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Sample records for diabetic patient case

  1. Case series of rhinocerebral mucormycosis occurring in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Meidani, Mohsen; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Iraj, Bijan; Hamedani, Pooria; Sayedain, Sayed Mohammad Amin; Mokhtari, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a fatal infection typically affecting diabetic or immunosuppressed patients. In most cases, infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores. Mortality rate of patients is very high (40-85%). Case Presentation: In this study, three diabetic patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis were presented. The etiologic agents of mucormycosis in two patients were isolated and identified by sequence analysis and data were registered in Gene bank database. Conclusion: In patients with mucoreosis, early detection, surgical excision and appropriate debridement, suitable antifungal therapy, and control of risk factors like diabetes mellitus are the main parameters of successful management of this lethal infection. PMID:26644901

  2. A novel case of diabetic muscle necrosis in a patient with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Sreelatha; Bettadahalli, Shankar S; Bhupathi, Satya V; Aswani, Vijay H

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a recessive autosomal disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a common comorbidity of cystic fibrosis. Diabetic myonecrosis is a rare self-limited complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus that commonly presents with acute, intense pain and swelling of lower extremities and responds well to conservative management. We report the first case of diabetic myonecrosis in a patient with CFRD.

  3. Painful neuropathy in a diabetic patient resulting from lung cancer and not diabetes: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, He-Bin; Chen, Ya-Ning; Shang, Jian; Han, Qiao-Jun

    2015-12-01

    The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old man with diabetes who was suffering from generalized pain over the whole body and gradually progressive numbness. The patient was initially diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and received treatment, however, the symptoms persisted. In October 2010, the patient was admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy General Hospital (Beijing, China) for the treatment of diabetes, however, a full-body sharp pain was also described, which was relieved upon massaging the area. Causes, other than diabetes, were investigated for these symptoms. Chest computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans revealed a mass shadow in the right lower lobe of the lung, with multiple lymphatic metastases. Lung cancer was diagnosed with a tumor-node-metastasis stage of T1N3Mx. Following treatment of the cancer with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient's symptoms were significantly improved. The present study reports a rare case of a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) that presented as painful neuropathy resulting from lung cancer, which mimicked diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Pain in diabetic neuropathy case study: whole patient management.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, P; Teloni, L; Formaglio, F; Lacerenza, M

    2004-04-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is described as a superficial burning pain associated with other positive and/or negative sensory systems affecting the feet and lower extremities. It is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes in clinical practice. Presentation may be complicated by multiple symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, other less well characterized dysesthesias, and serious disruption of social functioning and mood. Peripheral nerve function may deteriorate, which can account for patient reports of diminution of pain after several years of follow-up. Although current understanding holds that the pathogenesis of DPN is multifactorial in nature, long-term studies have shown that rigorous glycemic control is the most relevant factor in clinical intervention and can delay the onset and slow the progression of neuropathy. In addition to glycemic control, other treatment approaches must be examined in order to restore quality of life for patients experiencing painful DPN. Differential diagnosis is required to isolate DPN from other unexplained chronic pain. Neurologic testing in painful DPN is an area of active research and is used to assess the neurologic pathways giving rise to the pain, the degree of neural damage and the degree of subclinical damage. Current treatment options for DPN include mainly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, with other agents such as tramadol, dextromethorphan and memantine being employed or studied. This review article includes a case study of a patient with painful DPN to demonstrate the current management strategies for this neuropathic pain syndrome.

  5. Spontaneous calcaneal fracture in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: Four cases report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Evran, Mehtap; Sert, Murat; Tetiker, Tamer; Akkuş, Gamze; Biçer, Ömer Sunkar

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous calcaneal fractures in diabetic patients without obvious trauma may occur, sometimes accompanying diabetic foot ulcers. In the current study we report four cases who were hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer with concomitant calcaneal fractures. There were four diabetic patients (one type 1 and three type 2) who registered with diabetic foot ulcers with coexisting calcaneal fractures, all of which were classified as Type A according to Essex Lopresti Calcaneal Fracture Classification. Two of the patients with renal failure were in a routine dialysis program, as well as vascular compromise and osteomyelitis in all of the patients. The diabetic foot ulcer of the 61 years old osteoporotic female patient healed with local debridement, vacuum assisted closure and then epidermal growth factor while the calcaneal fracture was then followed by elastic bandage. In two patients could not prevent progression of diabetic foot ulcers and calcaneal fractures to consequent below-knee amputation. The only patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus improved with antibiotic therapy and split thickness skin grafting, while the calcaneal fracture did not heal. In the current study we aimed to emphasize the spontaneous calcaneal fractures as possible co-existing pathologies in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. After all the medical treatment, amputation below knee had to be performed in 2 patients. It should be noted that other accompanying conditions such as impaired peripheral circulation, osteomyelitis, chronic renal failure, and maybe osteoporosis is a challenge of the recovery of calcaneal fractures and accelerate the progress to amputation in diabetic patients. PMID:27458594

  6. Case Reports That Illustrate the Efficacy of SGLT2 Inhibitors in the Type 1 Diabetic Patient.

    PubMed

    Bell, David S H

    2015-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are only approved for use in adults with type 2 diabetes. However, because SGLT2 inhibitors have a mechanism of action that does not require the presence of endogenous insulin, these drugs should also be efficacious in type 1 diabetes where endogenous insulin production is greatly reduced or absent. Herein, I present five cases which illustrate the benefits of utilizing an SGLT2 inhibitor with type 1 diabetes. In these cases the use of SGLT2 inhibitors resulted not only in better glycemic control in most patients but also in some patients' less hypoglycemia, weight loss, and decreased doses of insulin. In type 1 diabetes Candida albicans vaginitis and balanitis may occur more frequently than in type 2 diabetes. These cases show that a large randomized clinical trial of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes needs to be performed.

  7. Platelet function in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Hoda Ahmed; Sadek, Samiaa Hamdy; Nafady, Asmaa Abdel Hakim

    2016-03-22

    The effect of association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes (DM) on platelet function has not been studied before. To evaluate the effect of the association between COPD and DM on platelet function and C reactive protein (CRP). This case control study was carried out on 110 stable COPD patients who were classified into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. In addition to 40 apparently healthy, age and sex-matched individuals. Chest X-ray, pulmonary function testing and arterial blood gases were done for COPD patients. CRP and complete blood count (CBC) were measured in both patient and control groups. Mean Platelet volume (MPV), Platelet distribution width (PDW), Platelet crit (PCT) and CRP were significantly higher in COPD patients either non-diabetic or diabetic compared to control group. Moreover MPV and CRP markers were significantly higher in COPD diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic. There was no significant difference in various laboratory data among different stages of COPD either diabetic or non-diabetic (P >0.05). In COPD patients, MPV was a significantly positively correlated with CRP and PDW (r= 0.346, P<0.001; r=0.510, P<0.001 respectively) and negatively correlated with PLT count (r= -0.294, P=0.002). MPV. PDW, PCT and CRP were significantly higher in COPD patients either non -diabetic or diabetic. Platelet function may be modified by the systemic inflamattion that associated with COPD. Platelet activation as a prothrombotic sequence of this disease may be used as novel therapeutic target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Successful Treatment of a Patient With Complicated Diabetic Foot Wound: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yurong; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Liping; You, Chuangang; Feng, Zhanzeng; Han, Chunmao

    2014-06-01

    Foot ulceration is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus and may lead to amputation of the lower extremity. Timely prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic foot ulceration are important to maintain a good quality of life. This article reports a complicated diabetic patient with severe limb-threatening necrotizing infection. We successfully applied endovascular stent insertion, digit amputation, negative pressure wound therapy, and advanced dressings in different wound phases to achieve definitive wound healing after 12 months of treatment. Based on this case report, we would like to emphasize the importance of combined multiple therapies and patient compliance for severe diabetic foot ulcers.

  9. [Conservative treatment in diabetic patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis: about five cases].

    PubMed

    El Majdoub, Aziz; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe kidney infection. Early and effective treatment is essential to reduce high mortality rates due to this disease. Our study aims to highlight the clinical and paraclinical features as well as the peculiarities of therapeutic management of this disease and focus on the possibility of conservative treatment in diabetic patients. We analyzed the medical records of patients with EPN treated in the Department of Urology at the Hassan II University Hospital, Fez between January 2004 and January 2010. For each medical record we described clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features as well as patient's evolution after treatment. We here report the case of 5 female patients whose average age was 45,6 years. All patients were diabetic. Lithiasic obstruction of the upper urinary tract was found in 3 patients (60%). The diagnosis was made by means of abdominal CT scan. All patients underwent resuscitation measures including antibiotic and insulin therapy. Conservative surgical procedure was performed in all cases. Indeed, surgical drainage of perirenal collections was performed in two cases, percutaneous renal drainage in one case and drainage using double-J ureteral catheter in 2 cases. Clinical and radiological evolution was excellent with renal preservation in all patients Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare and serious complication, especially in diabetic patients. Diagnosis is based on CT scan. Surgical treatment should be conservative in most cases, apart from severe forms, especially in diabetic patients who have potential risk of chronic renal failure.

  10. Evolution assessment of head and neck infections in diabetic patients--a case control study.

    PubMed

    Juncar, Mihai; Popa, Amorin R; Baciuţ, Mihaela F; Juncar, Raluca Iulia; Onisor-Gligor, Florin; Bran, Simion; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2014-07-01

    This research aimed to assess the occurrence and progression of head and neck infections in diabetic compared to non-diabetic patients. A retrospective study was carried out over a period of 10 years in 899 patients with head and neck infections. The patients who met the inclusion criteria were divided into cases and controls according to the presence/absence of diabetes. Seventy-three patients (8%, 95% CI [6.45%-10.12%]) were included in the case group and 826 (92%, 95% CI [89.87%-93.55%]) were assigned to the control group. The extension of the infection proved to be significantly (p < 0.001) higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U statistics = 18205.500, p < 1.56 · 10(-8)). A more than 10 year history of diabetes was statistically related to a wider extent of head and neck infections (p < 0.001). Diabetes proved to be associated with large necrotic areas and the spread of head and neck infections to more than two cavities.

  11. Culturally Tailored Diabetes Education for Chinese Patients: A Qualitative Case Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tammie S T; Walker, Karen Z; Palermo, Claire

    2017-05-01

    To explore the range of teaching approaches and cultural-tailoring elements used in diabetes educations directed at Chinese patients and to determine the strategies that appeared to best address Chinese patients' needs. A case study approach in three countries was employed, using multiple ethnographic data collection methods including participant observations and qualitative interviews. Data were collected from 39 participant observations and 22 interviews across seven cases. Collective didactic education was most common. Individual clarification at the end of an education session was used to allow patients to derive their own management plan. Clinicians mainly provided information and used knowledge reinforcement to facilitate behavioral change. Participatory diabetes education models borrowed from the West did not translate well culturally and did not appear to meet Chinese patients' needs. Conclusion and Practical Implications: Diabetes education for the Chinese may be enhanced by building on traditional Confucian education strategies.

  12. Dietary management of a patient with diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Ahmad, Rozali

    2003-09-01

    The Ministry of Health has launched healthy lifestyle and diabetes campaigns. However, adopting healthy lifestyle practices is not easy as revealed in this case. Patients and their families need to be supervised personally and counseled regularly. Healthy lifestyle habits such as maintaining a balanced diet, ideal body weight and physical activities need to be cultivated and practised. Dietary counseling sessions need to be implemented, preferably by dietitians as this has been shown to be effective in motivating diabetic patients to achieve a better food choice, as well as better glycaemic, lipid and weight control, as shown in this case.

  13. A case report on escitalopram-induced hyperglycaemia in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Zuccoli, M L; Milano, G; Leone, S; Fucile, C; Brasesco, P C; Martelli, A; Mattioli, F

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of depression in diabetic patients is quite high; moreover, it has been suggested that the presence of depression itself may increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it follows that the simultaneous use of antidiabetic and antidepressant drugs is common. Some clinical evidence indicates that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) could be very useful in treating overweight patients, both with and without diabetes. However, recent deregulation of glucidic metabolism was tested in diabetic subjects treated with antidepressants. Several cases of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia associated with other SSRIs have been published, whereas only one case of escitalopram inducing hyperglycaemia has been noted. The exact mechanism of glucose control impairment in patients taking SSRIs--escitalopram in particular--still remains unclear. We describe a diabetic 83-year-old woman with good glycaemic control (as evinced by glycaemic and glycosylated haemoglobin assay--HbA1c--values) before escitalopram initiation in response to therapy with glibenclamide. Escitalopram resulted in a significantly increased glycaemia values 5 days following administration. Glycaemia values returned to normality only after suspension of escitalopram, despite antidiabetic dosage increase. We report this case to draw attention to escitalopram as a possible cause of glycaemic control loss.

  14. Rare Case of Aspergillus ochraceus Osteomyelitis of Calcaneus Bone in a Patient with Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Shokohi, Tahereh; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Nabili, Mojtaba; Afzalian Ashkezari, Elham; Alinezhad, Sosan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease in humans. One of the major complications of the disease is foot ulcer that is prone to infection. The most common causes of infection which have been reported in these patients are bacteria and fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus species. We report one such rare case with calcaneal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus ochraceus in a patient with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The case was a 68-year-old male with a history of type II diabetes for 2 years. The patient had two ulcers on the right heel bones for the past 6 months with no significant improvement. One of the most important predisposing factors to infectious diseases, especially opportunistic fungal infection, is diabetes mellitus. Aspergillus species can involve bony tissue through vascular system, direct infection, and trauma. Proper and early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infection can reduce or prevent complications, such as osteomyelitis and amputation. The annual examination of feet for skin and nail lesion, sensation, anatomical changes, and vascular circulation can be useful for prevention and control of infection.

  15. Rare Case of Aspergillus ochraceus Osteomyelitis of Calcaneus Bone in a Patient with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Shokohi, Tahereh; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Nabili, Mojtaba; Afzalian Ashkezari, Elham; Alinezhad, Sosan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease in humans. One of the major complications of the disease is foot ulcer that is prone to infection. The most common causes of infection which have been reported in these patients are bacteria and fungi such as Candida, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus species. We report one such rare case with calcaneal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus ochraceus in a patient with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The case was a 68-year-old male with a history of type II diabetes for 2 years. The patient had two ulcers on the right heel bones for the past 6 months with no significant improvement. One of the most important predisposing factors to infectious diseases, especially opportunistic fungal infection, is diabetes mellitus. Aspergillus species can involve bony tissue through vascular system, direct infection, and trauma. Proper and early diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infection can reduce or prevent complications, such as osteomyelitis and amputation. The annual examination of feet for skin and nail lesion, sensation, anatomical changes, and vascular circulation can be useful for prevention and control of infection. PMID:26064128

  16. Depression in Patients with Type II Diabetes: Case study at Diabetic Outpatient Clinic, in Samut Prakan

    PubMed Central

    Thongsai, Soontareeporn; Watanabenjasopa, Suntaree; Youjaiyen, Malinee

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research studied the depression level of patients with diabetes type II at diabetic clinics in Samut Prakarn, and, identified the causes of severe depression in patients with type 2. There were 209 participants enrolled in the study. The samples were selected by opportunistic sampling technique. The data were collected from May 2013 to July 2013, using the CES-D questionnaire, with Cronbach’s coefficient alpha 0.82 and guidelines for interviews. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Research Results: 1. 66 percent of participants had a depression score at a low level. 2. The CES-D showed that, 44 percent were unhappy and 38 percent did not feel that their life was enjoyable. 29 percent felt no hope for the future, 5.6 percent were easily upset and 8.3 percent suffered from insomnia and severe depression. 3. Half of the participants mentioned that troubled family relationships was a main cause of their depression, 42.9 percents felt worrying about their illness, 35.3 percent blamed over work and almost 15 percent identified loss of love as the cause of depression. PMID:24373272

  17. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:28246626

  18. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient.

  19. Hemoptysis during general anesthesia in a diabetic patient with healed tuberculosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mee Young; Jeong, Hyeon-Do; Kim, Seul-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Hemoptysis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Most of the cases of hemoptysis originate from hypertrophied bronchial arteries. Also, diabetes induces pulmonary vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory infiltration and pulmonary vascular remodeling. A 27-year-old male, with diabetes and a history of tuberculosis, underwent the procedure of pars plana vitrectomy under general anesthesia. After an uneventful intra-operative period, he had hemoptysis prior to extubation. Emergency fiberoptic bronchscopy showed blood plugs and spotted fresh blood at the right upper lobar bronchus. After successful embolization of the bronchial artery, the patient made a recovery and was discharged without experiencing any complication. Predisposing factors of hemoptysis in this case are presumed to be tuberculosis and diabetes. The bleeding might had been caused by the rupture of a weakened artery within the cavity in the right upper lobe, through expansion of the lung during manual ventilation by positive pressure. PMID:28184273

  20. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a diabetic patient on maintenance hemodialysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, M; Aloui, S; Skhiri, H; Letaif, A; Frih, M A; Ben Dhia, N; Elmay, M

    2014-05-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) is an uncommon acute infection characterized by the presence of gas in the renal parenchyma. It is extremely rare in hemodialysis (HD) patients and diabetics account for most cases. It is a rapidly progressive and life threatening infection with a high mortality rate. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a HD patient who was treated successfully with radical nephrectomy and antibiotic therapy. A 46-year-old diabetic male with end stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy and on maintenance HD for the last five years presented with a two weeks history of fever and loin pain. He was treated with oral ciprofloxacin for one week with no improvement. His blood culture isolated Escherichia coli. Computed tomography scan of the abdominal disclosed an enlarged left kidney with massive gaseous collections. Accordingly, the diagnosis of emphysematous pyelonephritis was put forward, the patient underwent left nephrectomy together with intravenous imipenum and amikacin with good clinical response. The removed kidney showed features of acute pyelonephritis with micro-abscesses on histopathology. . Emphysematous pyelonephritis should always be considered in diabetics presenting with fever, loin pain, and features of sepsis not responding to antibiotic therapy; even though being on dialysis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen remains an early diagnostic tool. Early treatment with potent antibiotics with or without surgical intervention can save patients' life.

  1. Diabetic myonecrosis in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic myonecrosis was first reported by Angervall and Stener in 1965. In its classical clinical expression, it affects type 1 diabetes mellitus patients with long-standing poor metabolic control and advanced chronic microvascular complications. A sudden-onset of severe pain in the region of the involved muscle, usually the quadriceps, is the typical clinical manifestation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirms the clinical diagnosis; in some cases of diagnostic uncertainty, a muscle biopsy may be required. Case Presentation We present the case of a 38 year-old Hispanic male from Mexico, with alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C/MELD 45) and type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the emergency room due to hepatic encephalopathy with intense pain and an increase in volume of the left thigh. MRI showed edema and inflammatory changes of the quadriceps muscle with a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images; in addition, there was a subacute hematoma. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of diabetic myonecrosis associated with and complicated by advanced hepatic cirrhosis reported in the literature. PMID:20062734

  2. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Elmehdawi, RR; Elmajberi, SJ; Behieh, A; Elramli, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases. Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reported an increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients and methods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinology Center. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up at the center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teaching hospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomen after an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones as compared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males. Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body mass index than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabetic patients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients with gallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetes mellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics. PMID:21483499

  3. Absence of diabetic retinopathy in a patient who has had diabetes mellitus for 69 years, and inadequate glycemic control: case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Jorge; da Rosa, Carolina Maurente; Kramer, Caroline Kaercher; Osowski, Luiz Eduardo; Milano, Stéfano; Canani, Luís Henrique

    2009-01-01

    The main risk factors for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are chronic hyperglycemia, disease duration and systemic blood pressure. So far chronic hyperglycemia is the strongest evidence concerning the risk of developing DR. However there are some patients with poor metabolic control who never develop this diabetic complication. We present a case of a 73-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus, diagnosed 69 years ago. The patient is 73 years old, with no evidence of DR, despite poor glycemic control and several risk factors for DR. This case suggests the presence of a possible protection factor, which could be genetic. PMID:19825149

  4. Accurate patient history contributes to differentiating diabetes insipidus: a case study.

    PubMed

    Olson, DaiWai M; Meek, LorieAnn G; Lynch, John R

    2004-08-01

    This case study highlights the important contribution of nursing in obtaining an accurate health history. The case discussed herein initially appeared to be neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) secondary to a traumatic brain injury. The nursing staff, by reviewing the patient's health history with his family, discovered a history of polydipsia and long-standing lithium use. Lithium is implicated in drug-induced nephrogenic DI, and because the patient had not received lithium since being admitted to the hospital, his treatment changed to focus on nephrogenic DI. By combining information from the patient history, the physical examination, and radiologic and laboratory studies, the critical care team demonstrated that the patient had been self-treating his lithium-induced nephrogenic DI and developed neurogenic DI secondary to brain trauma. Thus successful treatment required that nephrogenic and neurogenic DI be treated concomitantly.

  5. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  6. Rapidly progressive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a patient with type 2 diabetes: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Xia; He, Yin-Xi; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Mian; Su, Sheng-Ou

    2017-03-01

    With the ongoing economic development, lifestyle changes and an aging population, diabetes mellitus has be come one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world. Rhino-orbito-cerebral (ROC) mucormycosis is a rare, acute and angioinvasive fungal infection that can be fatal. Mucormycosis occurs exclusively in immunocompromised patients with diabetes mellitus and other types of immunodeficiency and has three subtypes: Rhino-maxillary, rhino-orbital and ROC mucormycosis. The present study reported on a case of ROC mucormycosis in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. In the present case, the pathogen afflicted all of the above organs, including the left eye, nasal cavity, hard palate and cerebrum.

  7. Shoulder adhesive capsulitis prevalence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sayed-Hassan, R; Alourfi, Z

    2014-01-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for shoulder adhesive capsulitis which causes disability and affects quality of life. This study determined the prevalence of shoulder adhesive capsulitis in 208 type 2 diabetes patients and 200 age- and sex-matched patients without diabetes, and with a case-control method investigated the clinical features of the diabetes patients with or without this complication. The sample was drawn from in- and outpatients at Al-Mouassat and Al-Assad university hospitals during November 2009-2010. The prevalence of shoulder adhesive capsulitis in diabetes patients was significantly higher than in those without diabetes (13.0% and 1.5% respectively, P < 0.01). Of the patients with the condition, those with diabetes were younger than those without diabetes. Shoulder adhesive capsulitis in the diabetes group was associated with diabetes duration and poor diabetes control (P < 0.05).

  8. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes presenting as toothache: a case report from Himalayan region of India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Singh, Mridu; Joshi, Chitra; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive infection caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. It is a rapidly progressive fatal infection mostly reported in susceptible individuals, such as those with poorly controlled diabetes or those with defects in phagocytic function. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common type of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. This case report describes a 17-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The patient presented with a history of toothache and facial pain with oedema of left half of face, periorbital oedema and depressed conciousness. She had hyperglycaemia with diabetic ketoacidosis and rapidly developed hemiparesis progressing to quadriparesis and died within 3 days of admission. The current report emphasises the importance of having a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients with diabetes presenting with facial pain or cellulitis and prompt initiation of medical therapy along with surgical debridement for control of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. PMID:24172773

  9. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes presenting as toothache: a case report from Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Singh, Mridu; Joshi, Chitra; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2013-10-30

    Mucormycosis is an angioinvasive infection caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. It is a rapidly progressive fatal infection mostly reported in susceptible individuals, such as those with poorly controlled diabetes or those with defects in phagocytic function. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common type of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. This case report describes a 17-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The patient presented with a history of toothache and facial pain with oedema of left half of face, periorbital oedema and depressed conciousness. She had hyperglycaemia with diabetic ketoacidosis and rapidly developed hemiparesis progressing to quadriparesis and died within 3 days of admission. The current report emphasises the importance of having a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients with diabetes presenting with facial pain or cellulitis and prompt initiation of medical therapy along with surgical debridement for control of rhinocerebral mucormycosis.

  10. Improvement in diabetes care of underinsured patients enrolled in project dulce: a community-based, culturally appropriate, nurse case management and peer education diabetes care model.

    PubMed

    Philis-Tsimikas, Athena; Walker, Chris; Rivard, Lisa; Talavera, Gregory; Reimann, Joachim O F; Salmon, Michelle; Araujo, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To improve clinical diabetes care, patient knowledge, and treatment satisfaction and to reduce health-adverse culture-based beliefs in underserved and underinsured populations with diabetes. A total of 153 high-risk patients with diabetes recruited from six community clinic sites in San Diego County, California were enrolled in a nurse case management (NCM) and peer education/empowerment group. Baseline and 1-year levels of HbA(1c), lipid parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, knowledge of diabetes, culture-based beliefs in ineffective remedies, and treatment satisfaction were prospectively measured. The NCM and peer education/empowerment group was compared with 76 individuals in a matched control group (CG) derived from patients referred but not enrolled in Project Dulce. After 1 year in Project Dulce, the NCM and peer education/empowerment group had significant improvements in HbA(1c) (12.0-8.3%, P < 0.0001), total cholesterol (5.82-4.86 mmol/l, P < 0.0001), LDL cholesterol (3.39-2.79 mmol/l, P < 0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (80-76 mmHg, P < 0.009), which were significantly better than in the CG, in which no significant changes were noted. Accepted American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care, knowledge of diabetes (P = 0.024), treatment satisfaction (P = 0.001), and culture-based beliefs (P = 0.001) were also improved. A novel, culturally appropriate, community-based, nurse case management/peer education diabetes care model leads to significant improvement in clinical diabetes care, self-awareness, and understanding of diabetes in underinsured populations.

  11. Cyst decreased in size post maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery in diabetic patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijia; Song, Yingliang; Wei, Hongbo; Ren, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Whether mucosal cyst of maxillary sinus is contraindication for sinus floor augmentation surgery has been a controversial hot spot for years. Presentation of case This case aims to present the surgical procedure of sinus floor augmentation surgery with cyst (18.72 mm × 24.61 mm) in diabetic patient. And 6 months later, the cyst decreased in size. The authors elevated the sinus floor and cyst simultaneously. The surgery was carried out successfully without sinus membrane perforation and the alveolar ridge gained about 8 mm height. Six months later, the cyst decreased in size and osseointegration was observed. Discussion Interdisciplinary cooperation is encouraged to diagnose benign mucosal cyst. The isolation between sinus lumen and the grafted sub-sinus space is important. Graft contamination or dispersion into the sinus lumen should be avoided. The integrity of the sinus membrane and use of antibiotics are very important to prevent the occurrence of postoperative sinus infection Conclusion The authors conclude that sinus augmentation surgery could be done with mucosal cyst in diabetic patient. PMID:26479781

  12. Diabetes mellitus increases the prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Loutradis, Charalampos; Skodra, Alexandra; Georgianos, Panagiotis; Tolika, Panagiota; Alexandrou, Dimitris; Avdelidou, Afroditi; Sarafidis, Pantelis A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare anemia prevalence between matched chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and to assess factors associated with anemia development. METHODS: This is a nested case-control study of 184 type-2 diabetic and 184 non-diabetic CKD patients from a prospectively assembled database of a Nephrology outpatient clinic, matched for gender, age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin: Men: < 13 g/dL, women: < 12 g/dL and/or use of recombinant erythropoietin) was examined in comparison, in the total population and by CKD Stage. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with anemia. RESULTS: The total prevalence of anemia was higher in diabetics (47.8% vs 33.2%, P = 0.004). Accordingly, prevalence was higher in diabetics in CKD Stage 3 (53.5% vs 33.1%, P < 0.001) and particularly in Stage 3a (60.4% vs 26.4%, P < 0.001), whereas it was non-significantly higher in Stage 4 (61.3% vs 48.4%; P = 0.307). Serum ferritin was higher in diabetics in total and in CKD stages, while serum iron was similar between groups. In multivariate analyses, DM (OR = 2.206, 95%CI: 1.196-4.069), CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4 (Stage 4: OR = 12.169, 95%CI: 3.783-39.147) and serum iron (OR = 0.976, 95%CI: 0.968-0.985 per mg/dL increase) were independently associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of anemia progressively increases with advancing stages of CKD and is higher in diabetic than matched non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetes is independently associated with anemia occurrence. Detection and treatment of anemia in diabetic CKD patients should be performed earlier than non-diabetic counterparts. PMID:27458564

  13. Elevated plantar pressure and ulceration in diabetic patients after panmetatarsal head resection: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, P R; Ulbrecht, J S; Caputo, G M

    1999-08-01

    Panmetatarsal head resection (variously called forefoot arthroplasty, forefoot resection arthroplasty, the Hoffman procedure, and the Fowler procedure) was developed for the relief of pain and deformity in rheumatoid arthritis. Although there are successful retrospective series reported in the literature, such an approach is not supported by carefully designed controlled trials. This procedure has also been advocated by some for the relief of plantar pressure in diabetic patients who are at risk for plantar ulceration. The efficacy of the procedure in this context is not supported by existing pressure measurements on rheumatoid arthritis patients in the literature, which has tended to show that although pain relief is obtained, the procedure results in elevation of forefoot pressure. Case reports are described of two patients (three feet) with sensory neuropathy who presented to our clinic 1 to 2 years after panmetatarsal head resections had been performed. Peak plantar pressures in these feet during first step gait were above the 99th percentile and outside the measuring range of the device used (EMED SF platform; NOVEL Electronics Inc., St. Paul, MN). Both patients had also experienced plantar ulcers subsequent to the surgery. Combining the information on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with that from our two case studies, we conclude that panmetatarsal head resection does not necessarily eliminate focal regions of elevated plantar pressure.

  14. Seasonal variations of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-diabetes mellitus: clinical analysis of 578 hypoglycemia cases.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Noto, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Remi; Kimura, Akio; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2014-11-01

    Blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly influenced by the seasons, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels decreasing in the summer or warm season and increasing in the winter or cold season. In addition, several studies have shown that sepsis is also associated with the seasons. Although both blood glucose control and sepsis can strongly affect the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia, few studies have examined the seasonal variation of severe hypoglycemia. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between severe hypoglycemia and the seasons in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-diabetes mellitus (non-DM). We retrospectively reviewed all the patients with severe hypoglycemia at a national center in Japan between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2012. A total of 57,132 consecutive cases that had visited the emergency room by ambulance were screened, and 578 eligible cases of severe hypoglycemia were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome was to assess the seasonality of severe hypoglycemia. In the T1DM group (n  =  88), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the summer than in the winter (35.2% in summer vs 18.2% in winter, P  =  0.01), and the HbA1c levels were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer (9.1% [7.6%-10.1%] in winter vs 7.7% [7.1%-8.3%] in summer, P  =  0.13). In the non-DM group (n  =  173), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the winter than in the summer (30.6% in winter vs 19.6% in summer, P  =  0.01), and sepsis as a complication occurred significantly more often in winter than in summer (24.5% in winter vs 5.9% in summer, P  =  0.02). In the T2DM group (n  =  317), the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and the HbA1c levels did not differ significantly among the seasons. The occurrence of severe hypoglycemia might be seasonal and might fluctuate with temperature changes

  15. Influence of primary care practices on patients' uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Sturt, Jackie A; Hipwell, Alison; Stratton, Irene M; Al-Athamneh, Nidal; Gadsby, Roger; O'Hare, Joseph Paul; Scanlon, Peter H

    2014-08-01

    The NHS Diabetic Eye Screening Programme aims to reduce the risk of sight loss among people with diabetes in England by enabling prompt diagnosis of sight-threatening retinopathy. However, the rate of screening uptake between practices can vary from 55% to 95%. Existing research focuses on the impact of patient demographics but little is known about GP practice-related factors that can make a difference. To identify factors contributing to high or low patient uptake of retinopathy screening. Qualitative case-based study; nine purposively selected GP practices (deprived/affluent; high/low screening uptake) in three retinopathy screening programme areas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients, primary care professionals, and screeners. A comparative case-based analysis was carried out to identify factors related to high or low screening uptake. Eight possible factors that influenced uptake were identified. Five modifiable factors related to service and staff interactions: communication with screening services; contacting patients; integration of screening with other care; focus on the newly diagnosed; and perception of non-attenders. Three factors were non-modifiable challenges related to practice location: level of deprivation; diversity of ethnicities and languages; and transport and access. All practices adopted strategies to improve uptake, but the presence of two or more major barriers made it very hard for practices to achieve higher uptake levels. A range of service-level opportunities to improve screening attendance were identified that are available to practices and screening teams. More research is needed into the complex interfaces of care that make up retinopathy screening. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  16. Case Study: Weight loss in a patient with type 2 diabetes: Challenges of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Katayoun; Palmer, Kenya; Apovian, Caroline M

    2015-04-01

    This patient with BMI 36 kg/m² and T2DM on insulin glargine and glyburide as well as atenolol for HTN was able to lose 10% of his initial body weight with a low-carbohydrate diet and exercise and adjustment of medications in approximately a 36-week time frame. Insulin glargine and glyburide were reduced gradually with blood glucose monitoring and replaced by an increase in metformin, start of liraglutide, and eventually phentermine/topiramate and canagliflozin (Figure). Therefore, medications that can exacerbate weight gain were discontinued in place of medications which promote weight loss.

  17. [The diabetes traffic light scheme - development of an instrument for the case management in patients with diabetes mellitus in primary care].

    PubMed

    Chmiel, C; Birnbaum, B; Gensichen, J; Rosemann, T; Frei, A

    2011-11-30

    In order to sustain the continuity and quality of treatment in diabetic primary care patients, it is necessary to introduce structured and regularly performed monitoring system into the practice team. The monitoring aims at early and valid recognition of potential complications resulting from a chronic disease. Ideally the practice nurse is in charge of the case management. The central element of the case management is a colour coded instrument, the diabetes traffic light scheme, by which means the most important clinical parameters and patient adherence can be screened in regular intervals. Additionally, the instrument regulates in-practice communication by means of stratified action plans and enables ideal treatment continuity also in larger teams. The experiences resulting from the development of this diabetes-specific traffic light scheme can be beneficial for the future development of similar instruments in other chronic diseases.

  18. Diabetes insipidus due to herpes encephalitis in a patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Scheinpflug, K; Schalk, E; Reschke, K; Franke, A; Mohren, M

    2006-01-01

    The major causes of central diabetes insipidus are neoplastic or infiltrative lesions of the hypothalamus or pituitary, severe head injuries and pituitary or hypothalamic surgery. Central diabetes insipidus caused by viral infections has been rarely reported in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman suffering from diffuse large cell lymphoma, who developed hypotonic polyuria, hypernatriaemia and somnolence after the first course of chemotherapy with CHOEP and rituximab. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by low urine osmolarity and an undetectable vasopressin concentration. MRI revealed no pituitary abnormalities but encephalitis, and lumbar punction confirmed herpes zoster infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of central diabetes insipidus in a lymphoma patient caused by an opportunistic CNS-infection.

  19. Improved Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Utilizing Integrative Medicine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Grise, Diane E.; McAllister, Heath M.

    2015-01-01

    This case report demonstrates a successful approach to managing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Botanical herbs (including Gymnema sylvestre) and nutrients (including alpha lipoic acid and chromium) were used alongside metformin to help improve insulin sensitization; however, the greatest emphasis of treatment for this patient centered on a low-carbohydrate, whole-foods diet and regular exercise that shifted the focus to the patient's role in controlling their disease. Research on DM2 often focuses on improving drug efficacy while diet and lifestyle are generally overlooked as both a preventive and curative tool. During the 7 months of treatment, the patient's hemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose significantly decreased to within normal ranges and both cholesterol and liver enzyme markers normalized. A significant body of evidence already exists advocating for disease management using various diets, including Mediterranean, low-carb, and low-fat vegan diets; however, no clear dietary standards have been established. This study supports the use of naturopathic medicine as well as dietary and lifestyle changes to develop the most efficacious approach for the treatment of DM2. PMID:25984419

  20. Improved clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing integrative medicine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grise, Diane E; McAllister, Heath M; Langland, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    This case report demonstrates a successful approach to managing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Botanical herbs (including Gymnema sylvestre) and nutrients (including alpha lipoic acid and chromium) were used alongside metformin to help improve insulin sensitization; however, the greatest emphasis of treatment for this patient centered on a low-carbohydrate, whole-foods diet and regular exercise that shifted the focus to the patient's role in controlling their disease. Research on DM2 often focuses on improving drug efficacy while diet and lifestyle are generally overlooked as both a preventive and curative tool. During the 7 months of treatment, the patient's hemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose significantly decreased to within normal ranges and both cholesterol and liver enzyme markers normalized. A significant body of evidence already exists advocating for disease management using various diets, including Mediterranean, low-carb, and low-fat vegan diets; however, no clear dietary standards have been established. This study supports the use of naturopathic medicine as well as dietary and lifestyle changes to develop the most efficacious approach for the treatment of DM2.

  1. Amputation in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurjit; Chawla, S

    2006-01-01

    Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. The present study examines the amputation risk criterion and the long term outcome in terms of amputations and mortality in patients with diabetic foot. 27 patients with diabetic foot lesions were studied. There were 15 patients with early lesions and 10 with advanced lesions. 15 patients were managed conservatively including local amputations and 12 with lower extremity amputations. 80% patients were males in 45-59 years of age group and all patients had more than 6 years of poorly controlled diabetes. Precipitating factors included walking barefoot, history of minor trauma, infection, callosities or burns in 86% of patients. Major lower limb amputations were common in irregularly treated, poorly controlled diabetics due to infection in a limb devitalized by angiopathy and desensitised by neuropathy. Diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Mortality was higher in ischaemic ulcers than neuropathic ulcers.

  2. Metastatic endophthalmitis combined with subretinal abscess in a patient with diabetes mellitus--a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Peng, Kai-Ling

    2015-08-14

    Endogenous endophthalmitis, extra-hepatic metastasis from liver abscess with diabetes mellitus, could lead to a devastating outcome without a prompt and appropriate management. We report a case of metastatic endophthalmitis combined with subretinal abscess with successful visual outcome after treatment. A 56-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus under poor control presented to our emergency room with fever, sore throat, cough and poor appetite for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 2.2 × 2.0 cm liver abscess. During hospitalization, sudden onset of blurred vision with floaters in his left eye was noted. Meanwhile, Brain computed tomography demonstrated subdural abscess in right parietal area. With obvious vitritis, a localized subretinal abscess was also found over temporal arcade with size about four disc areas under indirect ophthalmoscopy. A pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal injection of ceftazidime (2 mg/0.1 ml) and amikacin (0.4 mg/0.1 ml) was performed without retinectomy. The margin of the subretinal abscess became firm and the central area resolved after the operation. Finally, his vision improved to 6/6 after cataract surgery. Subretinal abscess is an extremely rare presentation of metastatic endophthalmitis. It is difficult to develop appropriate treatment guidelines of endophthalmitis complicated with subretinal abscess. Our experience in this case demonstrated if the size of the subretinal abscess is smaller than four disc areas, pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal injection of antibiotics without retinectomy could be considered to avoid further retinal detachment.

  3. Insulin antibodies in patients with type 2 diabetic receiving recombinant human insulin injection: A report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaolei; Ma, Xiaowen; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Xiuli; Xu, Xuling; Gong, Hui; Chen, Fengling; Sun, Junjie

    2015-12-01

    We report 12 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic receiving recombinant human insulin injection, who had uncontrolled hyperglycemia or frequent episodes of hypoglycemia, high levels of serum insulin and positive insulin antibodies. The clinical characteristics and insulin antibodies pharmacokinetics parameters were analyzed. After administration of glucocorticoids, changing insulin formulations or discontinuing the insulin and switching to oral antidiabetic agents, the level of insulin antibodies decreased and the plasma glucose restored. Thus, we recommend to identify the presence of high insulin antibodies in patients with type 2 diabetes who experience unexplained high plasma glucose or frequent reoccurrence of hypoglycemia.

  4. An interesting case of 'diabetic foot ulcer' in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Sivaprakasam, Venkat; Chima-Okereke, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a highly vascularised tumour affecting the skin, lymph nodes and viscera. Kaposi sarcoma is most common in HIV-infected homosexual or bisexual men. We present here a 70-year-old white British male patient, who was under the care of the podiatric team for longstanding 'diabetic foot ulcers'. He was later referred to the Dermatology team who took a biopsy; this revealed features of Kaposi sarcoma which prompted an HIV test which was positive. This patient had previously presented to several healthcare professionals with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. He was started on antiretroviral therapy and the HIV and human herpesvirus-8 viral loads became undetectable in the blood within weeks and he showed significant clinical improvement. This case report is a reminder to clinicians to have a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with symptoms and signs suggestive of HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Staphylococcus saprophyticus native valve endocarditis in a diabetic patient with neurogenic bladder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Magarifuchi, Hiroki; Kusaba, Koji; Yamakuchi, Hiroki; Hamada, Yohei; Urakami, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yosuke

    2015-09-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with 2-day history of malaise and dyspnea. He had mitral prolapse and type II diabetes mellitus with neurogenic bladder, which was cared for by catheterization on his own. On arrival the patient was in septic condition with hypoxemia, and physical examination revealed systolic murmur at the apex. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed vegetation of the mitral and the aortic valve. The presence of continuous bacteremia was confirmed by multiple sets of blood culture, whereby gram-positive cocci was retrieved and identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) both phenotypically and genetically. Because two major criteria of the Modified Duke Criteria were met, the patient was diagnosed with native valve endocarditis due to S. saprophyticus. The urine culture was also positive for gram-positive cocci, phenotypically identified as Staphylococcus warneri, which was subsequently identified as S. saprophyticus with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry), indicating strongly that the intermittent catheterization-associated urinary tract infection resulted in bacteremia that eventually lead to infective endocarditis. This patient was treated with vancomycin and clindamycin. Because of multiple cerebral infarctions, the patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement on hospital day 5. Blood culture turned negative at 6th hospital day. Antibiotic therapy was continued for six weeks after surgery. The patient's clinical course was uneventful thereafter, and was discharged home. This is the first case report of native valve endocarditis caused by S. saprophyticus of confirmed urinary origin.

  6. Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: a strong case for health education and promotion.

    PubMed

    Foma, Mafomekong Ayuk; Saidu, Yauba; Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Jafali, James

    2013-12-05

    Awareness of various aspects of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is essential for the prevention, management and control of the disease. However, several studies have consistently shown that awareness of DM in the general population is low. None of these studies, however, was conducted in The Gambia, even though the condition constitutes a major public health problem in the country. In this paper, we assessed the awareness of DM among diabetic patients attending the Medical Out-Patient Department (MOPD) of Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital (RVTH), Banjul. We interviewed 200 patients attending the MOPD of RVTH. We used a tool containing questions on patient's demographic characteristics and awareness of various aspects of DM including general knowledge on DM, causes, complications, management and prevention. Of the 199 patients who were aware of their condition, only 47% said they knew what DM is. Similarly, 53% of the study participants had no knowledge of the causes of DM and about 50% were not aware of the methods of prevention. 67% knew that DM can result to loss of sight while 46.5% knew that DM can cause poor wound healing. Few respondents knew that DM can lead to kidney failure (13.5%), skin sepsis (12.0%), heart failure (5.5%) and stroke (4.5%). Close to 50% of the respondent did not know how DM can be prevented. Level of education, duration of illness and knowledge of a family member with diabetes were important predictors of knowledge in our study. Our study shows that the majority of patients attending the MOPD have poor knowledge on several aspects of DM. Hence, there is need for conscious efforts towards improving the level of awareness through health education and promotion, not limited to the hospital but also within the general population, as part of strategies to prevent, manage and control DM.

  7. Nutritional approach of the patient with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. A case report

    PubMed

    Torres Torres, Beatriz; Izaola Jáuregu, Olatz; De Luis Román, Daniel A

    2017-05-08

    The prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in diabetes through diet and lifestyle have been a topic of much interest over the years. Consideration of the type and amount of carbohydrate, protein and fat is required for optimal blood glucose control, for clinical outcomes related to renal function and for consideration of risk reduction for cardiovascular disease. Depending on the CKD stage different dietary changes should be considered protein-calorie malnutrition is common in chronic kidney disease patients and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality. We review the nutritional management of a diabetic patient throughout the progression of their CKD.

  8. Patient credentialing as a population health management strategy: a diabetes case study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Lindsay L; Bluml, Benjamin M; Skoufalos, Alexandria

    2015-06-01

    When given the opportunity to become actively involved in the decision-making process, patients can positively impact their health outcomes. Understanding how to empower patients to become informed consumers of health care services is an important strategy for addressing disparities and variability in care. Patient credentialing identifies people who have a certain diagnosis and have achieved certain levels of competency in understanding and managing their disease. Patient credentialing was developed to meet 3 core purposes: (1) enhance patient engagement by increasing personal accountability for health outcomes, (2) create a mass customization strategy for providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered collaborative care, and (3) provide payers with a foundation for properly aligning health benefit incentives. The Patient Self-Management Credential for Diabetes, a first-of-its-kind, psychometrically validated tool, has been deployed within 3 practice-based research initiatives as a component of innovative diabetes care. Results from these projects show improved clinical outcomes, reduced health care costs, and a relationship between credential achievement levels and clinical markers of diabetes. Implementing patient credentialing as part of collaborative care delivered within various settings across the health care system may be an effective way to reduce disparities, improve access to care and appropriate treatments, incentivize patient engagement in managing their health, and expend time and resources in a customized way to meet individual needs.

  9. The decision to intensify therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from an experiment using a clinical case vignette.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard W; Lutfey, Karen E; Gerstenberger, Eric; Link, Carol L; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2009-01-01

    Lack of medication intensification is a widely recognized but poorly understood barrier to effective diabetes care. We used a video case vignette to assess whether patient or physician demographic variables influence the decision to intensify therapy. One hundred ninety-two US primary care physicians each viewed one case vignette of an actor portraying a patient who had type 2 diabetes and borderline indications for medication intensification. Case vignettes were clinically identical and differed only by patient age (35 or 65 years old); sex; race/ethnicity (white, Hispanic, or black); and socioeconomic status (occupation of lawyer or janitor). After viewing the vignette and indicating their management plans, physicians were also asked to discuss the challenges related to managing such a patient. Just over half (53%) of physicians indicated that they would recommend a medication prescription for the vignette patient. Demographic characteristics (of the patient, physician, or practice) did not significantly influence this decision (P > .1 for all comparisons). Compared with physicians who did not recommend a diabetic-related prescription, physicians recommending therapy more often identified patient medication costs (74% vs 43% of physicians who would not increase therapy); medication adherence (63% vs 49%); and subsequent complications (34% vs 22%) as important clinical issues in managing diabetes. Physicians not intensifying therapy more often indicated that they needed more clinical information (16% vs 9%). Using an experimental design we found that differences in the decision to intensify therapy were not significantly explained by patient, physician, or practice demographic variables. Physicians who intensified therapy were more likely to consider issues such as medication costs, patient adherence, and downstream complications.

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Pyomyositis in a Patient with Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Unique Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    George, Gemlyn; Climaco, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. Skin and soft tissue infections are very uncommon. Of these, the majority were associated with necrotizing fasciitis requiring emergent debridement. We report a case of pyomyositis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in an adult with diabetes. PMID:28352482

  11. Case management of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Gao, Jiaqi; Liu, Weiwei; Tang, Xiaojun; Tang, Shenglan; Long, Qian

    2017-02-11

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been identified as one of the priority diseases and included in the essential public health service package in China. This study investigated the frequency of follow-up visits and contents of care for case management of patients with Type 2 diabetes in Chongqing located in the western China, in terms of the regional practice guideline; and analyzed factors associated with the use of care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in two areas in Chongqing. Total 502 participants (out of 664 people eligible) completed the interview. The outcome measures included at least four follow-up visits in a year, annual HbA1c test, blood lipid test and diabetic screening for nephropathy and eyes. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between participants' demographic and socio-economic characteristics and outcome measures. Over the one-year study period, 65% of participants had four or more follow-up visits. In light of the recommended tests, the proportions of having HbA1c test, blood lipid test and screening for nephropathy and eyes annually were 8, 54, 45 and 44%, respectively. After adjusting for study sites, age, sex, education, type of residence, level of income, the patients who were covered by Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, were enrolled in the targeted disease reimbursement program, and lived with diabetes more than five years were more likely to have regular follow-up visits and the recommended tests. Case management for patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus was not effectively implemented in terms of frequency of follow-up visits and recommended tests over one-year period, as indicated in the regional practice guideline.

  12. Lemierre's Syndrome Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Diabetic Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chuncharunee, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by an oropharyngeal infection with internal jugular vein thrombosis followed by metastatic infections in other organs. This infection is usually caused by Fusobacterium spp. In this report, we present a rare case of Klebsiella pneumoniae-associated Lemierre's syndrome in a patient with poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus. The infection was complicated by septic emboli in many organs, which led to the patient's death, despite combined antibiotics, anticoagulant therapy, and surgical intervention. Therein, a literature review was performed for reported cases of Lemierre's syndrome caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and the results are summarized here. PMID:26279962

  13. [A clinical case of development of lactic acid acidosis in a diabetic patient taking metformin].

    PubMed

    Cesur, Mustafa; Cekmen, Nedum; Cetinbas, Riza R; Badalov, Pavel; Erdemli, Ozcan

    2006-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanide. Due to its effects in suppressing the hepatic production of endogenous glucose and in increasing insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, the agent is used particularly in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, in which insulin resistance is especially pronounced. Lactic acidosis is one of the most important side effects of metformin. A male patient, born in 1923, was admitted to the emergency unit of our hospital for sudden vertigo, weakness, dyspnea, cyanosis, and lethargy. His history data showed that the patient had been suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years and taking Glargin (insulin), 12 U/kg, once daily and Glucophage (metformin), 850 mg thrice daily. The patient's general condition was fair; stupor, time and spatial orientation were absent. Analysis of arterial blood gases showed the presence of metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. Thereafter the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit of the hospital; intubated and connected to a T-bird ventilation apparatus. On the following day, an analysis of arterial blood gases indicated the proximity of the results to their physiological parameters. Ventilation was stopped; and monitoring of the patient continued by following the T-shape type of ventilation discontinuation. There were no X-ray signs of pneumonia or pulmonary edema. On the same day, the patient was extubated and oxygen inhalation in a dose of L/min was continued through a mask. On day 4 since therapy was initiated, the patient's vital signs, serum sugar and lactate levels became normal. By determining a new treatment regimen, the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit. Dyspnea, acidosis, and hypoxia developed in the patient resulted from lactic acidosis caused by the use of metformin. It should be remembered that dyspnea, acidosis, and hypoxia, which suddenly developed in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, may be

  14. Acupuncture for Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an acquired disease of the neuromuscular junctions characterized by muscular weakness and fatigue, with a prevalence of 50-125 cases per million population in western countries. In men, it usually appears after the age of 60 years, while in women, it usually appears before the age of 40 years. Long-term immunosuppression with corticosteroids is the mainstay treatment for patients with MG; however, the use of corticosteroids is a well-documented risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, which has also been reported in steroid-treated patients with MG. Here, a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a patient with MG who underwent 105 sessions of acupuncture delivered over 6 months is reported. After acupuncture treatment, the patient's fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, as well as the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, were decreased. Furthermore, no adverse effects were observed. The findings in this clinical study are encouraging and provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of acupuncture in reducing type 2 diabetes mellitus in a patient with MG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Partial Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus in a Burned Patient Receiving Sevoflurane Sedation With an Anesthetic Conserving Device-A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Marie; Jennes, Serge; Morrison, Stuart; Soete, Olivier; François, Pierre-Michel; Keersebilck, Elkana; Rose, Thomas; Pantet, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a burned patient after prolonged delivery of low inspired concentrations of sevoflurane via an Anesthetic Conserving Device. Clinical observation. Case report. Relevant clinical information. A 34-year-old man was admitted with burns covering 52% of his total body surface area. Mechanical ventilation was provided during sedation with continuous infusions of sufentanil and midazolam. Sedation became increasingly difficult, and in order to limit administration of IV agents, sevoflurane was added to the inspiratory gas flow. This was provided using an Anesthetic Conserving Device and continued for 8 days. The patient rapidly developed polyuria and hypernatremia with an inappropriate decrease in urinary osmolality. Administration of desmopressin resulted in only a modest effect on renal concentrating ability. After cessation of sevoflurane, all variables returned to normal within 5 days. The results of further investigations (cerebral computed tomographic scan, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and serum arginine vasopressin concentration) were compatible with a diagnosis of partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The temporal sequence of clinical findings in relation to sevoflurane administration suggests that the sevoflurane was the probable underlying cause. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of sevoflurane-induced diabetes insipidus not only during general anesthesia but also in the intensive care setting of sedation in critically ill patients. This is especially important in patients, such as those with severe burns, in whom preserved renal concentrating ability is important to ensure compensation for extrarenal fluid losses.

  16. [A clinical case of lactic acidosis development in a diabetic patient taking metformin].

    PubMed

    Cezur, Mustafa; Celmen, Nedim; Cetinbas, Riza; Badalov, Pavel; Erdemli, Ozcan

    2009-01-01

    Metformin is a biguanide. Due to its effects in decreasing the hepatic production of glucose and in increasing insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, the agent is used in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus and, in which insulin resistance is especially pronounced. Eighty-one-year old male patient was admitted to the emergency unit with sudden vertigo, tiredness, dyspnea, cyanosis, and lethargy. He had had type 2 diabetes mellitus for 10 years and was taking glargin 12 U/kg once daily and metformin (glucophage) 850 mg thrice daily. The patient showed no cooperation and orientation. Metabolic acidosis, hypoxemia, and hypercapnea were detected in arterial blood gases (ABG). The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit of the hospital; endotracheal intubation was applied and mechanic ventilation was started. On the following day, his ABG got better; he was disconnected and weaning was applied. Lung X-ray study revealed no signs of pneumonia or pulmonary edema. On the same day, extubation was ended and O2 was given by mask at a rate of 4 L/min. After the patient's vital signs, blood sugar, and lactate levels were stabilized; his treatment regimen was arranged again and the patient was discharged on day 4 of his admission. Dyspnea, acidosis, and hypoxia seen in the patient were thought to be due to lactic acidosis which may rarely occur when metformin is used.

  17. Acupuncture for erectile dysfunction in a non-diabetic haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong-In; Choi, Jun-Yong; Sul, Jae-Uk; Choi, Sun Mi

    2011-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) significantly affects the quality of life in male haemodialysis patients. This study reports the observed effects of acupuncture for ED in a non-diabetic haemodialysis patient. A 43-year-old man undergoing haemodialysis received 12 sessions of manual acupuncture over 6 weeks and was observed for 6 months after the end of treatment. Total International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire scores of the patient were changed from 32 at baseline to 60 at post-treatment evaluation, which means there was a significant improvement of ED. All International Index of Erectile Function subscales also increased. This beneficial effect lasted up to 6 months after the end of treatment. No adverse events were observed. An interview revealed that the lowered self-esteem of the patient was restored with the improvement of ED following acupuncture. Further controlled studies are needed to determine whether acupuncture might be a feasible and useful treatment option for erectile dysfunction in haemodialysis patients.

  18. Complications associated with uni-portal endoscopic gastrocnemius recession in a diabetic patient population: an observational case series.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Schweinberger, Monica H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to report the complications associated with uni-portal endoscopic gastrocnemius recession for surgical treatment of pathologic soft tissue ankle equinus contracture in diabetic patients. This is an observational case series involving a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of 23 uni-portal endoscopic gastrocnemius recessions used to treat pathologic soft tissue ankle equinus contracture in 18 consecutive diabetic patients between November 2006 and January 2009. Each patient underwent uni-portal endoscopic gastrocnemius recession under general or spinal anesthesia with thigh tourniquet control in combination with soft tissue and/or osseous reconstructive foot and/or ankle surgery. Patients were kept non-weight bearing based on the index procedure and followed until clinical healing occurred or failure was declared. There were 9 male and 9 female patients with a mean age +/- SD of 69.0 +/- 7.4-years (range: 47.0 to 71.0 years). There were 11 right and 12 left lower limbs involved, with 5 procedures performed bilateral. Complications included 3 conversions to an open incision secondary to difficulty dissecting through excessive adipose tissue, delayed healing of 3 incision sites in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus at the time of surgery, and 3 undercorrections in patients with spastic contractures. The remainder of the procedures were deemed successful with no saphenous nerve, sural nerve, or lesser saphenous vein related injuries occurring. When properly performed, uni-portal endoscopic gastrocnemius recession represents a safe, reliable, and minimally invasive technique useful for correcting pathologic soft tissue ankle equinus contracture in patients with diabetes. A percutaneous tendo-Achilles lengthening should be performed in patients who have marginal arterial inflow that precludes tourniquet use or have a spastic contracture. An open rather than endoscopic gastrocnemius recession should be performed in

  19. Atypical diabetic ketoacidosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Hüseyin; Coşar, Ramazan; Çiftçi, Özcan; Sarı, Işılay Kalan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus and can lead to death if untreated. It is a complex metabolic state characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonuria. Bonsai is one of the herbal incense products that contains synthetic cannabinoid and can be easily accessible via the internet in many countries. It cannot be detected in blood and urine studies using conventional methods. Synthetic cannabinoid abuse is associated with severe side effects, including tachycardia, high blood pressure, acidosis, excess sedation and coma. A 17-year-old male patient was brought to the emergency department with sudden onset of dyspnoea. Laboratory investigations revealed hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonuria. He was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. He was not considered a typical case of diabetic ketoacidosis because of the tendency to hypokalaemia, persistent tachycardia and bronchoscopic findings. We learned from his friends that he had used cannabis for a week and used bonzai on the day that he was brought to the emergency service. Diabetic ketoacidosis with prolonged acidosis and tendency to hypokalaemia are investigated for the consumption of synthetic cannabinoids.

  20. Identifying patients with diabetes and the earliest date of diagnosis in real time: an electronic health record case-finding algorithm.

    PubMed

    Makam, Anil N; Nguyen, Oanh K; Moore, Billy; Ma, Ying; Amarasingham, Ruben

    2013-08-01

    Effective population management of patients with diabetes requires timely recognition. Current case-finding algorithms can accurately detect patients with diabetes, but lack real-time identification. We sought to develop and validate an automated, real-time diabetes case-finding algorithm to identify patients with diabetes at the earliest possible date. The source population included 160,872 unique patients from a large public hospital system between January 2009 and April 2011. A diabetes case-finding algorithm was iteratively derived using chart review and subsequently validated (n = 343) in a stratified random sample of patients, using data extracted from the electronic health records (EHR). A point-based algorithm using encounter diagnoses, clinical history, pharmacy data, and laboratory results was used to identify diabetes cases. The date when accumulated points reached a specified threshold equated to the diagnosis date. Physician chart review served as the gold standard. The electronic model had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 90%, and negative predictive value of 96% for the identification of patients with diabetes. The kappa score for agreement between the model and physician for the diagnosis date allowing for a 3-month delay was 0.97, where 78.4% of cases had exact agreement on the precise date. A diabetes case-finding algorithm using data exclusively extracted from a comprehensive EHR can accurately identify patients with diabetes at the earliest possible date within a healthcare system. The real-time capability may enable proactive disease management.

  1. Conservative treatment in a patient with diabetic osteomyelitis: antibiotic treatment is sufficient for complete bone regeneration in selected cases.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Sune Møller; Frøkjær, Johnny; Yderstræde, Knud

    2015-11-18

    Diabetic foot ulcers are commonly complicated by bone involvement and osteomyelitis. Diagnosing diabetic osteomyelitis can be problematic. However, positive findings at clinical examination and X-ray may set the diagnosis. Recent guidelines suggest that selected cases of diabetic osteomyelitis can be treated conservatively with antibiotics. We report on the successful treatment of a 52-year-old man with diabetes with osteomyelitis in the distal phalanx of a toe. On X-ray, the affected phalanx appeared completely eroded. However, regeneration of the bone tissue was observed following outpatient treatment with antibiotics. We therefore encourage doctors to provide conservative treatment for selected cases of diabetic osteomyelitis.

  2. Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Intravenous U-500 Insulin in a Patient With Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moore, Megan M; Bailey, Abby M; Flannery, Alexander H; Baum, Regan A

    2016-04-24

    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome is a rare genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the insulin receptor and is associated with high degrees of insulin resistance. These patients are prone to complications secondary to their hyperglycemia including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We report the case of a 19-year-old male with Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome presenting with DKA who required doses of up to 500 U/h (10.6 U/kg/h) of insulin. The patient's insulin infusion was originally compounded with U-100 regular insulin, although to minimize volume, the product was compounded with U-500 insulin. The DKA eventually resolved requiring infusion rates ranging from 400 to 500 U/h. Although numerous opportunities for medication errors exist with the use of U-500 insulin, this case outlines the safe use of concentrated intravenous insulin when clinically indicated for patients requiring extremely high doses of insulin to control blood glucose.

  3. Pulmonary fungus ball caused by Penicillium capsulatum in a patient with type 2 diabetes: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following the recent transfer of all accepted species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium to Talaromyces (including Talaromyces marneffei, formerly Penicillium marneffei), Penicillium species are becoming increasingly rare causal agents of invasive infections. Herein, we present a report of a type 2 diabetes patient with a fungus ball in the respiratory tract caused by Penicillium capsulatum. Case presentation A 56-year-old Chinese female gardener with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes presented at the Shanghai Changzheng Hospital with fever, a cough producing yellow-white sputum, and fatigue. The therapeutic effect of cefoxitin was poor. An HIV test was negative, but the β-D-glucan test was positive (459.3 pg/ml). Chest radiography revealed a cavitary lesion in the left upper lobe, and a CT scan showed globate cavities with a radiopaque, gravity-dependent ball. The histopathologic features of the tissue after haematoxylin-eosin staining showed septate hyphae. The fungus was isolated from the gravity-dependent ball and identified as Penicillium capsulatum based on the morphological analysis of microscopic and macroscopic features and on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequencing. After surgery, the patient was cured with a sequential treatment of fluconazole 400 mg per day for 90 days and caspofungin 70 mg per day for 14 days. Conclusions Although the prognosis is often satisfactory, clinicians, mycologists and epidemiologists should be aware of the possibility of infection by this uncommon fungal pathogen in diabetes patients, since it may cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts such as diabetes and AIDS patients. PMID:24152579

  4. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  5. [A Case of an Elderly Diabetic Patient Developing Wernicke Encephalopathy without Alcohol Abuse or an Unbalanced Diet].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tsurutani, Yuya; Sagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Mai; Sata, Akira; Miyao, Mariko; Azuma, Reo; Orimo, Satoshi; Mizuno, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a 28-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted due to persistent vomiting and neurological abnormalities in Nov 2012. He had developed gait disturbance and diplopia for six months during antiplatelet therapy, which was initiated following the diagnosis of a cerebellar infarction in June 2012. He had nystagmus, truncal ataxia and an ocular motility disorder, and the MRI study showed increased FLAIR and DWI signals in the peri-third ventricle and periaqueductal region, in addition to the cerebellar vermis. Wernicke encephalopathy was suspected according to his symptoms, and thiamine administration dramatically improved his condition. He did not have a history of alcohol abuse or poor eating habits; however, various coexisting factors, including diabetes mellitus, pyloric stenosis and the use of antiulcer drugs and insulin, were considered to be responsible for Wernicke encephalopathy. This case demonstrates the importance of distinguishing Wernicke encephalopathy from cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  6. Baseline predictors of maintenance of intervention-induced changes in physical activity and sitting time among diabetic and pre-diabetic patients: a descriptive case series.

    PubMed

    Helmink, Judith H M; Gubbels, Jessica S; van Brussel-Visser, Femke N; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-05-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the predictive value of baseline characteristics in relation to changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour among diabetic and pre-diabetic patients participating in a primary care based exercise intervention. We used a descriptive case series among diabetic and pre-diabetic patients (n = 119, 50.8% male, mean age 65.5 (SD = 7.8)). Measurements took place with questionnaires at baseline and two years after the start of the intervention. Predictor variables included demographic factors, Body Mass Index, baseline PA and sitting time, and baseline socio-cognitive profile. At follow-up, respondents spent more time being physically active than at baseline. For the total group, the average sitting time remained almost unchanged between the two measurements. Further exploration showed that respondents who had relatively high levels of PA at the start of the intervention, increased their total sitting time, while respondents with relatively low levels of PA at the start decreased their sitting time. The socio-cognitive profile did not predict behaviour change. The intervention appeared to be suitable for people with a low-education level, but the results should be interpreted in view of the limitations of the study such as the non-controlled design, self-reported outcomes and selective drop-out of participants. Interventions for this specific target group may need to put more emphasis on the prevention of increased sitting time. The finding that the socio-cognitive profile did not predict behaviour change may underline the proposition that decisions to initiate and maintain PA behaviour change are to a large extend non-linear events. Acknowledging the possible non-linearity of the relationship between socio-cognitive determinants and behaviour change will help our understanding of this complex and dynamic process.

  7. Bone fractures and hypoglycemic treatment in type 2 diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Monami, Matteo; Cresci, Barbara; Colombini, Angela; Pala, Laura; Balzi, Daniela; Gori, Francesca; Chiasserini, Veronica; Marchionni, Niccolò; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2008-02-01

    Hypoglycemic treatments could modulate the risk for fractures in many ways. Most studies have not explored the effect on the incidence of bone fractures of individual oral hypoglycemic agents, rather all oral treatments as a whole. The aim of this case-control study, nested within a retrospective cohort, is the assessment of the risk for bone fractures associated with exposure to insulin or different oral hypoglycemic agents. A case-control study nested within a cohort of 1,945 diabetic outpatients with a follow-up of 4.1 +/- 2.3 years was performed, comparing 83 case subjects of bone fractures and 249 control subjects matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, BMI, A1C, comorbidity, smoking, and alcohol abuse. Exposure to hypoglycemic drugs during the 10 years preceding the event (or matching index date) was assessed. In a model including treatment with insulin secretagogues metformin and insulin for at least 36 months during the previous 10 years, no significant association was observed between bone fractures and medications. In an alternative model considering treatments at the time of fracture, insulin treatment was significantly associated with bone fractures in men (OR 3.20 [95% CI 1.32-7.74]) but not in women (1.41 [0.73-2.73]). Insulin-sensitizing treatment with metformin is not associated with a higher incidence of bone fractures, suggesting that the negative effect of thiazolidinediones is due to a specific action on bone metabolism rather a reduction of insulinemia. Conversely, current treatment with insulin increases the risk of fractures; at the same time, exposure to this agent in the longer term does not appear to affect bone frailty.

  8. An assessment of patient education and self-management in diabetes disease management--two case studies.

    PubMed

    Fitzner, Karen; Greenwood, Deborah; Payne, Hildegarde; Thomson, John; Vukovljak, Lana; McCulloch, Amber; Specker, James E

    2008-12-01

    Diabetes affects 7.8% of Americans, nearly 24 million people, and costs $174 billion yearly. People with diabetes benefit from self-management; disease management (DM) programs are effective in managing populations with diabetes. Little has been published on the intersection of diabetes education and DM. Our hypothesis was that diabetes educators and their interventions integrate well with DM and effectively support providers' care delivery. A literature review was conducted for papers published within the past 3 years and identified using the search terms "diabetes educator" and "disease management." Those that primarily addressed community health workers or the primary care/community setting were excluded. Two case studies were conducted to augment the literature. Ten of 30 manuscripts identified in the literature review were applicable and indicate that techniques and interventions based on cognitive theories and behavioral change can be effective when coupled with diabetes DM. Better diabetes self-management through diabetes education encourages participation in DM programs and adherence to recommended care in programs offered by DM organizations or those that are provider based. Improved health outcomes and reduced cost can be achieved by blending diabetes education and DM. Diabetes educators are a critical part of the management team and, with their arsenal of goal setting and behavior change techniques, are an essential component for the success of diabetes DM programs. Additional research needs to be undertaken to identify effective ways to integrate diabetes educators and education into DM and to assess clinical, behavioral, and economic outcomes arising from such programs.

  9. Alternate-day dosing of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes patients controlled on once daily dose: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Manash P.; Bhuyan, Sonali B.; Deka, Jumi; Bora, Jatin; Bora, Smritisikha; Barkakati, Murchana

    2016-01-01

    Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP 4) inhibitor with a long terminal half life, significantly inhibits the DPP 4 enzyme at a steady state up to 48 h after the last dose. The present case series examined the hypothesis that linagliptin retains its efficacy during alternate day dosing in type 2 diabetes patients when switched over from once daily (OD) dosing. Eight type 2 diabetes patients maintaining stable glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with acceptable fasting plasma glucose and postprandial glucose levels and receiving linagliptin 5 mg OD for at least 6 weeks, with a stable dose of concomitant antidiabetic medications were given linagliptin 5 mg every alternate day. The median HbA1c while on the OD regimen was 6.1% (43 mmol/mol) (range: 5.8–6.9% [40–52 mmol/mol]) and median duration of diabetes was 7 years (range: 0.75–16 years). After a median follow-up period of 21weeks,the glycemic control was maintained in all patients similar to their baseline values (median HbA1c: 6.0% [42 mmol/mol], range: 5.1–7.1% [32–54 mmol/mol]). The body weight, fasting, and random glucose levels at baseline were also well maintained at the end of treatment. Optimal glycemic status maintained in our study population favors our hypothesis that linagliptin used alternate daily after switching from initial OD dose of the drug in patients on a stable background antidiabetic medications retains its efficacy. Paradoxically, alternate day dosing may affect compliance if the patient forgets when they took the last dose. Further studies including larger cohorts are needed to validate this finding and identify patients who can benefit from the alternate day regimen. PMID:27366728

  10. Anxiety disorders are associated with quality of life impairment in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Augusta B dos; Ceretta, Luciane B; Réus, Gislaine Z; Abelaira, Helena M; Jornada, Luciano K; Schwalm, Mágada T; Neotti, Morgana V; Tomazzi, Cristiane D; Gulbis, Karina G; Ceretta, Renan A; Quevedo, João

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of anxiety disorders and quality of life in patients with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Case-control study of 996 patients with type 2 diabetes and 2,145 individuals without diabetes. The sole inclusion criterion for the case group was insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. We compared the case and control groups for sociodemographic variables, laboratory and clinical data, and presence of anxiety disorders. Quality of life was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, and the prevalence of anxiety disorder was evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients with diabetes had a higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The presence of these disorders in combination with type 2 diabetes was associated with worse quality of life in the physical, social, psychological, and environmental domains. This study demonstrates the importance of diagnosing and treating anxiety disorders in patients with diabetes, so as to prevent more serious complications associated with these comorbidities.

  11. [Mechanisms of diabetic impotence. 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Buvat, J; Lemaire, A; Buvat-Herbaut, M; Marcolin, G; Quittelier, E; Fontaine, P; Guieu, J D; Dehaene, J L; Fossati, P

    1987-04-11

    Twenty-five impotent diatetics were investigated by means of nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring, hormone determinations, penile blood pressure measurement, artificial erection test and dynamic cavernosography, bulbocavernous reflex latency time measurement and cortical evoked responses from pudendal nerves. Sexological treatment was then attempted for a better evaluation of the psychogenic element. Penile blood pressure was also measured in 15 non-impotent diabetics and was found to be abnormal as often as in impotent diabetics. The results as a whole demonstrated that impotence was predominantly psychogenic in 9 cases, predominantly organic in 12 cases and mixed psychogenic and organic in 4 cases. Diabetic impotence is often due to several causative factors, as was the case in 12 of our patients. The factors most frequently responsible were psychological (present in 13 cases), neurological (present in 12 cases) and vascular factors (arterial abnormalities in 7 cases, "venous leakage" in 4 cases). Endocrine abnormalities were observed in only 2 cases.

  12. Effects of low level laser therapy on the prognosis of split-thickness skin graft in type 3 burn of diabetic patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Kazemikhoo, Nooshafarin; Vaghardoost, Reza; Mokmeli, Soheila; Momeni, Mahnoush; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ansari, Fereshteh; Amirkhani, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Significant populations in burn centers are diabetic burn patients. Healing process in these patients is more difficult due to diabetes complications. The gold standard treatment for patients with grade 3 burn ulcer is split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), but in the diabetic patients, the rate of graft failure and amputation is high due to impaired tissue perfusion. The technique of low level laser therapy (LLLT) improves tissue perfusion and fibroblast proliferation, increases collagen synthesis, and accelerates wound healing. The purpose of this case report is introducing a new therapeutic method for accelerating healing with better prognosis in these patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to the Medical Ethics, Board of Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.RAM.REC.13940.363). Diabetic type 2 patients with 13 grade 3 burn ulcers, candidate for amputation, were enrolled in the study. We used a 650-nm red laser light, 2 J/Cm for the bed of the ulcer and an 810-nm infrared laser light 6 J/Cm(2) for the margins along with intravenous laser therapy with a 660-nm red light, before and after STSG for treating grade 3 burn ulcers in 13 diabetic ulcers. The results of this study showed complete healing in the last 8 weeks for all patients who were candidates for amputation. In this case series, we present 13 cases of diabetic ulcer with type 3 burn wound, candidate for amputation, who healed completely using LLLT and STSG. This is the first time that these two techniques are combined for treatment of burn ulcer in diabetic patients. Using LLLT with STSG might be a promising treatment for burn victims especially diabetic patients.

  13. Integrating traditional Chinese medicine healthcare into diabetes care by reducing the risk of developing kidney failure among type 2 diabetic patients: a population-based case control study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pei-Chien; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien; Wu, Chien-Tung; Lin, Shun-Ku; Huang, Chung-Yu

    2014-10-28

    Our previous study indicated that the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, which consists of six type of herbs, namely Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., root, dried; Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc., fructus, dried; Dioscorea oppositifolia L., root, dried; Alisma plantago-aquatica subsp. orientale (Sam.) Sam., tuber, dried; Paeonia × suffruticosa Andrews, bark, dried; Poria cocos (Fr.) Wolf., sclerotium, dried, is the most frequently prescribed herbal formula used to treat type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the integration of TCM into diabetes care in terms of how it reduces the risk of developing kidney failure. The Taiwan׳s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided detailed information of health care services for each patient and covers 98% of all Taiwan residents as of 2007. Case and control subjects were selected from the NHIRD. Two multivariable logistic regression models were constructed in order to explore two types of exposure assessments including prescription of TCMs (model 1) and prescription of different estimated dosages of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan (model 2). Using logistic regression model 1, having used TCMs was independently associated with a decreased risk of kidney failure by multivariable analysis (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.61-0.77). Using logistic regression model 2, there was no difference between non-Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan TCM users and Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan TCM users in terms of the risk of developing kidney failure. Furthermore, there was also no linear dose-response trend when we used exposure to prescribed Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan as a continuous variable (for non-Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan TCM users, OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.60-0.77; for TCM users consuming 1-30 g of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.87; for >30 g of Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.49-1.44). Integrating TCM healthcare into diabetes care was found to be associated with a decreased risk of developing

  14. Identification of unsuspected Wolfram syndrome cases through clinical assessment and WFS1 gene screening in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Aguirre, Maria E; la Parra, David Rivera-De; Tapia-Garcia, Hugo; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Johanna; Welschen, Daniela; Welskin, Daniela; Arroyo-Yllanes, Maria Estela; Escudero, Irineo; Nuñez-Hernandez, Jorge A; Medina-Bravo, Patricia; Zenteno, Juan C

    2015-07-15

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a severe autosomal recessive pleiotropic disease primarily characterized by the association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Earlier reports have shown that a proportion of WS cases may remain unrecognized due to misdiagnosis as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The objectives of this work were to estimate the prevalence of patients fulfilling clinical criteria for WS in a cohort of subjects diagnosed as T1DM and to identify causal WFS1 gene mutations in those individuals meeting clinical criteria for the disease. A cohort of 131 unrelated Mexican T1DM patients was collected, including 77 females and 54 males. Additional clinical anomalies suggesting WS were identified through review of medical files, detailed physical examination and/or specialized tests. WFS1 gene analysis was performed using exon-by-exon PCR amplification and direct Sanger sequencing on genomic DNA from patients reaching WS clinical criteria. Clinical criteria for a WS diagnosis were reached in 6 probands, corresponding to a 4.58% frequency of the disease. WFS1 mutations were identified in 4 out of 5 (80%) individuals fulfilling WS clinical criteria, including two homozygous, one compound heterozygous, and one patient with a single allele mutation. No WFS1 mutations were identified in the remaining subject. In our cohort, approximately 6% of cases diagnosed as T1DM were in fact patients with Wolfram syndrome. WFS1 mutations were identified in 4 out of 5 individuals (80%) fulfilling clinical criteria for WS. Clinical and genetic analyses of large cohorts of T1DM patients from different ethnic origins would help to better estimate the occurrence of WS and will lead to a better management of such patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in patients with or without CHD: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Björk, Anna; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Fard, Mir Nabi Pirouzi; Eriksson, Peter; Dellborg, Mikael

    2017-05-29

    Approximately 1% of children are born with CHD, and 90-95% reach adulthood. Increased exposure to infections and stress-strain can contribute to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. CHD may increase the risk of more serious infections, stress-strain, and increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. We analysed the onset of and the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with concurrent CHD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus without CHD. The study combined data from the National Diabetes Register and the National Patient Register. A total of 104 patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus were matched with 520 controls. Patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus had an earlier onset of diabetes (13.9 versus 17.4 years, p<0.001), longer duration of diabetes (22.4 versus 18.1 years, p<0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (64.0 versus 43.0%, p=0.003), higher creatinine levels (83.5 versus 74.1 µmol/L, p=0.03), higher mortality (16 versus 5%, p=0.002), and after onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus higher rates of co-morbidity (5.28 versus 3.18, p⩽0.01), heart failure (9 versus 2%, p=0.02), and stroke (6 versus 2%, p=0.048) compared with controls. From a nationwide register of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the coexistence of CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus was associated with an earlier onset, a higher frequency of microvascular complications, co-morbidity, and mortality.

  16. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yeika, Eugene Vernyuy; Tchoumi Tantchou, Jacques Cabral; Foryoung, Joyce Bei; Tolefac, Paul Nkemtendong; Efie, Derrick Tembi; Choukem, Siméon Pierre

    2017-02-13

    Tropical diabetic hand syndrome describes a complex hand sepsis affecting patients with diabetes across the tropics and often results from a trivial hand trauma. The clinical presentation of this syndrome is variable and ranges from localised swelling and cellulitis, with or without ulceration of the hand to progressive fulminant hand sepsis, and gangrene affecting the entire limb which may be fatal. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome could lead to permanent disability and death as a result of delay in presentation, late diagnosis and late medical and surgical intervention. This indexed case acts as an eye opener for physicians to the existence of this hand sepsis. We report the case of a 57 year-old black African female diabetic who was referred to our centre for the management of a suppurating ulcer and swelling of the left hand of two weeks duration. On examination and work-up, the patient was found to have Lawal Group III left diabetic hand syndrome and was managed with parenteral antibiotics, radical debridement and the hand was eventually amputated. She died 7 days following amputation from overwhelming sepsis. Though tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a relatively rare complication of diabetes, it can be fatal as in this case report. Early diagnosis and proper management would yield better outcome. Initial management should include aggressive intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics with anaerobic coverage. Classification of tropical diabetic hand syndrome will assist physicians and surgeons in decision making, proper management and easy communication.

  17. The “black evil” affecting patients with diabetes: a case of rhino orbito cerebral mucormycosis causing Garcin syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Santhosh; Panarkandy, Geetha; Subramaniam, Gomathy; Radhakrishnan, Chandni; Thulaseedharan, NK; Manikath, Neeraj; Ramaswamy, Sreejith; Radhakrishnan, Suma; Ekkalayil, Danish

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection affecting patients with diabetes. It is an angioinvasive disease often resistant to treatment with a debilitating course and high mortality. Here, we report a case of a 45 year old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to us with history of right-sided ptosis and facial palsy, and subsequently developed loss of vision and palatal palsy. She was in diabetic ketoacidosis. Nervous system examination revealed involvement of right second, third, fourth, sixth, seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves, suggestive of Garcin syndrome. The hard palate had been eroded with formation of black eschar. Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed right maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis, with spread of inflammation to infratemporal fossa and parapharynygeal neck spaces. Debridement of sinus mucosa was done, and culture of the same yielded growth of rhizopus species. Histopathological examination of the tissue showed angioinvasion and fungal hyphae suggestive of mucormycosis. She was treated with amphotericin B, posaconazole, and periodic nasal sinus debridement, but her general condition worsened after 8 weeks due to secondary sepsis and she succumbed to death. PMID:28405168

  18. Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness: A case of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Nasrollah; Bashardoust, Bahman; Zakeri, Anahita; Salehifar, Azita; Tavosi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, progressive optic atrophy, and deafness. A 19-year-old female patient, a known case of diabetes mellitus type I from six years before, presented with progressive vision loss since four years earlier. On fundoscopic examination, she had bilateral optic atrophy without diabetic retinopathy. The patient also had diabetes insipidus, neurosensory deafness, and neurogenic bladder. WS should be considered a differential diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus who present with optic atrophy, and it is necessary to perform a hearing test as well as collecting 24-h urine output.

  19. The impact of built environment on diabetic patients: the case of Eastern Province, KIngdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sidawi, Bhzad; Al-Hariri, Mohamed Taha Ali

    2012-06-13

    At present, Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the main threats to the human health in the 21st century. It may lead to severe conditions such as blindness, end-stage of renal disease, limb amputation and a variety of debilitating neuropathies. Previous researches indicated that diabetes is caused by a complex interaction of patient's genetics, life-style and environmental factors. They also highlighted that providing quality and healthy built environment to citizens including diabetic patients would prevent poor and unhealthy condition. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is one of top ten countries in the prevalence of diabetes. Little researches though were conducted in KSA in regards to the effect of environmental conditions of the built environment. In 2011, the present researchers have carried out a pilot survey on a number of diabetic patients to find out the possible impact of built environment settings on the patient's lifestyle. The research explored whether diabetic patients use smart tools in their daily life to overcome the daily life's difficulties and perform their life as normal as possible. The results showed a close link between a poor home and environmental settings, the patient's lifestyle, and the patient's health status. It also highlighted the absence of smart tools and systems use. The paper argues that certain changes to the built environment must be done and to provide a healthy and safe environment for diabetic patients. This would help these patients to abandon their bad habits and adopt healthier lifestyle.

  20. Simultaneous acute shoulder arthritis and multiple mononeuropathy in a newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patient - First case report.

    PubMed

    Kotlęga, Dariusz; Gołąb-Janowska, Monika; Zaborowski, Grzegorz; Ciećwież, Sylwester; Nowacki, Przemysław

    Diabetes is a common disorder that leads to the musculoskeletal symptoms such as the shoulder arthritis. The involvement of peripheral nervous system is one of the troublesome for the patients as it provokes chronic sensory symptoms, lower motor neuron involvement and autonomic symptoms. In the course of the disease there has been several types of neuropathies described. A 41-year-old male patient was admitted to the internal medicine department because of the general weakness, malaise, polydypsia and polyuria since several days. The initial blood glucose level was 780mg/dl. During the first day the continuous insulin infusion was administered. On the next day when he woke up, the severe pain in the right shoulder with limited movement, right upper extremity weakness and burning pain in the radial aspect of this extremity appeared. On examination right shoulder joint movement limitation was found with the muscle weakness and sensory symptoms in the upper limbs. The clinical picture indicated on the right shoulder arthritis and the peripheral nervous system symptoms such as the right musculocutaneous, supraspinatus, right radial nerve and left radial nerve damage. We present a first case report of simultaneous, acute involvement of the shoulder joint and multiple neuropathy in a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, presumably in the state of ketoacidosis.

  1. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Karras, Alexandre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Furco, André; Bourgarit, Anne; Droz, Dominique; Sereni, Daniel; Legendre, Christophe; Martinez, Frank; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2003-04-15

    We report 3 cases of renal toxicity associated with use of the antiviral agent tenofovir. Renal failure, proximal tubular dysfunction, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus were observed, and, in 2 cases, renal biopsy revealed severe tubular necrosis with characteristic nuclear changes. Patients receiving tenofovir must be monitored closely for early signs of tubulopathy (glycosuria, acidosis, mild increase in the plasma creatinine level, and proteinuria).

  2. Metformin for primary colorectal cancer prevention in patients with diabetes: a case-control study in a US population.

    PubMed

    Sehdev, Amikar; Shih, Ya-Chen T; Vekhter, Benjamin; Bissonnette, Marc B; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Polite, Blase N

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence from observational studies has suggested that metformin may be beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, to the authors' knowledge, none of these studies was conducted in a US population. Because environmental factors such as Western diet and obesity are implicated in the causation of CRC, a large case-control study was performed to assess the effects of metformin on the incidence of CRC in a US population. MarketScan databases were used to identify diabetic patients with CRC. A case was defined as having an incident diagnosis of CRC. Up to 2 controls matched for age, sex, and geographical region were selected for each case. Metformin exposure was assessed by prescription tracking within the 12-month period before the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple potential confounders and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs). The mean age of the study participants was 55 years and 57 years, respectively, in the control and case groups (P = 1.0). Approximately 60% of the study participants were male and 40% were female in each group. In the multivariable model, any metformin use was associated with a 15% reduction in the odds of CRC (AOR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.95 [P = .007]). After adjusting for health care use, the beneficial effect of metformin was reduced to 12% (AOR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.00 [P = .05]). The dose-response analyses demonstrated no significant association with metformin dose, duration, or total exposure. Metformin use appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC among diabetic patients in the United States. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  3. Metformin for Primary Colorectal Cancer Prevention in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study in a US Population

    PubMed Central

    Sehdev, Amikar; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Vekhter, Benjamin; Bissonnette, Marc; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Polite, Blase

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence from observational studies suggests that metformin may be beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, none of these were conducted in a US population. Since environmental factors, such as Western diet and obesity, are implicated in the causation of CRC, we conducted a large case control study to assess the effects of metformin on CRC incidence in a US population. Methods MarketScan® databases were used to identify diabetic patients with CRC. A case was defined as having an incident diagnosis of CRC. Up to two controls matched for age, sex and geographical region, were selected for each case. Metformin exposure was assessed by prescription tracking in the 12 months period prior to the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple potential confounders and to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR). Results The mean age of participants was 55 and 57 years in the control and case group, respectively (p=1.0). Sixty percent of the study participants were males and 40% were females in each group. In the multivariable model, any metformin use was associated with 15% reduced odds of CRC (AOR, 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76–0.95, p<0.007). After adjusting for health-care utilization the beneficial effect of metformin was reduced to 12% (AOR, 0.88, 95% CI, 0.77–1.00, p=0.05). The dose-response analyses showed no significant association with metformin dose, duration or total exposure. Conclusions Metformin use is associated with reduced risk of developing CRC among diabetic patients in the US population. PMID:25424411

  4. Effectiveness and Safety of Sitagliptin in Patients with Beta-thalassaemia Major and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Zonoozi, Shahrzad; Barnard, Maria; Prescott, Emma; Jones, Romilla; Shah, Farrukh T; Tzoulis, Ploutarchos

    2017-01-01

    Sitagliptin, a modern antidiabetic agent which is weight neutral and associated with low rate of hypoglycaemias, is being increasingly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a paucity of data about its efficacy and safety in beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). This retrospective case series of five patients (mean age of 45 years) is the first study evaluating the use of sitagliptin in patients with β-TM and DM. Four patients responded well to sitagliptin, as evidenced by a decrease in fructosamine by 77 and 96μmol/L (equivalent reduction in HbA1c of 1.5% and 1.9%) observed in two patients and reduction in the frequency of hypoglycaemia without worsening glycaemic control in two others. One patient did not respond to sitagliptin. No patients reported significant side effects. This study provides evidence that sitagliptin may be considered, with caution, for use in patients with β-TM and DM, under the close monitoring of a Diabetologist. PMID:28101310

  5. Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens optic and haptics opacification in a diabetic patient: bilateral case report and clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Apple, David J; Kaskaloglu, Mahmut

    2002-11-01

    To report clinicopathologic and ultrastructural features of two opacified single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) explanted from a diabetic patient. Interventional case report with clinicopathologic correlation. A 64-year-old white female underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic lens (SC60B-OUV; Medical Developmental Research, Inc., Clear Water, FL) in October 1998 in the left eye and in July 1999 in the right eye. The best-corrected visual acuity after surgery was 20/60 in the left eye and 20/50 in the right eye. The patient had a marked decrease in visual acuity in June 2000 as a result of a milky, white opalescence of both lenses. Intraocular lens explantation and exchange was performed in both eyes and the explanted IOLs were submitted to our center for detailed pathologic, histochemical, and ultrastructural evaluation. They were stained with alizarin red and the von Kossa method for calcium, and also underwent scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive radiograph spectroscopy to ascertain the nature of the deposits leading to opacification. Documentation of calcium deposits confirmed by histochemical stains and surface analyses. Opacification of the IOL was found to be the cause of decreased visual acuity. The opacification involved both the IOL optic and the haptics in the left eye and was confined to the IOL optic in the right eye. Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses revealed that the opacity was caused by deposition of calcium and phosphate within the lens optic and haptics. There are two features that distinguish this case from those reported earlier. This is the first clinicopathologic report of lens opacification that has involved completely the lens optic and the haptics. Second, these two explanted IOLs document the first bilateral case. This process of intraoptic and haptic opacification represents dystrophic calcification of unknown cause. Diabetic patients appear to be

  6. Frequency and determinants of thyroid autoimmunity in Ghanaian type 2 diabetes patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sarfo-Kantanka, Osei; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ansah, Eunice Oparebea; Yorke, Ernest; Akpalu, Josephine; Nkum, Bernard C; Eghan, Benjamin

    2017-01-17

    The link between type 1 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity is well described. The same cannot be said for type 2 diabetes where results have been mixed so far. We investigated the prevalence and determinants of thyroid autoimmunity among Ghanaian type 2 diabetes patients. This was a case-control study involving 302 type 2 diabetes patients and 310 non - diabetic controls aged 40-80 years. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Fasting samples were analyzed for glucose, thyroid function, and antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity was significantly higher among T2DM subjects (12.2% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.0004). Among T2DM subjects, 44 (14.7%) tested positive for TPOAb, 5 (1.7%) tested positive for TGAb and 15 (5.0%) tested positive for both autoantibodies. Females T2DM subjects showed a 3-fold increased risk of thyroid autoimmunity compared to males (OR:3.16, p =0.004), T2DM subjects with hyperthyroidism had a 41% increased risk of thyroid autoimmunity (OR: 1.41, p < 0.001), sub-clinical hyperthyroidism increased the risk of thyroid autoimmunity by 2 fold, (OR:2.19, p < 0.001), subclinical hypothyroidism increased the risk of autoimmunity by 4-fold, (OR:3.57 95% p < 0.0001), and hypothyroidism was associated with a 61% increased risk of thyroid autoimmunity (OR: 1.61,1.35-2.23). Dyslipidaemia was associated with a 44% increased risk of thyroid autoimmunity (OR: 1.44, p = 0.01) and a percentage increase in HbA1c was associated with 46% increased risk of thyroid autoimmunity (OR:1.46, p < 0.0001). We observed a high prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in Ghanaian T2DM subjects compared to the general population. Thyroid autoimmunity in T2DM subjects was significantly associated with female gender, thyroid dysfunction, dyslipidaemia and poor glycemic control.

  7. Case of anal fistula with Fournier's gangrene in an obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patient.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Kyoko; Yoshino, Gen; Sawada, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A 64-year-old man was admitted to Shin-suma General Hospital, Kobe, Japan, complaining of a 3-day history of scrotal swelling and high fever. He had type 2 diabetes mellitus. On examination, his body temperature had risen to 38.5 °C. Examination of the scrotum showed abnormal enlargement. Laboratory data were as follows: white cell count 35,400/μL and glycated hemoglobin 9.6%. Anal fistula was found in an endorectal ultrasound. Computed tomography scan showed a relatively high density of subcutaneous tissue and elevated air density. Thus, he was diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene. On the fourth hospital day, the patient underwent debridement of gangrenous tissue. Seton surgery was carried out for anal fistula on the 34th hospital day. He responded to the treatment very well. He was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day. Once Fournier's gangrene has been diagnosed, considering the association of anal fistula and perianal abscess is important.

  8. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  9. The additive value of transient left ventricular dilation using two-day dipyridamole 99mTc-MIBI SPET for screening coronary artery disease in patients with otherwise normal myocardial perfusion: a comparison between diabetic and non-diabetic cases.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Akbarpour, Saeed; Abolhassani, Arash; Kakhki, Vahid Reza Dabbagh; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic value of transient ischemic dilation (TID) has been previously confirmed; however, its clinical significance for screening coronary artery disease (CAD) with balanced ischemia, as a cause of false negative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the additive diagnostic value of TID ratio for screening CAD in separate subgroups of diabetic and non-diabetics with normal perfusion. Eighty six patients with intermediate probability of CAD who had TID more than one in the presence of otherwise normal MPI using two-day technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) and dipyridamole stress (summed stress score<3 and left ventricular cavity<90 mL) were included in a prospective cohort study comprising two subgroups of diabetic and non- diabetic patients. An inclusive work-up with multiple noninvasive tests was performed for all patients from whom 38 cases subsequently underwent coronary angiography and 48 cases were categorized in the group with a very low likelihood (<5%) of CAD on the basis of clinical and paraclinical data over a minimum of 18 months follow up. The TID ratio was calculated using automated software. Gensini score (GS) as an indicator of severity/extent of stenosis and coronary artery index (CAI) as the number of arteries with more than 50% narrowing were calculated based on angiographic findings. Our results showed that only in diabetic patients with three-vessel disease, TID ratio (1.47 ± 0.23) differs significantly from the other groups of CAD. In diabetic patients subgroup, TID ratio correlated strongly with GS (r=0.957, P<0.0001) and CAI (r=0.659, P=0.001), while such correlations were not seen in the non-diabetic patients. On the basis of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for screening CAD in diabetic patients with normal myocardial perfusion, 100% sensitivity and 77.8% normalcy rate were achieved when TID more than 1

  10. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Shital; Khatu, Swapna

    2014-08-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that typically presents in immunocompromised patients, most commonly in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It rarely has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Defects in the host defense mechanisms due to hyperglycemia predispose diabetic patients to opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis. We present a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a 48-year-old HIV-negative man with DM.

  11. Mucormycosis in a diabetic ketoacidosis patient.

    PubMed

    Vijayabala, G Sree; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Sudarshan, Ramachandran

    2013-10-01

    Oral cavity is considered to be a kaleidoscope for body's general health. Many systemic conditions do present with diverse oral manifestations. Mucormycosis involving the oral cavity is one such entity that presents as necrosis of bone in immunocompromised patients. Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that mainly affects the patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Hereby, we report a case of mucormycosis involving the palate in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.

  12. [Pathology of the oral mucosa in patients with type I diabetes mellitus: study of 44 cases].

    PubMed

    Bagan Sebastian, J V; Gisbert Selles, C; Milian Masanet, A

    1988-01-01

    We study the pathology of the oral mucosa in a group of type I diabetics. The most common disease was oral candidiasis (9.09%), whereas the other pathologies encountered showed no significant differences with the controls.

  13. Patients' concepts and attitudes about diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Amulya R; Sircar, Sudeep; Sircar, Joydeep; Misra, Sheela

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the concepts and attitudes of patients and their immediate family members towards diabetes, its complications, and treatment. A total of 654 patients with poorly controlled diabetes and 216 of their immediate family members were interviewed regarding their concept about diabetes, its complications, diet, exercise, drug therapy, and understanding about insulin. There was lack of awareness about diabetes and its complications among the patients of diabetes. Majority of obese patients and their close family members failed to accept that they were obese. Child birth, menopause, and tubal ligation in female patients were wrongly attributed as a cause of obesity. There were major misconceptions about diet, exercise, and insulin therapy. More than 90% of study subjects had a misconception that all sweet fruits are prohibited and all bitter vegetables are beneficial. Temporary discontinuation of drug therapy was found in 189 cases. The lack of awareness and various misconceptions had no statistical relationship with the educational background of the patients. Among patients of poorly controlled diabetes and their close family members, there was a gross lack of knowledge of complications of diabetes, causes of obesity, treatment of diabetes, and use of insulin. Denial of obesity was commonly observed. Linking obesity with tubal ligation in female patients not only is appalling but may possibly be a hindrance to family planning program. Level of education had no bearing on these misconceptions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient-centred innovation to ensure access to diabetes care in Cambodia: the case of MoPoTsyo.

    PubMed

    van Olmen, Josefien; Eggermont, Natalie; van Pelt, Maurits; Hen, Heang; de Man, Jeroen; Schellevis, François; Peters, David H; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases puts a high burden on the health care systems of Low and Middle Income Countries which are often not adapted to provide the care needed. Peer support programmes are promoted to address health system constraints. This case study analyses a peer educator diabetes programme in Cambodia, MoPoTsyo, from a health system's perspective. Which strategies were used and how did these strategies change? How is the programme perceived? Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with patients, MoPoTsyo staff and peer educators, contracted pharmacy staff and health workers, health care workers and non-contracted pharmacists and managers and policy makers at district, provincial and national level. Four areas were purposively selected to do the interviews. An inductive content analysis was done independently by two researchers. MoPoTsyo developed into three stages: a focus on diabetes self-management; a widening scope to ensure affordable medicines and access to other health care services; and aiming for sustainability through more integration with the Cambodian public system and further upscaling. All respondents acknowledged the peer educators' role and competence in patient education, but their ideas about additional tasks and their place in the system differed. Indirectly involved stakeholders and district managers emphasized the particular roles and responsibilities of all actors in the system and the particular role of the peer educator in the community. MoPoTsyo's diagnostics and laboratory services were perceived as useful, especially by patients and project staff. Respondents were positive about the revolving drug fund, but expressed concerns about its integration into the government system. The degree of collaboration between health care staff and peer educators varied. MoPoTsyo responds to the needs of people with diabetes in Cambodia. Key success factors were: consistent focus on and involvement of the target

  15. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in patients with diabetes: protocol for a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ludovic; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Gaudart, Jean; Launay, Odile; Vanhems, Philippe; Villani, Patrick; Verger, Pierre

    2017-08-18

    Seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) is recommended for people with diabetes, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated. All of the available studies are observational and marred with the healthy vaccine bias, that is, bias resulting from the generally better health behaviours practised by people who choose to be vaccinated against influenza, compared with those who do not. This protocol is intended to study the effectiveness of SIV in people with treated diabetes and simultaneously to control for bias. This case-control study is nested in a historical cohort and is designed to study vaccine effectiveness (VE) assessed by morbidity, mortality and anti-infective drug use. The cohort will comprise a representative sample of health insurance beneficiaries in France and will cover 10 consecutive epidemic seasons. It will include all patients reimbursed three separate times for drugs to treat diabetes. The first study of VE will use reasons for hospitalisation as the primary end point, and the second with the use of neuraminidase inhibitors and of antibiotics as the end points. A case will be defined as any person in the cohort reaching any end point at a given date. The case patient will be matched with the largest possible number of controls (individuals not reaching the end point by this date) according to the propensity score method with an optimal calliper width. A conditional logistic model will be used to estimate ORs to take into account both the matching and the repetition of measurements. The model will be applied separately during and outside of epidemic periods to estimate the residual confounding. The study has been approved by the French Commission on Individual Data Protection and Public Liberties (ref: AT/CPZ/SVT/JB/DP/CR05222O). The study's findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated at international conferences and through social media. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  16. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus among out-patients in Ho, the Volta regional capital of Ghana: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gudjinu, Horlali Yao; Sarfo, Bismark

    2017-07-26

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in developing countries like Ghana continues to rise. This study seeks to assess the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Ghanaian setting. An unmatched case-control study among patients receiving care at the out-patient departments of the two major hospitals in the Ho Municipality. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. Appropriate controls with similar ages who were also patients receiving care at the out-patient department of these hospitals were recruited. Both cases and controls were administered a questionnaire that comprises of standardized and validated tools. These tools include WHO STEPs instrument, general practice physical activity questionnaire and rapid eating and activity assessment for patients. Additionally, the research participants were made to undergo physical examinations for weight, height, waist circumference and laboratory testing of fasting venous blood to assess the biochemical factors of interest namely fasting blood glucose and fasting lipids. Analysis of data was done using STATA version 11. A total of 136 (48 cases and 88 controls) participants of which 95 [39 (81.25%) cases and 56 (63.64%) controls] respondents underwent laboratory testing for fasting blood glucose and fasting blood lipid (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). Participants were aged between 35 and 62 years. This study reveals a number of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Individuals in the middle socio-economic class have a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus with an OR of 5.03 (p < 0.003; 95% CI 1.71-14.74). Eating large quantities/servings of fruits per seating provides protection against development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low physical activity level is a valid determinant of type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of body mass index, socio-economic level or place of residence. Individuals within the middle socio-economic level, who are

  17. [Severe hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic ketoacidosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Granero, Alessandra Lamas; Almeida, Luis Guilherme Camargo de; Battistella, Vinicius Marcus

    2009-10-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a recurrent problem in the emergency room that requires prompt and effective treatment. Usually, it may be associated with an increase in triglyceride levels, exposing the patient to the risk of pancreatitis. We report the case of a 38-year-old female patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides: 11.758 mg/dL). The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Hydration and intravenous insulin were performed with success. During hospitalization, the levels of triglycerides decreased significantly and the levels of amylase and lipase remained at normal ranges, not suggesting pancreatitis. No other Brazilian cases with these levels of triglycerides were found. We conclude that, in diabetic ketoacidosis, lipid profile, including triglycerides, should be requested, due to a not negligible prevalence of complications such as hypertriglycerides and pancreatitis.

  18. Creating a healthy built environment for diabetic patients: the case study of the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sidawi, Bhzad; Alhariri, Mohamed Taha; Albaker, Walid Ibrahim

    2014-04-14

    Many studies worldwide have demonstrated the negative impact of an unhealthy built environment on citizens. In the case of diabetes, studies have concentrated on the environmental impact and accessibility issues of a place i.e. the home and neighborhood, whereas few studies have addressed the comfort of the type and spatial arrangement of a household and linked it with the prevalence of diabetes. Also, little research has tackled the place's impact on diabetic patients and their views concerning their environments. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of survey that was carried out on diabetic individuals who usually visit the King Fahd teaching hospital of the University of Dammam, Al-Khober, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients were surveyed and physically examined. The present researchers found significant links between patients' diabetes symptoms such as reported paresthesia and blurred vision, and medical investigations results such as lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure with the environmental conditions of their homes and neighborhoods. The paper shows that the prevalence of the disease is not only caused by an unhealthy lifestyle but also by an unhealthy built environment. Moreover, it illustrates that unhealthy built environment promotes unhealthy life styles. It makes recommendations on how to improve the built environment in the KSA to be healthier for all citizens including the diabetic patients.

  19. Effect of smoking status on healthcare costs and resource utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes in routine clinical practice: a retrospective nested case-control economic study.

    PubMed

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibánez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    To compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. Cases were current smokers, while 2 types of controls (former smokers and never smokers) were matched (2 controls per case) for age, sex, duration of diabetes and burden of comorbidity using data from medical records. Noninstitutionalized diabetics of both genders, aged>18 years and seen consecutively over a 5-year period before the index date, were enrolled. Analysis compared healthcare resource utilization, loss of productivity due to sick leave and corresponding costs. In total, 2,490 medical records were analyzed, i.e. 498 cases, 996 former smokers and 996 never smokers. Mean age was 63.4 years (64.9% male). Smokers had higher glycosylated hemoglobin levels (7.4 vs. 7.2 and 7.2%, respectively; p=0.013) and a lower degree of metabolic control (49.2 vs. 54.7 and 55.8%; p=0.036). Smokers had higher average annual costs (EUR 3,583) than former smokers (EUR 2,885; p<0.001) and never smokers (EUR 2,183; p<0.001). Diabetic smoker patients had lower metabolic control, higher health resource utilization and more sick leave, resulting in higher healthcare costs and lost productivity compared with both former and never smoker diabetics. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Chronic Salmonella Osteomyelitis in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis in patients without hemoglobulinopathy is quite uncommon. Osteal involvement is seen in only 0.8% of all Salmonella infection cases. We describe the case of a 67-year-old diabetic woman who developed Salmonella osteomyelitis and subsequently underwent a surgical excision of a tibial lesion followed by two months of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. The patient responded very well to the treatment. This case is exemplary for the successful treatment of chronic Salmonella osteomyelitis in a diabetic patient with a vascular complication. PMID:28680773

  1. Juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, atonia of the urinary tract and bladder, and other abnormalities (Wolfram syndrome). A review of 88 cases from the literature with personal observations on 3 new patients.

    PubMed

    Cremers, C W; Wijdeveld, P G; Pinckers, A J

    1977-01-01

    A review of 88 cases from the literature with personal observations on 3 new patients is given of the syndrome featured by juvenile diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, atonia of the urinary tract and bladder and other abnormalities. The postmortem in one of our cases is mentioned. The pattern of inheritance is autosomal recessive. The interpretation of the data on diabetes insipidus from the literature and in our three patients is also discussed. It can only be stated that neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus can be a component of the syndrome and that in many cases--particularly in the presence of lesions of the efferent urinary tract--the possibility of nephrogenous diabetes insipidus can not be excluded with certainty. It seems probable that the same mechanism can be held responsible for the lesions of the olfactory, optic, vestibular and cochlear nerves, the hypophyseal form of diabetes insipidus, retarded sexual maturation, abnormal pupillary reaction, myelopathy and the electro-encephalographic, electroneurological and electromyographic changes in the Wolfram syndrome. The process underlying this affection of neural structures remains obscure.

  2. [Joint home follow-up of a patient with complicated diabetes mellitus by the case manager and the community nurse: II].

    PubMed

    López-Pisa, Rosa María; Prats-Guardiola, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This is a continuation of the article published in this journal (Enfermeria Clinica), entitled "Integral approach by the case manager and the community nurse to a complex case of diabetes mellitus in the home". We present the case of a 76 year- old patient with long-term and clinically complex Diabetes Mellitus. The patient was taking part in the Primary Care home care program. This article describes the follow-up of the case in which new complications appeared in the right limb, which led to the amputation of the second limb. A new evaluation following Virginia's Henderson model was performed six months after the initial care plan. Nursing diagnoses were made following the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). These diagnoses led to changes in objectives and performance criteria using, nursing outcomes classification (NOC) and nursing interventions classification (NIC). One of the results obtained was the improvement of her well-being by enabling the patient to interact and integrate socially within her environment after mobilising the corresponding social and family resources.Involvement in clinical practice is important in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot complications. Difficult and complex situations are sometimes beyond the ability of the community nurse. It can be beneficial to take advantage of the clinical support offered by the case management model and the integrated approach of a multidisciplinary team.

  3. Creating a Healthy Built Environment for Diabetic Patients: The Case Study of the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sidawi, Bhzad; Alhariri, Mohamed Taha; Albaker, Walid Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many studies worldwide have demonstrated the negative impact of an unhealthy built environment on citizens. In the case of diabetes, studies have concentrated on the environmental impact and accessibility issues of a place i.e. the home and neighborhood, whereas few studies have addressed the comfort of the type and spatial arrangement of a household and linked it with the prevalence of diabetes. Also, little research has tackled the place’s impact on diabetic patients and their views concerning their environments. This paper demonstrates the outcomes of survey that was carried out on diabetic individuals who usually visit the King Fahd teaching hospital of the University of Dammam, Al-Khober, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients were surveyed and physically examined. The present researchers found significant links between patients’ diabetes symptoms such as reported paresthesia and blurred vision, and medical investigations results such as lipid profile, blood glucose and blood pressure with the environmental conditions of their homes and neighborhoods. The paper shows that the prevalence of the disease is not only caused by an unhealthy lifestyle but also by an unhealthy built environment. Moreover, it illustrates that unhealthy built environment promotes unhealthy life styles. It makes recommendations on how to improve the built environment in the KSA to be healthier for all citizens including the diabetic patients. PMID:24999135

  4. The Impact of Built Environment on Diabetic Patients: The Case of Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sidawi, Bhzad; Al-Hariri, Mohamed Taha Ali

    2012-01-01

    At present, Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the main threats to the human health in the 21st century. It may lead to severe conditions such as blindness, end-stage of renal disease, limb amputation and a variety of debilitating neuropathies. Previous researches indicated that diabetes is caused by a complex interaction of patient’s genetics, life-style and environmental factors. They also highlighted that providing quality and healthy built environment to citizens including diabetic patients would prevent poor and unhealthy condition. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is one of top ten countries in the prevalence of diabetes. Little researches though were conducted in KSA in regards to the effect of environmental conditions of the built environment. In 2011, the present researchers have carried out a pilot survey on a number of diabetic patients to find out the possible impact of built environment settings on the patient’s lifestyle. The research explored whether diabetic patients use smart tools in their daily life to overcome the daily life’s difficulties and perform their life as normal as possible. The results showed a close link between a poor home and environmental settings, the patient’s lifestyle, and the patient’s health status. It also highlighted the absence of smart tools and systems use. The paper argues that certain changes to the built environment must be done and to provide a healthy and safe environment for diabetic patients. This would help these patients to abandon their bad habits and adopt healthier lifestyle. PMID:22980349

  5. [Depressive disorders in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Benhima, I; Asri, F; Diouri, A; Tazi, I

    2012-10-01

    Diabetes is a public health problem. Its global prevalence was 2.8% in 2000 and it will reach 4.4% in 2030 to be 366 million diabetics. In Morocco, this true "epidemic" affects 6.6% of the population. Many epidemiologic studies have shown that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to depression. Diabetes and depression align in a non-accidental way and complicate one another. We report a cross-sectional study conducted in association with the endocrinology department of the Mohammed VI university hospital during the period spread between April and September 2006. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders in patients with diabetes and to describe their sociodemographic and clinical profile. The study included 187 patients. The scales used were the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Hamilton's depression. Sociodemographics and diabetic characteristics were evaluated by self-questionnaire. The average age of our patients was 53±14 years and the percentage of females was high: 71.2%. Diabetes type 2 was the most representative (85.6%), diabetes type 1 (11.8%) and gestational diabetes (2.7%). Half of diabetics were treated with an association of healthy dietary measures (MHD) and oral anti-diabetics; 31.6% were under MHD and insulin therapy; 33.2% of patients had acute complications and 43.5% had degenerative complications. Only 11 patients (5.9%) had antecedents of depression. The prevalence of major depressive episode was 41.2%; 27.8% of patients suffered from dysthymia and 21.9% from double depression. Hamilton's depression scale indicates that all depressed patients had mild depression (total of 17 items from 8 to 17). Major depressive episode and dysthymia were frequent in out patients. Dysthymia was predominant in diabetic patients in the 46 to 55 years age group, never been schooled and without any comorbidity. The vast majority of patients with EDM had type 2 diabetes with 89.6%, 7.8% type 1 diabetes and 2

  6. An electronic case manager for diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, L F; Albisser, A M; Goldberg, R B; Mintz, D H

    1998-04-01

    To evaluate the usage and safety of an electronic case manager (ECM) system designed to facilitate the task of glycemic control. Sustained improvement in blood glucose control is the proven treatment outcome that will reduce or eliminate the long-term complications of diabetes. A customized microcomputer system served as the ECM. Located at the clinic, this voice-interactive system required the remote patient to need only a touch-tone telephone. Patients accessed the system to report daily self-measured glucose levels or hypoglycemic symptoms together with associated lifestyle events. System beta-testing was in an open-case series (n = 184) in an academic diabetes center with the goal of evaluating the ECM in terms of utilization, frequency of crises, and fiscal matters. Of the patients, 58% (n = 107) actively used the ECM for their daily diabetes care, accumulating 788 patient-months of follow-up. Over 45,000 telephone calls were received by the ECM during the start-up year. Each call was processed instantly and automatically. Patients benefited from having 24-h access to the ECM. Prevalence of diabetes-related crises (hyperglycemia > 400 mg/dl [22 mmol/l] or hypoglycemia < 50 mg/dl [2.8 mmol/l]) decreased approximately threefold (P < 0.05), with a concomitant statistically significant decrease in HbA1c of 0.8% at 6 months (n = 45, P = 0.024) and 0.9% at 12 months (n = 30, P = 0.044). The ECM provided 24-h on-line assistance in adjusting daily insulin and/or tablet therapy, automatic generation of standardized medical reports, electronic medical-legal documentation, as well as a marked reduction in the time spent on the phone with patients. Clinic visits in managing complex diabetes were reduced approximately twofold (P < 0.0001), and the effort spent by case managers was estimated. Patients with diabetes who accessed the ECM system received timely, cost-effective, and reliable medical intervention. This reduced the incidence of diabetic crises and the need for

  7. Diabetic Neuroarthropathy: Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Rosario; Gagnon, Paul-A.; Alarie, Roger

    1964-01-01

    Diabetic neuroarthropathy was observed in four patients; these are the first cases of this nature reported in the Canadian medical literature. The criteria for this diagnosis included: (1) long-standing diabetes; (2) arthropathy, most frequently involving the foot, which shows deformity, shortening and ulceration without evidence of infection or peripheral circulatory failure; (3) abolition or diminution of pain on weight-bearing; (4) diabetic peripheral neuropathy with impaired sense of position or vibration and weak or absent deep tendon reflexes. Radiographic findings were similar to those in patients with Charcot's arthropathy from any cause. Tabes dorsalis, leprosy, syringomyelia, myelodysplasia and the arthropathies of corticosteroid therapy were ruled out in these cases. In addition to conventional medical therapy the patients were treated by means of walking-casts for several months. Diabetic neuroarthropathy is probably more common than the medical literature would indicate. Diminished sensation in the lower limbs in diabetics of long standing appears to be the major factor contributing to this disorder. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14199108

  8. Impact of Glucose-Lowering Agents on the Risk of Cancer in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. The Barcelona Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Puente, Diana; Morros, Rosa; Mundet, Xavier; Vilca, Luz M.; Hernández, Cristina; Fuentes, Inmaculada; Procupet, Adriana; Tabernero, Josep M.; Violán, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of glucose-lowering agents in the risk of cancer in a large type 2 diabetic population. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted within a defined cohort (275,164 type 2 diabetic patients attending 16 Primary Health Care Centers of Barcelona). Cases (n = 1,040) comprised those subjects with any cancer diagnosed between 2008 and 2010, registered at the Cancer Registry of Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). Three control subjects for each case (n = 3,120) were matched by age, sex, diabetes duration, and geographical area. The treatments analyzed (within 3 years prior to cancer diagnosis) were: insulin glargine, insulin detemir, human insulin, fast-acting insulin and analogues, metformin, sulfonylureas, repaglinide, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Conditional logistic regressions were used to calculate the risk of cancer associated with the use of each drug adjusted by age, BMI, dose and duration of treatment, alcohol use, smoking habit, and diabetes duration. Results No differences were observed between case and control subjects for the proportion, dose or duration of exposure to each treatment. None of the types of insulin and oral agents analyzed showed a significant increase in the risk of cancer. Moreover, no cancer risk was observed when glargine was used alone or in combination with metformin. Conclusions Our results suggest that diabetes treatment does not influence the risk of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, an eventual increase of cancer should not be a reason for biasing the selection of any glucose-lowering treatment in type 2 diabetic population. PMID:24278227

  9. Corneal Melting after Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus in a Thin Cornea of a Diabetic Patient Treated with Topical Nepafenac: A Case Report with a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Butrón-Valdez, Karla; Vazquez-Galvan, Jeronimo; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cavazos-Adame, Humberto; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the case of a 50-year-old woman with diabetes that presented with corneal melting and perforation 6 weeks after collagen cross-linking (CxL) for keratoconus (KC) and postoperative use of nepafenac eye drops, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Methods This is a case report of a patient with diabetes, KC and a thin cornea that had undergone left eye corneal CxL at a different hospital followed by postoperative use of nepafenac eye drops for 6 weeks. Results The patient presented for the first time to our clinic with left corneal melting, perforation and iris prolapse 6 weeks after corneal CxL and topical nepafenac use. She was treated with a left eye tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, intraocular lens implantation and pupilloplasty. Conclusions The corneal melting and perforation in this patient was associated with multiple risk factors: (1) nepafenac eye drop use, (2) CxL in a cornea thinner than 400 µm and (3) diabetes. The recommended corneal thickness limits should be respected. Topical NSAIDs should be used with caution if used as postoperative treatment after corneal CxL and in patients with diabetes, epithelial defect or delayed healing, because of the possible increased risk for corneal melting when multiple risk factors are observed. PMID:27293413

  10. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  11. Diabetes Insipidus and Polydipsia in a Patient with Asperger's Disorder and an Empty Sella: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raja, Michele; Azzoni, Antonella; Giammarco, Vincenzo

    1998-01-01

    Describes an Italian patient with Asperger disorders, Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus, and Primary Empty Sella. His response to vasopressin treatment suggested a concomitant presence of primary polydipsia. Implications of the observed concurrence of these rare disorders are discussed in relation to diagnosis and pathogenesis. (Author/CR)

  12. Diabetic foot due to anaphylactic shock: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Ali; Ozkan, Mustafa; Karcioglu, Murat; Ozden, Raif; Ustun, Ihsan; Caliskan, Koca; Gokce, Cumali; Sahan, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic foot is a clinical disorder, which is commonly seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is also the major cause of below knee amputation in the world. There are many underlying causes such as neuropathic, ischemic, and infectious causes for diabetic foot. Local or systemic complications may develop after snake bite. We reported a very rare case, involving a 78-year-old male admitted to the Emergency Department, who developed anaphylactic shock and diabetic foot after the snake bite. Reviewing the literature, this is the second reported case of snake bite associated with diabetic foot.

  13. Rhino-oculo Cerebral Mucormycosis with Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy in Diabetic Patient: Review of Six Cases.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Kavita

    2013-12-01

    AIM of the study is to evaluate etiopathogenesis role played by predisposing conditions (Diabetes, Immunosupression), precipitating factors (trauma/surgery/ketoacidosis) and possible role of occupational hazard is discussed briefly. Clinical presentation and management of patients presenting with rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis is discussed. The prospective study of patient undergoing treatment of mucormycosis] without control Setting was done in ENT Deptt. NSCB Medical College, Jabalpur (tertiary referral centre of mid India). Subject were patients presenting with invasive fungal rhino sinusitis presenting with orbital involvement and cranial nerve palsies undergoing treatment. The detailed history, clinical examination including cranial nerve examination, blood test, CTscan and biopsy. Nasal endoscopy, CWL surgery and medical management with 6 month follow up. All six patients were diabetic when evaluated on presentation. Two patients had ketoacidosis. Four had history of surgery in recent past. Blood stained nasal discharge and dysaesthesia of face are early warning signs. They had necrotic lesion in nose and infraorbital area with 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 cranial nerve involvement. Skin necrosis/Mucosal necrosis, facial palsy and diplopia signify advanced disease. Altered sensorium, panopthalmitis & diabetes complicated with ketoacidosis signify bad prognosis. In present study two patients with advanced disease, altered sensorium and ketoacidosis succumbed within 72 hours in spite of anti fungal medicine. Of the four surviving patients, all responded well to treatment but had residual sixth and seventh nerve palsy. One patient defaulted in diabetes control & had recurrence after 6 months. Early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement and proper management of underlying metabolic abnormality along with amphotericin B can avert the bad prognosis of rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis.

  14. [The instruction of the patient educational method in clinical nursing training: the actual condition of a student guidance case about diabetic's nursing using the diabetes retinopathy model].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Matsunaga, Kyoko

    2006-09-01

    We taught fourth-year students in a university about patient education using the diabetes retinopathy model in adult nursing practice. We analyzed teacher's student guidance plans and the guidance process using a clinical training education analysis form from the viewpoint of qualitative interpretation. We evaluated the degree of achievement of the students' goal for practice and the training subject. Consequently, the teacher developed training guidance as a class.

  15. Managing diabetes in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A

    2012-03-01

    Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with

  16. Gallbladder function in diabetic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shreiner, D.P.; Sarva, R.P.; Van Thiel, D.; Yingvorapant, N.

    1986-03-01

    Gallbladder emptying and filling was studied in eight diabetic and six normal control patients. None of the patients had gallstones. Cholescintigraphy was performed using (/sup 99m/Tc)disofenin, and gallbladder emptying was studied using a 45-min i.v. infusion of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) 20 ng/kg X hr. The peak filling rate was greater in diabetic than in normal subjects; however, emptying of the gallbladder in response to OP-CCK was significantly less in the diabetic subjects (51.6 +/- 10.4% compared with 77.2 +/- 4.9%). When the diabetic group was subdivided into obese and nonobese diabetics, the obese diabetics had a much lower percentage of emptying than the nonobese diabetics (30.0 +/- 10.4% compared with 73.1 +/- 9.3%). These findings suggest that obese diabetics may have impaired emptying of the gallbladder even in the absence of gallstones. The more rapid rate of gallbladder filling in obesity may indicate hypotonicity of the gallbladder. The combination of these abnormalities may predispose the obese diabetic to the development of gallstones.

  17. Medicare Coverage for Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenazy, R; Abrahamson, MJ

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. Medicare population is growing at an alarming rate. From 1980 to 2004, the number of people aged 65 or older with diagnosed diabetes increased from 2.3 million to 5.8 million. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS), 32% of Medicare spending is attributed to the diabetes population. Since its inception, Medicare has expanded medical coverage of monitoring devices, screening tests and visits, educational efforts, and preventive medical services for its diabetic enrollees. However, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin were excluded from reimbursement. In 2003, Congress passed the Medicare Modernization Act that includes a drug benefit to be administered either through Medicare Advantage drug plans or privately sponsored prescription drug plans for implementation in January 2006. In this article we highlight key patient and drug plan characteristics and resources that providers may focus upon to assist their patients choose a coverage plan. Using a case example, we illustrate the variable financial impact the adoption of Medicare part D may have on beneficiaries with diabetes due to their economic status. We further discuss the potential consequences the legislation will have on diabetic patients enrolled in Medicare, their providers, prescribing strategies, and the diabetes market. PMID:16686819

  18. Multimodal Surgical and Medical Treatment for Extensive Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis in an Elderly Diabetic Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Pirrello, Roberto; Guadagnino, Giuliana; Richiusa, Pierina; Lo Casto, Antonio; Sarno, Caterina; Moschella, Francesco; Cabibi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for invasive mucormycosis with rhinocerebral involvement. Acute necrosis of the maxilla is seldom seen and extensive facial bone involvement is rare in patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis. An aggressive surgical approach combined with antifungal therapy is usually necessary. In this report, we describe the successful, personalized medical and surgical management of extensive periorbital mucormycosis in an elderly diabetic, HIV-negative woman. Mono- or combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and posaconazole (PSO) and withheld debridement is discussed. The role of aesthetic plastic surgery to preserve the patient's physical appearance is also reported. Any diabetic patient with sinonasal disease, regardless of their degree of metabolic control, is a candidate for prompt evaluation to rule out mucormycosis. Therapeutic and surgical strategies and adjunctive treatments are essential for successful disease management. These interventions may include combination therapy. Finally, a judicious multimodal treatment approach can improve appearance and optimize outcome in elderly patients. PMID:24982678

  19. Diabetes insipidus in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Paulose, K P; Padmakumar, N

    2002-09-01

    The association of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Diabetes Insipidus (DI) without any congenital defects is very rare and we report here a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) whose blood sugar was controlled by insulin, developing central diabetes insipidus 2 years later, which could be successively controlled by synthetic vasopressin.

  20. Hallux ulceration in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    ElMakki Ahmed, Mohamed; Tamimi, Abdulhakim O; Mahadi, Seif I; Widatalla, Abubakr H; Shawer, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a prospective cohort study to assess risk factors associated with hallux ulceration, and to determine the incidence of healing or amputation, in consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated over the observation period extending from September 2004 to March 2005, at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre, Khartoum City, Sudan. There were 122 diabetic patients in the cohort (92 males and 30 females) with an overall mean age of 58 +/- 9 years. Fifty-three percent of patients had complete healing within 8 weeks and 43% healed within 20 weeks. The overall mean time to healing was 16 +/- 8 weeks. In 32 (26.2%) patients, osteomyelitic bone was removed, leaving a healed and boneless hallux. The hallux was amputated in 17 (13.9%) patients; in 2 (1.6%) patients it was followed by forefoot amputation and in 7 (5.7%) patients by below-the-knee amputation. In 90 (73.8%) patients the initial lesion was a blister. In conclusion, hallux ulceration is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and is usually preceded by a blister. Neuropathy, foot deformity, and wearing new shoes are common causative factors; and ischemia, osteomyelitis, any form of wound infection, and the size of the ulcer are main outcome determinants. Complete healing occurred in 103 (85%) of diabetic patients with a hallux ulcer. Vascular intervention is important relative to limb salvage when ischemia is the main cause of the ulcer.

  1. Web-based Real-Time Case Finding for the Population Health Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Validation of the Natural Language Processing-Based Algorithm With Statewide Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Le; Wang, Yue; Hao, Shiying; Shin, Andrew Y; Jin, Bo; Ngo, Anh D; Jackson-Browne, Medina S; Feller, Daniel J; Fu, Tianyun; Zhang, Karena; Zhou, Xin; Zhu, Chunqing; Dai, Dorothy; Yu, Yunxian; Zheng, Gang; Li, Yu-Ming; McElhinney, Doff B; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng Bruce

    2016-11-11

    Diabetes case finding based on structured medical records does not fully identify diabetic patients whose medical histories related to diabetes are available in the form of free text. Manual chart reviews have been used but involve high labor costs and long latency. This study developed and tested a Web-based diabetes case finding algorithm using both structured and unstructured electronic medical records (EMRs). This study was based on the health information exchange (HIE) EMR database that covers almost all health facilities in the state of Maine, United States. Using narrative clinical notes, a Web-based natural language processing (NLP) case finding algorithm was retrospectively (July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013) developed with a random subset of HIE-associated facilities, which was then blind tested with the remaining facilities. The NLP-based algorithm was subsequently integrated into the HIE database and validated prospectively (July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014). Of the 935,891 patients in the prospective cohort, 64,168 diabetes cases were identified using diagnosis codes alone. Our NLP-based case finding algorithm prospectively found an additional 5756 uncodified cases (5756/64,168, 8.97% increase) with a positive predictive value of .90. Of the 21,720 diabetic patients identified by both methods, 6616 patients (6616/21,720, 30.46%) were identified by the NLP-based algorithm before a diabetes diagnosis was noted in the structured EMR (mean time difference = 48 days). The online NLP algorithm was effective in identifying uncodified diabetes cases in real time, leading to a significant improvement in diabetes case finding. The successful integration of the NLP-based case finding algorithm into the Maine HIE database indicates a strong potential for application of this novel method to achieve a more complete ascertainment of diagnoses of diabetes mellitus.

  2. Web-based Real-Time Case Finding for the Population Health Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Validation of the Natural Language Processing–Based Algorithm With Statewide Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo; Ngo, Anh D; Jackson-Browne, Medina S; Feller, Daniel J; Fu, Tianyun; Zhang, Karena; Zhou, Xin; Zhu, Chunqing; Dai, Dorothy; Yu, Yunxian; Zheng, Gang; Li, Yu-Ming; McElhinney, Doff B; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes case finding based on structured medical records does not fully identify diabetic patients whose medical histories related to diabetes are available in the form of free text. Manual chart reviews have been used but involve high labor costs and long latency. Objective This study developed and tested a Web-based diabetes case finding algorithm using both structured and unstructured electronic medical records (EMRs). Methods This study was based on the health information exchange (HIE) EMR database that covers almost all health facilities in the state of Maine, United States. Using narrative clinical notes, a Web-based natural language processing (NLP) case finding algorithm was retrospectively (July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013) developed with a random subset of HIE-associated facilities, which was then blind tested with the remaining facilities. The NLP-based algorithm was subsequently integrated into the HIE database and validated prospectively (July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014). Results Of the 935,891 patients in the prospective cohort, 64,168 diabetes cases were identified using diagnosis codes alone. Our NLP-based case finding algorithm prospectively found an additional 5756 uncodified cases (5756/64,168, 8.97% increase) with a positive predictive value of .90. Of the 21,720 diabetic patients identified by both methods, 6616 patients (6616/21,720, 30.46%) were identified by the NLP-based algorithm before a diabetes diagnosis was noted in the structured EMR (mean time difference = 48 days). Conclusions The online NLP algorithm was effective in identifying uncodified diabetes cases in real time, leading to a significant improvement in diabetes case finding. The successful integration of the NLP-based case finding algorithm into the Maine HIE database indicates a strong potential for application of this novel method to achieve a more complete ascertainment of diagnoses of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27836816

  3. Improving the economic and humanistic outcomes for diabetic patients: making a case for employer-sponsored medication therapy management

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Sharrel L; Kumar, Jinender; Partha, Gautam; Bechtol, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the cost savings of a pharmacist-led, employer-sponsored medication therapy management (MTM) program for diabetic patients and to assess for any changes in patient satisfaction and self-reported medication adherence for enrollees. Methods Participants in this study were enrollees of an employer-sponsored MTM program. They were included if their primary medical insurance and prescription coverage was from the City of Toledo, they had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and whether or not they had been on medication or had been given a new prescription for diabetes treatment. The data were analyzed on a prospective, pre-post longitudinal basis, and tracked for one year following enrollment. Outcomes included economic costs, patient satisfaction, and self-reported patient adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population, calculate the number of visits, and determine the mean costs for each visit. Friedman’s test was used to determine changes in outcomes due to the nonparametric nature of the data. Results The mean number of visits to a physician’s office decreased from 10.22 to 7.07. The mean cost of these visits for patients increased from $47.70 to $66.41, but use of the emergency room and inpatient visits decreased by at least 50%. Employer spending on emergency room visits decreased by $24,214.17 and inpatient visit costs decreased by $166,610.84. Office visit spending increased by $11,776.41. A total cost savings of $179,047.80 was realized by the employer at the end of the program. Significant improvements in patient satisfaction and adherence were observed. Conclusion Pharmacist interventions provided through the employer-sponsored MTM program led to substantial cost savings to the employer with improved patient satisfaction and adherence on the part of employees at the conclusion of the program. PMID:23610526

  4. Personal models for diabetes in context and patients' health status.

    PubMed

    Lange, Lori J; Piette, John D

    2006-06-01

    In a diverse sample of 452 adult diabetes patients, we investigated: (1) personal model dimensions for diabetes and expanded upon the literature by indexing fatalism, (2) the relationship between contextual factors and patients' beliefs about the seriousness and controllability of diabetes, and (3) the unique contribution of illness representation combinations to clinical outcomes when controlling for baseline disease severity. Major categories of predictors included patients' sociocultural characteristics, illness history (e.g., co-morbidities, diabetes complications) and recent physical symptoms. Illness representations were measured using the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview and questions that index fatalistic beliefs. Clinical outcome measures included patients' glycemic control (HbA1c) and the patient's physical and mental functions as measured by the SF-12. Analyses corroborated the literature by identifying seriousness and treatment effectiveness cognitive model dimensions for diabetes. Physical symptoms and other disease-related factors were strong predictors of patients' seriousness beliefs for diabetes, whereas sociocultural factors (education, ethnicity) best explained representations related to the controllability of diabetes (i.e., treatment effectiveness, fatalism). Seriousness beliefs were good indicators of actual glucose control, except for cases in which patients were more fatalistic and believed diabetes to be less serious. Although patients had medically consistent views of their diabetes, variations in personal models of diabetes were related to specific contextual factors and independently explained diabetes control.

  5. [Proliferative diabetic retinopathy -- therapeutic approach (clinical case)].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Muşat, Ovidiu; Mahdi, Labib; Gheorghe, Andreea; Spulbar, F; Gobej, I

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 54 year old pacient diagnosed with neglected insulin dependent diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Surgery was recommended and we practiced posterior vitrectomy, endolaser and heavy silicone oil endotamponade. Post-operative evolution was favorable.

  6. Causes of death in Japanese patients with diabetes based on the results of a survey of 45,708 cases during 2001-2010: Report of the Committee on Causes of Death in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jiro; Kamiya, Hideki; Haneda, Masakazu; Inagaki, Nobuya; Tanizawa, Yukio; Araki, Eiichi; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-03-27

    The principal causes of death among 45,708 patients with diabetes (29,801 men and 15,907 women) who died in 241 hospitals throughout Japan during 2001-2010 were determined based on a survey of the hospital records. Autopsy had been conducted in 978 of the 45,708 cases. The most frequent cause of death was malignant neoplasia (38.3%), followed by, in order of descending frequency: infections (17.0%); and then vascular diseases (14.9%), including renal failure (3.5%), ischemic heart diseases (4.8%) and cerebrovascular diseases (6.6%). Diabetic coma associated with hyperglycemia with or without ketoacidosis accounted for only 0.6% of the deaths. In regard to the relationship between the age and cause of death in patients with diabetes, the incidence of death due to vascular diseases was higher in patients over the age of 30 or 40 years, and the 97.0% of the total death due to vascular diseases was observed in patients over the age of 50 years. The incidence of death due to infectious diseases, especially pneumonia, increased in an age-dependent fashion, and the 80.7% of the total death due to pneumonia was observed in patients over the age of 70 years. 'Poorer' glycemic control was associated with the reduced lifespan of patients with diabetes, especially of those with nephropathy. The average age at death in the survey population was 72.6 years. The lifespan was 1.6 years shorter in patients with 'poorer' glycemic control than in those with 'better' glycemic control. In patients with diabetes of less than 10 years' duration, the incidence of death due to macroangiopathy was higher than that due to nephropathy. Of the 45,708 patients with diabetes, 33.9% were on oral medication, 41.9% received insulin therapy and 18.8% were treated by diet alone. Among the patients in whom the cause of death was diabetic nephropathy, a high percentage, 53.7%, was on insulin therapy. The average age at death of the 45,708 patients with diabetes was 71.4 years in men and 75.1

  7. Acute hemichorea in a newly diagnosed type II diabetes patient: a diagnostic challenge in resource-limited setting: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ruhangisa, Flora; Stephen, Henry; Senkondo, Jacob; Mwasamwaja, Amos; Kanenda, Said; Mbarak, Saleh; Chamba, Nyasatu; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Howlett, William; Lyaruu, Isaack; Shao, Elichilia

    2016-08-22

    Chorea is a rare complication of uncontrolled type II diabetes. We report for the first time in Tanzania a case of type II diabetes presenting with a hyperglycaemia-induced hemichorea. A 58-year-old Tanzanian chagga by tribe with a body mass index of 28 kg/m(2) and newly diagnosed type II diabetes presented with polydipsia and involuntary movements of the right upper limb for 4 days. His plasma glucose was 549 mg/dl and glycated haemoglobin was 18.9 %. His movements were exaggerated by attempts to use his right hand. The rest of his neurological assessment was unremarkable. Other laboratory findings including calcium were within the normal range. A computed tomography scan of the brain was essentially normal except for age-related atrophy. There was no significant ketonuria on urine dipstick testing. We treated the patient's hyperglycaemia with intravenous insulin and the dystonia disappeared within 5 days. Hemichorea is among the rare complications of hyperglycaemia-induced involuntary movements. Hyperglycaemia should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with type II diabetes mellitus presenting with hemichorea upon clinical assessment.

  8. The first case of bacteraemia due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a type 2 diabetes mellitus patient in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binghuai; Zhou, Haijian; Li, Dong; Li, Fengjuan; Zhu, Fengxia; Cui, Yanchao; Huang, Lei; Wang, Duochun

    2014-08-01

    Bacteraemia due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is rarely documented in mainland China. We report such a case in a 70-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The clinical features, phenotypic analyses, and presence of a panel of known virulence genes in the isolated strain are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bacteraemia due to this strain in a T2DM patient without other coexisting underlying diseases in mainland China.

  9. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  10. Effect of nurse case management compared with usual care on controlling cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ishani, Areef; Greer, Nancy; Taylor, Brent C; Kubes, Laurie; Cole, Paula; Atwood, Melissa; Clothier, Barbara; Ercan-Fang, Nacide

    2011-08-01

    To determine whether nurse case management with a therapeutic algorithm could effectively improve rates of control for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia compared with usual care among veterans with diabetes. A randomized controlled trial of diabetic patients that had blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) >9.0%, or LDL >100 mg/dL. Intervention patients received case management (n = 278) versus usual care (n = 278) over a 1-year period. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients achieving simultaneous control of all three parameters (defined by BP <130/80 mmHg, HbA(1c) <8.0%, and LDL <100 mg/dL) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included improvements within each individual component of the composite primary outcome. Differences between groups were analyzed using t tests, Pearson χ(2) tests, and linear and logistic regression. A greater number of individuals assigned to case management achieved the primary study outcome of having all three outcome measures under control (61 [21.9%] compared with 28 [10.1%] in the usual care group [P < 0.01]). In addition, a greater number of individuals assigned to the intervention group achieved the individual treatment goals of HbA(1c) <8.0% (73.7 vs. 65.8%, P = 0.04) and BP <130/80 mmHg (45.0 vs. 25.4%, P < 0.01), but not for LDL <100 mg/dL (57.6 vs. 55.4%, P = 0.61), compared with those in the usual care group. In patients with diabetes, nurse case managers using a treatment algorithm can effectively improve the number of individuals with control of multiple cardiovascular risk factors at 1 year.

  11. [Autoaggressive behaviour with patients suffering from type 1 diabetes treated at the Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Developmental Age--description of cases].

    PubMed

    Hacia, Sabina; Cichoń, Lena; Nowak, Marta; Fuchs, Anna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe autoagressive behaviour with patients suffering from type 1 diabetes hospitalized in The Child Psychiatry Department of The Paediatric Centre in Sosnowiec. Analysis of clinical cases, medical documentation and literature. Patients suffered from type 1 diabetes. On account of mental disorders they required treatment in a psychiatric ward. In the course of their hospitalization the appearance of various autoagressive behaviour were observed--the sick deliberately gave a dose of insulin improperly, apply an inadequate diet, and also self-mutilated themselves. Described patients by their own illness (type 1 diabetes) in a self-destructive way coped with negative emotions. Autoagressive behaviour were their way of coping with stress, communicating experienced problems to others, they also helped in reducing inner tension. Through autoagression patients express anger, guilt, shame, loneliness, inner emptiness, a lack of confidence or humiliation. The period of adolescence, female gender and the presence of chronic disease are the factors that could intensify the difficulties described.

  12. Diabetes in Patients With Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hannon, A M; Thompson, C J; Sherlock, M

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a clinical syndrome which results from growth hormone excess. Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with cardiovascular mortality, due to an excess of risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiomegaly. Diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of acromegaly with a prevalence of 12-37%. This review will provide an overview of a number of aspects of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in acromegaly including the following: 1. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis 2. The impact of different management options for acromegaly on glucose homeostasis 3. The management options for diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly RECENT FINDINGS: Growth hormone and IGF-1 have complex effects on glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and increased gluconeogenesis combine to produce a metabolic milieu which leads to the development of diabetes in acromegaly. Treatment of acromegaly should ameliorate abnormalities of glucose metabolism, due to reversal of insulin resistance and a reduction in gluconeogenesis. Recent advances in medical therapy of acromegaly have varying impacts on glucose homeostasis. These adverse effects influence management choices in patients with acromegaly who also have diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance. The underlying mechanisms of disorders of glucose metabolism in patients with acromegaly are complex. The aim of treatment of acromegaly is normalisation of GH/IGF-1 with reduction of co-morbidities. The choice of therapy for acromegaly should consider the impact of therapy on several factors including glucose metabolism.

  13. APPLICATION OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, LASER THERAPY, AND A CELLULOSE MEMBRANE FOR CALCANEAL PRESSURE ULCER TREATMENT IN A DIABETIC PATIENT: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Vieira, Regiane Lima; Tanajura, Beatriz Rocha; da Silva Gusmão, Alana Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Janeide Muritiba; Dos Santos, Nathalia Aparecida Campanário; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2017-06-27

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which a person has high blood glucose levels due to inadequate insulin production by the pancreas. Wounds in these individuals cannot heal properly over time due to circulatory changes that hinder and stagnate the healing process. We report the case of an 82-year-old female type 2 diabetes mellitus carrier, presenting to clinical-dermatological examination pressure ulcer (PU) in the right calcaneus region. The patient was treated with photodynamic therapy using curcumin and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser therapy, and the application of a cellulose membrane in order to promote ulcer decontamination by local action, accelerate wound healing, and maintain favorable conditions of asepsis and moisture, respectively. The ulcer healing occurred after 30days of treatment and total epithelialization was observed. From the results obtained in this case report, we conclude that the combination of photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and coating with a cellulose membrane is a promising treatment for the healing of PU in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Case of Insulin-dependent Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Background • There is a paucity of information on alternative, nutrition-based treatments for insulin-dependent diabetes. Primary Study Objective • This case report provides detailed information on the nutrition-based treatment of a man with insulin-dependent diabetes. Methods/Design • This is a single case report taken from the author's private practice. Setting • The treatment was provided at a private office in New York, NY, USA. Participants • A single patient in the author's practice is reported. Intervention • The patient was treated with a combination of pancreatic enzymes, supplements and nutrients, and cleansing and detoxification procedures, plus amber lenses for severe insomnia. Primary Outcome Measures • The outcome measures were patient self-report of symptoms, overall well-being, and function at work and in leisure time; observation of the patient by the physician; and blood work. Results • The patient described dramatic, sustained improvement in terms of symptoms, function, well-being, and life satisfaction. Improvement in blood sugar control was documented by blood work. Conclusion • The complex, tailored nutritional protocol combined with detoxification procedures, resulted in marked improvement in a patient who had been treated by numerous different physicians without benefit prior to his consulting with the author.

  15. [Acute renal failure due to drugs in diabetics patients].

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, Hayet; Boubaker, Karima; Khiari, Karima; Cherif, Lotfi; Beji, Soumaya; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Abfallah, Néjib; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2004-04-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in patients with diabetes mellitus is frequent. It is caused by several factors notably drugs. Our retrospective study includes 20 cases of ARF induced by drugs in diabetic patients. Eleven men and 9 women with mean age of 55.2 years (17-71 years) were enrolled in the study. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in 18 cases and type 1 in 2 cases. Risk factors found are age more than 70 years in 17 cases, pre-existent renal failure in 17 cases, dehydratation in 6 cases, and drug association in 9 cases. In our study diuretics used solely or in association with other drugs were found to be the essential cause of ARF. ACE was noted in 5 cases, gentamycin in 2 cases, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 1 case, colimycin in 1 case and radiographic contrast media in 4 cases. Symptoms of hypersensitivity are fever in 3 cases, itchiness in 2 case, hepatic dysfunction in 7 case, and hypereosinophilia in 3 cases. Oliguria was observed in 11 patients. Eight patients were dialyzed. Renal function recovery is total in 9 case and partial in 9 others. Two patients having oliguria died. Diuretics are the first cause of drug-induced ARF in diabetic patients. This ARF worsens the renal prognosis for these patients. Oliguria is high risk of mortality.

  16. Novel Risk Factors for Premature Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Non-Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedel, Aurélie; Le Trequesser, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Nurden, Alan; Colomer, Sylvie; Guérin, Viviane; Vergnes, Marie-Christine; Becker, François; Camelot, Gabriel; Bressolette, Luc; Lacroix, Philippe; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra; Emmerich, Joseph; Darmon, Michel; Deletraz, Anne-Marie; Mesli, Samir; Colombies, Brigitte; Vanbrugghe, Virginie; Conri, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Methods and Results This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old) presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64) or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49), and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A–I, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin) and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI), high lipoprotein (a) levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI), the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI) and the glycoprotein Ia807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI). In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI) and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI). Conclusions According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1) a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2) the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  17. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bérard, Annie M; Bedel, Aurélie; Le Trequesser, Rémi; Freyburger, Geneviève; Nurden, Alan; Colomer, Sylvie; Guérin, Viviane; Vergnes, Marie-Christine; Becker, François; Camelot, Gabriel; Bressolette, Luc; Lacroix, Philippe; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Bura-Rivière, Alessandra; Emmerich, Joseph; Darmon, Michel; Deletraz, Anne-Marie; Mesli, Samir; Colombies, Brigitte; Vanbrugghe, Virginie; Conri, Claude; Constans, Joël

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old) presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64) or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49), and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin) and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI), high lipoprotein (a) levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI), the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI) and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A) allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI). In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI) and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI). According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1) a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2) the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral atherosclerosis in premature peripheral arterial occlusive

  18. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Infection, antibiotic therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: a nationwide nested case-control study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Ling; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Wu, Li-Chiu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2014-08-15

    Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.

  20. The Impact of Patient-Centered versus Didactic Education Programs in Chronic Patients by Severity: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Windrum, Paul; García-Goñi, Manuel; Coad, Holly

    2016-06-01

    Education leads to better health-related decisions and protective behaviors, being especially important for patients with chronic conditions. Self-management education programs have been shown to be beneficial for patients with different chronic conditions and to have a higher impact on health outcomes than does didactic education. To investigate improvements in glycemic control (measured by glycated hemoglobin A1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our comparative trial involved one group of patients receiving patient-centered education and another receiving didactic education. We dealt with selection bias issues, estimated the different impact of both programs, and validated our analysis using quantile regression techniques. We found evidence of better mean glycemic control in patients receiving the patient-centered program, which engaged better patients. Nevertheless, that differential impact is nonmonotonic. Patients initially at the healthy range at the patient-centered program maintained their condition better. Patients close to, but not within, the healthy range benefited equally from attending either program. Patients with very high glycemic level benefited significantly more from attending the patient-centered program. Finally, patients with the worst initial glycemic control (far from the healthy range) improved equally their diabetic condition, regardless of which program they attended. Different patients are sensitive to different categories of education programs. The optimal, cost-effective design of preventative programs for patients with chronic conditions needs to account for the different impact in different "patient categories." This implies stratifying patients and providing the appropriate preventative education program, or looking for alternative policy implementations for unresponsive patients who have the most severe condition and are the most costly. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research

  1. Transient Diabetes Insipidus After Discontinuation of Vasopressin in Neurological Intensive Care Unit Patients: Case Series and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative Evaluation of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Richman, Deborah C

    2016-03-01

    There are more than 29 million people in the United States with diabetes; it is estimated that by 2050, one in 3 individuals will have the disease. At least 50% of patients with diabetes are expected to undergo surgery in their lifetime. Complications from uncontrolled diabetes can impact multiple organ systems and affect perioperative risk. In this review, the authors discuss principles in diabetes management that will assist the perioperative clinician in caring for patients with diabetes.

  3. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianping; Wang, Jufang; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Han, Liyuan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of serum miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum miRNA expression profiles from diabetic retinopathy cases (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy) and type 2 diabetes mellitus controls (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy) were examined by miRNA-specific microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs from the microarray analysis of 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and 45 age-, sex-, body mass index- and duration-of-diabetes-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. The relative changes in serum miRNA expression levels were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCt method. A total of 5 diabetic retinopathy cases and 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus controls were included in the miRNA-specific microarray analysis. The serum levels of miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p differed significantly between the two groups in the screening stage; however, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not reveal significant differences in miRNA expression for 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and their matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. Our findings indicate that miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p may not play important roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and its influence on sputum smear positivity at the 2nd month of treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A case control study.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Noorsuzana Mohd; Safian, Nazarudin

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have suggested that sputum smear conversion after 2 months of antituberculosis treatment is an important determinant of treatment success and can be a predictor for relapse. The objective of this study is to determine the factors that influence sputum smear conversion after 2 months of treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis patients receiving treatment in the Institute of Respiratory Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 75 cases and 75 controls were interviewed, and their medical records were retrieved in order to extract the information needed. All analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of sputum smear nonconversion. Results showed that the following factors were associated with sputum smear positivity after 2 months of intensive treatment: diabetes mellitus (p=.013, odds ratio [OR]=2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-5.33), underweight body mass index (p=.025, OR=1.67, 95% CI 0.80-3.49), nonadherent to tuberculosis treatment (p=.024, OR=2.85, 95% CI 1.21-6.74), and previous history of tuberculosis (p=.043, OR=2.53, 95% CI 1.09-5.83). Multivariable analysis identified diabetes mellitus (p=.003, OR=4.01, 95% CI 1.61-9.96) as being independently associated with the risk of persistent sputum smear positivity after 2 months of intensive treatment. Based on the findings, identification of these factors is valuable in strengthening the management and treatment of tuberculosis in Malaysia in the future. This study emphasizes the importance of diabetes screening and integration of diabetic controls among tuberculosis patients in achieving better treatment outcome. Copyright © 2015 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296

  6. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Bahammam, Maha A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information. Methods Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. Results The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05) was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05) between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05) was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source. Conclusion Customized educational programs should be planned for

  7. Cross-sectional assessment reveals high diabetes prevalence among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Camerlin, Aulasa J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Wang, Weiwei; Restrepo, Mary A; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzmán, Francisco; Crespo-Solis, Jesus G; Briggs, Jessica; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the contribution of clinically-confirmed diabetes mellitus to tuberculosis (TB) rates in communities where both diseases are prevalent as a way to identify opportunities for TB prevention among diabetic patients. Methods This is a prospective study in which TB patients ≥ 20 years old at TB clinics in the Texas–Mexico border were tested for diabetes. The risk of tuberculosis attributable to diabetes was estimated from statistics for the corresponding adult population. Findings The prevalence of diabetes among TB patients was 39% in Texas and 36% in Mexico. Diabetes contributed 25% of the TB cases studied, whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributed 5% or fewer. Among TB patients, fewer Mexicans than Texans were aware that they had diabetes before this study (4% and 19%, respectively). Men were also less frequently aware than women that they had diabetes (P = 0.03). Patients who knew that they had diabetes before the study had an 8-year history of the disease, on average, before being diagnosed with TB. Conclusion Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of contracting TB than non-diabetic patients. Integrating TB and diabetes control programmes worldwide would facilitate TB prevention among diabetes patients and increase the number of diabetics who learn of their condition, particularly among males. Such a strategy would lead to earlier case detection and improve the management of both TB and diabetes. PMID:21556303

  8. Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

  9. KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Fahim; Afridi, Ayesha Khan; Rahim, Fawad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sheema; Shabbier, Ghulam; Rahman, Sadiq Ur

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 +/- 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 +/- 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus.

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors are efficient adjunct therapy in HNF1A maturity-onset diabetes of the young patients--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Katra, Barbara; Klupa, Tomasz; Skupien, Jan; Szopa, Magdalena; Nowak, Natalia; Borowiec, Maciej; Kozek, Elzbieta; Malecki, Maciej T

    2010-04-01

    In HNF1A maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), sulfonylurea (SU) is the first-line treatment. Over time, such therapy fails, and additional treatment is required. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are new agents that lower blood glucose by prolonging the activity of circulating incretins. We applied DPP-IV inhibitors in two HNF1A MODY patients whose earlier therapeutic regimen included SU. Case 1, a 39-year-old woman, a carrier of the ArgR171X HNF1A mutation, with a 7-year history of diabetes was on 160 mg of gliclazide and 2,000 mg of metformin. Her initial hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was 7.2%, while the mean glucose level on the CGMS((R)) (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) record was 162 mg/dL. Sitagliptine, in a dose of 100 mg/day, was added to the previous treatment. Case 2, a 62-year-old woman, a carrier of the IVS7nt-6G>A mutation, with a 41-year history of diabetes was treated with 240 mg/day gliclazide and 6 IU of insulin/day. Her initial HbA1c was 8.8%, and average glycemia reached 172 mg/dL. In her case, we started the combined therapy with 50 mg of vildagliptine twice daily. Patients were reexamined after 3 months, and HbA1c fell to 6.3% in both subjects. Similarly, significant improvement in glycemic control on CGMS was observed as the average glycemia decreased to 114 mg/dL and 134 mg/dL in Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. No episodes of hypoglycemia or other side effects were recorded. As intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) were performed before and after DPP-IV implementation, we were able to assess their impact on insulin secretion under fasting conditions. We saw a substantial rise in insulin level increment during IVGTT (by 9.8 and13.4 mIU/L in Case 1 and Case 2, respectively). DPP-IV inhibitors may be an effective tool of combined therapy in HNF1A MODY, and they seem to improve beta-cell function under fasting conditions.

  11. Primary Infrainguinal Subintimal Angioplasty in Diabetic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bargellini, Irene Petruzzi, Pasquale; Scatena, Alessia; Cioni, Roberto; Cicorelli, Antonio; Vignali, Claudio; Rizzo, Loredana; Piaggesi, Alberto; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate technical and clinical results of infrainguinal subintimal angioplasty in a series of diabetic patients with limb-threatening ischemia. From July 2003 to December 2007, 60 consecutive diabetic patients (M/F = 41/19; mean age, 69.4 {+-} 9.4 years) with Fontaine stage IV critical limb ischemia, not suitable for surgical recanalization, underwent primary infrainguinal subintimal angioplasty. The technical success, perioperative morbidity and mortality, and clinical success (defined by ulcer healing) were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis was obtained for cumulative clinical success, limb salvage, and survival rates. The procedure was technically successful in 55 of 60 (91.7%) patients; in 5 cases we were not able to achieve a reentry. Periprocedural mortality was 5% (3 patients); three patients (5%) required major amputation periprocedurally. Mean follow-up was 23 months (range, 0-48 months). On an intention-to-treat basis, the limb salvage rate was 93.3% (56/60 patients); ulcer healing was observed in 45 of 60 (75%) patients and it was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with serum creatinine and HbA1c levels, diabetes duration, and infrapopliteal recanalization. One- and three-year cumulative survival rates were 91.5% and 83.1%, respectively; serum creatinine levels, patient age, and clinical success were significant predictors of survival. In conclusion, infrainguinal primary subintimal angioplasty is a safe and effective treatment in diabetic patients with limb-threatening ischemia not suitable for surgical recanalization. This procedure is aimed to create a 'temporary bypass' that facilitates ulcer healing.

  12. Gestational Diabetes Insipidus Associated with HELLP Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gambito, Renela; Chan, Michael; Sheta, Mohamed; Ramirez-Arao, Precious; Gurm, Harmeet; Tunkel, Allan; Nivera, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare, but well recognized, complication of pregnancy. It is related to excess vasopressinase enzyme activity which is metabolized in the liver. A high index of suspicion of gestational diabetes insipidus is required in a correct clinical setting especially in the presence of other risk factors such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and twin pregnancies. We are presenting a case of gestational diabetes insipidus in a patient with HELLP syndrome. The newborn in this case also had hypernatremia thereby raising possibilities of vasopressinase crossing the placenta.

  13. Wolfram Syndrome presenting with optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Manaviat, Masoud Reza; Rashidi, Maryam; Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-12-19

    Wolfram syndrome is the constellation of juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness).Patients demonstrate diabetes mellitus followed by optic atrophy in the first decade, diabetes insipidus and sensorineural deafness in the second decade, dilated renal outflow tracts early in the third decade, and multiple neurological abnormalities early in the fourth decade.This study reports two siblings with late diagnosed wolfram syndrome with diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness and severe urological abnormalities.In conclusion, cases having early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy together need to be evaluated with respect to Wolfram.

  14. Wolfram Syndrome presenting with optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is the constellation of juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy, and Deafness). Patients demonstrate diabetes mellitus followed by optic atrophy in the first decade, diabetes insipidus and sensorineural deafness in the second decade, dilated renal outflow tracts early in the third decade, and multiple neurological abnormalities early in the fourth decade. This study reports two siblings with late diagnosed wolfram syndrome with diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness and severe urological abnormalities. In conclusion, cases having early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy together need to be evaluated with respect to Wolfram. PMID:20062605

  15. Candida Colonization on the Denture of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi-Kamran, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Abbas Ali; Falah-Tafti, Abbas; Tavakoli, Ehsan; Falahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Presence of denture in the oral cavity of diabetic patients can promote Candida colonization and results in the higher incidence of oral and systemic candidiasis. The general purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare Candida colonization in denture of diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group. Methods: In current case-control study, samples for mycological examinations were collected from the palatal impression surface of maxillary dentures from 92 edentulous patients including 46 dia-betic and 46 non-diabetic denture wearers. All samples were cultured directly on sabouraud agar me-dium and isolated colonies were counted and identified based on specific tests. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The higher density of isolated colonies was seen in diabetic group in compare with control group (P = 0.0001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the blood glucose level (P = 0.0001) and the duration of denture usage (P = 0.022) with the colonization of Candida on denture of diabetic patients. C. albicans was the most common isolated Candida species in both groups, though diabetic patients with dentures had more non-albicans Candida isolated from their dentures compared to non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: Mycological findings from the present study revealed that diabetes mellitus can in-crease colonization of Candida in denture and mouth. By elimination of local and systemic factors in diabetic patients and improving their oral health care, Candida colonization and the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis will be decreased. PMID:21528026

  16. Multiple fractures in a young diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Varmarken, J E; Olsen, C A; Kristiansen, B

    1988-07-01

    Multiple fractures in a patient with juvenile diabetes mellitus are reported. The fractures could be spontaneous due to osteopenia caused by reduced bone mass found in diabetic patients. Bone and joint changes had a severe progression due to diabetic neuropathy. The importance of clinical and radiological examination is emphasized.

  17. Case of ketoacidosis by a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor in a diabetic patient with a low-carbohydrate diet

    PubMed Central

    Hayami, Tomohide; Kato, Yoshiro; Kamiya, Hideki; Kondo, Masaki; Naito, Ena; Sugiura, Yukako; Kojima, Chika; Sato, Sami; Yamada, Yuichiro; Kasagi, Rina; Ando, Toshihito; Noda, Saeko; Nakai, Hiromi; Takada, Eriko; Asano, Emi; Motegi, Mikio; Watarai, Atsuko; Kato, Koichi; Nakamura, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 32-year-old diabetic woman with Prader–Willi syndrome who developed severe ketoacidosis caused by a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, a novel class of antihyperglycemic agents, during a strict low-carbohydrate diet. At admission, a serum glucose level of 191 mg/dL was relatively low, though laboratory evaluations showed severe ketoacidosis. This is the first report of ketoacidosis caused by a SGLT2 inhibitor. It is necessary to not only pay attention when using a SGLT2 inhibitor in patients following a low-carbohydrate diet, but also to start a low-carbohydrate diet in patients treated with a SGLT2 inhibitor because of a high risk for developing ketoacidosis. PMID:26417418

  18. [Acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity and acute kidney injury in an elderly diabetic patient treated with valacyclovir: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Naoko; Tsurutani, Yuya; Nomura, Kazushi; Okuyama, Tomoko; Kondo, Mai; Sata, Akira; Miyao, Mariko; Mizuno, Yuzo

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old Japanese man had a 29-year history of well-controlled diabetes mellitus. His HbA1c level was approximately 6.0%, with no microalbuminuria and a serum creatinine level seven days before admission of 0.8 mg/dl (eGFR: 69.67 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Five days before admission, he visited an ophthalmologist with inflammation of the right palpebra and conjunctiva and began taking valacyclovir at a dose of 3,000 mg for the treatment of herpes zoster. Two days before admission, he was prescribed loxoprofen at a dose of 180 mg for a headache. One day prior to admission, he developed dysarthria, wandering and loss of appetite. He was subsequently admitted to our hospital with progressive deterioration of consciousness (Japan Coma Scale: II-20). On admission, he exhibited renal dysfunction, with a serum creatinine level of 5.11 mg/dl (eGFR: 9.16 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Based on his diverse symptoms and current treatment with valacyclovir, the patient was diagnosed with acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity and his symptoms rapidly improved after hemodialysis. The serum acyclovir level on admission was found to be 9.25 μg/ml. Although acyclovir-induced neurotoxicity is commonly seen in elderly patients with renal dysfunction, there are also reports of this condition in patients with a normal renal function. Valacyclovir is frequently prescribed to the elderly to treat diseases such as herpes zoster. As valacyclovir induces renal dysfunction, which raises the serum acyclovir level to the toxic range, special attention must be paid when administering this drug in elderly subjects.

  19. Are Serum Levels of F2-Isoprostane and Oxidized-LDL Related to Vitamin D Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Mohammad Hassan; Mohammady, Hamed; Fooladsaz, Koorosh; Razzaghi, Maryam; Zarei, Mahnaz; Djalali, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress affects diabetes mellitus (DM) and contributes to its complications. Vitamin D has been shown to possess antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum levels of calcifediol (25-OH-D), an indicator of vitamin D status, and lipid profiles with oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: In this case-control study, 57 T2DM patients with low vitamin D status (< 30 ng/mL) and 48 T2DM patients with normal vitamin D status (> 30 ng/mL) were enrolled. Fasting concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), F2-isoprostane, and oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) were measured. Results: The mean fasting serum concentrations of 25-OH-D, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with low vitamin D status were significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations of ox-LDL, F2-isoprostane, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly higher in patients with low vitamin D status than in controls. There was a negative correlation between vitamin D levels and F2-isoprostane (r = 0.647and P = 0.0001), LDL (r = -0.218 and P = 0.030), and ox-LDL (r = -0.637 and P = 0.0001). Conclusion: The results of present study indicated that serum concentrations of 25-OH-D were inversely correlated with F2-isoprostane, LDL, and ox-LDL. Therefore, vitamin D may have a beneficial effect on the control of lipid profiles and oxidative stress in T2DM patients. PMID:28070531

  20. Non-vertebral Veillonella species septicemia and osteomyelitis in a patient with diabetes: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Fawzia Eida; Al-Mohizea, Maha Mohammed

    2014-11-12

    Veillonella is a nonfermentative, strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative coccus that forms part of the human gastrointestinal tract, mouth and vaginal flora. Like other anaerobic infection, Veillonella species usually are involved in polymicrobial processes, which make it difficult to determine their pathogenic role. Isolation of a clinically significant Veillonella species is rare and V. parvula is the most common one reported to cause infection in humans. The most frequently reported infection caused by V. parvula is osteomyelitis, almost always in association with bacteremia. Here, we describe a rare case of nonvertebral osteomyelitis and septicemia caused by Veillonella species in a 49-year-old Saudi man with diabetes. Initial treatment with ciprofloxacin was associated with treatment failure and poor response. Identification of the organism was essential for the selection of appropriate treatment. There have been only seven previous reports of Veillonella vertebral osteomyelitis and one report of V. parvula foot osteomyelitis with sepsis in the literature. This is the second case of Veillonella nonvertebral osteomyelitis associated with septicemia reported to date. Veillonella species should be considered a true pathogen in diabetic patients with osteomyelitis and those with underlying immune suppression, particularly if the organism is isolated from blood. The isolation of those obligate anaerobes from blood may signal the presence of severe underlying disease and the probable need for timely surgical intervention.

  1. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus type 1 with diffuse systemic sclerosis - case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wielosz, Ewa; Kurowska, Maria; Suszek, Dorota; Majdan, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic sclerodactyly is a frequently recognized skin finding that may occur in patients with diabetes mellitus but coexistence of diabetes and systemic sclerosis is rare. We describe a case of coexistence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and systemic sclerosis in 42-year-old man with the history of Raynaud's phenomenon, progressive diffuse hardening of the skin and sclerodactyly, slowly worsening with time. The medical history included type 1 diabetes since childhood with microvascular complications. The patient presented a typical capillaroscopic scleroderma-like pattern, antinuclear antibodies and sclerotic lesions in gastrointestinal system. Summing up, our case represents the rare coexistence of autoimmune diseases like diabetes mellitus type 1 and systemic sclerosis.

  2. Monogenic Diabetes Accounts for 6.3% of Cases Referred to 15 Italian Pediatric Diabetes Centers During 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Maurizio; Mozzillo, Enza; Salzano, Giuseppina; Iafusco, Dario; Frontino, Giulio; Patera, Patrizia I; Rabbone, Ivana; Cherubini, Valentino; Grasso, Valeria; Tinto, Nadia; Giglio, Sabrina; Contreas, Giovanna; Di Paola, Rosa; Salina, Alessandro; Cauvin, Vittoria; Tumini, Stefano; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Vilma; Maltoni, Giulio; Toni, Sonia; Marigliano, Marco; Barbetti, Fabrizio

    2017-06-01

    An etiologic diagnosis of diabetes can affect the therapeutic strategy and prognosis of chronic complications. The aim of the present study was to establish the relative percentage of different diabetes subtypes in patients attending Italian pediatric diabetes centers and the influence of an etiologic diagnosis on therapy. This was a retrospective study. The clinical records of 3781 consecutive patients (age, 0 to 18 years) referred to 15 pediatric diabetes clinics with a diagnosis of diabetes or impaired fasting glucose from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012 were examined. The clinical characteristics of the patients at their first referral to the centers, type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies, molecular genetics records, and C-peptide measurements, if requested for the etiologic diagnosis, were acquired. The primary outcome was to assess the percentage of each diabetes subtype in our sample. Type 1 diabetes represented the main cause (92.4%) of diabetes in this group of patients, followed by monogenic diabetes, which accounted for 6.3% of cases [maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), 5.5%; neonatal diabetes mellitus, 0.6%, genetic syndromes, 0.2%]. A genetic diagnosis prompted the transfer from insulin to sulphonylureas in 12 patients bearing mutations in the HNF1A or KCNJ11 genes. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1% of the patients. Monogenic diabetes is highly prevalent in patients referred to Italian pediatric diabetes centers. A genetic diagnosis guided the therapeutic decisions, allowed the formulation of a prognosis regarding chronic diabetic complications for a relevant number of patients (i.e.,GCK/MODY), and helped to provide genetic counseling.

  3. Erythroleukaemia, diabetes insipidus and hypophyseal damage: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Piccin, A; Raimondi, R; Laspina, S; Marchi, M; Rodeghiero, F; Rovigatti, U

    2007-08-01

    We report on two cases of patients who developed diabetes insipidus (DI) before acute erythroleukaemia (EL). A brain MRI showed an empty sella turcica in one case and hypothalamo-hypophyseal peduncle damage in the second case. Reduced levels of TGF-beta1 and Vitamin D3, with associated EVI-1 over-expression and karyotypic abnormalities were documented. These two cases show specific chromosomal/molecular alterations in EL with DI. The hypothesis of pituitary involvement in erythroleukemogenesis is discussed.

  4. Non-diabetic renal disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Sonia; Kashif, Waqar; Hussain, Syed Ather

    2012-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetics worldwide, yet most patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus are not formally evaluated with a renal biopsy. The diagnosis is almost always based on clinical grounds. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is reported to occur in patients with type-2 diabetes. It has been estimated that up to one-third of all diabetic patients who present with proteinuria are suffering from NDRD. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of NDRD in patients with type-2 diabetes. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with type-2 diabetes who underwent kidney biopsy on clinical suspicion of NDRD (absence of diabetic retinopathy and/or neuropathy; short duration of diabetes, i.e. less than five years) from January 2003 through December 2007 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Based on the biopsy findings, patients were grouped as Group-I, isolated NDRD; Group-II, NDRD with underlying DN; and Group-III, isolated DN. Of 68 patients studied, 75% were males and the mean age was 56 years. The mean duration of diabetes was nine years. Group-I included 34 patients (52%), Group-II included 11 patients (17%) and Group-III included 23 patients (31%). Among the Group-I patients, the mean age was 56 years (41-77 years). The most common NDRDs were acute interstitial nephritis (32%), diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (17%); membranous nephropathy (12%) and crescentic glomerulonephritis (12%). Among Group-II, the mean age was 60 years (46-71 years), and the most common lesion was interstitial nephritis superimposed on underlying DN (63% cases). Among Group-III, the mean age was 53 years (42- 80 years). The mean proteinuria was 5, 6.3 and 7.3 g/24 h of urine collection in Groups I, II and III, respectively (P = NS). The mean duration of diabetes was 7.3, 11.7 and 10.7 years in Groups I, II and III, respectively. The duration of diabetes

  5. Severe Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes and Pregnancy - A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giorgina B.; Tavassoli, Elisabetta; Melluzza, Carmela; Grassi, Giorgio; Monzeglio, Clara; Donvito, Valentina; Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Ghiotto, Sara; Clari, Roberta; Moro, Irene; Fassio, Federica; Parisi, Silvia; Pilloni, Eleonora; Vigotti, Federica N.; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes and nephropathy are important challenges during pregnancy, increasingly encountered because of the advances in maternal-fetal care. AIM: To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes recorded in "severe" diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients referred to nephrological healtcare. METHODS: The study was performed in an outpatient unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy (with joint nephrological and obstetric follow-up and strict cooperation with the diabetes unit). 383 pregnancies were referred to the outpatient unit in 2000-2012, 14 of which were complicated by type 1 diabetes. The report includes 12 deliveries, including 2 pregnancies in 1 patient; one twin pregnancy; 2 spontaneous abortions were not included. All cases had long-standing type 1 diabetes (median of 21 (15-31) years), relatively high median age (35 (29-40) years) and end-organ damage (all patients presented laser-treated retinopathy and half of them clinical neuropathy). Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at referral was 67 ml/min (48-122.6), proteinuria was 1.6 g/day (0.1-6.3 g/day). RESULTS: Proteinuria steeply increased in 11/12 patients, reaching the nephrotic range in nine (6 above 5 g/day). One patient increased by 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. Support therapy included blood pressure and diabetes control, bed rest, and moderate protein restriction. All children were preterm (7 early preterm); early spontaneous labor occurred in 4/12 patients. All singletons were appropriate for gestational age and developed normally after birth. The male twin child died 6 days after birth (after surgery for great vessel transposition). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients with severe diabetic nephropathy are still present a considerable challenge. Therefore, further investigations are required, particularly on proteinuria management and the occurrence of spontaneous labor. PMID:24172700

  6. Nutritional intervention for a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing every year, and also the acute and chronic complications accompanying this disease are increasing. Diabetic nephropathy is one of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and food intake which is burden to kidney function should be limited. At the same time, diet restriction could deteriorate quality of life of patient with diabetic nephropathy. According to the results of previous studies, the aggressive management is important for delaying of the progression to diabetic nephropathy. Also, the implementation of a personalized diet customized to individuals is an effective tool for preservation of kidney function. This is a case report of a patient with diabetic nephropathy who was introduced to a proper diet through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition, uremia and to maintain blood glucose levels.

  7. Nutritional Intervention for a Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have reported that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing every year, and also the acute and chronic complications accompanying this disease are increasing. Diabetic nephropathy is one of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and food intake which is burden to kidney function should be limited. At the same time, diet restriction could deteriorate quality of life of patient with diabetic nephropathy. According to the results of previous studies, the aggressive management is important for delaying of the progression to diabetic nephropathy. Also, the implementation of a personalized diet customized to individuals is an effective tool for preservation of kidney function. This is a case report of a patient with diabetic nephropathy who was introduced to a proper diet through nutrition education to prevent malnutrition, uremia and to maintain blood glucose levels. PMID:24527422

  8. A Rare Case of Congenital Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Rege, Tanvi; Polsani, Srujana; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a conformation disease resulting from protein misfolding. Ninety percent of mutations result from the inactivating mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene transmitted in an X-linked fashion, blocking the response to vasopressin, resulting in the inability to concentrate urine. Clinical features include polyuria, polydispsia, dehydration, and hypernatremia. They are generally more severely in affected males but present variably in females due to skewed inactivation of the X chromosome. We describe a case of a 40-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, who presents with debilitating polyuria since the age of 5 with no clear diagnosis. Interestingly, her son was diagnosed with NDI. Genetic testing revealed that she was heterozygous for the Val88Met mutation in the AVPR2 gene while her son was hemizygous for the same. The patient has since been successfully treated with diuretics and a low solute diet. We highlight that although X-linked NDI patients are mostly males, it should be considered in symptomatic females to prevent delays in the diagnosis. Conformational diseases such as NDI are presently the subject of research using pharmacological chaperones to restore proper receptor membrane localization and function.

  9. A Rare Case of Congenital Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Tanvi; Polsani, Srujana; Jim, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a conformation disease resulting from protein misfolding. Ninety percent of mutations result from the inactivating mutations of the arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) gene transmitted in an X-linked fashion, blocking the response to vasopressin, resulting in the inability to concentrate urine. Clinical features include polyuria, polydispsia, dehydration, and hypernatremia. They are generally more severely in affected males but present variably in females due to skewed inactivation of the X chromosome. We describe a case of a 40-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, who presents with debilitating polyuria since the age of 5 with no clear diagnosis. Interestingly, her son was diagnosed with NDI. Genetic testing revealed that she was heterozygous for the Val88Met mutation in the AVPR2 gene while her son was hemizygous for the same. The patient has since been successfully treated with diuretics and a low solute diet. We highlight that although X-linked NDI patients are mostly males, it should be considered in symptomatic females to prevent delays in the diagnosis. Conformational diseases such as NDI are presently the subject of research using pharmacological chaperones to restore proper receptor membrane localization and function. PMID:26217664

  10. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016. PMID:28490797

  11. Action on diabetic macular oedema: achieving optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gale, R; Scanlon, P H; Evans, M; Ghanchi, F; Yang, Y; Silvestri, G; Freeman, M; Maisey, A; Napier, J

    2017-05-01

    This paper identifies best practice recommendations for managing diabetes and sight-threatening diabetic eye disease. The authors provide an update for ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals on key aspects of diabetes management, supported by a review of the pertinent literature, and recommend practice principles for optimal patient management in treating visual impairment due to diabetic eye disease. In people with diabetes, early optimal glycaemic control reduces the long-term risk of both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The authors propose more can and should be done to maximise metabolic control, promote appropriate behavioural modifications and encourage timely treatment intensification when indicated to ameliorate diabetes-related complications. All people with diabetes should be screened for sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy promptly and regularly. It is shown that attitudes towards treatment adherence in diabetic macular oedema appear to mirror patients' views and health behaviours towards the management of their own diabetes. Awareness of diabetic macular oedema remains low among people with diabetes, who need access to education early in their disease about how to manage their diabetes to delay progression and possibly avoid eye-related complications. Ophthalmologists and allied healthcare professionals play a vital role in multidisciplinary diabetes management and establishment of dedicated diabetic macular oedema clinics is proposed. A broader understanding of the role of the diabetes specialist nurse may strengthen the case for comprehensive integrated care in ophthalmic practice. The recommendations are based on round table presentations and discussions held in London, UK, September 2016.

  12. The effects of financial incentives for case finding for depression in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease: interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    McLintock, Kate; Russell, Amy M; Alderson, Sarah L; West, Robert; House, Allan; Westerman, Karen; Foy, Robbie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivised case finding for depression on diagnosis and treatment in targeted and non-targeted long-term conditions. Design Interrupted time series analysis. Setting General practices in Leeds, UK. Participants 65 (58%) of 112 general practices shared data on 37 229 patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease targeted by case finding incentives, and 101 008 patients with four other long-term conditions not targeted (hypertension, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma). Intervention Incentivised case finding for depression using two standard screening questions. Main outcome measures Clinical codes indicating new depression-related diagnoses and new prescriptions of antidepressants. We extracted routinely recorded data from February 2002 through April 2012. The number of new diagnoses and prescriptions for those on registers was modelled with a binomial regression, which provided the strength of associations between time periods and their rates. Results New diagnoses of depression increased from 21 to 94/100 000 per month in targeted patients between the periods 2002–2004 and 2007–2011 (OR 2.09; 1.92 to 2.27). The rate increased from 27 to 77/100 000 per month in non-targeted patients (OR 1.53; 1.46 to 1.62). The slopes in prescribing for both groups flattened to zero immediately after QOF was introduced but before incentivised case finding (p<0.01 for both). Antidepressant prescribing in targeted patients returned to the pre-QOF secular upward trend (Wald test for equivalence of slope, z=0.73, p=0.47); the slope was less steep for non-targeted patients (z=−4.14, p<0.01). Conclusions Incentivised case finding increased new depression-related diagnoses. The establishment of QOF disrupted rising trends in new prescriptions of antidepressants, which resumed following the introduction of incentivised case finding. Prescribing trends are of concern given

  13. The effects of financial incentives for case finding for depression in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease: interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    McLintock, Kate; Russell, Amy M; Alderson, Sarah L; West, Robert; House, Allan; Westerman, Karen; Foy, Robbie

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate the effects of Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) incentivised case finding for depression on diagnosis and treatment in targeted and non-targeted long-term conditions. Interrupted time series analysis. General practices in Leeds, UK. 65 (58%) of 112 general practices shared data on 37,229 patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease targeted by case finding incentives, and 101,008 patients with four other long-term conditions not targeted (hypertension, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma). Incentivised case finding for depression using two standard screening questions. Clinical codes indicating new depression-related diagnoses and new prescriptions of antidepressants. We extracted routinely recorded data from February 2002 through April 2012. The number of new diagnoses and prescriptions for those on registers was modelled with a binomial regression, which provided the strength of associations between time periods and their rates. New diagnoses of depression increased from 21 to 94/100,000 per month in targeted patients between the periods 2002-2004 and 2007-2011 (OR 2.09; 1.92 to 2.27). The rate increased from 27 to 77/100,000 per month in non-targeted patients (OR 1.53; 1.46 to 1.62). The slopes in prescribing for both groups flattened to zero immediately after QOF was introduced but before incentivised case finding (p<0.01 for both). Antidepressant prescribing in targeted patients returned to the pre-QOF secular upward trend (Wald test for equivalence of slope, z=0.73, p=0.47); the slope was less steep for non-targeted patients (z=-4.14, p<0.01). Incentivised case finding increased new depression-related diagnoses. The establishment of QOF disrupted rising trends in new prescriptions of antidepressants, which resumed following the introduction of incentivised case finding. Prescribing trends are of concern given that they may include people with mild-to-moderate depression unlikely to respond to such treatment

  14. Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Among Diabetic Patients: An Emerging Trend.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Sharma, Shivani

    2015-12-01

    Mucormycosis is an acute necrotic fungal infection with a fulminant course. Earlier considered a rare entity, mucormycosis is being reported with increasing frequency in recent years, possibly due to the increase in immunocompromised population especially diabetic patients. We report three cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis among poorly controlled diabetic patients. This article emphasizes the need for further awareness of this disease, early diagnosis, and treatment to counter this opportunistic infection.

  15. Corneal hydrops induced by diabetic ketoacidosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Meiyan; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of corneal hydrops associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. The present study first reports a case of a 20-year-old male patient with diabetic ketoacidosis-induced corneal hydrops. The patient exhibited mild hydrops in their left eyelid, which was accompanied by mixed hyperemia, and hazy turbid in a white color was observed in the cornea. To alleviate the corneal hydrops, 5% glucose was administered dropwise to the left eye for 2 h to alleviate the inflammation. Finally, the patient was discharged from the hospital with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:27602094

  16. Health and diabetes self-efficacy: a study of diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Myers, Kyl; Nourian, Maziar M; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-08-01

    Free clinics across the country provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. This study examined perceived health status among diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members of the patients. Diabetes self-efficacy among diabetic free clinic patients was also investigated with the goal of developing appropriate diabetes health education programs to promote diabetes self-management. English or Spanish speaking patients and family members (N = 365) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical and mental health and diabetes self-efficacy were measured using standardized instruments. Diabetic free clinic patients reported poorer physical and mental health and higher levels of dysfunction compared to non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members. Having a family history of diabetes and using emergency room or urgent care services were significant factors that affected health and dysfunction among diabetic and non-diabetes free clinic patients and family members. Diabetic free clinic patients need to receive services not only for diabetes, but also for overall health and dysfunction issues. Diabetes educational programs for free clinic patients should include a component to increase diabetes empowerment as well as the knowledge of treatment and management of diabetes. Non-diabetic patients and family members who have a family history of diabetes should also participate in diabetes education. Family members of free clinic patients need help to support a diabetic family member or with diabetes prevention.

  17. [Relevance of diabetes in high cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Segura, Julián; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Fernández, Sandra; Ruilope, Luis M

    2013-10-05

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of target organ damage (TOD) and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) against a group of hypertensives with type 2 diabetes. We included 4,725 hypertensive patients, 62% male, mean age 64 (SD 12) years, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of the number of associated CVRF (N=2,608), or non-diabetics, in which case we required the presence of 3 CVRF (N=2,117). The prevalence of established CVD (clinical interview) and TOD (left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiogram, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were estimated. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes had an older age and more marked obesity. Furthermore, these patients showed a higher prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, renal failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and CVD compared with nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of TOD or established CVD were associated independently with the presence of diabetes. Hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes have a higher prevalence of LOD and CVD compared to nondiabetic hypertensive patients with 3 or more CVRF. Although both situations are included in the high cardiovascular risk stratum, it would be expected an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masato; Ogata, Nahoko; Matsuyama, Kayako; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients. Methods The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma. Results A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error) IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206), and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497) in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001). The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = −0.202; P = 0.024) in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015) in the group with diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes. PMID:22815643

  19. Can coefficient of variation of time-domain analysis be valuable for detecting cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in young patients with type 1 diabetes: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Razanskaite-Virbickiene, Dovile; Danyte, Evalda; Mockeviciene, Giedre; Dobrovolskiene, Rimante; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Zalinkevicius, Rimantas

    2017-01-19

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes through association with a high risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death, possibly related to silent myocardial ischemia. During the sub-clinical stage, CAN can be detected through reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of our study was to estimate if the time and frequency-domain analysis can be valuable for detecting CAN in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). For this case control study of evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic function the 15-25 years age group of patients with duration of T1DM more than 9 years (n = 208, 89 males and 119 females) were selected. 67 patients with confirmed CAN were assigned to the "case group" and 141 patients without CAN served as a control group, the duration of T1DM was similar (15.07 ± 4.89 years vs.13.66 ± 4.02 years; p = 0.06) in both groups. Cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests and time and frequency domains analysis of HRV were performed for all subjects. Time domain measures were significantly lower in CAN group compared with control (p < 0.05). R-R max / R-R min ratio and coefficient of variation (CV) were the lowest during deep breathing among T1DM patients with CAN. Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to compare the accuracies of the parameters of time-domain analysis for diagnosing CAN. We estimated a more reliable cut-off value of parameters of time-domain. The CV values in supine position <1.65, reflected sensitivity 94.3%, specificity 91.5%. The CV values during deep breathing <1.45 reflected sensitivity 97.3%, specificity 96.2%. The CV values in standing position <1.50 reflected sensitivity 96.2%, specificity 93.0%. The most valuable CV was during deep breathing (AUC 0.899). The results of frequency-domain (spectral analysis) analysis showed significant decrease in LF power and LFPA, HF Power and HFPA, total power among subjects with CAN

  20. CUTANEOUS DISORDERS IN 500 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING DIABETIC CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    Ragunatha, Shivanna; Anitha, Bhaktavatsalam; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Devarmani, Shashidhar S

    2011-01-01

    Background: The metabolic complications and pathologic changes that occur in diabetes mellitus (DM) influence the occurrence of various dermatoses. Aim: To study the impact of control of diabetes on the pattern of cutaneous disorders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of patients attending diabetic clinic in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 500 consecutive patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done to diagnose diabetic complications and cutaneous disorders. Dermatoses with or without known pathogenesis were correlated with age, gender, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), duration of diabetes, and complications of DM. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student “t” test and Chi-square test with 5% confidence interval (P value 0.05). Results: Majority of patients had well-controlled (FPG<130 mg/ml, 60%) type 2 DM (98.8%). No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the patients with or without DM specific cutaneous disorders was noticed with reference to age and gender distribution, duration of DM and FPG. Signs of insulin resistance, acrochordon (26.2%), and acanthosis nigricans (5%) were common, followed by fungal (13.8%) and bacterial (6.8%) infections. Eruptive xanthoma (0.6%), diabetic foot (0.2%), diabetic bulla (0.4%), diabetic dermopathy (0.2%), generalized granuloma annulare (0.2%), and insulin reactions (6.2%) and lipodystrophy (14%) were also seen. Conclusion: Well-controlled diabetes decreases the prevalence of DM-specific cutaneous disorders associated with chronic hyperglycemia. It is necessary to have a dermatologist in the diabetic clinic for early detection of potentially grave or predisposing conditions. PMID:21716540

  1. Medical claims-based case-control study of temporal relationship between clinical visits for hand syndromes and subsequent diabetes diagnosis: implications for identifying patients with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Lu-Hsuan; Wang, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Kuo, Ken N; Shen, Hsiu-Nien; Chiu, Chang-Ta

    2016-10-20

    To investigate whether a temporal relationship is present between clinical visits for diabetes-related hand syndromes (DHSs) and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis and, accordingly, whether DHSs can be used for identifying patients with undiagnosed T2DM. This study had a case-control design nested within a cohort of 1 million people from the general population, which was followed from 2005 to 2010. The odds of prior clinical visits for DHSs, namely carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), flexor tenosynovitis, limited joint mobility and Dupuytren's disease, were estimated for cases and controls. We used a conditional logistic regression model to estimate the OR and 95% CI of T2DM in association with a history of DHSs. The validity and predictive value of using the history of DHSs in predicting T2DM diagnosis were calculated. Taiwan National Health Insurance medical claims. We identified 33 571 patients receiving a new diagnosis of T2DM (cases) between 2005 and 2010. Each T2DM case was matched with 5 controls who had the same sex and birth year and were alive on the date of T2DM diagnosis. The primary outcome measure was T2DM diagnosis. The OR of T2DM in association with prior clinical visits was significantly increased for overall DHS and CTS, being 1.15 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.20) and 1.22 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.29), respectively. Moreover, 11% of patients with T2DM made clinical visits for CTS within 3 months prior to T2DM diagnosis. The history of DHSs had low sensitivity (<0.1% to 5.2%) and a positive predictive value (9.9% to 11.7%) in predicting T2DM. Despite the unsatisfactory validity and performance of DHSs as a clinical tool for detecting patients with undiagnosed T2DM, this study provided evidence that clinical visits for DHSs, particularly for CTS, can be a sign of undiagnosed T2DM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Diabetes, cardiac disorders and asthma as risk factors for severe organ involvement among adult dengue patients: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Junxiong; Hsu, Jung Pu; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Progression to severe organ involvement due to dengue infection has been associated with severe dengue disease, intensive care treatment, and mortality. However, there is a lack of understanding of the impact of pre-existing comorbidities and other risk factors of severe organ involvement among dengue adults. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to characterize and identify risk factors that predispose dengue adults at risk of progression with severe organ involvement. This study involved 174 dengue patients who had progressed with severe organ involvement and 865 dengue patients without severe organ involvement, matched by the year of presentation of the cases, who were admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital between year 2005 and 2008. Age group of 60 years or older, diabetes, cardiac disorders, asthma, and having two or more pre-existing comorbidities were independent risk factors of severe organ involvement. Abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, and hematocrit rise and rapid platelet count drop at presentation were significantly associated with severe organ involvement. These risk factors, when validated in a larger study, will be useful for triage by clinicians for prompt monitoring and clinical management at first presentation, to minimize the risk of severe organ involvement and hence, disease severity. PMID:28045096

  3. Pharmacological treatment of the obese diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J; Lefebvre, P J

    1993-01-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for non-insulin-dependent (or Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Consequently, reduction of weight excess comes to the front line in the prevention and management of NIDDM. It is only when diet and physical exercise fail that drug treatment should be considered. Pharmacological treatment of obesity should favour drugs which not only promote weight loss, by reducing caloric intake and/or increasing thermogenesis and energy expenditure, but also, and especially, improve insulin sensitivity. Serotoninergic anorectic compounds (dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine) appear to possess, to some extent, all these properties. Metformin significantly reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control without inducing weight gain, and even favouring some weight loss. This biguanide is now considered as the first line drug for the obese diabetic patient. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors may help to reduce post-prandial glucose excursions but do not promote weight loss per se. Sulfonylureas can be prescribed to an obese patient when hyperglycaemia persists despite diet and the above-mentioned oral agents, but their use should be associated with reinforcement of dietary advices in order to prevent further weight increase; it is also the case for insulin therapy. Finally, drugs specifically stimulating thermogenesis and energy expenditure, new agents sensitizing tissues to the action of insulin and various compounds interfering with lipid metabolism are currently under extensive investigation with promising preliminary results in the obese diabetic patient. In conclusion, obesity remains a major problem in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and this justifies the search for new, safe and effective, pharmacological approaches.

  4. Efficacy of Osteoporosis Therapies in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann V

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is characterized by increased fracture risk and by reduced bone strength for a given density. Contributing factors may include lower bone turnover and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts. There are concerns that the pharmacological therapies for osteoporosis, particularly anti-resorptive therapies that suppress bone turnover, may not be as effective in the setting of diabetes. This review considers clinical trials and observational studies that have assessed the efficacy of anti-resorptive and anabolic therapies in diabetic patients. Post hoc analyses of randomized trials indicate that raloxifene has similar efficacy for prevention of vertebral fractures in diabetic compared with non-diabetic patients. Evidence from randomized clinical trials is lacking for anti-fracture efficacy of other osteoporosis therapies in diabetes. However, observational studies suggest that bisphosphonates are effective in preventing fractures in diabetic patients. The great majority of diabetic patients in studies to date have been type 2, and efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in type 1 diabetic patients remains to be addressed. Further evaluation of the efficacy of osteoporosis therapies in the setting of diabetes is needed to provide optimal fracture prevention for this population.

  5. [Case report of introducing MMF and steroids as an immunosuppressive therapy after living-donor liver transplantation for a patient with the diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Shotaro; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Yamashita, Yo-ichi; Harimoto, Norifumi; Ikegami, Toru; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Shirabe, Ken; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Furuta, Toshiya; Tamada, Ryuichiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroid is mainly used as immunosuppressive therapy after the living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, the nephrotoxicity caused by CNI remains a critical problem for patients with chronic renal failure, especially on early postoperative period. A 62-year-old woman with decompensated liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B (Child-Pugh C, MELD score 11 points) and chronic renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy (Cr 1.56 mg/dl, GFR 27 ml/min/1.73 m2) experienced LDLT. During the reconstruction of hepatic vein, the supra-and infra-hepatic vena cava was totally clamped. The estimated right lobe liver graft volume was 540 g, representing 51.3% of the standard liver volume of the recipient. Because of the perioperative renal dysfunction due to diabetic nephropathy and the total clamping the vena cava which induced the congestion kidney, MMF (1500 mg/day) and steroid (250 mg/day converted into predonisolone) were mainly introduced as an immunosuppressive therapy after LDLT. The low-dose CNI, tacrolimus also induced the nephrotoxicity and was given for only a short time. Finally, according to the postoperative renal function, the low-dose CNI, cyclosporin (50 mg/day) was able to be added to the introduced immunosuppressive therapy. After having left the hospital, MMF (1500 mg/day), steroid (20 mg/day converted into predonisolone) and cyclosporin (75 mg/day) continued to be given as the immunosuppressive therapy and neither acute graft rejection nor drug-induced renal dysfunction was occurred. This is a case report of introducing with mainly MMF and steroid as an immunosuppressive therapy after LDLT for a patient with perioperative renal dysfunction.

  6. The Case for Control in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Mayer B.

    1978-01-01

    In all diabetic animal models studied to date, microangiopathic complications develop which can be prevented by tight control and reversed by either islet cell transplantation or transplanting the diabetic kidney into a nondiabetic environment. In humans the prevalence of these complications in secondary diabetes mellitus is similar to the prevalence in genetic diabetes. Furthermore, mesangial basement membrane thickness is normal at the onset of the disease and increases shortly thereafter. These two facts strongly suggest that the microangiopathic complications are not an independent genetic component but rather are secondary to the metabolic derangements of uncontrolled diabetes. Normal kidneys transplanted into diabetic recipients developed the vascular lesions of diabetes. Conversely, two diabetic kidneys inadvertently transplanted into nondiabetic recipients showed clearing of the vascular lesions. Most retrospective studies support the conclusion that control is associated with lessened complications. The three prospective studies published to date also support this hypothesis. Because glucose concentrations cannot be brought to normal levels by present methods, the critical question is whether a major emphasis on restoring metabolism to as nearly normal as possible will help ameliorate the microangiopathic complications in our patients. The accumulated evidence would strongly favor an affirmative answer. Two daily injections of intermediate-acting insulin supplemented with small amounts of short-acting insulin as needed is one method to approach this goal. PMID:360622

  7. Imaging presentation of complicated diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Eduardo; Mullenix, Philip S; Sapp, Jason E

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a fairly uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. Knowledge of the clinical and radiographic manifestation is important for the proper management of patients since the disease usually follows a benign evolution. We report a case of a 20-year-old soldier who presented with a pneumomediastinum that was initially falsely attributed to a motor vehicular crash.

  8. Breaking Therapeutic Inertia in Type 2 Diabetes: Active Detection of In-Patient Cases Allows Improvement of Metabolic Control at Midterm

    PubMed Central

    Lucas Martín, Anna M.; Guanyabens, Elena; Zavala-Arauco, R.; Chamorro, Joaquín; Granada, Maria Luisa; Mauricio, Didac; Puig-Domingo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) exists in 25–40% of hospitalized patients. Therapeutic inertia is the delay in the intensification of a treatment and it is frequent in T2D. The objectives of this study were to detect patients admitted to surgical wards with hyperglycaemia (HH; fasting glycaemia > 140 mg/dL) as well as those with T2D and suboptimal chronic glycaemic control (SCGC) and to assess the midterm impact of treatment modifications indicated at discharge. A total of 412 HH patients were detected in a period of 18 months; 86.6% (357) had a diagnosed T2D. Their preadmittance HbA1c was 7.7 ± 1.5%; 47% (189) had HbA1c ≥ 7.4% (SCGC) and were moved to the upper step in the therapeutic algorithm at discharge. Another 15 subjects (3.6% of the cohort) had T2D according to their current HbA1c. Ninety-four of the 189 SCGC patients were evaluated 3–6 months later. Their HbA1c before in-hospital-intervention was 8.6 ± 1.2% and 7.5 ± 1.2% at follow-up (P < 0.004). Active detection of hyperglycaemia in patients admitted in conventional surgical beds permits the identification of T2D patients with SCGC as well as previously unknown cases. A shift to the upper step in the therapeutic algorithm at discharge improves this control. Hospitalization is an opportunity to break therapeutic inertia. PMID:26089883

  9. Cataracts in Diabetic Patients: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2008-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes mellitus is increasing and cataracts are one of the most common causes of visual impairment in these subjects. Advances in cataract surgical techniques and instrumentation have generally improved the outcomes; however,surgery may not be safe and effective in certain individuals with pre-existing retinal pathology or limited visual potential. This review article aims to address different aspects surrounding cataracts in diabetic patients. In a computerized MEDLINE search,relevant studies were selected by two authors using the keywords “diabetes mellitus”, “cataract”, “diabetic retinopathy” and “diabetic maculopathy”. PMID:23479523

  10. Minimally Disruptive Medicine for Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Valentina; Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Boehmer, Kasey R; Montori, Victor M

    2017-09-23

    Patients with diabetes must deal with the burden of symptoms and complications (burden of illness). Simultaneously, diabetes care demands practical and emotional work from patients and their families, work to access and use healthcare and to enact self-care (burden of treatment). Patient work must compete with the demands of family, job, and community life. Overwhelmed patients may not have the capacity to access care or enact self-care and will thus experience suboptimal diabetes outcomes. Minimally disruptive medicine (MDM) is a patient-centered approach to healthcare that prioritizes patients' goals for life and health while minimizing the healthcare disruption on patients' lives. In patients with diabetes, particularly in those with complex lives and multimorbidity, MDM coordinates healthcare and community responses to improve outcomes, reduce treatment burden, and enable patients to pursue their life's hopes and dreams.

  11. The Value of Urine Specific Gravity in Detecting Diabetes Insipidus in a Patient with Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu, Ersin; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktaran, Sebnem; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-01-01

    When a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with worsening polyuria and polydipsia, what is a sensible, cost-effective approach? We report the unique coincidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A 46-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complained of polyuria with a daily output of 5 L. Although urinalysis demonstrated significant glucosuria, diabetes insipidus was suspected owing to a low urine specific gravity (1.008). The low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test. Ultimately, diabetes insipidus was confirmed when urine specific gravity and urine osmolality normalized following desmopressin administration. This case emphasizes the importance of accurately interpreting the urine specific gravity in patients with polyuria and diabetes mellitus to detect diabetes insipidus. PMID:17026722

  12. Diabetes patient management by pharmacists during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al Tawengi, Kawthar; Remoden, Eman

    2014-03-10

    Many Muslim diabetes patients choose to participate in Ramadan despite medical advice to the contrary. This study aims to describe Qatar pharmacists' practice, knowledge, and attitudes towards guiding diabetes medication management during Ramadan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed among a convenience sample of 580 Qatar pharmacists. A web-based questionnaire was systematically developed following comprehensive literature review and structured according to 4 main domains: subject demographics; diabetes patient care experiences; knowledge of appropriate patient care during Ramadan fasting; and attitudes towards potential pharmacist responsibilities in this regard. In the 3 months prior to Ramadan (July 2012), 178 (31%) pharmacists responded to the survey. Ambulatory (103, 58%) and inpatient practices (72, 41%) were similarly represented. One-third of pharmacists reported at least weekly interaction with diabetes patients during Ramadan. The most popular resources for management advice were the internet (94, 53%) and practice guidelines (80, 45%); however only 20% were aware of and had read the American Diabetes Association Ramadan consensus document. Pharmacist knowledge scores of appropriate care was overall fair (99, 57%). Pharmacists identified several barriers to participating in diabetes management including workload and lack of private counseling areas, but expressed attitudes consistent with a desire to assume greater roles in advising fasting diabetes patients. Qatar pharmacists face several practical barriers to guiding diabetes patient self-management during Ramadan, but are motivated to assume a greater role in such care. Educational programs are necessary to improve pharmacist knowledge in the provision of accurate patient advice.

  13. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jianping; Wang, Jufang; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Han, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of serum miRNAs in diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Serum miRNA expression profiles from diabetic retinopathy cases (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy) and type 2 diabetes mellitus controls (type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without diabetic retinopathy) were examined by miRNA-specific microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs from the microarray analysis of 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and 45 age-, sex-, body mass index- and duration-of-diabetes-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. The relative changes in serum miRNA expression levels were analyzed using the 2-ΔΔCt method. RESULTS: A total of 5 diabetic retinopathy cases and 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus controls were included in the miRNA-specific microarray analysis. The serum levels of miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p differed significantly between the two groups in the screening stage; however, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not reveal significant differences in miRNA expression for 45 diabetic retinopathy cases and their matched type 2 diabetes mellitus controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that miR-3939 and miR-1910-3p may not play important roles in the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:28273235

  14. Diabetes insipidus in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, M F; Chin, N M; Lew, T W

    1998-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon but important complication in the neurosurgical population. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence, profile and outcome of patients admitted to an 18-bedded neurosurgical intensive care unit who developed DI. The overall incidence was 3.7% (29/792 admissions). Aetiologies included subarachnoid haemorrhage (12/29), severe head injury (11/29), post-surgical excision of craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma (5/29) and acute haemorrhagic stroke (1/29). All patients were treated with a regime of fluid replacement, electrolyte correction, parenteral or intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP), or parenteral pitressin. Overall mortality was 72.4%. There were no deaths in the patients who underwent excision of tumours. Complications included acute pulmonary oedema, hypernatremia and hypokalaemia. The development of DI was found to be associated with impending brain death and mortality in the majority of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage and severe head injury. However, careful diagnosis and management of DI after hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal surgery did not result in any permanent neurological sequelae.

  15. [Periodontal condition and tooth loss in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Sandra Paola; Ospina, Carlos Andrés; Colorado, Kelly Johana; Montoya, Yenny Paola; Saldarriaga, Andrés Fernando; Miranda Galvis, Marisol; Muñoz Pino, Natalia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Yepes, Fanny Lucía; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a systemic disease which affects the metabolism of glucose,and it has been associated with the development of periodontal disease. The periodontal condition and tooth loss was evaluated in diabetic subjects. At the San Vicente de Paúl Hospital (Medellín, Colombia), 117 subjects with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus were examined. Patients underwent a comprehensive periodontal evaluation, glycosylated hemoglobin analysis, oral hygiene habits and history of diabetes. A descriptive and comparative analysis between the clinical parameters, tooth loss and type of diabetes was performed. The prevalence of gingivitis was 27.4% and periodontitis 72.6%. The most frequent systemic complication was hypertension (51.3%). The most frequently lost teeth were molars and in general, the subjects had lost an average of 7 teeth and had a poor plaque control (55.4%). No differences were seen in clinical parameters between type 1 and 2 diabetes patients. The mean probing depth was 2.6 mm. The first and second upper and lower molars showed the highest values of PD. The mean clinical attachment loss was 3.3 mm . Maxillary teeth 17, 16, and mandibular 37, 47 showed the highest values of clinical attachment loss. In conclusion, the periodontal condition in diabetic patients was poor, presenting periodontitis in most cases. This can be a major cause of tooth loss in diabetic subjects and requires special attention by clinicians.

  16. The effects of Low Level LASER Therapy (LLLT) on blood glucose levels in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type I : a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Leonardo; Postiglione, Marco; Buccioni, Tommaso; Longo, Diego

    2009-06-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread disease and a serious public health problem. Low Level LASER Therapy (LLLT) has been found to reduce glycaemia on DM type 1 patients, an observation requiring further research especially as regards characteristics of treatment protocol. The purpose of this work is to continue the line of research and propose a specific protocol for LLLT use. In spring 2008 a 48 year old man, DM type 1 insulin dependent patient has been submitted to 810 nm wavelength LLLT treatment in specific body areas daily for 3 weeks and then once a week for 4 weeks until normalization of glycaemia. Medical supervision was present before, during and after application. Insulin was reduced progressively and then stopped. A gradual reduction of glycaemia was noted during the course of treatment. In successive follow-ups a reduction in HbA1c was noted. Results confirm previous observations and need for further research on large cohorts. The indication that LASER may become a valuable addition to DM type 1 treatment is confirmed and the proposed protocol appears to be effective. The case presented merits review since it reports a therapeutic challenge, contributes to advance in medical science and spawns research.

  17. Induction of thyroid remission using rituximab in a patient with type 3 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome including Graves' disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Sunao; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX) is a monoclonal antibody that targets the B-cell-specific CD20 antigen. Recent reports indicate that RTX is effective against type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and hematologic as well as autoimmune diseases. Other studies have indicated that RTX therapy leads to the remission of recurrent or active Graves' disease (GD). However, the efficacy of RTX in Japanese patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) has not been reported to date. Herein, we report the case of a patient with GD and T1DM with sustained endogenous insulin secretion capacity. To protect pancreatic β cells, we administered RTX at a dose of 500 mg (approximately 300 mg/m2) on 2 occasions 1 week apart. After treatment, no adverse effects were observed, and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) was no longer detectable 4 months after RTX administration. In addition, the reduction in TRAb level improved thyroid function. Notably, the treatment induced remission over a period of 1 year after the diagnosis of GD.

  18. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  19. Bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes matched with patients without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Malmartel, Alexandre; Ghasarossian, Christian

    2016-01-01

    With bacterial resistances having increased, patients with diabetes who are at higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) need to be studied. The study aim was to compare bacterial resistances to ofloxacin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in UTI between patients with and without diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ambulatory laboratories, including patients over 18 coming for urinalyses. Patients with diabetes were matched with two patients without diabetes based on risk factors for UTI using a propensity score. Among 1119 patients with UTI, 124 patients with diabetes were matched with 246 patients without diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the bacteria identified were: Escherichia coli (71%), Klebsiella (6%), Staphylococcus (5%), Enterococcus (4%), Proteus (2%) and Pseudomonas (1%); these findings were similar to those found in patients without diabetes. Resistances to ofloxacin and cefixim regardless of the bacteria were increased in patients with diabetes after matching on age, sex and history of UTI (respectively: OR=2.09; p=0.04 and OR=3.67; p=0.05). Regarding E. coli resistance, there was no difference whatever the antibiotic. The increased ofloxacin and cefixim resistance in patients with diabetes should be considered when prescribing probabilistic antibiotics, and could lead to changes in first-line treatments in UTI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of maxillofacial space infection in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Rao, Dipesh D; Desai, Anilkumar; Kulkarni, R D; Gopalkrishnan, K; Rao, C Bhasker

    2010-10-01

    Orofacial space infections are common presentations in maxillofacial clinics even in the post-antibiotic era. One of the main factors determining the spread of infection is the host defense mechanism. Diabetes is one of the most common systemic illness suppressing the immunity of an individual and increasing their susceptibility to infections. This study was carried out to compare the spaces involved, the severity of infection, the virulent organism, the efficacy of empirical antibiotics, the length of hospital stay, and the complications encountered in the management of maxillofacial space infection of odontogenic origin in diabetic patients as compared with nondiabetic patients. A 4-year prospective study was carried out on patients with maxillofacial space infection of odontogenic origin. The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of presence or absence of diabetes. A total of 111 patients were identified out of which 31 were diabetic. The organisms commonly isolated were Streptococcus species with submandibular space being the most common space involved in both the groups. The empirical antibiotic used was amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metrogyl in 70.27% cases. Streptococcus species is still the most common causative pathogen irrespective of the diabetic status of the patient. The same empirical antibiotic therapy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metrogyl along with hyperglycemia control and surgical drainage of infection yielded satisfactory resolution of infection in the diabetic patients as well. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DENTAL LOSS AMONG AMBULATORY PATIENTS WITH DIABETES.

    PubMed

    Izuora, Kenneth E; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Neubauer, Michael F; Gewelber, Civon L; Allenback, Gayle L; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2016-06-01

    There is a high prevalence of dental loss among patients with diabetes. Understanding the factors that impact dental loss in this population will aid with developing new strategies for its prevention. Using a cross-sectional study design, diabetes patients presenting for routine clinic visit were evaluated with an investigator-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on demographics, dental history, duration, control and complications of diabetes. Among 202 subjects, 100 were female, mean age: 58.9 ± 13.2 years, duration of diabetes: 15.8 ± 11.0 years, and hemoglobin A1c: 7.7 ± 1.6%. Thirty-one patients (15.3%) had lost all their teeth and only 13 (6.4%) had all 32 of their natural teeth. Using multiple linear regression, older age (β= - 0.146; 95% CI: - 0.062 to - 0.230), not flossing (β= - 3.462; 95% CI: - 1.107 to - 5.817), and presence of diabetic retinopathy (β= - 4.271; 95% CI: - 1.307 to - 7.236) were significant predictors of dental loss. Dental loss is common in patients with diabetes and is associated with older age, diabetic retinopathy and not flossing. In order to reduce dental loss among patients with diabetes, regular flossing should be emphasized as an important component of dental care.

  2. Musculoskeletal manifestations in diabetic versus prediabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Alimohammad; Iraj, Bijan; Barzanian, Jafar; Maracy, Mohammadreza; Smiley, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and those with prediabetes and compare the findings between the two groups. One hundred and eighty-eight patients with DM and 125 prediabetic subjects were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data and past history were recorded. Musculoskeletal physical examinations were done by a single rheumatologist. Regression analyses were employed to assess the crude and adjusted effects of determinants on DM musculoskeletal manifestations (DMMMs). Female/male ratio was not significantly different between diabetic and prediabetic patients (4.4 vs. 4.7, respectively, P = 0.9). However, diabetic patients were significantly older than the prediabetic ones (56.6 vs. 52 years, respectively, P = 0.0001); 83.5% of diabetic patients and 52.8% of prediabetic ones had at least one musculoskeletal manifestation (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and shoulder involvement were almost two times more common (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.015) in diabetic patients than in prediabetic ones (73.4% vs. 38% and 21.2% vs. 9.5%, respectively). Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was 48% and 36.5% in patients with diabetes and prediabetes, respectively (P = 0.053). Multivariate backward regression analysis showed age, sex, BMI (body mass index) and DM as the significant determinants in development of musculoskeletal manifestations in all subjects. Age and BMI were the only significant factors associated with musculoskeletal manifestations in both diabetic and prediabetic patients. Diabetic and prediabetic patients may show high prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations. In non-diabetic patients diagnosed with CTS, prediabetes might be ruled out. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Staphylococcus simulans osteitis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Désidéri-Vaillant, C; Nédelec, Y; Guichon, J-M; Le Louarn, S; Noyer, V; Sapin-Lory, J; Le Guen, P; Nicolas, X

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus simulans was identified as the aetiological agent of osteitis in a diabetic woman. Its identifying characteristics and antibiogram were confirmed. Diabetic foot frequently becomes infected and the spread of infection to bone is a major causal factor behind lower-limb amputation. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential in such cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Susan Martins; de Araújo, Gleide Santos; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; de Oliveira, Maeli Gomes; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. METHODS It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04–5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12–7.94). CONCLUSIONS The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. PMID:28099656

  5. Stroke in Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Case Series.

    PubMed

    Azad, Chandrika; Kaur, Ravinder; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Arya, Adhi

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can present with various neurological complications, but stroke is rare. Here, we present three children with recent-onset diabetes with DKA, two of them had deep coma not responding to standard DKA regimen and the third one had seventh nerve palsy noted after recovering from coma. Computed tomography scan of head showed hemorrhage in the area of midbrain in one patient and infarcts in two patients. In any child of DKA with severe neurological impairment, possibility of stroke should be entertained. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Platelet profile in patients with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046

  7. Therapeutic potential of a low-cost device for wound healing: a study of three cases of healing after lower-extremity amputation in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Alejandra; Giacaman, Annesi; Oyarzun-Ampuero, Felipe A; Orellana, Sandra; Aburto, Isabel; Pavicic, María F; Sánchez, Alfonso; López, Claudia; Morales, Carlos; Caro, Marianela; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio; Concha, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers constitute a tremendous challenge for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. The high incidence and high financial costs associated with their treatment have transformed them in a health and economic worldwide problem. The increase in population life expectancy and lifestyle changes have facilitated the spreading of diabetes, rising diabetic foot ulcer incidence. Only 60%-80% of the patients achieve healing of ulcers, and the incidence of a second ulcer, in the same or different site of the foot that has had a previous ulcer, is approximately 50% in 2-5 years. In addition, ulcers with duration longer than 4 weeks are commonly associated with bad results in healing and an increased risk of amputation. Three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have been subjected to treatment with NL.1.2, a low-cost, biocompatible solid device that presented pro-angiogenic properties. The selected patients had undergone amputation, and their wounds, classified as Wagner II, did not show a significant progress in healing after a period of 2-5 months before treatment with NL.1.2. Complete closure of their wounds was achieved in 42-60 days.

  8. Case-mix adjustment for diabetes indicators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Calsbeek, Hiske; Markhorst, Joekle G M; Voerman, Gerlienke E; Braspenning, Jozé C C

    2016-02-01

    Case-mix adjustment is generally considered indispensable for fair comparison of healthcare performance. Inaccurate results are also unfair to patients as they are ineffective for improving quality. However, little is known about what factors should be adjusted for. We reviewed case-mix factors included in adjustment models for key diabetes indicators, the rationale for their inclusion, and their impact on performance. Systematic review. This systematic review included studies published up to June 2013 addressing case-mix factors for 6 key diabetes indicators: 2 outcomes and 2 process indicators for glycated hemoglobin (A1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure. Factors were categorized as demographic, diabetes-related, comorbidity, generic health, geographic, or care-seeking, and were evaluated on the rationale for inclusion in the adjustment models, as well as their impact on indicator scores and ranking. Thirteen studies were included, mainly addressing A1C value and measurement. Twenty-three different case-mix factors, mostly demographic and diabetes-related, were identified, and varied from 1 to 14 per adjustment model. Six studies provided selection motives for the inclusion of case-mix factors. Marital status and body mass index showed a significant impact on A1C value. For the other factors, either no or conflicting associations were reported, or too few studies (n ≤ 2) investigated this association. Scientific knowledge about the relative importance of case-mix factors for diabetes indicators is emerging, especially for demographic and diabetes-related factors and indicators on A1C, but is still limited. Because arbitrary adjustment potentially results in inaccurate quality information, meaningful stratification that demonstrates inequity in care might be a better guide, as it can be a driver for quality improvement.

  9. [Epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge among diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Dias, Alana Ferreira Gomes; Vieira, Márcio Fragoso; Rezende, Marcussi Palata; Oshima, Akioshi; Muller, Maria Emília Wendler; Santos, Maria Emília Xavier dos; Serracarbassa, Pedro Duraes

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiologic profile and level of knowledge of diabetic patients about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Cross-sectional study with patients seen at Retina and Vitreous sector of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. The subjects were assigned into two groups: diabetic patients sent for first ophthalmologic evaluation (G1) and patient already followed in the sector (G2). The patients answered a questionnaire and were submitted to ophthalmologic examination. It had been used chi-square (x²), exact of Fisher and non-parametric of Mann-Whitney tests, with level of significance of 5%. The total sample was composed for 357 patients (109 in G1 and 248 in G2). The majority of the patients were female, married, with incomplete basic education, age average of 63.3 years and affirmed to know what it is diabetes. However, 53.2% did not know their type of diabetes. The visual complications of diabetes are most known. Less of one third of the patients had heard of DR and 77.3% did not know if they had it. The majority of the patients had never received any explanation or lecture about diabetes or DR. Only 3.6% of the patients had participated of programs of education on diabetes. The visual acuity, in logMAR scale, was of 0.57 in OD and 0.51 in the OS. Half of the patients did not have DR. The majority of the patients have low knowledge about diabetes and its complications.

  10. Diabetic Cheiroarthropathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Sheldon; Nunlee-Bland, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a wide variety of rheumatologic manifestations which can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. One of these manifestations includes diabetic cheiroarthropathy (DCA) which affects the hands. We review a case of a 28-year-old female patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus who was diagnosed with DCA after complaining of limited movements of all joints in her hands and tightening of the skin. We examine how the diagnosis was made, the treatment administered, and the successful clinical outcome. Clinicians should be able to identify and treat this affliction. The diagnosis is mainly clinical. It is imperative to remember that the presence of DCA carries with it a significant relationship with microvascular disease. PMID:23762663

  11. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Klinik Kesihatan Seremban.

    PubMed

    Ding, C H; Teng, C L; Koh, C N

    2006-10-01

    The Malaysian Ministry of Health has undertaken various campaigns on healthy lifestyle and health promotion over the years. The impact of these campaigns has been mixed and not well documented. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge level of patients with and without diabetes in a large urban polyclinic using a 41-item questionnaire. One hundred and forty-nine adults (83 with diabetes, 66 without diabetes) participated in this study. Patients with diabetes had higher overall knowledge scores than those without diabetes (81.8% vs 64.0%, p < 0.001). While the overall knowledge of patients without diabetes appeared to be acceptable, several areas of knowledge deficiency were identified in this group--areas that should be filled by the on-going health promotion activities.

  12. The large spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Sheila; Pascual, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among diabetic patients seems to be overestimated. Recent studies with renal biopsies show that the incidence of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) among diabetic patients is higher than expected. Renal impairment of diabetic patients is frequently attributed to DN without meeting the KDOQI criteria or performing renal biopsy to exclude NDN. In this editorial, we update the spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients and the impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

  13. [Diagnosis and assessment of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2014-02-01

    Hypoglycaemic episodes are rather common among diabetic patients, especially those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin (more in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes). The presentation of hypoglycaemia may considerably vary from patient-to-patient and from time-to-time in a given patient. With the illustration of a clinical case, we will describe the characteristics of the three main types of hypoglycaemia: severe hypoglycaemia (with or without coma), symptomatic hypoglycaemia (with or without confirmation) and asymptomatic hypoglycaemia ("hypoglycaemia unawareness") discovered as a low blood glucose measurement. We will also briefly analyse the reasons of such differences and the potential clinical consequences that these three main types of hypoglycaemia may exert in the real life of diabetic patients.

  14. Nocturnal convulsions and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B. M.; Frier, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Convulsions may occur as a consequence of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. We report three patients with insulin-dependent diabetes, who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia. None of the patients had experienced hypoglycaemia during waking hours and the convulsions were mistakenly diagnosed as idiopathic epilepsy. Recognition of the possible hypoglycaemia aetiology of these convulsions permitted appropriate alteration of the insulin regimens with no recurrence of convulsions. In one case, the seizure was associated with bilateral fractures of the neck of the humerus. Unrecognized hypoglycaemia should be considered as a possible cause of convulsions in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:3422871

  15. Testing for diabetes in hospitalised patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David; Young, Corina; Esop, Raadiyya; Paton, Carol; Walwyn, Rebecca

    2004-08-01

    Studies using computer databases suggest that atypical antipsychotic agents are more likely to be associated with diabetes than are conventional drugs. To discover the extent of testing for diabetes mellitus in hospital in-patients prescribed antipsychotics. Prescription charts were screened to identify patients prescribed antipsychotics. Case notes were then searched for evidence of testing for diabetes. In all, 606 patients were prescribed antipsychotics, of whom 250 (41.3%) had evidence of prior testing for diabetes. Patients prescribed atypicals were 40% more likely to have been tested than those prescribed conventional drugs (RR =1.4,95% CI1.1-1.9). Adjusted odds ratios v. conventional antipsychotics for conventional antipsychotics for testing were significantly higher for clozapine (OR=4.64,95% CI 2.42-8.90), olanzapine (OR=1.85,95% CI1.04-3.30) and antipsychotic polypharmacy (OR=2.96,95% CI1.59-5.52). Testing for diabetes was undertaken in less than half of the patients studied. Testing was more common in those receiving atypical antipsychotics. Apparent differences in claimed causal association of the use of some antipsychotics with diabetes may in part reflect different rates of testing.

  16. Adipsia in a Diabetes Insipidus Patient.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maria Conceição; Vieira, Margarida M; Pereira, Joana Simões; Salgado, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a very common disorder after brain surgery or/trauma or even in the presence of brain inflammatory diseases. Polyuria and polydipsia are the clinical markers, but sometimes clinical situations are presenting with no thirst. These are not frequent but are life-treating conditions. Diagnosis is not easy, and for this reason some cases are treated late. We describe here a very infrequent oncological case of dangerous adipsic diabetes insipidus in a young girl who survived.

  17. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Without Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ki-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Kim, Joon-Sung; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the factors that might influence the development of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). From January 2000 to December 2005, a total of 595 patients who had type 2 diabetes without DPN between the ages of 25 and 75 years, and had no prior history of DFUs were consecutively enrolled in the study. A cardiovascular autonomic function test was performed to diagnose cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) using heart rate variability parameters. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years. Among the 449 (75.4%) patients who completed the follow-up evaluation, 22 (4.9%) patients developed new ulcers, and 6 (1.3%) patients underwent the procedure for lower extremity amputations. The patients in the DFUs group had a longer duration of diabetes, higher baseline HbA1c levels, higher rates of nephropathy, and CAN. A Cox hazard regression analysis results revealed that the development of DFUs was significantly associated with the presence of CAN (normal vs definite CAN; HR, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–15.33) after adjusting for possible confounding factors. The development of DFUs was independently associated with CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes without DPN. We suggested the importance of CAN as a predictor of DFUs even in the patients without DPN, and the need to pay attention to patients with definite CAN and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27015188

  18. Diabetes literacy and informal social support: a qualitative study of patients at a diabetes centre.

    PubMed

    Black, Stephen; Maitland, Catherine; Hilbers, Julieanne; Orinuela, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    To explore the resources that patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes drew upon to manage the disease in their daily lives. Type 2 diabetes is a disease affecting Australian adults at a rate described as an 'epidemic'. Treatment usually focuses on patient self-management, which may require daily blood sugar monitoring, oral medications or injectable therapies, and regulating diet and exercise. Health research studies of patient self-management, including those involving type 2 diabetes, have focused largely on individual-centred definitions, though a number of studies, in particular qualitative studies, have indicated the positive role of social relationships and informal social networks. Exploratory, qualitative. The project focused on 26 patients attending a diabetes centre for clinical consultations with centre staff including doctors, diabetes educators, podiatrists and dietitians. The consultations were observed and audio recorded, followed by semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with the patients and separate interviews with the consulting professional staff. Overwhelmingly the patients drew on informal social networks of support to manage the disease. Spouses were significant, sometimes presenting with the patient as a 'team' approach to managing the disease. Sons and daughters also played a significant support role, especially interpreting during consultations and explaining health information. In some cases neighbours and also local community organisations provided informal support. Only two patients claimed not to use informal social support. Informal social support in patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes was found to be an important factor to be considered by clinicians. The study suggested the need for a more deliberate or pro-active policy to involve patients' family and other informal social networks in treatment programs. Clinicians may need document and incorporate informal social support in the development and implementation of

  19. Vitreoretinal surgery in diabetic patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, J; Chrzanowski, W; Koch, D; Dziegielewski, K

    1997-01-01

    The present paper reports our first results after pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic retinopathy and hemodialysis with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months. Between January 1992 and October 1994 we performed vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil tamponade in nine eyes of seven patients with diabetic nephropathy on hemodialysis. All patients had had type I diabetes for 19-32 years. Over the observation period the retina was completely attached in eight eyes. Final visual acuity of 0.1-0.7 was attained in four eyes, 0.06 two, hand movements in one eye. Two eyes had no useful final visual acuity because of redetachment of the retina or secondary glaucoma with rubeosis iridis. The small number of complications shows that pars plana vitrectomy can be done in diabetic patients with nephropathy on hemodialysis. This significantly improves their quality of life.

  20. [Diabetes in patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Zoltán; Boér, Katalin; Halászlaki, Csaba; Németh, Zsuzsanna

    2013-09-01

    Disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism are fairly common is patients with malignancy. On the other hand, diabetes appears to have an effect on the development and progression of various tumors. Malignant diseases and the therapies used in their treatment often have an impact on carbohydrate metabolism, while diabetes may hinder specific oncotherapy or influence oncological therapeutic decisions. Several complications of malignant diseases and some of the medications used in their treatment, such as steroids or parenteral nutrition, may raise blood glucose levels. The various obstacles of oral nutrition frequently seen in patients with malignancy can lead to hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Our article endeavours to review the pathophysiological and clinical connection between diabetes and malignant diseases and the use of insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs and diet in patients with malignant disease.

  1. The sociodemographic characteristics, periodontal health status, and subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liu, Jingbo; Tan, Lisi; Yu, Ning; Lin, Li; Geng, Fengxue; Zhang, Dongmei; Pan, Yaping

    2013-08-01

    In China, chronic periodontitis (CP) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study is to identify the sociodemographic characteristics associated with such patients and to assess the periodontal health status and subgingival microbiota of patients with CP and T2DM (T2DMCP) in the Chinese population. A total of 150 patients with T2DMCP and 306 patients with CP without any systemic disease completed questionnaires, underwent clinical periodontal examinations and participated in diabetes-related parameter examinations. Subgingival plaques were obtained to determine the prevalence and amounts of selected oral bacterial species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, respectively. The income level and mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients with T2DMCP were significantly higher than those of the patients with CP. Additionally, the patients with T2DMCP were more likely to be urban residents, and they had significantly more severe periodontitis than did the patients with CP. In the patients with T2DMCP, the prevalence and amounts of Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were significantly higher than those in the patients with CP. Finally, compared with the patients with CP, the patients with T2DMCP had a significantly lower prevalence and amount of Prevotella intermedia. Compared with the patients with CP, the patients with T2DMCP were more likely to be urban residents and generally had higher incomes, higher mean BMI, and poorer periodontal health status. Higher levels of T. denticola and T. forsythia and lower levels of P. intermedia were identified in the subgingival plaque of the patients with T2DMCP.

  2. Parafoveal OCT Angiography Features in Diabetic Patients without Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudot, Mathilde M; Sikorav, Anne; Semoun, Oudy; Miere, Alexandra; Jung, Camille; Courbebaisse, Blandine; Srour, Mayer; Freiha, Joseph G; Souied, Eric H

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of OCT angiography (OCTA) for detecting infraclinical lesions in parafoveal capillaries in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR). This prospective observational cross-sectional case-control study analyzed the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP and DCP) on macular OCTA scans (3 × 3 mm) centered on the fovea. We compared 22 diabetic patients (34 eyes included) without DR diagnosis on color fundus photographs, with 22 age- and gender-matched nondiabetic controls (40 eyes included). Qualitative analysis concerned morphological ischemic capillary alterations. Quantitative analysis measured foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size, parafoveal capillary density, and enlargement coefficient of FAZ between SCP and DCP. Neither the qualitative nor quantitative parameters were significantly different between both groups. No microaneurysms or venous tortuosity was observed in any of the analyzed images. On the SCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.322 ± 0.125 mm(2) in diabetic patients and 0.285 ± 0.150 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.31. On the DCP, the mean FAZ area was 0.444 ± 0.153 mm(2) in cases and 0.398 ± 0.138 mm(2) in controls, P = 0.20. OCTA did not detect infraclinical qualitative or quantitative differences in parafoveal capillaries of diabetic patients without DR in comparison with nondiabetic controls.

  3. Somatotype in elderly type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Roberto; Floris, Giovanni; Putzu, Paolo F; Carboni, Luciano; Marini, Elisabetta

    2007-09-01

    Somatotyping is a practical technique for the description of physique. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are characterized by physical peculiarities, such as overweight, obesity and a central pattern of body fat distribution. Somatotype applications to diabetes are limited. The objective of this study is to describe the somatotype of elderly type 2 diabetes patients. The sample consisted of 110 patients with type 2 diabetes (45 men, mean age 69.4 +/- 7.0 years; 65 women, mean age 72.9 +/- 7.1 years). The pathological subjects were compared with a control group consisting of 280 healthy individuals (134 men, mean age 74.2 +/- 7.3 years; 146 women, mean age 74.9 +/- 7.4 years). The Heath-Carter somatotype was applied. Diabetic men and women (mean somatotype, respectively: 6.8-5.6-0.6 and 8.6-6.4-0.2) presented significantly higher values of endomorphy than the controls (p = 0.043 in men, p = 0.003 in women); men also had a lower mesomorphic component (p = 0.000). The somatotype method revealed physical peculiarities in type 2 diabetes patients. The marked endomorphy in the pathological individuals can be related to general fatness, which is a well known disease risk factor. The somatotype appears to be a suitable technique for the assessment of physique in type 2 diabetes patients.

  4. Osteoporosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Brueck, Carolin C; Singh, Shiv K; Dobnig, Harald

    2007-09-01

    Demographic trends with longer life expectancy and a lifestyle characterized by low physical activity and high-energy food intake contribute to an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Patients with recent onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus may have impaired bone formation because of the absence of the anabolic effects of insulin and amylin, whereas in long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus, vascular complications may account for low bone mass and increased fracture risk. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus display an increased fracture risk despite a higher BMD, which is mainly attributable to the increased risk of falling. Strategies to improve BMD and to prevent osteoporotic fractures in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may include optimal glycemic control and aggressive prevention and treatment of vascular complications. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls.

  5. Early central and peripheral corneal microstructural changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients identified using in vivo confocal microscopy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing-Hao; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Xu-Guang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find early central and peripheral corneal microstructural changes in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with/without cornea fluorescein dot staining.This is a prospective case-control study of T2DM patients with/without cornea fluorescein dot staining. Age, sex, duration of diabetes, and serum glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Keratograph 5 M (K5 M) and in vivo confocal microscopy were performed on all subjects. The cornea was divided into 5 zones: central, superior, temporal, nasal, and inferior. Basal epithelial cell (BEC) density, the area of BEC, sub-basal nerve plexus (SBN) density, Langerhans cell (LC), and endothelial cell (EC) density were quantitatively analyzed.This study included a total of 87 individuals (28 males and 59 females; mean age, 62.30 ± 9.93 years) with T2DM, without (n = 48; T2DM group 1) and with (n = 39; T2DM group 2) cornea fluorescein staining, as well as 51 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (18 males and 33 females; mean age, 61.53 ± 10.15 years). Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, Schirmer Ι test, tear meniscus height, the first breakup of tear film occurrence (NIKBUT-first), and the average time of all breakup incidents (NIKBUT-average) values were significantly lower for the T2DM groups than for the healthy group. The corneal sensations of all cornea positions in the T2DM groups were significantly different from the control group. The HbA1c in the T2DM groups showed a negative correlation with central BEC density (R = 0.348, P = .015; R = 0.91, P = .001); there was no correlation of HbA1c with BEC density in the control group. The BEC density, the area of BEC, SBN, and LC density of T2DM group 1 and T2DM group 2 were significantly different compared with the control group in all corneal positions (P < .001). The BEC density of T2DM group 2 was significantly different from T2DM group 1 in the central (P

  6. Partial central diabetes insipidus in patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Megías, Marta Cano; Matei, Ana Maria; Gonzalez Albarran, Olga; Perez Lopez, Gilberto

    2012-07-03

    Approximately 20% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have any autoimmune disease, as concurrent as prior to diagnosis, even during follow-up. In recent years, cases of CVID associated to endocrine autoimmune diseases have been reported. To our knowledge, no cases of CVID with diabetes insipidus has been reported previously. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old male, diagnosed of CVID, who had thirst, polyuria and nocturia for several years. After a water deprivation test and a complete resolution of patient's symptoms with vasopressin (DDAVP) treatment, diagnosis of partial central diabetes insipidus was finally made. Patients diagnosed of CVID could develop water misbalance due to posterior hypophysis autoimmune disorder. A high index of clinical suspicion, an early diagnosis and treatment of these disease could avoid future complications and improve the quality of life of these patients.

  7. Morphological changes in autonomic ganglionic cells of the heart in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, T; Nunotani, H; Fushimi, H; Inoue, T

    1986-06-01

    To clarify the histological changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in diabetes mellitus, ganglionic cells of the hearts of autopsy cases were examined light microscopically. In 7 severely diabetic patients, the ganglionic neurons showed cellular contraction, cytoplasmic condensation and poor staining of Nissl substance. As neuronal alterations were obvious neither in the mild diabetic patients nor in the non-diabetic patients, these alterations therefore seemed to correlate with diabetes mellitus. The neuronal changes did not seem to correlate with major coronary arterial atherosclerotic narrowing.

  8. Comparison of the Microbiology and Antibiotic Treatment among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Hospitalized for Cellulitis or Cutaneous Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Timothy C.; Knepper, Bryan C.; Moore, S. Jason; Saveli, Carla C.; Pawlowski, Sean W.; Perlman, Daniel M.; McCollister, Bruce D.; Burman, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among diabetics, complicated skin infections may involve gram-negative pathogens; however, the microbiology of cellulitis and cutaneous abscess is not well-established. Objective To compare the microbiology and prescribing patterns between diabetics and non-diabetics hospitalized for cellulitis or abscess Design Secondary analysis of two published retrospective cohorts Setting/Patients Adults hospitalized for cellulitis or abscess, excluding infected ulcers or deep tissue infections, at 7 academic and community facilities Methods Microbiological findings and antibiotic use were compared among diabetics and non-diabetics. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with exposure to broad gram-negative therapy, defined as receipt of at least two calendar days of β-lactamase inhibitors, 2nd – 5th generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, tigecycline, aminoglycosides, or colistin. Results Of 770 total patients with cellulitis or abscess, 167 (22%) had diabetes mellitus. Among the 38% of cases with a positive culture, an aerobic gram-positive organism was isolated in 90% of diabetics and 92% of non-diabetics (p = .59); aerobic gram-negative organisms were isolated in 7% and 12%, respectively (p = .28). Overall, diabetics were more likely than non-diabetics to be exposed to broad gram-negative therapy (54% vs 44% of cases, p = .02). By logistic regression, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with exposure to broad gram-negative therapy (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.15 – 2.40). Conclusion In cases of cellulitis or abscess associated with a positive culture, gram-negative pathogens were not more common among diabetics compared with non-diabetics. However, diabetics were overall more likely to be exposed to broad gram-negative therapy suggesting this prescribing practice may not be not warranted. PMID:25266293

  9. Euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with type 2 diabetes started on empagliflozin.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Owais; Farooq, Saad; Kiran, Zareen; Islam, Najmul

    2016-05-13

    Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is largely associated with type 1 diabetes and has hyperglycaemia as a cardinal feature. We discuss the case of a 42-year-old man, a patient with type 2 diabetes, who presented to the emergency room, with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. He had recently changed his diabetes medications and started on an SGLT2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) along with metformin, pioglitazone, liraglutide and self-adjusted exogenous insulin. DKA was suspected in the wake of clinical examination and lab findings but glucose levels were below the cut-off for DKA; therefore, he was diagnosed with euglycaemic DKA. He was successfully managed with intravenous hydration and insulin infusion. We discuss the link of SGLT2 inhibitors with DKA and the pathophysiology behind euglycaemic DKA.

  10. Achievement of therapeutic targets in Mexican patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin; de la Luz, Julieta; Ochoa-Guzmán, Ana; Sánchez-Orozco, Laura V; Godínez-Gutiérrez, Sergio A

    2012-12-01

    Complications of diabetes comprise the leading cause of death in Mexico. We aimed to describe the characteristics of management and achievement of therapeutic targets in Mexican patients with diabetes mellitus. We analyzed data from 2642 Mexican patients with type 1 (T1D, n=203, 7.7%) and type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=2439, 92.3%) included in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study. Of T2D patients, 63% were on oral glucose-lowering drugs (OGLD) exclusively (mostly metformin), 11% on insulin, 22% on OGLD plus insulin, and 4% on diet and exercise exclusively. T2D patients on insulin were more likely to be trained on diabetes, but they were older, had worse control, longer disease duration and more chronic complications than patients on OGLD only. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7% was achieved by 21% and 37% of T1D and T2D patients, respectively. Only 5% of T1D and 3% of T2D attained the composite target of HbA1c <7%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dl. T1D patients had less macrovascular but more microvascular complications, compared with T2D patients. Late complications increased with disease duration, so that about 80% of patients after 20 years of diagnosis have at least one late complication. Reaching the target HbA1c <7% was associated with a reduced number of microvascular but not with less macrovascular complications. A great proportion of these Mexican patients with diabetes did not reach therapeutic targets. Insulin was used mostly in complicated cases with advanced disease. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing coeliac disease in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M M; Cureton, P A; Fasano, A

    2015-01-01

    The association between coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes has long been established. The combination of genetic susceptibility along with a potential role for gluten in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity makes defining gluten's role in type 1 diabetes extremely important. Evidence supporting the role of a gluten-free diet to improve complications associated with type 1 diabetes is not robust. However there is evidence to support improved growth, bone density and potentially the prevention of additional autoimmune diseases in patients with coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes. The gluten free diet is expensive and challenging to adhere to in people already on a modified diet. Early identification of those who have coeliac disease and would benefit from a gluten-free diet is of utmost importance to prevent complications associated with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Embolism in an elderly diabetic patient following hyperosmolar coma].

    PubMed

    Ghiazza, G; Piovano, P; Ferraro, G; D'Arco, M; Pellegrini, V

    1993-01-01

    The authors report a case of hemiballismus in an old patient with diabetes and hypertension, developed after a non ketotic hyperosmolar coma episode. In agreement with the recent literature, the syndrome is not always caused by a single Luys body lesion, but also by complex scattered lesions demonstrable only by RMN. A possible pathogenetic role of the recent non ketotic hyperosmolar diabetic coma and the good prognosis indicate that the vascular aetiology, even if prevalent, could not be the only one. The role of institutionalization of the patient during the development of the syndrome has also been discussed.

  13. Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in the Republic of Kiribati: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Viney, K; Cavanaugh, J; Kienene, T; Harley, D; Kelly, P M; Sleigh, A; O'Connor, J; Mase, S

    2015-05-01

    To better inform local management of TB-diabetes collaborative activities, we aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes among persons with and without TB and to determine the association between TB and diabetes in Kiribati, a Pacific Island nation. We compared consecutively enrolled TB cases to a group of randomly selected community controls without evidence of TB. Diabetes was diagnosed by HbA1c, and clinical and demographic data were collected. A tuberculin skin test was administered to controls. The chi-square test was used to assess significance in differences between cases and controls. We also calculated an odds ratio, with 95% confidence intervals, for the odds of diabetes among cases relative to controls. Unweighted multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust for the effects of age and sex. A total of 275 TB cases and 499 controls were enrolled. The diabetes prevalence in cases (101, 37%) was significantly greater than in controls (94, 19%) (adjusted odds ratio: 2.8; 95% CI 2.0-4.1). Fifty-five percent (108) of all diabetic diagnoses were new; this proportion was higher among controls (64.8%) than cases (46.5%). Five patients with TB were screened to detect one patient with diabetes. There is a strong association between TB and diabetes in Kiribati and bidirectional screening should be conducted in this setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Treating the elderly diabetic patient: special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kezerle, Louise; Shalev, Leah; Barski, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the >65 year-old group. The challenge of defining the goals of therapy arises from the heterogeneity of the aging process and the sparse clinical data in this patient population. In light of these challenges, the clinician should be aware of the pitfalls of caring for the older diabetic patient and prioritize an individualized treatment plan to ensure an optimal glycemic control, without placing the patient at unnecessary risk. We present a review of the current guidelines and literature that deal specifically with the treatment of the older diabetic patient in order to establish the principles of treatment in this age group and help the clinician make decisions regarding the care of these patients. PMID:25210468

  15. Kidney Transplantation in the Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Pascual, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease, kidney transplantation (KT) with or without a pancreas transplant is the treatment of choice. We aimed to review current data regarding kidney and pancreas transplant options in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes and the outcomes of different treatment modalities. In general, pancreas transplantation is associated with long-term survival advantages despite an increased short-term morbidity and mortality risk. This applies to simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation or pancreas after KT compared to KT alone (either living donor or deceased). Other factors as living donor availability, comorbidities, and expected waiting time have to be considered whens electing one transplant modality, rather than a clear benefit in survival of one strategy vs. others. In selected type 2 diabetic patients, data support cautious utilization of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation when a living kidney donor is not an option. Pancreas and kidney transplantation seems to be the treatment of choice for most type 1 diabetic and selected type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26239558

  16. Partial central diabetes insipidus in patient with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Megías, Marta Cano; Matei, Ana Maria; Gonzalez Albarran, Olga; Perez Lopez, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have any autoimmune disease, as concurrent as prior to diagnosis, even during follow-up. In recent years, cases of CVID associated to endocrine autoimmune diseases have been reported. To our knowledge, no cases of CVID with diabetes insipidus has been reported previously. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old male, diagnosed of CVID, who had thirst, polyuria and nocturia for several years. After a water deprivation test and a complete resolution of patient’s symptoms with vasopressin (DDAVP) treatment, diagnosis of partial central diabetes insipidus was finally made. Patients diagnosed of CVID could develop water misbalance due to posterior hypophysis autoimmune disorder. A high index of clinical suspicion, an early diagnosis and treatment of these disease could avoid future complications and improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:22761233

  17. The impact of intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate injection on fructosamine levels in diabetic patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Habib, George; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Khazin, Fadi; Hakim, Geries; Jabbour, Adel; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2016-06-01

    Fructosamine is a glycated protein that reflects blood glucose control over the last 2-3 weeks. There are no studies that address the impact of intra-articular injection (IAI) of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) on fructosamine levels among patients with type-2 diabetes and osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology or orthopedic clinic with type-2 diabetes and painful OAK, who failed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and physical therapy, were asked to participate in our study. After consent blood tests were drown for fructosamine, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, complete blood count, lipid profile, serum albumin, serum protein, c-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Demographic and different clinical parameters were also documented. Immediately after that, patients had IAI of 80 mg of MPA at the knee joint (group 1). Two to three weeks later, the same blood tests were repeated (except for HbA1c). Age- and sex-matched group of patients with type-2 diabetes and painful OAK attending the same clinics, but who were managed by NSAIDS were asked to participate as a control group (group 2) and had the same evaluation at enrollment and 2-3 weeks later, after consent. Eighteen patients from either group completed the study. Mean fructosamine level in group 1 patients was 263.7 ± 31.8 mg% prior to the IAI vs. 274.6 ± 39.3 mg% (p = 0.035), 2-3 weeks later, while mean fructosamine level in the control group (group 2) at enrollments was 274.2 ± 31.2 mg% vs. 269 ± 30.2 mg%, p = 0.509, 2-3 weeks later. There was no significant change in any other parameter tested at enrollment in either group, compared to those obtained 2-3 weeks afterwards. Body mass index was on the edge of significance as a predictor for a significant change in fructosamine level in group 1 patients. IAI of 80 mg of MPA in patients with type-2 diabetes and OAK had resulted in a significant, though mild

  18. Hypernatremia in a non insulin dependent (type 2) diabetic patient with central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Kavelaars, J; Tamsma, J T; Meinders, A E

    2001-03-01

    We describe a patient with central diabetes insipidus who presented with hyperosmolar, non-ketotic hyperglycaemia. The role in this case of reduced thirst sensation with decreased water intake and abnormal AVP production illustrates the importance of these protective mechanisms in normal physiology regarding maintenance of normal plasma osmolality. Despite the complex pathophysiology in this patient, fluid resuscitation aimed at normalisation of the water deficit resulted in full recovery.

  19. Diabetes mellitus in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Alves, Crésio de Aragão Dantas; Aguiar, Renata Arruti; Alves, Ana Cláudia S; Santana, Maria Angélica

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the principal extra-pulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis, occurring in 15-30% of adult cystic fibrosis patients. The number of cystic fibrosis patients who develop diabetes is increasing in parallel with increases in life expectancy. The aim of this study was to review the physiopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of CFRD. A bibliographic search of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases was made. Articles were selected from among those published in the last twenty years. Insulin deficiency, caused by reduced beta-cell mass, is the main etiologic mechanism, although insulin resistance also plays a role. Presenting features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, CFRD typically affects individuals of approximately 20 years of age. It can also be accompanied by fasting, non-fasting or intermittent hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is associated with worsening of nutritional status, increased morbidity, decreased survival and reduced pulmonary function. Microvascular complications are always present, although macrovascular complications are rarely seen. An oral glucose tolerance test is recommended annually for patients > or = 10 years of age and for any patients presenting unexplained weight loss or symptoms of diabetes. Patients hospitalized with severe diseases should also be screened. If fasting hyperglycemia persists for more than 48 h, insulin therapy is recommended. Insulin administration remains the treatment of choice for diabetes and fasting hyperglycemia. Calories should not be restricted, and patients with CFRD should be managed by a multidisciplinary team.

  20. Lower extremities and iliopsoas pyomyositis with concurrent septic arthritis and spinal epidural abscess in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, N; Gounari, P; Skourtis, A; Kougias, M; Sioula, E

    2013-10-01

    Pyomyositis is a rarely encountered infection among diabetics, which usually affects lower extremities. Herein, we present a case of lower extremities and iliopsoas pyomyositis with concurrent septic arthritis and spinal epidural abscess in a patient with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

  1. Fungal infections among diabetic foot ulcer- patients attending diabetic clinic in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, A M; Ng'ang'a, Z W; Sigilai, W; Bii, C; Mwangi, M

    2011-01-01

    To isolate and identify fungal pathogens associated with dermatophytoses in diabetic patients and identify the spectrum of yeasts colonising diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital. A cross sectional Laboratory based study. The Kenyatta National Hospital diabetic clinic. Sixty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers from August to November 2009. The five most occurring pathogens were Biopolaris hawaiiensis (5.5%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (3.7%), Aspergillus niger (3.0%), Trichophyton rubrum (3.0%), Fusarium oxysporum (3.0%). Other moulds accounted forless than 3.0%. One suspected case (0.6%) of Penicilium marneffei was isolated although it couldnotbe ascertained due to its high containment requirement. Among the dermatophytes, the most occurring mould was Trichophyton schoenleinii (3.7%) while innon-dermatophyte was Biopolaris hawaiiensis (5.5%). Eight pathogenic yeasts were identified with C. parapsilosis (6.1%) being the most common followed by C. famata (3.0%). Fungal infestation was highest in callus formation (78.6%). Fungal aetiological agents are significant cause of diabetic woundinfection and may require antifungal intervention for successful management of diabetic foot ulcers.

  2. Risk factors of diabetic foot Charcot arthropathy: a case-control study at a Malaysian tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Fauzi, Aishah Ahmad; Chung, Tze Yang; Latif, Lydia Abdul

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the risk factors of diabetic Charcot arthropathy of the foot among diabetic patients with and without foot problems. METHODS This was a case-control study involving diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Foot Care and Wound Management Clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June 2010 to June 2011. Data on sociodemographic profiles, foot factors and diabetes characteristics was collected and analysed. RESULTS A total of 48 diabetic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the foot were identified. Data from these 48 patients was compared with those of 52 diabetic patients without foot problems. Up to 83.3% of patients with diabetic Charcot arthropathy presented with unilateral Charcot foot, most commonly located at the midfoot (45.8%). Patients with a history of foot problems, including foot ulcer, amputation, surgery or a combination of problems, had the highest (26-time) likelihood of developing Charcot arthropathy (odds ratio 26.4; 95% confidence interval 6.4–109.6). Other significant risk factors included age below 60 years, more than ten years’ duration of diabetes mellitus and the presence of nephropathy. CONCLUSION A history of prior diabetic foot problems is the greatest risk factor for developing diabetic Charcot arthropathy, compared with other risk factors such as diabetes characteristics and sociodemographic profiles. Preventive management of diabetic foot problems in the primary care setting and multidisciplinary care are of paramount importance, especially among chronic diabetic patients. PMID:27075668

  3. Improving Diabetes Care in the Military Primary Care Clinic: Case Study Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-23

    required application of innovative and creative strategies to improve self-management. The cases are representative of some common themes within the patient with type 2 diabetes in a military primary care clinic.

  4. Xanthoma Disseminatum in a Young Patient with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Zhen; Chen, Jun; Kong, Qing-Tao; Chen, Huan; Du, Xue; Sang, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Xanthoma disseminatum (XD) is a nonfamilial type of normolipidemic mucocutaneous xanthomatosis that belongs to the group of non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses. More than 100 cases of XD have been reported. In this study we report a case of XD in a 4-year-old boy with diabetes insipidus (DI). This boy is one of the youngest patients ever to present with XD combined with DI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tolerance of Iloprost and results of treatment of chronic severe lower limb ischaemia in diabetic patients. A retrospective study of 64 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Duthois, S; Cailleux, N; Benosman, B; Lévesque, H

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance and report obtained results with a stable prostacyclin analogue (iloprost) in diabetic patients with severe forms of permanent lower limb ischaemia. Sixty-four consecutive unselected patients, in stage III and IV of Leriche and Fontaine, turned down for vascular surgery after angiography and treated with iloprost during 28 days, were enrolled in this study. Patients were followed-up clinically (ischemic pain, trophic change, walking distance) and with transcutaneous oxymetry (D28). Long-term assessment (6 and 12 months) was expressed as rate of death, major amputation and of live patients with viable limbs and walking. There was no manifestation of intolerance to iloprost. Were considered as responders patients offering a lack or significant decrease in pain, a reduction of trophic lesions and improvement or recovery of walking. Response at two months is lasting: 29 responders (45.3%) and 35 non-responders (54.7%). At 6 months and one year, we observed that 8 (12.5%) and 15 (24.1%) patients respectively had died; 19 (29.6%) and 22 (34.3%) patients underwent major amputation, but 41 (64%) and 34 (53.1%) patients were still alive with their limb and conservative walking. In responder group, at 6 months, 28 (96.5%) patients were alive without amputation for only 13 (37.1%) among non-responders. At one year, 79.3% of the responders and 31.4% of the non-responders were alive without amputation. A total loss of walking, a segmental amputation and a previous amputation of opposite limb were more often noted in no responder group. But no predictive factor was referred to TcPO(2) in particular. Results ware similar in the group of 136 non diabetic patients treated during the same period (67.9% alive with limb at 6 months). This retrospective study, despite its limitations, underlines the clinical particularities of critical ischaemia in diabetics and the good tolerance to iloprost. This point allowed patients, in non

  6. Assessment of diabetes acceptance can help identify patients with ineffective diabetes self-care and poor diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A; Reimer, A; Kulzer, B; Haak, T; Gahr, A; Hermanns, N

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the associations between insufficient diabetes acceptance and relevant diabetes outcomes. A total of 320 patients completed questionnaires on diabetes non-acceptance (the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire), diabetes distress (the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale), depressive mood (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), coping with illness (the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness), self-care activities (the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure) and quality of life (the Short Form-36 Health Questionnaire). A six-item version of the Acceptance and Action Diabetes Questionnaire showing good reliability and validity was established, and the associations between insufficient acceptance and clinical outcomes were estimated. Higher diabetes non-acceptance correlated significantly with less active coping (-0.37), reduced self-care (-0.43) and higher HbA1c levels (0.31), higher diabetes distress (0.53) and more depressive symptoms (0.36). Correlations of diabetes non-acceptance with diabetes self-care/glycaemic control were significantly higher than were those of depressive mood or diabetes distress with these criteria. Low diabetes acceptance is associated with impaired self-care and glycaemic control. Assessment of diabetes acceptance may facilitate the detection of patients at high risk and may present an essential target for treatments to improve diabetes control that is more relevant than elevated depressive mood or diabetes distress. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  7. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    PubMed

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. With diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  8. Patient Self-Management of Diabetes Care in the Inpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Rushakoff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes by inpatients can be problematic. People with type 1 diabetes often prefer to self-manage their diabetes in the inpatient setting. We report the case of a patient admitted to the surgical service who was self-administering his home insulin, often without telling his nurse or physician. He was aiming for tight glycemic control, which resulted in life-threatening hypoglycemia. While patients can often self-manage their diabetes in the outpatient setting, inpatient management of diabetes is very different. Patients may not be familiar with common scenarios requiring adjustments of insulin therapy. Therefore, we recommend against self-management of diabetes in the hospital. However, the patients should be involved in discussions about management of their diabetes in the hospital to allay their concerns about changes made to their insulin regimens. An example of successful cooperative management is with use of protocols that allow continued use of insulin pumps in the hospital. PMID:25990293

  9. Pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis co-infection in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Chander, Jagdish; Janmeja, Ashok K.; Katyal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of infections which pose management difficulties. Herein, we report a case of diabetic patient who developed combined pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis. The case illustrates management of this rare co-infection which despite being potentially fatal was treated successfully. PMID:25624598

  10. Pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis co-infection in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Deepak; Chander, Jagdish; Janmeja, Ashok K; Katyal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of infections which pose management difficulties. Herein, we report a case of diabetic patient who developed combined pulmonary tuberculosis and mucormycosis. The case illustrates management of this rare co-infection which despite being potentially fatal was treated successfully.

  11. [Micronutrients and diabetes, the case of minerals].

    PubMed

    Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Montúfar-Robles, Isela; Menjívar-Iraheta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are essential nutrients for the body, are of inorganic nature which gives them the characteristic of being resistant to heat, are involved in a lot of chemical reactions in metabolism, regulating electrolyte balance, in maintaining bone, in the process of blood clotting and the transmission of nerve impulses, particularly its role as enzyme cofactors confers a key role in various physiological processes. Glucose homeostasis involves a fine coordination of events where hormonal control by insulin plays a key role. However, the role of minerals like magnesium, zinc, chromium, iron and selenium in the diabetes is less obvious and in some cases may be controversial. This review shows the knowledge of these five elements and their correlation with diabetes.

  12. Diabetic limb salvage procedure with bone allograft and free flap transfer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Santos, Alexandre L.; Amodio, Daniel T.; Pires, André; Lima, Ana L. M.; Wei, Teng H.; de Cesar-Netto, Cesar; Armstrong, David G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this case report was to describe a successful diabetic limb salvage procedure in the treatment of an infected diabetic foot ulcer through a multidisciplinary team approach and complex surgical reconstruction involving a femoral head bone allograft and musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi free flap. The decision to proceed with aggressive staged efforts at diabetic limb salvage should be made only after careful consultation with the patient, his or her family, and the rest of the multidisciplinary healthcare team. PMID:28326158

  13. A case study of type 2 diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-i

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been established that careful diabetes self-management is essential in avoiding chronic complications that compromise health. Disciplined diet control and regular exercise are the keys for the type 2 diabetes self-management. An ability to maintain one's blood glucose at a relatively flat level, not fluctuating wildly with meals and hypoglycemic medical intervention, would be the goal for self-management. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or simply A1c) is a measure of a long-term blood plasma glucose average, a reliable index to reflect one's diabetic condition. A simple regimen that could reduce the elevated A1c levels without altering much of type 2 diabetic patients' daily routine denotes a successful self-management strategy. Methods A relatively simple model that relates the food impact on blood glucose excursions for type 2 diabetes was studied. Meal is treated as a bolus injection of glucose. Medical intervention of hypoglycaemic drug or injection, if any, is lumped with secreted insulin as a damping factor. Lunch was used for test meals. The recovery period of a blood glucose excursion returning to the pre-prandial level, the maximal reach, and the area under the excursion curve were used to characterize one's ability to regulate glucose metabolism. A case study is presented here to illustrate the possibility of devising an individual-based self-management regimen. Results Results of the lunch study for a type 2 diabetic subject indicate that the recovery time of the post-prandial blood glucose level can be adjusted to 4 hours, which is comparable to the typical time interval for non-diabetics: 3 to 4 hours. A moderate lifestyle adjustment of light supper coupled with morning swimming of 20 laps in a 25 m pool for 40 minutes enabled the subject to reduce his A1c level from 6.7 to 6.0 in six months and to maintain this level for the subsequent six months. Conclusions The preliminary result of this case study is encouraging. An individual life

  14. Navigating care for Bedouin patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Shauna; Higgins, Alison; Amkraut, Jonathan; Abu-Rabia, Yones

    2016-03-04

    The Bedouin Arab population in the southern Negev region of Israel has faced health problems as a result of transitioning rapidly from a nomadic agricultural lifestyle to a more modern urban lifestyle. Like many populations around the world, the Bedouins have changed their diets and become more sedentary and this has led to a high rate of diabetes. In this case report, we examine how diabetes has affected the life of an influential man in the Bedouin community and the significance this case has in the greater context of a global rise in chronic disease. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Study of Irisin Hormone Level in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shelbaya, Salah; Abushady, Manal Mohamed; Nasr, Merhan Samy; Bekhet, Meram Mohamed; Mageed, Yasmine Abd-Al; Abbas, Magdy

    2017-08-29

    Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy are associated with multifactorial abnormal energy metabolism. Irisin has been recently introduced as a hormone that is exercise induced and is secreted by skeletal muscles. It is hypothesized that patients with chronic kidney disease usually have abnormal irisin levels. We aimed to study the level of Irisin hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes and to document if it is related to diabetic nephropathy. The current study included 60 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 30 healthy subjects as a control group. Diabetic subjects were divided into 30 without diabetic complications and 30 with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Serum Irisin levels, fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2hours plasma glucose (2hPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), kidney functions including serum creatinine and albumin/ creatinine ratio were assessed. There was a statistical significant decrease in Irisin levels in diabetic patients compared to controls (34.46 ± 15.28 ng/ml vs. 152.600 ± 39.581 ng/ml, p<0.001). Irisin levels were lower in diabetic patients with DN than in those without complications (20.967 ± 4.476 ng/ml vs. 47.967 ± 8.853 ng/ml, p<0.01).There was a statistical significant negative correlation between irisin and serum creatinine (r=-0.729), systolic blood pressure (r=-0.493), diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.625), duration of diabetes (r=-0.942), BMI(r=-0.396), albumin/creatinine ratio (r=-0.696), and HbA1c (r=-0.305) in all type 2 diabetic patients (p<0.05). On performing multivariate regression analysis, we found that duration of diabetes was the only independent determinant of irisin level. There is a decrease in serum irisin level in type 2 diabetic patients with even more significant reduction in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Anesthetic considerations in diabetic patients. Part I: preoperative considerations of patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common disease that affects people of all ages, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic patients require perioperative care more frequently than their nondiabetic counterparts. The major risk factors for diabetics undergoing surgery are the associated end-organ diseases: cardiovascular disease, autonomic neuropathy, joint collagen tissue, and immune deficiency. Physicians need to pay extra attention to preoperative and preprocedure evaluation and treatment of these diseases to ensure optimal perioperative management.

  17. Invasive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a diabetic patient – the need for prompt treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Vanessa; Khan, Sheema; Balogun, Adeola; Mitchell, David; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life threatening fungal infection predominately seen in immunocompromised or diabetic patients. The following case is of a known type II diabetic patient who presented with sepsis and sudden unilateral loss of vision secondary to infective rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Treatment of the condition required extensive surgical intervention and medical management for a life saving outcome. PMID:25750854

  18. Diabetes Health Literacy Among Somali Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in a US Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Njeru, Jane W; Hagi-Salaad, Misbil F; Haji, Habibo; Cha, Stephen S; Wieland, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe diabetes literacy among Somali immigrants with diabetes and its association with diabetes outcomes. Among Somali immigrants in North America, the prevalence of diabetes exceeds that of the general population, and their measures of diabetes control are suboptimal when compared with non-Somali patients. Diabetes literacy is an important mediator of diabetes outcomes in general populations that has not been previously described among Somali immigrants and refugees. Diabetes literacy was measured using a translated version of the spoken knowledge in low literacy in diabetes (SKILLD) scale among Somali immigrants and refugees with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes outcome measures, including hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure, were obtained for each patient. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Among 50 Somali patients with diabetes who completed the survey, the mean SKILLD score was low (42.2 %). The diabetes outcome measures showed a mean hemoglobin A1C of 8 %, LDL cholesterol of 99.17 mg/dL (2.57 mmol/L), systolic blood pressure of 130.9 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure of 70.2 mmHg. There was no association between diabetes literacy scores and diabetes outcome measures. Somali patients with diabetes mellitus had low diabetes literacy and suboptimal measures of diabetes disease control. However, we found no association between diabetes literacy and diabetes outcomes. Future work aimed at reduction of diabetes-related health disparities among Somali immigrants and refugees to high-income countries should go beyond traditional means of patient education for low-literacy populations.

  19. Promoting health literacy in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Ella

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex long-term condition. To achieve best outcomes, patients must have a good understanding of the condition and should adopt a vigilant self-care approach. However, this may be difficult for patients with low health literacy because they may struggle with obtaining, understanding and applying health information. Health literacy encompasses factors such as culture, empowerment, motivation and the quality of the individual's exchanges with the health system. Nurses' understanding of health literacy as a concept is key to helping patients achieve self-management of long-term conditions. Health literacy strategies should focus on improving communication between healthcare providers and people with diabetes, providing information in a variety of formats and seeking to improve access to healthcare services. This article suggests how nurses can help people with diabetes improve their health literacy.

  20. [Non-ketotic hyperosmolar diabetic coma in neurosurgical cases; review of 7 cases].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, A; Shinohara, A; Hashikawa, M; Kukita, C; Komatsu, Y; Takano, S; Maki, Y

    1990-01-01

    Neurosurgical patients with non-ketotic hyperosmolar diabetic coma (NHC) in our institution were analysed retrospectively. Seven cases were diagnosed as NHC being 0.47% of the number of inpatients in the last 5 years. The age ranged from 60 to 72 years old (mean 65) and there were 6 males and 1 female. Only 2 patients (29%) had a clear past history of diabetes mellitus. Prior to the NHC, systemic infection was present in 2 cases. Intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) was performed in 5 cases, glycerol osmotherapy in 3 cases, diphenylhydantion therapy in 3 cases and tube feeding in 2 cases. The overall mortality rate in our series was 71% (5 cases), of which 2 cases died within 2 days due to cardiopulmonary failure, and 3 cases in the chronic stage died due to disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), or due to renal failure. The prognosis of NHC in neurosurgical patients is generally bad because of the presence of consciousness disturbance prior to the onset of NHC, which may mask the symptoms occurring from the NHC. Other predisposing factors could be systemic infection, IVH or tube feeding, and osmotic agents which are frequently used in neurosurgical patients. There was a tendency for NHC to occur predominantly in the chronic stage after the blood sugar had returned to normal range from the hyperglycemic state in the acute stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Etiological diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus: about 41 cases].

    PubMed

    Chaker, Fatma; Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with hypotonic urine requires careful diagnostic strategy. This study aims to evaluate diagnostic modalities for central diabetes insipidus. We conducted a retrospective study of 41 cases with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Data were collected at the Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital La Rabta, Tunis, from 1990 to 2013. We identified the circumstances for detecting CDI, the abnormalities in anterior pituitary assessment and pituitary imaging. CDI occurred in the postoperative period in 20 patients. The average urine 24-hour volume was significantly higher in patients with CDI outside a surgical setting. Water deprivation test was successful in all patients who benefited from it. Outside of neurosurgery, infiltration causes were found in 6 patients and tumor causes were found in 6 patients. CDI was associated with empty sella turcica in 1 case and idiopathic sella turcica in 3 patients. Hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and anterior pituitary balance sheet are systematic outside pituitary surgery setting and obvious primary polydipsia.

  2. Vertebral hyperostosis and diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Daragon, A; Mejjad, O; Czernichow, P; Louvel, J P; Vittecoq, O; Durr, A; Le Loët, X

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare glucose metabolism in patients with vertebral hyperostosis (VH), with that in control patients. METHODS--We studied 50 patients aged 60 years or more who had VH according to Resnick's criteria, and 50 control patients without VH, matched for sex, age, weight and height. Plasma glucose was evaluated before and 120 minutes after ingestion of 75 g glucose. World Health Organisation criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM) were used. Radiographs of the pelvis and thoracic and lumbar spine were performed and read blind by two physicians. RESULTS--Statistical analysis showed no difference between cases and control patients for prevalence of DM, and plasma glucose at 0 and 120 minutes. CONCLUSION--These data suggest that glucoregulation in patients with VH does not differ from that in matched controls. PMID:7794043

  3. Management of critically ill patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Perez, Livier Josefina; Benitez-Lopez, Mario Alberto; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis, such as stress-induced hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, are common complications in patients in the intensive care unit. Patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to hyperglycemia, as well as a higher risk from glucose overcorrection, that may results in severe hypoglycemia. In critically ill patients with DM, it is recommended to maintain a blood glucose range between 140-180 mg/dL. In neurological patients and surgical patients, tighter glycemic control (i.e., 110-140 mg/d) is recommended if hypoglycemia can be properly avoided. There is limited evidence that shows that critically ill diabetic patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin levels above 7% may benefit from looser glycemic control, in order to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia and significant glycemic variability. PMID:28344751

  4. Scleredema Diabeticorum in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Martín, C.; Requena, L.; Manrique, K.; Manzarbeitia, F. D.; Rovira, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Scleredema adultorum, a connective tissue disorder of unknown aetiology, is characterized by a thickening of the reticular dermis in the upper back of the body that may decrease the mobility of the affected tissues. It has been reported in diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therapeutic options are limited with generally poor results. Case Report. 53-year-old white male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to our department for evaluation of incipient nephropathy and retinopathy. On examination, he presented erythematous, indurated, painless and ill-defined plaque on the skin of the upper back with limited movement of shoulders. A biopsy was done revealing scleredema. PUVA treatment and physiotherapy were started with the amelioration of mobility and acquiring some elasticity of the upper back. Discussion. The development of scleredema in diabetic patients has been related to prolonged exposure to chronic hyperglycaemia. Our patient has had diabetes for 20 years with an acceptable glucose control, however he developed the scleredema 10 years ago. Conclusions. Scleredema is a rare connective disorder that seems to appear most frequently in diabetic subjects. Good metabolic control seems not to preclude its development. PUVA treatment and physiotherapy are therapeutic options that seem to be of some help. PMID:22937286

  5. Patients' health education and diabetes control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Ezenwaka, C E; Offiah, N V

    2003-12-01

    We previously reported poor metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending 2 primary care clinics in Trinidad. In an attempt to explain the poor metabolic control, we assessed primary care patients' theoretical knowledge of diabetes control and risk factors. Two hundred fifty-four diabetic out-patients recruited consecutively were asked by questionnaire: (i) if they were aware that family history of diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity and cigarette smoking were diabetes risk factors; (ii) if they knew the benefits of weight loss, exercise and healthy diet in diabetes management, and (iii) what where their common sources of diabetes health information. Although the majority of the patients (81.1%) were unaware that cigarette smoking is a diabetes risk factor, a majority were aware that obesity (66.3%), physical inactivity (73.5%) and being a relative of a diabetic patient (78.7%) constitute diabetes risk factors. Again, the majority of the patients were aware that healthy diet (94.9%), exercise (94.5%) and weight loss (87.4%) are beneficial in diabetes control. While media (48.6%) was the commonest source of diabetes information, doctors and nurses were consulted by 39.9% and 11.0% of patients, respectively. Type 2 diabetic patients in these clinics were well informed about diabetes risk factors and benefits of healthy lifestyle. Given our recent reports on poor metabolic control, application of this theoretical knowledge in controlling their diabetes remains doubtful.

  6. Present Insights on Cardiomyopathy in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Felício, João Soares; Koury, Camila Cavalcante; Carvalho, Carolina Tavares; Neto, João Felício 
Abrahão; Miléo, Karem Barbosa; Arbage, Thaís Pontes; Silva, Denisson Dias; Ferreira de Oliveira, Alana; Peixoto, Amanda Soares; Junior, Antônio Bentes Figueiredo; Ribeiro dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is partially understood and is likely to be multifactorial, involving metabolic disturbances, hypertension and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). Therefore, an important need remains to further delineate the basic mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy and to apply them to daily clinical practice. We attempt to detail some of these underlying mechanisms, focusing in the clinical features and management. The novelty of this review is the role of CAN and reduction of blood pressure descent during sleep in the development of DCM. Evidence has suggested that CAN might precede left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes, serving as an early marker for the evaluation of preclinical cardiac abnormalities. Additionally, a prospective study demonstrated that an elevation of nocturnal systolic blood pressure and a loss of nocturnal blood pressure fall might precede the onset of abnormal albuminuria and cardiovascular events in hypertensive normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, existing microalbuminuria could imply the presence of myocardium abnormalities. Considering that DCM could be asymptomatic for a long period and progress to irreversible cardiac damage, early recognition and treatment of the preclinical cardiac abnormalities are essential to avoid severe cardiovascular outcomes. In this sense, we recommend that all type 2 diabetic patients, especially those with microalbuminuria, should be regularly submitted to CAN tests, Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring and echocardiography, and treated for any abnormalities in these tests in the attempt of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26364799

  7. Use of collagenase ointment in conjunction with negative pressure wound therapy in the care of diabetic wounds: a case series of six patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, John D; Carter, Elizabeth; Hatch, David C; Zhubrak, Michelle; Giovinco, Nicholas A; Armstrong, David G

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic wounds with additional comorbidities are costly, time intensive, and difficult to heal. Often, multiple modalities may be necessary to achieve wound resolution, relying on the synergistic advantage of each therapy to affect wound healing. The selectivity of Clostridium collagenase is physiologically effective at degrading non-viable collagen fibers while preserving living collagen tissue. Additionally, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has long been used to aid wound healing while concurrently depreciating biological wound burden time. Six patients were selected from those appearing to our university based limb salvage service. Inclusion criteria included patients with a recurrent mixed fibrotic and granular wound base, in which NPWT was indicated, without exclusion criteria. Patients enrolled were administered clostridial collagenase ointment at each regularly scheduled NPWT dressing change. Patients were followed until healing, with visual representations of wound progression and time to full healing recorded. Tandem application of these therapies appeared to expedite wound healing by clearing degenerative fibrous tissue and expediting wound granulation without additional complication. Unfortunately, not all patients were able to reach full healing; with two patients experiencing ulcer recurrence, likely a result of their significant comorbid nature. In our experience, we have noticed a specific subgroup of patients who benefit greatly when collagenase enzymatic debridement therapy is combined with NPWT. It is our belief that this combination therapy combines the molecular clearing of non-viable collagen with the wound granulation necessary to advance complex wounds to the next step in healing despite the current paucity in literature discussing this specific pairing.

  8. Study characteristics of juvenile diabetes mellitus cases in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Karim, Rezaul; Mona, Nusrat Jahan

    2014-06-01

    To identify the proportion and some selected characteristics of juvenile diabetics attending BIRDEM hospital. This was a cross sectional study. The study was conducted in the BIRDEM hospital. All Diabetic young aged up to 18 years who visit BIRDEM hospital were included in study population. The sample size was 240. It was observed that among the respondents 43.3% were protein deficient pancreatic diabetes (PDPD), 30.8% were Type-1 diabetes, 20% were fibro-calculus pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) and remaining 5.8% were Type-2 diabetes. Family history of diabetes was found among one-fifth of the respondents. It was found that majority 86.4% of Type-1 diabetes were presented in early age < 10 years in contrast to Type-2 diabetes 4.5%, PDPD 9.1% and FCPD 0.0%. It was found that 50% of type-1 diabetes patient and 17.6% of Type-2 diabetes patient were from urban area and 24.5% of FCDP patient and 52.8% of PDPD patient were from rural areas. It was observed that Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes were associated with the family history of diabetes mellitus than FCPD and PDPD. Severe underweight and sever stunted was significantly higher among the protein deficient diabetes mellitus compare to Type-2 diabetes. Juvenile diabetes is emerging health problem in modern era. Like old population the incidence of juvenile diabetes is increasing day by day. It is time for the health planner to prevent and control the disease; otherwise it will be major problem after a decade.

  9. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  10. Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Chi-Juei; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Yang, Chung-May; Yang, Chang-Hao; Lin, Cheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of current study aims to investigate the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a nationwide population-based cohort in Taiwan. Newly diagnosed DN patients and age- and sex-matched controls were identified from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010. We studied the effects of age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), and medications on the development of nonproliferative DR (NPDR), proliferative DR (PDR), and diabetic macular edema (DME) in patients with DN. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of the development of DR. Our results show that the adjusted HRs of NPDR and PDR were 5.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.68–5.37) and 9.7 (95% CI = 8.15–11.5), respectively, in patients with DN as compared with patients in the non-DN cohort. At 5-year follow-up, patients with DN showed an increased HR of NPDR progression to PDR (HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.68–3.03), and the major comorbidities were hypertension (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10–1.38 with NPDR; HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.02–1.72 with PDR) and DPN (HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.72–2.41 in NPDR; HR = 2.95, 95% CI = 2.16–4.03 in PDR). Dyslipidemia increased the HR of developing NPDR but not PDR or DME. Moreover, DN did not significantly affect DME development (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 0.87–2.48) or progression (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.11–1.20). We concluded that DN was an independent risk factor for DR development and progression; however, DN did not markedly affect DME development in this study, and the potential association between these disorders requires further investigation. PMID:27564383

  11. A Study of Vitiligo in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raveendra, Leena; Hemavathi, Rekha N; Rajgopal, Sushma

    2017-01-01

    Context: Diabetes mellitus is associated with many skin manifestations including vitiligo. Vitiligo occurs more commonly in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. A few recent studies have shown its increased occurrence in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aims: This study aims to study the prevalence of vitiligo in Type 2 diabetic patients and to compare the prevalence of vitiligo in age- and sex-matched group of nondiabetic population. Settings and Design: The present study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Dermatology in a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred consecutive consenting patients of Type 2 diabetes were included in the study group and age- and sex-matched controls were healthy nondiabetic adult volunteers attending the Department of Dermatology. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels were done. A complete history, physical examination, and wood's lamp examination to detect vitiligo were conducted. In all those with vitiligo, the type of vitiligo was noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Comparison between the presence of vitiligo in cases and controls was done using Chi-square test with P = 0.05 for significance. Results: Vitiligo was seen in 12% of cases and 6% of control group which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between cases and controls with respect to type of vitiligo. Conclusions: Vitiligo can occur in Type 2 diabetics as seen in our study and few other recent studies. The exact pathogenesis is not very clear and needs further consideration. PMID:28400636

  12. [Erythermalgia and type 1 diabetes: diagnosis and management issues. A case report].

    PubMed

    Deghima, S; Chabane, W; Djorane, H; Azzouz, M; Hannachi, R; Boudiba, A

    2015-01-01

    Erythermalgia is a very rare acrosyndrome mainly characterized by lower limbs pain. It is either primitive or secondary. Concomittence of erythermalgia and diabetes is a coincidence and since the latter induces neuropathic and vascular lesions, erythermalgia is then considered as a consequence. We report the case of a young type 1 diabetic patient who presents with severe form of erythermalgia. Through this case report and a review of the literature, we shall explain the etiopathogenic mecanisms involved in erythermalgia in a diabetic patient and highlight the diagnosis and management challenges.

  13. Diabetes mellitus with Laron syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Agladıoglu, Sebahat Yılmaz; Cetınkaya, Semra; Savas Erdeve, Senay; Onder, Asan; Kendırcı, Havva Nur Peltek; Bas, Veysel Nijat; Aycan, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    There are different opinions concerning changes in glucose metabolism in patients with Laron syndrome. In this paper we discuss the treatment results of our patient with Laron syndrome who developed diabetes during late adolescence. A 19-year-old boy with Laron syndrome was referred to our clinic for follow-up. He had been diagnosed with Laron syndrome (LS) at 4 years old and rIGF-1 therapy was initiated. After 4 months the treatment was discontinued. At the age of 17, rIGF-1 therapy was restarted. A height gain of 8.8 cm. was observed during the 2-year treatment period. He was admitted to our hospital at the age of 19 years following discontinuation of the therapy. At that time, his height was 142 cm, and weight for height was 136%. His blood glucose was 85 mg/dL (4.72 mmol/L), insulin was 26.39 pmol/L, and HbA1c was 5.4%. At the age of 20, when he has not been receiving IGF-1 therapy for 1 year, his weight for height was 143 cm. Laboratory evaluation revealed that fasting blood glucose was 176 mg/dL (9.77 mmol/L), fasting insulin was 29.86 pmol/L, and HbA1c was 7.5%. Primary insulin therapy was then initiated. His parents both had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Insulin therapy was switched to oral antidiabetic (OAD) therapy at the end of the second year because of a normal C-peptide level of 0.8 nmol/L under insulin therapy. After 6 months of OAD, HbA1c was 5.7%. The treatment was then switched to IGF-1 therapy, but his blood glucose profile was impaired and OAD therapy was restarted. In conclusion, we observed that genetic susceptibility and abdominal obesity caused type 2 diabetes in this patient. We believe that oral antidiabetic agents and life-style changes may be the appropriate approach when diabetes is developed in LS patients.

  14. Management of hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Peñalver, Juan José; Martín-Timón, Iciar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients are associated with adverse outcomes including increased rates of infection, longer hospital length of stay, and even death. Clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus proved that by improving glycemic control, we can reduce all of them. Insulin is the preferred treatment for glycemic control in most cases, but alternative treatment options that can normalize blood glucose levels without hypoglycemia are being sought. Moreover, hospitalized patients are particularly vulnerable to severe, prolonged hypoglycemia since they may be unable to sense or respond to the early warning signs and symptoms of low blood glucose. Finally, nutritional support, corticosteroid therapy, and surgery increase the risk of hyperglycemia that leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We review the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who are admitted to the general medical wards of the hospital for a procedure of intercurrent illness. PMID:28191539

  15. Management of hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Marín-Peñalver, Juan José; Martín-Timón, Iciar; Del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2016-12-01

    Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients are associated with adverse outcomes including increased rates of infection, longer hospital length of stay, and even death. Clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus proved that by improving glycemic control, we can reduce all of them. Insulin is the preferred treatment for glycemic control in most cases, but alternative treatment options that can normalize blood glucose levels without hypoglycemia are being sought. Moreover, hospitalized patients are particularly vulnerable to severe, prolonged hypoglycemia since they may be unable to sense or respond to the early warning signs and symptoms of low blood glucose. Finally, nutritional support, corticosteroid therapy, and surgery increase the risk of hyperglycemia that leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We review the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who are admitted to the general medical wards of the hospital for a procedure of intercurrent illness.

  16. Pulmonary Paecilomyces in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Sara; Tabarsi, Payam; Adimi, Parvaneh; Kiani, Arda; Dolatshahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces species are among the most frequent saprophytes. Two species namely Paecilomyces lilacinus and Paecilomyces variotii are the most frequently isolated species from humans. Fungemia, endocarditis peritonitis, osteomyelitis and rarely pneumonia have been reported. We report a 74-year old diabetic woman with Paecilomyces variotii pneumonia. Paecilomyces variotii is a rare cause of pneumonia and in our knowledge, our case is the first case of pleural effusion due to this fungus. PMID:27114730

  17. Pulmonary Paecilomyces in a Diabetic Patient.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Sara; Tabarsi, Payam; Adimi, Parvaneh; Kiani, Arda; Dolatshahi, Samaneh; Mansouri, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces species are among the most frequent saprophytes. Two species namely Paecilomyces lilacinus and Paecilomyces variotii are the most frequently isolated species from humans. Fungemia, endocarditis peritonitis, osteomyelitis and rarely pneumonia have been reported. We report a 74-year old diabetic woman with Paecilomyces variotii pneumonia. Paecilomyces variotii is a rare cause of pneumonia and in our knowledge, our case is the first case of pleural effusion due to this fungus.

  18. The Adult Diabetic Patient: An Education Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    finding that he/she, too, must care for sicker patients. To better prepare these patients for life after discharge, patient education must be initiated as...admitted, patient education often begins at the physicians’ office. This paper explores diabetes mellitus in relation to concepts of self-care and adult...betting foj.L eduuation and iio.w, wore ofteni, patient education and follow-up sercvices- a:leL beiny p~rovided on ani outpatient bcdtsis" (p. 36) . Thet

  19. Patients with diabetes-induced microangiopathy show a reduced frequency of carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, A G; Hagedorn, H G; Böheim, M; Schleicher, E D

    1998-01-01

    Contradictary results have been reported indicating both increased and reduced risks for malignancies in diabetic patients. This may possibly be due to difficulties in the clinical diagnosis of carcinomas and inaccuracies in the determination of diabetic conditions in the autopsy studies. Since glomerular microangiopathy is a typical feature of long-term diabetes, we performed a retrospective statistical analysis on 5000 consecutive, non-selected autopsy cases with particular reference to the presence/absence of microangiopathy in diabetic individuals. In our study group, we found a total incidence of 9.8% (n = 488) diabetic patients of which 213 (4.3%) had a histologically confirmed significant glomerulosclerosis and a total of 34% patients with verified carcinoma (n = 1699). The age- and sex ratios were matched between diabetic, non-diabetic and carcinoma patients. Systemic and coronary arteriosclerosis were significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (p < 0.0001). Most interestingly, the rate of carcinomas in the diabetic group with nodular and diffuse glomerulosclerosis was 2.5- (p < 0.0001) and 1.9-fold (p < 0.0027), respectively, lower than in the non-diabetic group. In addition, the statistical evaluation showed in the glomerulosclerotic diabetic group significantly lower rates of metastasis. Our retrospective statistical analysis on an unselected series of autopsy cases thus provides evidence that diabetes mellitus with glomerulosclerosis is associated with a significantly lower frequency of carcinomas when compared to individuals without renal microangiopathy. Since TGF-beta is assumed to play a crucial role both in diabetes and carcinogenesis/tumor progression, our findings suggest an altered cell-matrix interaction in diabetes, possibly exerted by chronic TGF-beta overexpression.

  20. [Hyperglycemic crisis in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Schneider, S

    2012-09-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the two most acute life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus and in most cases treatment should be administered in an intensive care unit. Clinically, DKA and HHS differ according to the presence of metabolic acidosis; however, the treatment of DKA and HHS is similar. The main principles are intravenous administration of insulin and correction of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities which are typically present. By the application of a standardized treatment algorithm a low mortality rate can be achieved.

  1. Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: Effects on Weight Loss and Metabolic Control.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Pauline; Poitou, Christine; Carette, Claire; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Barsamian, Charles; Touati, Eliabelle; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Torcivia, Adriana; Czernichow, Sébastien; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Ciangura, Cécile

    2016-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes patients, although typically lean, experience an increased prevalence of obesity, and bariatric surgery is considered in severe cases. Bariatric surgery in such patients leads to significant weight loss and decreased insulin requirements; however, effects on glycemic control remain discussed. We assessed, in obese patients with type 1 diabetes, the effects of bariatric surgery upon body weight, body composition, and glycemic control, including the occurrence of hypoglycemic events. Thirteen obese patients with type 1 diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 6, sleeve gastrectomy n = 7) were matched with obese patients without diabetes and with type 2 diabetes patients during 12 months of follow-up. Outcomes included body weight, DXA-assessed body composition, HbA1c, and incidence of hypoglycemia. At 12 months, median surgery-induced weight loss was 27.9 % (21.1-33.3), 26.1 % (24.8-29.7), and 27.5 % (21.8-32.1) in patients with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and without diabetes, respectively, with no significant differences across the groups. Similar findings were observed for body fat changes. At 12 months, median HbA1c decreased from 8.3 to 7.6 % in type 1 diabetes patients versus 8.0 to 5.9 % in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.04 between the groups). In type 1 diabetes patients, the number of reported minor hypoglycemia increased transiently only at 6 months. Two patients reported severe hypoglycemia (one episode each). Type 1 diabetes patients benefit from bariatric surgery in terms of weight loss and glycemic control. Close monitoring of insulin therapy appears warranted to prevent minor hypoglycemia in the first months post-surgery.

  2. Prediction of Outcome in Diabetic Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Hospital-Based Pilot Study Report

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Amit R.; Badar, Shweta R.; Lande, Neha; Kawle, Anuja P.; Kabra, Dinesh P.; Chandak, Nitin H.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Singh, Lokendra R.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Demographic and clinical characteristics are known to influence the outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Purpose This study is aimed at evaluating short- and long-term outcomes in diabetic AIS patients. In addition, the study also evaluates the impact of diabetes on the performance of indigenously reported biomarker, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) and known biomarkers, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial-derived S-100 beta beta protein (S-100ββ). Methods This study was performed on 29 diabetes and 75 non-diabetes AIS patients. Outcome of AIS patients was analyzed by using modified Rankin scale at discharge, then at 12 and 18 months after discharge. Based on the obtained scores, patients were classified as improved group (scales 1-3) and dependent/expired group (scales 3-6). Blood samples were collected during admission and at discharge/expired time. Levels of NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 were analyzed in all samples. Results On discharge, frequencies of dependent/expired outcome were 4/29 (14%) and 19/75 (17%) in diabetic and non-diabetic AIS patients. However, follow-up outcome at 12 and 18 months showed higher dependent/expired cases of 43 and 41% among diabetic AIS patients compared to 27 and 21% in non-diabetic patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes is an independent risk factor for dependent/expired outcome in AIS patients (OR 0.484 (at discharge); 1.307 (at 12 months) and 1.675 (at 18 months)). NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 showed a differential expression in both the outcome groups of AIS patients, irrespective of diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes increases the risk of dependent/expired outcome in AIS patients. Also, serum NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 are independent biomarkers for prognosis of outcome in AIS patients, irrespective of diabetes. PMID:27780987

  3. Case study: use of vibration therapy in the treatment of diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junggi; Barnes, Meredith; Kessler, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a case of type II diabetic peripheral small fiber neuropathic pain treated with whole body vibration therapy after a failed trial of conventional drugs and interventional pain management. A 64-year-old male had chronic diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain in his both feet for about 2 years. The patient tried multiple pain medications and various interventional pain treatments without significant pain relief. After 4 weeks of vibration treatment, which targeted the feet the patient's pain level and gait patterns significantly improved. These findings illustrate the importance of considering whole body vibration as a complimentary treatment in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.

  4. Ascending infection of foot tendons in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mismar, Ayman; Yousef, Mohammad; Badran, Darwish; Younes, Nidal

    2013-12-01

    Bone and soft tissue infection in the foot of diabetic patients is a well-described issue in the literature. A sound anatomical knowledge of the foot anatomy and compartments is mandatory to understand the mechanisms of infection spread. We describe four cases of diabetic foot infection complicated by long ascending infection. All did not respond initially to antibiotic treatment and the usual surgical debridement and were cured only after excision of the infected tendons. We highlight a rare but serious complication of the diabetic foot disease not commonly seen by the surgical community. We hope that this report raises the awareness of this condition so that a prompt diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment started, thereby reducing the risk of major lower limb amputations.

  5. Upper extremity impairments, pain and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shah, K M; Clark, B R; McGill, J B; Mueller, M J

    2015-06-01

    To determine the severity of, and relationships between, upper extremity impairments, pain and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus, and to compare upper extremity impairments in patients with diabetes with non-diabetic controls. Case-control, cross-sectional design. University-based, outpatient diabetes centre and physical therapy research clinic. Two hundred and thirty-six patients with diabetes attending an outpatient diabetes clinic completed the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaire. A detailed shoulder and hand examination was conducted on a subgroup of 29 volunteers with type 2 diabetes, and 27 controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. None. SPADI score, passive shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength, grip strength, hand sensation, dexterity and limited joint mobility of the hand. Sixty-three percent (149/236) of patients with diabetes reported shoulder pain and/or disability [median SPADI score 10.0 (interquartile range 0.0 to 39.6)]. Compared with the control group, the subgroup of patients with diabetes had substantial reductions in shoulder ROM, shoulder muscle strength, grip and key pinch strength (P<0.05). Patients with diabetes had a greater prevalence of decreased sensation (26/27 vs 14/27) and limited joint mobility of the hand (17/27 vs 4/27) compared with the control group. Total SPADI score was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with shoulder ROM (r=-0.42 to -0.74) and strength measures (r=-0.44 to -0.63) in patients with diabetes. Upper extremity impairments in this sample of patients with diabetes were common, severe and related to complaints of pain and disability. Additional research is needed to understand the unique reasons for upper extremity problems in patients with diabetes, and to identify preventative treatments. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insulin pump therapy in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Adrienne A; Boyle, Mary E; Seifert, Karen M; Beer, Karen A; Apsey, Heidi A; Schlinkert, Richard T; Stearns, Joshua D; Cook, Curtiss B

    2012-01-01

    To assess perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus who were being treated with insulin pump therapy. We reviewed records for documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of surgery. Thirty-five patients (21 men) with insulin pumps underwent surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Mean age was 56 years, mean diabetes duration was 31 years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 years. All patients were white, and 29 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Of the 50 surgical procedures performed during the study period, 16 were orthopedic, 9 were general surgical, 7 were urologic, and 7 were kidney transplant operations; the remaining 11 procedures were in other surgical specialties. The mean (± standard deviation) time in the preoperative area was 118 ± 75 minutes, mean intraoperative time was 177 ± 102 minutes, and mean PACU time was 170 ± 78 minutes. Of the 50 procedures, status of pump use was documented in 32 cases in the preoperative area, 14 cases intraoperatively, and 30 cases in the PACU. Glucose values were recorded in 47 cases preoperatively, 30 cases intraoperatively, and 48 cases in the PACU. Results showed inconsistent documentation of pump use and glucose monitoring throughout the perioperative period, even for patients with prolonged anesthesia and recovery times. It was often unclear whether the pump was in place and operational during the intraoperative period. Guidelines should be developed for management of insulin pump-treated patients who are to undergo surgery.

  7. Treatment of Patients With Diabetic Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, Henry P.; Fass, Ronnie; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Gastroparesis, or chronic delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction, affects about 40% of patients with type 1 diabetes and up to 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) typically causes nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, and postprandial fullness. These symptoms can be extremely troubling and result in poor quality of life. The diagnosis of DGP is made by documenting the presence of chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, ruling out mechanical obstruction, and demonstrating delayed gastric emptying. The usual treatment for DGP includes dietary modifications, prokinetic agents, and antiemetic agents. Although the majority of patients have mild-to-moderate disease that can be managed using these measures, a substantial percentage of patients have severe DGP that is characterized by inadequate oral intake, malnutrition, weight loss, and frequent hospitalizations. Optimal management of these patients presents a difficult challenge for the clinician, although emerging treatment options, such as gastric neurostimulation, are encouraging. Patients with DGP often present with gastric comorbidities, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal dysmotility, and fungal and bacterial infections of the GI tract. This monograph will present an overview of the pathophysiology of DGP, review diagnostic testing with a discussion of emerging technology, and present the latest research in treatment options for DGP. In addition, management strategies for refractory DGP and gastric comorbidities will be described. PMID:20733935

  8. Risk of Bladder Cancer Among Diabetic Patients Treated With Pioglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Peng, Tiffany; Hedderson, Monique; Bilker, Warren B.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Vaughn, David J.; Nessel, Lisa; Selby, Joseph; Strom, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Some preclinical in vivo studies and limited human data suggest a possible increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone therapy. This is an interim report of an ongoing cohort study examining the association between pioglitazone therapy and the risk of bladder cancer in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study includes 193,099 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California diabetes registry who were ≥40 years of age between 1997 and 2002. Those with prior bladder cancer were excluded. Ever use of each diabetes medication (defined as two or more prescriptions within 6 months) was treated as a time-dependent variable. Cox regression–generated hazard ratios (HRs) compared pioglitazone use with nonpioglitazone use adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes medications, A1C, heart failure, household income, renal function, other bladder conditions, and smoking. RESULTS The group treated with pioglitazone comprised 30,173 patients. There were 90 cases of bladder cancer among pioglitazone users and 791 cases of bladder cancer among nonpioglitazone users. Overall, ever use of pioglitazone was not associated with risk of bladder cancer (HR 1.2 [95% CI 0.9–1.5]), with similar results in men and women (test for interaction P = 0.8). However, in the a priori category of >24 months of therapy, there was an increased risk (1.4 [1.03–2.0]). Ninety-five percent of cancers diagnosed among pioglitazone users were detected at early stage. CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of patients with diabetes, short-term use of pioglitazone was not associated with an increased incidence of bladder cancer, but use for more than 2 years was weakly associated with increased risk. PMID:21447663

  9. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bazmamoun, Hassan; Rafeey, Mandana; Nikpouri, Maryam; Ghergherehchi, Robabeh

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections. There is challenge on the real rate of prevalence of H. pylori in diabetic patients. This study was done to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children suffering from type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this case-control study, 80 diabetic patients (as the target group) refer to the Endocrinology Clinic of Tabriz Educational and Treatment Center, Tabriz northwestern Iran and 80 non-diabetic patients (as the control group) from the group of children referring to the GI Clinic of the same center  were enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Then H. pylori infection was assessed in two groups using measuring antibody (IgG) and stool antigen (HpSA). H. pylori infection tests were positive in 48 (60%) diabetic patients and in 32 (40%) in non-diabetic patients (P=0.030). There was a meaningful correlation between the frequency of H. pylori and the longer the duration of diabetes (P<0.001). No correlation was seen between H. pylori infection and other factors such as age of the patients (P=0.840), HbA1C level (P=0.312), age at which diabetes was diagnosed (P=0.800), average daily dosage of insulin (P=0.232), and presence of GI symptoms (P=0.430). Type 1 diabetic children especially cases with the longer duration of diabetes, are at risk acquiring H. pylori infection. Therefore, screening of H. pylori infection is helpful on the follow up of these patients.

  10. Effects of hyperlipidaemia on plasma apolipoprotein M levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an independent case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Puhong; Gao, Jialin; Pu, Chun; Feng, Gang; Wang, Lizhuo; Huang, Lizhu; Tao, Qingsong; Zhang, Yao

    2016-09-15

    Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is mainly enriched in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and is slightly present in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. apoM is involved in HDL formation and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. apoM is also associated with hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Significantly high plasma apoM levels are detected in hyperlipidaemia mice with a defective LDL receptor. By contrast, low plasma apoM levels are observed in patients with T2DM, which is often accompanied with hyperlipidaemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this condition is poorly understood. This research aims to examine the changes in apoM levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia and to determine the effects of hyperlipidaemia on plasma apoM levels in patients with T2DM. This study included patients with hyperlipidaemia (n = 79), patients with T2DM but without hyperlipidaemia (n = 125), patients with T2DM and hyperlipidaemia (n = 98), and healthy controls (n = 105). Their plasma apoM concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average plasma apoM concentrations were 18 % higher in the hyperlipidaemia group (26.63 ± 10.35 ng/μL) than in the healthy controls (22.61 ± 10.81 ng/μL, P <0.01). The plasma apoM concentrations were lower in the T2DM without hyperlipidaemia group (18.54 ± 10.33 ng/μL, P <0.01) and the T2DM with hyperlipidaemia group (19.83 ± 7.41 ng/μL, P <0.05) than in the healthy controls. Similar to apoA-I (1.29 ± 0.33 g/L vs. 1.28 ± 0.31 g/L, P >0.05), the plasma apoM concentrations in the T2DM with hyperlipidaemia group did not significantly differ from those in the T2DM without hyperlipidaemia group (P >0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that hyperlipidaemia (β = 5.18, P = 0.007) is an independent promoting factor of plasma apoM levels and diabetes (β = -3.09, P

  11. Diabetes mellitus in patients with cirrhosis: clinical implications and management.

    PubMed

    Elkrief, Laure; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sarin, Shiv; Valla, Dominique; Paradis, Valérie; Moreau, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of glucose metabolism, namely glucose intolerance and diabetes, are frequent in patients with chronic liver diseases. In patients with cirrhosis, diabetes can be either a classical type 2 diabetes mellitus or the so-called hepatogenous diabetes, i.e. a consequence of liver insufficiency and portal hypertension. This review article provides an overview of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms explaining diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is associated with portosystemic shunts as well as reduced hepatic mass, which can both impair insulin clearance by the liver, contributing to peripheral insulin resistance through insulin receptors down-regulation. Moreover, cirrhosis is associated with increased levels of advanced-glycation-end products and hypoxia-inducible-factors, which may play a role in the development of diabetes. This review also focuses on the clinical implications of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. First, diabetes is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Specifically, diabetes is associated with the occurrence of major complications of cirrhosis, including ascites and renal dysfunction, hepatic encephalopathy and bacterial infections. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver diseases. Last, the management of patients with concurrent diabetes and liver disease is also addressed. Recent findings suggest a beneficial impact of metformin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Insulin is often required in patients with advanced cirrhosis. However, the favourable impact of controlling diabetes in patients with cirrhosis has not been demonstrated yet.

  12. Diabetes Case Management in Primary Care: The New Brunswick Experience and Expanding the Practice of the Certified Diabetes Educator Nurse into Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shelley L

    2015-08-01

    The role of the outreach diabetes case manager in New Brunswick, Canada, was first developed in the Moncton Area of Horizon Health Network in response to a physician-identified gap between patients' diagnoses of diabetes and their attendance at the local diabetes education centre. This model of collaborative interprofessional practice increases support for primary care providers and people living with diabetes in that they are being provided the services of certified diabetes educators who can address knowledge gaps with respect to evidence-based guidelines and best practice, promote advancement of diabetes and chronic-disease management therapies and support adherence to treatment plans and self-management practices. This report chronicles a review of the implementation, expansion and evaluation of the outreach diabetes case manager model in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, along with the rationale for development of the role for registered nurses in other jurisdictions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Fatal pulmonary mycosis in a diabetic and cirrhotic patient].

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; Ismail, Olfa; Helal, Imen; Mlika, Mona; Kilani, Tarak; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare, devastating, opportunistic fungal infection, caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes. This infection occurs principally in some particular conditions, specially in diabetic patients and immunocompromised host, and rarely in cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis of mucormycosis can only be confirmed by pathological and mycological examination of biopsy specimens. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a 68-year-old woman with underlying liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Endoscopic and radiologic findings supported the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the lung. The patient underwent surgical resection and was started on amphotericin B, after pathological examination. Unfortunately, she succumbed to the infection within one month of surgery.

  14. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  15. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient's health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic.

  16. Sexuality among Spanish adults with diabetes: a population-based case control study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Martinez-Huedo, Maria Angeles; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; De Andres, Ana Lopez; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2012-12-01

    To describe and compare sexuality between subjects with diabetes with matched non-diabetic controls. Population based case control study using individual data from the Spanish National Sexual Health Survey. Diabetes status was self reported, we selected type 2 patients. We identified 461 diabetes sufferers. Two controls were matched by age, sex and sexual partner for each diabetic case. Sexuality measures included: sexual activity, importance of sex, satisfaction with partner, bothersome with one's sexual life and self-rated sexual health. Independent variables included: socio-demographics, physical health, chronic diseases and medications use. No differences were found in "Sexually activity", "Importance of sex" or "Bothersome" between those with and without diabetes. Dissatisfaction with partner was 25% in women with diabetes and 12.9% in non-diabetic controls (Adjusted-OR 1.82 95%CI 1.02-4.85). Diabetes sufferers reported sexual health as "fair/poor/very poor" more than their non-diabetic control, 58.1% vs. 45.1% for women (Adjusted-OR 1.74 95%CI 1.15-2.63) and 54.3% vs. 38% for men (Adjusted-OR 1.88 95%CI 1.29-2.75). Among diabetes sufferers "fair/poor/very poor" sexual health was associated with poorer physical health, not having a sexual partner and among men taking heart medications. Women and men with diabetes have significantly worse sexuality measures than non diabetic controls. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes Management via a Mobile Application: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jo, In-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Da Young; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Eun Mi

    2017-01-01

    Recently, mobile health care has been applied to manage diabetes requiring self-management. Health care by mobile applications (apps) has a great advantage when applied to patients with diabetes; the adherence to self-management activities for diabetes can be improved through mobile apps. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared and approved the use of some mobile apps as medical devices for the management of diabetes since 2010. However, mobile apps may not be effective for all patients. We here report the effect of use of mobile-based diabetes care app (Healthy-note app) for 2 patients with diabetes, and discuss issues and strategies for effective mobile intervention. Further study is needed on improving patient's participation to increase the effect of management via a mobile app.

  18. Diabetes Management via a Mobile Application: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recently, mobile health care has been applied to manage diabetes requiring self-management. Health care by mobile applications (apps) has a great advantage when applied to patients with diabetes; the adherence to self-management activities for diabetes can be improved through mobile apps. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared and approved the use of some mobile apps as medical devices for the management of diabetes since 2010. However, mobile apps may not be effective for all patients. We here report the effect of use of mobile-based diabetes care app (Healthy-note app) for 2 patients with diabetes, and discuss issues and strategies for effective mobile intervention. Further study is needed on improving patient's participation to increase the effect of management via a mobile app. PMID:28168183

  19. Chronic ulcers: MATRIDERM® system in smoker, cardiopathic, and diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Agovino, Annarita; Migner, Alessia; Orlandi, Fabrizio; Delogu, Pamela; Cervelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic ulcers and pressure ulcers represent a more frequent cause of chronic wounds in aging populations. It is estimated that approximately 15% of the diabetic population will develop diabetic ulcers during their life and over half of these patients develop an infection, often osteomyelitis, with 20% requiring amputation. The authors report a case of a 65-year-old woman affected by a post-traumatic loss of substance due to road accidents with soft tissue exposure (comprising muscle tendon) of the left knee combined with the fracture of the right fibula previously subjected to surgery and reconstruction of muscle tendon. The patient was affected by diabetes type II, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. In 2008, she underwent a double bypass surgery and coronary angioplasty. Initially, the patient was treated with cycles of advanced dressings, with fibrinolytic ointments, hydrocolloid, and subsequently, when the bottom began granulated with fibrinolytic and idrocellulosa, Hydrofibra-Ag, and Ag-alginate, three times a week for 30 days. In the second step, the authors decided to treat the ulcer with the MATRIDERM system and auto skin graft. Following the first treatment, 7 days after the procedure, the authors found the reduction of the loss of substance until its complete closure. The wound’s infection was evaluated by a buffer negative confirmation performed every 2 weeks four times. We obtained decrease of limb edema and full functional rehabilitation. The skin appeared renovated, with volume restoration and an improvement of the texture. PMID:24020011

  20. Lower Circulating Irisin Level in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, X-L; Jiang, W-X; Lv, Z-T

    2016-09-01

    Studies measuring circulating irisin levels in patients with insulin resistance conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have achieved controversial results. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the circulating irisin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI were searched to identify observational studies of circulating irisin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. Two reviewers independently searched the databases and screened studies according to the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using a standardized collection form. Meta-analysis was performed. A total of 23 studies (17 cross-sectional and 6 case control) involving 1 745 diabetic patients and 1 337 non-diabetic controls were selected. Compared with non-diabetic controls, circulating irisin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with T2DM (SMD -1.72, 95%CI -2.49, -0.96; p<0.00001) and GDM (SMD -0.76, 95CI -1.31, -0.22; p=0.006), but 30 percent higher in patients with T1DM. Circulating irisin in Asian diabetic patients decreased more than European patients. The findings of our current review suggest that circulating irisin levels were decreased in patients with T2DM and GDM, but not in patients with T1DM.

  1. The value of urine specific gravity in detecting diabetes insipidus in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: urine specific gravity in differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, Ersin; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktaran, Sebnem; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-11-01

    When a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with worsening polyuria and polydipsia, what is a sensible, cost-effective approach? We report the unique coincidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A 46-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complained of polyuria with a daily output of 5 L. Although urinalysis demonstrated significant glucosuria, diabetes insipidus was suspected owing to a low urine specific gravity (1.008). The low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test. Ultimately, diabetes insipidus was confirmed when urine specific gravity and urine osmolality normalized following desmopressin administration. This case emphasizes the importance of accurately interpreting the urine specific gravity in patients with polyuria and diabetes mellitus to detect diabetes insipidus.

  2. Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Daniel A.; Gyan, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), augmentation index (AIx), cardioankle vascular index (CAVI), and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV). Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao (8.3 ± 1 versus 7.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.044) and CAVI (7.9 ± 1.2 versus 6.9 ± 0.7, p = 0.021) than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all p < 0.05); the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all p < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices. PMID:27774104

  3. Association between diabetes and tuberculosis: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Susan Martins; Araújo, Gleide Santos de; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Oliveira, Maeli Gomes de; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-12-22

    To test the association between diabetes and tuberculosis. It is a case-control study, matched by age and sex. We included 323 new cases of tuberculosis with positive results for bacilloscopy. The controls were 323 respiratory symptomatic patients with negative bacilloscopy, from the same health services, such as: ambulatory cases from three referral hospitals and six basic health units responsible for the notifications of new cases of tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection occurred between 2008 and 2010. The instruments used were structured interview, including clinical data, capillary blood glucose (during fasting or postprandial), and the CAGE questionnaire for screening of abusive consumption of alcohol. Descriptive, exploratory, and multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The average age of the cases was 38.5 (SD = 14.2) years and of the controls, 38.5 (SD = 14.3) years. Among cases and controls, most subjects (61%) were male. In univariate analysis we found association between the occurrence of diabetes and tuberculosis (OR = 2.37; 95%CI 1.04-5.42), which remained statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.12-7.94). The association between diabetes and tuberculosis can hinder the control of tuberculosis, contributing to the maintainance of the disease burden. The situation demands increasing early detection of diabetes among people with tuberculosis, in an attempt to improve disease control strategies. Testar a associação entre diabetes e tuberculose. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle, pareado por idade e sexo. Foram incluídos 323 casos novos de tuberculose com resultados positivos à baciloscopia. Os controles foram 323 sintomáticos respiratórios com baciloscopia negativa, oriundos dos mesmos serviços de saúde dos casos: ambulatórios de três hospitais de referência e seis unidades básicas de saúde responsáveis pelas notificações dos casos novos de

  4. A qualitative study of primary care professionals’ views of case finding for depression in patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routinely conducting case finding (also commonly referred to as screening) in patients with chronic illness for depression in primary care appears to have little impact. We explored the views and experiences of primary care nurses, doctors and managers to understand how the implementation of case finding/screening might impact on its effectiveness. Methods Two complementary qualitative focus group studies of primary care professionals including nurses, doctors and managers, in five primary care practices and five Community Health Partnerships, were conducted in Scotland. Results We identified several features of the way case finding/screening was implemented that may lead to systematic under-detection of depression. These included obstacles to incorporating case finding/screening into a clinical review consultation; a perception of replacing individualised care with mechanistic assessment, and a disconnection for nurses between management of physical and mental health. Far from being a standardised process that encouraged detection of depression, participants described case finding/screening as being conducted in a way which biased it towards negative responses, and for nurses, it was an uncomfortable task for which they lacked the necessary skills to provide immediate support to patients at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion The introduction of case finding/screening for depression into routine chronic illness management is not straightforward. Routinized case finding/screening for depression can be implemented in ways that may be counterproductive to engagement (particularly by nurses), with the mental health needs of patients living with long term conditions. If case finding/screening or engagement with mental health problems is to be promoted, primary care nurses require more training to increase their confidence in raising and dealing with mental health issues and GPs and nurses need to work collectively to develop the relational work required to

  5. A qualitative study of primary care professionals' views of case finding for depression in patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Margaret; Harris, Fiona; Hibberd, Carina; Donaghy, Eddie; Pratt, Rebekah; Williams, Chris; Morrison, Jill; Gibb, Jennifer; Watson, Philip; Burton, Chris

    2013-04-04

    Routinely conducting case finding (also commonly referred to as screening) in patients with chronic illness for depression in primary care appears to have little impact. We explored the views and experiences of primary care nurses, doctors and managers to understand how the implementation of case finding/screening might impact on its effectiveness. Two complementary qualitative focus group studies of primary care professionals including nurses, doctors and managers, in five primary care practices and five Community Health Partnerships, were conducted in Scotland. We identified several features of the way case finding/screening was implemented that may lead to systematic under-detection of depression. These included obstacles to incorporating case finding/screening into a clinical review consultation; a perception of replacing individualised care with mechanistic assessment, and a disconnection for nurses between management of physical and mental health. Far from being a standardised process that encouraged detection of depression, participants described case finding/screening as being conducted in a way which biased it towards negative responses, and for nurses, it was an uncomfortable task for which they lacked the necessary skills to provide immediate support to patients at the time of diagnosis. The introduction of case finding/screening for depression into routine chronic illness management is not straightforward. Routinized case finding/screening for depression can be implemented in ways that may be counterproductive to engagement (particularly by nurses), with the mental health needs of patients living with long term conditions. If case finding/screening or engagement with mental health problems is to be promoted, primary care nurses require more training to increase their confidence in raising and dealing with mental health issues and GPs and nurses need to work collectively to develop the relational work required to promote cognitive participation in case

  6. Counseling and depression among diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Essmat A; Gemeay, Essmat M; Moussa, Ihab M

    2013-03-01

    To determine the level of depression in diabetic patients and investigate the effect of a counseling program on the level of depression. A pre-post experimental study was conducted at the outpatient medical clinics of the Health Insurance Hospital affiliated to the Ministry of Health, Mansoura, Egypt. The study was carried out between June 2011 and September 2011. One hundred and twenty type II diabetic patients were recruited in this study. We used 2 tools for data collection: a) A structured interview questionnaire including socio-demographic and disease related data. b) The Zung self-rating depression scale. We classified the subjects into 2 equal groups of 60 patients each (group A--control and group B--experimental). Both groups were interviewed after 3 months to assess the level of depression. On initial assessment, depression was found in approximately 57.5% of the control group, and severe depression in 32.5%. On second assessment, the depression rate in the control group increased to 67.5%, while the severe depression rate decreased to 25%. In the experimental group, at initial assessment, it was noticed that the percentage of subjects with no depressions increase to be 39.7% instead of 27%, also, the level of mild and severe depression decrease to be 56.1% post assessment instead of 58.4% and 14.6%. Counseling, as a nursing intervention, is helpful in reducing the level of depression among diabetic patients.

  7. Perforating necrobiosis lipoidica in a girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a new case reported.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Houda; Youssef, Soumaya; Jaber, Kahena; Dhaoui, Mohamed Raouf; Doss, Nejib

    2008-07-15

    Necrobiosis lipoidica is an idiopathic dermatological condition that is strongly associated with diabetes mellitus. It is more commonly seen in women than men. The average age of onset is 30-40 years. Necrobiosis Lipoidica diabeticorum is an extremely rare finding in childhood diabetes. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who has had type 1 diabetes mellitus since she was 8 years old. The patient presented with 2 well-defined, persistent plaques with a depressed central area and elevated purple peripheral ring, one on the right thigh and the other over the lateral left leg. Histopathologic evaluation of the patient's biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica with transfollicular elimination. Our patient is the second pediatric case described with perforating necrobiosis lipoidica. We review the literature and discuss clinical features, several complications, and the most recent treatment options for necrobiosis lipoidica in diabetic children.

  8. Clinical characteristics of eight patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Haruo; Sugiyama, Yukari; Ohro, Yoichiro; Imamine, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Sinichi; Togari, Hajime

    2004-06-01

    Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by the insensitivity of the distal nephron to arginine vasopressin. Clinical knowledge of this disease is based largely on case reports. For this study, we investigated the clinical findings of eight patients in terms of age at onset, age at diagnosis, main complaint, results of physical examination, the diagnosis, the effect of treatment, kidney function, and presence or absence of gene defects. The main complaints of all eight cases at initial examination were unknown fever, failure to thrive, and short stature. Polyuria and polydipsia are not always the chief complaints with congenital NDI. In one case, diabetes insipidus could be diagnosed based only on the results of a 5% hypertonic saline test. In six cases, we found abnormalities in the V2 receptor gene. Initially, trichlormethiazide therapy was shown to have a significant effect on polyuria; however, this effect decreased over time. In one patient with partial NDI, the addition of trichlormethiazide twice a day to 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin increased urine osmolality in the morning and caused nocturia to disappear. Results of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid kidney scintigraphy revealed a slight decrease in glomerular filtration rate in three patients. No patient experienced serious renal dysfunction.

  9. Diabetic gangrene in multiple fingers and toes after a dog bite in an elderly patient with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Oya, Junko; Hanai, Ko; Miura, Junnosuke; Maruyama, Satoko; Ishii, Akiko; Syono, Kazu; Shinjo, Takamichi; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A 78-year-old diabetic woman experienced multiple sites of gangrene not only in fingers that were directly bitten by a dog but also in fingers and toes that had not beenbitten. Her glycemic control was fair and microvascular complications were mild. There were no clinical findings related to angitis, collagenosis or severe infection. The fingers and toes with gangrene were amputated. The pathological diagnosis was diabetic gangrene. This report presents a case of multiple sites of gangrene of the fingers and toes after a dog bite in an elderly patient with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis case with diabetes insipidus and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, E; Altinisik, G; Aydogmus, U; Bir, F

    2017-04-01

    A 19-year-old male patient was observed due to having central diabetes insipidus (DI) for five years. He had a history of smoking 5-10 cigarettes a day for two years, but stopped smoking from the last month. The computerized tomography revealed thin-walled cystic lesions in different sizes more dominantly in the upper lobes and consolidated areas in the left upper and lower lobes. The wedge resection from the right lower lobe revealed pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis. Follow-up acid-fast bacteria (AFB) examinations revealed (+++) and antituberculous treatment was started. On the 40th day of the anti-tuberculosis treatment, the patient applied once again due to fever and chest pain. Although infiltrations persisted in the left upper and middle zones in the postero-anterior lung rontgenogram, right-sided pneumothorax was detected. The case is considered tuberculosis and the patient continued to receive anti-TB treatment under the close supervision.

  11. Psychosocial interventions for the diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, John N

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes usually requires substantial life-long self-management by the patient. Psychological factors and the patient’s health beliefs are important determinants of self-care behavior. Education has a modest influence on generating better self-care, but psychologically based interventions are clearly more effective. This review gives an overview of these interventions with some discussion of their basis in psychological theory. Some labels such as cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy include a wide range of approaches. Randomized trials have generally produced improvement in measures of psychological well-being, but improved glycemic control has been more elusive. The influence on behavior can be very dependent on the individual therapist. Only a few trials have managed to sustain improvement in glycosylated hemoglobin beyond a year. Not all patients are prepared to engage and accept these forms of therapeutic intervention. We are still some way from moving psychological management from the trial situation into the diabetic clinic. PMID:25657590

  12. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  13. Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters What Is Coronary Artery Disease? Atherosclerosis is the disease process that narrows large ... heart attack, and possibly sudden death. Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Patients with diabetes mellitus have more extensive atherosclerosis ...

  14. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  16. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26508947

  17. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common endocrine disorders in clinical practice. The unrecognized TD may adversely affect the metabolic control and add more risk to an already predisposing scenario for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of TD in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). Methods This is an observational cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighty-six (386) patients with T1DM or T2DM that regularly attended the outpatient clinic of the Diabetes unit, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, participated in the study. All patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation. Thyroid dysfunction was classified as clinical hypothyroidism (C-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/mL and FT4 < 0.93 ng/dL; Subclinical hypothyroidism (SC-Hypo) if TSH > 4.20 μUI/ml and FT4 ranged from 0.93 to 1.7 ng/dL; Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SC-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 in the normal range (0.93 and 1.7 ng/dL) and Clinical hyperthyroidism (C-Hyper) if TSH < 0.27 μUI/ml and FT4 > 1.7 μUI/mL. Autoimmunity were diagnosed when anti-TPO levels were greater than 34 IU/mL. The positive autoimmunity was not considered as a criterion of thyroid dysfunction. Results The prevalence of TD in all diabetic patients was 14,7%. In patients who had not or denied prior TD the frequency of TD was 13%. The most frequently TD was subclinical hypothyroidism, in 13% of patients with T1DM and in 12% of patients with T2DM. The prevalence of anti-TPO antibodies was 10.8%. Forty-four (11.2%) new cases of TD were diagnosed during the clinical evaluation. The forty-nine patients with prior TD, 50% with T1DM and 76% with T2DM were with normal TSH levels. Conclusions We conclude that screening for thyroid disease among patients with diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the prevalence of new cases diagnosed and the possible

  18. Case fatality rates after first acute coronary syndrome in persons treated for type 2 diabetes show an improving trend.

    PubMed

    Winell, K M; Pääkkönen, R; Pietilä, A; Niemi, M K; Reunanen, A R; Salomaa, V V

    2010-03-01

    We analysed whether the prognosis of a first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients treated for type 2 diabetes has improved. We also compared the trends in patients with and without diabetes. We used national registers to identify all patients with clinically known type 2 diabetes in Finland during the years 1988 to 2002 (n = 222,940). All first-ever ACS events (n = 43,412) among these patients were identified using the Hospital Discharge Register and the Causes of Death Register. From the National Cardiovascular Disease Register we identified all first ACS attacks (n = 191,403) among non-diabetic patients in the country. Finally, we calculated annual age-standardised case fatality rates for ACS for three time periods: prehospital, days 0 to 27 and days 28 to 364 after the first ACS. The case fatality rate of first ACS declined significantly in both sexes at all time points considered. The declining trends were not different between patients with type 2 diabetes and those without. Among men aged 35 to 74 years, 58.5% (95% CI 57.6-59.4%) with type 2 diabetes and 44.1% (95% CI 43.8-44.5%) without diabetes had died from cardiovascular causes 1 year after their first ACS. Among women of the same age, the corresponding figures were 54.2% (95% CI 53.0-55.4%) and 36.5% (95% CI 35.9-37.1%). Men generally had higher case fatality rates than women. However, except for prehospital deaths, diabetic women had the same or even higher case fatality rates than non-diabetic men. The case fatality rates for first ACS show similar improving trends in patients with type 2 diabetes and in those without. However, case fatality rates have remained higher in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Creatine kinase activity in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Jevrić-Causević, Adlija; Malenica, Maja; Dujić, Tanja

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus can be looked upon as an array of diseases, all of which exhibit common symptoms. While pathogenesis of IDDM (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus) is well understood, the same is not true for diabetes mellitus type II. In the latter case, relative contribution of the two factors (insulin resistance or decreased insulin secretion) varies individually, being highly increased in peripheral tissues and strictly dependant on insulin for glucose uptake. Moreover, in patients with diabetes mellitus type II, disbalance at the level of regulation of glucose metabolism as well as lipid metabolism has been noted in skeletal muscles. It is normal to assume that in this type of diabetes, these changes are reflected at the level of total activity of enzyme creatine kinase. This experimental work was performed on a group of 80 regular patients of Sarajevo General Hospital. Forty of those patients were classified as patients with diabetes type I and forty as patients with diabetes type II. Each group of patients was carefully chosen and constituted of equal number of males and females. The same was applied for adequate controls. Concentration of glucose was determined for each patient with GOD method, while activity of creatine kinase was determined with CK-NAC activated kit. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS software for Windows. Obtained results point out highly expressed differences in enzyme activity between two populations examined. Changes in enzyme activity are more expressed in patients with diabetes type II. Positive correlation between concentration of glucose and serum activity of the enzyme is seen in both categories of diabetic patients which is not the case for the patients in control group. At the same time, correlation between age and type of diabetes does exist . This is not followed at the level of enzyme activity or concentration of glucose.

  20. Patient perspectives of an individualized diabetes care management plan.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Ashley N; Ansa, Benjamin; Coffin, Janis; Akhtar, Mariam; Miller, Andre; Mahoney, Holly; Hodo, Denise M; Duffie, Carla; Fontenot, Brittney; Andrews, Holly E; Smith, Selina A

    2017-01-01

    This cross sectional study examines patients' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about a diabetic care management plan (DCMP) that was developed to provide patient education on diabetes guidelines and display individual diabetic core measures. Secondary objectives included a comparison of diabetic core measures [hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and urine microalbumin (Um)] before and after DCMP implementation. We hypothesize this tool will contribute to patients' awareness of current disease status, diabetes knowledge and diabetic core value improvement over time. A consecutive sample of 102 adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a primary care setting participated. Patients' perspectives on the care plan and knowledge about diabetes was collected via survey after care plan implementation. A comparison of selected diabetic core measures was conducted at baseline and post-DCMP. Descriptive statistics summarized survey response and diabetic core measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess change in diabetic core measures over time. Participants understood the DCMP (96%), found it important because it explained their laboratory results and medications (89%) and believed it would help them to have better diabetic control (99%). There was a significant interaction between time and being at goal pre-DCMP for HbA1c, SBP and LDL. Patients not at goal pre-DCMP for the above measures decreased significantly over time (P = <0.01 for HbA1c, SBP and LDL). Participants at goal for all diabetic core measures increased pre- to post-DCMP from 13% to 20% (P = 0.28). Patients perceived the diabetic care management plan favorably and their diabetic core measurements improved over time. This simple and reproducible self-management intervention can enhance self-management in a patient population with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  1. A cohort study of diabetic patients and diabetic foot ulceration patients in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Xuemei; Xia, Lei; Fu, Xiaobing; Xu, Zhangrong; Ran, Xingwu; Yan, Li; Li, Qiu; Mo, Zhaohui; Yan, Zhaoli; Ji, Qiuhe; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the annual incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for foot ulceration in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in China. To investigate a cohort of 1,333 patients comprising 452 DFU patients and 881 DM patients, who underwent foot screening, physical examination, and laboratory tests in eight hospitals. The patients were assessed at baseline in terms of their demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy disease (PND) screening, periphery artery disease (PAD) screening, assessment of nutritional status, and diabetic control. One year later, the patients were followed up to determine the incidence of new foot ulcers, amputation, and mortality. By univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in age, location, gender, living alone (yes/no), occupation, smoking, hypertension, PND, PAD, nephropathy, retinopathy, cataracts, duration of diabetes, Glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial blood glucose level, insulin level, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyeride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum albumin, white blood cell, and body mass index. A binary logistic regression model was used to examine which of these risk factors were independent risk factors for foot ulceration. A total of 687 (51.5%) of the 1,333 patients were followed up for an average of 12 months; there were 458 DM patients and 229 DFU patients. A total of 46 patients died during the follow-up period; 13 were DM patients, and 33 were DFU patients. Of the 641 patients, 445 (69.4%) patients were DM patients, and 196 (30.6%) were DFU patients. At follow-up, 36/445 DM patients (8.1%), and 62/196 DFU patients (31.6%), developed new ulcers; 10/196 DFU patients underwent an amputation. The annual incidence of ulceration for DM patients and amputation for DFU patients were 8.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The annual mortality of

  2. Group B streptococcal necrotizing pneumonia in a diabetic adult patient.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Andrea; Luna Cian, Ramiro; Bonofiglio, Laura; Solari, Melisa; Strada, Virginia; Suárez, Mariana; Vigliarolo, Laura; Tersigni, Carina; Mollerach, Marta; Lopardo, Horacio

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this report is to describe a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia due to group B Streptococcus serotype III in a relatively young male adult (48 years old) suffering from diabetes. The organism was isolated from his pleural fluid and was only resistant to tetracycline. The patient first received ceftazidime (2g/8h i.v.)+clindamycin (300mg/8h) for 18 days and then he was discharged home and orally treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid (1g/12h) for 23 days with an uneventful evolution. As in the cases of invasive infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, clindamycin could prevent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

  3. Sociodemographic factors responsible for blindness in diabetic Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Abueleinen, Khaled Gamal Ibraheem; El-Mekawey, Hany; Saif, Yasser Sayed; Khafagy, Amr; Rizk, Hoda Ibrahim; Eltahlawy, Eman M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy. Methods Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors. Results A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%). A total of 158 (39.8%) patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2%) were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1%) had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education. PMID:22125407

  4. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  5. Diabetes Stories: Use of Patient Narratives of Diabetes to Teach Patient-Centered Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Arno K.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Paula T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component to instituting compassionate, patient-centered diabetes care is the training of health care providers. Our institution developed the Family Centered Experience (FCE), a comprehensive 2-year preclinical program based on longitudinal conversations with patients about living with chronic illness. The goal of the FCE is to explore…

  6. Decreased Coronary Microvascular Reactivity after Cardioplegic Arrest in Patients with Poorly Controlled Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Chu, Louis M.; Nikola, Dobrilovic N; Liu, Yuhong; Singh, Arun K.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion (CP/Rep) on coronary arteriolar responses to endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators and associated signaling pathways in poorly controlled diabetic, well controlled diabetic and case-matched non-diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and Results Coronary arterioles from harvested right-atrial tissues were dissected pre- and post-CP/Rep from poorly controlled diabetic (n = 10, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 9.3 ± 0.3), well controlled diabetic (n = 10, HbA1c = 6.2 ± 0.2) and non-diabetic patients (n = 10, HbA1c = 5.1 ± 0.1) undergoing CABG surgery. The baseline microvascular response to ADP, substance P and SNP of arterioles from poorly controlled diabetic patients were decreased as compared to the respective response from non-diabetic or well controlled diabetic patients (P < 0.05). The vasodilatory responses to ADP, and substance P after CP/Rep were significantly decreased in all three groups compared to pre-CP/Rep responses (P < 0.05). However, these decreases were more pronounced in the poorly controlled diabetic group (P < 0.05). The expression of protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), PKC-β, and protein oxidation in atrial tissues was significantly increased in the poorly controlled diabetic group as compared with those of non-diabetes or controlled diabetes. Conclusion Poorly controlled is associated with endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular dysfunction of coronary arterioles. Additionally, poorly controlled diabetes worsens the recovery of coronary arteriolar function after CP/Rep. These alterations are associated with the increased expression/activation of PKC-α and PKC-β, and enhanced oxidative stress. PMID:22828147

  7. Bacteriophage treatment of intransigent diabetic toe ulcers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fish, R; Kutter, E; Wheat, G; Blasdel, B; Kutateladze, M; Kuhl, S

    2016-07-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) infections are a growing public health problem, with increasing prevalence, poor response to antibiotics and bacterial resistance to traditional antimicrobials leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Bacteriophages (phages), the viruses that target specific bacteria, are one option for addressing bacterial infections, especially where antibiotics fail. Of particular value is a class of virulent staphylococcal phages that hit almost all Staphylococcus aureus, including most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here we report a continuous case series assessing the effectiveness of treating infected and poorly vascularised toe ulcers with exposed bone, after failure of recommended antibiotic therapy, using topically applied Staphylococcus aureus-specific phage. This was a compassionate-use case series of nine patients with diabetes and poorly perfused toe ulcers containing culture-proven Staphylococcus aureus infected bone and soft tissue, who had responded poorly to recommended antibiotic therapy. Six representative cases are presented here. The only generally accepted other option in each case was toe amputation. Exposed portions of the infected phalanges were removed in three cases and left in place in two cases. One case presented as a micro-clot induced gangrene following vascular stenting. In this case, phage were used to prevent infection. The phage used was a commercially available fully sequenced preparation of staphylococcal phage Sb-1. Phage solution was applied topically to the ulcerations once weekly, following standard good wound care. The amount of phage solution applied varied from 0.1 to 0.5 cc depending on volume and area of the ulceration. All infections responded to the phage applications and the ulcers healed in an average of seven weeks with infected bone debridement. One ulcer, where vascularity was extremely poor and bone was not removed to preserve hallux function, required 18 weeks of

  8. Hyperglycemia induces attention and gait deficits in diabetic mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sattar, L; Renneboog, B; Decaux, G

    2017-08-23

    Patients with diabetes mellitus experience a large number of falls and bone fractures that are not related solely to complications of the disease. The purpose of our study was to determine whether transient hyperglycemia affects attentional functions and gait. This was a case-control study. We asked 17 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus to perform three visual tests and one visual and auditory attention test (Phasic Alert A1-4 and A2-3, Go/No Go, Intermodal Comparison). Mean response time (ms) and total number of errors were assessed. Ten of the patients also performed a tandem gait test consisting of three steps. The total distance travelled (TDT, in mm) by the center of pressure was measured with a pressure-sensitive calibrated platform. Transient hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose level greater than 13, 8 mmol/L at the time of the test. These same patients were retested 1-3 days later at a blood glucose level at least 5, 5 mmol/L lower than the initial values (T24-72h). Nineteen patients with diabetes mellitus were matched with the original participants and performed the same test under normoglycemic conditions. During transient hyperglycemia, the mean response time (ms) and the TDT were significantly longer. The mean response time for the four tests increased by 53, 5 ms (P < 0.001). There was no increase in the number of errors. The TDT of the center of pressure increased significantly by 102 mm (P < 0.001). Transient hyperglycemia alters attention and gait in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Diabetic neuropathic cachexia: report of a recurrent case

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C.; Barohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic cachexia is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus and characterised by profound weight loss and painful dysaesthesias over the limbs and trunk. The pathophysiological basis of this disorder remains unknown and there have been no published cases of recurrent episodes. A hispanic man who experienced two episodes of diabetic neuropathic cachexia over a seven year period is described.

 PMID:9647310

  10. Anemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Jéssica; Fontela, Paula Caitano; Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Zimmermann, Carine Eloise Prestes; Sandri, Yana Picinin; Mallet, Emanelle Kerber Viera; Frizzo, Matias Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in DM2 patients and its correlation with demographic and lifestyle and laboratory variables. This is a descriptive and analytical study of the type of case studies in the urban area of the Ijuí city, registered in programs of the Family Health Strategy, with a total sample of 146 patients with DM2. A semistructured questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical variables and performed biochemical test was applied. Of the DM2 patients studied, 50 patients had anemia, and it was found that the body mass items and hypertension and hematological variables are significantly associated with anemia of chronic disease. So, the prevalence of anemia is high in patients with DM2. The set of observed changes characterizes the anemia of chronic disease, which affects quality of life of diabetic patients and is associated with disease progression, development, and comorbidities that contribute significantly to increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Purulent Pericarditis with Salmonella enterica Subspecies arizona in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ai; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Ohba, Kenji; Ito, Naomi; Sakai, Yuki; Kaneko, Akane; Machii, Masashi; Nonaka, Daishi; Goto, Yoshie; Takase, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-15

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not associated with any evident underlying immunosuppressive disorder apart from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because a pet snake was suspected as being the source of infection in the present case, patient education and a detailed review of exposure history could play an important role in treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  12. Purulent Pericarditis with Salmonella enterica Subspecies arizona in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ai; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Ohba, Kenji; Ito, Naomi; Sakai, Yuki; Kaneko, Akane; Machii, Masashi; Nonaka, Daishi; Goto, Yoshie; Takase, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not associated with any evident underlying immunosuppressive disorder apart from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because a pet snake was suspected as being the source of infection in the present case, patient education and a detailed review of exposure history could play an important role in treating patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28781305

  13. Dipstick urinalysis for diabetes screening in TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Blanca I.; Pino, Paula A.; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzman, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes knowledge among TB patients can contribute to improved TB treatment outcomes, but lack of diabetes diagnosis awareness is a limitation in developing countries. Given its low cost, the sensitivity of urine glucose dipsticks for diabetes screening in TB patients was assessed. Methods Glycosuria was assessed in 90 newly diagnosed TB patients (38 with diabetes) in south Texas, USA (n = 20) and northeast Mexico (n = 70) during January 2009–December 2010. Results Glycosuria was detected in 65% of the diabetic patients with chronic hyperglycemia (positive predictive value 91%, negative predictive value 84%). Conclusion We propose that TB clinics with limited budgets where portable glucometers may not be available conduct universal screening for diabetes with urine dipsticks. This could be followed by blood glucose or HbA1c testing in the subset of patients requiring confirmation or higher sensitivity assessment, to improve the comanagement of TB and diabetes. PMID:24030116

  14. Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Only Mild Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ricardo V.; Pinheiro, Jose C.; Schiavon, Carlos A.; Salles, João E.; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L.; Cummings, David E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) ameliorates type 2 diabetes in severely obese patients through mechanisms beyond just weight loss, and it may benefit less obese diabetic patients. We determined the long-term impact of RYGB on patients with diabetes and only class I obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sixty-six consecutively selected diabetic patients with BMI 30–35 kg/m2 underwent RYGB in a tertiary-care hospital and were prospectively studied for up to 6 years (median 5 years [range 1–6]), with 100% follow-up. Main outcome measures were safety and the percentage of patients experiencing diabetes remission (HbA1c <6.5% without diabetes medication). RESULTS Participants had severe, longstanding diabetes, with disease duration 12.5 ± 7.4 years and HbA1c 9.7 ± 1.5%, despite insulin and/or oral diabetes medication usage in everyone. For up to 6 years following RYGB, durable diabetes remission occurred in 88% of cases, with glycemic improvement in 11%. Mean HbA1c fell from 9.7 ± 1.5 to 5.9 ± 0.1% (P < 0.001), despite diabetes medication cessation in the majority. Weight loss failed to correlate with several measures of improved glucose homeostasis, consistent with weight-independent antidiabetes mechanisms of RYGB. C-peptide responses to glucose increased substantially, suggesting improved β-cell function. There was no mortality, major surgical morbidity, or excessive weight loss. Hypertension and dyslipidemia also improved, yielding 50–84% reductions in predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risks of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and stroke. CONCLUSIONS This is the largest, longest-term study examining RYGB for diabetic patients without severe obesity. RYGB safely and effectively ameliorated diabetes and associated comorbidities, reducing cardiovascular risk, in patients with a BMI of only 30–35 kg/m2. PMID:22723580

  15. Serum uric acid levels are associated with increased risk of newly developed diabetic retinopathy among Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study (diabetes distress and care registry at Tenri [DDCRT 13]).

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Hirohito; Okamura, Shintaro; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Tsujii, Satoru; Ishii, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the prospective association between baseline serum uric acid levels and consequent risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Data for 1839 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy were obtained from a Japanese diabetes registry. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying exposure information by sex was used and adjusted for potential confounders to assess the independent correlations between baseline serum uric acid levels and incidence rate of diabetic retinopathy. Newly developed diabetic retinopathy was recognized in 188 patients (10.2%) during the observation period of 2 years. Compared to the first serum uric acid quartile level, the multivariate adjusted hazards ratio for diabetic retinopathy development in male patients was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.14-3.41; P = .015), 1.92 (95% CI, 1.18-3.13; P = .008), and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.40-3.37; P = .001) for the second, third, and fourth serum uric acid quartile levels, respectively. But this was not the case with female patients. Higher serum uric acid levels were associated with increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in female patients. Serum uric acid may be a useful biomarker for predicting the future risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Anesthetic considerations in diabetic patients. Part II: intraoperative and postoperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, Yuji

    2010-10-01

    Some studies have reported that tight glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing major surgery improves perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, however, large randomized studies have shown such control increases the mortality rate, since aggressive glycemic control induces more frequent incidences of hypoglycemia. Diabetic patients have cerebral complications during the perioperative period more often than their nondiabetic counterparts. Further, anesthetic agents have some effects on cerebral circulation and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity. Hence, anesthesiologists should have adequate knowledge about anesthetic agents that maintain the integrity of the cerebral circulation. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased susceptibility to perioperative infections. Recent work confirmed that a combination of intravenous and subcutaneous insulin as a glucose management strategy had beneficial effects identical with intravenous insulin therapy alone on the reduction of infection rates during the postoperative period.

  17. Diabetic patient adherence to pathology request completion in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Niamh; Johnson, Tracey; Badrick, Tony

    2016-08-11

    Objective Little research exists regarding the prevalence of patient non-adherence with completing pathology requests for chronic disease monitoring. The aims of the present study were to determine the extent to which this exists in diabetic patients and to identify possible reasons contributing to this behaviour.Methods Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from three general practices with different demographics. Data were collected by recording demographic patient information at the time of visit. In addition, information regarding patient pathology request adherence and the reasons provided when this was not achieved were also noted. These reasons were compared with preconceptions by medical staff in each practice.Results General practitioner perceptions of poor patient adherence to pathology requests were confirmed, with rates of non-adherence up to 31% at one practice site. The primary reasons preventing completion of pathology testing included forgetfulness, time poorness, poor health literacy and, in some cases, language barriers.Conclusion A high proportion of patients do not prioritise the monitoring of their diabetes, potentially because of a lack of understanding of the importance such management has on their health. Further research should be conducted to determine the effect of the implementation of point-of-care testing on patient outcomes in such areas of low non-adherence with disease management.What is known about the topic? Little quantitative information exists regarding the adherence rate of patients to pathology request completion. Without up-to-date pathology results, a barrier is created, preventing accurate medical treatment of the patient's condition because the doctor cannot ascertain a full picture of the patient's current disease state at the time of consultation.What does this paper add? This paper quantifies the rate of non-adherence among three diabetic patient groups at different practice sites, taking into

  18. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asadian, Leila; Haddadi, Kaveh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Zare, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. This is a cross-sectional study. This case-control study was performed during 2012-2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. A total of 50 patients (15.2%) were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1%) in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4%) in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10%) in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls (P < 0.0001). Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  19. Zinc Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Relation to the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sulieman, Dhia M; Hussen, Kajeen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Zinc deficiency often occurs in patients with diabetes. Therefore, the relationship between zinc status and progression of nephropathy in diabetes has been explored. Materials and Methods: Total 300 diabetic patients and 100 non-diabetic healthy subjects (age matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into five groups as I: non-diabetic normotensive control; II: diabetic normotensive; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic normotensive with microalbuminuria; V: diabetic hypertensive with microalbuminuria. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum zinc, serum creatinine, and estimated-glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). Urine zinc, creatinine and microalbuminuria concentrations were determined. Results: The serum zinc levels were low (p<0.01) in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetic control subjects. The lower levels (p<0.001) of serum zinc were observed in Group IV and V as compared to group I-III. Significantly low levels of e-GFR (p<0.05) and high levels of microalbuminuria (p<0.001) were observed in diabetic patients with low serum zinc level as compared to normal serum zinc level. Serum zinc level in diabetic patients was inversely correlated with serum creatinine(r=-0.331, p<0.001), microalbuminuria (r=-0.587, p<0.001) and positively with e-GFR (r=0.194, p<0.01). Conclusion: It is evident from this study that advancing diabetic nephropathy represented by decreasing GFR and increasing microalbuminuria is associated with lower serum zinc levels. It thus indicates the need for determining serum zinc levels and the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in diabetic patients, particularly during the assessment of kidney damage. PMID:25584209

  20. Factitious disorder as repeated diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Nima A; Oettel, David J

    2011-02-01

    Factitious disorder is a challenging entity, both in diagnosis and treatment. The clinical presentation is variable in feigned symptoms and spans virtually all organ systems. The diagnostic criteria are simple, yet making the diagnosis is often complicated and can be delayed by focusing on the urgent or readily observable diagnosis. In this article, the authors present a case of factitious diabetic ketoacidosis resulting from the deliberate withholding of exogenous insulin. This particular case is dissected in order to portray the underlying psychopathology. In doing so, the authors illustrate how a patient with factitious disorder might fulfill unmet, presumably unrealized needs. The authors also discuss the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies of factitious disorder, both of which are of considerable debate within the psychiatric community.

  1. [Clinical characteristics of 7 patients with gestational diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Qun; Xiong, Chun-Qiu; Wu, Min; Dong, Ruo-Lin; Chen, Yun-Qin; Gao, Jie; Chen, Ou-Jing; Huang, Yin-Ping

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical feature, treatment and prognosis of both the mother and the fetus with gestational diabetes insipidus. A total of 7 cases of gestational diabetes insipidus collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou Combination of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Medicine Hospital, and Zhejiang Taizhou Hospital from June 1993 to June 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Seven cases symptoms all characterized by excessive thirst polydipsia and polyuria. The average 24 h urinary output was between 11 L to 13 L and manifested of hypobaricuria. After effective treatment (three cases were treated with 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, another three patients were managed with hydrochlorothiazide, and the last one was cured with antisterone), seven patients with gestational diabetes insipidus did not have any severe consequences. Their symptoms of excessive thirst, polyuria, and polydypsia disappeared from 7 days to 3 months after parturition. Urinary volume returned to normal standard of 1000-2000 ml during 24 hours. Specific gravity of urine recovered normally between a range 1.015-1.025 and serum sodium recovered between 135-147 mmol/L. The average duration of illness was 52 days. Eight newborn infants survived. Two of them were sent to neonatal intensive care unit for treatment. One was because of premature delivery caused by antepartum eclampsia, and the other case was one of the twins who had hydronephrosis. The baby of the first case left hospital after 3 weeks' treatment. The latter one's symptom disappeared 2 weeks after delivery. No obvious symptom was discovered among all the babies through follow-up telephone calls 42 days after childbirth. Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare endocrinopathy complicating pregnancy. This disorder is characterized by excessive thirst, polydypsia, polyuria, hypobaric urine and electrolyte disturbances usually manifesting in the third trimester of pregnancy or puerperium

  2. Effect of the diabetes outpatient intensive management programme on glycaemic control for type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Sun; Kim, Hee-Seung

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the diabetes outpatient intensive management programme (DOIMP) on glycaemic control over a 12 week follow-up period for type 2 diabetic patients in Korea. Diabetic complications can be prevented if the glycaemic status of diabetes patients is maintained within a nearly normal range. Patient education is critical in controlling blood glucose levels of patients with diabetes within the optimal range. DOIMP was composed of multidisciplinary education, complication monitoring and telephone counselling. Twenty-five patients in the intervention group participated in the DOIMP and 24 patients in the control group were briefed on the conventional description of diabetes mellitus by diabetes education nurses. Patients in the intervention group had a mean decrease of 2.3%, which those in the control group having a mean decrease 0.4% in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1)c). There was no difference between the two groups in the change in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and two-hour postprandial blood glucose (2-h PBG). The proportion of the patients with HbA(1)c <7% was higher in the intervention group than in the control group at the post-test compare with the pretest. DOIMP can reduce HbA(1)c in type 2 diabetes patients. These findings indicated that DOIMP could be effective in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.

  3. Frequency of Cutaneous Fungal Infections and Azole Resistance of the Isolates in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Raiesi, Omid; Siavash, Mansour; Mohammadi, Faezeh; Chabavizadeh, Javaher; Mahaki, Behzad; Maherolnaghsh, Mehrnoush; Dehghan, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal infections. The higher blood sugar levels cause increasing the cutaneous fungal infections in these patients. The main objective of this study was to find the frequency of fungal infections among cutaneous lesions of diabetic patients and to investigate azole antifungal agent susceptibility of the isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study, type 1diabetes (n = 78) and type 2 diabetes (n = 44) comprised 47 cases (38.5%) with diabetic foot ulcers and 75 cases (61.5%) with skin and nail lesions were studied. Fungal infection was confirmed by direct examination and culture methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method was performed according to the CLSI M27-A and M38-A references. Results: Out of 122 diabetic patients, thirty (24.5%) were affected with fungal infections. Frequency of fungal infection was 19.1% in patients with diabetic foot ulcer and 28% of patients with skin and nail lesions. Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus were the most common species isolated from thirty patients with fungal infection, respectively. Susceptibility testing carried out on 18 representative isolates (13 C. albicans, five C. glabrata) revealed that 12 isolates (10 C. albicans and two C. glabrata isolates) (66.6%) were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥64 mg/ml) to fluconazole (FCZ). Likewise, eight isolates (80%) of Aspergillus spp. were resistant (MIC ≥4 mg/ml), to itraconazole. Conclusion: Our finding expands current knowledge about the frequency of fungal infections in diabetic patients. We noted the high prevalence of FCZ-resistant Candida spp., particularly in diabetic foot ulcers. More attention is important in diabetic centers about this neglected issue. PMID:28626746

  4. Frequency of Cutaneous Fungal Infections and Azole Resistance of the Isolates in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Raiesi, Omid; Siavash, Mansour; Mohammadi, Faezeh; Chabavizadeh, Javaher; Mahaki, Behzad; Maherolnaghsh, Mehrnoush; Dehghan, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal infections. The higher blood sugar levels cause increasing the cutaneous fungal infections in these patients. The main objective of this study was to find the frequency of fungal infections among cutaneous lesions of diabetic patients and to investigate azole antifungal agent susceptibility of the isolates. In this study, type 1diabetes (n = 78) and type 2 diabetes (n = 44) comprised 47 cases (38.5%) with diabetic foot ulcers and 75 cases (61.5%) with skin and nail lesions were studied. Fungal infection was confirmed by direct examination and culture methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method was performed according to the CLSI M27-A and M38-A references. Out of 122 diabetic patients, thirty (24.5%) were affected with fungal infections. Frequency of fungal infection was 19.1% in patients with diabetic foot ulcer and 28% of patients with skin and nail lesions. Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus were the most common species isolated from thirty patients with fungal infection, respectively. Susceptibility testing carried out on 18 representative isolates (13 C. albicans, five C. glabrata) revealed that 12 isolates (10 C. albicans and two C. glabrata isolates) (66.6%) were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥64 mg/ml) to fluconazole (FCZ). Likewise, eight isolates (80%) of Aspergillus spp. were resistant (MIC ≥4 mg/ml), to itraconazole. Our finding expands current knowledge about the frequency of fungal infections in diabetic patients. We noted the high prevalence of FCZ-resistant Candida spp., particularly in diabetic foot ulcers. More attention is important in diabetic centers about this neglected issue.

  5. [Diabetic patients in the Yom Kippur fast--who can fast and how to treat the fasting patients].

    PubMed

    Katz, Yisrael; Zangen, David; Leibowitz, Gil; Szalalt, Auryan

    2009-09-01

    Jews all over the world fast on Yom Kippur, a fast lasting 25 hours. For diabetic patients and their physicians the fast is a significant challenge. The Jewish law exempts patients from fasting if the fast endangers the patient's health. In order to know if they can fast safely, many diabetic patients consult their physicians. In this review, the authors summarize the potential risk for fasting in diabetic patients and propose treatment protocols for patients who intend to fast. The principle recommendations are based on data related to fasting diabetic patients during the Ramadan fast, which is shorter than Yom Kippur. Furthermore, practical suggestions are based on a recent Israeli study on type 1 diabetic patients fasting for 25 hours, taking into account the Jewish law. Every diabetic patient who intends to fast should consult his physician for assurance that fasting is safe. The physician should pay special attention to patients on intensive insulin treatment or on sulfonylureas. Some, but not all these patients, should avoid fasting. In case these patients decide to fast, intensive monitoring of blood glucose is required during the fast to prevent severe hypoglycemia.

  6. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Monini, André da Costa; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-05-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention to the presence of uncommon responses to treatment and the need for the orthodontist to suspect a patient's systemic compromise.

  7. A clinical analysis of diabetic patients with hand ulcer in a diabetic foot centre

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Lv, L; Wen, X; Chen, D; Cen, S; Huang, H; Li, X; Ran, X

    2010-01-01

    Aims The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hand ulcer in hospitalized patients with diabetes. Methods We analysed 17 subjects with hand ulcer among diabetic inpatients, who were admitted to the Diabetic Foot Care Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from April 2003 to December 2008. Results The prevalence of diabetic hand ulcer among hospitalized patients (0.37%) was significantly lower than that of diabetic foot ulcers (9.7%, P= 0.000). The mean age was 62.1 ± 9.4 years. The average known durations of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were 5.3 ± 4.9 years and 10.9 ± 2.4%, respectively. All patients lived in the subtropical zone. Fifteen patients (88.2%) were diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Ten patients had hand infection. After therapy, the ulcers healed in 13 patients (76.5%) and none of them experienced amputation. The average hospital stay for patients with local infection was characteristically longer than that for patients without infection (P= 0.012). The prognosis of the hand ulcer was poorer in the patients who had diabetes for > 3 years compared with those who had diabetes for < 3 years (P= 0.009). Conclusions Diabetic hand ulcer is a relatively rare complication of diabetes in South-West China. Long duration of diabetes, poorly controlled blood glucose, minor trauma and delayed treatment are the risk factors. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hand ulcer. Early control of blood glucose with insulin and early anti-microbial therapy with appropriate antibiotics are crucial. Debridement and drainage are necessary for hand abscesses. PMID:20636968

  8. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Also, more diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  9. Patient perspectives of an individualized diabetes care management plan

    PubMed Central

    Saucier, Ashley N.; Ansa, Benjamin; Coffin, Janis; Akhtar, Mariam; Miller, Andre; Mahoney, Holly; Hodo, Denise M.; Duffie, Carla; Fontenot, Brittney; Andrews, Holly E.; Smith, Selina A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This cross sectional study examines patients’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about a diabetic care management plan (DCMP) that was developed to provide patient education on diabetes guidelines and display individual diabetic core measures. Secondary objectives included a comparison of diabetic core measures [hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and urine microalbumin (Um)] before and after DCMP implementation. We hypothesize this tool will contribute to patients’ awareness of current disease status, diabetes knowledge and diabetic core value improvement over time. Methods A consecutive sample of 102 adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in a primary care setting participated. Patients’ perspectives on the care plan and knowledge about diabetes was collected via survey after care plan implementation. A comparison of selected diabetic core measures was conducted at baseline and post-DCMP. Descriptive statistics summarized survey response and diabetic core measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess change in diabetic core measures over time. Results Participants understood the DCMP (96%), found it important because it explained their laboratory results and medications (89%) and believed it would help them to have better diabetic control (99%). There was a significant interaction between time and being at goal pre-DCMP for HbA1c, SBP and LDL. Patients not at goal pre-DCMP for the above measures decreased significantly over time (P = <0.01 for HbA1c, SBP and LDL). Participants at goal for all diabetic core measures increased pre- to post-DCMP from 13% to 20% (P = 0.28). Conclusion Patients perceived the diabetic care management plan favorably and their diabetic core measurements improved over time. This simple and reproducible self-management intervention can enhance self-management in a patient population with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:28835847

  10. [Eating behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Sapozhnikova, I E; Tarlovskaia, E I; Vedenskaia, T P

    2012-01-01

    To study the specific features of eating behavior (EB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). One hundred and seventy-eight patients, including 128 with type 2 DM and 50 with type 1 DM, were examined. Questionnaire survey, general clinical, and laboratory studies were conducted. The patient groups did not differ in educational level and gender. In the patients with type 1 DM, the duration of the disease was longer and the incidence of complications was higher than in those with type 2 DM. Carbohydrate metabolism was decompensated in the majority of the patients with types 1 and 2 DM. A higher normative score if only by one of the disordered EB (DEB) scales (according to the DEBQ), was found in 68 and 78.9% with type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively. The patients with type 2 DM were more frequently ascertained to have restrictive EB. The patients with type 2 DM and restrictive EB were more aware of the disease, more often checked blood glucose levels themselves, and were better compensated. The proportion of patients with external and emotiogenic EB did not differ between the groups, the latter type was registered less frequently. Disordered EBs were detected in many patients with DM. The found features of EB may be taken into account while teaching the patients.

  11. [Quality of life in patients with diabetes using the Diabetes 39 (D-39) instrument].

    PubMed

    Zulian, Luana Rosas; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Veras, Vívian Saraiva; Rodrigues, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti; Arrelias, Clarissa Cordeiro Alves; Zanetti, Maria Lucia

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the specific quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus. It is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted from August 2-28, 2012 in two basic health units, in the interior of São Paulo. A convenience sample, made up of 75 patients, 18 years old or older, both sexes, in a group of self-monitoring of blood glucose, was used. The Diabetes 39 (D-39) Instrument Evaluation, containing five dimensions: energy and mobility (15 items), diabetes control (12), anxiety and worry (4) social overload (5) and sexual behavior (3), was used. Quality of life proved to be highly affected in the items related to the social overload dimension, embarrassment for having diabetes, being called diabetic and diabetes interfering with family life. The elucidation of the assessed factors contributes to the planning of educational programs, insofar as they may hinder the achievement of metabolic control in patients with diabetes.

  12. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of Carpal Tunnel Release in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Kagan; Malay, Sunitha; Toker, Serdar; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for patient-reported outcomes questionnaires is essential in outcomes research to evaluate patients’ perspective of treatment effectiveness. We aim to determine (MCID) after carpal tunnel release in diabetic and non-diabetic patients using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Methods We prospectively evaluated 114 patients (87 non-diabetic, 27 diabetic) undergoing carpal tunnel release. In addition to standard history and physical examination, we obtained preoperative electrodiagnostic studies to confirm Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The BCTQ was administered before and after the surgery at 3 and 6 months. Patients were asked about their level of satisfaction at the final follow-up period. We applied the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve approach to determine the MCID of symptom and function severity scales of the questionnaire. We used patient satisfaction as the reference standard to compare against the standardized change in scores after surgery for the 2 groups. Results For both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, symptom and function severity scales showed large effect size of >0.8 at 3 and 6 months after the surgery. At 6 months after surgery to be satisfied, diabetic patients required an MCID of 1.55 and 2.05 points for symptom and function scales, whereas non-diabetic patients required 1.45 and 1.6 points, respectively. Conclusion Diabetic patients needed a greater improvement in BCTQ score to be satisfied on functional and symptom severity scales than non-diabetic patients. Overall diabetic patients had less improvement in BCTQ final scores compared to non-diabetics. PMID:23416439

  13. Diabetes and Reduced Risk for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections: A Nationwide Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Siddharth K.; Pedroza, Claudia; Khalil, Yameen A.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular diseases are the principal causes of death and disability in people with diabetes. At the same time, studies suggest a protective role of diabetes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms. We sought to determine whether diabetes is associated with decreased hospitalization due to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). Methods and Results We used the 2006 and 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine TAAD discharge rates. Control subjects were randomly selected to achieve three controls per case. Predictor variables in multilevel logistic regression included age, race, median income, diabetes, and hypertension. We estimated that the average rate of hospital discharge for TAAD among individuals diagnosed with diabetes was 9.7 per 10 000, compared to 15.6 per 10 000 among all discharges. The prevalence of diabetes was substantially lower in TAAD (13%) than in control (22%) records. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, the negative association between diabetes and TAAD remained highly significant in both NIS datasets. Compared to discharges without diabetes, those with chronic complications of diabetes were least likely to be diagnosed with TAAD (OR [odds ratio] 0.17, 95% CI, 0.12–0.23). A significant association remained between uncomplicated diabetes and TAAD. We replicated these findings in an independent group of patients who were hospitalized with acute thoracic aortic dissections. Conclusions The principal implication of our findings is that diabetes is independently associated with a decreased rate of hospitalization due to TAAD in proportion to the severity of diabetic complications. Future studies should consider diabetes in predictive models of aneurysm expansion or dissection. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:jah3-e000323 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.111.000323.) PMID:23130125

  14. Psychological Adjustment and Neuropsychological Performance in Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skenazy, Judy A.; Bigler, Erin D.

    1985-01-01

    Compared diabetic (N=39) with nondiabetic chronic illness patients (N=20) and healthy controls (N=24). The chronic illness and the diabetic groups had significant elevations on the Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria scales of the Feschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI. For diabetics, results demonstrated a negligible effect of poor adjustment on…

  15. When "diabetic nephropathy" is not always of diabetic origin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wróblewski, Krzysztof; Sodolska, Małgorzata; Wągrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata; Danilewicz, Marian; Moczulski, Dariusz

    2012-06-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) remains unknown. The presented case shows an extremely rare FGN in association with commonly diagnosed diabetes. A 74-year-old, non-smoking, obese and diabetic woman was hospitalized due to a progressive and accelerated decrease in the renal function. The primary cause of chronic kidney disease was believed to be of diabetic origin. In the renal biopsy, light microscopy showed glomerular changes resembling diabetic nephropathy, however electron microscopy evaluation revealed linear, randomly arranged fibrils present in the glomerular mesangium and in peripheral capillary loops. The biopsy confirmed fibrillary glomerulopathy.

  16. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Janus, Dominika Malgorzata; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Zygmunt-Górska, Agata; Wyrobek, Lukasz; Urbanik, Andrzej; Starzyk, Jerzy Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    To present symptoms, complications and proposition of management protocol in children diagnosed with adipsic diabetes insipidus (aDI). Clinical and biochemical analysis of six pediatric patients diagnosed with aDI, four boys aged 5, 13, 16, and 17 y and two girls aged 2.5 and 10 y. The etiology of aDI was germinoma (n = 2), extensive surgery due to optic glioma (n = 1) and astrocytoma (n = 1), congenital brain malformations (n = 1) and complications secondary to bacterial meningitis (n = 1). Two patients had severely impaired vision and two had hemiparesis. In all the patients, loss of thirst reflex was observed. The serum electrolytes in all patients showed sodium concentration from 159 to 176.6 mmol/L with plasma osmolality from above 297 mOsmol/kg. Polyuria was absent in three most severely dehydrated patients on admission. In two patients in whom DDAVP (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin; Desmopressin) therapy was withdrawn based on lack of polyuria deep venous thrombosis developed. Lack of polydipsia and polyuria, the key symptoms of diabetes insipidus (DI), may delay the diagnosis of aDI and may lead to severe complications of chronic hyperosmolar status. The fluid intake in patients diagnosed with aDI need to be supervised daily based on calculated constant volume of oral fluids, daily measurements of fluid balance, body weight and sodium levels, especially in patients whose vision is compromised or who are physically unable to take care of themselves.

  17. Adipsic diabetes insipidus in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Martín; Hannon, Mark J; Thompson, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus (ADI) is a very rare disorder, characterized by hypotonic polyuria due to arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency and failure to generate the sensation of thirst in response to hypernatraemia. As the sensation of thirst is the key homeostatic mechanism that prevents hypernatraemic dehydration in patients with untreated diabetes insipidus (DI), adipsia leads to failure to respond to aquaresis with appropriate fluid intake. This predisposes to the development of significant hypernatraemia, which is the typical biochemical manifestation of adipsic DI. A literature search was performed to review the background, etiology, management and associated complications of this rare condition. ADI has been reported to occur in association with clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm following subarachnoid haemorrhage, major hypothalamic surgery, traumatic brain injury and toluene exposure among other conditions. Management is very difficult and patients are prone to marked changes in plasma sodium concentration, in particular to the development of severe hypernatraemia. Associated hypothalamic disorders, such as severe obesity, sleep apnoea and thermoregulatory disorders are often observed in patients with ADI. The management of ADI is challenging and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prognosis is variable; hypothalamic complications lead to early death in some patients, but recent reports highlight the possibility of recovery of thirst.

  18. Intentional hypoglycemia to control bingeing in a patient with type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Mandana; Kreisman, Stuart; Hall, Lacresha

    2015-02-01

    Most cases of eating disorders associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus are categorized as diabulimia, a disorder of withholding insulin treatment to lose weight through sustained hyperglycemia. In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with both type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa who has an atypical way of controlling her bingeing by keeping her blood sugars low. This pattern of intentionally sustained hypoglycemia has not been previously described in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Knowing various presentations of eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes can provide healthcare workers with enhanced ability in recognizing and educating at-risk patients, in the hope of preventing serious hypoglycemia or complications. Furthermore, a patient's awareness of complications associated with suboptimal control of diabetes, whether by overdosing or underdosing their insulin regimen, might lead to avoidance of disordered eating behaviours.

  19. Lactic Acidosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acidosis occurs when lactate production exceeds its metabolism. There are many possible causes of lactic acidosis, and in any given patient, several causes may coexist. This Attending Rounds presents a case in point. Metformin’s role in the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus is complex, as the present case illustrates. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial, except for the imperative to remedy its underlying cause. The use of sodium bicarbonate to treat the often alarming metabolic derangements may be quite efficacious in that regard but is of questionable benefit to patients. Renal replacement therapies (RRTs) have particular appeal in this setting for a variety of reasons, but their effect on clinical outcomes is untested. PMID:25762524

  20. Transient gestational diabetes insipidus: report of two cases and review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, A S; Bassi, T; Koradia, N; Bocirnea, A

    2003-11-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. We report two cases of transient gestational diabetes insipidus in which patients responded to intranasal DDAVP (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin) with greater than 50% increase in urine osmolality and marked reduction in urine output. Intranasal DDAVP was discontinued after their discharge and both patients maintained normal urine output and appropriate urine osmolality. In determining whether diabetes insipidus is present in a patient who is polyuric and hypernatremic, a urine osmolality below that of the plasma suggests the presence of diabetes insipidus. Understanding of the pathophysiology may soon lead to improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Development of diabetes mellitus associated with quetiapine: A case series.

    PubMed

    Nanasawa, Hideki; Sako, Akahito; Mitsutsuka, Tomohiko; Nonogaki, Kaori; Kondo, Tadayuki; Mishima, Shuichi; Uju, Yoriyasu; Ito, Toshihiko; Enomoto, Tetsuro; Hayakawa, Tatsuro; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical course of patients who developed diabetes associated with the use of quetiapine.This study included patients who received quetiapine for over a month between April 2008 and November 2013, and were diagnosed as having new-onset diabetes after initiation of quetiapine. We excluded patients who developed diabetes more than 1 year after discontinuation of quetiapine. We identified new-onset diabetes by hemoglobin A1c or prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs.Among 1688 patients who received quetiapine, hemoglobin A1c had been measured in 595 (35.2%) patients at least once during the observation period, and 33 (2.0%) patients had received hypoglycemic drugs. Eighteen (1.1%) patients were considered to have developed new-onset diabetes associated with quetiapine after a median of 1.6 years following initiation of quetiapine. Median (interquartile range) age was 54.5 (29.8) years, 8 patients were male, and median (interquartile range) duration of mental illness was 15.3 (13.8) years. Median hemoglobin A1c and body mass index (BMI) were 7.1 (1.4) % and 28.4 (7.0) kg/m, respectively. Seventeen patients had dyslipidemia when diabetes was discovered. All of these discontinued quetiapine within 3 months after the diagnosis of diabetes, and the diabetes in 4 patients had ameliorated without hypoglycemic drugs. Of 13 patients who had received either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin, 2 patients achieved well-controlled hemoglobin A1c without hypoglycemic drugs, and 10 patients had hemoglobin A1c 5.0% to 7.7% with the continued use of hypoglycemic drugs.We demonstrated that almost all patients who developed quetiapine-associated diabetes had dyslipidemia and increased BMI. There was no life-threatening hyperglycemia and diabetes was ameliorated just by discontinuation of quetiapine in several patients. The monitoring of metabolic parameters during antipsychotic treatment is important to diagnose and treat diabetes earlier.

  2. Molecular genetic testing of patients with monogenic diabetes and hyperinsulinism.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Vasta, Valeria; Zhang, Min; Narayanan, Jaya; Gerrits, Peter; Hahn, Si Houn

    2015-03-01

    Genetic sequencing has become a critical part of the diagnosis of certain forms of pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Despite great advances in the speed and cost of DNA sequencing, determining the pathogenicity of variants remains a challenge, and requires sharing of sequence and phenotypic data between laboratories. We reviewed all diabetes and hyperinsulinism-associated molecular testing done at the Seattle Children's Molecular Genetics Laboratory from 2009 to 2013. 331 probands were referred to us for molecular genetic sequencing for Neonatal Diabetes (NDM), Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY), or Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) during this period. Reportable variants were identified in 115 (35%) patients with 91 variants in one of 6 genes: HNF1A, GCK, HNF4A, ABCC8, KCNJ11, or INS. In addition to identifying 23 novel variants, we identified unusual mechanisms of inheritance, including mosaic and digenic MODY presentations. Re-analysis of all reported variants using more recently available databases led to a change in variant interpretation from the original report in 30% of cases. These results represent a resource for molecular testing of monogenic forms of diabetes and hyperinsulinism, providing a mutation spectrum for these disorders in a large North American cohort. In addition, they highlight the importance of periodic review of molecular testing results.

  3. The impact of type 2 diabetes on health related quality of life in Bangladesh: results from a matched study comparing treated cases with non-diabetic controls.

    PubMed

    Safita, Novie; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Chow, Clara K; Niessen, Louis; Lechner, Andreas; Holle, Rolf; Laxy, Michael

    2016-09-13

    Little is known about the association between diabetes and health related quality of life (HRQL) in lower-middle income countries. This study aimed to investigate HRQL among individuals with and without diabetes in Bangladesh. The analysis is based on data of a case-control study, including 591 patients with type 2 diabetes (cases) who attended an outpatient unit of a hospital in Dhaka and 591 age -and sex-matched individuals without diabetes (controls). Information about socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions, and HRQL were assessed in a structured interview. HRQL was measured with the EuroQol (EQ) visual analogue scale (VAS) and the EQ five-dimensional (5D) descriptive system. The association between diabetes status and quality of life was examined using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Mean EQ-VAS score of patients with diabetes was 11.5 points lower (95 %-CI: -13.5, -9.6) compared to controls without diabetes. Patients with diabetes were more likely to report problems in all EQ-5D dimensions than controls, with the largest effect observed in the dimensions 'self-care' (OR = 5.9; 95 %-CI: 2.9, 11.8) and 'mobility' (OR = 4.5; 95 %-CI: 3.0, -6.6). In patients with diabetes, male gender, high education, and high-income were associated with higher VAS score and diabetes duration and foot ulcer associated with lower VAS scores. Other diabetes-related complications were not significantly associated with HRQL. Our findings suggest that the impact of diabetes on HRQL in the Bangladeshi population is much higher than what is known from western populations and that unlike in western populations comorbidities/complications are not the driving factor for this effect.

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Young Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjia; Cai, Xiaoling; Han, Xueyao; Ji, Linong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in the young population. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis are not fully explicated. The aim of the present study was to investigate various clinical and biochemical characteristics of young type 2 diabetic patients with atherosclerosis. Design and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. The study involved 2199 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. The young patients were classified into the atherosclerotic group or the non-atherosclerotic group, and we also enrolled an older group with peripheral atherosclerosis disease and an age of at least 45 years. Comparisons were made between the different groups to investigate the cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles of young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis. We also used logistic regression models to assess the atherosclerosis risk factors for young patients. Results Compared to older type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis, young patients with atherosclerosis had more deleterious profiles of weight and hyperlipidemia. Only age and diabetes duration were found to be significant independent risk factors for atherosclerosis in young patients. The ratio of the presence of atherosclerosis in the lower extremity arteries alone was significantly higher in young patients than older patients (26.4% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.000). Conclusion Young type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis have more adverse cardiovascular risk profiles and inadequate control of these risk factors. Lower extremity examination is of high importance in young patients. PMID:27391819

  5. Diabetes Remission after Nonsurgical Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mottalib, Adham; Sakr, Mahmoud; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Partial or complete remission from type 2 diabetes was recently observed after bariatric surgeries. Limited data is available about the possibility of inducing diabetes remission through intensive weight reduction. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes remissions after one year of the Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment (Why WAIT) program, a 12-week intensive program for diabetes weight management in real-world clinical practice. Among 120 obese patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the program, 88 patients returned for follow-up at one year. Nineteen patients (21.6%) had major improvement in their glycemic control, defined as achieving an A1C <6.5% after one year. Four patients (4.5%) achieved either partial or complete diabetes remission defined as A1C <6.5% and <5.7%, respectively, on no antihyperglycemic medications for one year; 2 achieved partial remission (2.3%) and 2 achieved complete remission (2.3%). At the time of intervention, patients who achieved diabetes remission had shorter diabetes duration (<5 years) and lower A1C (<8%) and were treated with fewer than 2 oral medications. They achieved a weight reduction of >7% after 12 weeks. These results indicate that a subset of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is appropriate for intensive lifestyle intervention with the aim of inducing diabetes remission. PMID:26114120

  6. A case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kakurai, Keigo; Hayashi, Maiko; Yamada, Kanako; Ishizaki, Norihiko; Yonemoto, Yumiko; Morishita, Seita; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Sato, Takaki; Kida, Teruyo; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2017-10-04

    To report the case of a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and discuss the relationship between PXE and diabetic retinopathy (DR). A 47-year-old man with PXE presented with angioid streaks and DR in both eyes, and bilateral panretinal photocoagulation was performed for treatment. Vitrectomy had previously been performed in his right eye for vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. Systemic findings included multiple, discrete, symmetrical, small yellow papules bilaterally in the axilla and inguinal region. Examination on presentation showed vitreous hemorrhage in his left eye, and vitrectomy was performed for treatment. Intraoperative findings showed fibrovascular membrane around the optic disc and vascular arcade. A mottled fundus (peau d'orange appearance) associated with angioid streaks was also present, yet there was no evident choroidal neovascularization (CNV). The postoperative course was satisfactory, and corrected visual acuity improved from 0.02 to 0.7 diopters. Despite the peau d'orange appearance in both eyes of this case, no CNV was evident. The vitreous hemorrhage was thus attributed to PDR. Moreover, we reviewed the published literature and discuss the relationship between PXE and DR.

  7. [Malnutrition incidence in surgical diabetic and non diabetic patients in general surgery department].

    PubMed

    Solóirzano-Pineda, O M; Rivera-López, F A; Rubio-Martínez, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hyponutrition among hospitalized patients varies between 30 to 50%, increasing both the morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of hyponutrition in diabetic and non-diabetic patients at the General Surgery Department. Prospective, observation, and longitudinal study assessing the nutritional status by means of VGS, CONUT, and MNA. 384 patients: 97 surgical diabetic patients, incidence of hyponutrition assessed by VGS 28.8%, by MNA among patients older than 65 years 54.28%. Two hundred and eighty seven non-diabetic surgical patients were assessed with an incidence of hyponutrition of 12.9%, and of 52.94% by MNA. The incidence of hyponutrition in surgical diabetic patients is twofold higher than in non-diabetic patients. Elder diabetic and non-diabetic surgical patients show the same incidence of hyponutrition. Given the high incidence of hyponutrition in surgical patients admitted to the General Surgery Department, the nutritional status should be assessed by means of a protocolled method, at admission by VSG or MNA if they are older than 65 years, and admitted patients should be followed by using CONUT.

  8. Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Biesenbach, G; Debska-Slizien, A; Zazgornik, J

    1999-03-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation.

  9. Association between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shin; Todo, Yasuhiko; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Miyake, Teruki; Ueda, Teruhisa; Niiya, Tetsuji; Senba, Takatoshi; Torisu, Masamoto; Kumagi, Teru; Miyauchi, Syozo; Sakai, Takenori; Minami, Hisaka; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it is unknown whether common complications of type 2 diabetes, such as diabetic nephropathy, are also present with SCH. Here, we investigated the association between SCH and diabetic nephropathy among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited 414 such patients who had no previous history of thyroid disease. Serum thyroid hormone levels and the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio were measured. SCH was defined as an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (>4.0 mIU/L), and diabetic nephropathy was defined as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ≥300 mg/g. The prevalence of SCH was 8.7% (n = 36) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SCH group had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (p = 0.008) and diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.014) than the euthyroid group. Multivariate analysis identified significant positive associations between diabetic nephropathy and SCH (odds ratio [OR], 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-10.0; p = 0.034), hypertension (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.69-14.7; p = 0.001), and smoking (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.14-7.91; p = 0.026). SCH may be independently associated with diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. [Changes in cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Szémán, Barbara; Nagy, Géza; Varga, Tímea; Veres-Székely, Anna; Sasvári, Mária; Fitala, Dávid; Szollosi, Adrienn; Katonai, Rózsa; Kotyuk, Eszter; Somogyi, Anikó

    2012-03-04

    Patients with diabetes are approximately 1.5 times more likely to experience cognitive decline than individuals without diabetes mellitus. Most of the data suggest that patients with diabetes have reduced performance in numerous domains of cognitive function. In patients with type 1 diabetes, specific and global deficits involving speed of psychomotor efficiency, information processing, mental flexibility, attention, and visual perception seem to be present, while in patients with type 2 diabetes an increase in memory deficits, a reduction in psychomotor speed, and reduced frontal lobe (executive) functions have been found. The complex pathophysiology of changes in the central nervous system in diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. It is important to consider the patient's age at the onset of diabetes, the glycemic control status, and the presence of diabetic complications. Neurological consequences of diabetes appear parallel to those observed in the aging brain. Neuroimaging studies highlight several structural cerebral changes, cortical and subcortical atrophy, beside increased leukoaraiosis that occurs in association with diabetes. There is supporting evidence from many hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of cognitive decline associated with diabetes. The main hypotheses pointing to the potential, implied mechanisms involve hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, microvascular disease, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and amyloid-β deposition.

  11. Management of chronic constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prasad, V G M; Abraham, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical assessment and evidence-based treatment options for managing diabetes-associated chronic constipation. A literature search of published medical reports in English language was performed using the OVID Portal, from PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2015. A total of 145 abstracts were identified; duplicate publications were removed and 95 relevant full-text articles were retrieved for potential inclusion. Chronic constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes, and occurs more frequently than in healthy individuals. Treatment goals include improving symptoms and restoring bowel function by accelerating colonic transit and facilitating defecation. Based on guidelines and data from published literature, food and dietary change with exercise and lifestyle change should be the first step in management. For patients recalcitrant to these changes, laxatives should be the next step of treatment. Treatment should begin with bulking agents such as psyllium, bran or methylcellulose followed by osmotic laxatives if response is poor. Lactulose, polyethylene glycol and lactitol are the most frequently prescribed osmotic agents. Lactulose has a prebiotic effect and a carry-over effect (continued laxative effect for at least 6 to 7 days, post cessation of treatment). Stimulants such as bisacodyl, sodium picosulphate and senna are indicated if osmotic laxatives are not effective. Newer agents such as chloride-channel activators and 5-HT4 agonist can be considered for severe or resistant cases. The primary aim of intervention in diabetic patients with chronic constipation is to better manage the diabetes along with management of constipation. The physician should explain the rationale for prescribing laxatives and educate patients about the potential drawbacks of long-term use of laxatives. They should contact their physician if

  12. A rare case of abdominal infection: Emphysematous pyelonephritis without diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Şahı̇n, Yusuf; Oyar, Orhan; Tan, Gözde Canan; Karagöz, Arı̇f; Turan, Celaleddı̇n

    2016-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EP) is a rare form of necrotizing pyelonephritis. It is a life-threatening condition that usually affects patients with diabetes, and a small percentage may be due to urinary tract obstruction. Here, we present the case of an EP caused by urinary tract obstruction without diabetes. A 45-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with fever, chills, and abdominal pain. There was no significant past history. Physical examination depicted bilateral lower abdominal and right flank knocking tenderness. Laboratory exams revealed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, a high C-reactive protein level, and pyuria. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) showed diffuse gas in the right renal collecting system and dilatation of the right renal pelvis compared to the right side, in addition to multiple millimetric stones located in the right kidney and right ureter. After emergent placement of a percutaneous nephrostomy, she was admitted. Control abdominal CT without contrast revealed the absence of gas, hydronephrosis of the right renal pelvis, and the presence of nephrolithiasis. The patient was discharged 10 days of post-procedure with instructions for follow-up. Emergency physicians need to remain alert about this life-threatening disease and the typical CT findings of this disease to make a timely diagnosis and navigate management. PMID:28250980

  13. Secondary diabetes associated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens in non-diabetic patients with colorectal cancer: results from a single-centre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feng, J-P; Yuan, X-L; Li, M; Fang, J; Xie, T; Zhou, Y; Zhu, Y-M; Luo, M; Lin, M; Ye, D-W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of secondary diabetes induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy in non-diabetic patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 422 consecutive CRC patients who received 5-FU-based chemotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were determined before each cycle of chemotherapy during active treatment and regular follow-up. The prevalence and characteristics of secondary hyperglycaemia were investigated, with special focus on the clinical outcome. Among the 422 CRC patients, 60 had pre-existing hyperglycaemia. In the remaining 362 with normal FPG levels before chemotherapy, 42 (11.6%) and 41 (11.3%) patients developed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose during the study period. Among the 42 secondary diabetic patients, 22 (52.4%) received anti-diabetes drug therapy, in 7 (16.7%) cases the FPG level returned to normal without any active intervention, and 13 (30.9%) cases received diet control and physiotherapy. Thirty-one (8.6%) patients developed diabetes. Based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, an adverse event over Grade 3 occurred in seven cases during follow-up. Diabetes-related adverse events had a serious negative impact on chemotherapy in six cases. Diabetes-related death occurred in three patients. Secondary diabetes associated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy occurs in around 10% of CRC patients, with a significant negative impact on treatment and clinical outcome. 5-FU-related diabetes should be regarded as a common side effect of 5-FU treatment. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Epidemiological, therapeutic aspects and patient experience.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Youssouf; Bensghir, Rajaa; Ihbibane, Fatima; OuladLashen, Ahd; Sodqi, Mustapha; Marih, Latifa; Chakib, Abdelfattah; Marhoum, Kamal El Filali

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, no data on the association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and diabetes have been published. To review the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data and evaluate the experience of people living with HIV and suffering from diabetes. Our study population was composed of 190 outpatients (87 males and 103 females) attending the Infectious Diseases department of the University Hospital Center of Casablanca (Ibn Rochd). Using the computerized medical records, we identified patients with HIV-Diabetes and collected their epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data. At the enrollment date of each patient, we measured anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and arm circumference). We also asked each patient, about the impression on their bodies' appearance and the degree of concern with regard to the diabetes. The population of patients with HIV, the prevalence of diabetes was 10.5%, among the patients taking an antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence was 13.5%. Diabetes has been diagnosed in 113 patients before the discovery of their HIV infection. At time of recruitment, 111 of them were under antiretroviral therapy for a mean period of 3.1years. Zidovudine was the most prescribed drug followed by lamivudine. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 144 patients. Eighty-seven patients feel conscious about their body appearance which makes them feel bad about the way they look. Metformin was prescribed in 46 cases. The majority of patients (73.1%) considered diabetes as a second health problem. Only 46 patients were well balanced. The multidisciplinary consultation and patient education should enable an appropriate management of diabetes in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression and Associated Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hashim, N A; Ariaratnam, S; Salleh, M R; Said, M A; Sulaiman, A H

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder and its association with socio-demographic and clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended the hospital-based primary care clinics at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The patients were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression based on the DSM-IV criteria. The socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained by interviewing the patients and subsequently verified against their respective case notes. A total of 204 patients were recruited. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 15.7%. Major depressive disorder was significantly associated with younger age of patients (mean ± standard deviation, 57.8 ± 15.1 years, p = 0.04), younger age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (46.2 ± 13.0 years, p = 0.01), having secondary education (p = 0.02), and having a history of depression (p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that current age (p = 0.04), duration of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.04), age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.01), and secondary education (p = 0.01) were significant factors. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was high among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Screening of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for depression should be performed periodically or routinely, especially in the primary care setting.

  16. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  17. Learning Difficulties of Diabetic Patients: A Survey of Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean-Francois

    1998-01-01

    Surveys 85 health care professionals on the learning difficulties of diabetic patients. Results show that educators find it easy to teach techniques: patients master procedures well and make few mistakes. In contrast, diabetic patients seem to have problems learning skills, such as insulin dose adjustment, that require complex problem-solving.…

  18. Urinary tract infection in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fünfstück, Reinhard; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Hanefeld, Markolf; Naber, Kurt G

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infection occurs with increased frequency and severity in patients with diabetes mellitus. General host factors enhancing risk for urinary tract infection in diabetics include age, metabolic control, and long term complications, primarily diabetic nephropathy and cystopathy. Alterations in the innate immune system have been described and may also contribute. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in diabetic patients is not indicated. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention is recommended to limit morbidity of symptomatic infection. Clinical studies comparing management of urinary tract infection in persons with diabetes compared to those without as well as diabetic patients with good or poor glucose control will be necessary to improve care of urinary infection in persons with diabetes mellitus.

  19. The Case for Diabetes Population Health Improvement: Evidence-Based Programming for Population Outcomes in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maruthur, Nisa; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Spanakis, Elias; Rubin, Daniel; Zilbermint, Mihail; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to describe diabetes within a population health improvement framework and to review the evidence for a diabetes population health continuum of intervention approaches, including diabetes prevention and chronic and acute diabetes management, to improve clinical and economic outcomes. Recent Findings Recent studies have shown that compared to usual care, lifestyle interventions in prediabetes lower diabetes risk at the population-level and that group-based programs have low incremental medial cost effectiveness ratio for health systems. Effective outpatient interventions that improve diabetes control and process outcomes are multi-level, targeting the patient, provider, and healthcare system simultaneously and integrate community health workers as a liaison between the patient and community-based healthcare resources. A multi-faceted approach to diabetes management is also effective in the inpatient setting. Interventions shown to promote safe and effective glycemic control and use of evidence-based glucose management practices include provider reminder and clinical decision support systems, automated computer order entry, provider education, and organizational change. Summary Future studies should examine the cost-effectiveness of multi-faceted outpatient and inpatient diabetes management programs to determine the best financial models for incorporating them into diabetes population health strategies. PMID:28567711

  20. Traumatic injuries in patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients sustained traumatic injuries. Identification of risk factors of traumatic injuries that lead to hospital admissions and death in DM patients is crucial to set effective preventive strategies. We aimed to conduct a traditional narrative literature review to describe the role of hypoglycemia as a risk factor of driving and fall-related traumatic injuries. DM poses significant burden as a risk factor and predictor of worse outcomes in traumatic injuries. Although there is no consensus on the impact and clear hazards of hyperglycemia in comparison to the hypoglycemia, both extremes of DM need to be carefully addressed and taken into consideration for proper management. Moreover, physicians, patients, and concerned authorities should be aware of all these potential hazards to share and establish the right management plans. PMID:27162438

  1. [Preoperative assessment of patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The perioperative morbidity of diabetic patients is related to preoperative end-organ damage. Due to the microvascular pathology, autonomic neuropathy is common and cardiovascular abnormalities such as hypertension, painless myocardial ischemia, and orthostatic hypotension may predispose patients to perioperative cardiovascular instability. Autonomic dysfunction also contributes to delayed gastric emptying, and preoperative administration of a histamine antagonist and a gastric emptying agent is needed. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to glycosylation of tissue proteins and the accumulation of abnormal collagen can cause stiff joint syndrome resulting in difficult tracheal intubation. The primary goal of pre and intraoperative blood glucose control is to avoid hypoglycemia and ketosis. Moreover, the tight glycemic control has been reported to improve survival in critically ill patients who were treated in the intensive care unit.

  2. Prognostic Value of Admission Blood Glucose in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shichao; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Li, Hao; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Li

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate prognostic value of elevated admission blood glucose (ABG) for clinical outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a representative large cohort. Data of ICH patients with onset time ≤24 h were derived from the China National Stroke Registry. Clinical outcomes included 3-month poor outcome (death or dependency) and death. Logistic regression was performed for the association between ABG and clinical outcomes, both in the entire cohort and in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. 2951 ICH patients were enrolled, including 267 (9.0%) diabetics. In the entire cohort, there was a trend to increased risk of poor outcome with increasing ABG levels (adjusted OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; P < 0.001). The risk of poor outcome was significantly greatest for the highest quartile (≥7.53 mmol/L) of ABG (adjusted OR 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17–2.03; p = 0.002, P for trend 0.004). We got similar association in non-diabetics but not in diabetics. Elevated ABG confers a higher risk of poor outcome in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. Elevated ABG is an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome in ICH patients, the prognostic value of which is greater in non-diabetics than diabetics with similar glucose level. PMID:27562114

  3. Noninvasive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment of the Asymptomatic Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J.; Raggi, Paolo; Beller, George A.; Berman, Daniel S.; Druz, Regina S.; Malik, Shaista; Rigolin, Vera H.; Weigold, Wm. Guy; Soman, Prem

    2017-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established; diabetes is associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease. Approximately two-thirds of deaths among persons with diabetes are related to cardiovascular disease. Previously, diabetes was regarded as a “coronary risk equivalent,” implying a high 10-year cardiovascular risk for every diabetes patient. Following the original study by Haffner et al., multiple studies from different cohorts provided varying conclusions on the validity of the concept of coronary risk equivalency in patients with diabetes. New guidelines have started to acknowledge the heterogeneity in risk and include different treatment recommendations for diabetic patients without other risk factors who are considered to be at lower risk. Furthermore, guidelines have suggested that further risk stratification in patients with diabetes is warranted before universal treatment. The Imaging Council of the American College of Cardiology systematically reviewed all modalities commonly used for risk stratification in persons with diabetes mellitus and summarized the data and recommendations. This document reviews the evidence regarding the use of noninvasive testing to stratify asymptomatic patients with diabetes with regard to coronary heart disease risk and develops an algorithm for screening based on available data. PMID:26846937

  4. Malabsorption, Orocecal Transit Time and Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Connection.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V; Malik, Aastha; Bhadada, Sanjay K; Sachdeva, Naresh; Morya, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Gaurav

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility. The present study was planned to measure various malabsorption parameters in type 2 diabetic patients. 175 patients and 175 age and sex matched healthy controls attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured by using non-invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Urinary d-xylose and fecal fat were estimated using standard methods. Orocecal transit time and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth were measured using non-invasive lactulose and glucose breath test respectively. Out of 175 diabetic patients enrolled, 87 were males while among 175 healthy subjects 88 were males. SIBO was observed in 14.8 % type 2 diabetic patients and in 2.8 % of controls. There was statistically significant increase (p < 0.002) in OCTT in type 2 diabetic patients compared with controls. OCTT was observed to be more delayed (p < 0.003) in patients who were found to have SIBO than in patients without SIBO. Lactose intolerance was observed in 60 % diabetic patients and 39.4 % in controls. Urinary d-xylose levels were also lower in case of diabetic patients but no significant difference was found in 72 h fecal fat excretion among diabetic patients and controls. Urinary d-xylose and lactose intolerance in SIBO positive type 2 diabetic patients was more severe as compared to SIBO negative diabetic patients. From this study we can conclude that delayed OCTT may have led to SIBO which may

  5. Screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with diabetes: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Ma, Seung Hyun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Boyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify factors associated with screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Of 24,871 participants, 1,288 patients diagnosed with diabetes at ≥30 years of age were included. 36.3% received screening for diabetic retinopathy, and 40.5% received screening for diabetic nephropathy during the previous year. Patients living in rural areas, those with less education, those who had not received education about diabetes care, and those who did not receive medical care for diabetes were screened less often for retinopathy or nephropathy. Patients with poorer self-reported health status were screened more often. Occupation, smoking status, and diabetes duration were associated with retinopathy screening. Lower family income was associated with decreased nephropathy screening. Receiving education about diabetes care and receiving medical care for diabetes were significant factors in patients with a shorter duration of diabetes (the significant odds ratio [OR] of not receiving education varied between 0.27 and 0.51, and that of not receiving medical care varied between 0.34 and 0.42). Sociodemographic factors and health-related factors as well as education and medical care influenced screening for diabetic complications among those with a longer duration of diabetes (for retinopathy and nephropathy, the significant OR of living in a rural area varied between 0.56 and 0.61; for retinopathy, the significant OR of current smokers was 0.55, and the p-trend of subjective health status was <0.001; for nephropathy, the significant OR of a monthly household income of <3000 dollars was 0.61 and the p-trends of education and subjective health status were 0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Efforts to decrease sociodemographic disparities should be combined with education about diabetes care to increase the screening, especially for those with a

  6. [Better coordination between primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic for patients with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Gjessing, Hans Jørgen; Jørgensen, Ulla Linding; Møller, Charlotte Chrois; Huge, Lis; Dalgaard, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Wendelboe; Thomsen, Lis; Buch, Martin Sandberg

    2014-06-02

    Integrated care programmes for patients with type 2 diabetes can be successfully implemented by planning the programmes in coordination between the sectors primary care, community settings and diabetes outpatient clinic, and with involvement of leaders and employees. Our project has resulted in: 1) more patients with type 2 diabetes receiving diabetes management courses, 2) improved diabetes management of primary care, and 3) improved confidence and respect between sectors involved in diabetes care.

  7. Central diabetes insipidus following a sports-related concussion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Foley, Cassidy M; Wang, David H

    2012-03-01

    A 24-year-old female swimmer presented to a sports medicine clinic with complaints of frequent urination and increased thirst. The patient admitted to progressive worsening of her symptoms over a 4-year period since suffering a concussion. A water deprivation test, antidiuretic hormone level, and diamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin challenge were completed, and the patient was diagnosed with persistent central diabetes insipidus. As concussion awareness increases, health care professionals will be faced with treatment of post-concussive patients more often. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness of possible pituitary dysfunction-specifically, central diabetes insipidus-following a concussion.

  8. Improving adherence and outcomes in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Renu; Joshi, Disha; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2017-01-01

    Objective Nonadherence in diabetes is a problem leading to wasted resources and preventable deaths each year. Remedies for diminishing nonadherence are many but marginally effective, and outcomes remain suboptimal. Aim The aim of this study was to test a new iOS “app”, PatientPartner. Derived from complexity theory, this novel technology has been extensively used in other fields; this is the first trial in a patient population. Methods Physicians referred patients who were “severely non-adherent” with HbA1c levels >8. After consent and random assignment (n=107), subjects in the intervention group were immersed in the 12-min PatientPartner game, which assesses and trains subjects on parameters of thinking that are critical for good decision making in health care: information management, stress coping, and health strategies. The control group did not play PatientPartner. All subjects were called each week for 3 weeks and self-reported on their medication adherence, diet, and exercise. Baseline and 3-month post-intervention HbA1c levels were recorded for the intervention group. Results Although the control group showed no difference on any measures at 3 weeks, the intervention group reported significant mean percentage improvements on all measures: medication adherence (57%, standard deviation [SD] 18%–96%, SD 9), diet (50%, SD 33%–75%, SD 28), and exercise (29%, SD 31%–43%, SD 33). At 3 months, the mean HbA1c levels in the intervention group were significantly lower (9.6) than baseline (10.7). Conclusion Many programs to improve adherence have been proved to be expensive and marginally effective. Therefore, improvements from the single use of a 12-min-long “app” are noteworthy. This is the first ever randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that an “app” can impact the gold standard biological marker, HbA1c, in diabetes. PMID:28243070

  9. Severe diabetic papillopathy mimicking non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Mallika, P S; Aziz, S; Asok, T; Chong, M S; Tan, A K; Chua, C N

    2012-04-01

    With the pathophysiology not clearly understood and fewer than 130 cases having been reported in the literature, diabetic papillopathy presents a special challenge to the ophthalmologist. We report a case of a young patient with more than 12 years of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on insulin with poor compliance to treatment who presented with sudden bilateral loss of vision. Ocular examination, fluorescence angiography (FA) and systemic signs were conclusive of diabetic papillopathy. His fasting blood sugar level was high and serum glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) indicated a long term fluctuating blood glucose control. His vision initially improved with treatment, but later deteriorated with tight glycemic control.

  10. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    PubMed

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  11. Reimbursement for pediatric diabetes intensive case management: a model for chronic diseases?

    PubMed

    Beck, Joni K; Logan, Kathy J; Hamm, Robert M; Sproat, Scott M; Musser, Kathleen M; Everhart, Patricia D; McDermott, Harrold M; Copeland, Kenneth C

    2004-01-01

    Current reimbursement policies serve as potent disincentives for physicians who provide evaluation and management services exclusively. Such policies threaten nationwide availability of care for personnel-intensive services such as pediatric diabetes. This report describes an approach to improving reimbursement for highly specialized, comprehensive pediatric diabetes management through prospective contracting for services. The objective of this study was to determine whether pediatric diabetes intensive case management services are cost-effective to the payer, the patient, and a pediatric diabetes program. A contract with a third-party payer was created to reimburse for 3 key pediatric diabetes intensive case management components: specialty education, 24/7 telephone access to an educator (and board-certified pediatric endocrinologist as needed), and quarterly educator assessments of self-management skills. Data were collected and analyzed for 15 months after signing the contract. Within the first 15 months after the contract was signed, 22 hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in 16 different patients. After hospitalizations for DKA, all 16 patients were offered participation in the program. All were followed during the subsequent 1 to 15 months of observation. Ten patients elected to participate, and 6 refused participation. Frequency of rehospitalization, emergency department visits, and costs were compared between the 2 groups. Among the 10 participating patients, there was only 1 subsequent DKA admission, whereas among the 6 who refused participation, 5 were rehospitalized for DKA on at least 1 occasion. The 10 patients who participated in the program had greater telephone contact with the team compared with those who did not (16 crisis-management calls vs 0). Costs (education, hospitalization, and emergency department visits) per participating patient were approximately 1350 dollars less than those for nonparticipating patients

  12. Dental implant survival in diabetic patients; review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Deepesh Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Rising population of diabetic individuals across the world has become a big concern to the society. The persistent hyperglycemia may affect each and every tissue and consequently results in morbidity and eventually mortality in diabetic patients. A direct negative response of diabetes has been observed on oral tissues with few contradictions however, little are known about effect of diabetes on dental implant treatment and the consequent results. Many studies concerned with osteointegration and prognosis of dental implant in diabetic patients have been conducted and published since 1994. These studies have been critically reviewed to understand the impact of diabetes on the success of dental implant and the factors to improve osseointegration and consequently survival of dental implant in diabetic patients. Theoretical literatures and studies in diabetic animals substantiate high failure rate of implants but most of clinical studies indicated statistically insignificant failure of dental implants even in moderately uncontrolled diabetic patients. Success of dental implant in well and fairly controlled diabetic patients with proper treatment planning, prophylactic remedies and adequate postsurgical maintenance appears as good as normal individuals. PMID:24665167

  13. Diabetes Screening, Diagnosis, and Therapy in Pediatric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, Helena W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract The dramatic rise in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pediatric and adolescent populations has been associated with the ongoing epidemic of overweight, obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome seen in these age groups. Although the majority of pediatric patients diagnosed with diabetes are still classified as having type 1 diabetes, almost 50% of patients with diabetes in the pediatric age range (under 18 years) may have type 2 diabetes. Screening of high-risk patients for diabetes and prediabetes is important. Prompt diagnosis and accurate diabetes classification facilitate appropriate and timely treatment and may reduce the risk for complications. This is especially important in children because lifestyle interventions may be successful and the lifelong risk for complications is greatest. Treatment usually begins with dietary modification, weight loss, and a structured program of physical exercise. Oral antidiabetic agents are added when lifestyle intervention alone fails to maintain glycemic control. Given the natural history of type 2 diabetes, most if not all patients will eventually require insulin therapy. In those requiring insulin, improved glycemic control and reduced frequency of hypoglycemia can be achieved with insulin analogs. It is common to add insulin therapy to existing oral therapy only when oral agents no longer provide adequate glycemic control. Introduction The incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has reached epidemic proportions in the United States.[1] Recent reports indicate that as many as 45% of pediatric patients diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have type 2 diabetes.[1] Furthermore, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes may be underestimated due to misclassification of the disease.[2] Prior to the late 1990s, only 1% to 2% of children diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States had type 2 diabetes. Since then, owing to a

  14. Incidence of Retinal Complications in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Merino, Elisa; Fortuny, Joan; Rivero-Ferrer, Elena; García-Rodríguez, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at estimating the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and maculopathy (DMP) among newly diagnosed type 1 (t1DM) and type 2 diabetic patients (t2DM) in the United Kingdom primary care system. The incidence of DMP among patients with DR was also estimated. Method We conducted a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. The cohort included 64,983 incident diabetic patients (97.3% were t2DM) aged 1–84 years diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. This cohort was followed from the date of diabetes diagnosis until recording of DR or DMP in two separate follow-ups. Follow-up was censored at 85 years of age, death, or end of 2008. An additional follow-up was conducted from DR to DMP diagnosis using similar censoring reasons. DR and DMP cumulative incidences were calculated as well as incidence rates (IR; cases per 1,000 person-years) per calendar period (2000–2001 and 2006–2007). Results Follow-up for DR: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 28% of t2DM and 24% of t1DM patients had developed DR (7,899 incident DR cases). During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was almost 2 times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006–2007 (47.7) than among those diagnosed in 2000–2001 (24.5). Follow-up for DMP: 9 years after diabetes diagnosis, 3.6% of t2DM and 4.4% of t2DM patients had developed DMP (912 incident DMP cases). During the first 2 years with diabetes, the IR was three times higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes in 2006–2007 (5.8) than among those diagnosed in 2000–2001 (1.8). Macular oedema occurred in 0.8% of patients. Conclusions In a cohort of incident diabetes, 28% of patients developed retinopathy and 4% maculopathy within the first 9 years. The 2-year IRs of DR and DMP were higher in patients diagnosed with diabetes during the period 2006–2007 than in those diagnosed during the 2000–2001 period. PMID:24963628

  15. [Diabetes insipidus in infancy. II. Study of eleven cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Yturriaga, R; Barrio, R; Nieto, J A; Rabadán, B; Lledó, G; Gracia, R

    1977-01-01

    Eleven cases of diabetes insipidus are revised and distributed in the following four groups: I. Idiopathic diabetes insipidus, three. II. Secondary diabetes insipidus, four. III. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, two. IV. Psychogenic diabetes insipidus, two. In all these cases, clinical parameters, general analysis, hydric metabolism (static and dinamic), are studied. The precocious beginning of psychogenic diabetes insipidus, and some conclusions, on a difficult case of hard diagnosis are emphasized.

  16. Inhaled insulin for controlling blood glucose in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Bernard L; Barnes, Christopher J; Campaigne, Barbara N; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide health problem, with the incidence of type 2 diabetes increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance and dysregulated blood glucose control are established risk factors for microvascular complications and cardiovascular disease. Despite the recognition of diabetes as a major health issue and the availability of a growing number of medications designed to counteract its detrimental effects, real and perceived barriers remain that prevent patients from achieving optimal blood glucose control. The development and utilization of inhaled insulin as a novel insulin delivery system may positively influence patient treatment adherence and optimal glycemic control, potentially leading to a reduction in cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes. PMID:18200813

  17. A Case of Multiple Myeloma Presenting with Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rudrajit; Ruia, Aditya V; Saha, Asim; Mondal, Jayati; Sau, T J; Thakur, Indranil; Haldar, Kunal

    2017-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) can present with involvement of the central nervous system in the form of nerve palsy, plasma cell masses or, rarely, with endocrinological effects due to involvement of the pituitary gland. Usually, in such cases, the disease has a rapid progression and poor prognosis. We report a 52-year-old man who was admitted to the Kolkata Medical College, Kolkata, India, in 2016 with a prolonged low-grade fever and hypernatremia. Shortly afterwards, the patient began to complain of increased urinary frequency and drowsiness. The hypernatremia was treated with intranasal desmopressin and free water replacement. Serum protein electrophoresis and an immunofixation study revealed an immunoglobulin G-κ monoclonal band. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed the absence of a posterior bright spot and spotty infiltration of the pituitary fossa. A bone marrow biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of cranial diabetes insipidus due to posterior pituitary MM infiltration.

  18. [Spontaneous gas gangrene in a diabetic patient with Clostridium septicum].

    PubMed

    Mischke, A; Besier, S; Walcher, F; Waibel, H; Brade, V; Brandt, C

    2005-10-01

    Atraumatic infections due to Clostridium septicum are known to be associated with immunosuppression or even malignancy. In this case report, we present a patient with severe Clostridium septicum infection related to advanced colon cancer that had not previously been diagnosed. The case demonstrates the strong association between Clostridium septicum infections and malignancy, particularly in the presence of other predisposing diseases such as diabetes mellitus. It strongly suggests excluding malignant neoplasms, especially of the gastrointestinal tract, when severe Clostridium septicum infections occur. Moreover, if patients with known colorectal or other malignancy develop septicaemia or spontaneous gas gangrene, clinicians should be aware of Clostridium septicum as one of the main causative agents, as early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are important to improve prognosis.

  19. The DKA that wasn't: a case of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to empagliflozin

    PubMed Central

    Candelario, Nellowe; Wykretowicz, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) inhibitor is a relatively new medication used to treat diabetes. At present, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has only approved three medications (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) in this drug class for the management of Type 2 diabetes. In May 2015, the FDA issued a warning of ketoacidosis with use of this drug class. Risk factors for the development of ketoacidosis among patients who take SGLT-2 inhibitors include decrease carbohydrate intake/starvation, acute illness and decrease in insulin dose. When identified, immediate cessation of the medication and administration of glucose must be done, and in some instances, starting an insulin drip might be necessary. We present a case of a patient with diabetes mellitus being on empagliflozin (SGLT-2 antagonist) who was admitted for acute cholecystitis. The hospital course was complicated by euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis after being kept nothing per orem before a contemplated cholecystectomy. PMID:27471597

  20. Anorexia nervosa complicated by diabetes mellitus: the case for permissive hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    The coexistence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and anorexia nervosa results in an increased incidence of known diabetic complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, presumably because blood glucose is difficult to control within the throes of comorbid anorexia nervosa. In addition, even when a diabetic patient with anorexia nervosa has committed to resolving his or her eating disorder, glucose control is again difficult and fraught with complexity and peril as will be highlighted in the following case report. Prudence dictates that strict glucose control is not indicated for the relatively short period of time that constitutes the early stage of refeeding in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa. Rather, "permissive hyperglycemia" may be the more optimal course to pursue, as a clinical strategy which is considerate of both the criticality of the refeeding treatment plan and of the long-term nature of the diabetic illness.

  1. Long-Term Follow-up of a Case with Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency: Transient Diabetes Mellitus with Intervening Diabetic Ketoacidosis During Growth Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Gerdi; Tessaris, Daniele; Einaudi, Silvia; De Sanctis, Luisa; Matarazzo, Patrizia

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) deficiency is a very rare disease characterized by severe intractable diarrhea in the first years of life, followed by obesity and several hormonal deficiencies later. Diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment and diabetic ketoacidosis have not been reported in this disorder. We herein present a girl with PC1/3 deficiency who has been followed from birth to 17 years of age. She developed deficiencies of all pituitary hormones over time as well as diabetes mellitus while receiving growth hormone (GH) therapy. She was complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis during dietary management of diabetes mellitus, thus insulin treatment was initiated. Insulin requirement to regulate hyperglycemia was short-lived. Repeat oral glucose tolerance test five years later was normal. The findings of this patient show that diabetes mellitus can develop at any time during follow-up of cases with proportein convertase 1/3 deficiency especially under GH therapy.

  2. Medication oversupply in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Carolyn T; Johnson, Heather; Dopp, Anna Legreid; Thorpe, Joshua M; Ronk, Katie; Everett, Christine M; Palta, Mari; Mott, David A; Chewning, Betty; Schleiden, Loren; Smith, Maureen A

    2015-01-01

    Studies in integrated health systems suggest that patients often accumulate oversupplies of prescribed medications, which is associated with higher costs and hospitalization risk. However, predictors of oversupply are poorly understood, with no studies in Medicare Part D. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and predictors of oversupply of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications in adults with diabetes managed by a large, multidisciplinary, academic physician group and enrolled in Medicare Part D or a local private health plan. This was a retrospective cohort study. Electronic health record data were linked to medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment data from Medicare and a local private payer for 2006-2008 to construct a patient-quarter dataset for patients managed by the physician group. Patients' quarterly refill adherence was calculated using ReComp, a continuous, multiple-interval measure of medication acquisition (CMA), and categorized as <0.80 = Undersupply, 0.80-1.20 = Appropriate Supply, >1.20 = Oversupply. We examined associations of baseline and time-varying predisposing, enabling, and medical need factors to quarterly supply using multinomial logistic regression. The sample included 2519 adults with diabetes. Relative to patients with private insurance, higher odds of oversupply were observed in patients aged <65 in Medicare (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.61-6.99), patients 65+ in Medicare (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.37-4.60), patients <65 in Medicare/Medicaid (OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 2.33-8.92), and patients 65+ in Medicare/Medicaid (OR = 5.73, 95% CI = 2.89-11.33). Other factors associated with higher odds of oversupply included any 90-day refills during the quarter, psychotic disorder diagnosis, and moderate versus tight glycemic control. Oversupply was less prevalent than in previous studies of integrated systems, but Medicare Part D enrollees had greater odds of oversupply than privately insured

  3. Characterization of lipid parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatima; Jamil, Hassan; Anwar, Sanam Saiqa; Wajid, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between lipid profile perturbation and diabetes associated complications has long been an area of interest. Dyslipidemia is a potent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of present study was to investigate relationship between aging and lipid profiles in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients. Five hundred and seventy six individuals (45-75 year age) participated in this study. Among these, 192 were having history of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Individuals are categorized on the base of health (normal, non-diabetic atherosclerosis, diabetic atherosclerosis) and age (45-55 years, 56-65 years, and 66-75 years). All the participants were subjected to the procedures like a detailed history, biochemical analysis for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-(LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). All these parameters were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients of all three age groups. TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were also calculated. Diabetic atherosclerotic individuals (both males and females) had high level of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and low level of HDL in comparison to non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control individuals. Among all three age groups, lipoprotein abnormality was observed to be more frequent in females than males. There was a significant increase in TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratio in diabetic atherosclerotic subjects compared to age and sex matched non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control. Degree of dyslipidemia increases with increase in age in both genders. Female are more prone to diabetic dyslipidemia and hence have more risk of developing atherosclerosis with increasing age.

  4. Diabetic Foot Syndrome as a Possible Cardiovascular Marker in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality; in fact, some authors showed a higher prevalence of major, previous and new-onset, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot ulcers than in those without these complications. This is consistent with the fact that in diabetes there is a complex interplay of several variables with inflammatory metabolic disorders and their effect on the cardiovascular system that could explain previous reports of high morbidity and mortality rates in diabetic patients with amputations. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the “adipovascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with diabetic foot, this “adipovascular axis” expression in lower plasma levels of adiponectin and higher plasma levels of IL-6 could be linked to foot ulcers pathogenesis by microvascular and inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to focus on the immune inflammatory features of DFS and its possible role as a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients. PMID:25883983

  5. Making sense of change: patients' views of diabetes and GP-led integrated diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Burridge, Letitia H; Foster, Michele M; Donald, Maria; Zhang, Jianzhen; Russell, Anthony W; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-02-01

    Health system reform is directed towards better management of diabetes. However, change can be difficult, and patients' perspectives are a key aspect of implementing change. This study investigated patients' perceptions and experiences of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), self-care and engagement with GP-led integrated diabetes care. Qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected patients with T2DM following their initial medical appointment in the new model of care. Normalization process theory was used to orientate the thematic analysis, to explain the work of implementing change. Two specialist GP-based complex diabetes services in primary care in Brisbane, Australia. Intervention group patients (n = 30) in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a model of GP-led integrated care for complex T2DM. Participants' experiences and perceptions of diabetes management and a GP-led model of care. Three themes were identified: sensibility of change, 'diabetic life' and diabetes care alliance. The imperative of change made sense, but some participants experienced dissonance between this rational view and their lived reality. Diabetes invaded life, revealing incongruities between participants' values and living with diabetes. They appreciated a flexible and personalized approach to care. Participants responded to advice in ways that seemed rational within the complexities of their life context. Their diabetes partnerships with health professionals coupled providers' biomedical expertise with patients' contextual expertise. Learning to manage relationships with various health professionals adds to patients' diabetes-related work. Providers need to adopt a flexible, interactive approach and foster trust, to enable better diabetes care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Polymorphism of catalase gene promoter in Romanian patients with diabetic kidney disease and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Panduru, N M; Moţa, E; Moţa, Maria; Cimponeriu, D; Serafinceanu, C; Cheţa, D M

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia leads to ROS (Reactive oxygen species) generation, affecting the cells that cannot decrease glucose uptake such as: glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells. ROS excess seems to activate important pathogenic pathways of development of diabetic nephropathy. The decrease of CAT activity, one of the most important antioxidant enzymes, following to some genetic defects, may be a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of 21A/T (rs7943316) polymorphism of CAT gene with advanced diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Romania. There have been studied 238 patients with T1D (type 1 diabetes), divided into the group with diabetic nephropathy (DN) (106 patients) and the group without renal affectation (132 patients). The genotyping has been made by using PCR-RFLP technique. The analysis of association has been made by using DeFinetti programme. The value considered significant has been p < 0.05. There has been a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the group with diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.019), the equilibrium being preserved by the control group (p = 0.771). T allele does not confer a risk for advanced diabetic nephropathy (ORT = 0.757, 95% C.I. = 0.405-1.414; P = 0.381), the result being statistically insignificant even taking into consideration the risk allele A (ORA = 0.793, 95% C.I. = 0.465-1.350; P = 0.392). The results remain concordant too after applying the Cochran -Armitage test. Our data do not suggest an effect of 21A/T (rs7943316) polymorphism in the susceptibility for diabetic nephropathy in Romanian patients with type 1 diabetes. Further studies are necessary in order to demonstrate or exclude the role of CAT gene in diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  7. Findings of multidimensional instruments for determining psychopathology in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Gülperi; Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Yılmaz, Mümtaz; Kara, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to expand the research on psychiatric complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as well as to examine the prevalence of a broad range of psychopathology in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods One hundred nineteen HD patients were invited to enter the cross-sectional study. To assess quality of life, quality of sleep, mental status and depression and anxiety symptoms, the 36-item Short Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini-Mental State Examination and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively, were used. Results The mean age of all patients was 56.9±16.1 years; 54 (45.4%) were female. In the diabetic patients group, 84.8% of the patients had low MCS scores, and 89.2% patients had low PCS scores; 73.9% were poor sleepers; 63.0% had cognitive decline; 62.0% patients were depressive symptoms; and 28.3%had symptoms of anxiety. When comparing the diabetic and non-diabetic patients, the diabetic patients had lower role-emotional, sleep duration, and sleep efficiency scores. Conclusions Incorporating a standard assessment and, eventually, treatment of psychopathologic symptoms into the care provided to diabetic and hemodialysis patients might improve quality of life and sleep, depressive symptoms and, reduce mortality risk. PMID:22993656

  8. Incidence of Diabetes Insipidus in Postoperative Period among the Patients Undergoing Pituitary Tumour Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadir, M L; Islam, M T; Hossain, M M; Sultana, S; Nasrin, R; Hossain, M M

    2017-07-01

    Post operative complications after pituitary tumour surgery vary according to procedure. There are several surgical procedures being done such as transcranial, transsphenoidal microsurgical and transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches. One of the commonest complications is diabetes insipidus (DI). Our main objective was to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in post operative period among patients undergoing surgical intervention for pituitary tumour in our institute. The presence of diabetes insipidus in the postoperative period was established by measuring serum Na+ concentration, hourly urine output and urinary specific gravity to find out the incidence of diabetes insipidus in postoperative period in relation to age, gender, tumour diameter, function of tumour (i.e., either hormone secreting or not) and operative procedure used for surgical resection of pituitary tumor. As it is the most common postoperative complication so, in this study we tried to find out how many of the patients develop diabetes insipidus in postoperative period following surgical resection of pituitary tumour. This cross sectional type of observational study was carried out in the department of Neurosurgery, BSMMU from May 2014 to October 2015 on 33 consecutive patients who underwent surgical intervention for pituitary tumour for the first time. Data was collected by using a data collection sheet. The incidence of diabetes insipidus was found 23.1% of patients in <30 year age group, 38.5% of patients in 31-40 year age group and 38.5% of patients in ≥40 year age group (p=0.764). In case of distribution of patients according to gender 38.5% of male and 61.5% of female developed diabetes insipidus (p=0.073). Regarding tumour size 30.8% and 69.2% of patients developed diabetes insipidus having tumour diameter <30mm and ≥30mm respectively (p=0.590). In case of operative procedure 69.2% of patients developed diabetes insipidus who was operated by transsphenoidal endoscopic approach

  9. Thyroid gland diseases in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vondra, K; Vrbikova, J; Dvorakova, K

    2005-12-01

    This review concerns the relation between most frequent thyroid gland diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult patients. Special attention is paid to autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant diabetic women, and iodine metabolism. We focused on mechanisms leading to coexistence of both endocrine disorders, and on distinctions in the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients is 2-3 times higher than in nondiabetic subjects; it raises with age, and is strongly influenced by female gender and autoimmune diabetes. Clinical relevance of thyroid diseases, especially in diabetic patients, significantly increases if it is associated with deteriorated function, which always cause a number problems with metabolic compensation of diabetes. Most serious consequences are increased frequency of hypoglycaemia in hypothyroidism and development of potentially life-threatening ketoacidosis in thyrotoxicosis. In spite of that, little attention is paid to the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in diabetics, as they are diagnosed in only about half of the patients. At the end, we provide recommendations for the thyroid disease screening and diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus based on our experience.

  10. Changes in the tear proteins of diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Grus, F H; Sabuncuo, P; Dick, H B; Augustin, A J; Pfeiffer, N

    2002-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown a significant increase in tear protein peaks in the tears of diabetic patients suffering from dry eye. The aim of this study was to analyze the tear protein patterns from patients with diabetes mellitus who do not suffer from ocular surface diseases (DIA). Methods A total of 515 patients were examined in this study (255 healthy subjects (controls) and 260 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus). Tear proteins were separated by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After digital image analysis densitometric data files were created and subsequently used for multivariate statistical procedures. Results A significant increase in the number of peaks was detected in diabetic patients compared to controls (P < 0.0003). The analysis of discriminance revealed a highly significant discrimination between diabetic patients and controls (Wilks lambda: 0.27; P < 0.000001). Furthermore, a significant difference in the protein pattern of diabetic patients could be detected between those suffering from dry eye or not (P < 0.002). The changes in protein patterns of diabetic patients increased with the duration of the diabetic disease. In diabetic patients with a disease duration longer than 10 years the changes were significantly more expressed than in patients with a shorter diabetic history (P < 0.003) and in healthy subjects (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The tear protein patterns of diabetic patients are very different in the number and intensity of spots from those of healthy subjects. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the differences found in the tear patterns of diabetic patients are not equal to those found in previous studies in patients suffering from dry-eye disease. The alterations in the diabetic tears were correlated with the duration of the diabetic disease. With longer disease, history changes in the tear protein patterns increased. With the course of the disease some protein peaks appeared that are

  11. Medication Oversupply in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Johnson, Heather; Dopp, Anna Legreid; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Ronk, Katie; Everett, Christine M.; Palta, Mari; Mott, David A.; Chewning, Betty; Schleiden, Loren; Smith, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in integrated health systems suggest that patients often accumulate oversupplies of prescribed medications, which is associated with higher costs and hospitalization risk. However, predictors of oversupply are poorly understood, with no studies in Medicare Part D. Objective The aim of this study was to describe prevalence and predictors of oversupply of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications in adults with diabetes managed by a large, multidisciplinary, academic physician group and enrolled in Medicare Part D or a local private health plan. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. Electronic health record data were linked to medical and pharmacy claims and enrollment data from Medicare and a local private payer for 2006-2008 to construct a patient-quarter dataset for patients managed by the physician group. Patients’ quarterly refill adherence was calculated using ReComp, a continuous, multiple-interval measure of medication acquisition (CMA), and categorized as <0.80 = Undersupply, 0.80-1.20 = Appropriate Supply, >1.20 = Oversupply. We examined associations of baseline and time-varying predisposing, enabling, and medical need factors to quarterly supply using multinomial logistic regression. Results The sample included 2,519 adults with diabetes. Relative to patients with private insurance, higher odds of oversupply were observed in patients aged <65 in Medicare (OR=3.36, 95% CI=1.61-6.99), patients 65+ in Medicare (OR=2.51, 95% CI=1.37-4.60), patients <65 in Medicare/Medicaid (OR=4.55, 95% CI=2.33-8.92), and patients 65+ in Medicare/Medicaid (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.89-11.33). Other factors associated with higher odds of oversupply included any 90-day refills during the quarter, psychotic disorder diagnosis, and moderate versus tight glycemic control. Conclusions Oversupply was less prevalent than in previous studies of integrated systems, but Medicare Part D enrollees had greater odds of oversupply than privately

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection: A hospital based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Devrajani, Bikha Ram; Shah, Syed Zulfiquar Ali; Soomro, Aftab Ahmed; Devrajani, Tarachand

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to compare the frequency of H. pylori infection in both groups. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration: Department of Medicine, Liaquat University Hospital from October 2007 to March 2008. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 148 subjects and divided into two groups i.e. type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics; each group consisting of 74 patients. All diabetic patients of ≥ 35 years of age, both gender and the known cases with history of dyspepsia, epigastric pain or bloating for more than a month were screened for Helicobacter pylori infection. The collected data of both groups was evaluated and separated for analysis. Results: Majority of the patients were male with mean age ± SD, 52.86 ± 8.51. Among the diabetic group, HpSA was positive in 54/74 (73%), whereas in the non-diabetic group HpSA was positive in 38/74 (51.4%) cases. Fasting blood glucose was identified as low in 04 (5.40%) H. pylori infected - diabetic patients where as the blood glucose level of 07 (9.45%) known diabetic patients was raised despite the ongoing medication. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are more prone and at risk to acquire H. Pylori infection. Therefore proper monitoring of blood glucose level and screening for H. pylori infection are effective preventive measures for this life threatening infection. PMID:20431802

  13. Chorea and Broca aphasia induced by diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient diagnosed as Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chizuru; Oishi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tunehiko; Sasaki, Kaori; Tosaka, Maki; Sato, Tosihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Takayama, Shinichiro; Sato, Asako; Iwata, Makoto; Uchigata, Yasuko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2005-02-01

    We here report one case of hemichorea and Broca aphasia occurred with diabetic ketoacidosis. A 20-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus had experienced diabetic ketoacidosis fourth time after the onset of diabetes. At the third ketoacidotic episode, the patient was admitted to our hospital for the first time to show hemichorea of the left extremities. Brain computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a high-density area in the right caudate head and low-density area in the right putamen. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated a stenosis at the root of the bilateral middle and anterior cerebral arteries. The hemichorea disappeared within 3 days. At the fourth ketoacidotic episode, not hemichorea but unconsciousness was there for 2 days even after ketoacidosis disappeared. After the unconscious state, Broca aphasia was demonstrated for 15 days. The cerebral angiography showed a finding compatible to Moyamoya disease. These findings support that chorea and Broca aphasia induced by diabetic ketoacidosis was developed in addition to blood vessel abnormalities such as Moyamoya disease. We suggest that poorly controlled diabetic patients with hemichorea should undergo cerebral angiography.

  14. Anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Jones-LeCointe, Altheia; Nwagbara, Emeka; Seales, Dawn; Okali, Fidelis

    2008-01-01

    Background Anaemia has been shown in previous studies to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disorder. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and kidney dysfunction in Caribbean type 2 diabetic patients that have been previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods 155 type 2 diabetic patients and 51 non-diabetic subjects of African origin were studied. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for glucose, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin and complete blood count. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin < 12 g/dl (F) or < 13 g/dl (M). Kidney function was assessed using glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as estimated by the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. Subjects were considered to have chronic kidney disease when the estimated GFR was < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Comparisons for within- and between-gender, between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were performed using Student's t-test while chi-square test was employed for categorical variables. Results The diabetic patients were older than the non-diabetic subjects. While male non-diabetic subjects had significantly higher red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations than non-diabetic female subjects (p < 0.001), the RBC and hematocrit concentrations were similar in male and female diabetic patients. Furthermore, irrespective of gender, diabetic patients had significantly higher prevalence rate of anemia than non-diabetic subjects (p < 0.05). Anaemic diabetes patients had significantly lower GFR (67.1 ± 3.0 vs. 87.9 ± 5.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2, p < 0.001) than non-anaemic patients. Conclusion A high prevalence of anaemia was identified in this group of type 2 diabetic patients previously shown to have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. It is therefore recommended that diagnostic laboratories in developing

  15. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  16. Difficulties of Diabetic Patients in Learning about Their Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Caroline; Gagnayre, Remi; d'Ivernois, Jean Francois

    2001-01-01

    Examines the difficulties experienced by diabetic patients in learning about their illness. Diabetic people (N=138) were questioned by means of a closed answer questionnaire. Results reveal that patients easily acquired manual skills, yet numerous learning difficulties were associated with the skills required to solve problems and make decisions,…

  17. Effect of ischaemia on somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    López-Alburquerque, T; García Miguel, A; Ruiz Ezquerro, J J; de Portugal Alvarez, J

    1987-01-01

    The nerve action potential at the elbow and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) at the scalp were recorded over 30 minutes of tourniquet-induced limb ischaemia in 10 diabetic patients and 10 controls. According to the SEP changes, an increased resistance to nerve ischaemia in diabetic patients was observed. The pathways involved in SEP conduction are discussed. PMID:3585354

  18. [Correction of dyslipidemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C, combined with diabetes type 2].

    PubMed

    Derbak, M; Boldizhar, P

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the results of treatment of 118 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) which is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). When planning therapeutic interventions in chronic hepatitis C in patients with diabetes, it is considered the presence of visceral obesit , dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. The efficacy of different treatment regimens was studied. Found that the usage of ursodeoxycholic acid and ademetionin in HCV patients with diabetes type 2 receiving standard antiviral therapy (SAVT), significantly make a positive effect on the level of dyslipidemia. The normalization of lipid profile allows for a full course of SAVT, which reduces the frequency of relapse. It is also noted that the simultaneous use of ademetionin and ursodeoxycholic acid in treatment of chronic hepatitis C leads to a reduction of side effects of SAVT. Metabolic therapy may be recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis C in combination with type 2 diabetes in case of SAVT, and at its contraindications or intolerance.

  19. HYPERGLYCEMIA MANAGEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH POSTTRANSPLANTATION DIABETES.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Rodolfo J; Fried, Martin; Breen, Tracy; Tamler, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes (PTDM) is a common occurrence after solid-organ transplantation and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. There is a limited number of studies addressing strategies for hyperglycemia management in this population, with a few articles emerging recently. We performed a PubMed search of studies published in English addressing hyperglycemia management of PTDM/new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT). Relevant cited articles were also retrieved. Most of the 25 publications eligible for review were retrospective studies. Insulin therapy during the early posttransplantation period showed promise in preventing PTDM development. Thiazolidinediones have been mostly shown to exert glycemic control in retrospective studies, at the expense of weight gain and fluid retention. Evidence with metformin, sulfonylureas, and meglitinides is very limited. Incretins have shown promising results in small prospective studies using sitagliptin, linaglitpin, and vildagliptin and a case series using liraglutide. Prospective randomized studies assessing the management of hyperglycemia in PTDM are urgently needed. In the meantime, clinicians need to be aware of the high risk of PTDM and associated complications and current concepts in management.

  20. Metformin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Lipska, Kasia J.; Mayo, Helen; Bailey, Clifford J.; McGuire, Darren K.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Metformin is widely viewed as the best initial pharmacological option to lower glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the drug is contraindicated in many individuals with impaired kidney function because of concerns of lactic acidosis. OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of lactic acidosis associated with metformin use in individuals with impaired kidney function. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION In July 2014, we searched the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for English-language articles pertaining to metformin, kidney disease, and lactic acidosis in humans between 1950 and June 2014. We excluded reviews, letters, editorials, case reports, small case series, and manuscripts that did not directly pertain to the topic area or that met other exclusion criteria. Of an original 818 articles, 65 were included in this review, including pharmacokinetic/metabolic studies, large case series, retrospective studies, meta-analyses, and a clinical trial. RESULTS Although metformin is renally cleared, drug levels generally remain within the therapeutic range and lactate concentrations are not substantially increased when used in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rates, 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). The overall incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users varies across studies from approximately 3 per 100 000 person-years to 10 per 100 000 person-years and is generally indistinguishable from the background rate in the overall population with diabetes. Data suggesting an increased risk of lactic acidosis in metformin-treated patients with chronic kidney disease are limited, and no randomized controlled trials have been conducted to test the safety of metformin in patients with significantly impaired kidney function. Population-based studies demonstrate that metformin may be prescribed counter to prevailing guidelines suggesting a renal risk in up to 1 in 4 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  1. E-Prescribing: Clinical Implications for Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marie; Dang, Devra; Lee, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    With the recent Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and stimulus package incentives for health information technology, many clinicians are expected to adopt or enhance their use of e-prescribing systems. E-prescribing has nearly eradicated medication errors resulting from prescriber handwriting interpretations, yet several other patient-care and workflow benefits still remain a promise. As prescribers select or update their e-prescribing systems (whether stand-alone or integrated with electronic health records), close attention is needed to the e-prescribing application features and level of clinical decision support to avoid clinical blind spots, including incomplete or inaccurate patient medication lists, poor drop-down menu or screen design, and lack of clinically relevant and actionable drug interaction and drug allergy alerts. This article presents three case studies that highlight common e-prescribing problems involving diabetes patients. PMID:20144439

  2. Neovascular glaucoma after vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-woo; Jee, Donghyun; La, Tae Yoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after vitrectomy in patients with vitreous hemorrhage associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). This retrospective, noncomparative, observational study included 127 eyes of 127 patients with PDR who received vitrectomy with a follow-up period of at least 6 months. The prevalence of NVG and associated risk factors were assessed including sex, age, previous panretinal photocoagulation, baseline intraocular pressure, combined phacovitrectomy, and pretreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) before vitrectomy for the treatment of vitreous hemorrhage. NVG developed in 15 (11.8%) of 127 patients. Of the 15 eyes with NVG, 11 cases (73.3%) postoperatively developed NVG within 6 months. Postoperative NVG was associated with preoperative IVB treatment (odds ratio, 4.43; P = 0.019). The prevalence of NVG after vitrectomy was 11.8%, and an associated risk factor for NVG was preoperative IVB for the treatment of vitreous hemorrhage. PMID:28272234

  3. Health literacy, complication awareness, and diabetic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Ho; Pang, Samantha M C; Chan, Moon Fai; Yeung, Grace S P; Yeung, Vincent T F

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to examine the relationship between health literacy, complication awareness and diabetic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to validate a Chinese version of the Short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. There is a rapidly increasing trend in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Asian countries. Alongside the considerable progress in recent decades of health education in the field of diabetes care, the effects of health literacy and complication awareness have received increasing attention over the past 10 years. This study was conducted from September 2005 to February 2006 with 149 Chinese patients (mean = 59.8 years, range: 27-90 years) who were undergoing/had undergone diabetic complication assessment. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire incorporating demographics; assessment of complication awareness in two sections: a self-developed 10-item patient awareness score and a modified Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure; and health literacy as measured by the Chinese version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Diabetic control was assessed by the most recent HbA1c level. Health literacy (P < 0.001) and patient awareness scores were negatively correlated to diabetic control (P = 0.035), but management of treatment in the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (P = 0.030), gender (P = 0.023) and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001) were positively correlated to HbA1c. To develop effective patient education and improve patients' diabetic control and own complications, educational strategies need to consider patients' health literacy levels and self-care skills.

  4. Ocular Disease, Knowledge, and Technology Applications in Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Threatt, Jennifer; Williamson, Jennifer Faye; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 25.8 million children and adults in the United States, approximately 8.3% of the population, have diabetes. Diabetes prevalence varies by race and ethnicity. African Americans have the highest prevalence (12.6%), followed closely by Hispanics (11.8%), Asian Americans (8.4%), and Whites (7.1%). The purpose of this article is to discuss the ocular complications of diabetes, the cultural and racial differences in diabetes knowledge, and the role of telemedicine as a means to reach the undeserved who are at risk of complications. Information on the pathophysiology of ocular disease in patients with diabetes and the role of telemedicine in diabetes care was derived from a literature review. National Institutes of Health (NIH) on-line resources were queried to present data on the racial and cultural understandings of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. The microvascular ocular complications of diabetes are discussed for retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma and ocular surface disease. Racial and cultural differences in knowledge of recommended self-care practices are presented. These differences in part, may explain health disparities and the increased risk of diabetes and its complications in rural minority communities. Finally, advances in telemedicine technology are discussed that show improvements in metabolic control and cardiovascular risk in adults with type 2 diabetes. Improving provider and patient understanding of diabetes complications may improve management and self care practices that are important for diabetes control. Telemedicine may improve access to diabetes specialists and may improve self-management education and diabetes control particularly in rural and underserved communities. PMID:23531956

  5. Penile Dimensions of Diabetic and Nondiabetic Men With Erectile Dysfunction: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader

    2015-06-30

    This study aimed to report penile dimensions in diabetic and nondiabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and correlate their dimensions with other study variables. A case-control study was designed through retrospective data analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic patients consulting for ED and a control group (n = 105, each group). Study data retrieved included history, clinical evaluation, and penile dimensions (pendulous length [PL], total length [TL], and circumference [CF]) at flaccid and erect states. Results identified that patients had lower values (mean, cm) for almost all penile dimensions. The diabetic patients identified significant differences in most dimensions, whether in flaccid (PL: 7.46 vs. 7.51 and 7.81, p = .11; TL: 11.8 vs. 12.77 and 12.88, p = .000; CF: 8.84 vs. 9.1 and 9.14, p = .016) or erect state (PL: 9.66 vs. 9.61 and 10, p = .092; TL: 13.96 vs. 14.88 and 15.04, p = .000; CF: 11.56 vs. 12.06 and 11.92, p = .018) as compared with the nondiabetic patients and controls, respectively. No significant correlation was detected between the dimensions and age, durations of diabetes and ED, or erectile function scores. In conclusion, diabetic and nondiabetic patients with ED presented, in varying degrees, significant decline in their penile dimensions, and this was more prevalent in diabetic patients. As changes in penile size could be a silent corollary of comorbidities, monitoring the changes in penile dimensions should be an important component of the clinical checkup of any patient with ED, especially a diabetic patient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Diabetes Attitude Scale: validation in type-2 diabetes patients in multiple centers in China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qingqing; Chen, Yufeng; Guo, Xiaohui; Yuan, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Chun; Shen, Li; Sun, Zilin; Zhao, Fang; Dai, Xia; Huang, Jin; Yang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to report the development and psychometric testing of Diabetes Attitude Scale. A prospective study was performed. The cultural equivalency and content validity of the Diabetes Attitude Scale were determined by panels of endocrinologists, physiologists, nurses and dieticians. An accurate and usable translation was obtained for each of five subscales examining attitudes on need for special training, the seriousness of type-2 diabetes, the need for controlling the condition, its psychosocial impact and the degree of autonomy given to patients in decision making. The validation was derived from 5961 patients with type-2 diabetes, recruited from 50 centers in 29 provinces throughout China between March 1st and September 30th, 2010. The modified Diabetes Attitude Scale showed an acceptable level of internal consistency. The strength of the inter-correlations among the domains of five subscales suggests that the instrument measures related but separate domains of patients' attitudes toward diabetes. Moreover, the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were high enough to support the stability of the Chinese version of the third version of the scale. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Diabetes Attitude Scale demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability and appeared to effectively evaluate attitudes toward diabetes in patients with type-2 diabetes.

  7. Identifying knowledge deficits of food insecure patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vivian, Eva M; Ejebe, Ifna H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify the self-care needs of adults with diabetes who experience food insecurity. A cross-sectional study design and methodology were used to attain the study data. We invited 153 adults with diabetes who utilized the St Vincent de Paul Food Pantry to complete the diabetes knowledge test. The reliability of the sample was calculated using Cronbach's coefficient α. To determine validity, differences in test scores were examined by diabetes type and treatment, educational attainment, and receipt of diabetes education. The coefficient α for the general test and the insulin-use subscale indicated that both were moderately reliable, α> 0.60. General test scores were significantly associated with educational attainment (p<0.01) and prior diabetes education (p<0.05). We found that participants who attained education beyond high school or previously received diabetes education scored significantly higher on the test compared to those with less than high school education or not receiving diabetes education (p<0.05). Adults with type 1 diabetes had higher general and insulin use scores compared to adults with type 2 diabetes, however the difference was not statistically significant. While general knowledge about diabetes is not a predictor of self-care behavior, it is needed to perform daily self-care activities. Health care providers should assess diabetes knowledge in low income patients who experience food insecurity regularly to identify any gaps in knowledge that can compromise self-care behaviors.

  8. A retrospective analysis of amputation rates in diabetic patients: can lower extremity amputations be further prevented?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower extremity amputations are costly and debilitating complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Our aim was to investigate changes in the amputation rate in patients with DM at the Karolinska University Hospital in Solna (KS) following the introduction of consensus guidelines for treatment and prevention of diabetic foot complications, and to identif