management of type 2 diabetes in older people.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, Ali; Sinclair, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health issue, increasing in prevalence, eroding quality of life, and burdening health care systems. The complications of diabetes can be avoided or delayed by maintaining good glycemic control, which is achievable through self-management and, where necessary, medication. Older people with diabetes are at increased risk for cognitive impairment. This review aims to bring together current research that has investigated both cognition and diabetes self-management together. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (Cinahl), Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (Medline), and Psychological Information (PsychInfo) databases were searched. Studies were included if they featured older people with type 2 diabetes and had looked for associations between at least one distinct measure of cognition and at least one distinct measure of diabetes self-management. English language publications from the year 2000 were included. Cognitive measures of executive function, memory, and low scores on tests of global cognitive functioning showed significant correlations with multiple areas of diabetes self-management, including diabetes-specific numeracy ability, diabetes knowledge, insulin adjustment skills, ability to learn to perform insulin injections, worse adherence to medications, decreased frequency of self-care activities, missed appointments, decreased frequency of diabetes monitoring, and increased inaccuracies in reporting blood glucose monitoring. The nature of the subjects studied was quite variable in terms of their disease duration, previous medical histories, associated medical comorbidities, and educational level attained prior to being diagnosed with diabetes. The majority of studies were of an associational nature and not findings confirmed by repeat testing or by the effects of an intervention, neither were the majority of studies designed to give a view or conclusion on the clinical

  12. Behavioural Change in Type 1 Diabetes Self-Management: Why and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the communication process between diabetes health professionals and people intensively self-managing their type 1 diabetes influenced behavioural change. Design: Telephone interviews to provide insight into the communication process and its influence on diabetes intensive self-management behaviour. Setting:…

  13. Self-Management Abilities of Diabetes in People with an Intellectual Disability Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh A.; Trip, Henrietta T.; Whitehead, Lisa; Conder, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is encouraged; however, it is not an easy task and requires a good understanding of the disease. To determine how to improve the self-management abilities of diabetes in people with an intellectual disability (ID), this study explored the knowledge and understanding of diabetes held by a select group of adults with…

  14. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  15. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  16. 42 CFR 414.63 - Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for outpatient diabetes self-management... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.63 Payment for outpatient diabetes self... this section, payment for outpatient diabetes self-management training is made under the physician...

  17. A pilot study examining patient attitudes and intentions to adopt assistive technologies into type 2 diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Kathleen G; Hall, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Approximately half of individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have suboptimal self-management, which could be improved by using assistive technologies in self-management regimes. This study examines patient attitudes and intentions to adopt assistive technologies into T2DM self-management. Forty-four participants (M = 58.7 years) with T2DM were recruited from diabetes education classes in the southwestern Ontario, Canada, between February and April 2014. Participants completed a self-reported in-person survey assessing demographic characteristics, current diabetes management, and attitudes toward using assistive technologies in their diabetes self-management. Demographics, disease characteristics, and current technology use and preferences of the cohort were examined, followed by a correlational analysis of descriptive characteristics and attitudes and intentions to use technology in self-management. The majority of (but not all) participants felt that using Internet applications (65%) and smartphone (53.5%) applications for self-management was a good idea. The majority of participants did not currently use an Internet (92.5%) or mobile (96%) application for self-management. Of participants, 77% intended to use an Internet application to manage their diabetes in the future and 58% intended to use mobile applications. Younger age was associated with more positive attitudes (r = -.432, P = .003) and intentions (r = -.425, P = .005) to use assistive technologies in diabetes self-management. Findings suggest that patients, especially those younger in age, are favorable toward adopting assistive technologies into management practice. However, attitudes among older adults are less positive, and few currently make use of such technologies in any age group.

  18. A Pilot Study Examining Patient Attitudes and Intentions to Adopt Assistive Technologies Into Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Kathleen G.; Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately half of individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have suboptimal self-management, which could be improved by using assistive technologies in self-management regimes. This study examines patient attitudes and intentions to adopt assistive technologies into T2DM self-management. Methods: Forty-four participants (M = 58.7 years) with T2DM were recruited from diabetes education classes in the southwestern Ontario, Canada, between February and April 2014. Participants completed a self-reported in-person survey assessing demographic characteristics, current diabetes management, and attitudes toward using assistive technologies in their diabetes self-management. Demographics, disease characteristics, and current technology use and preferences of the cohort were examined, followed by a correlational analysis of descriptive characteristics and attitudes and intentions to use technology in self-management. Results: The majority of (but not all) participants felt that using Internet applications (65%) and smartphone (53.5%) applications for self-management was a good idea. The majority of participants did not currently use an Internet (92.5%) or mobile (96%) application for self-management. Of participants, 77% intended to use an Internet application to manage their diabetes in the future and 58% intended to use mobile applications. Younger age was associated with more positive attitudes (r = –.432, P = .003) and intentions (r = –.425, P = .005) to use assistive technologies in diabetes self-management. Conclusions: Findings suggest that patients, especially those younger in age, are favorable toward adopting assistive technologies into management practice. However, attitudes among older adults are less positive, and few currently make use of such technologies in any age group. PMID:25427965

  19. Problem Solving Interventions for Diabetes Self-management and Control: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Schumann, Kristina P.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    Aims Problem solving is deemed a core skill for patient diabetes self-management education. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the published literature on the effect of problem-solving interventions on diabetes self-management and disease control. Data Sources We searched PubMed and PsychINFO electronic databases for English language articles published between November 2006 and September 2012. Reference lists from included studies were reviewed to capture additional studies. Study Selection Studies reporting problem-solving intervention or problem solving as an intervention component for diabetes self-management training and disease control were included. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Data Extraction Study design, sample characteristics, measures, and results were reviewed. Data Synthesis Sixteen intervention studies (11 adult, 5 children/adolescents) were randomized controlled trials, and 8 intervention studies (6 adult, 2 children/adolescents) were quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Studies varied greatly in their approaches to problem-solving use in patient education. To date, 36% of adult problem-solving interventions and 42% of children/adolescent problem-solving interventions have demonstrated significant improvement in HbA1c, while psychosocial outcomes have been more promising. The next phase of problem-solving intervention research should employ intervention characteristics found to have sufficient potency and intensity to reach therapeutic levels needed to demonstrate change. PMID:23312614

  20. Self-management education and support in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Patrick T

    2012-06-01

    With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community.

  1. Diabetes Text-Message Self-Management Support Program (SMS4BG): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Karen; Cutfield, Richard; Hulme, Ashley; Hulme, Richard; McNamara, Catherine; Maddison, Ralph; Murphy, Rinki; Shepherd, Matthew; Strydom, Johan; Whittaker, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of diabetes and costly long-term complications associated with poor glycemic control are issues facing health services worldwide. Diabetes self-management, with the support of health care providers, is critical for successful outcomes, however, frequent clinical contact is costly. Text messages via short message service (SMS) have the advantage of instant transmission at low cost and, given the ubiquity of mobile phones, may be the ideal platform for the delivery of diabetes self-management support. A tailored text message-based diabetes support intervention called Self-Management Support for Blood Glucose (SMS4BG) was developed. The intervention incorporates prompts around diabetes education, management, and lifestyle factors (healthy eating, exercise, and stress management), as well as blood glucose monitoring reminders, and is tailored to patient preferences and clinical characteristics. Objective To determine the usability and acceptability of SMS4BG among adults with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Adults (aged 17 to 69 years) with type 1 (n=12) or type 2 diabetes (n=30), a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over 70 mmol/mol (8.6%), and who owned a mobile phone (n=42) were recruited to take part in a 3-month pilot study of SMS4BG. At registration, participants selected the modules they would like to receive and, where appropriate, the frequency and timing of blood glucose monitoring reminders. Patient satisfaction and perceptions of the usability of the program were obtained via semistructured phone interviews conducted at completion of the pilot study. HbA1c was obtained from patient records at baseline and completion of the pilot study. Results Participants received on average 109 messages during the 3-month program with 2 participants withdrawing early from the study. Follow-up interviews were completed with 93% of participants with all reporting SMS4BG to be useful and appropriate to their age and culture. Participants reported

  2. [Support of diabetes dietary management and self-management using mobile applications].

    PubMed

    Szálka, Brigitta; Kósa, István; Vassányi, István; Mák, Erzsébet

    2016-07-01

    The key components of successful diabetes therapy are pharmacotherapy, hospital care and lifestyle education. Lifestyle education, self-management, and composing the right diet can be effectively supported with mobile applications. In this paper Hungarian mobile applications are reviewed and compared to some international competitors. Besides plenty of useful functions some deficiencies are identified, based on dietary recommendations. The related improvements together with clinical trials validating effectiveness and reliability can strengthen medical evidence as well as the penetration of such mobile applications. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1147-1153.

  3. Six-month Outcomes of Mobile Phone Application-based Self-management in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Young Yun; Rha, Mi Yong; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    We report the case in order to examine the effect of a mobile application program ("Diabetes & Nutrition") developed in 2011-2012 for self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and to recommend important considerations when the mobile application program is developed. A 46-year-old man was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2013 and had no complications. The height of the patient was 168 cm and the body weight was 75.6 kg. Nutrition education was conducted according to a medical prescription, and follow-up nutrition education was conducted after 3 and 6 months. After nutrition education, the patient was engaged in self-management using "Diabetes & Nutrition" program during 3 months. At 3 months, the body weight had decreased by 4.4 kg (from 75.6 to 71.2 kg), waist circumference by 5 cm (from 88 to 83 cm) and HbA1c level from 7.9% to 6.1%. Also at 3 months, the medication was reduced from from the dose of 850 mg to the dose of 500 mg metformin per twice a day. Since then, the patient did not continue to use the "Diabetes & Nutrition" because the level of blood glucose had stabilized, and the patient felt inconvenient and annoying to use the program. At 6 months, no significant change in the body weight and body composition was observed in comparison with those at 3 months. The present case demonstrates that the early use of "Diabetes & Nutrition" could be helpful for self-management of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Developing self-management mobile application programs in the future will require strategies of how to promote continuous use of application program and self-management of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Parent and teacher perceptions of the impact of school nurse interventions on children's self-management of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peery, Annette I; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S

    2012-08-01

    Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this relationship in a sample of 69 school-age children who received case management from school nurses. Our findings suggest that teachers and parents do not always agree on how well a child manages their illness. When school nurses provide more education and counseling, parents are more likely to perceive an improvement in their child's self-management. Teachers are more likely to perceive an improvement when the nurse provides more classroom visits and includes the physical education teacher and guidance counselor. These findings suggest that the roles of educator, counselor, and collaborator are important for school nurses who provide care to school-age children with diabetes.

  5. Understanding Cultural Issues in Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors of Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Seok; Yang, Kyeongra; Lee, Jia; Min, Jiwon; Kim, Kevin H.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore potential factors affecting self-management behaviors in Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (KIT2Ds). Methods A qualitative descriptive design guided this study. Semi-structured interviews lasting 45-60 minutes were conducted with 20 KIT2Ds in the participant’s preferred language; in all cases this was Korean. Each interview was audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Data analysis was performed in two steps. The data written in Korean were initially analyzed by three bilingual researchers. A qualitative researcher then participated in the analysis to refine the findings for presentation to an English speaking audience while staying true to the data and preserving the nuanced Korean meanings. Results The mean age of the sample was 64. 5 ± 11.6 years (9 men and 11 women). The mean years of staying in the U. S. and age at diabetes mellitus diagnosis were 23.6 ± 9.7 years and 52.5 ± 12.3 years, respectively. Three major ideas were identified: (a) issues on treatment regimen related to both medications and diet, (b) resources that helped or hindered their ability to manage diabetes, and (c) the physician/patient relationship. Conclusions There were important cultural nuances that need to be addressed to better prepare KIT2Ds to manage their diabetes more effectively. A culture specific program should extend beyond a diabetes self-management education delivered in Korean language. Rather, content and education methods need to consider acculturation effects on diabetes management behaviors. PMID:23019236

  6. Evolution of a web-based, prototype Personal Health Application for diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Stephanie J; Kedziora, Richard J; Vigersky, Robert A; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2010-10-01

    Behaviors carried out by the person with diabetes (e.g., healthy eating, physical activity, judicious use of medication, glucose monitoring, coping and problem-solving, regular clinic visits, etc.) are of central importance in diabetes management. To assist with these behaviors, we developed a prototype PHA for diabetes self-management that was based on User-Centered Design principles and congruent with the anticipatory vision of Project Health Design (PHD). This article presents aspects of the prototype PHA's functionality as conceived under PHD and describes modifications to the PHA now being undertaken under new sponsorship, in response to user feedback and timing tests we have performed. In brief, the prototype Personal Health Application (PHA) receives data on the major diabetes management domains from a Personal Health Record (PHR) and analyzes and provides feedback based on clinically vetted educational content. The information is presented within "gadgets" within a portal-based website. The PHR used for the first implementation was the Common Platform developed by PHD. Key changes include a re-conceptualization of the gadgets by topic areas originally defined by the American Association of Diabetes Educators, a refocusing on low-cost approaches to diabetes monitoring and data entry, and synchronization with a new PHR, Microsoft® HealthVault™.

  7. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article. PMID:26113496

  8. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-management: perspectives of older community dwellers and health professionals in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huixia; Edwards, Helen; Courtney, Mary; McDowell, Jan; Wei, Juan

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about self-management among people with Type 2 diabetes living in mainland China. Understanding the experiences of this target population is needed to provide socioculturally relevant education to effectively promote self-management. The aim of this study was to explore perceived barriers and facilitators to diabetes self-management for both older community dwellers and health professionals in China. Four focus groups, two for older people with diabetes and two for health professionals, were conducted. All participants were purposively sampled from two communities in Shanghai, China. Six barriers were identified: overdependence on but dislike of western medicine, family role expectations, cuisine culture, lack of trustworthy information sources, deficits in communication between clients and health professionals, and restriction of reimbursement regulations. Facilitators included family and peer support, good relationships with health professionals, simple and practical instruction and a favourable community environment. The findings provide valuable information for diabetes self-management intervention development in China, and have implications for programmes tailored to populations in similar sociocultural circumstances.

  10. Comparison of a Mindful Eating Intervention to a Diabetes Self-Management Intervention among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carla K.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady

    2014-01-01

    Mindful eating may be an effective intervention for increasing awareness of hunger and satiety cues, improving eating regulation and dietary patterns, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and promoting weight loss. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), which addresses knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations for improving…

  11. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  12. Tools For Interactive Learning And Self-Management Of Diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelo, Rita; Baptista, Carla; Figueiredo, Júlia; Carrilho, Francisco; Furtado, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes is a widespread disease and its control is dependent upon the patient. Although there is no permanent cure for diabetes, there are several available treatments which, when followed regularly, allow the patient to have a good quality of life. Patient education, especially about eating habits, is key to keep glucose levels stable both in the short and in the long term. This should include nutritional counselling, physical exercise, and the self monitoring of glucose levels. The University of Coimbra and the Serviço de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo of Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra started a collaboration to develop interactive tools for the learning and improvement of carbohydrate counting by patients. The approach presented in this paper is an interactive multimedia tool, available to patients through either the web or a smartphone. It helps them to learn how to maintain a healthy diet and how to monitor their insulin levels correctly by measuring the carbo-hidrate “equivalents” in meals. This application will create a more dynamic and interactive way of educating patients, improving solutions currently used in the Serviço de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo of the Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra.

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Motivation to Self-Manage and Styles of Self-Management amongst People Living with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D. PMID:26075285

  14. Effects of Self-Management Support on Structure, Process, and Outcomes Among Vulnerable Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schillinger, Dean; Handley, Margaret; Wang, Frances; Hammer, Hali

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite the importance of self-management support (SMS), few studies have compared SMS interventions, involved diverse populations, or entailed implementation in safety net settings. We examined the effects of two SMS strategies across outcomes corresponding to the Chronic Care Model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 339 outpatients with poorly controlled diabetes from county-run clinics were enrolled in a three-arm trial. Participants, more than half of whom spoke limited English, were uninsured, and/or had less than a high school education, were randomly assigned to usual care, interactive weekly automated telephone self-management support with nurse follow-up (ATSM), or monthly group medical visits with physician and health educator facilitation (GMV). We measured 1-year changes in structure (Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care [PACIC]), communication processes (Interpersonal Processes of Care [IPC]), and outcomes (behavioral, functional, and metabolic). RESULTS Compared with the usual care group, the ATSM and GMV groups showed improvements in PACIC, with effect sizes of 0.48 and 0.50, respectively (P < 0.01). Only the ATSM group showed improvements in IPC (effect sizes 0.40 vs. usual care and 0.25 vs. GMV, P < 0.05). Both SMS arms showed improvements in self-management behavior versus the usual care arm (P < 0.05), with gains being greater for the ATSM group than for the GMV group (effect size 0.27, P = 0.02). The ATSM group had fewer bed days per month than the usual care group (−1.7 days, P = 0.05) and the GMV group (−2.3 days, P < 0.01) and less interference with daily activities than the usual care group (odds ratio 0.37, P = 0.02). We observed no differences in A1C change. CONCLUSIONS Patient-centered SMS improves certain aspects of diabetes care and positively influences self-management behavior. ATSM seems to be a more effective communication vehicle than GMV in improving behavior and quality of life. PMID:19131469

  15. Mobile phone technologies and advanced data analysis towards the enhancement of diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Kouris, Ioannis; Mougiakakou, Stavroula; Scarnato, Luca; Iliopoulou, Dimitra; Diem, Peter; Vazeou, Andriani; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the area of mobile and wireless communication for healthcare (m-Health) along with the improvements in information science allow the design and development of new patient-centric models for the provision of personalised healthcare services, increase of patient independence and improvement of patient's self-control and self-management capabilities. This paper comprises a brief overview of the m-Health applications towards the self-management of individuals with diabetes mellitus and the enhancement of their quality of life. Furthermore, the design and development of a mobile phone application for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) self-management is presented. The technical evaluation of the application, which permits the management of blood glucose measurements, blood pressure measurements, insulin dosage, food/drink intake and physical activity, has shown that the use of the mobile phone technologies along with data analysis methods might improve the self-management of T1DM.

  16. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH)] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight) predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self-management

  17. "This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Conclusion Self-management

  18. Social barriers to Type 2 diabetes self-management: the role of capital.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Wilson, Christine; Roberts, Louise; Munt, Rebecca; Crotty, Mikaila

    2014-12-01

    Approaches to self-management traditionally focus upon individual capacity to make behavioural change. In this paper, we use Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital to demonstrate the impact of structural inequalities upon chronic illness self-management through exploring findings from 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with people from a lower socioeconomic region of Adelaide, South Australia who have type 2 diabetes. The data suggests that access to capital is a significant barrier to type 2 diabetes self-management. While many participants described having sufficient cultural capital to access and assess health information, they often lacked economic capital and social capital in the form of support networks who promote health. Participants were often involved in social networks in which activities which are contrary to self-management have symbolic value. As a consequence, they entered relationships with health professionals at a disadvantage. We conclude that structural barriers to self-management arising from habitus resulting in the performance of health behaviours rooted in cultural and class background and limited access to capital in the form of economic resources, social networks, health knowledge and prestige may have a negative impact on capacity for type 2 diabetes self-management. PMID:24916370

  19. Social barriers to Type 2 diabetes self-management: the role of capital.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Wilson, Christine; Roberts, Louise; Munt, Rebecca; Crotty, Mikaila

    2014-12-01

    Approaches to self-management traditionally focus upon individual capacity to make behavioural change. In this paper, we use Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital to demonstrate the impact of structural inequalities upon chronic illness self-management through exploring findings from 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with people from a lower socioeconomic region of Adelaide, South Australia who have type 2 diabetes. The data suggests that access to capital is a significant barrier to type 2 diabetes self-management. While many participants described having sufficient cultural capital to access and assess health information, they often lacked economic capital and social capital in the form of support networks who promote health. Participants were often involved in social networks in which activities which are contrary to self-management have symbolic value. As a consequence, they entered relationships with health professionals at a disadvantage. We conclude that structural barriers to self-management arising from habitus resulting in the performance of health behaviours rooted in cultural and class background and limited access to capital in the form of economic resources, social networks, health knowledge and prestige may have a negative impact on capacity for type 2 diabetes self-management.

  20. Changing patterns of self-management in youth with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Lynne S; Knafl, Kathleen A; Grey, Margaret

    2006-12-01

    Self-management of type I diabetes is key to good physical and psychosocial outcomes of the disease, yet little is known about how youth and their parents share responsibility for illness management. This study describes the division of labor between youth and their parents, self-management conflict, and three patterns of self-management in youth across four developmental stages: preadolescence, early adolescence, mid-adolescence, and late adolescence. Twenty-two youth (8-19 years) with type I diabetes and one of their parents were interviewed using semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that parents of preadolescents (8-11 years) performed much of their children's diabetes care. Dyads reported some conflicts, particularly over food, amount of bolus, and blood glucose testing. The dyads demonstrated a self-management pattern that we identified as parent-dominant. Most early adolescents (11-15 years) performed much of their own daily care, but parents actively participated in their self-management and oversaw it. The majority of dyads reported conflict over food and blood glucose testing. Most early adolescents demonstrated a transitional self-management pattern whereby they managed their own daily care, with varying amounts of parental oversight. In mid-adolescence (15-17 years), youth managed nearly all of their diabetes care; however, some dyads reported that parental oversight of illness care was still considerable. Exercise was conflictual for the majority of these dyads. Over half of the youth and, by late adolescence (17-19 years), all youth demonstrated a pattern of adolescent-dominant self-management. In adolescent-dominant self-management, youth independently managed their diabetes. Half of the dyads reported that there were sometimes conflicts over food and blood glucose testing. Understanding the nature of sharing self-management responsibilities, the nature of conflict in carrying out such

  1. Diabetes Education and Support: A Must for Students With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Siminerio, Linda M

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing diabetes self-management education and support is critical to helping youth with diabetes and their families learn about the disease, make and sustain behavioral changes, and cope with the reality of a chronic illness. Diabetes self-management education and support is best provided by a multidisciplinary team. School nurses are an important part of the student's diabetes health care team. This article highlights information and resources that school nurses can use to help support students with diabetes, their families, and other school personnel. PMID:26515567

  2. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  3. Benefits of Diabetes Self-Management for Health Plan Members: A 6-Month Translation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorig, Kate; Turner, Ralph M; English, Kathleen; Laurent, Diana D; Greenberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education has been shown to be effective in controlled trials. However, few programs that meet American Association of Diabetes Educators standards have been translated into widespread practice. Objective This study examined the translation of the evidence-based Better Choices, Better Health-Diabetes program in both Internet and face-to-face versions. Methods We administered the Internet program nationally in the United States (n=1010). We conducted face-to-face workshops in Atlanta, Georgia; Indianapolis, Indiana; and St. Louis, Missouri (n=232). Self-report questionnaires collected health indicator, health behavior, and health care utilization measures. Questionnaires were administered on the Web or by mail. We determined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from blood samples collected via mailed kits. Paired t tests determined whether changes between baseline and 6 months differed significantly from no change. Subgroup analyses determined whether participants with specific conditions benefited (high HbA1c, depression, hypoglycemia, nonadherence to medication taking, and no aerobic exercise). We calculated the percentage of participants with improvements of at least 0.4 effect size in at least one of the 5 above measures. Results Of the 1242 participants, 884 provided 6-month follow-up questionnaires. There were statistically significant improvements in 6 of 7 health indicators (including HbA1c) and in 7 of 7 behaviors. For each of the 5 conditions, there were significant improvements among those with the condition (effect sizes 0.59–1.1). A total of 662 (75.0%) of study participants improved at least 0.4 effect size in at least one criterion, and 327 (37.1%) improved in 2 or more. Conclusions The Diabetes Self-Management Program, offered in two modes, was successfully disseminated to a heterogeneous national population of members of either insured or administered health plans. Participants had small but significant benefits in multiple

  4. The Limits of Self-Management: Community and Health Care System Barriers Among Latinos With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Jurkowski, Janine

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine diabetes self-care, few regard ecological framework correlates such as community and institutional level factors as fundamental for understanding diabetes management for Latinos. This article addresses the dearth of research that exists regarding social contextual forces and diabetes management for Latinos. Given the scarcity of research on this topic, studies of non-Latino groups were reviewed to illustrate the importance of community and institutional influences on diabetes care. Consideration of fundamental correlates within the ecological framework may better discern the underlying rationale for inadequate diabetes self-management for individuals who live in impoverished communities. PMID:21686047

  5. Predictors of Diabetes Self-Management among Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    Gunggu, Azylina; Thon, Chang Ching; Whye Lian, Cheah

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern in Malaysia. Treatment of diabetes is costly and can lead to complications if disease is poorly controlled. Diabetes self-management (DSM) is found to be essential for optimal glycemic control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among samples from four randomly selected diabetes clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The aim was to determine the predictors for DSM. Face-to-face interview using questionnaire was used to collect data. Four hundred respondents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. Majority of the respondents were Sarawak Bumiputra (Iban and Bidayuh, 48.6%) and female (68.6%). The mean age was 58.77 years (SD = 11.46) and approximately half of the respondents (50.6%) had T2DM for six years (SD = 4.46). The mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) was 8.06 mmol/L (SD = 2.94), with majority (76.1%) having the level higher than 6.1 mmol/L. Multiple logistic regression tests showed significant linear relationship between DSM and belief in treatment effectiveness (p = 0.001), family support (p = 0.007), and self-efficacy (p = 0.027). Health care personnel must convince patients with T2DM of the effectiveness of the treatment, empower and enhance their self-efficacy, and enlist the family support so as to ensure patients sustain their DSM efforts. PMID:27563681

  6. Predictors of Diabetes Self-Management among Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern in Malaysia. Treatment of diabetes is costly and can lead to complications if disease is poorly controlled. Diabetes self-management (DSM) is found to be essential for optimal glycemic control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among samples from four randomly selected diabetes clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. The aim was to determine the predictors for DSM. Face-to-face interview using questionnaire was used to collect data. Four hundred respondents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. Majority of the respondents were Sarawak Bumiputra (Iban and Bidayuh, 48.6%) and female (68.6%). The mean age was 58.77 years (SD = 11.46) and approximately half of the respondents (50.6%) had T2DM for six years (SD = 4.46). The mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) was 8.06 mmol/L (SD = 2.94), with majority (76.1%) having the level higher than 6.1 mmol/L. Multiple logistic regression tests showed significant linear relationship between DSM and belief in treatment effectiveness (p = 0.001), family support (p = 0.007), and self-efficacy (p = 0.027). Health care personnel must convince patients with T2DM of the effectiveness of the treatment, empower and enhance their self-efficacy, and enlist the family support so as to ensure patients sustain their DSM efforts. PMID:27563681

  7. Knowledge of A1c Predicts Diabetes Self-Management and A1c Level among Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengnan; Kong, Weimin; Hsue, Cunyi; Fish, Anne F; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Lou, Qingqing; Anderson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study was to identify current A1c understanding status among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, assess if knowledge of A1c affects their diabetes self-management and their glycemic control and recognize the factors influencing knowledge of A1c among patients with type 2 diabetes. A multi-center, cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and July 2010 in 50 medical centers in the Mainland China. Participants were recruited from inpatients and outpatients who were admitted to or visited those medical centers. The survey included core questions about their demographic characteristics, diabetes self-management behavior, and A1c knowledge. Overall, of 5957 patients, the percentage of patients with good understanding was 25.3%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the variables related to the knowledge of A1c status are presented. We discovered that patients with longer diabetes duration (OR = 1.05; 95%CI = 1.04-1.06) and having received diabetes education (OR = 1.80; 95%CI = 1.49-2.17) were overrepresented in the good understanding of A1c group. In addition, compared to no education level, higher education level was statistically associated with good understanding of A1c (P<0.001). The percentage of patients with good understanding varied from region to region (P<0.001), with Eastern being highest (OR = 1.54; 95%CI = 1.32-1.80), followed by Central (OR = 1.25; 95%CI = 1.02-1.53), when referring to Western. Only a minority of patients with type 2 diabetes in China understood their A1c value. The patients who had a good understanding of their A1c demonstrated significantly better diabetes self-management behavior and had lower A1c levels than those who did not.

  8. Differentiating Approaches to Diabetes Self-Management of Multi-Ethnic Rural Older Adults at the Extremes of Glycemic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer-Lowry, Aleshia Nichol; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study identified approaches to diabetes self-management that differentiate persons with well-controlled from poorly controlled diabetes. Previous research has focused largely on persons participating in self-management interventions. Design and Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 adults, drawn…

  9. Goal setting in diabetes self-management: Taking the baby steps to success

    PubMed Central

    DeWalt, Darren A.; Davis, Terry C.; Wallace, Andrea S.; Seligman, Hilary K.; Bryant-Shilliday, Betsy; Arnold, Connie L.; Freburger, Janet; Schillinger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of a diabetes self-management guide and a brief counseling intervention in helping patients set and achieve their behavioral goals. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental study using a one group pretest posttest design to assess the effectiveness of a goal setting intervention along with a self-management guide. English- and Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes had one in-person session and two telephone follow-up calls with a non-clinical provider over a 12–16-week period. At each call and at the end of the study, we assessed success in achieving behavioral goals and problem solving toward those goals. Satisfaction with the self-management guide was assessed at the end of the study. Results We enrolled 250 patients across three sites and 229 patients completed the study. Most patients chose to set goals in diet and exercise domains. 93% of patients achieved at least one behavioral goal during the study and 73% achieved at least two behavioral goals. Many patients exhibited problem solving behavior to achieve their goals. We found no significant differences in reported achievement of behavior goals by literacy or language. Patients were very satisfied with the guide. Conclusions A brief goal setting intervention along with a diabetes self-management guide helped patients set and achieve healthy behavioral goals. Practice implications Non-clinical providers can successfully help a diverse range of patients with diabetes set and achieve behavioral goals. PMID:19359123

  10. Are Self-Management Interventions Suitable for All? Comparing Obese Versus Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…

  11. How does change occur following a theoretically based self-management intervention for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Steed, Liz; Barnard, Maria; Hurel, Steven; Jenkins, Catherine; Newman, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the extent that constructs from two theoretical models (self-regulatory theory and social cognitive theory) mediated change in outcomes following a self-management intervention. One hundred and twenty four individuals with type 2 diabetes who had participated in a randomised controlled trial of a diabetes self-management programme were analysed for the extent that illness beliefs and self-efficacy mediated change in self-management behaviours and illness specific quality of life. Exercise specific self-efficacy significantly mediated change in exercise at three months (B = .03; .01, p < .05) while monitoring specific self-efficacy mediated change in monitoring behaviour at both three (B = .04; .01, p < .01) and nine months follow-up (B = 5.97; 1.01, p < .01). Belief in control over diabetes mediated change in illness specific quality of life at three months (B = -.07; .28, p < .05) and nine months (B = .79; .28, p < .01) follow-ups, as well as change in exercise behaviour at immediately post-intervention (B = -.12; .17, p < .05). Behaviour-specific self-efficacy may have a stronger role in mediating self-management behaviours than illness beliefs; however, belief in control over diabetes may be important to manipulate for change in quality of life. This suggests different theoretical constructs may mediate change dependent on outcome.

  12. The Use of Videogames, Gamification, and Virtual Environments in the Self-Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Theng, Yin-Leng; Lee, Jason W Y; Patinadan, Paul V; Foo, Schubert S B

    2015-10-01

    The use of videogames in healthcare interventions is gaining popularity, but there is still a gap in the understanding on how these types of interventions are used for the management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine published research on the use of videogames for diabetes management. With the increased use of mobile technology, the review was expanded to understand whether games, gamification, and virtual environments can be used for diabetes self-management. Out of the 307 articles identified, only 10 articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The duration of most studies was short, with small sample sizes. All interventions targeted behavioral changes examining risk reduction of diabetes-related risk and promotion of healthy behavior among study participants. Videogames appeared to be helpful tools for education in some interventions, whereas gamification and virtual environments increased extrinsic motivation and provided positive reinforcement. This review concludes by discussing the potential of using videogames and gamification for the self-management of diabetes.

  13. The Use of Videogames, Gamification, and Virtual Environments in the Self-Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Theng, Yin-Leng; Lee, Jason W Y; Patinadan, Paul V; Foo, Schubert S B

    2015-10-01

    The use of videogames in healthcare interventions is gaining popularity, but there is still a gap in the understanding on how these types of interventions are used for the management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to examine published research on the use of videogames for diabetes management. With the increased use of mobile technology, the review was expanded to understand whether games, gamification, and virtual environments can be used for diabetes self-management. Out of the 307 articles identified, only 10 articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The duration of most studies was short, with small sample sizes. All interventions targeted behavioral changes examining risk reduction of diabetes-related risk and promotion of healthy behavior among study participants. Videogames appeared to be helpful tools for education in some interventions, whereas gamification and virtual environments increased extrinsic motivation and provided positive reinforcement. This review concludes by discussing the potential of using videogames and gamification for the self-management of diabetes. PMID:26287926

  14. Video games for diabetes self-management: examples and design strategies.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra A

    2012-07-01

    The July 2012 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology includes a special symposium called "Serious Games for Diabetes, Obesity, and Healthy Lifestyle." As part of the symposium, this article focuses on health behavior change video games that are designed to improve and support players' diabetes self-management. Other symposium articles include one that recommends theory-based approaches to the design of health games and identifies areas in which additional research is needed, followed by five research articles presenting studies of the design and effectiveness of games and game technologies that require physical activity in order to play. This article briefly describes 14 diabetes self-management video games, and, when available, cites research findings on their effectiveness. The games were found by searching the Health Games Research online searchable database, three bibliographic databases (ACM Digital Library, PubMed, and Social Sciences Databases of CSA Illumina), and the Google search engine, using the search terms "diabetes" and "game." Games were selected if they addressed diabetes self-management skills.

  15. Patient attitudes about financial incentives for diabetes self-management: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Blondon, Katherine S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the acceptability of incentives for behavior changes in individuals with diabetes, comparing financial incentives to self-rewards and non-financial incentives. METHODS: A national online survey of United States adults with diabetes was conducted in March 2013 (n = 153). This survey was designed for this study, with iterative testing and modifications in a pilot population. We measured the demographics of individuals, their interest in incentives, as well as the perceived challenge of diabetes self-management tasks, and expectations of incentives to improve diabetes self-management (financial, non-financial and self-rewards). Using an ordered logistic regression model, we assessed the association between a 32-point score of the perceived challenge of the self-management tasks and the three types of rewards. RESULTS: Ninety-six percent of individuals were interested in financial incentives, 60% in non-financial incentives and 72% in self-rewards. Patients were less likely to use financial incentives when they perceived the behavior to be more challenging (odds ratio of using financial incentives of 0.82 (95%CI: 0.72-0.93) for each point of the behavior score). While the effectiveness of incentives may vary according to the perceived level of challenge of each behavior, participants did not expect to need large amounts to motivate them to modify their behavior. The expected average amounts needed to motivate a 5 lb weight loss in our population and to maintain this weight change for a year was $258 (interquartile range of $10-100) and $713 (interquartile range of $25-250) for a 15 lb weight loss. The difference in mean amount estimates for 5 lb and 15 lb weight loss was significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Individuals with diabetes are willing to consider financial incentives to improve diabetes self-management. Future studies are needed to explore incentive programs and their effectiveness for diabetes. PMID:26069724

  16. Peer support for self-management of diabetes improved outcomes in international settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Boothroyd, Renée I; Coufal, Muchieh Maggy; Baumann, Linda C; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Sanguanprasit, Boosaba; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2012-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is essential to reducing the risks of associated disabilities. But effective self-management is often short-lived. Peers can provide the kind of ongoing support that is needed for sustained self-management of diabetes. In this context, peers are nonprofessionals who have diabetes or close familiarity with its management. Key functions of effective peer support include assistance in daily management, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and ongoing availability of support. Using these four functions as a template of peer support, project teams in Cameroon, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda developed and then evaluated peer support interventions for adults with diabetes. Our initial assessment found improvements in symptom management, diet, blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar levels for many of those taking part in the programs. For policy makers, the broader message is that by emphasizing the four key peer support functions, diabetes management programs can be successfully introduced across varied cultural settings and within diverse health systems.

  17. Video Games for Diabetes Self-Management: Examples and Design Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    2012-01-01

    The July 2012 issue of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology includes a special symposium called “Serious Games for Diabetes, Obesity, and Healthy Lifestyle.” As part of the symposium, this article focuses on health behavior change video games that are designed to improve and support players’ diabetes self-management. Other symposium articles include one that recommends theory-based approaches to the design of health games and identifies areas in which additional research is needed, followed by five research articles presenting studies of the design and effectiveness of games and game technologies that require physical activity in order to play. This article briefly describes 14 diabetes self-management video games, and, when available, cites research findings on their effectiveness. The games were found by searching the Health Games Research online searchable database, three bibliographic databases (ACM Digital Library, PubMed, and Social Sciences Databases of CSA Illumina), and the Google search engine, using the search terms “diabetes” and “game.” Games were selected if they addressed diabetes self-management skills. PMID:22920805

  18. Peer Support For Self-Management Of Diabetes Improved Outcomes In International Settings

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Edwin B.; Boothroyd, Renée I.; Coufal, Maggy Muchieh; Baumann, Linda; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Sanguanprasit, Boosaba; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2014-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is essential to reducing the risks of associated disabilities. But effective self-management is often short-lived. Peers can provide the kind of ongoing support that is needed for sustained self-management of diabetes. In this context, peers are nonprofessionals who have diabetes or close familiarity with its management. Key functions of effective peer support include assistance in daily management, social and emotional support, linkage to clinical care, and ongoing availability of support. Using these four functions as a template of peer support, project teams in Cameroon, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda developed and then evaluated peer support interventions for adults with diabetes. Our initial assessment found improvements in symptom management, diet, blood pressure, body mass index, and blood sugar levels for many of those taking part in the programs. For policy makers, the broader message is that by emphasizing the four key peer support functions, diabetes management programs can be successfully introduced across varied cultural settings and within diverse health systems. PMID:22232103

  19. Mobile Applications for Control and Self Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brzan, Petra Povalej; Rotman, Eva; Pajnkihar, Majda; Klanjsek, Petra

    2016-09-01

    Mobile applications (apps) can be very useful software on smartphones for all aspects of people's lives. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, can be made manageable with the support of mobile apps. Applications on smartphones can also help people with diabetes to control their fitness and health. A systematic review of free apps in the English language for smartphones in three of the most popular mobile app stores: Google Play (Android), App Store (iOS) and Windows Phone Store, was performed from November to December 2015. The review of freely available mobile apps for self-management of diabetes was conducted based on the criteria for promoting diabetes self-management as defined by Goyal and Cafazzo (monitoring blood glucose level and medication, nutrition, physical exercise and body weight). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed. Three independent experts in the field of healthcare-related mobile apps were included in the assessment for eligibility and testing phase. We tested and evaluated 65 apps (21 from Google Play Store, 31 from App Store and 13 from Windows Phone Store). Fifty-six of these apps did not meet even minimal requirements or did not work properly. While a wide selection of mobile applications is available for self-management of diabetes, current results show that there are only nine (5 from Google Play Store, 3 from App Store and 1 from Windows Phone Store) out of 65 reviewed mobile apps that can be versatile and useful for successful self-management of diabetes based on selection criteria. The levels of inclusion of features based on selection criteria in selected mobile apps can be very different. The results of the study can be used as a basis to prvide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for mobile apps for self-management of diabetes with more features in order to increase the number of long-term users and thus influence better self-management of the disease.

  20. Mobile Applications for Control and Self Management of Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Brzan, Petra Povalej; Rotman, Eva; Pajnkihar, Majda; Klanjsek, Petra

    2016-09-01

    Mobile applications (apps) can be very useful software on smartphones for all aspects of people's lives. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, can be made manageable with the support of mobile apps. Applications on smartphones can also help people with diabetes to control their fitness and health. A systematic review of free apps in the English language for smartphones in three of the most popular mobile app stores: Google Play (Android), App Store (iOS) and Windows Phone Store, was performed from November to December 2015. The review of freely available mobile apps for self-management of diabetes was conducted based on the criteria for promoting diabetes self-management as defined by Goyal and Cafazzo (monitoring blood glucose level and medication, nutrition, physical exercise and body weight). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed. Three independent experts in the field of healthcare-related mobile apps were included in the assessment for eligibility and testing phase. We tested and evaluated 65 apps (21 from Google Play Store, 31 from App Store and 13 from Windows Phone Store). Fifty-six of these apps did not meet even minimal requirements or did not work properly. While a wide selection of mobile applications is available for self-management of diabetes, current results show that there are only nine (5 from Google Play Store, 3 from App Store and 1 from Windows Phone Store) out of 65 reviewed mobile apps that can be versatile and useful for successful self-management of diabetes based on selection criteria. The levels of inclusion of features based on selection criteria in selected mobile apps can be very different. The results of the study can be used as a basis to prvide app developers with certain recommendations. There is a need for mobile apps for self-management of diabetes with more features in order to increase the number of long-term users and thus influence better self-management of the disease

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based, Self-Management Tool for People Recently Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Lowis, Carole; Hunter, Steven J; Dean, Moira; Cardwell, Chris R; McKinley, Michelle C

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based, dietary, and physical activity self-management program for people recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The computer-based program was developed in conjunction with the target group and evaluated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were randomised to the intervention (computer-program) or control group (usual care). Primary outcomes were diabetes knowledge and goal setting (ADKnowl questionnaire, Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ)) measured at baseline and week 12. User feedback on the program was obtained via a questionnaire and focus groups. Results. Seventy participants completed the 12-week RCT (32 intervention, 38 control, mean age 59 (SD) years). After completion there was a significant between-group difference in the "knowledge and beliefs scale" of the DOQ. Two-thirds of the intervention group rated the program as either good or very good, 92% would recommend the program to others, and 96% agreed that the information within the program was clear and easy to understand. Conclusions. The computer-program resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in diet-related knowledge and user satisfaction was high. With some further development, this computer-based educational tool may be a useful adjunct to diabetes self-management. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT number NCT00877851. PMID:27446961

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based, Self-Management Tool for People Recently Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Alison O.; Lowis, Carole; Hunter, Steven J.; Dean, Moira; Cardwell, Chris R.; McKinley, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based, dietary, and physical activity self-management program for people recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The computer-based program was developed in conjunction with the target group and evaluated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were randomised to the intervention (computer-program) or control group (usual care). Primary outcomes were diabetes knowledge and goal setting (ADKnowl questionnaire, Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ)) measured at baseline and week 12. User feedback on the program was obtained via a questionnaire and focus groups. Results. Seventy participants completed the 12-week RCT (32 intervention, 38 control, mean age 59 (SD) years). After completion there was a significant between-group difference in the “knowledge and beliefs scale” of the DOQ. Two-thirds of the intervention group rated the program as either good or very good, 92% would recommend the program to others, and 96% agreed that the information within the program was clear and easy to understand. Conclusions. The computer-program resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in diet-related knowledge and user satisfaction was high. With some further development, this computer-based educational tool may be a useful adjunct to diabetes self-management. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT number NCT00877851. PMID:27446961

  3. A Middle-Range Theory for Diabetes Self-management Mastery.

    PubMed

    Fearon-Lynch, Jennifer A; Stover, Caitlin M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of death in America and affects 382 million people worldwide. Individuals with diabetes must manage the complexity of the disease, its treatment, and complications to avert deleterious consequences associated with the illness. However, not all patients with diabetes successfully gain mastery to positively impact self-management. A new middle-range theory is proposed that merges 2 extant theories, theory of mastery and organismic integration theory, to better understand this human response. The theories' philosophical, theoretical, and conceptual perspectives were examined and relational properties synthesized to provide a conceptual representation of the phenomenon of interest. PMID:26322469

  4. A Middle-Range Theory for Diabetes Self-management Mastery.

    PubMed

    Fearon-Lynch, Jennifer A; Stover, Caitlin M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of death in America and affects 382 million people worldwide. Individuals with diabetes must manage the complexity of the disease, its treatment, and complications to avert deleterious consequences associated with the illness. However, not all patients with diabetes successfully gain mastery to positively impact self-management. A new middle-range theory is proposed that merges 2 extant theories, theory of mastery and organismic integration theory, to better understand this human response. The theories' philosophical, theoretical, and conceptual perspectives were examined and relational properties synthesized to provide a conceptual representation of the phenomenon of interest.

  5. Insulin algorithms in the self-management of insulin-dependent diabetes: the interactive 'Apple Juice' program.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G

    1996-01-01

    The 'Apple Juice' program is an interactive diabetes self-management program which runs on a lap-top Macintosh Powerbook 100 computer. The dose-by-dose insulin advisory program was initially designed for children with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus. It utilizes several different insulin algorithms, measurement formulae, and compensation factors for meals, activity, medication and the dawn phenomenon. It was developed to assist the individual with diabetes and/or care providers, in determining specific insulin dosage recommendations throughout a 24 h period. Information technology functions include, but are not limited to automated record keeping, data recall, event reminders, data trend/pattern analyses and education. This paper highlights issues, observations and recommendations surrounding the use of the current version of the software, along with a detailed description of the insulin algorithms and measurement formulae applied successfully with the author's daughter over a six year period.

  6. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  7. Food Insecurity is Associated with Hypoglycemia and Poor Diabetes Self-Management in a Low-Income Sample with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Davis, Terry C.; Schillinger, Dean; Wolf, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    More than 14% of the American population is food insecure, or at risk of going hungry because of an inability to afford food. Food-insecure (FI) adults often reduce food intake or substitute inexpensive, energy-dense carbohydrates for healthier foods. We hypothesized these behaviors would predispose FI adults with diabetes to impaired diabetes self-management and hypoglycemia. We therefore assessed whether food insecurity was associated with multiple indicators of diabetes self-management (self-efficacy, medication- and glucose-monitoring adherence, hypoglycemia, or glycemic control) among 40 low-income adults with diabetes. Mean self-efficacy score was lower among FI than food-secure (FS) participants (34.4 vs. 41.2, p=.02). Food-insecure participants reported poorer adherence to blood glucose monitoring (RR=3.5, p=.008) and more hypoglycemia-related emergency department visits (RR=2.2, p=.007). Mean hemoglobin A1c was 9.2% among FI and 7.7% among FS participants (p=.08). Food insecurity is a barrier to diabetes self-management and a risk factor for clinically significant hypoglycemia. PMID:21099074

  8. Improving Diabetes Self-Management through Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Values: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jennifer A.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Hayes, Steven C.; Glenn-Lawson, June L.

    2007-01-01

    Patients in a low-income community health center with Type 2 diabetes (N = 81) taking a one-day education workshop as part of their diabetes medical management were randomly assigned either to education alone or to a combination of education and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both groups were taught how to manage their diabetes, but…

  9. Self-management of diabetes in children and young adults using technology and smartphone applications.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Siobhan; Cohen, Georgia; Owen, Katharine R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment compliance and adherence are often a challenge in patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly for adolescent and young adult patients. With the availability of the internet and smart phone applications (apps) there is a hope that such technology could provide a means to encourage treatment adherence in this group of patients. This review focuses on whether telemedicine and smartphone technology in diabetes can influence self-management in young people with diabetes. A large number of smartphone apps are targeted at people with diabetes, but a limited number of well designed evaluation studies have been performed. As our review shows, the evidence base for efficacy of most of these applications is minimal and improvement in hard outcomes such as HbA1c and complication development is largely lacking. PMID:25311195

  10. Self-management of diabetes in children and young adults using technology and smartphone applications.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Siobhan; Cohen, Georgia; Owen, Katharine R

    2014-01-01

    Treatment compliance and adherence are often a challenge in patients with type 1 diabetes, particularly for adolescent and young adult patients. With the availability of the internet and smart phone applications (apps) there is a hope that such technology could provide a means to encourage treatment adherence in this group of patients. This review focuses on whether telemedicine and smartphone technology in diabetes can influence self-management in young people with diabetes. A large number of smartphone apps are targeted at people with diabetes, but a limited number of well designed evaluation studies have been performed. As our review shows, the evidence base for efficacy of most of these applications is minimal and improvement in hard outcomes such as HbA1c and complication development is largely lacking.

  11. Integrating Diabetes Self-Management Interventions for Mexican-Americans into the Catholic Church Setting

    PubMed Central

    Locklin, Cara A.; Wilkes, Abigail E.; Oborski, Donna Dempsey; Acevedo, John C.; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    Churches provide an innovative and underutilized setting for diabetes self-management programs for Latinos. This study sought to formulate a conceptual framework for designing church-based programs that are tailored to the needs of the Latino community and that utilize church strengths and resources. To inform this model, we conducted six focus groups with mostly Mexican-American Catholic adults with diabetes and their family members (N = 37) and found that participants were interested in church-based diabetes programs that emphasized information sharing, skills building, and social networking. Our model demonstrates that many of these requested components can be integrated into the current structure and function of the church. However, additional mechanisms to facilitate access to medical care may be necessary to support community members’ diabetes care. PMID:22528288

  12. The role of adherence in the relationship between self-efficacy and self-management in diabetic patients undergoing CABG in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lien, Ru-Yu; Wei, Jeng; Clinciu, Daniel L; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Hui-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the role of adherence and its significance in the relationship between self-efficacy and self-management of diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in Taiwan. Design Descriptive and correlational survey design. Setting Three outpatient clinics in Taiwan. Participants Patients diagnosed with diabetes undergoing CABG at least 6 months before the study, 18 years of age or older, able to communicate verbally without any psychiatric problems, and with a life expectancy longer than 1 year. Main outcome measures Self-management assessment (self-efficacy for managing disease and adherence to guidelines and medication measured on a scale of 0–8), the higher aspects of self-management (keeping appointments, taking medication properly and keeping follow-up appointments) and the lower aspects of self-management (inability to share decisions with primary physician, inability to take correct actions when symptoms worsen and inability to adapt habits to improve health). Results The mean score obtained for self-management among the 166 participants was 6.48, with 57 (34.3%) of them showing non-adherent behaviour. Self-efficacy accounts for 38% (R2=0.380, F(1,103)=63.124, p < 0.001), and 54% of good self-management was explained by self-efficacy and adherence in managing disease (R2=0.540, F(2,102)=56.937, p<0.001). Adherence accounts for 16% of better self-management, age and education combined account for 4.9% (R2=0.589, F(6.98)=23.399, p<0.001), and lifestyle items account for 5.2% (R2=0.641, F(14,90)=11.457, p<0.001). Disease-related variables contribute 3.4% (R2=0.674, F(17,87)=10.599, p<0.001). Thus self-efficacy, adherence, age, education, primary care provider and systolic pressure are considered significant predictors of self-management. With the exception of adherence, none of the variables had a statistically significant mediating effect. Conclusions The results confirm strong relationships between self

  13. Mobile Phone and Smartphone Technologies for Diabetes Care and Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Laura F; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank

    2015-12-01

    Mobile and smartphone (mHealth) technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care and self-management, but little is known about their effectiveness and how patients, providers, and payers currently interact with them. We conducted a systematic review and found only 20 peer-reviewed articles, published since 2010, with robust evidence about the effectiveness of mHealth interventions for diabetes. The majority of these interventions showed improvement on primary endpoints, such as HbA1c; mHealth technologies that interacted with both patients and providers were more likely to be effective. There was little evidence about persistent use by patients, use by a patient's health care provider, or long-term effectiveness. None of the studies discussed regulatory oversight of mHealth technologies or payer reimbursement for them. No robust studies evaluated the more than 1100 publicly available smartphone apps for diabetes. More research with valid study designs and longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of mHealth technologies for diabetes care and self-management.

  14. Veterans Affairs Research on Health Information Technologies for Diabetes Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Kerr, Eve; Richardson, Caroline; Heisler, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Background Like many patients with diabetes, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients frequently fall short of self-management goals and experience multiple barriers to self-care. Health information technologies (HITs) may provide the tools that patients need to manage their illness under the direction of their primary care team. Methods We describe several ongoing projects focused on HIT resources for self-management in VA. VA researchers are developing HITs that seek to bolster a variety of potential avenues for self-management support, including patients′ relationships with other patients, connections with their informal care networks, and communication with their health care teams. Results Veterans Affairs HIT research projects are developing services that can address the needs of patients with multiple challenges to disease self-care, including multimorbidity, health literacy deficits, and limited treatment access. These services include patient-to-patient interactive voice response (IVR) calling systems, IVR assessments with feedback to informal caregivers, novel information supports for clinical pharmacists based on medication refill data, and enhanced pedometers. Conclusion Large health care systems such as the VA can play a critical role in developing HITs for diabetes self-care. To be truly effective, these efforts should include a continuum of studies: observational research to identify barriers to self-management, developmental studies (e.g., usability testing), efficacy trials, and implementation studies to evaluate utility in real-world settings. VA HIT researchers partner with operations to promote the dissemination of efficacious services, and such relationships will be critical to move HIT innovations into practice. PMID:19885173

  15. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  16. Parent and Teacher Perceptions of the Impact of School Nurse Interventions on Children's Self-Management of Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…

  17. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A Jantine; Baan, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly type 2 diabetes patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Diabetes self-management was indicated by HbA1c level, glucose self-control and self-reported monitoring of glucose levels, physical activity, and smoking. Multilevel analyses were applied based on multiple imputed data. Lower health literacy was significantly associated with less diabetes knowledge, higher HbA1c level, less self-control of glucose level, and less physical activity. Participants with more diabetes knowledge were less likely to smoke and more likely to control glucose levels. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator in the association between health literacy and glucose self-control and between health literacy and smoking. This study indicates that higher health literacy may contribute to participation in certain self-management activities, in some cases through diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge and health literacy skills may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-management.

  18. Using Patient-Generated Health Data From Mobile Technologies for Diabetes Self-Management Support

    PubMed Central

    Nundy, Shantanu; Lu, Chen-Yuan E.; Hogan, Patrick; Mishra, Anjuli

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile health and patient-generated health data are promising health IT tools for delivering self-management support in diabetes, but little is known about provider perspectives on how best to integrate these programs into routine care. We explored provider perceptions of a patient-generated health data report from a text-message-based diabetes self-management program. The report was designed to relay clinically relevant data obtained from participants’ responses to self-assessment questions delivered over text message. Methods: Likert-type scale response surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted with primary care physicians and endocrinologists who pilot tested the patient-generated health data report in an actual clinical encounter. Interview guides were designed to assess providers’ perceptions of the feasibility and utility of patient-generated health data in routine clinical practice. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results: Twelve providers successfully piloted the summary report in clinic. Although only a minority of providers felt the report changed the care they provided (3 of 12 or 25%), most were willing to use the summary report in a future clinical encounter (9 of 12 or 75%). Perceived benefits of patient-generated health data included agenda setting, assessment of self-care, and identification of patient barriers. Major themes discussed included patient selection, reliability of patient-generated health information, and integration into clinical workflow. Conclusion: Providers perceived multiple benefits of patient-generated health data in overcoming common barriers to self-management support in clinical practice and found the summary report feasible and usable in a clinical context. PMID:24876541

  19. An integrated model for cognitive behavioural therapy for mobile diabetes self-management system.

    PubMed

    Alanzi, T M; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence that behavioural change theories can help diabetic patients with their diabetic management in providing better education and a healthy lifestyle. In recent years, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as a key psychological method for studies of behavioural changes for diabetes patients. However, to date, there is no extensive study that addresses the challenges and opportunities on applying CBT models within the mobile diabetes management cycle of care. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of CBT in diabetes management and propose a model for the implementation of CBT Therapy into a mobile diabetes management system by using smart mobile phone technologies.

  20. The business case for a diabetes self-management intervention in a community general hospital.

    PubMed

    Micklethwaite, Ashley; Brownson, Carol A; O'Toole, Mary L; Kilpatrick, Kerry E

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing and increasingly compelling body of evidence that self-management interventions for persons with type 2 diabetes can be both effective and cost-effective from a societal perspective. Yet, the evidence is elusive that these interventions can produce a positive business case for a sponsoring provider organization in the short term. The lack of a business case limits the enthusiasm for provider organizations to implement these proven quality-enhancing interventions more widely. This article provides a case example of a self-management intervention in a community general hospital targeting an underserved population who have significant barriers to receiving regular health care. The 3-component program sought to improve meaningful access to care, increase health literacy related to type 2 diabetes, and partner with the enrollees to make long-term lifestyle changes. The intervention not only resulted in significant improvements in HbA1c levels (-0.77%) but saved the hospital an average of $551 per active patient per year, primarily by reducing hospital visits. With only 255 actively enrolled patients, the hospital can recover fully its total direct annual personnel and operating costs for the program. Because the program serves patients who would have been seen at other hospitals, it also enhanced care quality and reduced costs for the broader community in which the program is embedded.

  1. Diabetic patient education: determinants of success.

    PubMed

    Day, J L

    2000-01-01

    Education/empowerment is critical if successful self-management is to be achieved. All professional patient interactions have a learning component. Clinical outcomes in diabetes are as dependent on psycho-social factors or learned behaviour as on metabolic state or therapeutic interventions. These factors include targets set, self-management skills, influence of living with diabetes, emotional factors, role of other people, perceived benefits and barriers, feelings of self-efficacy, weight concern and diet barrier. Training in learning processes and factors governing behaviour are essential for all those involved in delivery of patient care. Educational programmes should recognise the wide range of learning strategies used by different people.

  2. Impact of chronic disease self-management programs on type 2 diabetes management in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G; Jiang, Luohua; Vuong, Ann M; Bolin, Jane N

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) on glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and selected self-reported measures. METHODS: We compared patients who received a diabetes self-care behavioral intervention, the CDSMP developed at the Stanford University, with controls who received usual care on their HbA1c and selected self-reported measures, including diabetes self-care activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), pain and fatigue. The subjects were a subset of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that took place at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated integrated healthcare system of a multi-specialty group practice between January 2009 and June 2011. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 mo. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models and linear mixed models to provide unbiased estimates of intervention effects. RESULTS: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were generally comparable between the two groups. The average baseline HbA1c values in the CDSMP and control groups were 9.4% and 9.2%, respectively. Significant reductions in HbA1c were seen at 12 mo for the two groups, with adjusted changes around 0.6% (P < 0.0001), but the reductions did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.885). Few significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. No significant differences were observed in the participants’ HRQOL, pain, or fatigue measures. CONCLUSION: The CDSMP intervention may not lower HbA1c any better than good routine care in an integrated healthcare system. More research is needed to understand the benefits of self-management programs in primary care in different settings and populations. PMID:24936263

  3. Sociocultural Influences on Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Harris, Lynn Fields

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this observational study was to describe the associations between cultural beliefs that are prevalent in older African Americans and adherence to diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors. Methods. In a community population of 110 older African Americans with type 2 diabetes, the investigators administered surveys that assess present time orientation (PTO), future time orientation (FTO), and religiosity, as well as exercising habits, reading food labels, and checking blood glucose. Results. Participants who reported regularly exercising had significantly lower PTO scores and higher FTO and religiosity scores than participants who did not regularly exercise. Similarly, participants who reported reading food labels had lower PTO scores and higher FTO scores but did not differ in religiosity. Participants who reported checking blood glucose levels tended to have higher FTO scores but did not differ in PTO or religiosity. Participants who engaged in all three DSM behaviors had significantly lower PTO scores and higher FTO and religiosity scores. Conclusion. These data indicate that cultural diversity within older African Americans may influence DSM behaviors and contribute to disparities in diabetes outcomes in this high-risk population. Efforts to prevent complications of diabetes might benefit from consideration of these cultural factors. PMID:25324677

  4. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, E; van der Valk, P; van der Palen, J; van Herwaarden, C; Partridge, M; Zielhuis, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: The idea of self-management is to teach patients how to carry out the activities of daily living optimally in the face of their physiological impairment, and to prevent or decrease the severity of exacerbations by means of life style adaptation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the value of self-management education is not clear. This review was undertaken to clarify the effectiveness of self-management programmes in COPD. Methods: A search was made of the Cochrane Airways Group trial registers, Medline, reference lists, and abstracts of medical conferences for controlled trials of self-management education in patients with COPD. Two reviewers independently assessed each paper for methodological quality and extracted the data. Results: The reviewers included 12 articles describing eight randomised controlled trials and one controlled clinical trial in which self-management education was compared with usual care. The studies assessed a broad spectrum of outcome measures with different follow up times so meta-analysis could not be undertaken. Self-management education had no effect on hospital admissions, emergency room visits, days lost from work, and lung function. Inconclusive results were observed on health related quality of life, COPD symptoms, and use of healthcare facilities such as doctor and nurse visits. Self-management education reduced the need for rescue medication and led to increased use of courses of oral steroids and antibiotics for respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Insufficient data were obtained to make recommendations because of the wide variation in outcome measures used and other limitations to generalisations in the current published literature. Further research in this area is needed. PMID:12728158

  5. The Role of Digital Engagement in the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sora; Burford, Sally; Nolan, Christopher; Hanlen, Leif

    2016-12-01

    Mobile tablet devices and applications have the potential to help type 2 diabetes patients in the self-management of their disease. However, users must be equipped with an appropriate level of digital literacy in order to use the tools and technologies effectively. This study reports from an exploratory mobile health (mHealth) pilot program that was conducted at a large, local clinic in Canberra, Australia. The research team provided digital training and support opportunities to participants as part of the longitudinal study. The aim of the research project was to examine the diverse range of participant digital literacy and how it impacted on self-management and the adoption of mHealth. Mid-study results from online surveys conducted at 2 and 5 months after enrolling 28 participants in the pilot program revealed that digital engagement is crucial to the patients' participation in mHealth activities. Support, by way of digital training, was essential to the patients' sustainable use of the devices and applications for health care. PMID:27124817

  6. The Role of Digital Engagement in the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sora; Burford, Sally; Nolan, Christopher; Hanlen, Leif

    2016-12-01

    Mobile tablet devices and applications have the potential to help type 2 diabetes patients in the self-management of their disease. However, users must be equipped with an appropriate level of digital literacy in order to use the tools and technologies effectively. This study reports from an exploratory mobile health (mHealth) pilot program that was conducted at a large, local clinic in Canberra, Australia. The research team provided digital training and support opportunities to participants as part of the longitudinal study. The aim of the research project was to examine the diverse range of participant digital literacy and how it impacted on self-management and the adoption of mHealth. Mid-study results from online surveys conducted at 2 and 5 months after enrolling 28 participants in the pilot program revealed that digital engagement is crucial to the patients' participation in mHealth activities. Support, by way of digital training, was essential to the patients' sustainable use of the devices and applications for health care.

  7. Barriers to Self-Management of Serious Mental Illness and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Kanuch, Stephanie; Perzynski, Adam T.; Thomas, Charles; Dawson, Neal V.; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia), and diabetes (DM), face significant challenges in managing their physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to assess perceived barriers to self-management among patients with both SMI and DM in order to inform healthcare delivery practices. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 subjects who had diagnoses of both SMI and DM. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Results Transcript-based analysis generated 3 major domains of barriers to disease self-management among patients with both DM and SMI: (1) personal level barriers (stress, isolation, stigma); (2) family and community level barriers (lack of support from family and friends); and (3) provider and health care system level barriers (poor relationships and communication with providers, fragmentation of care). Conclusions Care approaches that provide social support, help in managing stress, optimize communication with providers, and reduce compartmentalization of medical and psychiatric care, are needed to help these vulnerable individuals avoid health complications and premature mortality. PMID:26931751

  8. Comparison of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Kristeller, Jean L; Headings, Amy; Nagaraja, Haikady

    2014-04-01

    Mindful eating may be an effective intervention for increasing awareness of hunger and satiety cues, improving eating regulation and dietary patterns, reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety, and promoting weight loss. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), which addresses knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations for improving food choices, also may be an effective intervention for diabetes self-care. Yet few studies have compared the impact of mindful eating to a DSME-based treatment approach on patient outcomes. Adults 35 to 65 years old with type 2 diabetes for ≥1 year not requiring insulin therapy were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to treatment group. The impact of a group-based 3-month mindful eating intervention (MB-EAT-D; n = 27) to a group-based 3-month DSME "Smart Choices" (SC) intervention (n = 25) postintervention and at 3-month follow-up was evaluated. Repeated-measures ANOVA with contrast analysis compared change in outcomes across time. There was no significant difference between groups in weight change. Significant improvement in depressive symptoms, outcome expectations, nutrition and eating-related self-efficacy, and cognitive control and disinhibition of control regarding eating behaviors occurred for both groups (all p < .0125) at 3-month follow-up. The SC group had greater increase in nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy than the MB-EAT-D group (all p < .05) at 3-month follow-up. MB-EAT-D had significant increase in mindfulness, whereas the SC group had significant increase in fruit and vegetable consumption at study end (all p < .0125). Both SC and MB-EAT-D were effective treatments for diabetes self-management. The availability of mindful eating and DSME-based approaches offers patients greater choices in meeting their self-care needs.

  9. Psychological themes that influence self-management of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Clare

    2015-01-01

    It has long been accepted that psychological factors adversely influence efforts to optimise glycaemic control. These are often unrecognised in terms of clinical assessment and therefore under reported. This essay presents an introduction to psychological issues that interact with psychiatric co-morbidities and diabetes-specific distress, and a case scenario illustrating the interconnectedness of presenting problems and themes. In the way that we cannot separate carbohydrate counting, blood glucose monitoring and insulin dose adjustment in the understanding of a presenting problem such as poor control, so we cannot separate the concurrent thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Each of these emotional aspects are self-managed either through avoidance, or by delayed disclosure and are frequently associated with poor health outcomes. There is a requirement for the healthcare team to be sensitised to these issues and to develop styles of communication that are empathic, reflective and non judgemental. A brief outline of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments is given. PMID:25987959

  10. A Comparison of an Individually Tailored and a Standardized Asthma Self-Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Judy; Bachman, Jean H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States and can be life-threatening. There are a rising number of adults with asthma that cannot be prevented or cured but may be controlled. Self-management education is essential for long-term asthma control; however, the most effective type of education is unknown.…

  11. Improvement of Rural Children's Asthma Self-Management by Lay Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Sharon D.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present analysis is to examine changes in rural children's asthma self-management after they received lay health educator (LHE)-delivered classes. Methods: Elementary schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or attention-control condition and their participating students received either asthma education or…

  12. Self-management practices among type 2 diabetes patients attending primary health-care centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Johani, K A; Kendall, G E; Snider, P D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of self-management activities among people who have type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. The Arabic version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities questionnaire was used to identify self-management practices among 210 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only 15% of participants had a blood glucose level indicative of good glycaemic control (glycosylated haemoglobin ≤ 7 mmol/L). Most reported that they took their medication as prescribed, but many demonstrated low levels of compliance with other self-management practices (overall mean 3.7 days per week). Males and those with lower incomes were less likely to practise self-care activities. Most were given basic advice to undertake self-care activities, but only some were given more detailed information. There are opportunities to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus self-management practices in Saudi Arabia and increase the proportion of patients who achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26450858

  13. Sociodemographic and Clinical Predictors of Self-Management among People with Poorly Controlled Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Illness Perceptions and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Cousins, Rosanna; Thomas, Cecil; Sharma, Dushyant; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2016-01-01

    Self-management is critical if people with diabetes are to minimise their risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications, yet adherence to self-management recommendations is suboptimal. Understanding the predictors of optimal diabetes self-management in specific populations is needed to inform effective interventions. This study investigated the role of demographic and clinical characteristics, illness perceptions, and self-efficacy in explaining adherence to self-management recommendations among people with poorly controlled diabetes in North West of England. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy data were collected using validated questionnaires and clinical data were obtained from hospital records. Correlations were used to investigate bivariate relationships between independent variables and self-management, and multiple regression techniques were used to determine demographic and psychosocial predictors of self-management. Various demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with adherence to self-management recommendations. In particular, employment status explained 11% of the variation in adherence to foot care whilst diabetes treatment category explained 9% of exercise and 21% of the variations in SMBG recommendations. Also, 22% and 8% of the variations in overall self-management were explained by illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs, respectively. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs of people with poorly controlled diabetes are important predictors of their self-management behaviours and could potentially guide effective interventions.

  14. Sociodemographic and Clinical Predictors of Self-Management among People with Poorly Controlled Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Illness Perceptions and Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Abdul-Razak; Cousins, Rosanna; Thomas, Cecil; Sharma, Dushyant; Naderali, Ebrahim K.

    2016-01-01

    Self-management is critical if people with diabetes are to minimise their risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications, yet adherence to self-management recommendations is suboptimal. Understanding the predictors of optimal diabetes self-management in specific populations is needed to inform effective interventions. This study investigated the role of demographic and clinical characteristics, illness perceptions, and self-efficacy in explaining adherence to self-management recommendations among people with poorly controlled diabetes in North West of England. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy data were collected using validated questionnaires and clinical data were obtained from hospital records. Correlations were used to investigate bivariate relationships between independent variables and self-management, and multiple regression techniques were used to determine demographic and psychosocial predictors of self-management. Various demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with adherence to self-management recommendations. In particular, employment status explained 11% of the variation in adherence to foot care whilst diabetes treatment category explained 9% of exercise and 21% of the variations in SMBG recommendations. Also, 22% and 8% of the variations in overall self-management were explained by illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs, respectively. Illness perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs of people with poorly controlled diabetes are important predictors of their self-management behaviours and could potentially guide effective interventions. PMID:26697501

  15. An empowering approach to promote the quality of life and self-management among type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Azar; Alhani, Fatemeh; Shojaeazadeh, Davoud; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Moazam, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the most serious health concerns and policy agendas around the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests that it will likely continue to increase globally. Diabetes is strongly associated with the patients’ unhealthy lifestyle and behavioral patterns and socio-economic changes. New model of thinking is required to recognize whether the patients are in control of and responsible for the daily self-management of diabetes. Such a new approach should be based on ‘empowerment and involvement’ to be more applicable to daily activities in diabetic patients. Rapid changes toward patient empowerment and increasing involvement of patients in their care plan indicate more emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion and education than on mere disease and its treatment. Such changes make a step toward pervasive sense of responsibility among patients about their illness for their daily activities. Using the empowerment approach, healthcare professionals would help patients make informed decisions in accordance with their particular circumstances. Patient empowerment implies a patient-centered, collaborative approach that helps patients determine and develop the inherent capacity to be responsible for their own life. Empowerment is something more than certain health behaviors. Empowerment is more than an intervention, technique or strategy. It is rather a vision that helps people change their behavior and make decisions about their health care. It has the potential to improve the overall health and well-being of individuals and communities, and to change the socio-environmental factors that cause poor health conditions. The main concept of this change is the tendency to change. PMID:25861658

  16. Evaluating the Effect of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Self-Management in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Shima; Amouzegar, Atieh; Amiri, Parisa; Karbalaeifar, Ronak; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran. PMID:27478845

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Automated Telephone Self-Management Support With Nurse Care Management Among Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Margaret A.; Shumway, Martha; Schillinger, Dean

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of an automated telephone self-management support with nurse care management (ATSM) intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes, which was tested among patients receiving primary care in publicly funded (safety net) clinics, focusing on non-English speakers. METHODS We performed cost analyses in the context of a randomized trial among primary care patients comparing the effects of ATSM (n = 112) and usual care (n = 114) on diabetes-related outcomes in 4 San Francisco safety net clinics. ATSM uses interactive phone technology to provide surveillance, patient education, and one-on-one counseling, and was implemented in 3 languages for a 9-month period. Cost utility was examined using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) derived from changes in scores on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey. We also examined cost-effectiveness for costs associated with a 10% increase in the proportion of patients meeting diabetes-specific public health goals for increasing exercise, as recommended by Healthy People 2010 and the American Diabetes Association. RESULTS The annual cost of the ATSM intervention per QALY gained, relative to usual care, was $65,167 for start-up and ongoing implementation costs combined, and $32,333 for ongoing implementation costs alone. In sensitivity analyses, costs per QALY ranged from $29,402 to $72,407. The per-patient cost to achieve a 10% increase in the proportion of intervention patients meeting American Diabetes Association exercise guidelines was estimated to be $558 when all costs were considered and $277 when only ongoing costs were considered. CONCLUSIONS The ATSM intervention for diverse patients with diabetes had a cost utility for functional outcomes similar to that of many other accepted interventions targeted at diabetes prevention and treatment, and achieved public health physical activity objectives at modest costs. Because a considerable proportion of costs were fixed, cost

  18. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes.

  19. An evaluation framework and a pilot study of a mobile platform for diabetes self-management: insights from pediatric users.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Jaladi, Sravani; Kim, Sean; Kumar, Saumitra; Orbeta, Philip; Rudolph, Kate; Tran, Tony

    2013-01-01

    According to WHO, pediatric diabetes is a rising global public health problem, with increasing impact on developing nations. This study summarizes a multidimensional, scalable pilot evaluation of a diabetes self-management platform combining mobile technology with social networking to capture four key metrics of Type 1 diabetes self-management, associated social interactions, and gaming features providing targeted feedback to 8 pediatric users. Based on their 2-month interaction with the application, we analyze click-stream data from social interactions, key health metrics, text comments, and usability and satisfaction surveys to evaluate engagement with the platform and effectiveness in controlling blood glucose using a product-process-program framework. Our preliminary results indicate that this framework was successful in demonstrating the potential of the mobile health platform to effectively leverage the growing use of mobile applications and social media to present a unique benefit that engaged pediatric users and provided useful insights for self-health management.

  20. Enterprising Career Education: The Power of Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Anki

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an account of how people's career management is given prominence in contemporary European policy documents pertaining to career education for entrepreneurship in higher education and in vocational education and training. This study concerns the ways in which policy discourses of career management and governmental…

  1. Patient education. Timeless principles of learning: a solid foundation for enhancing chronic disease self-management.

    PubMed

    Suter, Paula M; Suter, W Newton

    2008-02-01

    The use of evidence-based principles of learning can contribute to the empowerment of patients as they adopt self-management skills aligned with healthy behaviors. This article, jointly written by a nurse and an educator, describes these timeless principles and how home care clinicians and patients benefit from their use.

  2. Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students' Perceptions of Process and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2005-01-01

    Background: Self-managed learning groups are increasingly used in higher education. There is a need for more systematic investigation of university students' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of this learning method. Aims: This study aimed to identify the domains of process issues that students perceive as relevant to their participation…

  3. Self-Management of Social Initiations by Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brooke M.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social…

  4. Using Self-Management Interventions to Address General Education Behavioral Needs: Assessment of Effectiveness and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Daniels, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive self-management intervention was utilized to increase the on-task behavior of three African American students within an urban middle-school setting. The intervention was designed to necessitate minimal management on the part of the general education classroom teacher by utilizing an electronic prompting device, as well as a…

  5. Self-Management Skills: An Important Link to Successful Special Education Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process of teaching the self-management strategies, self-determination, and self-monitoring to chronically misbehaved students from the perspective of a secondary special education teacher. The investigation used a purposeful sample to select an urban high school setting and a tenured special education…

  6. Revitalizing a Continuing Education Department through Self-Managed Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinehart, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    A continuing education manager used the literature-based concept of self-managed work teams to reorganize the department, resulting in better productivity, financial solvency, and better customer focus and responsiveness. However, not all managers wanted to share power, and not all employees wanted to be empowered. (SK)

  7. Web-based self-management with and without coaching for type 2 diabetes patients in primary care: design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-management is recognized as the cornerstone of overall diabetes management. Web-based self-management programs have the potential of supporting type 2 diabetes patients with managing their diabetes and reducing the workload for the care provider, where the addition of online coaching could improve patient motivation and reduce program attrition. This study aims to test the hypothesis that a web-based self-management program with coaching will prove more effective on improving patient self-management behavior and clinical outcome measures than a web-based self-management program without coaching. Methods The effects of a web-based self-management program with and without coaching will be tested with a nested randomized controlled trial within a healthcare group in the Netherlands. In one year 220 type 2 diabetes patients will be randomized into an intervention group (n = 110) or a control group (n = 110). The control group will receive only the online self-management program. The intervention group will receive the online self-management program and additional online coaching. Participants will be followed for one year, with follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The intervention being tested is set to support type 2 diabetes patients with their diabetes self-management and is expected to have beneficial effects on self-care activities, well being and clinical outcomes. When proven effective this self-management support program could be offered to other health care groups and their type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4064 PMID:24238104

  8. Association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and number of attendances in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Soati, Fatemeh; Khanegha, Atefeh Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine the association between knowledge, locus of control and health belief with self-management, Hb A1c level and Number of attendances in type 1 diabetic patients in Rasht, Guilan Province - North of Iran. Data was derived from chart reviews of 92 patients. Patients’ glycosylated hemoglobin level and their number of health care attendances during the last 6 months were recorded. The four part questionnaires covered patients’ demographic data, knowledge, perceived control and health belief of diabetes. A blood sample was taken from each patient. There was no significant relationship between demographic data such as gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, duration of the disease, place of living and family history with knowledge, health belief and locus of control (P > 0.05). Also the results didn’t show any significant association between the complicated group and their knowledge and health belief (P > 0.05) while it was significantly related to their locus of control (P < 0.004). The majority of the samples had poor knowledge (59.8%), health belief (71.7%) and locus of control (62%). There was no significant relationship between patients’ knowledge, health belief and locus of control with their glycosylated hemoglobin level, number of referrals and self-management. It is suggested by the present survey that locus of control, health belief and knowledge of patients are not found to have no practical effect upon diabetic self-management behavior or outcomes, according to the variables used and care for the diabetic patients must be tailored to individual requirements. PMID:23844271

  9. Impact of a social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived patients: a qualitative evaluation of the intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vissenberg, C; Stronks, K; Nijpels, G; Uitewaal, P J M; Middelkoop, B J C; Kohinor, M J E; Hartman, M A; Nierkens, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a need for effective interventions that improve diabetes self-management (DSM) among socioeconomically deprived patients with type 2 diabetes. The group-based intervention Powerful Together with Diabetes (PTWD) aimed to increase social support for DSM and decrease social influences hindering DSM (eg, peer pressure, social norms) in patients living in deprived neighbourhoods. Through a qualitative process evaluation, this paper aims to study whether this intervention changed social support and social influences, and which elements of the intervention contributed to this. Methods The intervention group (IG) was compared with a standard group-based educational intervention (control group, CG). 27 qualitative in-depth interviews with participants (multiethnic sample) and 24 interviews with group leaders were conducted. Interviews were coded and analysed using MAXQDA according to framework analysis. Results Patients in the IG experienced more emotional support from group members and more instrumental and appraisal support from relatives than those in the CG. Also, they were better able to recognise and cope with influences that hinder their DSM, exhibited more positive norms towards DSM and increased their priority regarding DSM and their adherence. Finally, the engagement in DSM by relatives of participants increased. Creating trust between group members, skills training, practising together and actively involving relatives through action plans contributed to these changes. Conclusions A group-based intervention aimed at creating trust, practising together and involving relatives has the potential to increase social support and diminish social influences hindering DSM in socioeconomically deprived patients with diabetes. Promising elements of the intervention were skills training and providing feedback using role-playing exercises in group sessions with patients, as well as the involvement of patients' significant others in self-management tasks, and

  10. Access to self-management education, conservative treatment and surgery for arthritis according to socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Ilana N; Busija, Lucy

    2012-10-01

    There is now a considerable body of research investigating inequities in access to health care for arthritis according to socioeconomic status (SES). Conducted in a range of settings internationally, studies have examined specific socioeconomic factors (including education, income, deprivation and health insurance status) in relation to access to treatment. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on disparities in access to self-management education, conservative therapy and surgical treatment for arthritis, according to SES. There is some evidence of SES disparities in access to self-management education and advice, primary care, specialist care, physical therapy and medications, and strong evidence that people with less education or lower income experience significant disparities in access to joint replacement surgery. In view of research indicating that disparities may adversely affect patient outcomes, examples of initiatives designed to optimise access to care for disadvantaged groups are also described. PMID:23218423

  11. Developing education for children with asthma through study of self-management behavior.

    PubMed

    Clark, N M; Feldman, C H; Freudenberg, N; Millman, E J; Wasilewski, Y; Valle, I

    1980-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is the major cause of disability in childhood. Among its effects are impaired levels of physical activity and self-esteem, reduced school attendance and performance, and increased utilization of emergency health services. This paper describes the development of a health education program designed to test the hypothesis that better family self-management of asthma can reduce the negative impact of the disease. Three hundred low income Black and Hispanic families were enrolled in the study. Children and primary caretakers were interviewed separately to obtain baseline data on current levels of self-management and to assess needs for educational intervention. Data have been accumulated on a variety of topics concerning asthma self-management, including health practices and beliefs, coping skills, asthma knowledge, and locus of control. An Asthma Self-Management Index was developed to measure positive management behaviors by the family. The needs assessment indicated that six core themes were priorities for these families in terms of relevant skills and behaviors. These topics were incorporated as lesson plans in the intervention.

  12. Developing education for children with asthma through study of self-management behavior.

    PubMed

    Clark, N M; Feldman, C H; Freudenberg, N; Millman, E J; Wasilewski, Y; Valle, I

    1980-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is the major cause of disability in childhood. Among its effects are impaired levels of physical activity and self-esteem, reduced school attendance and performance, and increased utilization of emergency health services. This paper describes the development of a health education program designed to test the hypothesis that better family self-management of asthma can reduce the negative impact of the disease. Three hundred low income Black and Hispanic families were enrolled in the study. Children and primary caretakers were interviewed separately to obtain baseline data on current levels of self-management and to assess needs for educational intervention. Data have been accumulated on a variety of topics concerning asthma self-management, including health practices and beliefs, coping skills, asthma knowledge, and locus of control. An Asthma Self-Management Index was developed to measure positive management behaviors by the family. The needs assessment indicated that six core themes were priorities for these families in terms of relevant skills and behaviors. These topics were incorporated as lesson plans in the intervention. PMID:7275647

  13. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    disease self-management, and health.

  14. Health capabilities and diabetes self-management: the impact of economic, social, and cultural resources.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R; Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh; Goodman, William M

    2014-02-01

    disease self-management, and health. PMID:24565142

  15. Use of Commonly Available Technologies for Diabetes Information and Self-Management Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes and Their Parents: A Web-Based Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E; Hood, Korey K; Laffel, Lori; Kumah-Crystal, Yaa A; Lybarger, Cindy K

    2015-01-01

    Background For individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), following a complicated daily medical regimen is critical to maintaining optimal health. Adolescents in particular struggle with regimen adherence. Commonly available technologies (eg, diabetes websites, apps) can provide diabetes-related support, yet little is known about how many adolescents with T1D use them, why they are used, or relationships between use and self-management. Objective This study examined adolescent and parent use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes, including proportions who use each technology, frequency of use, and number of different technologies used for diabetes. Analyses also investigated the reasons adolescents reported for using or not using technologies for diabetes, and factors correlated with adolescents’ technology use. Finally, this study examined relationships between the type and number of technologies adolescents use for diabetes and their self-management and glycemic control. Methods Adolescents (12-17 years) and their parents (N=174 pairs), recruited from a pediatric diabetes clinic (n=134) and the Children with Diabetes community website (n=40), participated in this Web-based survey study. Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) values were obtained from medical records for pediatric clinic patients. Adolescents reported their use of 5 commonly available technologies for diabetes (ie, social networking, diabetes websites, mobile diabetes apps, text messaging, and glucometer/insulin pump software), reasons for use, and self-management behavior (Self-Care Inventory-Revised, SCI-R). Results Most adolescents and parents used at least one of the 5 technologies for diabetes. Among adolescents, the most commonly used technology for diabetes was text messaging (53%), and the least commonly used was diabetes websites (25%). Most adolescents who used diabetes apps, text messaging, or pump/glucometer software did so more frequently (≥2 times per week), compared to social

  16. The Systematic Design of a Behavioural Mobile Health Application for the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shivani; Morita, Plinio; Lewis, Gary F; Yu, Catherine; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-02-01

    Patients with diabetes often face serious complications due to limited self-management skills, the inability to adhere to care regimens, and psychosocial factors. Although regular self-monitoring of blood glucose is known to benefit patients receiving insulin therapy, its role in patients not treated with insulin has been unclear. However, recent studies have demonstrated that structured self-monitoring of blood glucose can significantly benefit patients who are not taking insulin, facilitating improved self-awareness and clinical decision making. We hypothesize that effective self-management by patients with type 2 diabetes who do not need insulin requires a behavioural intervention that enables the association between lifestyle behaviours, such as dietary intake and physical activity, and overall glycemic control. Mobile health applications (apps), coupled with wireless medical peripheral devices, can facilitate self-monitoring; deliver tailored, actionable knowledge; elicit positive behaviour changes and promote effective self-management of diabetes. Although existing apps incorporate tracking and feedback from healthcare providers, few attempt to elicit positive behaviour changes for the purposes of developing patients' self-care skills. The purpose of this article is to present a systematic approach to the design and development a diabetes self-management mobile app, which included 1) a scoping review of literature; 2) the development of an overarching theoretical approach and 3) validation of the app features through user-centred design methods. The resulting app, bant II, facilitates 1) self-monitoring of blood glucose, physical activity, diet and weight; 2) identification of glycemic patterns in relation to lifestyle; 3) remedial decision making and 4) positive behaviour change through incentives.

  17. Effectiveness of asthma education with and without a self-management plan in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Palma, Tatiana; Zamorano, Alejandra; Arancibia, Francisca; Bustos, María-Francisca; Silva, Maria José; Cardenas, Consuelo; De La Barra, Pedro; Puente, Victoria; Cerda, Jaime; Castro-Rodriguez, José A; Prado, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Background. Formal education in primary care can reduce asthma exacerbations. However, there are few studies in hospitalized children, with none originating in Latin America. Methods. A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate whether a full education with self-management plan (ESM) was more effective than an education without self-management plan (E) in reducing asthma hospitalization. Children (5 to 15 years of age) who were hospitalized for an asthma attack were divided in two groups. Children in the E group received general instructions based on a booklet. Those in the ESM group received the same booklet plus a self-management guide and a puzzle game that reinforces the lessons learned in the booklet. Patients were interviewed every 3 months, by telephone, for one year. Interviewers recording the number of hospitalizations, exacerbations, and emergency visits for asthma and oral steroid burst uses. Results. From 88 children who met the inclusion criteria, 77 (86%) completed one year of follow-up (41 from E and 36 from ESM group). Overall, after one year, the hospitalization decreased by 66% and the inhaled corticosteroids therapy increased from 36% to 79%. At the end of the study, there was no difference in exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, or hospitalizations between the two groups. Conclusions. Asthma education with or without a self-management plan during asthma hospitalization were effective in reducing exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, and future rehospitalizations. This evidence supports the importance of providing a complete asthma education plan in any patient who is admitted for asthma exacerbation. PMID:19905916

  18. Effectiveness of asthma education with and without a self-management plan in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Palma, Tatiana; Zamorano, Alejandra; Arancibia, Francisca; Bustos, María-Francisca; Silva, Maria José; Cardenas, Consuelo; De La Barra, Pedro; Puente, Victoria; Cerda, Jaime; Castro-Rodriguez, José A; Prado, Francisco

    2009-11-01

    Background. Formal education in primary care can reduce asthma exacerbations. However, there are few studies in hospitalized children, with none originating in Latin America. Methods. A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate whether a full education with self-management plan (ESM) was more effective than an education without self-management plan (E) in reducing asthma hospitalization. Children (5 to 15 years of age) who were hospitalized for an asthma attack were divided in two groups. Children in the E group received general instructions based on a booklet. Those in the ESM group received the same booklet plus a self-management guide and a puzzle game that reinforces the lessons learned in the booklet. Patients were interviewed every 3 months, by telephone, for one year. Interviewers recording the number of hospitalizations, exacerbations, and emergency visits for asthma and oral steroid burst uses. Results. From 88 children who met the inclusion criteria, 77 (86%) completed one year of follow-up (41 from E and 36 from ESM group). Overall, after one year, the hospitalization decreased by 66% and the inhaled corticosteroids therapy increased from 36% to 79%. At the end of the study, there was no difference in exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, or hospitalizations between the two groups. Conclusions. Asthma education with or without a self-management plan during asthma hospitalization were effective in reducing exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, and future rehospitalizations. This evidence supports the importance of providing a complete asthma education plan in any patient who is admitted for asthma exacerbation.

  19. Sociodemographic Factors and Self-Management Practices Related to Type 2 Diabetes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby; Chen, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Context: Hispanics in the United States have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and experience more complications for the disease than non-Hispanic whites. Differences in medical management or self-management practices may, in part, explain the relative high risk for diabetes complications among…

  20. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Michelo, Charles; Mudenda, Boyd; Manankov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol) was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol). Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence. PMID:26798654

  1. Use of an Interactive, Telephone-based Self-management Support Program to Identify Adverse Events Among Ambulatory Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Margaret A.; Gupta, Reena; Tang, Audrey; Murphy, Elizabeth; Seligman, Hilary K.; Shojania, Kaveh G.; Schillinger, Dean

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is growing interest in the use of interactive telephone technology to support chronic disease management. We used the implementation of an automated telephone self-management support program for diabetes patients as an opportunity to monitor patient safety. METHODS We identified adverse and potential adverse events among a diverse group of diabetes patients who participated in an automated telephone health-IT self-management program via weekly interactions augmented by targeted nurse follow-up. We defined an adverse event (AE) as an injury that results from either medical management or patient self-management, and a potential adverse event (PotAE) as an unsafe state likely to lead to an event if it persists without intervention. We distinguished between incident, or new, and prevalent, or ongoing, events. We conducted a medical record review and present summary results for event characteristics including detection trigger, preventability, potential for amelioration, and primary care provider awareness. RESULTS Among the 111 patients, we identified 111 AEs and 153 PotAEs. Eleven percent of completed calls detected an event. Events were most frequently detected through health IT–facilitated triggers (158, 59%), followed by nurse elicitation (80, 30%), and patient callback requests (28, 11%). We detected more prevalent (68%) than incident (32%) events. The majority of events (93%) were categorized as preventable or ameliorable. Primary care providers were aware of only 13% of incident and 60% of prevalent events. CONCLUSIONS Surveillance via a telephone-based, health IT–facilitated self-management support program can detect AEs and PotAEs. Events detected were frequently unknown to primary providers, and the majority were preventable or ameliorable, suggesting that this between-visit surveillance, with appropriate system-level intervention, can improve patient safety for chronic disease patients. PMID:18373145

  2. Development of patient-centric linguistically tailored psychoeducational messages to support nutrition and medication self-management in type 2 diabetes: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Rebecca J Bartlett; Connor, Ulla; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external), agency (high/low), and affect (positive/negative), which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication) were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect. The messages developed in this study should be tested in a larger more representative sample. The present study did not explore whether tailored messages were better understood. This research will serve as preliminary evidence to develop future studies

  3. The relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Feil, Denise G; Zhu, Carolyn W; Sultzer, David L

    2012-04-01

    Although nearly one-third of older diabetics are cognitively impaired, their diabetes management remains poorly understood. To examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetes self-management in a population-based community sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional observational analysis. 1,398 persons with diabetes, aged 60 years or older, who responded to the 2003 Health and Retirement Study Diabetes Survey. We conducted logistic regressions on the effects of cognitive impairment on respondents' self-management ability after controlling for diabetes comorbidities, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Participants with greater cognitive impairment were less likely to adhere to exercise (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 0.725 and 0.712 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.05), and to diet (AOR = 0.906 and 0.618 for moderate and severe cognitive impairment, both P < 0.01). Cognitive impairment is associated with worse self-care and may pose challenges to diabetic older persons, notably in diet and exercise. Cognitive screening may be indicated in this high risk group.

  4. Home-based asthma self-management education for inner city children.

    PubMed

    Butz, Arlene M; Syron, Laura; Johnson, Betty; Spaulding, Joanne; Walker, Melissa; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Optimal home self-management in young children with asthma includes accurate symptom identification followed by timely and appropriate treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate a home-based asthma educational intervention targeting symptom identification for parents of children with asthma. Two hundred twenty-one children with asthma were enrolled into an ongoing home-based clinical trial and randomized into either a standard asthma education (SAE) or a symptom/nebulizer education intervention (SNEI). Data included home visit records and parent's self-report on questionnaires. Symptom identification and self-management skills significantly improved from preintervention to postintervention for parents in both groups with the exception of checking medications for expiration dates and the frequency of cleaning nebulizer device and equipment. However, significantly more parents of children in the SNEI group reported treating cough symptoms as compared with the SAE group (p = 0.05). Of concern is that only 38% of all parents reported having an asthma action plan in the home. A targeted home-based asthma education intervention can be effective for improving symptom identification and appropriate use of medications in children with asthma. Home asthma educational programs should address accurate symptom identification and a demonstration of asthma medication delivery devices. PMID:15982192

  5. Older adults' fears about diabetes: using common sense models of disease to understand fear origins and implications for self-management.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Reynolds, Teresa; Chapman, Christine; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Kirk, Julienne K; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-10-01

    This study examines older adults' fears of diabetes complications and their effects on self-management practices. Existing models of diabetes self-management posit that patients' actions are grounded in disease beliefs and experience, but there is little supporting evidence. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 74 African American, American Indian, and white older adults with diabetes. Analysis uses Leventhal's Common Sense Model of Diabetes to link fears to early experience and current self-management. Sixty-three identified fears focused on complications that could limit carrying out normal activities: amputation, blindness, low blood glucose and coma, and disease progression to insulin use and dialysis. Most focused self-management on actions to prevent specific complications, rather than on managing the disease as a whole. Early experiences focused attention on the inevitability of complications and the limited ability of patients to prevent them. Addressing older adults' fears about diabetes may improve their diabetes self-management practices.

  6. Outcomes of Minimal and Moderate Support Versions of an Internet-Based Diabetes Self-Management Support Program

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Wooley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Internet and other interactive technology-based programs offer great potential for practical, effective, and cost-efficient diabetes self-management (DSM) programs capable of reaching large numbers of patients. This study evaluated minimal and moderate support versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, compared to an enhanced usual care condition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A three-arm practical randomized trial was conducted to evaluate minimal contact and moderate contact versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, offered in English and Spanish, compared to enhanced usual care. A heterogeneous sample of 463 type 2 patients was randomized and 82.5% completed a 4-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were behavior changes in healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, and blood pressure. RESULTS The Internet-based intervention produced significantly greater improvements than the enhanced usual care condition on three of four behavioral outcomes (effect sizes [d] for healthy eating = 0.32; fat intake = 0.28; physical activity= 0.19) in both intent-to-treat and complete-cases analyses. These changes did not translate into differential improvements in biological outcomes during the 4-month study period. Added contact did not further enhance outcomes beyond the minimal contact intervention. CONCLUSIONS The Internet intervention meets several of the RE-AIM criteria for potential public health impact, including reaching a large number of persons, and being practical, feasible, and engaging for participants, but with mixed effectiveness in improving outcomes, and consistent results across different subgroups. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes, enhance effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and understand the linkages between intervention processes and outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version

  7. Conceptual model for the design of a serious video game promoting self-management among youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the potential to be an effective method for promoting self-management behaviors among youth with diabetes. This article presents a conceptual model of how this may be achieved. It concludes by identifying research needed to refine our knowledge regarding how to develop effective serious video games for health.

  8. Improvements in Care and Reduced Self-Management Barriers Among Rural Patients With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Nancy; Flook, Benjamin N.; Pessl, Erich; Quesenberry, Kim; Loh, Johnson; Harris, Colleen; McDowall, Janet M.; Butcher, Marcene K.; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2005-01-01

    Improved preventive care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes can reduce complications and costs; however, diabetes care continues to be suboptimal. Few studies have described effective strategies for improving care among rural populations with diabetes. In 2000, the Park County Diabetes Project and the Montana Diabetes Control…

  9. An educational intervention to promote self-management and professional socialization in graduate nurse anesthesia students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloy, Debra A.

    Traditionally, nurse anesthesia educators have utilized prior academic achievement to predict student success. However, research has indicated that prior academic achievement offers an inadequate assessment of student success in graduate healthcare programs with extensive clinical residencies. The educational literature has identified many non-cognitive factors, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, that may provide a more holistic prediction model of student success. An experimental study with pretest-posttest design and stratified random assignment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention to promote self-management, professional socialization, and academic achievement among first semester graduate nurse anesthesia students. Participants (N = 66) were demographically similar to the national graduate nurse anesthesia student body, though Hispanics and younger students were a little over-represented in the sample (56% female, 75.8% White, 15.2% Hispanic, 6% Other, 59% ≤ 30-years-old, 67% ≤ 3 years of ICU). The results showed that most graduate anesthesia students had strong self-management and professional socialization characteristics on admission. The results did not support the effectiveness of this educational intervention. Thus, ceiling effect may have accounted in part for statistically non-significant results regarding self-efficacy (p = .190, o2 = .03), locus of control (p = .137, o2 = .04), professional socialization (p = .819, o2 = .001), and academic achievement (p = .689, o2 = .003). Future researchers may need to expand the scope of the intervention, use a more powerful and sensitive instrument, and utilize a larger sample.

  10. Factors Predictive of Knowledge and Self-Management Behaviors among Male Military Veterans with Diabetes Residing in a Homeless Shelter for People Recovering from Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah M.; Lee, Rebecca; Bernard, Amy; King, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects individuals with lower income in the U.S. (CDC, 2012). Specifically the control of diabetes through self-management has been found to be sub-par and an important contributor to complications (Seligman, Davis, Schillinger, & Wolf, 2010). People experiencing homelessness also experience barriers. One such…

  11. Quasi-experimental trial of diabetes Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support (SMARTSteps) in a Medicaid managed care plan: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and

  12. Educating Patients about CKD: The Path to Self-Management and Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Narva, Andrew S; Norton, Jenna M; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-04-01

    Patient education is associated with better patient outcomes and supported by international guidelines and organizations, but a range of barriers prevent widespread implementation of comprehensive education for people with progressive kidney disease, especially in the United States. Among United States patients, obstacles to education include the complex nature of kidney disease information, low baseline awareness, limited health literacy and numeracy, limited availability of CKD information, and lack of readiness to learn. For providers, lack of time and clinical confidence combine with competing education priorities and confusion about diagnosing CKD to limit educational efforts. At the system level, lack of provider incentives, limited availability of practical decision support tools, and lack of established interdisciplinary care models inhibit patient education. Despite these barriers, innovative education approaches for people with CKD exist, including self-management support, shared decision making, use of digital media, and engaging families and communities. Education efficiency may be increased by focusing on people with progressive disease, establishing interdisciplinary care management including community health workers, and providing education in group settings. New educational approaches are being developed through research and quality improvement efforts, but challenges to evaluating public awareness and patient education programs inhibit identification of successful strategies for broader implementation. However, growing interest in improving patient-centered outcomes may provide new approaches to effective education of people with CKD. PMID:26536899

  13. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  14. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Two Self-Management Support Programs for Vulnerable Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Bhandari, Vijay K; Handley, Margaret; Rundall, Thomas; Hammer, Hali; Schillinger, Dean

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care providers (PCPs) in safety net settings face barriers to optimizing care for patients with diabetes. We conducted this study to assess PCPs' perspectives on the effectiveness of two language-concordant diabetes self-management support programs. Methods One year postintervention, we surveyed PCPs whose patients with diabetes participated in a three-arm multiclinic randomized controlled trial comparing usual care (UC), weekly automated telephone self-management (ATSM) support with nurse care management, and monthly group medical visits (GMVs). We compared PCP perspectives on patient activation to create and achieve goals, quality of care, and barriers to care using regression models accounting for within-PCP clustering. Results Of 113 eligible PCPs caring for 330 enrolled patients, 87 PCPs (77%) responded to surveys about 245 (74%) enrolled patients. Intervention patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as activated to create and achieve goals for chronic care when compared with UC patients (standardized effect size, ATSM vs UC, +0.41, p = 0.01; GMV vs UC, +0.31, p = 0.05). Primary care providers rated quality of care as higher for patients exposed to ATSM compared to UC (odds ratio 3.6, p < 0.01). Compared with GMV patients, ATSM patients were more likely to be perceived by PCPs as overcoming barriers related to limited English proficiency (82% ATSM vs 44% GMV, p = 0.01) and managing medications (80% ATSM vs 53% GMV, p = 0.01). Conclusions Primary care providers perceived that patients receiving ATSM support had overcome barriers, participated more actively, and received higher quality diabetes care. These views of clinician stakeholders lend additional evidence for the potential to upscale ATSM more broadly to support PCPs in their care of diverse, multilinguistic populations. PMID:22401329

  15. The OnTrack Diabetes Web-Based Program for Type 2 Diabetes and Dysphoria Self-Management: A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anthony Carl; Scuffham, Paul A; Parham, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising with the majority of patients practicing inadequate disease self-management. Depression, anxiety, and diabetes-specific distress present motivational challenges to adequate self-care. Health systems globally struggle to deliver routine services that are accessible to the entire population, in particular in rural areas. Web-based diabetes self-management interventions can provide frequent, accessible support regardless of time and location Objective This paper describes the protocol of an Australian national randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the OnTrack Diabetes program, an automated, interactive, self-guided Web program aimed to improve glycemic control, diabetes self-care, and dysphoria symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A small pilot trial is conducted that primarily tests program functionality, efficacy, and user acceptability and satisfaction. This is followed by the main RCT, which compares 3 treatments: (1) delayed program access: usual diabetes care for 3 months postbaseline followed by access to the full OnTrack Diabetes program; (2) immediate program: full access to the self-guided program from baseline onward; and (3) immediate program plus therapist support via Functional Imagery Training (FIT). Measures are administered at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months postbaseline. Primary outcomes are diabetes self-care behaviors (physical activity participation, diet, medication adherence, and blood glucose monitoring), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and diabetes-specific distress. Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and adherence, and quality of life. Exposure data in terms of program uptake, use, time on each page, and program completion, as well as implementation feasibility will be conducted. Results This trial is currently underway with funding support from the Wesley Research Institute in Brisbane, Australia. Conclusions This is the first known trial of an

  16. “Living Well with Diabetes”: Evaluation of a Pilot Program to Promote Diabetes Prevention and Self-Management in a Medically Underserved Community

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Bonnie M.; Craig, Mary; Rowe, Jimmy S.; Kahn, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A substantial disparity exists in the prevalence and effective self-management of diabetes among African Americans in the United States. Community-level programs have the potential to affect self-efficacy and may be helpful in overcoming common barriers to self-management. The Neighborhood Health Talker Program used community members trained as cultural health brokers to engage their communities in conversations about “living diabetes well.” Program evaluators used mixed methods to analyze post-conversation surveys and Health Talker field notes. These indicated an increase in diabetes-related knowledge and increased confidence among conversation participants. Conversations included discussion of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle changes and effective self-management that are frequently overlooked in a clinical setting. PMID:25647046

  17. Effects of Diabetic Case Management on Knowledge, Self-Management Abilities, Health Behaviors, and Health Service Utilization for Diabetes in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soon Ae; Lee, Kunsei; Lin, Vivian; Liu, George; Shin, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a case management program for diabetics, using a pre-post comparison design. Materials and Methods The study population comprised 6007 diabetics who received case management intervention in 2006 and were sampled nationwide in Korea. Before and after the intervention, the study population answered questions regarding their knowledge of diabetes, self-management ability, and health behaviors. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Healthcare service utilization for diabetes was extracted from health insurance claim data from 2005 to 2007. Results The case management program significantly improved the study population's knowledge of diabetes and ability to self-manage nutrition, blood glucose monitoring, foot and oral care, and medications. This program also significantly changed the study population's health behaviors regarding smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise, and BMI was positively affected. In the over-serviced subgroup, there was a significant decrease in the number of consultations (mean=7.0; SD=19.5) after intervention. Conversely, in the under-serviced subgroup, there was a significant increase in the number of consultations (mean=3.2; SD=7.9) and the days of prescribed medication (mean=66.4; SD=120.3) after intervention. Conclusion This study showed that the case management program led the study population to improve their knowledge, self-management ability, health behaviors, and utilization of health care. It is necessary in future studies to evaluate the appropriateness of healthcare usage and clinical outcome by using a control group to determine the direct effectiveness of this case management program. PMID:25510771

  18. Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; You, Dingyun; Golden, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to investigate socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 5532 Na Xi, Li Su, Dai and Jing Po ethnic minorities. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes prevalence, as well as the other outcomes. Results: Higher individual educational level was associated with a higher rate of awareness, treatment, adherence to medicines and monitoring of blood glucose (OR = 1.87, 4.89, 4.83, 6.45; 95% CI: 1.26–2.77, 1.87–12.7, 1.95–11.9, 2.23–18.6, respectively). Diabetic respondents with better household assets tended to receive more treatment (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.12) and to monitor their blood glucose (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.48–7.30). Diabetic patients with better access to medical services were more likely to treat (OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 2.46–20.4) and adhere to medication (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.46–11.7). Income at the contextual level was significantly correlated with diabetes prevalence, treatment and blood glucose monitoring (OR = 1.84, 3.04, 4.34; 95% CI: 1.20–2.83, 1.20–7.73, 1.45–13.0, respectively). Conclusions: Future diabetes prevention and intervention programs should take both individual and township-level socioeconomic factors into account in the study regions. PMID:27463725

  19. Integrating visual dietary documentation in mobile-phone-based self-management application for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frøisland, Dag Helge; Årsand, Eirik

    2015-05-01

    The goal of modern diabetes treatment is to a large extent focused on self-management to achieve and maintain a healthy, low HbA1c. Despite all new technical diabetes tools and support, including advanced blood glucose meters and insulin delivery systems, diabetes patients still struggle to achieve international treatment goals, that is, HbA1c < 7.5 in children and adolescents. In this study we developed and tested a mobile-phone-based tool to capture and visualize adolescents' food intake. Our aim was to affect understanding of carbohydrate counting and also to facilitate doctor-adolescent communication with regard to daily treatment. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate the effect of the designed tool with regard to empowerment, self-efficacy, and self-treatment. The study concludes that implementing a visualization tool is an important contribution for young people to understand the basics of diabetes and to empower young people to define their treatment challenges. By capturing a picture of their own food, the person's own feeling of being in charge can be affected and better self-treatment achieved.

  20. Integrating visual dietary documentation in mobile-phone-based self-management application for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Frøisland, Dag Helge; Årsand, Eirik

    2015-05-01

    The goal of modern diabetes treatment is to a large extent focused on self-management to achieve and maintain a healthy, low HbA1c. Despite all new technical diabetes tools and support, including advanced blood glucose meters and insulin delivery systems, diabetes patients still struggle to achieve international treatment goals, that is, HbA1c < 7.5 in children and adolescents. In this study we developed and tested a mobile-phone-based tool to capture and visualize adolescents' food intake. Our aim was to affect understanding of carbohydrate counting and also to facilitate doctor-adolescent communication with regard to daily treatment. Furthermore, we wanted to evaluate the effect of the designed tool with regard to empowerment, self-efficacy, and self-treatment. The study concludes that implementing a visualization tool is an important contribution for young people to understand the basics of diabetes and to empower young people to define their treatment challenges. By capturing a picture of their own food, the person's own feeling of being in charge can be affected and better self-treatment achieved. PMID:25901020

  1. Engaging faith-based resources to initiate and support diabetes self-management among African Americans: a collaboration of informal and formal systems of care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patria; Thorman Hartig, Margaret; Frazier, Renee; Clayton, Mae; Oliver, Georgia; Nelson, Belinda W; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly J

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes for Life (DFL), a project of Memphis Healthy Churches (MHC) and Common Table Health Alliance (CTHA; formerly Healthy Memphis Common Table [HMCT]), is a self-management program aimed at reducing health disparities among African Americans with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee. This program is one of five national projects that constitute The Alliance to Reduce Disparities in Diabetes, a 5-year grant-funded initiative of The Merck Foundation. Our purpose is to describe the faith-based strategies supporting DFL made possible by linking with an established informal health system, MHC, created by Baptist Memorial Health Care. The MHC network engaged volunteer Church Health Representatives as educators and recruiters for DFL. The components of the DFL project and the effect on chronic disease management for the participants will be described. The stages of DFL recruitment and implementation from an open-access to a closed model involving six primary care practices created a formal health system. The involvement of CTHA, a regional health collaborative, created the opportunity for DFL to expand the pool of health care providers and then recognize the core of providers most engaged with DFL patients. This collaboration between MHC and HMCT led to the organization of the formal health network.

  2. Workshop Characteristics Related to Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Using the national dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs, the purposes of this study were to (1) document intervention attendance rates as related to the number of participants enrolled in the workshop and (2) compare the relationship between workshop attendance and workshop size by delivery site rurality and type. Data were analyzed from the first 100,000 middle-aged and older adults who participated in CDSME workshops spanning 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. Descriptive statistics are reported for all participants, then separately by each delivery site type. Ratios between the number of workshop participants and the number of workshop sessions attended were calculated and graphed based on the rurality of delivery and separately for the leading five delivery site types. Associations between the number of workshop participants and the number of sessions attended differed by delivery site rurality and type. Findings have implications for participant retention and workshop delivery costs, which can assist program deliverers to strategically plan implementation efforts in their areas. PMID:25964943

  3. The PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Kathleen; Chambers, Laura; Bumol, Stefan; White, Richard O.; Gregory, Becky Pratt; Davis, Dianne; Rothman, Russell L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with low literacy, low numeracy, and/or linguistic needs can experience challenges understanding diabetes information and applying concepts to their self-management. The authors designed a toolkit of education materials that are sensitive to patients' literacy and numeracy levels, language preferences, and cultural norms and that encourage shared goal setting to improve diabetes self-management and health outcomes. The Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education (PRIDE) toolkit was developed to facilitate diabetes self-management education and support. Methods The PRIDE toolkit includes a comprehensive set of 30 interactive education modules in English and Spanish to support diabetes self-management activities. The toolkit builds upon the authors' previously validated Diabetes Literacy and Numeracy Education Toolkit (DLNET) by adding a focus on shared goal setting, addressing the needs of Spanish-speaking patients, and including a broader range of diabetes management topics. Each PRIDE module was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument to determine the material's cultural appropriateness and its sensitivity to the needs of patients with low literacy and low numeracy. Reading grade level was also assessed using the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Coleman-Liau, Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, and SMOG formulas. Conclusions The average reading grade level of the materials was 5.3 (SD 1.0), with a mean SAM of 91.2 (SD 5.4). All of the 30 modules received a “superior” score (SAM >70%) when evaluated by 2 independent raters. The PRIDE toolkit modules can be used by all members of a multidisciplinary team to assist patients with low literacy and low numeracy in managing their diabetes. PMID:26647414

  4. Understanding diabetes self-management behaviors among Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith; Campos-Dominguez, Giselle; Jaramillo, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern disproportionately affecting Hispanics. Because Hispanics are greatly affected by a high prevalence of diabetes, a qualitative study was conducted, which explored how Hispanics understand, perceive, and experience behavioral change and how they maintain such change while managing their diabetes. Twenty Caribbean (Dominican and Puerto Rican) Hispanic adults with diabetes, who were either English- or Spanish-speaking, participated in the study. Twenty individual interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated. Structured questions were used in the interviews which covered the meaning of certain terms (e.g., healthy eating, exercise), motivators and barriers to changing behaviors related to diabetes management, and a question to explore ways nurses can assist them in changing behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the text of the interviews. Three themes (diabetes management, behavior change, and nurse's role) emerged from the data, including apparent gaps in the participants' perception of adapting their cultural foods into healthier dietary habits. PMID:25741930

  5. Understanding diabetes self-management behaviors among Hispanics in New York City.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Judith; Campos-Dominguez, Giselle; Jaramillo, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern disproportionately affecting Hispanics. Because Hispanics are greatly affected by a high prevalence of diabetes, a qualitative study was conducted, which explored how Hispanics understand, perceive, and experience behavioral change and how they maintain such change while managing their diabetes. Twenty Caribbean (Dominican and Puerto Rican) Hispanic adults with diabetes, who were either English- or Spanish-speaking, participated in the study. Twenty individual interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated. Structured questions were used in the interviews which covered the meaning of certain terms (e.g., healthy eating, exercise), motivators and barriers to changing behaviors related to diabetes management, and a question to explore ways nurses can assist them in changing behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the text of the interviews. Three themes (diabetes management, behavior change, and nurse's role) emerged from the data, including apparent gaps in the participants' perception of adapting their cultural foods into healthier dietary habits.

  6. User-centered design of a web-based self-management site for individuals with type 2 diabetes – providing a sense of control and community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To design and test a web-based self-management tool for patients with type 2 diabetes for its usability and feasibility. Methods An evidence-based, theory-driven website was created for patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-three patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were recruited from 2 diabetes care centers in Toronto, Canada. We employed focus group methodology to assess acceptability, sustainability, strengths and weaknesses of the self-management website. Based on these results, revisions were made to the website. Three cycles of individual usability testing sessions using cognitive task analysis were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes. Revisions to the website were made based on results from this testing. Results We identified five themes concerning participants’ experiences of health care and related unmet needs: 1) Desire for information and for greater access to timely and personalized care to gain a sense of control of their disease; 2) Desire for community (sharing experiences with others) to fulfill practical and emotional needs; 3) Potential roles of an online self-management website in self-empowerment, behavior change, self-management and health care delivery; 4) Importance of a patient-centered perspective in presenting content (e.g. common assumptions, medical nomenclature, language, messaging, sociocultural context); 5) Barriers and facilitators to use of a self-management website (including perceived relevance of content, incorporation into usual routine, availability for goal-directed use, usability issues). Conclusions Participants outlined a series of unmet health care needs, and stated that they wanted timely access to tailored knowledge about their condition, mechanisms to control and track their disease, and opportunities to share experiences with other patients. These findings have implications for patients with type 2 diabetes of diverse ages, socioeconomic backgrounds, and disease severity, as well

  7. An evaluation of diabetes self-management applications for Android smartphones.

    PubMed

    Demidowich, Andrew P; Lu, Kevin; Tamler, Ronald; Bloomgarden, Zachary

    2012-06-01

    We reviewed diabetes apps for Android smartphones. We compiled a list of free and paid apps in April 2011 by searching the Android Market for apps which could track self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), diabetes medications or calculate prandial insulin dosages. Two reviewers independently evaluated six features per app, using a five-point Likert scale. The sum of the six ratings was the composite usability score, and the mean score of an app's features was the average usability score. Of the 80 Android diabetes apps identified, 42 unique apps were eligible for the study. SMBG recording was present in 36 (86%) of the apps, a tool to track insulin or oral diabetic medications was found in 19 (45%) apps, and a prandial insulin dose calculator existed for 11 (26%) apps. Eighteen apps were free of charge and the other 24 apps had a mean purchase price of $2.86 (range 0.99-6.99). The mean composite usability score was 11.3 out of a possible 30. The mean average usability score was 3.0 out of a possible 5.0. Only four of the 42 apps had a composite usability score above 20 and none offered direct data input from glucometers, suggesting that few provided a comprehensive method of diabetes management. The apps Glucool Diabetes, OnTrack Diabetes, Dbees and Track3 Diabetes Planner were the highest rated. Clinicians may find it useful to recommend these apps. PMID:22604278

  8. Field of Dreams Program Evaluation: Empowering the Latino Population in Type2 Diabetes Self-Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urteaga, Edie

    2011-01-01

    Adult onset, type2 diabetes affects Latino families at a higher rate than other ethnicities and negatively impacting their quality of life, ability to financially succeed, and ultimately impacting our overall economy. Multiple resources are available in the country to help people learn how to prevent, control, and manage diabetes. However, the…

  9. Long-Term Engagement With a Mobile Self-Management System for People With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Background In a growing number of intervention studies, mobile phones are used to support self-management of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is difficult to establish knowledge about factors associated with intervention effects, due to considerable differences in research designs and outcome measures as well as a lack of detailed information about participants’ engagement with the intervention tool. Objective To contribute toward accumulating knowledge about factors associated with usage and usability of a mobile self-management application over time through a thorough analysis of multiple types of investigation on each participant’s engagement. Methods The Few Touch application is a mobile-phone–based self-management tool for patients with T2DM. Twelve patients with T2DM who have been actively involved in the system design used the Few Touch application in a real-life setting from September 2008 until October 2009. During this period, questionnaires and semistructured interviews were conducted. Recorded data were analyzed to investigate usage trends and patterns. Transcripts from interviews were thematically analyzed, and the results were further analyzed in relation to the questionnaire answers and the usage trends and patterns. Results The Few Touch application served as a flexible learning tool for the participants, responsive to their spontaneous needs, as well as supporting regular self-monitoring. A significantly decreasing (P<.05) usage trend was observed among 10 out of the 12 participants, though the magnitude of the decrease varied widely. Having achieved a sense of mastery over diabetes and experiences of problems were identified as reasons for declining motivation to continue using the application. Some of the problems stemmed from difficulties in integrating the use of the application into each participant’s everyday life and needs, although the design concepts were developed in the process where the participants were

  10. Different models to mobilize peer support to improve diabetes self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Much of diabetes care needs to be carried out by patients between office visits with their health care providers. Yet, many patients face difficulties carrying out these tasks. In addition, many adults with diabetes cannot count on effective support from their families and friends to help them with their self-management. Peer support programmes are a promising approach to enhance social and emotional support, assist patients in daily management and living with diabetes and promote linkages to clinical care. This background paper provides a brief overview of different approaches to mobilize peer support for diabetes self-management support, discusses evidence to date on the effectiveness of each of these models, highlights logistical and evaluation issues for each model and concludes with a discussion of directions for future research in this area. PMID:19293400

  11. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs. PMID:26458409

  12. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs.

  13. A Modified User-Oriented Heuristic Evaluation of a Mobile Health System for Diabetes Self-management Support

    PubMed Central

    Georgsson, Mattias; Staggers, Nancy; Weir, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients’ self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists’ toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation. PMID:26657618

  14. A Modified User-Oriented Heuristic Evaluation of a Mobile Health System for Diabetes Self-management Support.

    PubMed

    Georgsson, Mattias; Staggers, Nancy; Weir, Charlene

    2016-02-01

    Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients' self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists' toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation. PMID:26657618

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Peer Leaders and Community Health Workers in Diabetes Self-management Support: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha; Sinco, Brandy; Piatt, Gretchen; Palmisano, Gloria; Spencer, Michael S.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare a peer leader (PL) versus a community health worker (CHW) telephone outreach intervention in sustaining improvements in HbA1c over 12 months after a 6-month diabetes self-management education (DSME) program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred and sixteen Latino adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a federally qualified health center and randomized to 1) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of weekly group sessions delivered by PLs with telephone outreach to those unable to attend or 2) a 6-month DSME program followed by 12 months of monthly telephone outreach delivered by CHWs. The primary outcome was HbA1c. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular disease risk factors, diabetes distress, and diabetes social support. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. RESULTS After DSME, the PL group achieved a reduction in mean HbA1c (8.2–7.5% or 66–58 mmol/mol, P < 0.0001) that was maintained at 18 months (−0.6% or −6.6 mmol/mol from baseline [P = 0.009]). The CHW group also showed a reduction in HbA1c (7.8 vs. 7.3% or 62 vs. 56 mmol/mol, P = 0.0004) post–6 month DSME; however, it was attenuated at 18 months (−0.3% or −3.3 mmol/mol from baseline, within-group P = 0.234). Only the PL group maintained improvements achieved in blood pressure at 18 months. At the 18-month follow-up, both groups maintained improvements in waist circumference, diabetes support, and diabetes distress, with no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS Both low-cost maintenance programs led by either a PL or a CHW maintained improvements in key patient-reported diabetes outcomes, but the PL intervention may have additional benefit in sustaining clinical improvements beyond 12 months. PMID:24722495

  16. Listening to patients' voices: linguistic indicators related to diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ulla; Anton, Marta; Goering, Elizabeth; Lauten, Kathryn; Hayat, Amir; Roach, Paris; Balunda, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research in health care has examined a wide range of variables to better understand the degree to which patients follow the advice of medical professionals in managing their health, known as adherence. This paper explains the development of the linguistic systems to describe and evaluate two psychosocial constructs (i.e. control orientation and agency) that have been found to be related to adherence in previous research for subjects with diabetes (Trento et al. 2007; Wangberg 2007; O'Hea et al. 2009). The present data came from 43 semi-structured in-depth interviews of subjects with Type 2 diabetes. One-on-one interviews with open-ended questions elicited subjects' 'stories' about living with diabetes, and the transcribed interviews were analyzed to develop the linguistic systems of control orientation and agency. The resultant systems were applied to the 43 interviews by raters with high inter-rater reliability. The results showed demarcations of clearly identified codings of patient types. The paper presents the linguistic coding systems developed in the study, the results of their application to the patient interview data, and recommendations for improved communication with patients.

  17. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes education has gained a critical role in diabetes care. The empowerment of patients aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification. Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations.

  18. Arthritis Self-Management: A Study of the Effectiveness of Patient Education for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of an Arthritis Self Management course for people aged 55-95 (N=200). Results indicated significant gains in knowledge and pain reduction. Trends toward less disability were observed for participants under age 74. (JAC)

  19. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, M; de Wit, M; Sieverink, F; Roelofsen, Y; Hendriks, S H; Bilo, H J G; Snoek, F J

    2016-01-01

    We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of a personal health record. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Uptake and usage were monitored using log data. Outcomes were self-reported diabetes self-care, diabetes-related distress, and emotional wellbeing. Patients' health status was collected from their medical chart. 132 patients agreed to participate in the study of which less than half (46.1%) did not return to the personal health record after 1st login. Only 5 patients used the self-management support program within the personal health record, 3 of whom asked a coach for feedback. Low use of the personal health record was registered. No statistical significant differences on any of the outcome measures were found between baseline and 6 month follow-up. This study showed minimal impact of implementing a personal health record including self-management support in primary diabetes care. Successful adoption of web-based platforms, as ongoing patient centered care, is hard to achieve without additional strategies aimed at enhancing patient motivation and engaging professionals.

  20. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Sieverink, F.; Roelofsen, Y.; Hendriks, S. H.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Snoek, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of a personal health record. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Uptake and usage were monitored using log data. Outcomes were self-reported diabetes self-care, diabetes-related distress, and emotional wellbeing. Patients' health status was collected from their medical chart. 132 patients agreed to participate in the study of which less than half (46.1%) did not return to the personal health record after 1st login. Only 5 patients used the self-management support program within the personal health record, 3 of whom asked a coach for feedback. Low use of the personal health record was registered. No statistical significant differences on any of the outcome measures were found between baseline and 6 month follow-up. This study showed minimal impact of implementing a personal health record including self-management support in primary diabetes care. Successful adoption of web-based platforms, as ongoing patient centered care, is hard to achieve without additional strategies aimed at enhancing patient motivation and engaging professionals. PMID:26955640

  1. Hidden decay of impact after education for self-management of chronic illnesses: hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Green, Joseph; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2013-03-01

    People with chronic illnesses can benefit from self-management education. However, those benefits are said to decay over time (there is some evidence that this 'decay of impact' does occur), and the reinforcements used to prevent that decay appear to be ineffective. We hypothesize that the reinforcements appear to be ineffective because decay of impact occurs only in a subgroup of these programs' participants, so any benefits of reinforcements in that subgroup are concealed by whole-group summary statistics. We also hypothesize that reinforcements can benefit those who need them - those who would otherwise have decay. One approach to testing these hypotheses requires analysis of individual-level data, which is uncommon in this field. Some useful data could come from studies that have already been completed, but the strongest evidence will require prospectively designed tests in future trials. If the hypotheses are false, then time and resources spent on reinforcements can be saved or redirected. If the hypotheses are true, then reinforcements can be implemented with less waste and they can be made more effective. These programs can also be improved to better fit their users' needs, and there can be a new basis for evaluating the programs' effectiveness.

  2. Everyday Expertise in Self-Management of Diabetes in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Learning and Performance Support Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes Paulino, Lisette G.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic such as diabetes is an extremely complex public health, economic and social problem that is difficult to solve through medical expertise alone. Evidence-based models for improving healthcare delivery systems advocate educating patients to become more active participants in their own care. This shift demands preparing chronically ill…

  3. A Mobile Health Intervention for Self-Management and Lifestyle Change for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes, Part 2: One-Year Results From the Norwegian Randomized Controlled Trial RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Årsand, Eirik; Ribu, Lis

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-management is crucial in the daily management of type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that mHealth may be an important method for enhancing self-management when delivered in combination with health counseling. Objective The objective of this study was to test whether the use of a mobile phone–based self-management system used for 1 year, with or without telephone health counseling by a diabetes specialist nurse for the first 4 months, could improve glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, self-management, and health-related quality of life compared with usual care. Methods We conducted a 3-arm prospective randomized controlled trial involving 2 intervention groups and 1 control group. Eligible participants were persons with type 2 diabetes with an HbA1c level ≥7.1% (≥54.1 mmol/mol) and aged ≥18 years. Both intervention groups received the mobile phone–based self-management system Few Touch Application (FTA). The FTA consisted of a blood glucose–measuring system with automatic wireless data transfer, diet manual, physical activity registration, and management of personal goals, all recorded and operated using a diabetes diary app on the mobile phone. In addition, one intervention group received health counseling based on behavior change theory and delivered by a diabetes specialist nurse for the first 4 months after randomization. All groups received usual care by their general practitioner. The primary outcome was HbA1c level. Secondary outcomes were self-management (heiQ), health-related quality of life (SF-36), depressive symptoms (CES-D), and lifestyle changes (dietary habits and physical activity). Data were analyzed using univariate methods (t test, ANOVA) and multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results A total of 151 participants were randomized: 51 to the FTA group, 50 to the FTA-health counseling (FTA-HC) group, and 50 to the control group. Follow-up data after 1 year were available for 120 participants (79%). HbA1c

  4. Recruitment of black women with type 2 diabetes into a self-management intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Jefferson, Vanessa; Langerman, Susan; Womack, Julie; Chyun, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of recruitment methods to enrollment status in Black women with type 2 diabetes screened for entry into a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Using a cross-sectional study design with convenience sampling procedures, data were collected on recruitment methods to which the women responded (N=236). Results demonstrated that the RCT had a moderate overall recruitment rate of 46% and achieved only 84% of its projected accrual goal (N=109). Chi-square analysis demonstrated that enrollment outcomes varied significantly according to recruitment methods (P=.05). Recruitment methods such as community health fairs (77.8%), private practice referrals (75.0%), participant referrals (61.5%), community clinic referrals (44.6%), community advertising and marketing (40.9%), and chart review (40.4%) demonstrated variable enrollment yields. Results confirm previous findings that indicate that Black Americans may be successfully recruited into research studies at moderate rates when traditional recruitment methods are enhanced and integrated with more culturally sensitive methods. Lessons learned are considered.

  5. [Analysis of health self-management for diabetes self-efficacy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yalan; Ding, Xianbin; Jiang, Yi; Zhang, Chunhua; Mao, Deqiang; Shen, Zhuozhi; Qi, Li; Lü, Xiaoyan; Lu, Junjia; Wang, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    目的:评价健康自我管理对糖尿病患者自我效能的影响效果。方法:对符合条件、自愿参与健康自我管理的184例糖尿病患者进行连续 6 周的知识和技能指导。干预前后用糖尿病患者自我效能量表(diabetes self-efficacy scale,DSES)进行问卷调查,并采用两配对样本McNemar检验比较患者在干预前后自我效能的改变。结果:干预后,患者总饮食控制、药物治疗、血糖监测、足部护理和并发症应对效能得分均较干预前明显提高(均P<0.05)。结论:健康自我管理可有效提高糖尿病患者的自我效能,改善生存质量。.

  6. Recruitment of black women with type 2 diabetes into a self-management intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Newlin, Kelley; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Jefferson, Vanessa; Langerman, Susan; Womack, Julie; Chyun, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of recruitment methods to enrollment status in Black women with type 2 diabetes screened for entry into a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Using a cross-sectional study design with convenience sampling procedures, data were collected on recruitment methods to which the women responded (N=236). Results demonstrated that the RCT had a moderate overall recruitment rate of 46% and achieved only 84% of its projected accrual goal (N=109). Chi-square analysis demonstrated that enrollment outcomes varied significantly according to recruitment methods (P=.05). Recruitment methods such as community health fairs (77.8%), private practice referrals (75.0%), participant referrals (61.5%), community clinic referrals (44.6%), community advertising and marketing (40.9%), and chart review (40.4%) demonstrated variable enrollment yields. Results confirm previous findings that indicate that Black Americans may be successfully recruited into research studies at moderate rates when traditional recruitment methods are enhanced and integrated with more culturally sensitive methods. Lessons learned are considered. PMID:17061753

  7. National Dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Programs: An Incremental Examination of Delivery Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Ahn, SangNam; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Jiang, Luohua; Horel, Scott; Lorig, Kate

    2015-01-01

    With a near 20-year developmental history as an evidence-based program, the suite of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs were selected in 2010 for grand-scale dissemination in a federally supported initiative to improve the health of older Americans. The primary charge of this national effort was to establish a sustainable program delivery system for empowering American adults with one or more chronic conditions to better manage their health. The current study focused on a series of dissemination and implementation science research questions to: (1) examine the geographic distribution of participation in this initiative across the Unites States; (2) describe workshop characteristics engaged to reach program participants in various settings; and (3) describe personal characteristics of the first 100,000 participants. Each subsequent entering cohort was descriptively examined to indicate whether there was constancy or change in delivery sites and populations reached over time. Findings show a strengthening of the workshop delivery infrastructure in that it took 9.4 months to reach the first 25,000 participants in 853 counties compared to 5.4 months to reach the last 25,000 participants in 1,109 counties. The workshop delivery characteristics and participant characteristics remained relatively consistent across increments of 25,000 participants reached, although general trends were observed for some variables. For example, after reaching the first 25,000 participants, subsequent groups of 25,000 participants were reached more quickly. Additionally, workshops were increasingly delivered in ZIP Codes with higher percentages of families residing below the federal poverty line. As more participants were reached, more participants with chronic conditions were enrolled. This national translational study illustrates the rapid expansion of CDSME programs throughout the United States and capability to reach diverse populations in a variety of

  8. The Reach of Chronic-Disease Self-Management Education Programs to Rural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents who participated in chronic-disease self-management education (CDSME) program workshops and the extent to which CDSME programs were utilized by those with limited access to health care services. We analyzed data from the first 100,000 adults who attended CDSME program workshops during a national dissemination spanning 45 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Approximately 24% of participants lived in rural areas. Overall, 42% of all participants were minorities; urban areas reached more minority participants (48%) than rural areas (25%). The average age of participants was high in rural (age, μ = 66.1) and urban (age, μ = 67.3) areas. In addition, the average number of chronic conditions was higher (p < 0.01) in rural (μ = 2.6 conditions) versus urban (μ = 2.4 conditions) areas. Successful completion of CDSME programs (i.e., attending four or more of the six workshop sessions) was higher (p < 0.01) in rural versus urban areas (78% versus 77%). Factors associated with higher likelihood of successful completion of CDSME programs included being Black (OR = 1.25) versus White and living in rural (versus urban) areas (OR = 1.09). Factors associated with lower likelihood of successful completion included being male (OR = 0.92) and residing in a primary care Health Professional Shortage Area or HPSA (versus a non-HPSA) (OR = 0.93). Findings highlight the capability of CDSME programs to reach rural residents, yet dissemination efforts can be further enhanced to ensure minorities and individuals in a HPSA utilize this program. Tailored strategies are needed to increase participant recruitment and retention in rural areas to overcome traditional barriers to health service access. PMID:25964906

  9. Recruiting Rural Participants for a Telehealth Intervention on Diabetes Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Henderson, Stuart; Young, Heather M.; Ward, Deborah; Santillan, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recruiting rural and underserved participants in behavioral health interventions is challenging. Community-based recruitment approaches are effective, but they are not always feasible in multisite, diverse community interventions. This study evaluates the feasibility of a rapid, multisite approach that uses rural clinic site coordinators to recruit study participants. The approach allows for rural recruitment in areas where researchers may not have developed long-term collaborative relationships. Methods Adults with diabetes were recruited from rural Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinics. Recruitment feasibility was assessed by analyzing field notes by the project manager and health coaches, and 8 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clinic site coordinators and champions, followed by thematic analysis of field notes and interviews. Findings Forty-seven rural sites were contacted to obtain the 6 sites that participated in the study. On average, sites took 14 days to commit to study participation. One hundred and twenty-one participants were acquired from letters mailed to eligible participants and, in some sites, by follow-up phone calls from site coordinators. Facilitators and deterrents affecting study recruitment fell into 4 broad categories—study design, site, site coordinator, and participant factors. Conclusion The rapid multi-site approach led to quick and efficient recruitment of clinic sites and participants. Recruitment success was achieved in some, but not all, rural sites. The study highlights the opportunities and challenges of recruiting rural clinics and rural, underserved participants in multisite research. Suggestions are provided for improving recruitment for future interventions. PMID:23289657

  10. National Diabetes Education Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Organizations​ ​​ HealthSense Alternate Language URL National Diabetes Education Program Page Content Now Available ​ Updated School Guide! ... For Health Care Professionals​​ Clinical Practice Tools Patient Education Resources Practice Transformation for Physicians and Health Care ...

  11. Re-thinking the relationship between long-term condition self-management education and the utilisation of health services.

    PubMed

    Gately, Claire; Rogers, Anne; Sanders, Caroline

    2007-09-01

    Encouraging self-management has been viewed as one means of reducing health service utilisation and contributing to improved demand management. However, the processes and imputed relationship between self-management education skills and health service contact are poorly understood. This paper reports on data from an embedded qualitative study which ran alongside a randomised controlled trial in England designed to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of a self-care support policy which found no statistically significant reductions in health service utilisation. Drawing on concepts from the sociology of chronic illness, analyses suggest that the biographical and social context relevant to individuals' experience of living with a long-term condition, history of health service utilisation, and relationships with health professionals are relevant to understanding the impact of self-management education and related policies aimed at bringing about changes in service use. Our study suggests that future health policy assumptions about utilisation in the context of chronic disease management and self-care support polices may benefit by acknowledging the complex, contextual and recursive nature of health service utilisation operating in the life worlds of patients' experience of living with a long-term condition.

  12. Development of a Health Education Program to Promote the Self-Management of Cystic Fibrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, L. Kay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Social learning theory formed the basis of a program to develop self-management skills in cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies for practical learning activities for patients and their families included goal setting, reinforcement, modeling, skill training, and self-monitoring. (SK)

  13. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  14. Quality of life and type 1 diabetes: a study assessing patients’ perceptions and self-management needs

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Martel, Dácil; Velasco, Rebeca; Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Carrillo, Armando; Nóvoa, Francisco Javier; Wägner, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL) and treatment satisfaction in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and explore their needs regarding and their perception of QoL living with diabetes. Materials and methods Patients with type 1 diabetes attending the outpatient endocrinology clinics of a reference hospital were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Clinical and sociodemographic data were obtained (interview and clinical records), and diabetes-related QoL was assessed using a standardized questionnaire. In 67 participants, satisfaction with treatment was also assessed, and an open interview was performed, assessing the impact of diabetes, long-term worries, flexibility, restrictions, and self-perception of QoL. Descriptive statistical analysis, bivariate analysis, and multivariate analysis were performed in order to find factors associated with QoL. Interviews were analyzed and summarized questionwise. Results Mean patient age was 31.4±11.6 years, diabetes duration 14.2±9.3 years, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.5%±1.9% (69±20.8 mmol/mol International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]). The questionnaires showed good average QoL scores (94.6+22.9) and treatment satisfaction scores (25.7±6.7). QoL worsened with increasing HbA1c, female sex, severity of complications, and lower education (r2=0.283, P<0.005). In the open interview, 68.5% of the patients reported that diabetes had changed their lives, 83.5% identified complications as their most important long-term concern, and 59.7% said that they needed more training to manage the disease. Conclusion Poor glycemic control, lower education, complications, and female sex are associated with worse QoL. Semi-structured interviews identified aspects not included in the standardized questionnaires. PMID:26396503

  15. Holistic self-management education and support: a proposed public health model for improving women's health in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kanchense, Jane Handina Murigwa

    2006-08-01

    The primary health care model of public health has been implemented in many countries around the globe since the Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978, without pilot testing the primary health care model. Therefore, many public health researchers have sought methods of improving primary health care by creating evidence-based models. Many of these researchers recognize the role of behavioral models in public health. These offshoots of primary health care include the ecological, care, central human capabilities, and the SPECIES models. Holistic self-management education and support is a capacity-building philosophy that ensures active involvement of consumers of health care in the planning and implementation and evaluation of health care services. It helps consumers of health care to achieve the desired improved quality of health and life in managing and sustaining their health at the grassroots level. The care model addresses disease management ideals of the in the original primary health care model. The SPECIES model addresses those aspects of the primary health care model that include the cultural and social factors, as well as individual health education and support in the original primary health care model. The ecological model offers an improvement of the socioeconomic ideal in the original primary health care model. Improving the health of individuals will prevent illness, thereby reducing health care costs and lessening the current strain on an overburdened health care system in Zimbabwe. Holistic self-management education and support links health care delivery systems with social processes. It is a best practices model that could better serve Zimbabwean girls and women by contributing positively to the national challenges in health care, thereby meeting the Zimbabwean primary health care and safe motherhood goals. It is here recommended that holistic self-management education and support must be pilot tested before being adopted as the most appropriate model for

  16. Self-Management in Daily Life with Psoriasis: An Integrative Review of Patient Needs for Structured Education

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this integrative review is to identify and discuss patient needs for education to support self-management in daily life with psoriasis. As psoriasis increasingly gains recognition as a serious chronic autoimmune skin disease with long-term impairment on the life course, and not mainly a cosmetic problem, nurses are highly challenged to develop efficient education to support patient self-management. The paper includes five stages: (1) problem identification, (2) literature search, (3) data evaluation, (4) data analysis and synthesis, and (5) presentation, based on theoretic scaffolding around the concept “need.” Nineteen of 164 original papers within nursing, medicine and psychology, and reflecting patient perspective were included. To capture the patients' cultural understanding of the implications of the disease and care, we developed an interlevel model indicating that self-experienced burden of disease and its visibility, personal conditions such as illness perception, and the patient's age at onset time are high-impact factors that should be addressed in future structured patient education programmes. The research on patient needs has hitherto focused on adults, but the problems and vulnerability associated with having a chronic and visible disease during adolescence must be acknowledged, and patient education initiatives designed for this young group are recommended. PMID:23304484

  17. Recruitment of a rural, southern, predominantly African-American population into a diabetes self-management trial.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Susan J; Halanych, Jewell H; Cherrington, Andrea; Safford, Monika M

    2012-05-01

    We are conducting a community-based cluster-randomized trial in rural Alabama, testing a peer-support intervention designed to improve diabetes self-care behaviors. We describe recruitment and data collection approaches used, focusing on strategies that created community partnerships and facilitated recruitment in underserved, rural, largely minority communities. Key recruitment and data collection strategies included early community engagement; pilot testing of procedures; inclusion of community members as study team members, recruiters, and data collectors; data collection at community venues to minimize participant travel requirements; and provision of a multi-disciplinary diabetes education program to both intervention and control participants. A total of 424 participants were recruited and enrolled (400 targeted). Of the 759 referrals received, 78.9% (n=599) successfully completed telephone screening. Of these, 78.8% (n=472) were eligible and scheduled for a local enrollment day, and 81.4% (n=384) attended and enrolled in the study. In addition, community members who walked in and expressed interest were screened, and 40 eligible and willing individuals were consented and enrolled. We exceeded recruitment goals in underserved, rural communities in Alabama. This success was due in large part to community partnerships that facilitated community involvement on several levels: engaging the community early in study proposal and design; hiring community members to fill various capacities as research team members, recruiters, and data collectors; conducting data collection within communities; and collecting additional contact information to maintain communication. Providing diabetes education to all participants, including intervention and control, helped ensure that everyone stood to benefit and likely enhanced overall participation.

  18. Problems, Needs, and Useful Strategies in Older Adults Self-Managing Epilepsy: Implications for Patient Education and Future Intervention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wendy R.; Bakas, Tamilyn; Buelow, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine, in a sample of older adults diagnosed with epilepsy, perceived self-management problems and needs encountered since diagnosis, as well as strategies used to address problems and needs. Methods Qualitative description was used. 20 older adults engaged in face-to-face interviews. Interviews were analyzed via content analysis. Results Participants reported problems, needs, and strategies in six categories: Information, Physical and Emotional Symptoms, Memory and Concentration, Medications, Commitments, and Relationships. Conclusion Participants noted some problems and needs previously documented in the literature, though current results have built upon extant literature to reveal etiologies of and contexts surrounding problems and needs; new findings were also revealed. This knowledge can be used by health care providers in counseling and educating older adults with epilepsy, and can inform formal self-management interventions. Practice Implications Determining needs from the patient’s perspective is consistent with today’s focus on patient-centered care. Current findings have led to an organizing framework for problems and needs of older adults with epilepsy. More research is needed to develop the framework so that it can serve as a template for an intervention. In the interim, findings can inform educational practices of those caring for this population. PMID:24317297

  19. The Impact of an Internet-Based Self-Management Intervention (HeLP-Diabetes) on the Psychological Well-Being of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Mixed-Method Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Megan; Dack, Charlotte; Barker, Chris; Murray, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study assessed the impact of an internet-based, self-management intervention (“HeLP-Diabetes”) on the psychological well-being of adults with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants were recruited from 3 general practices. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Access to HeLP-Diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in participants' diabetes-related distress (Z = 2.04, p = 0.04, and d = 0.28). No significant differences were found in emotional distress or self-efficacy. The qualitative data found that participants reported improvements including increased self-efficacy and support, better management of low mood, greater diabetes awareness, and taking the condition more seriously. Participants also reported making improvements to their eating habits, exercise routine, and medical management. Some negative experiences associated with using the intervention were mentioned including feelings of guilt for not using the intervention as suggested or not making any behavioral changes, as well as technical and navigational frustrations with the intervention. Internet-based self-management interventions may have the potential to decrease diabetes-related distress in people with type 2 diabetes. The qualitative data also suggests internet interventions can positively impact both psychological and behavioural outcomes of adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26682226

  20. Self-Management education for adults with poorly controlled epILEpsy (SMILE (UK)): a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teaching people with epilepsy to identify and manage seizure triggers, implement strategies to remember to take antiepileptic drugs, implement precautions to minimize risks during seizures, tell others what to do during a seizure and learn what to do during recovery may lead to better self-management. No teaching programme exists for adults with epilepsy in the United Kingdom although a number of surveys have shown patients want more information. Methods/Design This is a multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a two-day Self-Management education for epILEpsy (SMILE (UK)), which was originally developed in Germany (MOSES). Four hundred and twenty eight adult patients who attended specialist epilepsy outpatient clinics at 15 NHS participating sites in the previous 12 months, and who fulfil other eligibility criteria will be randomised to receive the intervention (SMILE (UK) course with treatment as usual- TAU) or to have TAU only (control). The primary outcome is the effect on patient reported quality of life (QoL). Secondary outcomes are seizure frequency and psychological distress (anxiety and depression), perceived impact of epilepsy, adherence to medication, management of adverse effects from medication, and improved self-efficacy in management (mastery/control) of epilepsy. Within the trial there will be a nested qualitative study to explore users’ views of the intervention, including barriers to participation and the perceived benefits of the intervention. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be assessed. Discussion This study will provide quantitative and qualitative evidence of the impact of a structured self management programme on quality of life and other aspects of clinical and cost effectiveness in adults with poorly controlled epilepsy. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN57937389. PMID:24694207

  1. A student-implemented elective to improve medical student confidence in providing diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Maryam T; Fazel, Mohammad; Bedrossian, Nora L; Picazo, Fernando; Pendergrass, Merri L

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to develop a preclerkship elective and assess its effectiveness in supplementing medical students’ education. Methods A group of medical students under the guidance of two faculty advisors developed an elective consisting of six sessions covering a variety of practical aspects of diabetes care/education taught by an interprofessional team. Following the course completion, a survey was emailed to the enrollees who attended at least one session. The results were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and descriptive analyses. Results A total of 14 medical students were enrolled (nine first year and five second year). An average of 4.4 sessions/student was attended. Thirteen students attended at least one session and were surveyed. The survey response rate was ~62% (8/13). All eight students indicated that the course was valuable and would recommend it to their colleagues. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed a statistically significant increase in students’ confidence in all five areas assessed following participation in the course, P<0.05 with a large effect (r>0.5). Conclusion This study suggests the feasibility of developing disease state-specific preclerkship elective courses and that such courses can be beneficial in supplementing medical student education with practical knowledge. PMID:27785118

  2. Lessons from a community-based mHealth diabetes self-management program: "it's not just about the cell phone".

    PubMed

    Katz, Richard; Mesfin, Tsega; Barr, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Cell phone-assisted self-management of diabetes offers a new approach to improving chronic care; however, introducing this new technology presents many challenges to a health care team. The George Washington University-District of Columbia Cell Phone Diabetes Project enrolled 32 patients with Type 2 diabetes from a community clinic using patients' cell phones connected to the Well Doc Diabetes Manager System with monitoring by case managers and monthly reports to primary care providers. Despite monetary incentives (cell phone rebates), dropout rate was high (50%), because of lack of use or inability to afford low-cost cell phone service. Active patients had sustained system use with improved diabetes standard-of-care goals and reduced hospitalizations and emergency department visits. On the basis of this pilot program, the authors assessed the multiple links in the chain (patients, case managers, primary care providers, support staff, medical record systems, disease management software, cell phones) that affect the success of a mHealth chronic care strategy.

  3. Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Lars; Francis, Carolee Dodge

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a prevalent disease in the United States. The emergence of Type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents within the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities brings increased public health and quality of life concerns. In this article, the authors describe an initiative titled "Diabetes Education in Tribal Schools K-12…

  4. Evaluation of a self-management patient education program for patients with chronic heart failure undergoing inpatient cardiac rehabilitation: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure requires a complex treatment regimen on a life-long basis. Therefore, self-care/self-management is an essential part of successful treatment and comprehensive patient education is warranted. However, specific information on program features and educational strategies enhancing treatment success is lacking. This trial aims to evaluate a patient-oriented and theory-based self-management educational group program as compared to usual care education during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. Methods/Design The study is a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in four cardiac rehabilitation clinics. Clusters are patient education groups that comprise HF patients recruited within 2 weeks after commencement of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Cluster randomization was chosen for pragmatic reasons, i.e. to ensure a sufficient number of eligible patients to build large-enough educational groups and to prevent contamination by interaction of patients from different treatment allocations during rehabilitation. Rehabilitants with chronic systolic heart failure (n = 540) will be consecutively recruited for the study at the beginning of inpatient rehabilitation. Data will be assessed at admission, at discharge and after 6 and 12 months using patient questionnaires. In the intervention condition, patients receive the new patient-oriented self-management educational program, whereas in the control condition, patients receive a short lecture-based educational program (usual care). The primary outcome is patients’ self-reported self-management competence. Secondary outcomes include behavioral determinants and self-management health behavior (symptom monitoring, physical activity, medication adherence), health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Treatment effects will be evaluated separately for each follow-up time point using multilevel regression analysis, and adjusting for baseline values. Discussion This

  5. 3D Simulation as a Learning Environment for Acquiring the Skill of Self-Management: An Experience Involving Spanish University Students of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela-Ranilla, Jose María; Esteve-Gonzalez, Vanessa; Esteve-Mon, Francesc; Gisbert-Cervera, Merce

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze how 57 Spanish university students of Education developed a learning process in a virtual world by conducting activities that involved the skill of self-management. The learning experience comprised a serious game designed in a 3D simulation environment. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the…

  6. Even the Best Laid Plans Sometimes Go Askew: Career Self-Management Processes, Career Shocks, and the Decision to Pursue Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Scott E.; Kraimer, Maria L.; Holtom, Brooks C.; Pierotti, Abigail J.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on career self-management frameworks as well as image theory and the unfolding model of turnover, we developed a model predicting early career employees' decisions to pursue graduate education. Using a sample of 337 alumni from 2 universities, we found that early career individuals with intrinsic career goals, who engaged in career…

  7. Effectiveness of a self-management support program for Thais with type 2 diabetes: Evaluation according to the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed

    Jaipakdee, Jamabhorn; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmaharit, Somrat

    2015-09-01

    Delivering diabetes self-management support is an enormous challenge for healthcare providers with limited human resources. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a DSMS program incorporating the computer-assisted instruction. The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was applied to evaluate the DSMS program. Ten Public Health Centers in Bangkok, Thailand were randomized into either DSMS program or usual care. Forty eligible patients with type 2 diabetes in each Public Health Center were randomly selected. Totally, 403 patients (200 controls and 203 interventions) participated. About 93.8% participants completed the six-month follow-up. Over six months, adjusted mean changes of hemoglobin A1c (-0.14%, 95% confidence interval = -0.02 to -0.26, fasting plasma glucose (-6.37 mg/dL, -1.95 to -10.78), health behaviors (3.31 score, 2.27 to 4.34), and quality of life (1.41 score, 0.69 to 2.12) were significantly improved in intervention compared to control group. In conclusion, the DSMS program facilitates Public Health Centers to accomplish their support for people with diabetes.

  8. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  9. An analysis of data management tools for diabetes self-management: can smart phone technology keep up?

    PubMed

    Ciemins, Elizabeth; Coon, Patricia; Sorli, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Rao and colleagues present a comparison of three iPhone diabetes data management applications: the Diamedic Diabetes Logbook, Blood Sugar Diabetes Control, and WaveSense Diabetes Manager. These applications provide patients the ability to enter blood glucose readings manually, view graphs and simple statistics, and email data to health care providers. While these applications show promise, they are limited in their current forms. All require manual data entry and none convert insulin-to-carbohydrate ratios to insulin dose. Future development of these types of technology should consider integration with blood glucose meters and expanded calculation capabilities, as well as monitoring of other risk factors, e.g., blood pressure and lipids, and tracking of preventive examinations, e.g., eye, foot, and renal.

  10. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A.; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E.; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  11. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A.; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E.; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications. PMID:27672634

  12. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zacarias, Alicia A; Mavarez-Martinez, Ana; Arias-Morales, Carlos E; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Rogers, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, sociodemographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications. PMID:27672634

  13. Reconceptualizing the Self-Managing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to the claims of its critics, the introduction of self-managing schools under the ERA and its counterpart in other countries did not lead to the privatization of public education. Self-managing schools have been one manifestation of a general trend to decentralization in public education in many countries since the late 1960s. The…

  14. mobile Digital Access to a Web-enhanced Network (mDAWN): Assessing the Feasibility of Mobile Health Tools for Self-Management of Type-2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kendall; Newton, Lana; Boothe, Allison; Novak-Lauscher, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The mobile Digital Access to a Web-enhanced Network (mDAWN) program was implemented as an online, mobile self-management system to support patients with type-2 diabetes and their informal caregivers. Patients used wireless physiological sensors, received text messages, and had access to a secure web platform with health resources and semi-facilitated discussion forum. Outcomes were evaluated using (1) pre and post self-reported health behavior measures, (2) physiological outcomes, (3) program cost, and (4) in-depth participant interviews. The group had significantly decreased health distress, HbA1c levels, and systolic blood pressure. Participants largely saw the mDAWN as providing good value for the costs involved and found the program to be empowering in gaining control over their diabetes. mHealth programs have the potential to improve clinical outcomes through cost effective patient-led care for chronic illness. Further evaluation needs to examine integration of similar mHealth programs into the patient-physician relationship.

  15. Automated Telephone Self-Management Support for Diabetes in a Low-Income Health Plan: A Health Care Utilization and Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Judy; Lee, Alexandra K; Handley, Margaret A; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Sarkar, Urmimala; Tseng, Samuel; Schillinger, Dean

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to determine whether automated telephone self-management support (ATSM) for low-income, linguistically diverse health plan members with diabetes affects health care utilization or cost. A government-sponsored managed care plan for low-income patients implemented a demonstration project between 2009 and 2011 that involved a 6-month ATSM intervention for 362 English-, Spanish-, or Cantonese-speaking members with diabetes from 4 publicly funded clinics. Participants were randomized to immediate intervention or a wait-list. Medical and pharmacy claims used in this analysis were obtained from the managed care plan. Medical claims included hospitalizations, ambulance use, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits. In the 6-month period following enrollment, intervention participants generated half as many emergency department visits and hospitalizations (rate ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.26, 1.04) compared to wait-listed participants, but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P=0.06). With adjustment for prior year cost, intervention participants also had a nonsignificant reduction of $26.78 in total health care costs compared to wait-listed individuals (P=0.93). The observed trends suggest that ATSM could yield potential health service benefits for health plans that provide coverage for chronic disease patients in safety net settings. ATSM should be further scaled up to determine whether it is associated with a greater reduction in health care utilization and costs. PMID:26102298

  16. Understanding the role of the promotora in a Latino diabetes education program.

    PubMed

    Deitrick, Lynn M; Paxton, Hannah D; Rivera, Alicia; Gertner, Eric J; Biery, Nyann; Letcher, Abby S; Lahoz, Lissette M; Maldonado, Edgardo; Salas-Lopez, Debbie

    2010-03-01

    We explore the role of the promotora de salud (health promoter) who provided diabetes self-management education to Puerto Rican diabetics in her community. The education program was developed as a hospital and community-based organization partnership. Information from both Spanish-language focus groups with 35 class participants and an in-depth interview with the promotora indicated patients appreciated having the classes taught in Spanish by a Latina promotora from their community. Respondents reported satisfaction with the program, increased ability to self-manage diabetes, and strengthened connections with other Latino diabetics. Terms patients used for the promotora included comadre, hijita, and buena profesora. Some of these words denote almost kinship-level connections, suggesting that patients were forming strong connections with the promotora. Specific promotora roles were identified but varied among patients, promotora, and the literature. This hospital and community-based organization partnership promotora model appears to be effective for providing chronic disease self-management education in an urban community setting.

  17. Effects of a self-management asthma educational program in Taiwan based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model for parents with asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Huang, Jing-Long; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Chang-Ming

    2004-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of two different asthma educational programs. One was self-management asthma education based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to change the influential factors based on a previous need assessment study in Taiwan. The other consisted of regular outpatient asthma education. The purposes were: 1) to compare differences in the asthma knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness, children's cooperation, doctor-patient communication, and self-management behaviors in the experimental and control groups before education, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after education; and 2) to compare differences in drug use, medication utilization, asthma severity, signs/symptoms of asthma, school absenteeism, and exercise ability before education, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after education. Parents of asthmatic children were recruited from among outpatients of Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. They were grouped by registration number: those with even numbers were assigned to the experimental group, and those with odd numbers were assigned to the control group. Measurements were collected four times from all parents by means of a questionnaire and chart review. The General Linear Model: Repeat Measurement was used to compare variance differences. The following results were found. 1) Asthma knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness, children's cooperation, and self-management behaviors significantly improved after the self-management asthma educational program based on PRECEDE-PROCEED. Except for perceived effectiveness, all variables still had good effectiveness after 6 months of follow-up. The experimental group was better than the control group in knowledge, children's cooperation, and self-management behaviors at the 3-month follow up, as well as in knowledge and children's cooperation at the 6-month follow-up. 2) In both the experimental and control groups, the educational program

  18. Evaluation of a Behavioral Mobile Phone App Intervention for the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gary; Yu, Catherine; Rotondi, Michael; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) struggle with the management of their condition due to difficulty relating lifestyle behaviors with glycemic control. While self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has proven to be effective for those treated with insulin, it has been shown to be less beneficial for those only treated with oral medications or lifestyle modification. We hypothesized that the effective self-management of non-insulin treated T2DM requires a behavioral intervention that empowers patients with the ability to self-monitor, understand the impact of lifestyle behaviors on glycemic control, and adjust their self-care based on contextualized SMBG data. Objective The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the impact of bant2, an evidence-based, patient-centered, behavioral mobile app intervention, on the self-management of T2DM. Our second postulation is that automated feedback delivered through the mobile app will be as effective, less resource intensive, and more scalable than interventions involving additional health care provider feedback. Methods This study is a 12-month, prospective, multicenter RCT in which 150 participants will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: the control group will receive current standard of care, and the intervention group will receive the mobile phone app system in addition to standard of care. The primary outcome measure is change in glycated hemoglobin A1c from baseline to 12 months. Results The first patient was enrolled on July 28, 2015, and we anticipate completing this study by September, 2018. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to evaluate an evidence-based mobile app that focuses on facilitating lifestyle behavior change driven by contextualized and structured SMBG. The results of this trial will provide insights regarding the usage of mobile tools and consumer-grade devices for diabetes self-care, the economic model of using incentives to motivate

  19. Design of the Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study: a randomized controlled trial of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African American patients from safety net health centers.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth B; Liebman, Rebecca; Ventrelle, Jennifer; Keim, Kathryn; Appelhans, Bradley M; Avery, Elizabeth F; Tahsin, Bettina; Li, Hong; Shapera, Merle; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2014-11-01

    The Lifestyle Improvement through Food and Exercise (LIFE) study is a community-based randomized-controlled trial to measure the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention to improve glycemic control among African Americans with type 2 diabetes attending safety net clinics. The study enrolled African American adults with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 7.0 who had attended specific safety net community clinics in the prior year. 210 patients will be enrolled and randomized to either the LIFE intervention or a standard of care control group, which consists of two dietitian-led diabetes self-management classes. The LIFE intervention was delivered in 28 group sessions over 12 months and focused on improving diet through dietitian-led culturally-tailored nutrition education, increasing physical activity through self-monitoring using an accelerometer, increasing ability to manage blood sugar through modifications to lifestyle, and providing social support for behavior change. In addition to the group sessions, peer supporters made regular telephone calls to participants to monitor progress toward behavioral goals and provide social support. The 12-month intervention phase was followed by a six-month maintenance phase consisting of two group sessions. The primary outcome of the study is change in A1C from baseline to 12 months, and an additional follow-up will occur at 18 months. The hypothesis of the study is that the participants in the LIFE intervention will show a greater improvement in glycemic control over 12 months than participants in the control group.

  20. Social media for diabetes health education - inclusive or exclusive?

    PubMed

    Pal, B Rani

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations are rising rapidly and are inevitably becoming part of the health care environment. Patients frequently access Social media as a forum for discussion of personal health issues; and healthcare providers are now considering ways of harnessing social media as a source of learning and teaching. This review highlights some of the complex issues of using social media as an opportunity for interaction between public- patient-healthcare staff; considers the impact of self- education and self-management for patients with diabetes, and explores some recent advances in delivering education for staff. When using any information technology, the emphasis should rely on being assessed rigorously to show it promotes health education safely, can be recognized as delivering up-to- date health information effectively, and should ensure there is no bias in selective communication, or disadvantage to isolated patient groups. PMID:25316149

  1. Does a self-management education program have the same impact on emotional and functional dimensions of HRQoL?

    PubMed

    Moullec, Grégory; Favreau, Hélène; Lavoie, Kim L; Labrecque, Manon

    2012-02-01

    Most previous research evaluating the effect of interventions on HRQoL in COPD patients has focused on measuring HRQoL using aggregated questionnaire scores, increasing the risk of false-negative results. There is also evidence to suggest that self-evaluations of functional status are less likely to be modified over time relative to self-evaluation of emotional status. This study was a secondary analysis of a prospective study that compared the efficacy of a self-management education program (SM) on emotional and functional dimensions of HRQoL. One hundred and ten patients were recruited from the Sacré-Coeur Hospital of Montreal (Canada). Patients were included in either the SM group (n = 60) or the usual-care group (UC, n = 50). The SM group underwent a 4-week intervention based on content featured in "Living Well with COPD" program. Patients were assessed pre and 12-months post-intervention; the primary outcome was net change in the emotional and functional subscales scores of the St-George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Short-Form health survey questionnaire (SF-36). Only the emotional dimension scores of both the SGRQ (impact) and the SF-36 (mental component summary) were statistically and clinically improved in the SM group compared to UC. Also, the 12-month adjusted between-group difference in the SGRQ-impact scores was 3-fold higher than the minimum clinically important difference in SM vs. UC patients. HRQoL needs to be regarded as a combination of distinct self-evaluations with unique dynamics over time. This distinction should be taken into account in program development and evaluation, to choose intervention components likely to impact on both types of self-evaluations related to HRQoL.

  2. Knowledge of symptoms and self-management of hypoglycaemia amongst patients attending a diabetic clinic at a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    John Ross, Andrew; Naidoo, Keshena

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients on insulin and sulphonylureas are at risk of developing hypoglycaemia. Many patients do not respond appropriately because of poor knowledge and understanding of the symptoms of hypoglycaemia, which if not promptly treated can lead to permanent neurological and renal damage. Hypoglycaemic complications can be avoided if patients have a good knowledge of the early symptoms of hypoglycaemia and know how to respond appropriately. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of adult diabetic patients attending a diabetic clinic about symptoms of hypoglycaemia and how they responded to these symptoms. Setting A hospital-based diabetic clinic in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 200 diabetic patients. Demographic data and details of current medication, knowledge of hypoglycaemia and how patients responded to the symptoms were collected using a validated questionnaire. Results The majority of the patients had fair to good knowledge of hypoglycaemia; however, less than 25% knew what action to take when they experienced symptoms suggestive of hypoglycaemia. Conclusion There is a need to improve the education given to diabetic patients on stepwise measures to take to avoid life-threatening complications associated with hypoglycaemia. PMID:27380786

  3. Low-Intensity Self-Management Intervention for Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Using a Mobile Phone-Based Diabetes Diary, With and Without Health Counseling and Motivational Interviewing: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Wahl, Astrid Klopstad; Grøttland, Astrid; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Elind, Elisabeth; Bergmo, Trine Strand; Breivik, Elin; Årsand, Eirik

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study protocol is designed to cover the Norwegian part of the European Union Collaborative Project—REgioNs of Europe WorkINg together for HEALTH (RENEWING HEALTH). Self-management support is an important element of care for persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) for achieving metabolic control and positive lifestyle changes. Telemedicine (TM) with or without health counseling may become an important technological aid for self-management and may provide a user-centered model of care. In spite of many earlier studies on TM, there remains a lack of consensus in research findings about the effect of TM interventions. Objective The aim of RENEWING HEALTH is to validate and evaluate innovative TM tools on a large scale through a common evaluation, making it easier for decision makers to choose the most efficient and cost-effective technological interventions. The Norwegian pilot study evaluates whether the introduction of a mobile phone with a diabetes diary application together with health counseling intervention produces benefits in terms of the desired outcomes, as reflected in the hemoglobin A1c level, health-related quality of life, behavior change, and cost-effectiveness. Methods The present study has a mixed-method design comprising a three-armed prospective randomized controlled trial and qualitative interviews with study data collected at three time points: baseline, after 4 months, and after 1 year. The patients’ registrations on the application are recorded continuously and are sent securely to a server. Results The inclusion of patients started in March 2011, and 100% of the planned sample size is included (N=151). Of all the participants, 26/151 patients (17.2%) are lost to follow-up by now, and 11/151 patients (7.3%) are still in the trial. Results of the study protocol will be presented in 2014. Conclusions The key goals of this trial are to investigate the effect of an electronic diabetes diary app with and without health counseling

  4. Effects of a pain self-management intervention combining written and video elements on health-related quality of life among people with different levels of education.

    PubMed

    Stalker, Carol; Elander, James

    2015-01-01

    Combining written and video material could increase the impact of health education for people with less education, but more evidence is needed about the impact of combined materials in different formats, especially in the context of chronic pain self-management. This study tested the impact of combining written information about self-managing chronic joint pain, which used language at a high reading level, with a DVD containing narrative video material presented directly by patients, using language at a lower reading level. Physical and mental health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) was measured among 107 men with hemophilia before and 6 months after being randomly assigned to receive an information booklet alone or the booklet plus the DVD. Analysis of covariance was used to compare health outcomes between randomized groups at follow-up, using the baseline measures as covariates, with stratified analyses for groups with different levels of education. The DVD significantly improved mental health-related quality of life among those with only high school education. Video material could therefore supplement written information to increase its impact on groups with less education, and combined interventions of this type could help to achieve health benefits for disadvantaged groups who are most in need of intervention. PMID:26316809

  5. Effects of a pain self-management intervention combining written and video elements on health-related quality of life among people with different levels of education

    PubMed Central

    Stalker, Carol; Elander, James

    2015-01-01

    Combining written and video material could increase the impact of health education for people with less education, but more evidence is needed about the impact of combined materials in different formats, especially in the context of chronic pain self-management. This study tested the impact of combining written information about self-managing chronic joint pain, which used language at a high reading level, with a DVD containing narrative video material presented directly by patients, using language at a lower reading level. Physical and mental health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey) was measured among 107 men with hemophilia before and 6 months after being randomly assigned to receive an information booklet alone or the booklet plus the DVD. Analysis of covariance was used to compare health outcomes between randomized groups at follow-up, using the baseline measures as covariates, with stratified analyses for groups with different levels of education. The DVD significantly improved mental health-related quality of life among those with only high school education. Video material could therefore supplement written information to increase its impact on groups with less education, and combined interventions of this type could help to achieve health benefits for disadvantaged groups who are most in need of intervention. PMID:26316809

  6. Using an electronic self-management tool to support patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): a CKD clinic self-care model.

    PubMed

    Ong, Stephanie W; Jassal, Sarbjit V; Porter, Eveline; Logan, Alexander G; Miller, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    New healthcare delivery models are needed to enhance the patient experience and improve quality of care for individuals with chronic conditions such as kidney disease. One potential avenue is to implement self-management strategies. There is growing evidence that self-management interventions help optimize various aspects of chronic disease management. With the increasing use of information technology (IT) in health care, chronic disease management programs are incorporating IT solutions to support patient self-management practices. IT solutions have the ability to promote key principles of self-management, namely education, empowerment, and collaboration. Positive clinical outcomes have been demonstrated for a number of chronic conditions when IT solutions were incorporated into self-management programs. There is a paucity of evidence for self-management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Furthermore, IT strategies have not been tested in this patient population to the same extent as other chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension). Therefore, it is currently unknown if IT strategies will promote self-management behaviors and lead to improvements in overall patient care. We designed and developed an IT solution called My KidneyCare Centre to support self-management strategies for patients with CKD. In this review, we discuss the rationale and vision of incorporating an electronic self-management tool to support the care of patients with CKD.

  7. Gender Differences in Diabetes Self-Management: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of a Mobile Health Intervention for Inner-City Latino Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burner, Elizabeth; Menchine, Michael; Taylor, Elena; Arora, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefit of mobile health (mHealth) on diabetes management among low-income, inner-city patients is largely unknown, particularly for Latino patients. TExT-MED (Trial to Examine Text Message for Emergency Department Patients with Diabetes) is a text message-based program designed to improve disease knowledge, self-efficacy, and glycemic control among low-income, inner-city Latinos. In phase I, 23 patients participated in an acceptability and feasibility study. Contrary to our model, there was no increase in knowledge despite increases in self-efficacy and healthy behaviors. In phase II, we performed a mixed-methods analysis to understand how TExT-MED achieved these seemingly contradictory findings. Methods We performed a qualitative analysis of focus groups with patients from phase I. We explored patients’ receipt of health information from TExT-MED and other information sources. We used these qualitative findings to perform a mixed-methods analysis of the outcomes from phase I, reanalyzing the quantitative measures of self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, and healthy behaviors. Results We conducted two focus groups, one in English and one in Spanish. Through qualitative analysis, we found gender differences in information sources, dietary self-efficacy, and desired educational content. Applying this knowledge, we re-stratified phase I outcomes by gender and found differential changes in diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and behaviors. Men had increased self-efficacy while women showed increased knowledge. Conclusions The efficacy of mHealth on diabetes management was affected by gender. Specifically, men and women differ in their dietary self-efficacy, information sources, and desired topics in future mHealth interventions. To achieve maximal impact, future mHealth interventions should be mindful of this gender difference. PMID:23439166

  8. An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dritsaki, Melina; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Mitchell, Katy; Singh, Sally; Rees, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The aim was to undertake a cost-utility analysis of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education (SPACE) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The analysis was conducted alongside a six-month randomized controlled trial in 30 primary care settings. The economic analysis used data from 184 patients with confirmed diagnosis of COPD, forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 and with grade 2-5 on the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale. Participants received either a self-management programme consisting of an education manual (SPACE for COPD) and consultation or usual care. Six-month costs were estimated from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on patient responses at baseline and six months.The mean difference in costs between usual care and SPACE FOR COPD programme was -£27.18 (95% confidence interval (CI); -£122.59 to £68.25) while mean difference in QALYs was -0.10 (95% CI; -0.17 to -0.02). The results suggest that the intervention is more costly and more effective than usual care. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 97% at a threshold of £20,000/QALY gained. We conclude that the SPACE FOR COPD programme is cost-effective compared to usual care.

  9. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  10. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jo; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  11. Recruitment of Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes into a Clinical Research Trial of Enhancing Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lorrie C; Ribeiro, Malia; Vasquez-Brooks, Mirella; Estrella, Dominic; Wang, Chen-Yen; Arakaki, Richard; Inouye, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate strategies and barriers to recruiting Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) with type 2 diabetes, into clinical trials. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were utilized to analyze reasons for non-participation. A "talk story" interview method was employed to recruit participants and uncover reasons for non-participation. A total of 1891 potential participants were identified and 340 declined participation. Eighty who declined were randomly selected to provide their reasons for non-participation. Socioeconomic issues faced by this population, such as earning wages to meet basic needs and care giving took precedence over altruistic participation in research.

  12. Recruitment of Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes into a Clinical Research Trial of Enhancing Diabetes Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lorrie C; Ribeiro, Malia; Vasquez-Brooks, Mirella; Estrella, Dominic; Wang, Chen-Yen; Arakaki, Richard; Inouye, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate strategies and barriers to recruiting Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) with type 2 diabetes, into clinical trials. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were utilized to analyze reasons for non-participation. A "talk story" interview method was employed to recruit participants and uncover reasons for non-participation. A total of 1891 potential participants were identified and 340 declined participation. Eighty who declined were randomly selected to provide their reasons for non-participation. Socioeconomic issues faced by this population, such as earning wages to meet basic needs and care giving took precedence over altruistic participation in research. PMID:26817172

  13. Improvement in medication adherence and self-management of diabetes with a clinical pharmacy program: a randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cani, Catarina Gomes; da Silva Girão Lopes, Laura; Queiroz, Márcia; Nery, Márcia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacy program on health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy at a teaching hospital in Brazil. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with a 6-month follow-up period was performed in 70 adults, aged 45 years or older, with type 2 diabetes who were taking insulin and who had an HbA1c level ≥8%. Patients in the control group (CG) (n = 36) received standard care, patients in the intervention group (IG) (n = 34) received an individualized pharmacotherapeutic care plan and diabetes education. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included diabetes and medication knowledge, adherence to medication, insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques and diabetes-related quality of life. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 6 months using questionnaires. RESULTS: Diabetes knowledge, medication knowledge, adherence to medication and correct insulin injection and home blood glucose monitoring techniques significantly improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c values in the control group remained unchanged but were significantly reduced in the intervention group. Diabetes-related quality of life significantly improved in the intervention group but worsened significantly in the control group. CONCLUSION: The program improved health outcomes and resulted in better glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing insulin therapy. PMID:25789518

  14. Assessing the effect of culturally specific audiovisual educational interventions on attaining self-management skills for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Poureslami, Iraj; Kwan, Susan; Lam, Stephen; Khan, Nadia A; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient education is a key component in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Delivering effective education to ethnic groups with COPD is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of culturally and linguistically specific audiovisual educational materials in supporting self-management practices in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking patients. Methods Educational materials were developed using participatory approach (patients involved in the development and pilot test of educational materials), followed by a randomized controlled trial that assigned 91 patients to three intervention groups with audiovisual educational interventions and one control group (pamphlet). The patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. The primary outcomes were improved inhaler technique and perceived self-efficacy to manage COPD. The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures. Results Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique (P<0.001), preparedness to manage a COPD exacerbation (P<0.01), ability to achieve goals in managing COPD (P<0.01), and understanding pulmonary rehabilitation procedures (P<0.05). Conclusion Culturally appropriate educational interventions designed specifically to meet the needs of Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients are associated with significantly better understanding of self-management practices. Self-management education led to improved proper use of medications, ability to manage COPD exacerbations, and ability to achieve goals in managing COPD. Clinical implication A relatively simple culturally appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and self-management practices. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of self-management education on behavioral change and patient empowerment

  15. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the educational implications of diabetes in children through discussion of the nature of diabetes, factors associated with educational performance, and the teacher's role in meeting the child's needs. It argues that teachers should treat these students as normal learners, without ignoring their unique needs or…

  16. Diabetes Champions: Culture Change Through Education

    PubMed Central

    Jornsay, Donna L.; Garnett, E. Dessa

    2014-01-01

    In Brief This article describes a diabetes champion program in its fifth year of operation. This educational intervention was designed to increase direct diabetes patient education and has grown into a vehicle for improving quality of care and patient safety and reducing gaps in the transitions of care. PMID:26246778

  17. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Diabetic Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... care authorized to provide services to CHAMPUS beneficiaries. Public Comments A proposed rule (74 FR... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB32 TRICARE; Diabetic Education AGENCY: Office of the... final rule to clarify TRICARE coverage for diabetic education. This rule introduces new definitions...

  18. Effectiveness of Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan: preliminary report of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Keiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Togari, Taisuke; Abbott, Fusae K; Homma, Mieko; Park, Minjeong; Kagawa, Yumi

    2010-12-01

    This is the preliminary report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan by comparing changes in health outcomes at the baseline and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The program is a patient-centered educational program for the self-management of chronic conditions. The study's participants were recruited from among the attendees of the program workshops. During the study period (August 2006 to May 2007), 18 workshops were held and 128 attendees agreed to participate in the study. The health outcomes that were measured included health status, self-management behaviors, utilization of health services, self-efficacy, satisfaction with daily living, and clinical indicators. These indicators were further analyzed by disease type: diabetes, rheumatic disease, and cardiovascular disease/dyslipidemia. The findings indicated statistically significant positive changes in health distress, coping with symptoms, stretching exercises, communication with the physician, and satisfaction with daily living. The positive changes were especially remarkable among the groups with diabetes and rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that the Chronic Disease Self-management Program can be effective for Japanese people with chronic conditions.

  19. Self-management support and training for patients with chronic and complex conditions improves health-related behaviour and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter W; Petkov, John N; Misan, Gary; Fuller, Jeffrey; Battersby, Malcolm W; Cayetano, Teofilo N; Warren, Kate; Holmes, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The Sharing Health Care SA chronic disease self-management (CDSM) project in rural South Australia was designed to assist patients with chronic and complex conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and arthritis) to learn how to participate more effectively in the management of their condition and to improve their self-management skills. Participants with chronic and complex conditions were recruited into the Sharing Health Care SA program and offered a range of education and support options (including a 6-week peer-led chronic disease self-management program) as part of the Enhanced Primary Care care planning process. Patient self-reported data were collected at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals using the Partners in Health (PIH) scale to assess self-management skill and ability for 175 patients across four data collection points. Health providers also scored patient knowledge and self-management skills using the same scale over the same intervals. Patients also completed a modified Stanford 2000 Health Survey for the same time intervals to assess service utilisation and health-related lifestyle factors. Results show that both mean patient self-reported PIH scores and mean health provider PIH scores for patients improved significantly over time, indicating that patients demonstrated improved understanding of their condition and improved their ability to manage and deal with their symptoms. These results suggest that involvement in peer-led self-management education programs has a positive effect on patient self-management skill, confidence and health-related behaviour. PMID:18447824

  20. Education and psychological issues Diabetes nutrition therapy and dietary intake among individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, L. M.; Liu, W.; Ji, L.; Mendez, M.; Du, S.; Crandell, J.; Rosamond, W.; Mayer-Davis, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe the contribution of diabetes nutrition therapy to disease self-management among individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus in China and to estimate the association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake. Methods The 3C Study was an epidemiological study of the coverage, cost and care of Type 1 diabetes in China. The data reported in the present study are from the 3C Nutrition Ancillary Study, a follow-up study conducted 1.6±0.2 years later. Diabetes nutrition therapy was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-h recalls. The association of diabetes nutrition therapy with dietary intake was estimated using ANCOVA. Results Participants (n=100; 54% male) had a mean ± SD age of 41.7±16.3 years old and a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 11.8±9.7 years. Fewer than half of the participants reported that they had ‘ever’ met with a dietician. While 64% of participants were taught carbohydrate counting, only 12% ‘ever’ use this tool. Participants on insulin pumps and those testing ≥1 time/day reported greater dietary flexibility and higher fruit intakes compared with participants on other insulin regimens and testing less frequently. After adjustment for confounding by age and occupation, there were no consistent differences in dietary intake across subgroups of diabetes nutrition therapy. Conclusions In this sample of individuals with Type 1 diabetes in China there is little dietician involvement or carbohydrate counting. Increased frequency of nutrition education in conjunction with intensified self-monitoring of blood glucose is needed to improve care. PMID:25407093

  1. Development of a diabetes education program based on modified AADE diabetes education curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yue-Ping; Wu, Liao-Fang; Su, Zhen-Fang; Zhou, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a diabetes education program tailored to patients with type 2 diabetes in communities and the preliminary outcomes of the intervention. Methods: Two-phase, one group, mixed-method study design was used. Modified American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) diabetes education curriculum was used as the framework for the program. Patients with diabetes participated in classes and diabetes conversation map discussion. Feasibility and acceptability of the program were evaluated by the ability to recruit and retain participants and their satisfaction with the program. Diabetes knowledge test and the summary of diabetes self-care activities (SDSCA) were used to evaluate the knowledge and behavior changes of the patients. Results: 40 patients completed the program and the attrition rate was 11.1%. All participants were “very satisfied” with the program. Significant improvement in diabetes knowledge and blood glucose monitoring and foot care were reported. Conclusion: The diabetes education program based on modified AADE diabetes education curriculum combined with diabetes conversation map may be effective in patients with type 2 diabetes. Practice Implications: Flexible time schedule and a control group should be designed in the future study. PMID:24753774

  2. Educating supervisors of employees with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia G; Jacobson, Sharol

    2008-06-01

    The worksite presents special challenges not only for employees with diabetes, but also for their supervisors. Supervisors wonder whether certain behaviors are willful misconduct or indicative of health problems, as well as if and how to accommodate employees with diabetes to meet the needs of the employees and the company, within the law. The purpose of this research was to pilot test an innovative educational program for supervisors of employees with diabetes to benefit employees' health and diabetes control while meeting the legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Nine supervisors completed a 6-hour program that included innovative teaching strategies--"living the life" of a person with diabetes for 2 days and case studies to practice decision making according to the ADA. The program increased supervisors' reported self-efficacy for supervising employees with diabetes and should improve work life for employees with diabetes, ultimately decreasing employers' health care costs. PMID:18604922

  3. [Medical nutritional therapy and therapeutic patient education in diabetes].

    PubMed

    Jansà, Margarida; Murillo, Serafin; Vidal, Mercè

    2011-05-01

    This article includes an introduction to the current approach to dietary treatment of diabetes. Are provided the nutritional recommendations to primary secondary and tertiary prevention of diabetes, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) adapted to different types of diabetes, treatments and special situations. Secondly, it introduces the concept of Therapeutic Education, especially education and nutritional diet for persons with diabetes and their families, the educational objectives in food according to type of diabetes type 1 or type 2 in different treatment modalities and educational strategies recommended by the Diabetes Education Study Group (wear) of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) to facilitate better adherence to dietary treatment.

  4. Community Readiness for Self-Managed School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Self-managing schools involving local community members, teachers and parents with the formation of School Management Committee is gaining ground in Nepal after the world conference on education for all (WCEFA) held in Jomtien, Thailand in the year 1990. Transferring the management of public schools in the hand of willing community…

  5. Living with sugar: influence of cultural beliefs on type 2 diabetes self-management of English-speaking Afro-Caribbean women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chrystal A S

    2012-08-01

    Studies show that cultural beliefs influence disease conceptualization, adaption, and coping strategies of chronic diseases. This study investigated the type 2 diabetes cultural belief model of English-speaking Afro-Caribbean women in southwest Florida. A 53 item cultural consensus beliefs questionnaire was designed and administered to 30 Afro-Caribbean women diabetics. Cultural consensus analysis found that these women shared a single cultural belief model about type 2 diabetes, .72 ± .081 SD. Women with higher cultural knowledge scores (r(s) = -.41730, P = .0218) were significantly younger at type 2 diabetes diagnosis than women with lower scores. In qualitative interviews, women described ongoing struggles to modify their traditional Caribbean diet and believed in the efficaciousness of traditional Caribbean medicine and prayer to treat type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest that health practitioners treating English-speaking Afro-Caribbean diabetics should offer culturally appropriate nutritional guidance and inquire about their use of traditional Caribbean medicines.

  6. Universal principles for culturally sensitive diabetic education.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Most nurses will not go to another county and provide healthcare education, but will care for patients from other countries and faiths who practice traditions that impact how they manage their illness. This author shares his experience in Mauritania, which provides an excellent example for understanding issues in cross-cultural diabetic education. Universal principles for cross-cultural health education are offered.

  7. Implementation of an epilepsy self-management protocol.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kimberly A; Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2015-02-01

    It is essential that patients with epilepsy receive educational information about their disease and its management, but there is dissatisfaction with the education received. The purposes of this evidence-based project were to examine the current knowledge level and disease management behaviors of patients with epilepsy in an outpatient clinic and to measure the effectiveness of implementing a self-management protocol using the Epilepsy Self-Management Scale (ESMS). Pender's health promotion model and Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory were used to guide the development and completion of this project. An evidence-based epilepsy self-management protocol was developed and implemented at an outpatient neurology clinic by an interprofessional clinic team that consisted of (a) evaluation of self-management behaviors (ESMS), (b) individual education using the ESMS and developed resources, (c) follow-up telephone call, and (d) measurement of outcomes of the self-management protocol (patient self-management [ESMS] and process). Twenty patients participated in all or portions of the protocol. Scores on the ESMS increased from preimplementation to postimplementation of the protocol (t = -2.67). Seizure management and information management were identified as the most difficult self-management areas. Recommended changes in protocol implementation include adding information about safety measures such as medical alert bracelets and driving to the educational packets. Follow-up telephone calls were discontinued because of difficulties reaching patients. The results of this study suggest that the ESMS is an acceptable tool for evaluating patients' self-management behaviors. Epilepsy self-management protocols need to include both verbal and written educational materials. Educating patients with epilepsy about positive self-management behaviors may lead to better health outcomes.

  8. Patient Education Self-Management During Surgical Recovery: Combining Mobile (iPad) and a Content Management System

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Anilga; Douglas, Kristin S. Vickers; Prinsen, Sharon K.; Fischer, Erin N.; Schroeder, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this investigation was to assess whether a new electronic health (e-health) platform, combining mobile computing and a content management system, could effectively deliver modular and “just-in-time” education to older patients following cardiac surgery. Subjects and Methods: Patients were provided with iPad® (Apple®, Cupertino, CA) tablets that delivered educational modules as part of a daily “to do” list in a plan of care. The tablet communicated wirelessly to a dashboard where data were aggregated and displayed for providers. Results: A surgical population of 149 patients with a mean age of 68 years utilized 5,267 of 6,295 (84%) of education modules delivered over a 5.3-day hospitalization. Increased age was not associated with decreased use. Conclusions: We demonstrate that age, hospitalization, and major surgery are not significant barriers to effective patient education if content is highly consumable and relevant to patients' daily care experience. We also show that mobile technology, even if unfamiliar to many older patients, makes this possible. The combination of mobile computing with a content management system allows for dynamic, modular, personalized, and “just-in-time” education in a highly consumable format. This approach presents a means by which patients may become informed participants in new healthcare models. PMID:24443928

  9. [An educational tool for diabetic children].

    PubMed

    Mochon, Stéphanie; Monnot, Alexandra; Fayet, Corinne

    2011-04-01

    The 2010 Abbott Diabetes Care--Société Francophone du Diabète (SFD) Paramédical prize was awarded to the nursing team of the paediatric unit of the William Morey hospital in Chalon-sur-Saône (71) for the creation of a new educational tool. The interactive game aims to encourage children with type 1 diabetes to do sport by providing them with the education and knowledge they need to manage their diabetes before, during and after the physical activity.

  10. Diabetic Mario: Designing and Evaluating Mobile Games for Diabetes Education.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Nilufar; Nandigam, David; Casey, John; Direito, Artur; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, diabetes education has relied on written materials, with limited resources available for children with diabetes. Mobile games can be effective and motivating tools for the promotion of children's health. In our earlier work, we proposed a novel approach for designing computer games aimed at educating children with diabetes. In this article, we apply our game design to a mobile Android game (Mario Brothers). We also introduce four heuristics that are specifically designed for evaluating the mobile game, by adapting traditional usability heuristics. Results of a pilot study (n = 12) to evaluate gameplay over 1-week showed that the children found the game engaging and improved their knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle.

  11. Diabetic Mario: Designing and Evaluating Mobile Games for Diabetes Education.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Nilufar; Nandigam, David; Casey, John; Direito, Artur; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, diabetes education has relied on written materials, with limited resources available for children with diabetes. Mobile games can be effective and motivating tools for the promotion of children's health. In our earlier work, we proposed a novel approach for designing computer games aimed at educating children with diabetes. In this article, we apply our game design to a mobile Android game (Mario Brothers). We also introduce four heuristics that are specifically designed for evaluating the mobile game, by adapting traditional usability heuristics. Results of a pilot study (n = 12) to evaluate gameplay over 1-week showed that the children found the game engaging and improved their knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle. PMID:27304882

  12. Anger Self-Management in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: Protocol for a Psycho-educational Treatment With a Structurally Equivalent Control and an Evaluation of Treatment Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Tessa; Brockway, Jo Ann; Fann, Jesse R.; Maiuro, Roland D.; Vaccaro, Monica J.

    2014-01-01

    Anger and irritability are important and persistent clinical problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment options include medications, behavioral modification, and psychotherapies, but some are impractical and none have proven efficacy with this population. We describe a randomized multi-center clinical trial testing a novel, one-on-one, 8-session psychoeducational treatment program, Anger Self-Management Training (ASMT), designed specifically for people with TBI who have significant cognitive impairment. The trial is notable for its use of a structurally equivalent comparison treatment, called Personal Readjustment and Education (PRE), which was created for the study and is intended to maximize equipoise for both participants and treaters. Fidelity assessment is conducted in real time and used in therapist supervision sessions. The primary outcome is change in self-reported anger on validated measures from pre-treatment to 1 week after the final session. Secondary outcomes include participant anger as reported by a significant other; emotional distress in domains other than anger/ irritability; behavioral functioning; and quality of life. An interim assessment after the 4th session will allow examination of the trajectory of any observed treatment effects, and a follow-up assessment 2 months after the end of intervention will allow examination of persistence of effects. A treatment enactment phase, in which participants are interviewed several months after the last therapy session, is designed to provide qualitative data on whether and to what extent the principles and techniques learned in treatment are still carried out in daily life. PMID:25530306

  13. Anger self-management in chronic traumatic brain injury: protocol for a psycho-educational treatment with a structurally equivalent control and an evaluation of treatment enactment.

    PubMed

    Hart, Tessa; Brockway, Jo Ann; Fann, Jesse R; Maiuro, Roland D; Vaccaro, Monica J

    2015-01-01

    Anger and irritability are important and persistent clinical problems following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment options include medications, behavioral modification, and psychotherapies, but some are impractical and none have proven efficacy with this population. We describe a randomized multi-center clinical trial testing a novel, one-on-one, 8-session psychoeducational treatment program, Anger Self-Management Training (ASMT), designed specifically for people with TBI who have significant cognitive impairment. The trial is notable for its use of a structurally equivalent comparison treatment, called Personal Readjustment and Education (PRE), which was created for the study and is intended to maximize equipoise for both participants and treaters. Fidelity assessment is conducted in real time and used in therapist supervision sessions. The primary outcome is change in self-reported anger on validated measures from pre-treatment to 1 week after the final session. Secondary outcomes include participant anger as reported by a significant other; emotional distress in domains other than anger/irritability; behavioral functioning; and quality of life. An interim assessment after the 4th session will allow examination of the trajectory of any observed treatment effects, and a follow-up assessment 2 months after the end of intervention will allow examination of persistence of effects. A treatment enactment phase, in which participants are interviewed several months after the last therapy session, is designed to provide qualitative data on whether and to what extent the principles and techniques learned in treatment are still carried out in daily life.

  14. Recent Trends in Diabetes Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors: Implications for National Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccinino, Linda; Griffey, Susan; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Examine trends in diabetes-related knowledge, perceptions, and behavior among U.S. adults with and without a diagnosis of diabetes and among subpopulations at risk. Discuss implications for national diabetes education and for the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) in particular. Methods: Three population-based NDEP National…

  15. Community Health: FCS Extension Educators Deliver Diabetes Education in PA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    For decades, family and consumer sciences (FCS) Extension educators have provided health related education to consumers through Cooperative Extension programming at land grant universities. However, offering diabetes education can be extra challenging due to the complicated nature of the disease and the multi-faceted treatment required. Faced with…

  16. Recommendations for age-appropriate education of children and adolescents with diabetes and their parents in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Martin, Delphine; Lange, Karin; Sima, Alexandra; Kownatka, Dagmar; Skovlund, Søren; Danne, Thomas; Robert, Jean-Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of education and offer general and organizational principles of education, detailed curricula at different ages and stages of diabetes, and recommendations on models, methods, and tools to attain educative objectives. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines give the most elaborate and detailed descriptions and recommendations on the practice of education, which other national guidelines address on specific aspects of education and care. The aim of the work package on education developed by Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in the European Union: Working to Create Centers of Reference (SWEET) project was not to generate new guidelines but to evaluate how the existing guidelines were implemented in some pediatric diabetes reference centers. The SWEET members have completed a questionnaire that elaborates on the many aspects of delivery of education. This survey highlights a profound diversity of practices across centers in Europe, in terms of organization as well as the practices and the content of initial and continuing education. A toolbox is being developed within SWEET to facilitate exchanges on all aspects of education and to establish a process of validation of materials, tools, written structured age-adjusted programs, and evaluation procedures for the education of children and adolescents with diabetes.

  17. The role of patient education in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Adriana; Sasso, Loredana; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Giustina, Andrea; Gazzaruso, Carmine

    2016-07-01

    The management of type 2 diabetes mellitus includes ability and empowerment of the patient to change lifestyle, maintain an adequate diet and physical activity, manage the disease, and follow a specific program of periodic medical checks and education sessions. In addition, the patient should be able to correctly identify and adequately solve problems related to the disease and actively collaborate with the healthcare system. To obtain these goals, therapeutic patient education (TPE) is now considered a crucial element not only in the treatment but also in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Several trials showed that TPE is able to improve clinical, lifestyle, and psycho-social outcomes. Nevertheless, studies have not clarified the ideal characteristics of a comprehensive patient education program in clinical practice. Other work is needed to answer open questions regarding the type of PTE (individual or group education), themes, frequency and number of education sessions, contact time between educator and patient, background of educators, use of new technologies, and barriers to self-management. The present review discusses these points on the basis of the most recent data of the literature.

  18. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    PubMed

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  19. Culture brokerage strategies in diabetes education.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gina K; Uz, Sharon W; Hinton, Ivora; Williams, Ishan; Jones, Randy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the elements of culture brokerage as applied in a recent educational pilot study among rural African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Culture Brokerage is a nursing intervention consisting of mediation between the traditional health beliefs and practices of a patient's culture and the health care system. The intervention of Culture Brokerage holds particular relevance for clinicians who work with chronically ill patients, including those with diabetes. Diabetes prevalence rates continue to rise with alarming swiftness, affecting people of all age groups and ethnicities. The burden of disease, however, disproportionately falls on ethnic minority groups, including African Americans. Notable health disparities in the prevalence and long-term complications of diabetes warrant the attention of health care professionals. One way in which public health nurses can address these disparities is to apply strategies of culture brokerage.

  20. Comprehensive Self-Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance.

  1. Comprehensive Self-Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance. PMID:26238647

  2. Diabetic Education Program in the Mohawk Community of Kahnawake, Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Ann C.

    1988-01-01

    The Mohawk community of Kahnawake, Quebec, has a high prevalence rate of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This article outlines the development and implementation of an extensive diabetic education program that is offered to all diabetics. It describes the benefits gained by the diabetic patients. PMID:21253033

  3. Multimedia technology for diabetes education of school nurses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) require school nurses (SN) with specific diabetes training. Multimedia learning can facilitate cost-effective, convenient education of SN by diabetes educators (DE). We conducted formative research to gather qualitative and quantitative data to inform the interven...

  4. Understanding Students with Diabetes: Implications for the Physical Education Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petray, Clayre; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Provides physical educators with an understanding of diabetes, noting important considerations when teaching physical education to students with diabetes. Discusses four aspects of the issue (overview; common questions and answers concerning the control of diabetes; balancing insulin, food intake, and physical activity; and implications for…

  5. Education's Role in Explaining Diabetic Heath Investment Differentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Matthew E.

    1998-01-01

    Studies the relationship between education and certain diabetic health investment proxies, such as smoking propensities, blood sugar control, and diet. Increased education positively affects diabetic health investment even after controlling for IQ and available information. However, diabetics' health investments are less responsive to education…

  6. Diabetes Training for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A 2.5-month diabetes education training for community health workers (CHWs) was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Methods Training methods used included case studies, role-playing, and lectures. Exams were used throughout the training for its evaluation. Teaching was delivered by different ways: a one day American Diabetes Association (ADA) course; a five day Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP); Conversation Maps; and a series of seven National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) diabetes education booklets. Results Qualitative and quantitative evaluative methods were used during and after the training. The CHWs’ diabetes knowledge was evaluated by a pre- and post-test Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ). The post-test was conducted one week after completing the training. The findings showed that the diabetes knowledge of the CHWs increased. Conclusions Diabetes competencies and evaluative tools need to be developed specific for CHWs as a way to standardize all CHW diabetes trainings. PMID:27110434

  7. Management of diabetes in South Asian communities in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jillian

    This article discusses some of the specific challenges related to the management of diabetes in patients of South Asian origin. Communicating information that considers cultural, religious and language differences is important to promote effective self-management. The South Asian population in the UK is at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and cultural practices such as fasting if not managed properly can lead to deterioration in their condition. The use of appropriate information and educators with Asian language skills and an understanding of the local population's culture are important to improve self-management of diabetes in these patients. PMID:16536399

  8. Teleconferenced Educational Detailing: Diabetes Education for Primary Care Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stewart B.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Van, Daphne M.; O'Neill, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Formal didactic continuing medical education (CME) is relatively ineffective for changing physician behavior. Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent disease, and interventions to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are needed. Methods: A stratified, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design was used to…

  9. Diabetes Patients' Experiences With the Implementation of Insulin Therapy and Their Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Self-Management Systems for Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Wouter T; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost BL; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer-assisted decision support is an emerging modality to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in insulin self-titration (ie, self-adjusting insulin dose according to daily blood glucose levels). Computer-assisted insulin self-titration systems mainly focus on helping patients overcome barriers related to the cognitive components of insulin titration. Yet other (eg, psychological or physical) barriers could still impede effective use of such systems. Objective Our primary aim was to identify experiences with and barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose, insulin injection, and insulin titration among patients with T2DM. Our research team developed a computer-assisted insulin self-titration system, called PANDIT. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ perceptions of computer-assisted insulin self-titration. We included patients who used PANDIT in a 4-week pilot study as well as patients who had never used such a system. Methods In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with patients on insulin therapy who were randomly recruited from a university hospital and surrounding general practices in the Netherlands. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively. To classify the textual remarks, we created a codebook during the analysis, in a bottom-up and iterative fashion. To support examination of the final coded data, we used three theories from the field of health psychology and the integrated model of user satisfaction and technology acceptance by Wixom and Todd. Results When starting insulin therapy, some patients feared a lifelong commitment to insulin therapy and disease progression. Also, many barriers arose when implementing insulin therapy (eg, some patients were embarrassed to inject insulin in public). Furthermore, patients had difficulties increasing the insulin dose because they fear hypoglycemia, they associate higher insulin doses with disease progression

  10. Creativity and diabetes education: Essentiality, impact and way forward.

    PubMed

    Sarda, Archana

    2015-04-01

    The changing diabetes in children (CDiC) program is a unique program aimed at children suffering from type 1 diabetes. The whole focus of CDiC is to provide comprehensive care including diabetes education. Various innovative and creative diabetes educational materials have been developed, which makes learning fun. Lot of diabetes camps are held at CDiC, focusing on diabetes education, experience sharing and fun activities. CDiC faces many challenges in an effort to cater to the needs of most deserving children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) throughout the country, to provide comprehensive care including self-sufficiency, to serve children for as long as possible and to ultimately have better outcomes for all children with T1DM. The CDiC program aims to make the child more positive, secure and hopeful and initiate and strive for comprehensive diabetes care for the economically underprivileged children with T1DM. PMID:25941643

  11. Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetesEducation for Self-efficacy (BITES): Protocol for a randomised control trial to assess biophysical and psychological effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    George, Jyothis T; Valdovinos, Abel Peña; Thow, Jonathan C; Russell, Ian; Dromgoole, Paul; Lomax, Sarah; Torgerson, David J; Wells, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Background Self management is the cornerstone of effective preventive care in diabetes. Educational interventions that provide self-management skills for people with diabetes have been shown to reduce blood glucose concentrations. This in turn has the potential to reduce rates of complications. However, evidence to support type, quantity, setting and mode of delivery of self-management education is sparse. Objectives: To study the biophysical and psychological effectiveness of a brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes in adults. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting: Multidisciplinary specialist diabetes centre. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that the brief (2.5-day) intervention would be biophysically and psychologically effective for people with type 1 diabetes. Intervention: A brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes developed by a multi-professional team comprising of a consultant diabetologist, a diabetes specialist nurse, a specialist diabetes dietician and a clinical health psychologist and delivered in 20 hours over 2.5 days. Primary outcomes: HbA1c and severe hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes: Blood pressure, weight, height, lipid profile and composite psychometric scales. Participants: We shall consent and recruit 120 subjects with postal invitations sent to eligible participants. Volunteers are to be seen at randomisation clinics where independent researcher verify eligibility and obtain consent. We shall randomise 60 to BITES and 60 to standard care. Eligibility Criteria: Type 1 diabetes for longer than 12 months, multiple injection therapy for at least two months, minimum age of 18 and ability to read and write. Randomisation: An independent evaluator to block randomise (block-size = 6), to intervention or control groups using sealed envelopes in strict ascendant order. Control group will receive standard care. Assessment: Participants in both groups would attend unblinded assessments at

  12. Improving Diabetes Care in the Latino Population: The Emory Latino Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotberg, Britt; Greene, Rachel; Ferez-Pinzon, Anyul M.; Mejia, Robert; Umpierrez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes in Latinos is 12.8% compared to 9.3% of the general population. Latinos suffer from a higher prevalence of diabetic complications and mortality than whites yet receive less monitoring tests and education. Purpose: (1) Identify changes in clinical indicators among subjects with type 2 diabetes participating in…

  13. Evaluation of a Diabetes Education Call Center intervention.

    PubMed

    Boren, Suzanne Austin; De Leo, Gianluca; Chanetsa, F Fungai; Donaldson, Joe; Krishna, Santosh; Balas, E Andrew

    2006-08-01

    Patients require education and information as they engage in self-help, self-care, and disease management activities. The purpose of this study was to determine how effective voice technologies are in diabetes patient education. A pretest-posttest study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of prerecorded educational messages delivered via the telephone to participants with diabetes. The intervention consisted of 24 four-minute messages on the topics of knowledge and prevention, glucose level, diet and activity, and management and coping. Eighteen persons with diabetes participated in the pretest-posttest trial. A total of 324 educational messages were listened to over a 12-week intervention period. The pretest-posttest trial demonstrated that a brief telephone-based diabetes education intervention can have a significant impact on increasing frequency of checking blood for glucose (p = 0.017), improving general diabetes knowledge (p = 0.048), and improving insulin-specific knowledge (p = 0.020). Automated educational interventions should be based on scientifically sound evidence and can be effectively delivered by telephone. Automated telephone-based diabetes education may be used alone or as a supplement to existing diabetes education. Automated education is a viable solution when healthcare organizations and regions that as a result of a lack of human and financial resources cannot afford a diabetes educator. PMID:16942418

  14. Self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanzhang; Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes in three population groups: urban residents, migrants in urban settings, and rural residents. Methods We used data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The sample included 993 participants age 45 and older who reported having diabetes diagnosed from a health professional. We performed multilevel regressions performed to examine the associations between characteristics and different aspects of diabetes education received. Findings Our study shows that 20.24% of the participants received no diabetes education at all. Among those who received information, 46.82% of respondents with diabetes received weight control advice from a health care provider, 90.97% received advice on exercise, 60.37% received diet advice, 35.12% were spoken to smoking control, and only 17.89% of persons were informed of foot care. After controlling socioeconomic factors, life style, number of comorbidities and community factors, we found that compared with migrant population and rural residents, urban residents were more likely to receive diabetes education on diet. Urban residents were also more likely to obtain diabetes education and more aspects of diabetes education comparison with migrants and rural residents. Conclusions Our study suggests diabetes education is a serious concern in China, and a significant proportion of the participants did not receive advice on smoking control and foot care. Rural residents and migrants from rural areas received much less diabetes education compared with urban residents. Efforts to improve diabetes educations are urgently needed in China.

  15. Health Education Video Games for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Design, and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…

  16. The detection and management of diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sturt, Jackie; Dennick, Kathryn; Due-Christensen, Mette; McCarthy, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes distress (DD) represents a significant clinical burden in which levels of DD are related to both glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and some self-management behaviours. DD is related to, but different from, depression. Differences in DD experienced in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been observed. Commonly measured using the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) and the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), rates of elevated DD in research study participants range from 20 to 30 %. Risk factors for elevated DD in type 1 diabetes are longer duration of diabetes, severe hypoglycaemia, younger age and being female. A systematic review of intervention studies assessing DD identified eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and nine pre-post design studies. Only three studies targeted DD with the intervention. Intervention types were diabetes self-management education (DSME), psychologically informed self-management and devices. DSME pre-post studies, namely the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme, produced more consistent improvements in DD and HbA1c at follow-up. Psychologically informed self-management was more heterogeneous, but several RCTs were effective in reducing DD. Group interventions offered the greatest benefits across intervention designs. PMID:26411924

  17. The detection and management of diabetes distress in people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sturt, Jackie; Dennick, Kathryn; Due-Christensen, Mette; McCarthy, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes distress (DD) represents a significant clinical burden in which levels of DD are related to both glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and some self-management behaviours. DD is related to, but different from, depression. Differences in DD experienced in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been observed. Commonly measured using the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) and the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), rates of elevated DD in research study participants range from 20 to 30 %. Risk factors for elevated DD in type 1 diabetes are longer duration of diabetes, severe hypoglycaemia, younger age and being female. A systematic review of intervention studies assessing DD identified eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and nine pre-post design studies. Only three studies targeted DD with the intervention. Intervention types were diabetes self-management education (DSME), psychologically informed self-management and devices. DSME pre-post studies, namely the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme, produced more consistent improvements in DD and HbA1c at follow-up. Psychologically informed self-management was more heterogeneous, but several RCTs were effective in reducing DD. Group interventions offered the greatest benefits across intervention designs.

  18. Partnering With Community-Dwelling Individuals With Diabetes for Health Behavior Change Using Action Plans: An Innovation in Health Professionals Education and Practice.

    PubMed

    Barry Hultquist, Teresa; Brown, Sara Goomis; Geske, Jenenne; Kaiser, Katherine Laux; Waibel-Rycek, Denise

    2015-11-01

    Health care practitioners support or hinder an individual's attempts to self-manage health behavior. Practitioners must understand an individual's health needs and goals to effectively partner for behavior change. Self-management support (SMS) promote efforts toward positive health behavior change. Practitioners need training to provide effective SMS, beginning with their formal education. The purpose of this educational practice project was to integrate an evidence-based intervention (SMS using action plans) into a nursing curriculum. Three sequential steps included (1) providing foundational SMS education, (2) SMS application with students' personal action plans, and (3) implementing SMS with community-dwelling individuals with diabetes. Students (n = 130) partnered with participants (n = 85), developing short- (n = 240) and long-term (n = 99) action plans during home visits. The average baseline Diabetes Empowerment Scale score measuring participant's perceived psychosocial diabetes management self-efficacy was 4.3 (1-5 scale, SD = 0.51, n = 83). Most common short-term actions related to physical activity (n = 100, 42%) and healthy eating (n = 61, 25%). Average participant confidence level was 7.7 (SD = 1.9, 0-10 scale). Short-term goal evaluation (n = 209) revealed 66% (n = 137) were met more than 50% of the time. Both participants (99%) and students (99%) expressed satisfaction with home visit and action plan experiences. This teaching-learning experience is replicable and applicable to any professional health care student. PMID:26220279

  19. Partnering With Community-Dwelling Individuals With Diabetes for Health Behavior Change Using Action Plans: An Innovation in Health Professionals Education and Practice.

    PubMed

    Barry Hultquist, Teresa; Brown, Sara Goomis; Geske, Jenenne; Kaiser, Katherine Laux; Waibel-Rycek, Denise

    2015-11-01

    Health care practitioners support or hinder an individual's attempts to self-manage health behavior. Practitioners must understand an individual's health needs and goals to effectively partner for behavior change. Self-management support (SMS) promote efforts toward positive health behavior change. Practitioners need training to provide effective SMS, beginning with their formal education. The purpose of this educational practice project was to integrate an evidence-based intervention (SMS using action plans) into a nursing curriculum. Three sequential steps included (1) providing foundational SMS education, (2) SMS application with students' personal action plans, and (3) implementing SMS with community-dwelling individuals with diabetes. Students (n = 130) partnered with participants (n = 85), developing short- (n = 240) and long-term (n = 99) action plans during home visits. The average baseline Diabetes Empowerment Scale score measuring participant's perceived psychosocial diabetes management self-efficacy was 4.3 (1-5 scale, SD = 0.51, n = 83). Most common short-term actions related to physical activity (n = 100, 42%) and healthy eating (n = 61, 25%). Average participant confidence level was 7.7 (SD = 1.9, 0-10 scale). Short-term goal evaluation (n = 209) revealed 66% (n = 137) were met more than 50% of the time. Both participants (99%) and students (99%) expressed satisfaction with home visit and action plan experiences. This teaching-learning experience is replicable and applicable to any professional health care student.

  20. Self-management and creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, B. A.; Skaptsov, A. A.; Polikarpov, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    How to improve physicist's creativity? How one can make himself an instrument for creativity? What is the role of the humanities in initiation of intuitive moments in thinking? The problems are discussed in terms of such modern conception as Self-management, in context of the dialogue between nature and human being by Prigogine, "Farther reaches of human nature" by Maslow, and mathematical approach for modeling of mental structure elements.

  1. Gamifying Self-Management of Chronic Illnesses: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Gary; Ranchhod, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-management of chronic illnesses is an ongoing issue in health care research. Gamification is a concept that arose in the field of computer science and has been borrowed by many other disciplines. It is perceived by many that gamification can improve the self-management experience of people with chronic illnesses. This paper discusses the validation of a framework (called The Wheel of Sukr) that was introduced to achieve this goal. Objective This research aims to (1) discuss a gamification framework targeting the self-management of chronic illnesses and (2) validate the framework by diabetic patients, medical professionals, and game experts. Methods A mixed-method approach was used to validate the framework. Expert interviews (N=8) were conducted in order to validate the themes of the framework. Additionally, diabetic participants completed a questionnaire (N=42) in order to measure their attitudes toward the themes of the framework. Results The results provide a validation of the framework. This indicates that gamification might improve the self-management of chronic illnesses, such as diabetes. Namely, the eight themes in the Wheel of Sukr (fun, esteem, socializing, self-management, self-representation, motivation, growth, sustainability) were perceived positively by 71% (30/42) of the participants with P value <.001. Conclusions In this research, both the interviews and the questionnaire yielded positive results that validate the framework (The Wheel of Sukr). Generally, this study indicates an overall acceptance of the notion of gamification in the self-management of diabetes. PMID:27612632

  2. Partnership as an Intervention Strategy in Self-Managing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes strategy used by New Zealand Ministry of Education to intervene in 26 self-managing schools by developing a partnership with the schools and their communities. Documents difficulties encountered in the first phase (year one) of the intervention and the successes of the second phase (year two). (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 27…

  3. Integrating Self-Management and Exercise for People Living with Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, A. D.; McCullough, C.; Chan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Program for Arthritis Control through Education and Exercise, PACE-Ex[TM}, is an arthritis self-management program incorporating principles and practice of self-management, goal setting and warm water exercise. The purpose of this program review is to examine the impact of PACE-Ex on participants' self-efficacy for condition management,…

  4. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Self-Managed Learning Groups: Understanding Students' Choices and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2006-01-01

    Self-managed learning groups are regularly used in higher education. However, there is little direct evidence as to strategies that can enhance their efficacy, or the factors that influence students' engagement with the process of self-management. If students are expected to manage their out-of-class collaborative learning experiences, then…

  5. Effective School Self-Management--What's Ahead? Conference Proceedings (October 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Bev, Comp.

    This proceedings of an international conference examines the nature of school self-management around the world. The volume opens with the keynote address by, Tony Townsend, which provides an overview of school self-management, effective education, and the school-effectiveness movement. Some of the topics addressed include student achievement, the…

  6. Evaluation of WebEase: An Epilepsy Self-Management Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiIorio, Colleen; Escoffery, Cam; McCarty, Frances; Yeager, Katherine A.; Henry, Thomas R.; Koganti, Archana; Reisinger, Elizabeth L.; Wexler, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    People with epilepsy have various education needs and must adopt many self-management behaviors in order to control their condition. This study evaluates WebEase, an Internet-based, theory-driven, self-management program for adults with epilepsy. Thirty-five participants took part in a 6-week pilot implementation of WebEase. The main components of…

  7. Are Behavioural Interventions Doomed to Fail? Challenges to Self-Management Support in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory. PMID:25837809

  8. Are Behavioural Interventions Doomed to Fail? Challenges to Self-Management Support in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallis, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory.

  9. Supporting patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anne

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that is mediated by genetic, immunologic and environmental factors. Its prevalence is further complicated by increasing obesity levels, and this can make diagnosis complicated. Health professionals play a key role in enablement and optimising person-centred care approaches to educate and augment the essential skills required for successful self-management of this lifelong condition. This article reflects on the physiology and aetiology of type 1 diabetes and prevalence and considers recent guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for adults with type 1 diabetes (NG17) and for children and young people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (NG18).

  10. Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit - REACT. Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a supported self management package for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health problems commonly begin in adolescence when the majority of people are living with family. This can be a frightening time for relatives who often have little knowledge of what is happening or how to manage it. The UK National Health Service has a commitment to support relatives in order to reduce their distress, but research studies have shown that this can lead to a better outcome for service users as well. Unfortunately, many relatives do not get the kind of support they need. We aim to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of providing and supporting a Relatives' Education and Coping Toolkit (REACT) for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis. Methods The study is a randomised control trial. Trial Registration for Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69299093. Relatives of people receiving treatment from the Early Intervention Service for psychosis are randomly allocated to receive either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus the REACT intervention. The main aims of the study are to: (i) determine the acceptability of a supported self-management intervention; (ii) determine preference for type of support; (iii) assess the feasibility of the design; (iv) identify the barriers and solutions to offering support for self-management approaches within the NHS; (v) estimate the likely effect size of the impact of the intervention on outcome for relatives; (vi) gain detailed feedback about the barriers and solutions to using a self-management approach; (vii) describe the way in which the intervention is used. Outcomes will be assessed from baseline and at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The intervention is compared to current treatment in a sample of participants highly representative of relatives in routine early intervention services across the UK. The intervention is protocolised, offered within routine practice by existing staff and extensive process data is being collected. Randomisation is independent; all assessments

  11. A patient as a self-manager of their personal data on health and disease with new technology--challenges for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Hopia, Hanna; Punna, Mari; Laitinen, Teemu; Latvala, Eila

    2015-12-01

    Background: Digital technologies have transformed nearly every aspect of our lives. However, for many of us, they have not yet improved the way we receive or participate in our health services and disease care. Hostetter et al. (2014) explore in a new multimedia essay the changes occurring with the arrival of new digital tools, from mobile apps and data-driven software solutions to wearable sensors that transmit information to a patient's team of health care providers. Digitisation will revolutionise health technology to a new extent, as the self-measurement, cloud services, teleconsultation and robotics technologies are being used to get health expenditure under control. In the future, robots will dispense drugs, and treatment routines will utilise cloud services (Biesdorf and Niedermann, 2014; Grain and Sharper, 2013). According to the rationale of the Horizon 2020 (European Commission, 2013b) work programme, personalising health and care has been stated to empower citizens and patients to manage their own health and disease, which can result in more cost-effective healthcare systems by enabling the management of chronic diseases outside institutions, improving health outcomes, and by encouraging healthy citizens to remain so. Solutions should be developed and tested with the use of open innovation platforms, such as large-scale demonstrators for health and service innovation. It is a fact that ICT/new health technology and personal health applications are transforming patients' self-management in many ways. A huge amount of personal health application solutions are being offered in the marketplace, which engage in activities that promote health, monitoring the symptoms and signs of illness, and managing the impact of illness (European Commission eHealth Action Plan 2012-2020, 2012). The WHO (2011) has conducted a comprehensive study and published a report on Member States' use of mHealth (mobile Health) as well as the readiness and barriers to its use. The

  12. A patient as a self-manager of their personal data on health and disease with new technology--challenges for nursing education.

    PubMed

    Hopia, Hanna; Punna, Mari; Laitinen, Teemu; Latvala, Eila

    2015-12-01

    Background: Digital technologies have transformed nearly every aspect of our lives. However, for many of us, they have not yet improved the way we receive or participate in our health services and disease care. Hostetter et al. (2014) explore in a new multimedia essay the changes occurring with the arrival of new digital tools, from mobile apps and data-driven software solutions to wearable sensors that transmit information to a patient's team of health care providers. Digitisation will revolutionise health technology to a new extent, as the self-measurement, cloud services, teleconsultation and robotics technologies are being used to get health expenditure under control. In the future, robots will dispense drugs, and treatment routines will utilise cloud services (Biesdorf and Niedermann, 2014; Grain and Sharper, 2013). According to the rationale of the Horizon 2020 (European Commission, 2013b) work programme, personalising health and care has been stated to empower citizens and patients to manage their own health and disease, which can result in more cost-effective healthcare systems by enabling the management of chronic diseases outside institutions, improving health outcomes, and by encouraging healthy citizens to remain so. Solutions should be developed and tested with the use of open innovation platforms, such as large-scale demonstrators for health and service innovation. It is a fact that ICT/new health technology and personal health applications are transforming patients' self-management in many ways. A huge amount of personal health application solutions are being offered in the marketplace, which engage in activities that promote health, monitoring the symptoms and signs of illness, and managing the impact of illness (European Commission eHealth Action Plan 2012-2020, 2012). The WHO (2011) has conducted a comprehensive study and published a report on Member States' use of mHealth (mobile Health) as well as the readiness and barriers to its use. The

  13. Delivery of self training and education for stressful situations (DESTRESS-PC): a randomized trial of nurse assisted online self-management for PTSD in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C.; Litz, Brett; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Harper, Elizabeth; Gore, Kristie; Stein, Nathan; Yeager, Derik; Liu, Xian; Coe, T. Ray

    2016-01-01

    Objective This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of a nurse assisted online cognitive-behavioral self-management intervention for war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to optimized usual primary care PTSD Treatment (OUC) to reduce PTSD symptoms. Method Participants were 80 veterans of recent military conflicts with PTSD as assessed by the PTSD Checklist (PCL) seeking primary care treatment at one of three Veterans Affairs (VA) and four Army clinics. DESTRESS-PC consisted of logins to a secure website three times per week for 6 weeks with monitoring by a study nurse. All participants received nurse care management in the form of phone check-ins every two weeks and feedback to their primary care providers. Blinded raters assessed outcomes 6, 12, and 18 weeks post-randomization. Results DESTRESS-PC was associated with a significantly greater decrease in PTSD symptoms compared to OUC (F(3, 186)=3.72, p=.012). The effect was largest at the 12-week assessment (ΔPCL=12.6±16.6 versus 5.7±12.5, p<0.05) with the treatment effect disappearing by the 18-week follow-up. Notably, there was a dose effect; number of logins correlated significantly with PTSD outcomes, with more logins associated with greater PTSD symptom improvement. None of the secondary outcomes (depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and functional status) showed statistically significant improvement; however, the treatment effect on depression approached significance (F(3, 186)=2.17, p=.093). Conclusions DESTRESS-PC shows promise as a means of delivering effective, early PTSD treatment in primary care. Larger trials are needed. PMID:25929985

  14. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  15. Development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Krouse, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality of life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies. PMID:23104143

  16. Development of a chronic care ostomy self-management program.

    PubMed

    Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long-term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality-of-life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies.

  17. Evaluation of a Standardized Patient Education Program for Inpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation: Impact on Illness Knowledge and Self-Management Behaviors up to 1 Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Karin; Seekatz, Bettina; Haug, Günter; Mosler, Gabriele; Schwaab, Bernhard; Worringen, Ulrike; Faller, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Patient education is an essential part of the treatment of coronary heart disease in cardiac rehabilitation. In Germany, no standardized and evaluated patient education programs for coronary heart disease have been available so far. In this article, we report the evaluation of a patient-oriented program. A multicenter quasi-experimental,…

  18. Improving self-management for patients with long-term conditions.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicola J

    An increasing number of people are living with long-term conditions. These conditions cannot be cured, but can be managed through education, health promotion, medication, therapy and self-management. Self-management involves people taking responsibility for their own health and wellbeing, as well as learning to manage any long-term illnesses. Nurses play a pivotal role in providing advice, guidance, education and support to people living with long-term conditions. Self-management is important as it not only benefits the patient, but also provides wider opportunities for community and specialist nurses to use and develop their clinical and interpersonal skills.

  19. Self-Management Procedures to Stop Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, William G.; Caldwell-Colbert, A. Toy

    While numerous approaches to inhibit smoking have appeared in the literature, self-management is one technique that allows the client to take a more active part in the treatment. To study the effectiveness of self-management in a single-subject design, an 18 year old female college student who smoked mostly on weekends was told to self-monitor her…

  20. Food Insecurity in Relation to Changes in Hemoglobin A1c, Self-Efficacy, and Fruit/Vegetable Intake During a Diabetes Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Courtney R.; Wolf, Michael S.; Schillinger, Dean; Davis, Terry C.; DeWalt, Darren; Dahlke, Allison R.; Curtis, Laura; Seligman, Hilary K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Food insecurity is hypothesized to make diabetes self-management more difficult. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of food insecurity with several diabetes self-care measures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a secondary, observational analysis of 665 low-income patients with diabetes, all of whom received self-management support as part of a larger diabetes educational intervention. We analyzed baseline food insecurity (measured by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security module) in relation to changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as well as self-reported diabetes self-efficacy and daily fruit and vegetable intake. We examined longitudinal differences using generalized estimating equation linear regression models, controlling for time, age, sex, race, income, and intervention arm. RESULTS Overall, 57% of the sample had an income <$15,000. Participants who were food insecure (33%) were younger, had less income, and were more likely to be unemployed compared with participants who were food secure. At baseline, those who were food insecure had higher mean HbA1c values (8.4% vs. 8.0%) and lower self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intake than those who were food secure (all P < 0.05). Compared with food-secure individuals, participants who were food insecure had significantly greater improvements in HbA1c over time (0.38% decrease compared with 0.01% decrease; P value for interaction <0.05) as well as in self-efficacy (P value for interaction <0.01). There was no significant difference in HbA1c by food security status at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Participants experiencing food insecurity had poorer diabetes-related measures at baseline but made significant improvements in HbA1c and self-efficacy. Low-income patients who were food insecure may be particularly receptive to diabetes self-management support, even if interventions are not explicitly structured to address finances or food security challenges. PMID:23275354

  1. Problematizing health coaching for chronic illness self-management.

    PubMed

    Howard, Lisa M; Ceci, Christine

    2013-09-01

    To address the growing costs associated with chronic illness care, many countries, both developed and developing, identify increased patient self-management or self-care as a focus of healthcare reform. Health coaching, an implementation strategy to support the shift to self-management, encourages patients to make lifestyle changes to improve the management of chronic illness. This practice differs from traditional models of health education because of the interactional dynamics between nurse and patient, and an orientation to care that ostensibly centres and empowers patients. The theoretical underpinnings of coaching reflect these differences, however in its application, the practices arranged around health coaching for chronic illness self-management reveal the social regulation and professional management of everyday life. This becomes especially problematic in contexts defined by economic constraint and government withdrawal from activities related to the 'care' of citizens. In this paper, we trace the development of health coaching as part of nursing practice and consider the implications of this practice as an emerging element of chronic illness self-management. Our purpose is to highlight health coaching as an approach intended to support patients with chronic illness and at the same time, problematize the tensions contained in (and by) this practice.

  2. Modelling effective diagnosis of risk complications in gestational diabetes mellitus: an e-diabetic expert system for pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedevi, E.; Vijaya Lakshmi, K.; Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuous medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. This paper deals with study and development of algorithm to develop an initial stage expert system to provide diagnosis to the pregnant women who are suffering from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) by means of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).

  3. Social Media in Diabetes Education: A Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Julie; Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    As Extension educators are encouraged to implement more cost-effective and efficient means of programming, the use of Web-based social media has become a popular option. Penn State Extension implemented a social media awareness survey among participants in its community-based diabetes education program to determine familiarity with this medium,…

  4. Self-management for people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Saibil, F; Lai, E; Hayward, A; Yip, J; Gilbert, C

    2008-03-01

    In North America and the United Kingdom, we are in the age of self-management. Many patients with chronic diseases are ready to participate in the therapeutic decision-making process, and join their physicians in a co-management model. It is particularly useful to consider this concept at a time when physician shortages and waiting times are on the front page every day, with no immediate prospect of relief. Conditions such as diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrent urinary tract infections and others lend themselves to this paradigm of medical care for the informed patient. The present paper reviews some of the literature on self-management for the patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and provides a framework for the use of self-management in the IBD population, with emphasis on the concept of a patient passport, and the use of e-mail, supported by an e-mail contract, as proposed by the Canadian Medical Protective Association. Examples of specific management strategies are provided for several different IBD scenarios. Eliminating the need for some office visits has clear environmental and economical benefits. Potential negative consequences of this form of patient care are also discussed. PMID:18354757

  5. Diabetes educators: skilled professionals for improving prediabetes outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth D

    2013-04-01

    Unchecked, the increasing prevalence of prediabetes can be predicted to only expand the numbers of people developing type 2 diabetes and all its associated health ramifications. People with obesity and prediabetes who are able to manage their body weight are known to decrease their risk of developing diabetes. However, making the changes to diet and levels of physical activity is a difficult proposition for many people. Diabetes educators are a group of healthcare professionals trained to work with people who have diabetes on appropriate goal-setting around self-care behaviors including healthy eating and physical activity to better enable them to accomplish the changes needed for better health outcomes. Applying this same skill set to people with prediabetes provides a ready means for addressing the needs of this population to help diminish their risk of developing diabetes.

  6. Evaluation of a standardized patient education program for inpatient cardiac rehabilitation: impact on illness knowledge and self-management behaviors up to 1 year.

    PubMed

    Meng, Karin; Seekatz, Bettina; Haug, Günter; Mosler, Gabriele; Schwaab, Bernhard; Worringen, Ulrike; Faller, Hermann

    2014-04-01

    Patient education is an essential part of the treatment of coronary heart disease in cardiac rehabilitation. In Germany, no standardized and evaluated patient education programs for coronary heart disease have been available so far. In this article, we report the evaluation of a patient-oriented program. A multicenter quasi-experimental, sequential cohort design study of patients with coronary heart disease (n = 434) in inpatient cardiac rehabilitation was conducted. Intervention patients received the new patient-oriented program, control patients a traditional lecture-based program (usual care). Primary outcome illness knowledge and secondary behavioral and health outcomes were assessed at admission, discharge and 6- and 12-months follow-up. We found a significant, small between-group intervention effect in both patients' medical illness and treatment knowledge and behavior change knowledge at discharge (medical: η(2) = 0.013; behavior change: η(2) = 0.011) and after 12 months (medical: η(2) = 0.015). Furthermore, a significant, small effect was observed for physical activity after 12 months (η(2) = 0.011), but no effects on healthy diet and medication adherence emerged. Superiority of the patient-oriented educational program for patients with coronary heart disease was partially confirmed. The program produced improved illness knowledge and physical activity compared with usual care after 1 year.

  7. The over time development of chronic illness self-management patterns: a longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There currently exists a vast amount of literature concerning chronic illness self-management, however the developmental patterns and sustainability of self-management over time remain largely unknown. This paper aims to describe the patterns by which different chronic illness self-management behaviors develop and are maintained over time. Method Twenty-one individuals newly diagnosed with chronic illnesses (e.g., diabetes, rheumatism, ischemic heart disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic renal disease, inflammatory bowel disease) were repeatedly interviewed over two-and-a-half years. The interviews were conducted in Sweden from 2006 to 2008. A total of 81 narrative interviews were analyzed with an interpretive description approach. Results The participants’ self-management behaviors could be described in four different developmental patterns: consistent, episodic, on demand, and transitional. The developmental patterns were related to specific self-management behaviors. Most participants took long-term medications in a consistent pattern, whereas exercise was often performed according to an episodic pattern. Participants managed health crises (e.g., angina, pain episodes) according to an on demand pattern and everyday changes due to illness (e.g., adaptation of work and household activities) according to a transitional pattern. All of the participants used more than one self-management pattern. Conclusion The findings show that self-management does not develop as one uniform pattern. Instead different self-management behaviors are enacted in different patterns. Therefore, it is likely that self-management activities require support strategies tailored to each behavior’s developmental pattern. PMID:23647658

  8. Implementation of a Diabetes Educator Care Model to Reduce Paediatric Admission for Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Asma; Yousef, Hana; Abdelrahman, Layla; Tomy, Mary; Suliman, Shaker; Attia, Salima; Al Suwaidi, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication that can be life-threatening. Management of DKA needs admission in a specialized center and imposes major constraints on hospital resources. Aim. We plan to study the impact of adapting a diabetes-educator care model on reducing the frequency of hospital admission of children and adolescents presenting with DKA. Method. We have proposed a model of care led by diabetes educators for children and adolescents with diabetes. The team consisted of highly trained nurses. The model effectiveness is measured by comparing the rate of hospital admission for DKA over 4-year period to the baseline year prior to implementing the model. Results. There were 158 admissions for DKA over a 5-year period. Number of patients followed up in the outpatient diabetes clinics increased from 37 to 331 patients at the start and the end of the study years. Admission rate showed a downward trend over the five-year period. Percentage of admission for DKA is reduced from 210% to 1.8% (P 0.001). Conclusion. Diabetes educator care model is an effective and a sustainable measure to reduce hospital admission for DKA in children and adolescents. PMID:27294150

  9. Diabetes and disabilities: assistive tools, services, and information.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Bonnie J; Cleary, Margaret E; Kleinbeck, Connie; Petzinger, Ruth Ann; Sokol-McKay, Debra A; Whittington, Anne; Williams, Ann S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide diabetes educators with a comprehensive list of assistive tools, services, and information for diabetes self-management for people with visual, manual, and hearing disabilities. A list of tools and products has been compiled by members of the Disabilities Specialty Practice Group (DSPG) and is updated periodically. The original list was assembled in 1988 with the support of a grant from the Diabetes Research and Education Foundation, Bridgewater, New Jersey. The last revised list was titled "Diabetes Aids and Products for People With Visual or Physical Impairment" and was published in Diabetes Educ. 1992;18:121-138. In addition to tools and products, organizations that provide services and information for people with disabilities are provided to diabetes educators. PMID:18669805

  10. Diabetes and disabilities: assistive tools, services, and information.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Bonnie J; Cleary, Margaret E; Kleinbeck, Connie; Petzinger, Ruth Ann; Sokol-McKay, Debra A; Whittington, Anne; Williams, Ann S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide diabetes educators with a comprehensive list of assistive tools, services, and information for diabetes self-management for people with visual, manual, and hearing disabilities. A list of tools and products has been compiled by members of the Disabilities Specialty Practice Group (DSPG) and is updated periodically. The original list was assembled in 1988 with the support of a grant from the Diabetes Research and Education Foundation, Bridgewater, New Jersey. The last revised list was titled "Diabetes Aids and Products for People With Visual or Physical Impairment" and was published in Diabetes Educ. 1992;18:121-138. In addition to tools and products, organizations that provide services and information for people with disabilities are provided to diabetes educators.

  11. Computer-based remote diabetes education for school personnel.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, D; Wallace, F L

    2001-01-01

    Teachers are expected to respond quickly and accurately to any diabetes incident that may occur to children in the school setting. Access to diabetes information is crucial for student safety, health, academic achievement, and social competence. This paper describes a technique to provide Web-based diabetes information using computer audio and video to enrich a text-based training experience. Two groups of teachers were presented with diabetes training material via either paper or a Web-based computer system. Both groups were then evaluated for diabetes knowledge and satisfaction. Subjects using the Web-based system had significantly (t = 2.22; p < 0.033) higher knowledge scores (72.5% versus 66.4% correct) and were significantly (t = 3.9; p < 0.001) more satisfied with the training session (4.2 versus 3.1 on a five-point scale) than subjects who used paper documents traditionally used for teacher training. With the advantages in learning and the reduced cost of a Web-based system, diabetes distance education is a viable and desirable alternative to paper-based diabetes education. PMID:11911172

  12. [Visual materials for the education of patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morineau, Claudie

    2015-12-01

    Some people living with diabetes are not included in any educational approach due to their cultural or linguistic particularities, their level of elementary education or their metacognitive deficiencies. It is essential for the caregiver to reflect on how to provide adapted and relevant therapeutic education to these patients. In this context, visual materials have been designed in order to be able to offer personalised support.

  13. [Visual materials for the education of patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Morineau, Claudie

    2015-12-01

    Some people living with diabetes are not included in any educational approach due to their cultural or linguistic particularities, their level of elementary education or their metacognitive deficiencies. It is essential for the caregiver to reflect on how to provide adapted and relevant therapeutic education to these patients. In this context, visual materials have been designed in order to be able to offer personalised support. PMID:26675098

  14. Structured patient education: the X-PERT Programme.

    PubMed

    Deakin, Trudi; Whitham, Claire

    2009-09-01

    The X-PERT Programme seeks to develop the knowledge, skills and confidence in diabetes treatment for health-care professionals and diabetes self-management. The programme trains health-care professionals to deliver the six-week structured patient education programme to people with diabetes. Over 850 health-care professionals have attended the X-PERT 'Train the Trainer' course and audit results document improved job satisfaction and competence in diabetes treatment and management. National audit statistics for X-PERT implementation to people with diabetes illustrate excellent attendance rates, improved diabetes control, reduced weight, blood pressure, cholesterol and waist circumference and more confidence in self-managing diabetes that has impacted positively on quality of life.

  15. Diabetes update: population management.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Deborah R; Slawson, David C; Shaughnessy, Allen

    2013-05-01

    To optimally care for diabetes patients, physicians must adopt a systematic approach to managing the entire panel. At the heart of excellent care is a multidisciplinary health care team working in a patient-centered environment. Options to supplement traditional office visits include shared medical appointments (ie, group visits), patient self-management education, and social media for patient support and education. Educating patients about diabetes is associated with more frequent recommended screening, improved objective measures, cost savings, and improved short-term quality of life, especially when behavioral goal setting is incorporated. Participation in a nurse-led diabetes management program or an outreach program is associated with reduced health care costs and increased receipt of recommended screening and testing for patients with diabetes; implementation of an electronic database or registry system also is associated with these benefits. Some studies show that these interventions are associated with improvements in A1c; however, outcomes data are limited. Formats for group visits vary. Evidence suggests that patients with diabetes who participate in a group education program have lower A1c levels, improved lipid profiles, higher quality of life scores, and improved knowledge about diabetes and problem-solving ability.

  16. Perceptions of a School-Based Self-Management Program Promoting an Active Lifestyle among Elementary Schoolchildren, Teachers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet Maria; Haerens, Leen Liesbeth; Verstraete, Stefanie; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how classroom-based self-management lessons to promote physical activity were perceived by students, teachers, and parents. The self-management lessons were implemented by an external physical education specialist in 20 class groups at eight elementary schools. Program perceptions were evaluated in 412…

  17. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V

    1989-10-01

    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation.

  18. SESAM-DIABETE, an expert system for insulin-requiring diabetic patient education.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Ferrand, P; Chirat, V

    1989-10-01

    SESAM-DIABETE is an interactive educational expert system that provides personalized advice and therapeutic recommendations for insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Because of its sophisticated explanation facilities, this system is intended to complete the more traditional educational tools for diabetic patients. It has been developed using an original essential expert system, namely SESAM, itself implemented in an upper-layer of Lisp, MBX. Its control structure uses a top-down strategy to solve a problem; i.e., it decomposes the current problem into subproblems easier to solve, this method being recursively applied to each subproblem. All information about patients is kept in a Patient Medical Record, which allows their follow-up. This system is currently available from their home for selected patients through the French telematic network TELETEL and is under clinical evaluation. PMID:2776447

  19. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  20. Closing the Gap: Eliminating Health Care Disparities among Latinos with Diabetes Using Health Information Technology Tools and Patient Navigators

    PubMed Central

    López, Lenny; Grant, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    Latinos have higher rates of diabetes and diabetes-related complications compared to non-Latinos. Clinical diabetes self-management tools that rely on innovative health information technology (HIT) may not be widely used by Latinos, particularly those that have low literacy or numeracy, low income, and/or limited English proficiency. Prior work has shown that tailored diabetes self-management educational interventions are feasible and effective in improving diabetes knowledge and physiological measures among Latinos, especially those interventions that utilize tailored coaching and navigator programs. In this article, we discuss the role of HIT for diabetes management in Latinos and describe a novel “eNavigator” role that we are developing to increase HIT adoption and thereby reduce health care disparities. PMID:22401336

  1. Pilot program to improve self-management of patients with heart failure by redesigning care coordination.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica D; O'Neal, Daniel J; Siddharthan, Kris; Neugaard, Britta I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested both an educational and a care coordination element of health care to examine if better disease-specific knowledge leads to successful self-management of heart failure (HF). Background. The high utilization of health care resources and poor patient outcomes associated with HF justify tests of change to improve self-management of HF. Methods. This prospective study tested two components of the Chronic Care Model (clinical information systems and self-management support) to improve outcomes in the self-management of HF among patients who received intensive education and care coordination during their acute care stay. A postdischarge follow-up phone call assessed their knowledge of HF self-management compared to usual care patients. Results. There were 20 patients each in the intervention and usual care groups. Intervention patients were more likely to have a scale at home, write down their weight, and practice new or different health behaviors. Conclusion. Patients receiving more intensive education knew more about their disease and were better able to self-manage their weight compared to patients receiving standard care.

  2. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  3. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  4. Self management of oral anticoagulation: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, D A; Murray, E T; McCahon, D; Holder, R; Raftery, J P; Hussain, S; Sandhar, H; Hobbs, F D R

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of self management compared with routine care in patients on long term oral anticoagulants. Design Multicentre open randomised controlled trial. Setting Midlands region of the UK. Participants 617 patients aged over 18 and receiving warfarin randomised to intervention (n = 337) and routine care (n = from 2470 invited; 193/337 (57%) completed the 12 month intervention. Intervention Intervention patients used a point of care device to measure international normalised ratio twice a week and a simple dosing chart to interpret their dose of warfarin. Main outcome measure Percentage of time spent within the therapeutic range of international normalised ratio. Results No significant differences were found in percentage of time in the therapeutic range between self managment and routine care (70% v 68%). Self managed patients with poor control before the study showed an improvement in control that was not seen in the routine care group. Nine patients (2.8/100 patient years) had serious adverse events in the self managed group, compared with seven (2.7/100 patient years) in the routine care arm (χ2(df = 1) = 0.02, P = 0.89). Conclusion With appropriate training, self management is safe and reliable for a sizeable proportion of patients receiving oral anticoagulation treatment. It may improve the time spent the therapeutic range for patients with initially poor control. Trial registration ISRCTN 19313375. PMID:16216821

  5. Diabetes education project: community networking in rural Utah.

    PubMed

    DeBry, S M; Smith, A; Wittenberg, M; Mortensen, V

    1996-01-01

    People in rural areas often lack the financial resources, workforce, and professional network needed to sustain a diabetes education pro gram in their own community. HealthInsight, a nonprofit organization that works to improve the quality of health care in its community, developed a 2-day seminar in an effort to facilitate the networking of rural health professionals who educate patients with diabetes and to help those educators better learn how to use existing resources. Participants included nurses, dietitians, diabetes educators, quality managers, and education directors from hospitals and home health agencies in both rural and metropolitan areas. Speakers presented information on a variety of topics related to program development, and a resource manual containing numerous materials was given to each participant. At the end of the seminar, the group turned in goals for their own programs. Too often, providers of health care compete rather than collaborate with one another. There is a great need for such networking opportunities among health care professionals working on common goals--especially in rural areas.

  6. Perceived resource support for chronic illnesses among diabetics in north-western China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huiqin; Shao, Ya; Fan, Ling; Zhong, Tangshen; Ren, Lu; Wang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    A high level of social support can improve long-term diabetes self-management. Support from a single source has been evaluated. This study aims to analyze support from multiple and multilevel sources for diabetic patients by using the Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS). Factors influencing the utilization of the CIRS were also evaluated. A total of 297 patients with diabetes were investigated using the CIRS and Perceived Diabetes Self-management Scale in Shihezi City, China. Descriptive statistics were used to explain demographic variables and scores of the scales. Factors affecting the utilization of chronic illness resources were determined through univariate analysis and then examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 297 diabetic patients surveyed, 67% failed to reach the standard (more than 3 points) of utilizing chronic illness resources. Moreover, utilization of chronic illness resources was positively moderately correlated with self-management of diabetes (r = 0.75, P < 0.05). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR, 3.42; 95%CI, 1.19-9.84) and monthly income (OR, 5.27; 95%CI, 1.86-14.90) were significantly positively associated with the CIRS score. Individuals with high school (OR, 2.61; 95%CI, 1.13-6.05) and college (OR, 3.02; 95%CI, 1.13-8.04) degrees obtained higher scores in the survey than those with elementary school education. Results indicated that utilization of resources and support for chronic illness self-management, particularly personal adjustment and organization, were not ideal among diabetics in the communities of north-western China. Improved utilization of chronic illness resources was conducive for proper diabetes self-management. Furthermore, the level of utilization of chronic illness resources increased with age, literacy level, and monthly income. PMID:27075460

  7. Web 2.0 Chronic Disease Self-Management for Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Beth; Barry, Adam E; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, P.S; Zagora, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Background Participatory Web 2.0 interventions promote collaboration to support chronic disease self-management. Growth in Web 2.0 interventions has led to the emergence of e-patient communication tools that enable older adults to (1) locate and share disease management information and (2) receive interactive healthcare advice. The evolution of older e-patients contributing to Web 2.0 health and medical forums has led to greater opportunities for achieving better chronic disease outcomes. To date, there are no review articles investigating the planning, implementation, and evaluation of Web 2.0 chronic disease self-management interventions for older adults. Objective To review the planning, implementation, and overall effectiveness of Web 2.0 self-management interventions for older adults (mean age ≥ 50) with one or more chronic disease(s). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using six popular health science databases. The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) model was used to organize findings and compute a study quality score (SQS) for 15 reviewed articles. Results Most interventions were adopted for delivery by multidisciplinary healthcare teams and tested among small samples of white females with diabetes. Studies indicated that Web 2.0 participants felt greater self-efficacy for managing their disease(s) and benefitted from communicating with health care providers and/or website moderators to receive feedback and social support. Participants noted asynchronous communication tools (eg, email, discussion boards) and progress tracking features (eg, graphical displays of uploaded personal data) as being particularly useful for self-management support. Despite high attrition being noted as problematic, this review suggests that greater Web 2.0 engagement may be associated with improvements in health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health status (eg, HRQoL). However, few studies indicated statistically

  8. Patient-Centered Community Diabetes Education Program Improves Glycemic Control in African-American Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: Importance of Point of Care Metabolic Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Trudy; Amponsah, Grace; Osei, Kwame

    2015-07-01

    African-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have higher morbidity and mortality partly attributed to poor glucose control and lack of formal diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programs compared to Whites. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters during DSMES vs. standard care in African-Americans with T2DM attending primary care inner city clinics. We recruited 124 African-American patients with T2DM, randomized into Group 1-DSMES (n = 58) and Group 2-standard care group (n = 38) for 6 months. Body weight, blood pressure, random blood sugars and point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and lipids/lipoproteins were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. At 6 months, Group 1 had significant reduction in A1C (8.2 ± 1.4% vs. 7.5 ± 1.5%, p = 0.02) and random glucose (190.4 ± 77.6 vs. 160.6 ± 59.8 mg/dl, p = 0.03). However, there were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoprotein levels. We found no significant changes in the clinical/metabolic parameters in Group 2. We concluded that DSMES, supplemented with POC testing, was associated with significant improvements in glycemic control without changes in body weight, blood pressure, or lipids/lipoproteins. We recommend the inclusion of DSMES with POC testing in managing African-American patients with T2DM attending inner city primary care clinics.

  9. Impact of a self-care education programme on patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a disease with high prevalence and significant impact in terms of mortality and morbidity. The increased prevalence of the disease requires the implementation of new strategies to promote patient self-management. The Spanish Diabetes Self-Management Program (SDSMP) has proven to be effective in other settings. The objective of this study is to assess its effectiveness in terms of care for DM2 patients in primary care settings within the Basque Health Service – Osakidetza (Spain). Method/Design This is a randomised clinical trial in which patients diagnosed with DM2, 18–79 years of age, from four health regions within the Basque Health Service will be randomised into two groups: an intervention group, who will follow the SDSMP, and a control group, who will receive usual care in accordance with the clinical guidelines for DM2 and existing regulations in our region. The intervention consists of 2,5 hour-group sessions once a week for six weeks. The sessions cover target setting and problem solving techniques, promotion of physical exercise, basic knowledge of nutrition, proper use of medication, effective communication with relatives and health professionals, and basic knowledge about DM2 and its complications. This content is complemented by educational material: books, leaflets and CDs. The primary outcome measure will be the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and secondary outcome measures will include changes in levels of physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables, cardiovascular risk, quality of life, self-efficacy, number of consultations and drug prescriptions. The results will be analysed 6, 12 and 24 months after the intervention. Discussion If the intervention were to be effective, the programme should be spread to the entire diabetic population in the Basque Country and it could also be applied for other diseases. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642394 PMID:23718222

  10. "With diabetes, it's always a continuous education and a continuous struggle."

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "With diabetes, it's always a continuous education and a continuous struggle." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... for my lifestyle—especially controlling carbohydrates. I am a Filipina, and our basic food staple is rice, ...

  11. Education and multidisciplinary team approach in childhood diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Stuart J; Chiarelli, Francesco G

    2004-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequent chronic diseases in childhood. As in other chronic diseases (asthma, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy) children and their families become the focus of self-treatment and the directors of their own care; thus, the health care team should be the guides who set the stage, provided advice and oversight and helped to re-focus efforts when goals were not being met all centered around the patient and family. Rather than the diabetes health care team being the only ones to initiate treatment, patient and parents have to be empowered to analyze their own data, identify patterns, problem solve with food and activity and do so based upon actual blood glucose results. Home record keeping and memory meters facilitate such analysis just as the algorithms currently in use attempt to mimic the basalbolus pattern of endogenous insulin secretion previously provided by a working pancreas. In the past, often disaster control was the modus operandi for the person with diabetes. Parents and health care providers were involved with criticism and accusations about "cheating" rather than learning how better to supervise and provide oversight. Nowadays, better knowledge of physiopathology of diabetes, availability of new insulins and devices, as well as different education of health providers pave the way for ameliorating self-care in children and adolescents with diabetes, with the aim of improving metabolic control and quality of life of children and their family, with the ultimate aim of preventing macrovascular and microvascular complications.

  12. Self Directed Learning and Self Management. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on self-directed learning and self-management. "Validating a More-Dimensional Conception of Self-Directed Learning" (Gerald A. Straka, Cornelia Schaefer) discusses the development and validation of a conception of self-directed learning as a dynamic interplay between behavior, information,…

  13. Effectiveness of a computerized educational module on nurses' knowledge and confidence level related to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eaton-Spiva, Leeanna; Day, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive, quasi-experimental design, one-group pretest-posttest method was used to assess perceptions of nurses' knowledge in diabetes care and confidence in teaching diabetes education and to examine the effectiveness of a computer-based learning educational module on nurses' knowledge and confidence related to diabetes. Nurses had a slight improvement in knowledge, skill, and confidence related to diabetes after the computer-based learning intervention, but no statistically significant differences were found.

  14. An empowerment-based approach to developing innovative e-health tools for self-management.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Laurence; van der Boog, Paul; Dumaij, Adrie

    2011-12-01

    E-health is seen as an important technological tool in achieving self-management; however, there is little evidence of how effective e-health is for self-management. Example tools remain experimental and there is limited knowledge yet about the design, use, and effects of this class of tools. By way of introducing a new view on the development of e-health tools dedicated to self-management we aim to contribute to the discussion for further research in this area. Our assumption is that patient empowerment is an important mechanism of e-health self-management and we suggest incorporating it within the development of self-management tools. Important components of empowerment selected from literature are: communication, education and health literacy, information, self-care, decision aids and contact with fellow patients. All components require skills of both patients and the physicians. In this discussion paper we propose how the required skills can be used to specify effective self-management tools. PMID:22193825

  15. Integrating self-management and exercise for people living with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, A D; McCullough, C; Chan, A

    2011-02-01

    The Program for Arthritis Control through Education and Exercise, PACE-Ex™, is an arthritis self-management program incorporating principles and practice of self-management, goal setting and warm water exercise. The purpose of this program review is to examine the impact of PACE-Ex on participants' self-efficacy for condition management, self-management behaviors, goal achievement levels and self-reported disability, pain and health status. A retrospective review was conducted on participants who completed PACE-Ex from 1998 to 2006. A total of 347 participants completed 24 PACE-Ex programs [mean age 69.9 (±12.2) years, living with arthritis mean of 14.1 (±13.2) years]. Participants showed statistically significant improvements in their self-efficacy to manage their condition (Program for Rheumatic Independent Self-Management Questionnaire) (P < 0.001) and performance of self-management behaviors (Self-Management Behavior Questionnaire) (P < 0.01). Self-reported health status, disability and pain levels improved post-program (P < 0.01) despite reporting statistically significant increase in the total swollen and tender joint counts (Health Assessment Questionnaire) (P < 0.05). Sixty-eight percent of participants achieved or exceeded their long-term goal as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. These findings remain to be proven with a more rigorous method yet they suggest that PACE-Ex is a promising intervention that supports healthy living for individuals with arthritis.

  16. An empowerment-based approach to developing innovative e-health tools for self-management.

    PubMed

    Alpay, Laurence; van der Boog, Paul; Dumaij, Adrie

    2011-12-01

    E-health is seen as an important technological tool in achieving self-management; however, there is little evidence of how effective e-health is for self-management. Example tools remain experimental and there is limited knowledge yet about the design, use, and effects of this class of tools. By way of introducing a new view on the development of e-health tools dedicated to self-management we aim to contribute to the discussion for further research in this area. Our assumption is that patient empowerment is an important mechanism of e-health self-management and we suggest incorporating it within the development of self-management tools. Important components of empowerment selected from literature are: communication, education and health literacy, information, self-care, decision aids and contact with fellow patients. All components require skills of both patients and the physicians. In this discussion paper we propose how the required skills can be used to specify effective self-management tools.

  17. Improvement of Diabetic Patients Nursing Care by the Development of Educational Programs

    PubMed Central

    Vissarion, Bakalis; Malliarou, Maria; Theofilou, Paraskevi; Zyga, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem with many social and economic consequences in general population. The importance of education in the diabetic patient and his family, led to the development of diabetes clinical nurse specialist. The role of diabetes clinical nurse specialist is essential and crucial to the hospitals and the community, in order to form a relationship with the diabetic patient and his/her family. In this way health is promoted to the maximum extent possible. In conclusion educational programs help patients with diabetes to obtain information about their condition and improve their self-care skills. PMID:26973922

  18. The Contribution of Social Networks to the Health and Self-Management of Patients with Long-Term Conditions: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, David; Blickem, Christian; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Kennedy, Anne; Richardson, Gerry; Rogers, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of patient education programmes in changing individual self-management behaviour is equivocal. More distal elements of personal social relationships and the availability of social capital at the community level may be key to the mobilisation of resources needed for long-term condition self-management to be effective. Aim To determine how the social networks of people with long-term conditions (diabetes and heart disease) are associated with health-related outcomes and changes in outcomes over time. Methods Patients with chronic heart disease (CHD) or diabetes (n = 300) randomly selected from the disease registers of 19 GP practices in the North West of England. Data on personal social networks collected using a postal questionnaire, alongside face-to-face interviewing. Follow-up at 12 months via postal questionnaire using a self-report grid for network members identified at baseline. Analysis Multiple regression analysis of relationships between health status, self-management and health-economics outcomes, and characteristics of patients' social networks. Results Findings indicated that: (1) social involvement with a wider variety of people and groups supports personal self-management and physical and mental well-being; (2) support work undertaken by personal networks expands in accordance with health needs helping people to cope with their condition; (3) network support substitutes for formal care and can produce substantial saving in traditional health service utilisation costs. Health service costs were significantly (p<0.01) reduced for patients receiving greater levels of illness work through their networks. Conclusions Support for self-management which achieves desirable policy outcomes should be construed less as an individualised set of actions and behaviour and more as a social network phenomenon. This study shows the need for a greater focus on harnessing and sustaining the capacity of networks and the importance of

  19. Information requirements of self-managing teams

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aken, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In response to the significant challenges organizations face today, many managers have put in place continuous improvement efforts to help the organization on enhance its competitive position. A key element of continuous improvement efforts is employee involvement, and one of the most complex, mature, and effective forms of employee involvement is self-managing teams. A self-managing team is a group of employees, usually eight to fifteen, which is responsible for planning, implementing, controlling, and improving work processes. There are many characteristics of self-managing teams which are discussed frequently in the literature and are common topics of seminars and workshops on SMTs, including the role of the first-line supervisor, the structure of teams, the training necessary, and the pay system for SMTs. However, one area which has not been as widely researched is the role of information - what types of information do self-managing teams need This paper addresses this question. Results from a multiple case study research project focusing on the information requirements of SMTs are presented. Specifically, seven types of information SMTs need are identified, as well as general characteristics of the information system. By information system, I mean very broadly, the system (both formal and informal) which provides information of any kind to a self-managing team. The results of this research can be thought of as design features'' for an information system to support SMTs. Practicing managers can use these design features in two ways: they can design them into beginning SMT efforts; or, for SMTs already established, managers can compare them to the existing information system and adjust accordingly.

  20. Information requirements of self-managing teams

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aken, E.M.

    1992-12-31

    In response to the significant challenges organizations face today, many managers have put in place continuous improvement efforts to help the organization on enhance its competitive position. A key element of continuous improvement efforts is employee involvement, and one of the most complex, mature, and effective forms of employee involvement is self-managing teams. A self-managing team is a group of employees, usually eight to fifteen, which is responsible for planning, implementing, controlling, and improving work processes. There are many characteristics of self-managing teams which are discussed frequently in the literature and are common topics of seminars and workshops on SMTs, including the role of the first-line supervisor, the structure of teams, the training necessary, and the pay system for SMTs. However, one area which has not been as widely researched is the role of information - what types of information do self-managing teams need? This paper addresses this question. Results from a multiple case study research project focusing on the information requirements of SMTs are presented. Specifically, seven types of information SMTs need are identified, as well as general characteristics of the information system. By information system, I mean very broadly, the system (both formal and informal) which provides information of any kind to a self-managing team. The results of this research can be thought of as ``design features`` for an information system to support SMTs. Practicing managers can use these design features in two ways: they can design them into beginning SMT efforts; or, for SMTs already established, managers can compare them to the existing information system and adjust accordingly.

  1. [The cure of type 2 diabetes and patient education].

    PubMed

    Lagger, G; Chambouleyron, M; Correia, J C; Sittarame, F; Miganne, G; Lasserre Moutet, A; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Type 2 diabetes is a potentially reversible disease. Patient education encompasses a deep investment of the health care providers, who with the aid of pedagogic tools, help the pa tient commit to this path. This facilitates the learning of uncommon knowledge and skills required. Whether or not it leads to a complete remission of the disease may not be the main purpose. The main goal lies in the patient's motivation to learn and change on a long term basis.

  2. Barrier Factors to the Completion of Diabetes Education in Korean Diabetic Adult Patients: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Tae; Jung, Se Young; Oh, Seung-Min; Jeong, Su-Min; Choi, Yoon-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a disease with high social burdens and is expected to increase gradually. A long-term management is essential for the treatment of diabetes, requiring patient self-cares. Diabetes education is important for such self-cares, but it does not sufficiently take place. In addition, little studies have been conducted on the barriers to the completion of diabetes education. This study, thus, aimed to analyze the factors related to the completion of diabetes education and investigate its barriers. Methods Of 50,405 respondents to the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 3,820 were selected for the analysis, excluding those aged 29 or younger and those with missing values. The completion of diabetes education was set as a dependent variable and an analysis was made on the factors that affect the dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression was employed for the analysis. Results Lower educational level was associated with less diabetes education, and the degree of diabetes education was lower in the group with male, the group that didn't have a family history or was not aware of a family history, the group that was not currently aware of diabetes and the group without a spouse. There was no difference in the completion of diabetes education by underlying diseases, family income level, age, residing area, economic activity status, insurance coverage, smoking, and drinking. Conclusion Diabetes education is of importance for the treatment and management of diabetes. Currently, however, diabetes education is not sufficiently carried out in Korea. The completion rate of diabetes education was low in male, patients without or not knowing a family history, patients who were not currently aware of their diabetes, patients without a spouse, and patients with low educational level. Therefore, encouraging these patients to take the education will be a more effective approach to increase the completion rate

  3. Improving diabetes management with mobile health technology.

    PubMed

    Sieverdes, John C; Treiber, Frank; Jenkins, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes affects 25.8 million persons in the United States, and these persons make more than 35 million ambulatory care visits annually. Yet, less than half of persons with diabetes meet the recommended levels of A1C, blood pressure and lipid control. One innovative approach is to use mobile health technologies to help patients better manage their diabetes and related conditions, and 85% to 90% of patients have access to mobile health technology. A brief review of the guidelines for diabetes care and mobile health technology that can support the guidelines are reported related to (1) glycemic control and self-monitoring of blood glucose, (2) pharmacological approaches and medication management, (3) medical nutrition therapy, (4) physical activity and resistance training, (5) weight loss, (6) diabetes self-management education and (7) blood pressure control and hypertension. The patient and provider are encouraged to explore possibilities for mobile health technologies that can support behavior change.

  4. Guidelines for the Practice of Adaptive Diabetes Education for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    This article presents guidelines developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators concerning adaptive diabetes education for visually impaired persons (ADEVIP). The article discusses definitions, values, and assumptions; recommended professional educational background; role delineation; and process and content of ADEVIP. (DB)

  5. Clinical outcomes of a diabetes education program for patients with diabetes mellitus in the Micronesian community in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Mok Thoong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hawaii has diverse population made up of a cultural mix of different races. Due to different cultural and social influences and language barrier, many of the under-served population who migrated to Hawaii and having diabetes mellitus may be susceptible to long-term complications due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia and medication nonadherence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a diabetes education program on the clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus in the Micronesian community of Hawaii. Methods: This study included patients over age 18 years, with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The diabetes education program was customized for its weekly classes to fit to the under-served population. Data were collected on participants on the 1st day and then 6 months after attending the education program. Data on primary and secondary endpoints were collected and analyzed. Findings: The mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, and triglyceride levels of participants fell significantly from baseline after attending the diabetes education program for 6 months. No significant changes were observed in other secondary outcomes during the study time period. Conclusion: Based on our findings, the diabetes education program that was tailored to the Micronesian population was successful in achieving glycemic goals, enhancing medication adherence, improving clinical outcomes, and also preventing long-term complications among its participants. PMID:27512713

  6. Improving hypertension self-management with community health coaches.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet Hoffman

    2015-03-01

    Approximately two thirds of those older than 60 years have a hypertension diagnosis. The aim of our program, Health Coaches for Hypertension Control, is to improve hypertension self-management among rural residents older than 60 years through education and support offered by trained community volunteers called Health Coaches. Participants received baseline and follow-up health risk appraisals with blood work, educational materials, and items such as blood pressure monitors and pedometers. Data were collected at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks on 146 participants who demonstrated statistically significant increases in hypertension-related knowledge from baseline to 8 weeks that persisted at 16 weeks, as well as significant improvements in stage of readiness to change behaviors and in actual behaviors. Furthermore, clinically significant decreases in all outcome measures were observed, with statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure (-5.781 mmHg; p = .001), weight (-2.475 lb; p < .001), and glucose (-5.096 mg/dl; p = .004) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although 40.4% of participants met the Healthy People 2020 definition of controlled hypertension at baseline, the proportion of participants meeting this definition at 16 weeks postintervention increased to 51.0%. This article describes a university-community-hospital system model that effectively promotes hypertension self-management in a rural Appalachian community.

  7. Improving hypertension self-management with community health coaches.

    PubMed

    Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet Hoffman

    2015-03-01

    Approximately two thirds of those older than 60 years have a hypertension diagnosis. The aim of our program, Health Coaches for Hypertension Control, is to improve hypertension self-management among rural residents older than 60 years through education and support offered by trained community volunteers called Health Coaches. Participants received baseline and follow-up health risk appraisals with blood work, educational materials, and items such as blood pressure monitors and pedometers. Data were collected at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks on 146 participants who demonstrated statistically significant increases in hypertension-related knowledge from baseline to 8 weeks that persisted at 16 weeks, as well as significant improvements in stage of readiness to change behaviors and in actual behaviors. Furthermore, clinically significant decreases in all outcome measures were observed, with statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure (-5.781 mmHg; p = .001), weight (-2.475 lb; p < .001), and glucose (-5.096 mg/dl; p = .004) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although 40.4% of participants met the Healthy People 2020 definition of controlled hypertension at baseline, the proportion of participants meeting this definition at 16 weeks postintervention increased to 51.0%. This article describes a university-community-hospital system model that effectively promotes hypertension self-management in a rural Appalachian community. PMID:24837989

  8. Diabetes Connect: African American Women's Perceptions of the Community Health Worker Model for Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brittany S; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2015-10-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions have potential to improve diabetes outcomes and reduce health disparities. However, few studies have explored patient perspectives of peer-delivered diabetes programs. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate possible benefits as well as risks of CHW-delivered peer support for diabetes from the perspectives of African American women living with type 2 diabetes in Jefferson County, Alabama. Four ninety-minute focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on the topic of CHWs and diabetes management. Participants were recruited from the diabetes education database at a safety-net hospital. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive-inductive approach. There were 25 participants. Mean years with diabetes was 11.2 (range 6 months to 42 years). Participants were knowledgeable about methods for self-management but reported limited resources and stress as major barriers. Preferred CHW roles included liaison to the healthcare system and easily accessible information source. Participants preferred that the CHW be knowledgeable and have personal experience managing their own diabetes or assisting a family member with diabetes. Concerns regarding the CHW-model were possible breaches of confidentiality and privacy. The self-management strategies and barriers to management identified by participants were reflected in their preferred CHW roles and traits. These results suggest that African American women with diabetes in Alabama would support peer-led diabetes education that is community-based and socially and emotionally supportive.

  9. Diabetes Connect: African American Women's Perceptions of the Community Health Worker Model for Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brittany S; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2015-10-01

    Community health worker (CHW) interventions have potential to improve diabetes outcomes and reduce health disparities. However, few studies have explored patient perspectives of peer-delivered diabetes programs. The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate possible benefits as well as risks of CHW-delivered peer support for diabetes from the perspectives of African American women living with type 2 diabetes in Jefferson County, Alabama. Four ninety-minute focus groups were conducted by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on the topic of CHWs and diabetes management. Participants were recruited from the diabetes education database at a safety-net hospital. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive-inductive approach. There were 25 participants. Mean years with diabetes was 11.2 (range 6 months to 42 years). Participants were knowledgeable about methods for self-management but reported limited resources and stress as major barriers. Preferred CHW roles included liaison to the healthcare system and easily accessible information source. Participants preferred that the CHW be knowledgeable and have personal experience managing their own diabetes or assisting a family member with diabetes. Concerns regarding the CHW-model were possible breaches of confidentiality and privacy. The self-management strategies and barriers to management identified by participants were reflected in their preferred CHW roles and traits. These results suggest that African American women with diabetes in Alabama would support peer-led diabetes education that is community-based and socially and emotionally supportive. PMID:25773991

  10. Supporting Participation in Physical Education at School in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Perceptions of Teachers, Youth with Type 1 Diabetes, Parents and Diabetes Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Moola, Fiona; Robertson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    It is not clear how best to support youth with type 1 diabetes to participate in physical education (PE) at school. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of facilitators and barriers to PE in youth with type 1 diabetes and to determine how schools can help these individuals to be physically active. Interviews and focus groups were…

  11. Integrating community health workers into a patient-centered medical home to support disease self-management among Vietnamese Americans: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Wennerstrom, Ashley; Bui, Tap; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Price-Haywood, Eboni G

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) and community health workers (CHWs) improve chronic disease management. There are few models for integrating CHWs into PCMHs in order to enhance disease self-management support among diverse populations. In this article, we describe how a community-based nonprofit agency, a PCMH, and academic partners collaborated to develop and implement the Patient Resource and Education Program (PREP). We employed CHWs as PCMH care team members to provide health education and support to Vietnamese American patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. We began by conducting focus groups to assess patient knowledge, desire for support, and availability of community resources. Based on findings, we developed PREP with CHW guidance on cultural tailoring of educational materials and methods. CHWs received training in core competencies related to self-management support principles and conducted the 4-month intervention for PCMH patients. Throughout the program, we conducted process evaluation through structured team meetings and patient satisfaction surveys. We describe successes and challenges associated with PREP delivery including patient recruitment, structuring/documenting visits, and establishing effective care team integration, work flow, and communication. Strategies for mitigating these issues are presented, and we make recommendations for other PCMHs seeking to integrate CHWs into care teams.

  12. Self-Management Technology for Clients and Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, Steven E.

    Self-management procedures constitute a special case of intensive or N=1 research design methodology. In using self-management procedures, an individual becomes a personal scientist, investigating and altering his own behavior. Five broad self-management strategies are discussed. Self-observation involves precise monitoring of one's behavior.…

  13. Optimising Health Literacy and Access of Service Provision to Community Dwelling Older People with Diabetes Receiving Home Nursing Support

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Sue; Norman, Ralph; Morley, Jo; Weerasuriya, Rona; Osborne, Richard H.; Beauchamp, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) study engaged diverse organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS). Methods. Participants were home nursing clients with diabetes. The intervention included tailored diabetes self-management education according to preferred learning style, a standardised diabetes education tool, resources, and teach-back method. Results. Needs analysis of 113 quota-sampled clients showed difficulties managing health and finding and appraising health information. The service-wide diabetes education intervention was applied to 24 clients. The intervention was well received by clients and nurses. Positive impacts on clients' diabetes knowledge and behaviour were seen and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand effective diabetes self-management. PMID:27668261

  14. Optimising Health Literacy and Access of Service Provision to Community Dwelling Older People with Diabetes Receiving Home Nursing Support

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Sue; Norman, Ralph; Morley, Jo; Weerasuriya, Rona; Osborne, Richard H.; Beauchamp, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health literacy is the ability to access, understand, and use information and services for good health. Among people with chronic conditions, health literacy requirements for effective self-management are high. The Optimising Health Literacy and Access (Ophelia) study engaged diverse organisations in the codesign of interventions involving the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) needs assessment, followed by development and evaluation of interventions addressing identified needs. This study reports the process and outcomes of one of the nine organisations, the Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS). Methods. Participants were home nursing clients with diabetes. The intervention included tailored diabetes self-management education according to preferred learning style, a standardised diabetes education tool, resources, and teach-back method. Results. Needs analysis of 113 quota-sampled clients showed difficulties managing health and finding and appraising health information. The service-wide diabetes education intervention was applied to 24 clients. The intervention was well received by clients and nurses. Positive impacts on clients' diabetes knowledge and behaviour were seen and nurses reported clear benefits to their practice. Conclusion. A structured method that supports healthcare services to codesign interventions that respond to the health literacy needs of their clients can lead to evidence-informed, sustainable practice changes that support clients to better understand effective diabetes self-management.

  15. Potentials of Web 2.0 for Diabetes Education of Adolescent Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabestari, Omid; Roudsari, Abdul

    Diabetes is a very common chronic disease which produces compli-cations in almost all body organs and consumes a huge amount of the health budget. Although education has proved to be useful in diabetes management, there is a great need to improve the availability of these courses for the increasing number of diabetic patients. E-learning can facilitate this service, but the current education system should be tailored towards e-learning standards. Amongst diabetic patients, adolescents as computer natives are suggested as the best target to e-learning diabetes education. With regards to its features, Web 2.0 can be a very good technology to build a framework for diabetes education and consequent evaluation of this education.

  16. A Methodological Review of Faith-Based Health Promotion Literature: Advancing the Science to Expand Delivery of Diabetes Education to Black Americans

    PubMed Central

    Newlin, Kelley; Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Allard, Emily; Chase, Susan; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional avenues, such as faith-based organizations (FBOs), must be explored to expand delivery of diabetes self-management education (DSME) to benefit Black Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this study was to methodologically review the faith-based health promotion literature relevant to Blacks with T2D. A total of 14 intervention studies were identified for inclusion in the review. These studies detailed features of methods employed to affect health outcomes that DSME similarly targets. Analysis of the faith-based studies’ methodological features indicated most studies used 1) collaborative research approaches, 2) pre-experimental designs, 3) similar recruitment and retention strategies, and 4) culturally sensitive, behaviorally-oriented interventions with incorporation of social support to achieve positive health outcomes in Black Americans. Findings indicate FBOs may be a promising avenue for delivering DSME to Black Americans. Informed by the findings, a focused discussion on advancing the science of faith-based interventions to expand delivery of DSME to Black Americans with diabetes is provided. PMID:21487842

  17. Views and Preferences of Low-Literate Hispanics regarding Diabetes Education: Results of Formative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosal, Milagros C.; Goins, Karin Valentine; Carbone, Elena T.; Cortes, Dharma E.

    2004-01-01

    Hispanics are twice as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to have diabetes and are also at higher risk for diabetes-related complications and poorer outcomes. The prevalence of diabetes is inversely related to educational status. Low literacy is common, especially among older Hispanics. Little literature exists on formative research to create diabetes…

  18. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Ownership of Preventive Health Equipment among Rural Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Diabetes self-management is important for achieving successful health outcomes. Different levels of self-management have been reported among various populations, though little is known about ownership of equipment that can enhance accomplishment of these tasks. Purpose: This study examined diabetes self-management equipment ownership…

  19. Self-management of acute asthma among low-income urban adults.

    PubMed

    George, Maureen; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Rand, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    One approach to address asthma disparities has been to create evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma care and education. However, the adoption of these recommendations has been suboptimal among many providers. As a result, low-income minority patients may not be receiving adequate instruction in asthma self-management. In addition, these patients may fail to follow guideline-based recommendations. We conducted 25 interviews to identify the extent to which urban low-income adults have received training in, and implement, self-management protocols for acute asthma. Twenty-five adults (92% female; 76% African American; mean age 39) were enrolled. Only one subject had received asthma self-management training and only 10 (40%) used short-acting beta-(2) agonist-based (SABA) self-management protocols for the early treatment of acute asthma. No subject used a peak flow meter or an asthma action plan. Most (52%) chose to initially treat acute asthma with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) despite the availability of SABAs. Importantly, 21 (84%) preferred an integrated approach using both conventional and CAM treatments. Four themes associated with acute asthma self-management emerged from the qualitative analysis. The first theme safety reflected subjects' perception that CAM was safer than SABA. Severity addressed the calculation that subjects made in determining if SABA or CAM was indicated based on the degree of symptoms they were experiencing. The third theme speed and strength of the combination described subjects' belief in the superiority of integrating CAM and SABA for acute asthma self-management. The final themesense of identity spoke to the ability of CAM to provide a customized self-management strategy that subjects desired. It is unclear if subjects' greater use of CAM or delays in using SABA-based self-management protocols were functions of inadequate instruction or personal preference. Regardless, delays in, or under use of, conventional

  20. Self-Management of Acute Asthma among Low-Income Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    George, Maureen; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Rand, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    One approach to address asthma disparities has been to create evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma care and education. However, the adoption of these recommendations has been suboptimal among many providers. As a result, low-income minority patients may not be receiving adequate instruction in asthma self-management. In addition, these patients may fail to follow guideline-based recommendations. We conducted 25 interviews to identify the extent to which urban low-income adults have received training in, and implement, self-management protocols for acute asthma. Twenty-five adults (92% female; 76% African American; mean age 39) were enrolled. Only one subject had received asthma self-management training and only 10 (40%) used short-acting beta-2 agonist-based (SABA) self-management protocols for the early treatment of acute asthma. No subject used a peak flow meter or an asthma action plan. Most (52%) chose to initially treat acute asthma with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) despite the availability of SABAs. Importantly, 21 (84%) preferred an integrated approach using both conventional and CAM treatments. Four themes associated with acute asthma self-management emerged from the qualitative analysis. The first theme safety reflected subjects’ perception that CAM was safer than SABA. Severity addressed the calculation that subjects made in determining if SABA or CAM was indicated based on the degree of symptoms they were experiencing. The third theme speed and strength of the combination described subjects’ belief in the superiority of integrating CAM and SABA for acute asthma self-management. The final themesense of identity spoke to the ability of CAM to provide a customized self-management strategy that subjects desired. It is unclear if subjects’ greater use of CAM or delays in using SABA-based self-management protocols were functions of inadequate instruction or personal preference. Regardless, delays in, or under use of

  1. Workshop: Patient Self-Management: Update of Ongoing Studies in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Stigendal; André

    1998-01-01

    Anti-vitamin K (AVK) therapy (e.g., warfarin) requires regular blood tests for adequate dosing of the drug. The therapeutic window for these drugs is narrow, with a risk of bleeding if the dose is too high and of thrombotic complications if the dose is too low. Moreover, the required dose to achieve an optimal level of anticoagulation is individual and depends on such factors as the general health of the patient, food intake, and concomitant medication. Although control requires regular monitoring, most patients are reluctant to visit an anticoagulation clinic (ACC) more than 6-12 times yearly because each visit costs the patient both money and time. The development of prothrombin time (PT) monitors that are simple to operate and highly portable has made self-management possible for large groups of patients on long-term AVK therapy. Self-management increases the safety of AVK therapy through frequent testing (3-4 times per month) and timely dose adjustments when they are indicated. The concept of self-management of AVK therapy was introduced in Germany a decade ago with great success. Swedish patient education in self-management was started in September 1996. As of May 1997, 38 patients have completed the training program, 37 of whom have continued with self-management. Experience with the first seven groups of patients has convinced us that self-management is possible and has great potential. Randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness of self-management with regard to a reduction in bleeding and thrombotic complications.

  2. The art and science of diabetes education: a culture out of balance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert M; Funnell, Martha M

    2008-01-01

    In the past 20 years, behavioral science has helped create a growing body of theoretically derived, evidenced-based approaches to diabetes patient education. Health care professionals in all disciplines are being required to demonstrate that their practice is evidence based. For diabetes educators, behavioral science is the source of much of that evidence. However, effective diabetes education involves a combination of art and science. Establishing a therapeutic alliance with patients is an art. Diabetes educators must have the interpersonal skills, values, and personal traits needed to cultivate relationships with patients that are characterized by trust, respect, and acceptance. They must feel and be able to express compassion, empathy, and warmth. However, if someone outside the field were reviewing diabetes education evaluation research, they would probably conclude that diabetes educators are interchangeable cogs in a wheel. The positive impact of the therapeutic alliance is well documented in the counseling, psychotherapy, education, and nursing literature. However, evidence to support the important role of the diabetes educator's values, interpersonal skills, and ability to establish a therapeutic alliance with patients is absent from that literature. Valid and reliable measures used to document the impact of interpersonal skills counselors and teachers could be used in diabetes education with little or no adaptation. The evidence and tools exist; we now need to determine if the will exists.

  3. The art and science of diabetes education: a culture out of balance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert M; Funnell, Martha M

    2008-01-01

    In the past 20 years, behavioral science has helped create a growing body of theoretically derived, evidenced-based approaches to diabetes patient education. Health care professionals in all disciplines are being required to demonstrate that their practice is evidence based. For diabetes educators, behavioral science is the source of much of that evidence. However, effective diabetes education involves a combination of art and science. Establishing a therapeutic alliance with patients is an art. Diabetes educators must have the interpersonal skills, values, and personal traits needed to cultivate relationships with patients that are characterized by trust, respect, and acceptance. They must feel and be able to express compassion, empathy, and warmth. However, if someone outside the field were reviewing diabetes education evaluation research, they would probably conclude that diabetes educators are interchangeable cogs in a wheel. The positive impact of the therapeutic alliance is well documented in the counseling, psychotherapy, education, and nursing literature. However, evidence to support the important role of the diabetes educator's values, interpersonal skills, and ability to establish a therapeutic alliance with patients is absent from that literature. Valid and reliable measures used to document the impact of interpersonal skills counselors and teachers could be used in diabetes education with little or no adaptation. The evidence and tools exist; we now need to determine if the will exists. PMID:18267997

  4. What happens when patients know more than their doctors? Experiences of health interactions after diabetes patient education: a qualitative patient-led study

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Rosamund; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of patient education on the lives of people with diabetes, including the effect on interactions with doctors and other healthcare professionals. Design Qualitative user-led study using longitudinal interviews and 146 h of participant observation. Data were analysed using a narrative approach. Participants 21 patients with type 1 diabetes, those either about to attend a patient education course or those who had completed the course in the previous 10 years. Setting Established patient education centres in three UK teaching hospitals teaching the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) course. Results Both postcourse and several years later, most participants spoke of the experience of taking part in education as life-changingly positive. It helped them understand how to gain control over a very complex disease and freed them from dependence on medical advice and restrictive regimes. However, interactions within the health system following patient education could be fraught. Participants emerged from the course with greater condition-specific knowledge than many of the healthcare professionals they encountered. When these professionals did not understand what their patients were trying to do and were uncomfortable trusting their expertise, there could be serious consequences for these patients' ability to continue effective self-management. Conclusions Patients who have in-depth knowledge of their condition encounter problems when their expertise is seen as inappropriate in standard healthcare interactions, and expertise taught to patients in one branch of medicine can be considered non-compliant by those who are not specialists in that field. Although patient education can give people confidence in their own self-management skills, it cannot solve the power imbalance that remains when a generalist healthcare professional, however well meaning, blocks access to medication and supplies needed to manage chronic diseases

  5. On the Horizon. Biofeedback and Self-Management of Stress in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Edward W.; Walton, Wilbur T.

    1979-01-01

    The use of biofeedback in the self management of stress in school children is discussed. Educational research on biofeedback suggests that biofeedback training can help children to learn relaxation skills, reduce school-related anxiety, and gain a measure of self-discipline and confidence. (PHR)

  6. Differences in Osteoarthritis Self-Management Support Intervention Outcomes According to Race and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperber, Nina R.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Weinberger, Morris; Allen, Kelli D.

    2013-01-01

    We explored whether the effects of a telephone-based osteoarthritis (OA) self-management support intervention differed by race and health literacy. Participants included 515 veterans with hip and/or knee OA. Linear mixed models assessed differential effects of the intervention compared with health education (HE) and usual care (UC) on pain…

  7. Self-Management for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    Supporting children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom presents a unique challenge to the teachers and schools that serve them. This article addresses the utility of self-management as a proactive strategy for increasing the task engagement and compliant behavior of high-functioning students with autism. The author…

  8. Assistive technologies for self-managed pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Tung, James Y; Stead, Brent; Mann, William; Ba'Pham; Popovic, Milos R

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) present a persistent and costly problem. Continuing effort in developing new technologies that support self-managed care is an important prevention strategy. Specifically, the aims of this scoping review are to review the key concepts and factors related to self-managed prevention of PUs in individuals with SCI and appraise the technologies available to assist patients in self-management of PU prevention practices. There is broad consensus that sustaining long-term adherence to prevention regimens is a major concern. Recent literature highlights the interactions between behavioral and physiological risk factors. We identify four technology categories that support self-management: computer-based educational technologies demonstrated improved short-term gains in knowledge (2 studies), interface pressure mapping technologies demonstrated improved adherence to pressure-relief schedules up to 3 mo (5 studies), electrical stimulation confirmed improvements in tissue tolerance after 8 wk of training (3 studies), and telemedicine programs demonstrated improvements in independence and reduced hospital visits over 6 mo (2 studies). Overall, self-management technologies demonstrated low-to-moderate effectiveness in addressing a subset of risk factors. However, the effectiveness of technologies in preventing PUs is limited due to a lack of incidence reporting. In light of the key findings, we recommend developing integrated technologies that address multiple risk factors.

  9. Evaluation of Online Education about Diabetes Management in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jean A.; Hsueh, Kuei-Hsiang

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of initiatives to provide education to improve the quality of care for children with diabetes in the school setting. This study piloted and evaluated an online continuing education program for school nurses about diabetes management for children in schools using current practice principles. The evaluation determined if…

  10. Quality Assessment of Diabetes Online Patient Education Materials from Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorcely, Brenda; Agarwal, Nitin; Raghuwanshi, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the readability of type 2 diabetes online patient education materials from academic institutions in the northeast USA and the American Diabetes Association. Many US residents utilise the Internet to obtain health information. Studies have shown that online patient education materials…

  11. Results of a community translation of the "Women Take PRIDE" heart disease self-management program.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Mary P; Pettinger, Tianna M; Coyle, Cassandra L; Spokane, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the results of a community demonstration of an evidence-based heart disease self-management program for older women. Women Take PRIDE (WTP) is a group-based education and behavior modification program, based on social cognitive theory, designed to enhance heart disease self-management among older women. We implemented the program in community settings with 129 participants. Evaluation data was collected at baseline and at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. Outcomes included general health status, functional health status, and knowledge. Results showed significant improvements in self-rated health, energy, social functioning, knowledge of community resources, and number, frequency, and bother of cardiac symptoms. These results demonstrate that an evidence-based heart disease self-management program can be effective at improving health and quality of life among older women with heart disease when implemented in community settings.

  12. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Students in a Regular Classroom: Effectiveness of a Self-Management Procedure Using a Tactile Prompt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika; Glassenbury, Michele; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Self-management strategies have been shown to be widely effective. However, limited classroom-based research exists involving low performing but developmentally normal high school-aged participants. This study examined the effectiveness of a self-management strategy aimed at increasing on-task behavior in general education classrooms with students…

  13. Misconceptions About Diabetes and Its Management Among Low-Income Minorities With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Devin M.; Ponieman, Diego; Leventhal, Howard; Halm, Ethan A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine diabetic patients' knowledge and beliefs about the disease and medications that could hinder optimal disease management. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 151 type 2 diabetic patients characterizing diabetes knowledge and beliefs about the disease and medications was conducted. RESULTS Mean diabetes duration was 13 years. Over half of the patients (56%) believed that normal glucose is ≤200 mg/dl, 54% reported being able to feel when blood glucose levels are high, 36% thought that they will not always have diabetes, 29% thought that their doctor will cure them of diabetes, one in four (23%) said there is no need to take diabetes medications when glucose levels are normal, and 12% believed they have diabetes only when glucose levels are high. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes knowledge and beliefs inconsistent with a chronic disease model of diabetes were prevalent in this sample. Suboptimal knowledge and beliefs are potentially modifiable and are logical targets for educational interventions to improve diabetes self-management. PMID:19131457

  14. Barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes: results from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Renfrew, Megan R; Taing, Elizabeth; Cohen, Marya J; Betancourt, Joseph R; Pasinski, Roger; Green, Alexander R

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes care have been well documented. While root causes have been explored for some minority groups, less is known about smaller immigrant populations such as Cambodians. In this study, we sought to explore the potential barriers to care for Cambodian patients with diabetes. We conducted five focus groups with three study groups: health care providers, bilingual Khmer frontline staff, and Cambodian patients with diabetes. Focus groups findings revealed that certain cultural beliefs, low health literacy, and language barriers strongly affect Cambodian patients' understanding of diabetes and self-management, as well as clinicians' ability to care effectively for Cambodian patients with diabetes. Our study supports previous literature and also adds several new insights not previously described. We recommend education for health care providers on patient-centered, cross-cultural care with an emphasis on the needs of Cambodians as well as culturally appropriate diabetes education for patients.

  15. Effectiveness of foot care education among people with type 2 diabetes in rural Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Saurabh, Suman; Sarkar, Sonali; Selvaraj, Kalaiselvi; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Roy, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of diabetes and its foot complications is increasing in India. Prevention of these complications through foot care education should be explored. The objective of our study was to assess the risk factors of poor diabetic foot care and to find the effectiveness of health education in improving foot care practice among diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the outpatients of a rural health center with type 2 diabetes. Awareness regarding diabetes, care of diabetes and foot care practice ware assessed and scored. Individual and group health education focusing on foot care was performed. Foot care practice was reassessed after 2 weeks of education. Results: Only 54% were aware that diabetes could lead to reduced foot sensation and foot ulcers. Nearly 53% and 41% of the patients had good diabetes awareness and good diabetes care respectively. Only 22% of the patients had their feet examined by a health worker or doctor. The patients with poor, satisfactory and good practice scores were 44.7%, 35.9% and 19.4% respectively. Low education status, old age and low awareness regarding diabetes were the risk factors for poor practice of foot care. Average score for practice of foot care improved from 5.90 ± 1.82 to 8.0 ± 1.30 after 2 weeks of health education. Practice related to toe space examination, foot inspection and foot wear inspection improved maximally. Conclusion: Foot care education for diabetics in a primary care setting improves their foot care practice and is likely to be effective in reducing the burden of diabetic foot ulcer. PMID:24701439

  16. The Contribution of Diabetes Education in the Treatment of People with Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, M G S; Guerbali, C C L; Ochiai, C; Silva, R M; Camara, G; Petry, T B Z

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes has caused 5.1 million deaths, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Large clinical studies have proven the importance of intensive control of diabetes from diagnosis to prevent microvascular and macrovascular complications of the disease in the long term. Diabetes education conducted by an interdisciplinary team of doctors, nurses, nutritionists, psychologists, and others is a necessary tool to ensure effective behavioral change and help overcome the obstacles that may hinder self care. Several studies have been analyzed in this review, in which we find a variety of results. Diabetes education has proven to be essential to patient compliance with their T2DM treatment; the main objective is to prevent acute and chronic complications, especially cardiovascular ones, which are the main causes of mortality. PMID:27260145

  17. Association of low educational status with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Jaipur diabetes registry-1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Niharikaa; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Maheshwari, Vitthal D.; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of educational status (ES), as a marker of socioeconomic status, with the prevalence of microvascular complications in diabetes. Methods: Successive patients (n = 1214) presenting to our centre were evaluated for sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and therapeutic variables. Subjects were classified according to ES into Group 1 (illiterate, 216); Group 2 (diabetes 7 ± 7 years, and 55% were men. Prevalence of various risk factors was smoking/tobacco 25.5%, obesity body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 64.0%, abdominal obesity 63.4%, hypertension 67.5%, high fat diet 14.5%, low fruits/vegetables 31.8%, low fibre intake 60.0%, high salt diet 16.9%, physical inactivity 27.5%, coronary, or cerebrovascular disease 3.0%, and microvascular disease (peripheral, ocular or renal) in 20.7%. Microvascular disease was significantly greater in illiterate (25.9%) and low (23.6%) compared to middle (15.0%) and high (14.7%) ES groups (P < 0.05). Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that in illiterate and low ES groups respectively, prevalence of smoking/tobacco use (odds ratio 3.84, confidence intervals 2.09–7.05 and 2.15, 1.36–3.41); low fruit/vegetable (2.51, 1.53–4.14 and 1.99, 1.30–3.04) and low fibre intake (4.02, 2.50–6.45 and 1.78, 1.23–2.59) was greater compared to high ES. Poor diabetes control (HbA1c >8.0%) was significantly greater in illiterate (38.0%), low (46.0%) and middle (41.0%) compared to high (31.5%) ES subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a greater prevalence of the microvascular disease in illiterate and low ES diabetes patients in India. This is associated with the higher prevalence of smoking/tobacco use, poor quality diet and sub-optimal diabetes control. PMID:26425480

  18. Association of low educational status with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Jaipur diabetes registry

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Niharikaa; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Maheshwari, Vitthal D.; Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Gupta, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of educational status (ES), as marker of socioeconomic status, with the prevalence of microvascular complications in diabetes. Methods: Successive patients (n = 1214) presenting to our center were evaluated for sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and therapeutic variables. Subjects were classified according to ES into Group 1 (illiterate, 216); Group 2 (≤ primary, 537), Group 3 (≤ higher secondary, 312), and Group 4 (any college, 149). Descriptive statistics is reported. Results: Mean age of patients was 52 ± 10 years, duration of diabetes 7 ± 7 years and 55% were men. Prevalence of various risk factors was smoking/tobacco 25.5%, obesity body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 64.0%, abdominal obesity 63.4%, hypertension 67.5%, high fat diet 14.5%, low fruits/vegetables 31.8%, low fiber intake 60.0%, high salt diet 16.9%, physical inactivity 27.5%, coronary or cerebrovascular disease 3.0%, and microvascular disease (peripheral, ocular or renal) in 20.7%. Microvascular disease was significantly greater in illiterate (25.9%) and low (23.6%) compared to middle (15.0%) and high (14.7%) ES groups (P < 0.05). Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that in illiterate and low ES groups respectively, prevalence of smoking/tobacco use (odds ratio 3.84, confidence interval: 09–7.05 and 2.15, 1.36–3.41); low fruit/vegetable (2.51, 1.53–4.14 and 1.99, 1.30–3.04) and low fiber intake (4.02, 2.50–6.45 and 1.78, 1.23–2.59) was greater compared to high ES. Poor diabetes control (HbA1c >.0%) was significantly greater in illiterate (38.0%), low (46.0%), and middle (41.0%) compared to high (31.5%) ES subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a greater prevalence of the microvascular disease in illiterate and low ES diabetes patients in India. This is associated with the higher prevalence of smoking/tobacco use, poor quality diet, and sub-optimal diabetes control. PMID:26693427

  19. Feasibility of the SMART Project: A Text Message Program for Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Priya; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated response rates to the Self-Management and Research Technology Project, a 6-week text message program for adolescents with type 1 diabetes designed to provide diabetes self-management reminders and education. The rate of response to texts was high, with 78% of texts responded to during the 6-week period. Girls and participants who self-reported sending a large number of personal daily texts had higher response rates; other demographic and medical variables were unrelated to text response rates. Inclusion of mobile health technologies such as text messages in clinical care may be a unique, relevant method of intervention for youths with type 1 diabetes, regardless of age, socioeconomic status, or glycemic control. PMID:25647048

  20. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of Diabetes in Zuni Indians Using a Culture-Centered Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ghahate, Donica M.; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Faber, Thomas; Shah, Vallabh O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Zuni Pueblo, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, have formed the Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) engaged in community-based participatory research to plan and implement educational interventions to reduce health disparities. We conducted the first phase of ZHI study and identified barriers to healthcare. We concluded that the burden presented by these barriers ultimately translates into a lack of patient activation and engagement in their health care including for diabetes, effectively hindering adoption of healthy behaviors. Methods Community health representatives (CHRs) led 10 one-hour focus group sessions to elicit information on diabetes knowledge and self-management strategies at which a total of 84 people participated. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. Results The focus groups revealed that despite extensive personal or family experiences with diabetes or complications, participants identified knowledge gaps in the disease progression and disease management. However, we gained insight into how many Zunis conceptualize the etiology of diabetes, risk factors associated with diabetes, sources of knowledge and self-management practices. Conclusion We concluded that many of the Zuni diabetics experience significant impacts on their life when they were diagnosed with diabetes and suffered the plight of stigmatization. We further concluded that developing Zuni culture specific diabetes care should focus on family involvement with continued education. PMID:24919064

  1. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Matthew David

    . The second questionnaire, adapted from a survey developed for the Starr County Diabetes Education Study (Garcia et al, 2001), measured general diabetes and diabetes management knowledge. A comparison group, a total of 19 students, also completed both surveys during the study period. Results: Significant increases (p<0.05) were seen in the post-intervention study group in general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of diabetes prevention strategies, when compared to the baseline study group and comparison group.

  2. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. A Fact Sheet from the National Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in U.S. children and adolescents may be increasing and many more new cases of type 2 diabetes are being reported in young people. Standards of care for managing children with diabetes issued by the American Diabetes Association in January 2005 provide more guidance than previously given. To update primary care providers and their…

  3. Tailoring a diabetes nursing elective course to millennial students.

    PubMed

    Strang, Sharon Lee; Bagnardi, Margaret; Williams Utz, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    Tailoring classroom teaching to millennial college students who have grown up as active learners is challenging. Interactive, collaborative teaching methods may be effective with such learners. An innovative class using Diabetes Conversation Maps, a patient self-management tool, was taught as an elective course. Students were assigned the role of a person who received a diagnosis of diabetes; the role included the person's specific age, gender, ethnicity, medication regimen, and predominant emotion. Students were expected to complete the assigned readings to enable them to role-play during five Conversation Map sessions. An updated, modified version of the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center's Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test was used to evaluate knowledge in a pretest-posttest format. The new teaching method resulted in an increased knowledge of diabetes and patient education techniques, as well as high student satisfaction.

  4. Removing barriers to promote more positive thinking for people with diabetes: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Wardian, Jana; Sun, Fei

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand changes in thinking in patients with diabetes and factors related to the health care providers and significant others that would mediate changes in thinking. Cross-sectional data were collected from three sites. Adults age 21 and older with type 2 diabetes were asked about their thinking regarding diabetes at diagnosis and the present time. In addition, respondents were asked questions about their perceptions of health care providers (that is, physicians, nurses, diabetes educators), significant others, and manage- ment of diabetes. Significant other blame and self-efficacy were found to be partial mediators in thinking about diabetes; the model explained 29 percent of the variance. Social workers are uniquely trained in the person-in-environment framework, which allows flexibility in creating interventions to provide patients with diabetes the support necessary to have a more positive orientation toward diabetes self-management, increase self-efficacy, and reduce feelings of blame from significant others. Improving the support of significant others and the patients' level of self-efficacy can provide mediation of negative thinking, which may result in an environment that supports improved diabetes self-management behaviors.

  5. Optimising the person-centred management of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anne

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence at a worrying rate and has been exacerbated by the worldwide obesity epidemic. The number of people in the UK diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has soared by 60% in the past 10 years. Type 2 diabetes is a very serious condition, with significant associated risks, and is the leading cause of avoidable macro- and microvascular complications. Health professionals have a key role in enabling and optimising person-centred approaches, educating and augmenting the essential skills every person, whatever his or her individual circumstances, requires for the successful self-management of this lifelong condition. This article reviews approaches to care for the management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, which includes optimising person-centred targets, promoting individualised care, minimising the risk of complications and promoting education from diagnosis onwards.

  6. Understanding patients’ health and technology attitudes for tailoring self-management interventions

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Katie; Vizer, Lisa; Eschler, Jordan; Ralston, James; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare providers are moving towards tailoring self-management interventions to include the communication technologies patients use in daily life. Accurate understanding of patients’ attitudes towards both technology and involvement in managing chronic conditions will be critical for informing effective self-management strategies. The tailoring of these interventions, however, could be undermined by providers’ implicit biases based on patient age, race, and education level that have been shown to negatively affect care. To inform the design and tailoring of self-management interventions, we elicited attitudes toward technology use and participation in care of 40 participants in a maximum variation sample. The analysis revealed three participant clusters—“Proactive Techies,” “Indie Self-Managers,” and “Remind Me! Non-Techies”—that represent varying attitudes toward health behaviors and technologies that were independent of race, education level, and age. Our approach provides insight into how people prioritize important values related to health participation and technology. PMID:26958236

  7. The Irish DAFNE Study Protocol: A cluster randomised trial of group versus individual follow-up after structured education for Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dinneen, Seán F; O' Hara, Mary Clare; Byrne, Molly; Newell, John; Daly, Lisa; O' Shea, Donal; Smith, Diarmuid

    2009-01-01

    Background Structured education programmes for individuals with Type 1 diabetes have become a recognised means of delivering the knowledge and skills necessary for optimal self-management of the condition. The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme has been shown to improve biomedical (HbA1c and rates of severe hypoglycaemia) and psychosocial outcomes for up to 12 months following course delivery. The optimal way to support DAFNE graduates and maintain the benefits of the programme has not been established. We aimed to compare 2 different methods of follow-up of DAFNE graduates in a pragmatic clinical trial delivered in busy diabetes clinics on the island of Ireland. Methods Six participating centres were cluster randomised to deliver either group follow-up or a return to traditional one-to-one clinic visits. In the intervention arm group follow-up was delivered at 6 and 12 months post DAFNE training according to a curriculum developed for the study. In the control arm patients were seen individually in diabetes clinics as part of routine care. Study outcomes included HbA1c levels, self-reported rates of severe hypoglycaemia, body weight and measures of diabetes wellbeing and quality of life. These were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Generalisability (external validity) was maximised by recruiting study participants from existing DAFNE waiting lists in each centre, by using broad inclusion criteria (including HbA1c values less than 13 percent with no lower limit) and by using existing clinic staff to deliver the training and follow-up. Internal validity and treatment fidelity were maximised by quality assuring the training of all DAFNE educators, by external peer review of the group follow-up sessions and by striving for full attendance at follow-up visits. Assays of HbA1c were undertaken in a central laboratory. Discussion This pragmatic clinical trial evaluating group follow-up after a structured education programme has been

  8. Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in interactive voice response (IVR) support calls for chronic disease self-management: data from three countries.

    PubMed

    Piette, John D; Marinec, Nicolle; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Gutierrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel; Mendoz-Alevares, Milton; Silveira, Maria J

    2013-02-01

    We measured Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls using data from self-management support studies in Honduras, Mexico and the US. A total of 268 patients with diabetes or hypertension participated in 6-12 weeks of weekly IVR follow-up. Participants had an average of 6.1 years of education, and 73% of them were women. After 2443 person-weeks of follow-up, patients had completed 1494 IVR assessments. The call completion rates were higher in the US (75%) than in Honduras (59%) or Mexico (61%; P < 0.001). Patients participating with an informal caregiver were more likely to complete calls (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; P = 0.03) while patients reporting fair or poor health at enrolment were less likely (adjusted odds ratio 0.59; P = 0.02). Satisfaction rates were high, with 98% of patients reporting that the system was easy to use, and 86% reporting that the calls helped them a great deal in managing their health problems. IVR self-management support is feasible among Spanish-speaking patients with chronic disease, including those living in less-developed countries. Involving informal caregivers may increase patient engagement. PMID:23532005

  9. Postgraduate education needs of Nurses’ who are caregivers for patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Uğur, Esra; Demir, Hulya; Akbal, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic management process requires nurses with expert knowledge and patient care skills. This study was carried out to identify nurses’ diabetic care approaches and their post graduate education needs in order to develop a “Basic Diabetes Patient Care Education Program” in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods: The descriptive study, using the survey technique, was carried out in a university hospital with 87 bedside nurses who were caring for diabetic patients. Investigators developed data collection tool consisting of closed ended questions and opportunities for open-ended responses. Results: Among the 87 nurses, 88.5% were staff nurses, and 11.5% were nurse managers. The mean age was 27.41 ± 4.82 and years of professional experience was 6.86 ± 4.23. The 41.4% of nurses stated that they were caring for 1-2 patients with diabetes per week and 72.4% of nurses stated that they had attended an educational session about diabetes after graduation. The 95.4% of nurses reported a need for a continuous education program for diabetes patient care. Medication regimen (69.0%) and special care applications such as wound care (54.0%) were the most needed educational requirements. There were no difference in educational needs based on basic education or years of professional experience (p>0.05). Conclusions: Nurses caring for patients with diabetes should be supported by orientation, in-service education and continuing education programs. Additionally, the placement of patient care courses for chronic diseases, like diabetes, into the core curriculum of nursing schools would be useful in responding to actual patient care and family needs. PMID:26150859

  10. Columbia University's Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) Project

    PubMed Central

    Starren, Justin; Hripcsak, George; Sengupta, Soumitra; Abbruscato, C.R.; Knudson, Paul E.; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Shea, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The Columbia University Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine IDEATel) project is a four-year demonstration project funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services with the overall goal of evaluating the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of telemedicine. The focal point of the intervention is the home telemedicine unit (HTU), which provides four functions: synchronous videoconferencing over standard telephone lines, electronic transmission for fingerstick glucose and blood pressure readings, secure Web-based messaging and clinical data review, and access to Web-based educational materials. The HTU must be usable by elderly patients with no prior computer experience. Providing these functions through the HTU requires tight integration of six components: the HTU itself, case management software, a clinical information system, Web-based educational material, data security, and networking and telecommunications. These six components were integrated through a variety of interfaces, providing a system that works well for patients and providers. With more than 400 HTUs installed, IDEATel has demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale home telemedicine. PMID:11751801

  11. Diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology to manage their disease – A descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Saddik, Basema; Al-Dulaijan, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern worldwide. TeleHealth technology may be an effective tool for empowering patients in the self-management of diabetes mellitus. However despite the great impact of diabetes on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, no research has investigated diabetic patients' willingness to use this technology. This study investigates diabetic patients' willingness to use tele-technology as a tool to monitor their disease. Methods: Data were collected from diabetic patients attending the diabetes education clinic at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs (MNGHA) in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia over a three month period. A survey was developed which measured patients' willingness to use tele-technology in the self-management of their diabetes as well as their perceived expectations from the technology. Results: The study found that the majority of patients were willing to use tele-technology to self- monitor their diabetes. However, a minority (11.3%) indicated willingness to use the system daily and only half indicated preference to use it once a week (53.8%). Patients who were younger, had higher education levels, were employed, had internet access and had Type II diabetes were significantly more likely to report willingness to use the technology. Conclusions: Diabetic patients could be ready to play a more active role in their care if given the opportunity. Results from this study could serve as a baseline for future studies to develop targeted interventions by trialing tele-technology on a sample of the diabetic population. Patients with diabetes need to be in charge of their own care in order to improve health outcomes across the country. PMID:26284148

  12. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a peer support program for people with diabetes: study protocol for the Australasian peers for progress study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Well managed diabetes requires active self-management in order to ensure optimal glycaemic control and appropriate use of available clinical services and other supports. Peer supporters can assist people with their daily diabetes self-management activities, provide emotional and social support, assist and encourage clinical care and be available when needed. Methods A national database of Australians diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is being used to invite people in pre-determined locations to participate in community-based peer support groups. Peer supporters are self-identified from these communities. All consenting participants receive diabetes self-management education and education manual prior to randomization by community to a peer support intervention or usual care. This multi-faceted intervention comprises four interconnected components for delivering support to the participants. (1) Trained supporters lead 12 monthly group meetings. Participants are assisted to set goals to improve diabetes self-management, discuss with and encourage each other to strengthen linkages with local clinical services (including allied health services) as well as provide social and emotional support. (2) Support through regular supporter-participant or participant-participant contact, between monthly sessions, is also promoted in order to maintain motivation and encourage self-improvement and confidence in diabetes self-management. (3) Participants receive a workbook containing diabetes information, resources and community support services, key diabetes management behaviors and monthly goal setting activity sheets. (4) Finally, a password protected website contains further resources for the participants. Supporters are mentored and assisted throughout the intervention by other supporters and the research team through attendance at a weekly teleconference. Data, including a self-administered lifestyle survey, anthropometric and biomedical measures are collected on all

  13. Continuing Medical Education and Attitudes of Health Care Providers toward Treating Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Lisa K.; Lipsky, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    Health care providers who attended a continuing education program on type 2 diabetes (n=315) completed pre/post assessments; 146 completed 3-month follow-ups. Physicians had significantly more positive attitude changes than physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. All groups had more positive attitudes toward treating diabetes, but…

  14. Improving Diabetes Outcomes Using a Web-Based Registry and Interactive Education: A Multisite Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Robert W.; Fletcher, Jason; Kelly, Kim F.; Shea, Laura A.; Spence, Maureen M.; Sullivan, Janet N.; Cerniglia, Joan R.; Yang, YoonJung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To support the adoption of guideline concordant care by primary care practices, the New York Diabetes Coalition (NYDC) promoted use of an electronic diabetes registry and developed an interactive educational module on using the registry and improving patient communication. The NYDC hypothesized that use of a registry with immediate…

  15. An Education-Support-Group Program for Visually Impaired People with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caditz, J.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Diabetes Education/Support Group Program for people with diabetes and visual impairment. It analyzes some of the common problems that participants have reported (such as fear of insulin reactions and of long-term complications) and discusses methods of reducing anxiety and depression related to the two conditions.…

  16. Role of Health Educators in Assisting Youth and Adolescents with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Gail A.; Evert, Alison; Shea, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Management of diabetes in children requires balancing nutrition, physical activity and medication on a daily basis in order to achieve blood glucose targets. The health educator can assist children and their families in meeting their diabetes management goals by better understanding the current recommendations and tasks involved to achieve them.…

  17. Applying Medical Anthropology: Developing Diabetes Education and Prevention Programs in American Indian Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Brooke

    1999-01-01

    Medical anthropology provides a broader contextual framework for understanding complex causal factors associated with diabetes among American Indians and how to minimize these factors in education/treatment programs. Discusses historical, epidemiological, and genetic considerations in American Indian diabetes; cultural factors related to foods,…

  18. An Analysis, Using Concept Mapping, of Diabetic Patients' Knowledge, before and after Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, C.; d'Ivernois, J. F.; Assal, J. P.; Slama, G.; Hivon, R.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses whether concept maps used with diabetic patients could describe their cognitive structure, before and after having followed an educational program. Involves 10 diabetic patients and shows that concept maps can be a suitable technique to explore the type and organization of the patients' prior knowledge and to visualize what they have…

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients - A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mysore.

    PubMed

    Babu, M Suresh; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Kalpana, T; Vidyalaxmi, K; Nikhil, B; Chakravarthy, T

    2015-08-01

    major reason for diabetic patients to have poor awareness of different aspects of diabetes. The low awareness in diabetes patients are noted in different studies done in different parts of India. Education is not just a part of diabetes treatment. It is the treatment. According to WHO, education is the cornerstone of diabetes care. For a physician, diabetes is one of the many diseases calling for his attention in his practice. The time constraints prohibit physicians from delivering optimal diabetes care to their patients which include performing all the necessary tests, educating their patients about the disease, its complications and management. Diabetes educator who can be a nurse, a dietician, a social worker or in a more sophisticated centre a qualified diabetes educator can fill up this important void and play a major role in optimal diabetes care. The key aims of diabetes education are to change behavior of people and promote self management. Self management implies that the person with diabetes will understand the importance of factors like food intake, exercise and medications on blood glucose. PACE project study has concluded that through direct public education and mass media campaigns, awareness about diabetes and its complications can be improved.3 To conclude, education has the biggest role to play in containing diabetes epidemic in India. Responsibility should be at every level from individual doctors to organizations to governments. Effective utilization of the limited available resources is critical for a country like India. We in India are blessed with a large youth population and we should not turn this blessing of a vibrant young nation to a curse of an unhealthy young nation. PMID:27604449

  20. Self-Managed Career Services: A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonnamaker, John; Hagenbaugh, Stacie; Grote, Ann DiMeola; Denon, Gregory; Jessup, Kara

    2001-01-01

    Taking a lead from corporate culture, many colleges and universities are experimenting with the self-managed team model, an alternative to traditional hierarchical structures. This article discusses Boston's Emerson College career services staff's experience with becoming a self-managed team. They were able to improve service delivery, reduce…

  1. Career Self-Management: Its Nature, Causes and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Zella

    2004-01-01

    In a recent special issue [Journal of Vocational Behavior 59 (2001) 284], scholars noted that the field of vocational psychology needs a better understanding of career self-management. This article proposes a conceptual framework of career self-management, based on Crites' [Vocational Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969] model of vocational…

  2. Moving from Token Economies to Teaching Self-Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terance M.

    1998-01-01

    Shows how moving away from the token economy and contingency-contracting concepts of behavior management in the classroom is an effective way to teach self management skills to students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Supplies detailed instructions for implementing a successful self-management program. (MKA)

  3. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of < 7.0%, 72.8% achieved a blood pressure of < 140/85 mmHg, and 58.0% achieved a low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of < 100 mg/dL. Only 19.7% of patients with diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes. PMID:27604796

  4. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of < 7.0%, 72.8% achieved a blood pressure of < 140/85 mmHg, and 58.0% achieved a low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of < 100 mg/dL. Only 19.7% of patients with diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes. PMID:27604796

  5. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of < 7.0%, 72.8% achieved a blood pressure of < 140/85 mmHg, and 58.0% achieved a low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of < 100 mg/dL. Only 19.7% of patients with diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes.

  6. The Diabetic in Physical Education, Recreation, and Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engerbretson, David

    1977-01-01

    Regular vigorous physical exercise is probably as important as diet and insulin in the control of diabetes; the controlled diabetic should be encouraged to participate fully in almost any activity in which he or she is interested. (JD)

  7. Medical informatics: a model developed for diabetes education via telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2009-04-01

    Fast developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have made it possible to develop new services for people. One of the most interesting areas is health care. Medical informatics is the discipline concerned with the systematic processing of data, information and knowledge in medicine and health care. Information services, medical decision support systems and telemedicine are becoming important tools for medical professionals and also people who are interested in health related information. Medical decision support aims at providing health care professionals with therapy guidelines directly at the point of care. Telemedicine is the use of modern telecommunications and information technologies (IT) for the provision of clinical care to individuals at a distance and transmission of information to provide that care. In the present study, usage of IT in medicine, medical decision support systems, computerized medical measurements, patient education and network connectivity were described. A model for risk evaluation, data collection and education of undiagnosed diabetes using the world wide web (www) was presented. PMID:19397096

  8. A self-management programme for COPD: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katy E; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Apps, Lindsay D; Bankart, John; Sewell, Louise; Williams, Johanna E; Rees, Karen; Jolly, Kate; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally J

    2014-12-01

    Studies of programmes of self-management support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been inconclusive. The Self-Management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education (SPACE) FOR COPD is a 6-week self-management intervention for COPD, and this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention in primary care. A single-blind randomised controlled trial recruited people with COPD from primary care and randomised participants to receive usual care or SPACE FOR COPD. Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome was symptom burden, measured by the self-reported Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ-SR) dyspnoea domain. Secondary outcomes included other domains of the CRQ-SR, shuttle walking tests, disease knowledge, anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, smoking status and healthcare utilisation. 184 people with COPD were recruited and randomised. At 6 weeks, there were significant differences between groups in CRQ-SR dyspnoea, fatigue and emotion scores, exercise performance, anxiety, and disease knowledge. At 6 months, there was no between-group difference in change in CRQ-SR dyspnoea. Exercise performance, anxiety and smoking status were significantly different between groups at 6 months, in favour of the intervention. This brief self-management intervention did not improve dyspnoea over and above usual care at 6 months; however, there were gains in anxiety, exercise performance, and disease knowledge. PMID:25186259

  9. e-Patients Perceptions of Using Personal Health Records for Self-management Support of Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Gee, Perry M; Paterniti, Debora A; Ward, Deborah; Soederberg Miller, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic illness self-management is largely moving from healthcare professionals and into the hands of the patient. One tool that has been promoted to facilitate self-management support of chronic illness by policymakers, health advocates, providers, and consumers is the personal health record. Little is known about how consumers effectively use personal health records for self-management support and for productive patient-provider interactions. The purpose of this study was to learn from chronically ill engaged, experienced, and educated (e-patient) adults how and why they use personal health records for self-management support and productive patient-provider interactions. Eighteen purposively selected consumers were interviewed in two communities. Qualitative description methods were used, and we used a grounded theory approach to analyzing interview data, which was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. We identified four major thematic categories that capture the perceptions of the chronically ill using personal health records: (1) patient engagement and health self-management, (2) access to and control over personal health data, (3) promotion of productive communication, and (4) opportunities for training and education. Knowledge gained from the e-patient personal health record users suggest that making improvements to the portal system and providing education to consumers and providers will increase the utility among the experienced users and encourage new users to embrace adoption and use.

  10. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  11. Everyday living with diabetes described by family members of adult people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Tuula-Maria; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  12. Self-management programs based on the social cognitive theory for Koreans with chronic disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Yoo, Hyera

    2012-02-01

    Self-management programs based on social cognitive theory are useful to improve health care outcomes for patients with chronic diseases in Western culture. The purpose of this review is to identify and synthesize published research on the theory to enhance self-efficacy in disease management and examine its applicability to Korean culture regarding the learning strategies used. Ultimately, it was to identify the optimal use of these learning strategies to improve the self-efficacy of Korean patients in self-management of their hypertension and diabetic mellitus. The authors searched the Korean and international research databases from January 2000 to September 2009. Twenty studies were selected and reviewed. The most frequently used learning strategies of social cognitive theory was skill mastery by practice and feedback (N = 13), followed by social or verbal persuasion by group members (N = 7) and, however, observation learning and reinterpretation of symptoms by debriefing or discussion were not used any of the studies. Eight studies used only one strategy to enhance self-efficacy and six used two. A lack of consistency regarding the content and clinical efficacy of the self-efficacy theory-based self-management programs is found among the reviewed studies on enhancing self-efficacy in Koreans with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Further research on the effectiveness of these theory-based self-management programs for patients with chronic diseases in Korea and other countries is recommended.

  13. Parent Health Literacy and Communication With Diabetes Educators in a Pediatric Diabetes Clinic: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Howe, Carol J; Cipher, Daisha J; LeFlore, Judy; Lipman, Terri H

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor communication between adults and providers, but little is known about how parents' health literacy influences communication in pediatric encounters. We examined how parent health literacy affected communication between parents and diabetes educators in a pediatric diabetes clinic. A mixed methods study was conducted including a cross-sectional survey of 162 parents and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of 24 parents of a child with Type 1 diabetes. Parent and child characteristics, parents' report of quality of communication, and parent health literacy were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to determine associations between health literacy and 4 subscales of the Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) survey; directed content analyses of interview data were completed. Although health literacy was not significantly associated with the IPC subscales, results from directed content analyses revealed different communication experiences for parents by health literacy classification. Low health literate parents were confused by diabetes jargon, preferred hands-on teaching, and wished for information to be communicated in simple language, broken down into key points, and repeated. Parents with adequate health literacy wanted comprehensive information communicated through ongoing dialogue. Findings indicate that learner-driven curricula may be most appropriate for diabetes education.

  14. Parent Health Literacy and Communication With Diabetes Educators in a Pediatric Diabetes Clinic: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Howe, Carol J; Cipher, Daisha J; LeFlore, Judy; Lipman, Terri H

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poor communication between adults and providers, but little is known about how parents' health literacy influences communication in pediatric encounters. We examined how parent health literacy affected communication between parents and diabetes educators in a pediatric diabetes clinic. A mixed methods study was conducted including a cross-sectional survey of 162 parents and semi-structured interviews with a subsample of 24 parents of a child with Type 1 diabetes. Parent and child characteristics, parents' report of quality of communication, and parent health literacy were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to determine associations between health literacy and 4 subscales of the Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) survey; directed content analyses of interview data were completed. Although health literacy was not significantly associated with the IPC subscales, results from directed content analyses revealed different communication experiences for parents by health literacy classification. Low health literate parents were confused by diabetes jargon, preferred hands-on teaching, and wished for information to be communicated in simple language, broken down into key points, and repeated. Parents with adequate health literacy wanted comprehensive information communicated through ongoing dialogue. Findings indicate that learner-driven curricula may be most appropriate for diabetes education. PMID:26513031

  15. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePlus

    Tips for Teens with Diabetes What is Diabetes? National Diabetes Education Program Learn about diabetes and how to manage it. styaoyfuyodarooiatumdrbaTecebadhhtlkeoieoecsoaii… cncdlteehams, gyr, ealauwbkncoeeedofishgayceeohch. attue, ...

  16. Self-managed work teams: what works?

    PubMed

    Yeatts, D E; Schulz, E

    1998-01-01

    Case studies have shown that under the right circumstances, employees within self-managed work teams (SMWTs) produce more at work than employees organized in a more hierarchical, traditional structure because they perform not only technical skills, but management skills as well. The purpose of this article is to clarify the specific factors most important to an SMWT's success. The information shared here comes from three sources. The primary source is a research project funded by a 3-year grant (1994-1997) from the National Science Foundation. The primary factors found to affect the success of SMWTs formed five groups. Work process factors include those that are needed when actually performing the work, such as the appropriate resources, talent, procedures, and effort. Interpersonal process factors include communication and both positive and negative conflict. Environmental factors include those within the SMWT'S organization, such as management support and the reward system, as well as factors outside the organization, such as suppliers and the market. Team design factors and team member characteristics were found to be equally important to the high performance of the SMWT. PMID:10178700

  17. Self-management support in primary care: enactments, disruptions, and conversational consequences.

    PubMed

    Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Russell, Grant

    2014-05-01

    A common refrain in chronic disease management is that patients and clinicians need to enact new roles: patients as their own caregivers; clinicians as professional supporters of patient self-management activities. These roles are central to self-management support (SMS), an approach that emphasizes a clinical partnership, and promotes patient identification and achievement of realistic and short-term behavioral goals. With SMS, behavior change is the desired end, not the means to a desired biomedical end. Shifting SMS concepts into clinical practice has proven to be difficult and inconsistent, creating potential, unknown risks or harms to patients. We completed a discourse analysis of 16 clinical dialogues between diabetic patients and clinicians, collected during a study of six Ontario Family Health Teams, to explore the questions of risks and harms relating to SMS implementation. We observed varying degrees of incomplete implementation of SMS, as well as interactions that actively negated the core principles. Contrary to SMS principles, clinicians tended to emphasize behavioral changes as means to achieve biomedical ends, though to varying degrees. We present two appointments in detail, highlighting how linking behavior change closely with biomedical measures often elicited face-saving defenses from patients. The subsequent dialogue shifted attention away from problem solving and behavior change into active negotiation of responsibility and identity. Interactions that oriented more to SMS concepts elicited fewer defensive maneuvers from patients. Our analysis helps explicate one additional mechanism by which self-management talk threatens the clinical relationship, and highlights a promising method to mitigate this threat.

  18. Behavioral research in pediatric diabetes: putting the evidence to work for advocacy and education.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Dr Henri Lestradet was a founding member of the International Study Group for Diabetes (in childhood and adolescence) (ISGD), and his influence on the scope and vision of this organization was profound. A brief biography of Dr Lestradet and a summary of how his original ISGD evolved into the current International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) will be presented first. Second, consistent with Dr Lestradet's vision for children with diabetes worldwide, I will suggest five areas of behavioral research in diabetes in which there is strong evidence that can be used to create educational and advocacy initiatives for children with diabetes. Finally, I will recommend several priorities for behavioral research in the next decade which will help to strengthen Prof. Lestradet's legacy of support for children with diabetes and their families.

  19. Outpatient therapeutic recommendations by diabetes educators in a rural vermont hospital.

    PubMed

    Gorson, David M; Haytto, Paula; Carpenter, Patricia; Marr, Tim; Borders, Lara K; Probola, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    Because of the rapid increase in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes that is occurring in southwestern Vermont (which correlates with the national increase), a "therapeutic guidelines" worksheet was developed to assist primary care providers with the management of Type 2 diabetes patients. Hospital-based diabetes nurse educators access cholesterol and A1C information from the hospital laboratory, assess the patient, and then make recommendations to the primary care provider. The worksheet is designed to be easily used by both the educator and the primary care provider. Feedback has been positive, as the worksheet serves to enhance providers' ability to treat patients and to achieve recommended treatment goals.

  20. From Doing to Bring: Incorporating Faith into Diabetes Self-Care Education.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Cathy Eden; Harden, Kelly; Mitchell, C Ben

    2015-01-01

    Millions worldwide live with diabetes and are challenged to make lifestyle changes. Nurses help patients learn strategies necessary for successful diabetes management. However, patients frequently view long-term behavior change as unachievable. This article offers educational strategies based on liturgical anthropology that can be incorporated into any diabetic self-care education program, but particularly in faith communities. Lifestyle habits are tightly interwoven with cultural, social, and spiritual belief. Liturgical anthropology explores how cultural and spiritual customs mold us and influence our behavior choices.

  1. Management of type 2 diabetes in youth: an update.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kevin; Silverstein, Janet; Kaufman, Francine; Warren-Boulton, Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    Although type 1 diabetes historically has been more common in patients eight to 19 years of age, type 2 diabetes is emerging as an important disease in this group. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 8 to 45 percent of new childhood diabetes. This article is an update from the National Diabetes Education Program on the management of type 2 diabetes in youth. High-risk youths older than 10 years have a body mass index greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex plus two additional risk factors (i.e., family history, high-risk ethnicity, acanthosis nigricans, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia). Reducing overweight and impaired glucose tolerance with increased physical activity and healthier eating habits may help prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk youths. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend population-based screening of high-risk youths; however, physicians should closely monitor these patients because early diagnosis may be beneficial. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening high-risk youths every two years with a fasting plasma glucose test. Patients diagnosed with diabetes should receive self-management education, behavior interventions to promote healthy eating and physical activity, appropriate therapy for hyperglycemia (usually metformin and insulin), and treatment of comorbidities.

  2. What factors are related to understanding a stereoscopic 3D diabetes educational video in seniors?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-ju; William, Albert

    2014-10-01

    The rise of three-dimensional imaging technology and products offers a new avenue for patient education to older adults. This study investigated older adults' perception of a three-dimensional health education video on diabetes, and factors associated with understanding the video. Twenty-one older adults without a history of diabetes watched a short diabetes educational video on a stereoscopic display. They perceived the video as helpful, valuable, and exciting, but too fast. Better understanding of the video is associated with having higher background knowledge of diabetes and greater vocabulary. Ethnicity is also a potential factor. Older adults may choose narrative information over graphic information to process a three-dimensional multimedia presentation.

  3. Enhancing patient engagement in chronic disease self-management support initiatives in Australia: the need for an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Joanne E; Briggs, Andrew M; Brand, Caroline A; Osborne, Richard H

    2008-11-17

    Although emphasis on the prevention of chronic disease is important, governments in Australia need to balance this with continued assistance to the 77% of Australians reported to have at least one long-term medical condition. Self-management support is provided by health care and community services to enhance patients' ability to care for their chronic conditions in a cooperative framework. In Australia, there is a range of self-management support initiatives that have targeted patients (most notably, chronic disease self-management education programs) and health professionals (financial incentives, education and training). To date, there has been little coordination or integration of these self-management initiatives to enhance the patient-health professional clinical encounter. If self-management support is to work, there is a need to better understand the infrastructure, systems and training that are required to engage the key stakeholders - patients, carers, health professionals, and health care organisations. A coordinated approach is required in implementing these elements within existing and new health service models to enhance uptake and sustainability.

  4. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... improved with weight-loss surgery. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Treating either type 1 diabetes or type 2 ... a life-long disease and there is no cure. Tight control of blood ... diabetes complications. But these problems can occur, even in ...

  5. The implementation of self-managed teams in health care.

    PubMed

    Schrubb, D A

    1992-08-01

    Self-managed teams are one of the most effective tools now available for tapping the unrealized potential of health care organizations. Executives and managers involved with self-managed teams are speaking of new levels of productivity, new commitment among workers, and new optimism about meeting the challenges of competition. GSH's ability to create peak-performance teams will certainly give the hospital a critical competitive advantage over competing hospitals in the Dayton area. Success requires commitment and patience. Health care organizations that believe in the power of worker participation will not regret following the path to a self-managed team environment.

  6. Effects of cancer comorbidity on disease management: making the case for diabetes education (a report from the SOAR program).

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Lauren; Li, Qijuan E; Duncan, Ian; Thurston, Andrew L; Fitzner, Karen A; Edwards, Beatrice J; McKoy-Bent, Judith M; Tulas, Katrina M; McKoy, June M

    2013-02-01

    Individuals with type II diabetes have an increased risk of cancer diagnosis (relative risk [RR]=1.12-2.50) and mortality (RR=1.4) compared to normoglycemic individuals. Biologic mechanisms, including mitogenic effects of insulin, hyperglycemia, and increased oxidative stress, as well as behavioral factors (eg, difficulty managing the comorbidity) may explain the elevated risk. To investigate the effects of the comorbidity on disease management, the authors compared diabetes education utilization in individuals with diabetes-cancer co-morbidity to utilization by individuals with diabetes in the absence of cancer. The effect of diabetes education on outcomes was further assessed in the subset of individuals with diabetes-cancer comorbidity. Administrative claims data were used for this analysis. The study population included individuals >60 years of age and members of both commercial and Medicare Advantage health plans from a private national database of payer data, but excluded Medicare fee for service and Medicaid patients. Most of these individuals were eligible to receive reimbursement for diabetes education. Diabetes education utilization was identified using procedure codes. Outcomes were assessed for a 3-year time period. There was little difference in diabetes education utilization between individuals with diabetes in the absence of cancer (3.8% utilization) and those with diabetes-cancer comorbidity (3.5% utilization). Individuals who receive diabetes education are more likely to have multiple HbA1c tests per year, fewer emergency department visits, fewer hospital admissions, and lower care-associated costs (except for outpatient and pharmacy averages). When diabetes coexists with cancer, management of diabetes often lags, making diabetes education an imperative.

  7. A Randomized Trial of Peer-Delivered Self-Management Support for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Schapira, Marilyn M.; Fletcher, Kathlyn E.; Hayes, Avery; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Laud, Purushottam; Eastwood, Dan; Ertl, Kristyn; Patterson, Leslie; Mosack, Katie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Peer-led interventions to improve chronic disease self-management can improve health outcomes but are not widely used. Therefore, we tested a peer-led hypertension self-management intervention delivered at regular meetings of community veterans’ organizations. METHODS We randomized 58 organizational units (“posts”) of veterans’ organizations in southeast Wisconsin to peer-led vs. professionally delivered self-management education. Volunteer peer leaders at peer-led posts delivered monthly presentations regarding hypertension self-management during regular post meetings. Volunteer post representatives at seminar posts encouraged post members to attend 3 didactic seminars delivered by health professionals at a time separate from the post meeting. Volunteers in both groups encouraged members to self-monitor using blood pressure cuffs, weight scales, and pedometers. Our primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 12 months. RESULTS We measured SBP in 404 participants at baseline and in 379 participants at 12 months. SBP decreased significantly (4.4mm Hg; P < 0.0001) overall; the decrease was similar in peer-led and seminar posts (3.5mm Hg vs. 5.4mm Hg; P = 0.24). Among participants with uncontrolled BP at baseline, SBP decreased by 10.1mm Hg from baseline to 12 months but was again similar in the 2 groups. This pattern was also seen at 6 months and with diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Our peer-led educational intervention was not more effective than didactic seminars for SBP control. Although peer-led educational programs have had important impacts in a number of studies, we did not find our intervention superior to a similar intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00571038. PMID:24755206

  8. Self-Management: Taking Charge of Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... management of chronic illness means that you take responsibility for doing what it takes to manage your ... As part of self-management, it’s also your responsibility to ask for the help you need to ...

  9. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05). HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However, there was

  10. Diabetes in Thailand: Status and Policy.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn

    2016-03-01

    Like other countries in the Western Pacific region, Thailand is facing increasing numbers of patients with diabetes due to unhealthy diets, high obesity rates, and an aging society. Diabetes is a considerable burden for developing countries as it reduces quality of life, increases mortality, and drives up healthcare costs. The disease detection rate in Thailand has improved in recent years, but glycemic control remains suboptimal and significant numbers of patients suffer from complications. Universal healthcare coverage has increased access to care, but inequality exists between different health plans and non-medication diabetes supplies are not yet widely covered. Diabetes self-management education has not yet been standardized and a multidisciplinary team approach is not widely utilized. The Thai government recognizes the burden of diabetes and has launched nationwide programs of health promotion and disease prevention. In addition, local initiatives have targeted reductions in specific complications, including retinopathy and diabetic foot problems, which has resulted in better disease prevention and treatment. Along with strategic public health planning, increased collaboration between private and public sectors, enhanced professional training, increased use of technology and data management, and equitable distribution of care are all needed to improve outcomes of patients with diabetes in Thailand.

  11. Diabetes in Thailand: Status and Policy.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn

    2016-03-01

    Like other countries in the Western Pacific region, Thailand is facing increasing numbers of patients with diabetes due to unhealthy diets, high obesity rates, and an aging society. Diabetes is a considerable burden for developing countries as it reduces quality of life, increases mortality, and drives up healthcare costs. The disease detection rate in Thailand has improved in recent years, but glycemic control remains suboptimal and significant numbers of patients suffer from complications. Universal healthcare coverage has increased access to care, but inequality exists between different health plans and non-medication diabetes supplies are not yet widely covered. Diabetes self-management education has not yet been standardized and a multidisciplinary team approach is not widely utilized. The Thai government recognizes the burden of diabetes and has launched nationwide programs of health promotion and disease prevention. In addition, local initiatives have targeted reductions in specific complications, including retinopathy and diabetic foot problems, which has resulted in better disease prevention and treatment. Along with strategic public health planning, increased collaboration between private and public sectors, enhanced professional training, increased use of technology and data management, and equitable distribution of care are all needed to improve outcomes of patients with diabetes in Thailand. PMID:26894266

  12. Sugar Free with Justin T.: Diabetes Education through Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Justin B.; Donaldson, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the design, development, and delivery of an Extension community cable television program, "Sugar Free with Justin T.," in Roane County, Tennessee. The program targets diabetics, pre-diabetics, and those who care for them, with practical information and demonstrations to improve dietary quality. In addition to…

  13. Safety Events during an Automated Telephone Self-Management Support Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Courtney R.; Schillinger, Dean; Lopez, Andrea; Handley, Margaret; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactive health information technology (HIT) can support the complex self-management tasks for diabetes. However, less is known about between-visit interactions and patient safety among chronic illness patients treated in the outpatient setting. Methods We classified 13 categories for safety events and potential safety events within a larger trial evaluating a multilingual automated telephone self-management support system for diabetes using interactive voice response. Participants could trigger safety concerns by reporting hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, inability to obtain medications, medication nonadherence and side effects, and needing appointments and/or supplies. We then examined these triggers across patient demographic and health characteristics to determine which patients were most likely to experience safety events. Results Overall, there were 360 safety triggers that occurred among 155 participants, which represented 53% of individuals and 7.6% of all automated calls over the 27-week intervention. The most common triggers were for pain or medication side effects (22%) and not checking blood sugars (13%). In adjusted models, race/ethnicity and language were related to safety triggers; Spanish-speaking participants were significantly (p = .02) more likely than English-speaking participants to experience a safety trigger, and black participants were marginally more likely (p =.09) than white participants to experience a safety trigger. Conclusion About half of patients enrolled in a self-management technology intervention triggered at least one potential safety event over the course of the trial, and this was more frequent among some patients. Systems implementing HIT strategies to improve self-care and remote monitoring should consider specific program design elements to address these potential safety events. PMID:23759391

  14. The relationship of depression and diabetes: pathophysiological and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Rustad, James K; Musselman, Dominique L; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes is a highly prevalent, chronic disease that requires ongoing, multi-specialty medical care combined with patient self-management, family support, and education to prevent or delay end-organ morbidity and mortality. There is clearly an increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, a relatively common and costly central nervous system syndrome, in diabetic patients. During the past two decades, multiple studies reveal that not only are depressive symptoms a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, but they have also been shown to contribute to hyperglycemia, diabetic complications, functional disability and all-cause mortality among diabetic patients. This article reviews studies examining the relationship between depression and diabetes, neurochemical underpinnings of the two disorders, and the diagnosis and treatment of depression associated with diabetes. We examine the validity of rating scales used to diagnose depression in diabetic patients and review the literature on psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic management for these patients. The challenges of optimal depression screening and treatment in primary care settings of diabetic patients are currently under close scrutiny, especially regarding their potential impact related to improvements in diabetes-related outcomes and decreased health care costs, be it "depression" or "diabetes" relevant. Much of the current literature regarding the intertwined nature of diabetes and depression is cross-sectional in nature. Future research should focus on longitudinal, prospective studies to determine causal factors. What is clear from the research reviewed in this article is that depression and diabetes should be treated together rather than as isolated diseases. The mind/body dualism is a false dichotomy and a truly team-based approach is necessary to address both issues of depression and diabetes. Collaborative care and the "patient-centered medical home" have emerged as potentially

  15. Setting the Stage: Measure Selection, Coordination, and Data Collection for a National Self-Management Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Kristie P.; Boutaugh, Michele; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Lorig, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the history and rationale behind the development of a centralized data collection system for the national rollout of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: CDSMP initiative. In addition to justifying the need for solutions to the burgeoning burden of chronic disease in the United States, this paper provides details about CDSMP and related self-management education programs, including their structure, facilitator training, and effectiveness. These topics set the stage for the processes and procedures to create and manage the database for use at the national, state, and local levels. Furthermore, this paper describes the processes related to selecting variables, coordinating data collection, and utilizing data to inform research and policy. PMID:25964919

  16. Beliefs About Dysmenorrhea and Their Relationship to Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen X; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Ward, Sandra E

    2016-08-01

    Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of work and school absences among women of reproductive age. However, self-management of dysmenorrhea is not well understood in the US, and little evidence is available on factors that influence dysmenorrhea self-management. Guided by the Common Sense Model, we examined women's representations of dysmenorrhea (beliefs about causes, symptoms, consequences, timeline, controllability, coherence, and emotional responses), described their dysmenorrhea self-management behaviors, and investigated the relationship between representations and self-management behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey of 762 adult women who had dysmenorrhea symptoms in the last six months. Participants had varied beliefs about the causes of their dysmenorrhea symptoms, which were perceived as a normal part of life. Dysmenorrhea symptoms were reported as moderately severe, with consequences that moderately affected daily life. Women believed they understood their symptoms moderately well and perceived them as moderately controllable but them to continue through menopause. Most women did not seek professional care but rather used a variety of pharmacologic and complementary health approaches. Care-seeking and use of self-management strategies were associated with common sense beliefs about dysmenorrhea cause, consequences, timeline, and controllability. The findings may inform development and testing of self-management interventions that address dysmenorrhea representations and facilitate evidence-based management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spanish-Speaking Patients’ Engagement in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Chronic Disease Self-Management Support Calls: Analyses of Data from Three Countries

    PubMed Central

    Piette, John D.; Marinec, Nicolle; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C.; Gutierrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel; Mendoz-Alevares, Milton; Silveira, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from Interactive Voice Response (IVR) self-management support studies in Honduras, Mexico, and the United States (US) to determine whether IVR calls to Spanish-speaking patients with chronic illnesses is a feasible strategy for improving monitoring and education between face-to-face visits. 268 patients with diabetes or hypertension participated in 6–12 weeks of weekly IVR follow-up. IVR calls emanated from US servers with connections via Voice over IP. More than half (54%) of patients enrolled with an informal caregiver who received automated feedback based on the patient’s assessments, and clinical staff received urgent alerts. Participants had on average 6.1 years of education, and 73% were women. After 2,443 person weeks of follow-up, patients completed 1,494 IVR assessments. Call completion rates were higher in the US (75%) than in Honduras (59%) or Mexico (61%; p<0.001). Patients participating with an informal caregiver were more likely to complete calls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 2.25) while patients reporting fair or poor health at enrollment were less likely (AOR:0.59; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92). Satisfaction rates were high, with 98% of patients reporting that the system was easy to use, and 86% reporting that the calls helped them a great deal in managing their health problems. In summary, IVR self-management support is feasible among Spanish-speaking patients with chronic disease, including those living in less-developed countries. Voice over IP can be used to deliver IVR disease management services internationally; involving informal caregivers may increase patient engagement. PMID:23532005

  18. Overcoming cultural barriers to diabetes control: a qualitative study of southwestern New Mexico Hispanics.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Joanne; Flenniken, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of cultural barriers on self-management of diabetes among Hispanic participants in LA VIDA (Lifestyle and Values Impact Diabetes Awareness), a diabetes intervention program in southwestern New Mexico. As part of the LA VIDA program evaluation, in depth interviews were conducted with 50 Hispanics who had participated in one or more activities, including diabetes education classes, grocery store tours, and support groups, and who had interacted with promotores (community health workers). LA VIDA participants reported that a sense of empowerment and increased self-efficacy enabled them to overcome cultural barriers related to the traditional Hispanic diet, lack of social support, and denial about having diabetes. PMID:20860336

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of a Diabetes Education Curriculum for School Personnel on Disease Knowledge and Confidence in Caring for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cory T.; Chen, Aleda M. H.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Nash, Christiane L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School personnel may lack knowledge of diabetes and be unprepared to address the needs of students with type 1 diabetes. This project evaluated the effectiveness of a type 1 diabetes education program for school personnel on increasing knowledge of diabetes and confidence in caring for students with diabetes. Methods: Two types of…

  20. Self-management support and other alternatives to reduce the burden of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Reddel, H K; Jenkins, C R; Partridge, M R

    2014-12-01

    While pharmacotherapy is important in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is also important to consider additional interventions that can further reduce the burden of ill health for patients, their families and the health care system. In this review, the evidence in favour of self-management support that leads to successful self-care by the patient is reviewed, and the key components of successful strategies are outlined; areas where more research is needed are identified. In addition to self-management support, other methods of delivering care, such as telemonitoring, admission avoidance, assisted discharge schemes and use of lay educators, are reviewed.

  1. Academic Detailing in Diabetes: Using Outreach Education to Improve the Quality of Care.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most diabetes care is provided in primary care settings, but typical primary care clinicians struggle to keep up with the latest evidence on diabetes screening, pharmacotherapy, and monitoring. Accordingly, many patients with diabetes are not receiving optimal guideline-based therapy. Relying on front-line clinicians on their own to assess the huge volume of new literature and incorporate it into their practice is unrealistic, and conventional continuing medical education has not proven adequate to address gaps in care. Academic detailing, direct educational outreach to clinicians that uses social marketing techniques to provide specific evidence-based recommendations, has been proven in clinical trials to improve the quality of care for a range of conditions. By directly engaging with clinicians to assess their needs, identify areas for change in practice, and provide them with specific tools to implement these changes, academic detailing can serve as a tool to improve care processes and outcomes for patients with diabetes. PMID:27586191

  2. Integrated care model with self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from family physicians to specialists.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Jean; Saad, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has to become a partner and an active participant in his own care, that is, disease self-management. The goal of this article is to present successful and unsuccessful interventions using patient self-management and to propose a model of integrated care more suitable to the needs of COPD patients. This is a narrative review and an opinion article. Many systematic reviews have shown positive outcomes for patients with COPD. These studies have in common a self-management intervention including an action plan in the event of an exacerbation embedded in an integrated health-care system coordinated by a case manager for educational sessions and regular communication. Recently published trials have brought controversy with respect to the effectiveness of self-management programmes, especially in patients with high burden of disease and co-morbidities. It may be more challenging to make the patient with high burden of disease a partner and not without risk of serious adverse events. Finally, our health-care delivery has to be well integrated and more coherent, that is, strategic alliance between primary and secondary care, and supported by interdisciplinary teams for patients with high-risk and complex COPD. Clinical practice has to be structured to address COPD throughout the disease spectrum, that is, secondary versus primary, team work, partnership, self-management and continuity of care. PMID:23382555

  3. Integrated care model with self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: from family physicians to specialists.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, Jean; Saad, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has to become a partner and an active participant in his own care, that is, disease self-management. The goal of this article is to present successful and unsuccessful interventions using patient self-management and to propose a model of integrated care more suitable to the needs of COPD patients. This is a narrative review and an opinion article. Many systematic reviews have shown positive outcomes for patients with COPD. These studies have in common a self-management intervention including an action plan in the event of an exacerbation embedded in an integrated health-care system coordinated by a case manager for educational sessions and regular communication. Recently published trials have brought controversy with respect to the effectiveness of self-management programmes, especially in patients with high burden of disease and co-morbidities. It may be more challenging to make the patient with high burden of disease a partner and not without risk of serious adverse events. Finally, our health-care delivery has to be well integrated and more coherent, that is, strategic alliance between primary and secondary care, and supported by interdisciplinary teams for patients with high-risk and complex COPD. Clinical practice has to be structured to address COPD throughout the disease spectrum, that is, secondary versus primary, team work, partnership, self-management and continuity of care.

  4. Chronic pain self-management for older adults: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN11899548

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Mary; Turner, Judith A; Cain, Kevin C; Kemp, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a common and frequently disabling problem in older adults. Clinical guidelines emphasize the need to use multimodal therapies to manage persistent pain in this population. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples. This training includes education about pain as well as instruction and practice in several management techniques, including relaxation, physical exercise, modification of negative thoughts, and goal setting. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adult samples. Methods/Design This is a randomized, controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a pain self-management training group intervention, as compared with an education-only control condition. Participants are recruited from retirement communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and must be 65 years or older and experience persistent, noncancer pain that limits their activities. The primary outcome is physical disability, as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are depression (Geriatric Depression Scale), pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory), and pain-related interference with activities (Brief Pain Inventory). Randomization occurs by facility to minimize cross-contamination between groups. The target sample size is 273 enrolled, which assuming a 20% attrition rate at 12 months, will provide us with 84% power to detect a moderate effect size of .50 for the primary outcome. Discussion Few studies have investigated the effects of multimodal pain self-management training among older adults. This randomized controlled trial is designed to assess the efficacy of a pain self-management program that incorporates physical and psychosocial pain coping skills among adults in the mid-old to old-old range. PMID:15285783

  5. Diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-09-23

    Essential facts Type 1 and type 2 diabetes affect 3.2 million people in the UK. Diabetes is associated with serious complications, including heart disease and stroke, which can lead to disability and premature death. It is the leading cause of preventable sight loss in people of working age in the UK. A quarter of people with diabetes will have kidney disease at some point in their lives, and the condition increases the risk of amputation. Good diabetes management has been shown to reduce the incidence of these serious complications. PMID:25227362

  6. Diabetes Awareness of Low-Income Middle School Students Participating in the Help a Friend, Help Yourself Youth Diabetes Awareness Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…

  7. Impact of an individualized type 2 diabetes education program on clinical outcomes during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Laura N; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Ali, Nahed M; Assaad-Khalil, Samir H; Tantawi, Hyam Refaat; Nasr, Gamela; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Misha'l, Aly A; Annabi, Firas A; Ba-Essa, Ebtesam M; Bahijri, Suhad M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jaber, Linda A; Herman, William H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if individualized education before Ramadan results in a safer fast for people with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes who received care from participating clinics in Egypt, Iran, Jordan and Saudi Arabia and intended to fast during Ramadan 2014 were prospectively studied. Twelve clinics participated. Individualized education addressed meal planning, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring and acute metabolic complications and when deemed necessary, provided an individualized diabetes treatment plan. Results 774 people met study criteria, 515 received individualized education and 259 received usual care. Those who received individualized education were more likely to modify their diabetes treatment plan during Ramadan (97% vs 88%, p<0.0001), to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose at least twice daily during Ramadan (70% vs 51%, p<0.0001), and to have improved knowledge about hypoglycemic signs and symptoms (p=0.0007). Those who received individualized education also reduced their body mass index (−1.1±2.4 kg/m2 vs −0.2±1.7 kg/m2, p<0.0001) and glycated haemoglobin (−0.7±1.1% vs −0.1±1.3%, p<0.0001) during Ramadan compared those who received usual care. There were more mild (77% vs 67%, p=0.0031) and moderate (38% vs 19%, p<0.0001) hypoglycemic events reported by participants who received individualized education than those who received usual care, but fewer reported severe hypoglycemic events during Ramadan (23% vs 34%, p=0.0017). Conclusions This individualized education and diabetes treatment program helped patients with type 2 diabetes lose weight, improve glycemic control and achieve a safer fast during Ramadan. PMID:26113984

  8. The personal meaning of having diabetes: implications for patient behaviour and education or kicking the bucket theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R M

    1986-01-01

    Most diabetes educators (physicians, nurses, nutritionists) lack the time and expertise to become familiar with theories of human behaviour even though they may be relevant to the education of their patients. As a result, the current practice of diabetes patient education reflects, in many instances, an extension of the information transfer approach found in most schools. This approach is based on the idea that lack of knowledge and skills accounts for the major portion of the poor self-care behaviour observed in some diabetic patients. The emphasis on information transfer is probably partially attributable to the fact that it is easier to measure and evaluate. This approach is too narrow a view of behaviour or learning and fails to meet the needs of diabetes patient educators and their clients. The idea that the behaviour of patients with diabetes will be strongly influenced by their view of diabetes is explored. Diabetes educators need to become skilled designers of patient education programmes which facilitate changes in the personal meaning of diabetes. Researchers should test the utility of seeing disease-related behaviour and education as a process, at least in part, concerned with the personal meaning of diabetes. PMID:2951144

  9. A Family-Based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults and Their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Debra; McCoy, Thomas; Amirehsani, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this quasi-experimental one group longitudinal study is to examine the effects of a family-based intervention program on diabetes self-management behaviors, HbA1c, other biomarkers, psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in Hispanics with diabetes. Methods Adult patients with diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited from a community clinic in rural central North Carolina. Patients and family members attended an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes educational program taught in Spanish. Data was collected pre and post intervention for both patients and family members, with an additional data collection for patients 1 month post intervention. Results Most patients and family members were female and almost all were immigrants. HbA1c dropped by 0.41% on average among patients from pre-intervention to 1 month post intervention. Patients showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure, diabetes self-efficacy diabetes knowledge, and physical and mental components of health-related quality of life. Higher levels of intake of healthy foods and performance of blood sugar tests and foot inspections were reported. Family members significantly lowered BMI and improved diabetes knowledge from pre- to immediate post-intervention. No significant changes in levels of physical activity were found among patients with diabetes or family members. Conclusions Findings suggest that including family members in educational interventions may provide emotional and psychological support to patients with diabetes, help to develop healthy family behaviors, and promote diabetes self-management. PMID:24248832

  10. Effect of intensive nursing education on the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration among patients with high-risk diabetic foot: a follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Yang, Chuan; Lin, Diao Zhu; Xiao, Hui Sheng; Mai, Li Fang; Guo, Yi Chen; Yan, Li

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to discuss the effect of intensive nursing education on the prevention of diabetic foot ulceration among patients at high risk for diabetic foot. One hundred eighty-five diabetes patients at high risk for foot diseases were enrolled in this study and provided with intensive nursing education, including individualized education about diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot diseases, instruction in podiatric care (the right way of washing the foot, the care of foot skin, appropriate choice of shoes and socks, intense examinations and records of feet by patients themselves every day, and the assistant management of calluses). Study subjects were followed up for 2 years. Once the foot ulceration developed, the inducing factors of foot ulceration were inquired about, the ulcers were evaluated, and the incidence of foot ulceration was analyzed before and after the intensive nursing education according to self-paired data. Results showed there were highly statistically significant improvements in the intensive treatment group compared with the control group in plasma glucose, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. More important is that intensive nursing education helps to prevent diabetic foot ulceration and to decrease the rate of amputation among patients at high risk for diabetic foot.

  11. The scope of cell phones in diabetes management in developing country health care settings.

    PubMed

    Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, can be harnessed to improve diabetes care. Cell phones could serve as a tool for collecting information on surveillance, service delivery, evidence-based care, management, and supply systems pertaining to diabetes from primary care settings in addition to providing health messages as part of diabetes education. As a screening/diagnostic tool for diabetes, cell phones can aid the health workers in undertaking screening and diagnostic and follow-up care for diabetes in the community. Cell phones are also capable of acting as a vehicle for continuing medical education; a decision support system for evidence-based management; and a tool for patient education, self-management, and compliance. However, for widespread use, we need robust evaluations of cell phone applications in existing practices and appropriate interventions in diabetes.

  12. The Scope of Cell Phones in Diabetes Management in Developing Country Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, can be harnessed to improve diabetes care. Cell phones could serve as a tool for collecting information on surveillance, service delivery, evidence-based care, management, and supply systems pertaining to diabetes from primary care settings in addition to providing health messages as part of diabetes education. As a screening/diagnostic tool for diabetes, cell phones can aid the health workers in undertaking screening and diagnostic and follow-up care for diabetes in the community. Cell phones are also capable of acting as a vehicle for continuing medical education; a decision support system for evidence-based management; and a tool for patient education, self-management, and compliance. However, for widespread use, we need robust evaluations of cell phone applications in existing practices and appropriate interventions in diabetes. PMID:21722593

  13. The Utility of Self-Management Procedures in Modifying the Classroom Behaviors of Mentally Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logn, James D.; Williams, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    Tests whether self-management under a variety of experimental conditions could reduce the disruptive behavior of adolescents in a special classroom. A comparison was made of self-management using tokens without back-up reinforcement, self-management using graphic feedback, and self-management using free time as back-up reinforcement. (Author/RK)

  14. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  15. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hempler, Nana F; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. PMID:25750523

  16. The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, Flavio

    2010-09-01

    Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period