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Sample records for diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor

  1. Mechanism for release of arachidonic acid during guinea pig platelet aggregation: a role for the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids after the stimulation of guinea pig platelets with collagen, thrombin and platelet activating factor (PAF) was studied. RHC 80267, a diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, and indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, were used. Various in vitro assays for enzymes involved in arachidonic acid release and metabolism were conducted. Platelet aggregation and simultaneous release of ADP from platelets were monitored using a Chrono-log Lumiaggregometer. Platelets were labeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to facilitate sensitive determination of small changes in platelet phospholipids during platelet aggregation. In the present investigation it is shown that collagen, thrombin and PAF increased phospholipase C activity. It was also discovered that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for further stimulation (a positive feed-back) of phospholipase C activity, while diacylglycerol provided a negative feed-back control over receptor-stimulated phospholipase C activity and inhibited ADP release. The guinea pig platelet is an ideal model to study phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway for the release of arachidonic acid from platelet phospholipids because it does not have any phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity. It was observed that cyclooxygenase products were responsible for collagen-induced guinea pig platelet aggregation. Indomethacin completely inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, was less effective against thrombin, and had no effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. On the other hand, RHC 80267 was a powerful inhibitor of aggregation and ADP release induced by all three of these potent aggregating agents.

  2. Liposomal Delivery of Diacylglycerol Lipase-Beta Inhibitors to Macrophages Dramatically Enhances Selectivity and Efficacy in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myungsun; Snyder, Helena W; Donvito, Giulia; Schurman, Lesley D; Fox, Todd E; Lichtman, Aron H; Kester, Mark; Hsu, Ku-Lung

    2017-09-13

    Diacylglycerol lipase-beta (DAGLβ) hydrolyzes arachidonic acid (AA)-containing diacylglycerols to produce bioactive lipids including endocannabinoids and AA-derived eicosanoids involved in regulation of inflammatory signaling. Previously, we demonstrated that DAGLβ inactivation using the triazole urea inhibitor KT109 blocked macrophage inflammatory signaling and reversed allodynic responses of mice in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Here, we tested whether we could exploit the phagocytic capacity of macrophages to localize delivery of DAGLβ inhibitors to these cells in vivo using liposome encapsulated KT109. We used DAGLβ-tailored activity-based probes and chemical proteomic methods to measure potency and selectivity of liposomal KT109 in macrophages and tissues from treated mice. Surprisingly, delivery of ∼5 μg of liposomal KT109 was sufficient to achieve ∼80% inactivation of DAGLβ in macrophages with no apparent activity in other tissues in vivo. Our macrophage-targeted delivery resulted in a >100-fold enhancement in antinociceptive potency compared with free compound in a mouse inflammatory pain model. Our studies describe a novel anti-inflammatory strategy that is achieved by targeted in vivo delivery of DAGLβ inhibitors to macrophages.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Structure Activity Relationships of α-Ketoheterocycles as sn-1-Diacylglycerol Lipase α Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Freek J.; Baggelaar, Marc P.; Hummel, Jessica J. A.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.; van der Stelt, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) is responsible for the formation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα inhibitors are required to study the physiological role of 2-AG. Previously, we identified the α-ketoheterocycles as potent and highly selective DAGLα inhibitors. Here, we present the first comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of α-ketoheterocycles as DAGLα inhibitors. Our findings indicate that the active site of DAGLα is remarkably sensitive to the type of heterocyclic scaffold with oxazolo-4N-pyridines as the most active framework. We uncovered a fundamental substituent effect in which electron-withdrawing meta-oxazole substituents increased inhibitor potency. (C6-C9)-acyl chains with a distal phenyl group proved to be the most potent inhibitors. The integrated SAR data was consistent with the proposed binding pose in a DAGLα homology model. Altogether our results may guide the design of future DAGLα inhibitors as leads for molecular therapies to treat neuroinflammation, obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:26584396

  4. Tumor promoting phorbol diesters: substrates for diacylglycerol lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, M.C.

    1984-08-30

    Enzyme activity in rat serum was examined utilizing the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and various glycerolipids as substrates. The serum activity was specific for hydrolysis of the long chain tetradecanoate moiety of TPA, hydrolyzed mono- and diacylglycerols, but was not effective against triacylglycerols, cholesterylesters, or phospholipids. Heating the enzyme preparation at 56/sup 0/C for 1 min was dually effective in reducing the hydrolysis of both TPA and dioleoylglycerol by 83-86% of control levels. The potent diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor, RHC 80267, inhibited the hydrolysis of TPA in the 0.2-1.0 ..mu..M range and was also a potent blocker of monoacyl- and diacylglycerol hydrolysis. In substrate competition studies, exogenous unlabeled TPA was added to the (/sup 14/C)dioleoylglycerol-containing reaction mixture, however, this produced an approximate 3-fold stimulation of (/sup 14/)dioleoylglycerol hydrolysis. Although we have not established whether the hydrolysis of TPA and diacylglycerol is the work of one enzyme, the effectiveness of the specific lipase inhibitor, RHC 80267, demonstrates that diacylglycerol lipase can utilize TPA as substrate, a finding never before documented. This point is of interest in light of the theory that phorbol esters act by mimicry of the natural lipid mediator, diacylglycerols. 44 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Inhibition of the effects of thrombin on guinea pig platelets by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC 80267

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, D.; Sutherland, C.A.; Khandwala, A.S.; Jamall, I.S.; Kapoor, A.L.

    1986-10-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) activities were found in guinea pig platelet microsome preparations. No phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity was detected. RHC 80267 (1,6-di (0-(carbamoyl) cyclohexanone oxime)hexane) inhibited DGL activity (IC50 = 4 uM) from guinea pig platelet microsomes but had no effect on PLC. RHC 80267 inhibited platelet aggregation (IC50 = 11 uM), release of arachidonic acid (AA), its metabolites, and ATP (IC50 = 4.5 uM) when guinea pig platelets were challenged with a low concentration of thrombin. We propose that PLC-DGL is an important enzymatic pathway for the release of AA in guinea pig platelets.

  6. Diacylglycerol lipase disinhibits VTA dopamine neurons during chronic nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, Matthew W.; Herman, Melissa A.; Natividad, Luis A.; Irimia, Cristina; Polis, Ilham Y.; Pugh, Holly; Chang, Jae Won; Niphakis, Micah J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Roberto, Marisa; Parsons, Loren H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nicotine exposure (CNE) alters synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in a manner that enhances dopaminergic signaling and promotes nicotine use. The present experiments identify a correlation between enhanced production of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and diminished release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the VTA following CNE. To study the functional role of on-demand 2-AG signaling in GABAergic synapses, we used 1,2,3-triazole urea compounds to selectively inhibit 2-AG biosynthesis by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). The potency and selectivity of these inhibitors were established in rats in vitro (rat brain proteome), ex vivo (brain slices), and in vivo (intracerebroventricular administration) using activity-based protein profiling and targeted metabolomics analyses. Inhibition of DAGL (2-AG biosynthesis) rescues nicotine-induced VTA GABA signaling following CNE. Conversely, enhancement of 2-AG signaling in naïve rats by inhibiting 2-AG degradation recapitulates the loss of nicotine-induced GABA signaling evident following CNE. DAGL inhibition reduces nicotine self-administration without disrupting operant responding for a nondrug reinforcer or motor activity. Collectively, these findings provide a detailed characterization of selective inhibitors of rat brain DAGL and demonstrate that excessive 2-AG signaling contributes to a loss of inhibitory GABAergic constraint of VTA excitability following CNE. PMID:26755579

  7. Diacylglycerol lipase disinhibits VTA dopamine neurons during chronic nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Buczynski, Matthew W; Herman, Melissa A; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Natividad, Luis A; Irimia, Cristina; Polis, Ilham Y; Pugh, Holly; Chang, Jae Won; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Roberto, Marisa; Parsons, Loren H

    2016-01-26

    Chronic nicotine exposure (CNE) alters synaptic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in a manner that enhances dopaminergic signaling and promotes nicotine use. The present experiments identify a correlation between enhanced production of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and diminished release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the VTA following CNE. To study the functional role of on-demand 2-AG signaling in GABAergic synapses, we used 1,2,3-triazole urea compounds to selectively inhibit 2-AG biosynthesis by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). The potency and selectivity of these inhibitors were established in rats in vitro (rat brain proteome), ex vivo (brain slices), and in vivo (intracerebroventricular administration) using activity-based protein profiling and targeted metabolomics analyses. Inhibition of DAGL (2-AG biosynthesis) rescues nicotine-induced VTA GABA signaling following CNE. Conversely, enhancement of 2-AG signaling in naïve rats by inhibiting 2-AG degradation recapitulates the loss of nicotine-induced GABA signaling evident following CNE. DAGL inhibition reduces nicotine self-administration without disrupting operant responding for a nondrug reinforcer or motor activity. Collectively, these findings provide a detailed characterization of selective inhibitors of rat brain DAGL and demonstrate that excessive 2-AG signaling contributes to a loss of inhibitory GABAergic constraint of VTA excitability following CNE.

  8. Discrimination against diacylglycerol ethers in lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of shark liver oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar; Vázquez, Luis; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2013-01-15

    Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of squalene-free shark liver oil was investigated. The mentioned shark liver oil was comprised mainly of diacylglycerol ether and triacylglycerols. In order to test discrimination against diacylglycerol ether, up to 10 different lipases were compared. The ratio of oil to ethanol and lipase stability were also evaluated. Surprisingly, lipase from Pseudomonas stutzeri was the fastest biocatalyst among all assayed, although poor discrimination against diacylglycerol ether was observed. The best results in terms of selectivity and stability were obtained with immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). Ethanolysis reaction after 24h in the presence of Novozym 435 produced total disappearance of triacylglycerol and a final reaction mixture comprised mainly of diacylglycerol ethers (10.6%), monoacylglycerol ethers (32.9%) and fatty acid ethyl esters (46.0%). In addition, when an excess of ethanol was used, diacylglycerol ethers completely disappeared after 15 h, giving a final product mainly composed of monoacylglycerol ethers (36.6%) and fatty acid ethyl esters (46.4%).

  9. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  10. Novel chromatographic resolution of chiral diacylglycerols and analysis of the stereoselective hydrolysis of triacylglycerols by lipases.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J A; Mendoza, L D; Pezzotti, F; Vanthuyne, N; Leclaire, J; Verger, R; Buono, G; Carriere, F; Fotiadu, F

    2008-04-15

    In the present study, we propose a general and accessible method for the resolution of enantiomeric 1,2-sn- and 2,3-sn-diacylglycerols based on derivatization by isocyanates, which can be easily used routinely by biochemists to evaluate the stereopreferences of lipases in a time course of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis. Diacylglycerol (DAG) enantiomers were transformed into carbamates using achiral and commercially available reagents. Excellent separation and resolution factors were obtained for diacylglycerols present in lipolysis reaction mixtures. This analytical method was then applied to investigate the stereoselectivity of three model lipases (porcine pancreatic lipase, PPL; lipase from Rhizomucor miehei, MML; and recombinant dog gastric lipase, rDGL) in the time course of hydrolysis of prochiral triolein as a substrate. From the measurements of the diglyceride enantiomeric excess it was confirmed that PPL was not stereospecific (position sn-1 vs sn-3 of triolein), whereas MML and rDGL preferentially hydrolyzed the ester bond at position sn-1 and sn-3, respectively. The enantiomeric excess of DAGs was not constant with time, decreasing with the course of hydrolysis. This was due to the fact that DAGs can be products of the stereospecific hydrolysis of TAGs and substrates for stereospecific hydrolysis into monoacylglycerols.

  11. Roles of brain phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase in centrally administered histamine-induced adrenomedullary outflow in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Okada, Shoshiro; Lu, Lianyi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2007-10-01

    Recently, we reported that intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine evokes the secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by brain cyclooxygenase-1- and thromboxane A2-mediated mechanisms in rats. These results suggest the involvement of brain arachidonic acid cascade in the histamine-induced activation of the central adrenomedullary outflow. Arachidonic acid is released mainly by phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-dependent pathway or phospholipase C (PLC)/diacylglycerol lipase-dependent pathway. In the present study, histamine (27 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) -induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline was dose-dependently reduced by U-73122 (PLC inhibitor) (10 and 100 nmol/animal, i.c.v.), ET-18-OCH3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC inhibitor) (10 and 30 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) and RHC-80267 (diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor) (1.3 and 2.6 micromol/animal, i.c.v.). However, mepacrine (PLA2 inhibitor) (1.1 and 2.2 micromol/animal, i.c.v.) and D609 (phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC inhibitor) (30, 100 and 300 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) had no effect. These results suggest the involvement of brain phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC and diacylglycerol lipase in the centrally administered histamine-induced activation of the adrenomedullary outflow in rats.

  12. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  13. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  14. Conversion of a Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase into a Triacylglycerol Lipase by Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongming; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Zhou, Pengfei; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-07-06

    Despite the fact that most lipases are believed to be active against triacylglycerides, there is a small group of lipases that are active only on mono- and diacylglycerides. The reason for this difference in substrate scope is not clear. We tried to identify the reasons for this in the lipase from Malassezia globosa. By protein engineering, and with only one mutation, we managed to convert this enzyme into a typical triacylglycerol lipase (the wild-type lipase does not accept triacylglycerides). The variant Q282L accepts a broad spectrum of triacylglycerides, although the catalytic behavior is altered to some extent. From in silico analysis it seems that specific hydrophobic interactions are key to the altered substrate specificity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Brain phospholipase C-diacylglycerol lipase pathway is involved in vasopressin-induced release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Okada, Shoshiro; Yamaguchi-Shima, Naoko; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2004-09-19

    Recently, we reported that intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered arginine-vasopressin evokes the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by brain thromboxane A2-mediated mechanisms in rats. These results suggest the involvement of brain arachidonic acid in the vasopressin-induced activation of the central adrenomedullary outflow. Arachidonic acid is released mainly by two pathways: phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-dependent pathway; phospholipase C (PLC)- and diacylglycerol lipase-dependent pathway. In the present study, therefore, we attempted to identify which pathway is involved in the vasopressin-induced release of both catecholamines from adrenal medulla using urethane-anesthetized rats. Vasopressin (0.2 nmol/animal, i.c.v.)-induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline was dose-dependently reduced by neomycin [0.28 and 0.55 micromol (250 and 500 microg)/animal, i.c.v.] and 1-[6-[[(17beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U-73122) [5 and 10 nmol (2.3 and 4.6 microg)/animal, i.c.v.] (inhibitors of PLC), and also by 1,6-bis(cyclohexyloximinocarbonylamino)hexane (RHC-80267) [1.3 and 2.6 micromol (500 and 1000 microg)/animal, i.c.v.] (an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase). On the other hand, mepacrine [1.1 and 2.2 micromol (500 and 1000 microg)/animal, i.c.v.] (an inhibitor of PLA2) was largely ineffective on the vasopressin-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines. These results suggest that vasopressin evokes the release of noradrenaline and adrenaline from adrenal medulla by the brain PLC- and diacylglycerol lipase-dependent mechanisms in rats.

  16. Production of diacylglycerols from glycerol monooleate and ethyl oleate through free and immobilized lipase-catalyzed consecutive reactions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juan; Li, Dan; Zhu, Xue Mei; Adhikari, Prakash; Lee, Ki-Teak; Lee, Jeung-Hee

    2011-02-28

    The ability of free and immobilized lipase on the production of diacylglycerols (DAG) by transesterification of glycerol monooleate (GMO) and ethyl oleate was investigated. Among three free lipases such as lipase G (Penicillium cyclopium), lipase AK (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia), lipase PS exhibited the highest DAG productivity, and the DAG content gradually increased up to 24 hours reaction and then remained steady. The comparative result for DAG productivity between free lipase PS and immobilized lipases (lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM) during nine times of 24 hours reaction indicated that total DAG production was higher in immobilized lipase PS-D (183.5mM) and Lipozyme RM IM (309.5mM) than free lipase PS (122.0mM) at the first reaction, and that the DAG production rate was reduced by consecutive reactions, in which more sn-1,3-DAG was synthesized than sn-1,2-DAG. During the consecutive reactions, the activity of lipase PS was relatively steady by showing similar DAG content, whereas DAG production of lipase PS-D and Lipozyme RM IM was gradually decreased to 69.9 and 167.1mM at 9th reaction, respectively, resulting in 62% and 46% reduced production when compared with 1st reaction. Interestingly, from 7th reaction lipase PS produced more DAG than immobilized lipase PS-D, and exhibited a stable activity for DAG production. Therefore, the present study suggested that DAG productivity between GMO and ethyl oleate was higher in immobilized lipases than free lipases, but the activity was reduced with repeated uses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postsynaptic diacylglycerol lipase α mediates retrograde endocannabinoid suppression of inhibition in mouse prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Hiroki; Miyamae, Takeaki; Hansen, Gwenn; Zambrowicz, Brian; Flynn, Michael; Pedicord, Donna; Blat, Yuval; Westphal, Ryan S; Zaczek, Robert; Lewis, David A; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) is a prevailing form of endocannabinoid signalling. However, several discrepancies have arisen regarding the roles played by the two major brain endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in mediating DSI. Here we studied endocannabinoid signalling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), where several components of the endocannabinoid system have been identified, but endocannabinoid signalling remains largely unexplored. In voltage clamp recordings from mouse PFC pyramidal neurons, depolarizing steps significantly suppressed IPSCs induced by application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol. DSI in PFC neurons was abolished by extra- or intracellular application of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), an inhibitor of the 2-AG synthesis enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). Moreover, DSI was enhanced by inhibiting 2-AG degradation, but was unaffected by inhibiting anandamide degradation. THL, however, may affect other enzymes of lipid metabolism and does not selectively target the α (DAGLα) or β (DAGLβ) isoforms of DAGL. Therefore, we studied DSI in the PFC of DAGLα−/− and DAGLβ−/− mice generated via insertional mutagenesis by gene-trapping with retroviral vectors. Gene trapping strongly reduced DAGLα or DAGLβ mRNA levels in a locus-specific manner. In DAGLα−/− mice cortical levels of 2-AG were significantly decreased and DSI was completely abolished, whereas DAGLβ deficiency did not alter cortical 2-AG levels or DSI. Importantly, cortical levels of anandamide were not significantly affected in DAGLα−/− or DAGLβ−/− mice. The chronic decrease of 2-AG levels in DAGLα−/− mice did not globally alter inhibitory transmission or the response of cannabinoid-sensitive synapses to cannabinoid receptor stimulation, although it altered some intrinsic membrane properties. Finally, we found that repetitive action potential firing of PFC pyramidal neurons suppressed synaptic

  18. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Identification of diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors from Rosa centifolia petals.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hidehiko; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Shibuya, Yusuke; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2011-08-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, and is considered as a potential target to control hypertriglyceridemia or other metabolic disorders. In this study, we found that the extract of rose petals suppressed TAG synthesis in cultured cells, and that the extract showed DGAT inhibitory action in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionation of the rose extract revealed that the DGAT inhibitory substances in the extract were ellagitannins; among them rugosin B, and D, and eusupinin A inhibited DGAT activity by 96, 82, and 84% respectively, at 10 μM. These substances did not inhibit the activities of other hepatic microsomal enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and HMG-CoA reductase, or pancreatic lipase, suggesting that ellagitannins inhibit DGAT preferentially. In an oral fat load test using mice, postprandial plasma TAG increase was suppressed by rose extract; TAG levels 2 h after the fat load were significantly lower in mice administered a fat emulsion containing rose extract than in control mice (446.3 ± 33.1 vs 345.3 ± 25.0 mg/dL, control vs rose extract group; P < 0.05). These results suggest that rose ellagitannins or rose extract could be beneficial in controlling lipid metabolism and used to improve metabolic disorders.

  20. Diacylglycerol lipase regulates lifespan and oxidative stress response by inversely modulating TOR signaling in Drosophila and C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chun; Kao, Tzu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Tzu-En; Wu, Yi-Chun; Ja, William W; Brummel, Theodore J; Kapahi, Pankaj; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Yu, Lin-Kwei; Lin, Zhi-Han; You, Ru-Jing; Jhong, Yi-Ting; Wang, Horng-Dar

    2014-08-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a nutrient-sensing pathway controlling metabolism and lifespan. Although TOR signaling can be activated by a metabolite of diacylglycerol (DAG), phosphatidic acid (PA), the precise genetic mechanism through which DAG metabolism influences lifespan remains unknown. DAG is metabolized to either PA via the action of DAG kinase or 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). Here, we report that in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, overexpression of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL/inaE/dagl-1) or knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK/rdgA/dgk-5) extends lifespan and enhances response to oxidative stress. Phosphorylated S6 kinase (p-S6K) levels are reduced following these manipulations, implying the involvement of TOR signaling. Conversely, DAGL/inaE/dagl-1 mutants exhibit shortened lifespan, reduced tolerance to oxidative stress, and elevated levels of p-S6K. Additional results from genetic interaction studies are consistent with the hypothesis that DAG metabolism interacts with TOR and S6K signaling to affect longevity and oxidative stress resistance. These findings highlight conserved metabolic and genetic pathways that regulate aging.

  1. Diacylglycerol lipase regulates lifespan and oxidative stress response by inversely modulating TOR signaling in Drosophila and C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Chen, Yi-Chun; Kao, Tzu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Tzu-En; Wu, Yi-Chun; Ja, William W; Brummel, Theodore J; Kapahi, Pankaj; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa; Yu, Lin-Kwei; Lin, Zhi-Han; You, Ru-Jing; Jhong, Yi-Ting; Wang, Horng-Dar

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a nutrient-sensing pathway controlling metabolism and lifespan. Although TOR signaling can be activated by a metabolite of diacylglycerol (DAG), phosphatidic acid (PA), the precise genetic mechanism through which DAG metabolism influences lifespan remains unknown. DAG is metabolized to either PA via the action of DAG kinase or 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). Here, we report that in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, overexpression of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL/inaE/dagl-1) or knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK/rdgA/dgk-5) extends lifespan and enhances response to oxidative stress. Phosphorylated S6 kinase (p-S6K) levels are reduced following these manipulations, implying the involvement of TOR signaling. Conversely, DAGL/inaE/dagl-1 mutants exhibit shortened lifespan, reduced tolerance to oxidative stress, and elevated levels of p-S6K. Additional results from genetic interaction studies are consistent with the hypothesis that DAG metabolism interacts with TOR and S6K signaling to affect longevity and oxidative stress resistance. These findings highlight conserved metabolic and genetic pathways that regulate aging. PMID:24889782

  2. Potential lipase inhibitors from Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hongqiang; Li, Mengxuan; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Lin; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Meng, Zhaoqing; Huang, Wenzhe; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern, and it places both personal and economic burdens on the world's population. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are rich source of lead compounds and are possible drug candidates, which may be used to treat this condition. This study screened potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors found in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for ability to treat obesity. A porcine pancreatic lipase inhibition assay was established, and the inhibitory activity of 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs was evaluated at a concentration of 200 μg/mL. Two elutions of herbal extracts with strong lipase inhibitory activity were further fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography into 22 sub-fractions each, and these sub-fractions were tested for anti-lipase activity. Sub-fractions, which exhibited strong lipase inhibitory activity, were continuously fractionated into individual compounds. Two active compounds with potent anti-lipase activity were finally isolated and identified from two traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, respectively. Among 35 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, the 95% ethanol elutions of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils (Magnoliaceae) showed strong anti-lipase activity. Two compounds, including 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol were identified using bioactivity-guided isolation with IC50 = 33.7 and 59.4 μg/mL, respectively. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and honokiol might be suitable candidates for the treatment of obesity.

  3. Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Diacylglycerol Lipase α Inhibits Atherogenesis in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schöne, Benedikt; Pfeifer, Philipp; Schild, Katharina; Jenniches, Imke; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Lütjohann, Dieter; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a known modulator of inflammation. Despite its high concentration in vascular tissue, the role of 2-AG in atherogenesis has not yet been examined. Methods ApoE-deficient mice were sublethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow from mice with a myeloid-specific knockout of the 2-AG synthesising enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (Dagla) or control bone marrow with an intact 2-AG biosynthesis. After a cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks, plaque size and plaque morphology were examined in chimeric mice. Circulating inflammatory cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Aortic tissue and plasma levels of endocannabinoids were measured using liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring. Results Mice with Dagla-deficient bone marrow and circulating myeloid cells showed a significantly reduced plaque burden compared to controls. The reduction in plaque size was accompanied by a significantly diminished accumulation of both neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of Dagla-deficient mice. Moreover, CB2 expression and the amount of oxidised LDL within atherosclerotic lesions was significantly reduced. FACS analyses revealed that levels of circulating inflammatory cells were unaltered in Dagla-deficient mice. Conclusions Myeloid synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-AG appears to promote vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, myeloid-specific disruption of 2-AG synthesis may represent a potential novel therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis. PMID:26731274

  4. Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Diacylglycerol Lipase α Inhibits Atherogenesis in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Julian; Hoyer, Friedrich Felix; Schöne, Benedikt; Pfeifer, Philipp; Schild, Katharina; Jenniches, Imke; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Lütjohann, Dieter; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a known modulator of inflammation. Despite its high concentration in vascular tissue, the role of 2-AG in atherogenesis has not yet been examined. ApoE-deficient mice were sublethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow from mice with a myeloid-specific knockout of the 2-AG synthesising enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (Dagla) or control bone marrow with an intact 2-AG biosynthesis. After a cholesterol-rich diet for 8 weeks, plaque size and plaque morphology were examined in chimeric mice. Circulating inflammatory cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Aortic tissue and plasma levels of endocannabinoids were measured using liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring. Mice with Dagla-deficient bone marrow and circulating myeloid cells showed a significantly reduced plaque burden compared to controls. The reduction in plaque size was accompanied by a significantly diminished accumulation of both neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of Dagla-deficient mice. Moreover, CB2 expression and the amount of oxidised LDL within atherosclerotic lesions was significantly reduced. FACS analyses revealed that levels of circulating inflammatory cells were unaltered in Dagla-deficient mice. Myeloid synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-AG appears to promote vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Thus, myeloid-specific disruption of 2-AG synthesis may represent a potential novel therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  5. Studies on the Substrate and Stereo/Regioselectivity of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, Hormone-sensitive Lipase, and Diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Thomas O.; Kumari, Manju; Haas, Joel T.; Farese, Robert V.; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim; Zechner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is rate-limiting for the initial step of triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis, generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and fatty acids. DAG exists in three stereochemical isoforms. Here we show that ATGL exhibits a strong preference for the hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acid esters at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. The selectivity of ATGL broadens to the sn-1 position upon stimulation of the enzyme by its co-activator CGI-58. sn-1,3 DAG is the preferred substrate for the consecutive hydrolysis by hormone-sensitive lipase. Interestingly, diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2, present at the endoplasmic reticulum and on lipid droplets, preferentially esterifies sn-1,3 DAG. This suggests that ATGL and diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase 2 act coordinately in the hydrolysis/re-esterification cycle of TAGs on lipid droplets. Because ATGL preferentially generates sn-1,3 and sn-2,3, it suggests that TAG-derived DAG cannot directly enter phospholipid synthesis or activate protein kinase C without prior isomerization. PMID:23066022

  6. Polyphenolic Compounds as Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Tina; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases are a major challenge for our society. An important target for the treatment of obesity includes the development of inhibitors of nutrient digestion and absorption. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and the associated reduction of lipid absorption is an attractive approach for the discovery of potent agents. Currently, the only clinically approved pharmacologic agent as pancreatic lipase inhibitor is Orlistat. However, its usage is compromised by unpleasant gastrointestinal adverse reactions (oily stools, oily spotting, flatulence). The use of botanical materials as a potential source of new drugs is of increasing importance and application. Natural products that are interesting for obesity treatment are generally considered to have less toxic and side effects than totally synthetic drugs. One of the most important sources of potential pancreatic lipase inhibitors represents the class of polyphenols. This article summarizes most studied subclasses of polyphenols including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and lignans with pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects. A structural comparison of potent inhibitors shows an increased inhibitory effect depending on number and position of phenolic hydroxyl groups, degree of polymerization and elimination of glycosylation during digestion.

  7. Therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Melinda M; Nomura, Daniel K

    2013-03-19

    Marijuana and aspirin have been used for millennia to treat a wide range of maladies including pain and inflammation. Both cannabinoids, like marijuana, that exert anti-inflammatory action through stimulating cannabinoid receptors, and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, like aspirin, that suppress pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production have shown beneficial outcomes in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Both cannabinoids and COX inhibitors, however, have untoward effects that discourage their chronic usage, including cognitive deficits and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively. Recent studies have uncovered that the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid systems together through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) to provide the major arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pools for pro-inflammatory eicosanoid synthesis in specific tissues. Studies in recent years have shown that MAGL inhibitors elicit anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, and anti-emetic responses and attenuate precipitated withdrawal symptoms in addiction paradigms through enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. MAGL inhibitors have also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory action in the brain and protect against neurodegeneration through lowering eicosanoid production. In cancer, MAGL inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer properties not only through modulating the endocannabinoid-eicosanoid network, but also by controlling fatty acid release for the synthesis of protumorigenic signaling lipids. Thus, MAGL serves as a critical node in simultaneously coordinating multiple lipid signaling pathways in both physiological and disease contexts. This review will discuss the diverse (patho)physiological roles of MAGL and the therapeutic potential of MAGL inhibitors in treating a vast array of complex human diseases.

  8. Inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the lateral hypothalamus of rats prevents the increase in REMS and food ingestion induced by PAR1 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Marcel; López-Colomé, Ana María; Méndez-Díaz, Mónica; Ruiz-Contreras, Alejandra E; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2014-08-22

    Stimulation of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in vitro, was shown to induce synaptic retrograde signaling through the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis and activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R). The activation of PAR1 by the agonist S1820 in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and food intake in rats, and both effects are prevented by the CB1R inverse agonist AM251. In the present study, we implanted rats with electrodes and with cannulae aimed bilaterally to the LH. We administered tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), an inhibitor of the diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), the enzyme responsible for 2-AG synthesis, to evaluate the sleep-wake cycle and food ingestion. THL in the LH readily prevented the increase in REMS and food intake induced by PAR1 stimulation, further supporting 2-AG as an upstream activator of PAR1. Our results demonstrate that the effect of PAR1 on REMS and food intake is blocked by the inhibition of DAGL, further suggesting that PAR1 stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus of rats induces an increase in sleep and food intake through 2-AG.

  9. [Synthesis of diacylglycerol using immoblized regiospecific lipase in continuously operated fixed bed reactors].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-He; Sun, Pei-Long; Yang, Kai; He, Rong-Jun; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2005-05-01

    Diacylglycerol, DAG, because of its multifunctional and nutritional properties, attracted considerable attention recently. Enzymatic synthesis of diacylglycerols from linoleic acid was investigated in a solvent-free reaction in a continuously operated fixed bed reactors containing Lipozyme RM IM. By appropriate manipulation of the fluid-residence time, the relative proportions of the various acylglycerols in the effluent stream can be controlled. In addition, the presence of excess glycerol is effective for the removal of water produced during the esterification reactions. Under the conditions of molar ratio of linoleic acid to glycerol of 0.5, the immoblized enzyme maintained high stability and allowed the reaction to continue for 10 days without significant deterioration in enzyme activity. It was determined that the conversion of fatty acid, content of 1,3-DAG and volume efficiency of reactor reached optima under the conditions: a packaged-bed reactor(with a ratio of packed length to inner diameter of 7.8), reacting temperature at 65 degrees C, molar ratio of linoleic acid to glycerol of 0.5, and feeding flow rate of 1.2 mL/min.

  10. Diacylglycerol Metabolism and Signaling is a Driving Force Underlying FASN Inhibitor Sensitivity in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel I.; Li, Daniel S.; Lowe, Wallace; Heuer, Timothy; Kemble, George; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) generates the de novo source of lipids for cell proliferation and is a promising cancer therapy target. Development of FASN inhibitors, however, necessitates a better understanding of sensitive and resistant cancer types to optimize patient treatment. Indeed, testing the cytotoxic effects of FASN inhibition across human cancer cells revealed diverse sensitivities. We show here that metabolic incorporation of glucose into specific complex lipid species strongly predicts FASN inhibitor sensitivity. We also show that the levels of one of these lipid classes, protein kinase C (PKC) stimulators diacylglycerols, are lowered upon FASN inhibitor treatment in sensitive compared to resistant cells and that PKC activators and inhibitors rescue cell death in sensitive cells and sensitize resistant cells, respectively. Our findings not only reveal a biomarker for predicting FASN sensitivity in cancer cells, but also a put forth a heretofore unrecognized mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of FASN inhibitors. PMID:25871544

  11. Crystal structure of a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from Malassezia globosa reveals a novel lid conformation and insights into the substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Liu, Lu; Hou, Shulin; Xu, Jinxin; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua; Liu, Jinsong

    2012-06-01

    Most lipases contain a lid domain to shield the hydrophobic binding site from the water environment. The lid, mostly in helical form, can undergo a conformational change to expose the active cleft during the interfacial activation. Here we report the crystal structures of Malassezia globosa LIP1 (SMG1) at 1.45 and 2.60 Å resolution in two crystal forms. The structures present SMG1 in its closed form, with a novel lid in loop conformation. SMG1 is one of the few members in the fungal lipase family that has been found to be strictly specific for mono- and diacylglycerol. To date, the mechanism for this substrate specificity remains largely unknown. To investigate the substrate binding properties, we built a model of SMG1 in open conformation. Based on this model, we found that the two bulky hydrophobic residues adjacent to the catalytic site and the N-terminal hinge region of the lid both may act as steric hindrances for triacylglycerols binding. These unique structural features of SMG1 will provide a better understanding on the substrate specificity of mono- and diacylglycerol lipases and a platform for further functional study of this enzyme.

  12. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, potentiates secretion by and aggregation of thrombin-stimulated human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, D L; Watson, S P

    1987-01-01

    The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59022 (10 microM) potentiates secretion and aggregation responses in human platelets challenged with sub-maximal concentrations of thrombin. Potentiation correlates closely with increased formation of diacylglycerol, increased phosphorylation of a 40 kDa protein, a known substrate for protein kinase C, and with decreased formation of phosphatidic acid, the product of diacylglycerol kinase. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains, formation of inositol phosphates and the mobilization of Ca2+ by thrombin are not affected by R59022 (10 microM). These data support a role for protein kinase C in platelet aggregation and secretion, and provide further evidence that endogenous diacylglycerols bring about the activation of this enzyme. These data also add further argument against a role for phosphatidic acid in platelet activation. PMID:2821994

  13. Current status of the research and development of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeVita, Robert J; Pinto, Shirly

    2013-12-27

    Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has recently become a highly interesting target for metabolic disorders as well as for hepatitis C virus (HCV). DGAT1 processes diacylglycerol to triglycerides in the final step of resynthesis for the absorption of fat across the intestine. Pharmaceutical companies have developed many novel inhibitors of DGAT1, several of which have reached the clinic. Proof of target engagement was achieved with the observation of reduced triglycerides upon treatment of humans with DGAT1 inhibitors; however, there were gastrointestinal adverse events such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. These adverse events have been reported with multiple compounds and are possibly linked to the target because of the recent identification of a human cohort deficient in DGAT1. Clinical studies are continuing in a trial to treat patients with an orphan indication for familial chylomicronemia. The full potential of DGAT1 as a therapeutic target will need to overcome observed clinical adverse events, which are possibly mechanism based. The widespread use of DGAT1 inhibitors will ultimately depend upon a better understanding of how to improve the GI tolerability of these agents.

  14. Lipases and their inhibitors in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Daniel K; Casida, John E

    2016-11-25

    Lipids play diverse and important biological roles including maintaining cellular integrity, storing fat for energy, acting as signaling molecules, and forming microdomains to support membrane protein signaling. Altering the levels of specific lipid species through activating or inactivating their biosynthetic or degradative pathways has been shown to provide either therapeutic benefit or cause disease. This review focuses on the functional, therapeutic, and (patho)physiological roles of lipases within the serine hydrolase superfamily and their inhibitors, with particular emphasis on the pharmacological tools, drugs, and environmental chemicals that inhibit these lipases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nicole; Schweiger, Martina; Romauch, Matthias; Grabner, Gernot F; Eichmann, Thomas O; Fuchs, Elisabeth; Ivkovic, Jakov; Heier, Christoph; Mrak, Irina; Lass, Achim; Höfler, Gerald; Fledelius, Christian; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Breinbauer, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is rate limiting in the mobilization of fatty acids from cellular triglyceride stores. This central role in lipolysis marks ATGL as an interesting pharmacological target as deregulated fatty acid metabolism is closely linked to dyslipidemic and metabolic disorders. Here we report on the development and characterization of a small-molecule inhibitor of ATGL. Atglistatin is selective for ATGL and reduces fatty acid mobilization in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Extraction and Characteristics of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kug; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2010-03-01

    To develop a potent anti-obesity lipase inhibitor from mushroom, the lipase inhibitory activities of various mushroom extracts were determined. Methanol extracts from Phellinus linteus fruiting body exhibited the highest lipase inhibitory activity (72.8%). The inhibitor was maximally extracted by treatment of a P. linteus fruiting body with 80% methanol at 40℃ for 24 hr. After partial purification by systematic solvent extraction, the inhibitor was stable in the range of 40~80℃ and pH 2.0~9.0. In addition to lipase inhibitory activity, the inhibitor showed 59.4% of superoxide dismutase-like activity and 56.3% of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  17. Refined homology model of monoacylglycerol lipase: toward a selective inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Anna L.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-11-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endocannabinoid with full agonist activity at both cannabinoid receptors. Increased tissue 2-AG levels consequent to MGL inhibition are considered therapeutic against pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the lack of MGL structural information has hindered the development of MGL-selective inhibitors. Here, we detail a fully refined homology model of MGL which preferentially identifies MGL inhibitors over druglike noninhibitors. We include for the first time insight into the active-site geometry and potential hydrogen-bonding interactions along with molecular dynamics simulations describing the opening and closing of the MGL helical-domain lid. Docked poses of both the natural substrate and known inhibitors are detailed. A comparison of the MGL active-site to that of the other principal endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase, demonstrates key differences which provide crucial insight toward the design of selective MGL inhibitors as potential drugs.

  18. Molecular recognition between pancreatic lipase and natural and synthetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Basilio-Antonio, Lucia; Fragoso-Vázquez, Jonathan; Avalos-Soriano, Anaguiven; Correa-Basurto, José

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic lipase (PL) is a primary lipase critical for triacylglyceride digestion in humans and is considered as a promising target for the treatment of obesity. Although the current synthetic drugs available for treating obesity have been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting PL, their prolonged usage results in severe side effects. Based on this argument, in this study, we evaluated the structural and energetic features linked to molecular recognition between two well-known PL inhibitors, orlistat (ORL, synthetic inhibitor) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, natural inhibitor) and PL through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of ORL and EGCG at the PL binding site when it is isolated (PL) from the heterodimer complex, forming the heterodimer complex with colipase (PLCL) and lacking structural calcium. Our study showed that the binding free energy of ORL and EGCG to the target correlates with their experimental affinity tendency. The presence of the heterodimer PLCL state, the presence of structural calcium and the type of inhibitor resulted in differences in structural stability and in the map of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Overall, our results suggest that the heterodimer complex and structural calcium are linked to the binding properties of PL.

  19. Fabrication of enzyme-immobilized halloysite nanotubes for affinity enrichment of lipase inhibitors from complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Zhao, Xiaoping; Wang, Shufang; Tao, Shan; Ai, Ni; Wang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is the key enzyme for catalyzing triglyceride hydrolysis in vivo, and lipase inhibitors have been used in the management of obesity. We present the first report on the use of lipase-adsorbed halloysite nanotubes as an efficient medium for the selective enrichment of lipase inhibitors from natural products. A simple and rapid approach was proposed to fabricate lipase-adsorbed nanotubes through electrostatic interaction. Results showed that more than 85% lipase was adsorbed into nanotubes in 90 min, and approximately 80% of the catalytic activity was maintained compared with free lipase. The specificity and reproducibility of the proposed approach were validated by screening a known lipase inhibitor (i.e., orlistat) from a mixture that contains active and inactive compounds. Moreover, we applied this approach with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to screen lipase inhibitors from the Magnoliae cortex extract, a medicinal plant used for treating obesity. Two novel biphenyl-type natural lipase inhibitors magnotriol A and magnaldehyde B were identified, and their IC50 values were determined as 213.03 and 96.96 μM, respectively. The ligand-enzyme interactions of magnaldehyde B were further investigated by molecular docking. Our findings proved that enzyme-adsorbed nanotube could be used as a feasible and selective affinity medium for the rapid screening of enzyme inhibitors from complex mixtures.

  20. Enhanced antitumor activity of xanthohumol, a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Keiko; Asai, Tomohiro; Hara, Shuntaro; Namatame, Ichiji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Ikemoto, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2005-03-10

    Cancer chemotherapy for hypoxic tumor cells is thought to be an important issue, since hypoxia is related to tumor growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, the bioactivities of xanthohumol (XN), a diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitor, against hypoxic cells were investigated. At first, the inhibitory effects of XN on the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm were evaluated in hypoxia. Hypoxia upregulated the synthesis of triglyceride and promoted the formation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, however, the treatment of XN downregulated the triglyceride synthesis and completely canceled the appearance of lipid droplets. Second, the effects of XN on the proliferation and the motility of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma were investigated. The proliferation of HT-1080 was significantly suppressed in the presence of XN only in hypoxic condition but not in normoxic condition. XN also suppressed the motility of HT-1080 that was enhanced by hypoxia. Since, most cells in solid tumor were thought to be in hypoxic condition and acquired malignancy in response to hypoxia, these data suggest that XN may have potent and specific activities against cancerous cells. Furthermore, these data suggested that lipid metabolism may play an important role for hypoxic tumor cells and proposed a new therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Development of a bioautographic method for the detection of lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bayineni, Venkata Krishna; Suresh, Sukrutha; Singh, Gurmeet; Kadeppagari, Ravi-Kumar

    2014-10-31

    An autobiographic method based on the thin layer chromatogram was developed by using the chemical system that comprises p-Nitrophenyl butyrate and bromothymol blue for detecting the lipase inhibitor. Lipase inhibitory zones were visualized as blue spots against the greenish yellow background. This method could able to detect the well known lipase inhibitor, orlistat up to the concentration of 1ng which is better than the earlier method. This method could also able to detect the lipase inhibition activities from the un-explored species of Streptomyces. The developed method can be used not only for the screening of unknown samples for the lipase inhibitors but also for the purification of the lipase inhibitors from the unknown samples.

  2. A mechanistic study into the epoxidation of carboxylic acid and alkene in a mono, di-acylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuping; Tang, Qingyun; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-05-01

    More and more industrial chemistry reactions rely on green technologies. Enzymes are finding increasing use in diverse chemical processes. Epoxidized vegetable oils have recently found applications as plasticizers and additives for PVC production. We report here an unusual activity of the Malassezia globosa lipase (SMG1) that is able to catalyze epoxidation of alkenes. SMG1 catalyzes formation of peroxides from long chain carboxylic acids that subsequently react with double bonds of alkenes to produce epoxides. The SMG1 is selective towards carboxylic acids and active also as a mutant lacking hydrolase activity. Moreover we present previously unobserved mechanism of catalysis that does not rely on acyl-substrate complex nor tetrahedral intermediate. Since SMG1 lipase is activated by allosteric change upon binding to the lipophilic-hydrophilic phase interface we reason that it can be used to drive the epoxidation in the lipophilic phase exclusively.

  3. 13C NMR quantification of mono and diacylglycerols obtained through the solvent-free lipase-catalyzed esterification of saturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jane Luiza Nogueira; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; de Vasconcellos Azeredo, Rodrigo Bagueira

    2012-06-01

    In the present investigation, we studied the enzymatic synthesis of monoacylglycerols (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) via the esterification of saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and an industrial residue containing 87% palmitic acid) and glycerol in a solvent-free system. Three immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM and Novozym 435) and different reaction conditions were evaluated. Under the optimal reaction conditions, esterifications catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM resulted in a mixture of MAG and DAG at high conversion rates for all of the substrates. In addition, except for the reaction of industrial residue at atmospheric pressure, all of these products met the World Health Organization and European Union directives for acylglycerol mixtures for use in food applications. The products were quantified by (13)C NMR, with the aid of an external reference signal which was generated from a sealed coaxial tube filled with acetonitrile-d3. After calibrating the area of this signal using the classical external reference method, the same coaxial tube was used repeatedly to quantify the reaction products.

  4. Nuclear diacylglycerol lipase-α in rat brain cortical neurons: evidence of 2-arachidonoylglycerol production in concert with phospholipase C-β activity.

    PubMed

    García del Caño, Gontzal; Aretxabala, Xabier; González-Burguera, Imanol; Montaña, Mario; López de Jesús, Maider; Barrondo, Sergio; Barrio, Ramón J; Sampedro, Carmen; Goicolea, M Arantzazu; Sallés, Joan

    2015-03-01

    In this report, we describe the localization of diacylglycerol lipase-α (DAGLα) in nuclei from adult cortical neurons, as assessed by double-immunofluorescence staining of rat brain cortical sections and purified intact nuclei and by western blot analysis of subnuclear fractions. Double-labeling assays using the anti-DAGLα antibody and NeuN combined with Hoechst staining showed that only nuclei of neuronal origin were DAGLα positive. At high resolution, DAGLα-signal displayed a punctate pattern in nuclear subdomains poor in Hoechst's chromatin and lamin B1 staining. In contrast, SC-35- and NeuN-signals (markers of the nuclear speckles) showed a high overlap with DAGLα within specific subdomains of the nuclear matrix. Among the members of the phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) family, PLCβ1, PLCβ2, and PLCβ4 exhibited the same distribution with respect to chromatin, lamin B1, SC-35, and NeuN as that described for DAGLα. Furthermore, by quantifying the basal levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and by characterizing the pharmacology of its accumulation, we describe the presence of a mechanism for 2-AG production, and its PLCβ/DAGLα-dependent biosynthesis in isolated nuclei. These results extend our knowledge about subcellular distribution of neuronal DAGLα, providing biochemical grounds to hypothesize a role for 2-AG locally produced within the neuronal nucleus. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: unexplored potential.

    PubMed

    Birari, Rahul B; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, but, unfortunately, only a few medications are currently on the market. Obesity is primarily regarded as a disorder of lipid metabolism and the enzymes involved in this process could be selectively targeted to develop antiobesity drugs. Recently, newer approaches for the treatment of obesity have involved inhibition of dietary triglyceride absorption via inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) as this is the major source of excess calories. Natural products provide a vast pool of PL inhibitors that can possibly be developed into clinical products. This article reviews various extracts and secondary metabolites from plants and microbial origin with PL inhibitory activity that can be focused for drug development programs.

  6. Screening of lipase inhibitors from Scutellaria baicalensis extract using lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and study on the inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Li-Hong; Jiang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Yi-Ming; Hu, Jin-Jie; Liang, Jian; Liao, Xun

    2016-03-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant possessing a wide variety of biological activities. In this work, lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs) was used as solid phase extract absorbent for screening of lipase inhibitors from this plant. Three flavonoids were found to bind to LMNPs and were identified as baicalin, wogonin, and oroxylin A by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Their IC50 values were determined to be 229.22 ± 12.67, 153.71 ± 9.21, and 56.07 ± 4.90 μM, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking were used to probe the interactions between these flavonoids and lipase. All the flavonoids quenched the fluorescence of lipase statically by forming new complexes, implying their affinities with the enzyme. The thermodynamic analysis suggested that van der Waals force and hydrogen bond were the main forces between wogonin and lipase, while hydrophobic force was the main force for the other two flavonoids. The results from a molecular docking study further revealed that all of them could insert into the pocket of lipase binding to a couple of amino acid residues.

  7. Probing Conformational Changes and Interfacial Recognition Site of Lipases With Surfactants and Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Diaz, E; Amara, S; Roussel, A; Longhi, S; Cambillau, C; Carrière, F

    2017-01-01

    Structural studies on lipases by X-ray crystallography have revealed conformational changes occurring in the presence of surfactants/inhibitors and the pivotal role played by a molecular "lid" of variable size and structure depending on the enzyme. Besides controlling the access to the enzyme active site, the lid is involved in lipase activation, formation of the interfacial recognition site (IRS), and substrate docking within the active site. The combined use of surfactants and inhibitors has been critical for a better understanding of lipase structure-function relationships. An overview of crystal structures of lipases in complex with surfactants and inhibitors reveals common structural features and shows how surfactants monomers interact with the lid in its open conformation. The location of surfactants, inhibitors, and hydrophobic residues exposed upon lid opening provides insights into the IRS of lipases. The mechanism by which surfactants promote the lid opening can be further investigated in solution by site-directed spin labeling of lipase coupled to electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These experimental approaches are illustrated here by results obtained with mammalian digestive lipases, fungal lipases, and cutinases.

  8. Extraction and Characteristics of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Kug; Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2010-01-01

    To develop a potent anti-obesity lipase inhibitor from mushroom, the lipase inhibitory activities of various mushroom extracts were determined. Methanol extracts from Phellinus linteus fruiting body exhibited the highest lipase inhibitory activity (72.8%). The inhibitor was maximally extracted by treatment of a P. linteus fruiting body with 80% methanol at 40℃ for 24 hr. After partial purification by systematic solvent extraction, the inhibitor was stable in the range of 40~80℃ and pH 2.0~9.0. In addition to lipase inhibitory activity, the inhibitor showed 59.4% of superoxide dismutase-like activity and 56.3% of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:23956625

  9. Parathyroid hormone is not an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Arnadottir, M; Nilsson-Ehle, P

    1994-01-01

    The reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in uraemia are reflected by increased serum triglyceride concentrations and reduced HDL cholesterol concentrations. Both hyperparathyroidism and circulating inhibitor(s) of LPL have been associated with the disturbances of lipid metabolism in uraemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if parathyroid hormone (PTH) had an inhibitory effect on LPL activity. Plasma post-heparin LPL activities, plasma LPL inhibitory activities, serum PTHintact and serum PTHC-terminal concentrations were analysed in 20 patients on haemodialysis and 20 healthy controls. The effects of purified, human PTHintact and a carboxyterminal fragment of PTH (PTH39-84) on LPL activities in post-heparin plasma from healthy individuals and on the enzyme activity of purified, bovine milk LPL, activated with apolipoprotein CII, were studied. Patients had significantly higher plasma LPL inhibitory activities than controls, but there was no correlation between plasma LPL inhibitory activities and serum PTH concentrations. Neither PTHintact nor PTH39-84 had a significant effect on LPL activities in vitro. Thus there was no evidence of a direct inhibition of LPL activity by PTH under the present in-vivo or in-vitro conditions.

  10. Developmental pattern of diacylglycerol lipase-α (DAGLα) immunoreactivity in brain regions important for song learning and control in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Soderstrom, Ken; Wilson, Ashley R

    2013-11-01

    Zebra finch song is a learned behavior dependent upon successful progress through a sensitive period of late-postnatal development. This learning is associated with maturation of distinct brain nuclei and the fiber tract interconnections between them. We have previously found remarkably distinct and dense CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression within many of these song control brain regions, implying a normal role for endocannabinoid signaling in vocal learning. Activation of CB1 receptors via daily treatments with exogenous agonist during sensorimotor stages of song learning (but not in adulthood) results in persistent alteration of song patterns. Now we are working to understand physiological changes responsible for this cannabinoid-altered vocal learning. We have found that song-altering developmental treatments are associated with changes in expression of endocannabinoid signaling elements, including CB1 receptors and the principal CNS endogenous agonist, 2-AG. Within CNS, 2-AG is produced largely through activity of the α isoform of the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGLα). To better appreciate the role of 2-AG production in normal vocal development we have determined the spatial distribution of DAGLα expression within zebra finch CNS during vocal development. Early during vocal development at 25 days, DAGLα staining is typically light and of fibroid processes. Staining peaks late in the sensorimotor stage of song learning at 75 days and is characterized by fiber, neuropil and some staining of both small and large cell somata. Results provide insight to the normal role for endocannabinoid signaling in the maturation of brain regions responsible for song learning and vocal-motor output, and suggest mechanisms by which exogenous cannabinoid exposure alters acquisition of this form of vocal communication.

  11. Discovery of a novel series of benzimidazole derivatives as diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong; Goo, Ja-Il; Jung, Hwa Young; Kim, Minkyoung; Boovanahalli, Shanthaveerappa K; Park, Hye Ran; Kim, Mun-Ock; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sun; Choi, Yongseok

    2012-12-15

    A novel series of benzimidazole derivatives was prepared and evaluated for their diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitory activity using microsome from rat liver. Among the newly synthesized compounds, furfurylamine containing benzimidazole carboxamide 10j showed the most potent DGAT inhibitory effect (IC(50)=4.4 μM) and inhibited triglyceride formation in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, compound 10j reduced body weight gain of Institute of Cancer Research mice on a high-fat diet and decreased levels of total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the blood accompanied with a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol level.

  12. A Class of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Inhibitors Identified by a Combination of Phenotypic High-throughput Screening, Genomics, and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Tschapalda, Kirsten; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Liu, Li; Golovnina, Kseniya; Schlemper, Thomas; Eichmann, Thomas O; Lal-Nag, Madhu; Sreenivasan, Urmila; McLenithan, John; Ziegler, Slava; Sztalryd, Carole; Lass, Achim; Auld, Douglas; Oliver, Brian; Waldmann, Herbert; Li, Zhuyin; Shen, Min; Boxer, Matthew B; Beller, Mathias

    2016-06-01

    Excess lipid storage is an epidemic problem in human populations. Thus, the identification of small molecules to treat or prevent lipid storage-related metabolic complications is of great interest. Here we screened >320.000 compounds for their ability to prevent a cellular lipid accumulation phenotype. We used fly cells because the multifarious tools available for this organism should facilitate unraveling the mechanism-of-action of active small molecules. Of the several hundred lipid storage inhibitors identified in the primary screen we concentrated on three structurally diverse and potent compound classes active in cells of multiple species (including human) and negligible cytotoxicity. Together with Drosophila in vivo epistasis experiments, RNA-Seq expression profiles suggested that the target of one of the small molecules was diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), a key enzyme in the production of triacylglycerols and prominent human drug target. We confirmed this prediction by biochemical and enzymatic activity tests.

  13. Selective Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors: Antinociceptive versus Cannabimimetic Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Jenny L.; Mustafa, Mohammed; Abdullah, Rehab; Niphakis, Micah; Wiley, Jenny L.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) plays an important role in a variety of physiologic processes, but its rapid breakdown by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) results in short-lived actions. Initial MAGL inhibitors were limited by poor selectivity and low potency. In this study, we tested JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate] and MJN110 [2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 4-(bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate], MAGL inhibitors that possess increased selectivity and potency, in mouse behavioral assays of neuropathic pain [chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve], interoceptive cannabimimetic effects (drug-discrimination paradigm), and locomotor activity in an open field test. MJN110 (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg) and JZL184 (16 and 40 mg/kg) significantly elevated 2-AG and decreased arachidonic acid but did not affect anandamide in whole brains. Both MAGL inhibitors significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical allodynia with the following potencies [ED50 (95% confidence limit [CL]) values in mg/kg: MJN110 (0.43 [0.30–0.63]) > JZL184 (17.8 [11.6–27.4])] and also substituted for the potent cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55,940 [2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol] in the drug-discrimination paradigm [ED50 (95% CL) values in mg/kg: MJN110 (0.84 [0.69–1.02]) > JZL184 (24.9 [14.6–42.5])]; however, these compounds elicited differential effects on locomotor behavior. Similar to cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor agonists, JZL184 produced hypomotility, whereas MJN110 increased locomotor behavior and did not produce catalepsy or hypothermia. Although both drugs substituted for CP55,940 in the drug discrimination assay, MJN110 was more potent in reversing allodynia in the CCI model than in producing CP55,940-like effects. Overall, these results suggest that MAGL inhibition may alleviate neuropathic pain, while displaying limited

  14. BET-bromodomain inhibitors modulate epigenetic patterns at the diacylglycerol kinase alpha enhancer associated with radiation-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Valinciute, Gintvile; Weigel, Christoph; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Oakes, Christopher C; Herskind, Carsten; Wenz, Frederik; Plass, Christoph; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2017-09-12

    Fibrosis is a frequent adverse effect of radiotherapy and no effective treatments are currently available to prevent or reverse fibrotic disease. We have previously identified altered epigenetic patterns at a gene enhancer of the diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA) locus in normal skin fibroblasts derived from fibrosis patients. An open chromatin pattern related to radiation-inducibility of DGKA is associated with onset of radiation-induced fibrosis. Here, we explore epigenetic modulation of DGKA as a way to mitigate predisposition to fibrosis. We studied the effect of the BET-bromodomain inhibitors (JQ1, PFI-1) on DGKA inducibility in primary fibroblasts. Hence, DGKA transcription was additionally induced by the radiomimetic drug bleomycin, and DGKA mRNA expression, histone H3K27 acetylation and downstream markers of profibrotic fibroblast activation after BET-bromodomain inhibition were determined. BET-bromodomain inhibition suppressed induction of DGKA in bleomycin-treated fibroblasts, reduced H3K27ac at the DGKA enhancer and repressed collagen marker gene expression. Alterations in fibroblast morphology and reduction of collagen deposition were observed. For the DGKA enhancer, we show that BET-bromodomain inhibitors can alter the epigenetic landscape of fibroblasts, thus counteracting profibrotic transcriptional events. Interference with epigenetic patterns of fibrosis predisposition may provide novel preventive therapies that improve radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Supported inhibitor for fishing lipases in complex biological media and mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Vincent; Raux, Brigitt; Puppo, Rémy; Leclaire, Julien; Cavalier, Jean-François; Marc, Sylvain; Kamarajugadda, Pavan-Kumar; Buono, Gérard; Fotiadu, Frédéric; Canaan, Stéphane; Carrière, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic phosphonate inhibitor designed for lipase inhibition but displaying a broader range of activity was covalently immobilized on a solid support to generate a function-directed tool targeting serine hydrolases. To achieve this goal, straightforward and reliable analytical techniques were developed, allowing the monitoring of the solid support's chemical functionalization, enzyme capture processes and physisorption artifacts. This grafted inhibitor was tested on pure lipases and serine proteases from various origins, and assayed for the selective capture of lipases from several complex biological extracts. The direct identification of captured enzymes by mass spectrometry brought the proof of concept on the efficiency of this supported covalent inhibitor. The features and limitations of this "enzyme-fishing" proteomic tool provide new insight on solid-liquid inhibition process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A new TLC bioautographic assay for qualitative and quantitative estimation of lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jihe; Zhou, Jinge; Tang, Qingjiu; Wu, Tao; Cheng, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Lipase inhibitory assays based on TLC bioautography have made recent progress; however, an assay with greater substrate specificity and quantitative capabilities would advance the efficacy of this particular bioassay. To address these limitations, a new TLC bioautographic assay for detecting lipase inhibitors was developed and validated in this study. The new TLC bioautographic assay was based on reaction of lipase with β-naphthyl myristate and the subsequent formation of the purple dye between β-naphthol and Fast Blue B salt (FBB). The relative lipase inhibitory capacity (RLIC) was determined by a TLC densitometry with fluorescence detection, expressed as orlistat equivalents in millimoles on a per sample weight basis. Six pure compounds and three natural extracts were evaluated for their potential lipase inhibitory activities by this TLC bioautographic assay. The β-naphthyl myristate as the substrate improved the detection sensitivity and specificity significantly. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 0.01 ng for orlistat, the current treatment for obesity. This assay has acceptable accuracy (92.07-105.39%), intra-day and inter-day precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD), 2.64-4.40%], as well as intra-plate and inter-plate precisions (RSD, 1.8-4.9%). The developed method is rapid, simple, stable, and specific for screening and estimation of the potential lipase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synthesis and multiparametric evaluation of thiadiazoles and oxadiazoles as diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mougenot, Patrick; Namane, Claudie; Fett, Eykmar; Goumy, Florence; Dadji-Faïhun, Rommel; Langot, Gwladys; Monseau, Catherine; Onofri, Bénédicte; Pacquet, François; Pascal, Cécile; Crespin, Olivier; Ben-Hassine, Majdi; Ragot, Jean-Luc; Van-Pham, Thao; Philippo, Christophe; Chatelain-Egger, Florence; Péron, Philippe; Le Bail, Jean-Christophe; Guillot, Etienne; Chamiot-Clerc, Philippe; Chabanaud, Marie-Aude; Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Ménegotto, Jérôme; Schmidt, Friedemann; Venier, Olivier; Viviani, Fabrice; Nicolai, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Chemical modulation of a formerly disclosed DGAT-1 inhibitor resulted in the identification of a compound with a suitable profile for preclinical development. Optimisation of solubility is discussed and a PK/PD study is presented.

  18. Rapid prediction and identification of lipase inhibitors in volatile oil from Pinus massoniana L. needles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Gu, Dongyu; Li, Haoquan; Wang, Qi; Kang, Jie; Chu, Tingting; Guo, Hong; Yang, Yi; Tian, Jing

    2017-09-01

    A facile method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and molecular docking was established to analyze, identify, and predict lipase inhibitors in volatile oil from Pinus massoniana L. needles (PMLN). The volatile oil, with an IC50 value of 15.25 ± 0.06 μg/mL, exhibited potential inhibitory activity against lipase in vitro. In total, 33 compounds were identified from the volatile oil through GC-MS analysis. The major compounds in the volatile oil were β-pinene (39.24%), α-pinene (14.68%), germacrene D (9.08%), caryophyllene (6.94%), α-terpineol (5.39%), β-phellandrene (4.82%), and D-limonene (3.93%). The identified compounds were individually docked with lipase as the target through molecular docking. Among the compounds, longifolene characterized by preferable binding energy and the good inhibition constant exhibited potential lipase inhibitory activity. The IC50 value of longifolene was 25.10 ± 0.49 μM, indicating that this compound is the active ingredient responsible for the lipase inhibitory activity of PMLN volatile oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid screening natural-origin lipase inhibitors from hypolipidemic decoctions by ultrafiltration combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shun; Yu, Runru; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui

    2015-02-01

    Lipase inhibitors generate hypolipidemic effect that is helpful to control or treat some obesity diseases by inactivating catalytic activity of human pancreatic lipase, a key enzyme involved in triglyceride hydrolysis in vivo. Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae have been effectively used to treat obesity and other fat related diseases for centuries and modern biological experiments demonstrate therapeutic effect of these formulae can be linked to their lipid-lowering capability in blood. These observations suggest that these hypolipidemic decoctions (HDs) could be a promising resource of natural-origin lipase inhibitors. This work described a rapid approach for screening lipase inhibitors from four widely used HDs, including Wu-Ling-San (WLS), Ze-Xie decoction (ZX), Xiao-Xian-Xiong decoction (XXX) and Xiao-Chai-Hu decoction (XCH), by ultrafiltration combing with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Our results showed sixteen natural-origin lipase inhibitors were discovered and identified by high resolution and multistage mass spectrometry. Inhibitory activities of two compounds were confirmed by a functional assay of lipase, which validated the reliability of our approach. Molecular docking simulation was then performed to investigate potential mechanism of action for these compounds. Together we present an efficient method for rapid screening lipase inhibitors from complex natural products, which can be easily accommodated to other important enzymatic system with therapeutic values.

  20. Anti-obesity activity of hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk, a novel pancreatic lipase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is completely no report about both hen egg anti-lipase immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) and its anti-obesity action. Thus, we tried to isolate and characterize a novel anti-lipase immunoglobulin from hen egg yolk. Moreover, we investigated whether hen egg yolk anti-lipase IgY inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and examined its ability to prevent obesity in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Methods We determined the inhibitory action of Anti-lipase IgY on lipase activity in vitro. We also focused our evaluation on the anti-obesity properties of Anti-lipase IgY in a murine high fat diet-induced obesity model. Results Anti-lipase IgY blocked porcine lipase activity with an IC50 of 0.49 μM. Supplementing the high fat diet with only 0.2% (w/w) of Anti-lipase IgY for 35 days significantly decreased the weights of intraperitoneal adipose tissues, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues, and the amounts of hepatic total lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fecal excretion of triglyceride in the absence of diarrhea. Furthermore, Anti-lipase IgY treatment restored body weight gain to levels similar to mice fed with Control IgY. Conclusions This study provides the first report of the development of anti-lipase IgY and the direct evidence that inhibition of pancreatic lipase using Anti-lipase IgY is an effective anti-obesity treatment due to the associated increase in fecal excretion of triglyceride. PMID:24321125

  1. A diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, R59022, stimulates glucose transport through a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Tanno, Satoshi; Motomura, Wataru; Kohgo, Yutaka; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2007-08-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is one of lipid-regulating enzymes, catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Because skeletal muscle, a major insulin-target organ for glucose disposal, expresses DGK, we investigated in the present study a role of DGK on glucose transport in skeletal muscle cells. PCR study showed that C2C12 myotubes expressed DGKalpha, delta, epsilon, zeta, or theta isoform mRNA. R59022, a specific inhibitor of DGK, significantly increased glucose transport, p38 and MKK3/6 activation in C2C12 myotubes. The R59022-induced glucose transport was blocked by SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor. In contrast, R59022 failed to stimulate both possible known mechanisms to enhance glucose transport, an IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway, muscle contraction signaling or GLUT1 and 4 expression. All these results suggest that DGK may play a role in glucose transport in the skeletal muscle cells through modulating a MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway.

  2. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ<sup>9</sup>-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors' therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted.

  3. Monte Carlo method based QSAR modelling of natural lipase inhibitors using hybrid optimal descriptors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chauhan, S

    2017-03-08

    Obesity is one of the most provoking health burdens in the developed countries. One of the strategies to prevent obesity is the inhibition of pancreatic lipase enzyme. The aim of this study was to build QSAR models for natural lipase inhibitors by using the Monte Carlo method. The molecular structures were represented by the simplified molecular input line entry system (SMILES) notation and molecular graphs. Three sets - training, calibration and test set of three splits - were examined and validated. Statistical quality of all the described models was very good. The best QSAR model showed the following statistical parameters: r(2) = 0.864 and Q(2) = 0.836 for the test set and r(2) = 0.824 and Q(2) = 0.819 for the validation set. Structural attributes for increasing and decreasing the activity (expressed as pIC50) were also defined. Using defined structural attributes, the design of new potential lipase inhibitors is also presented. Additionally, a molecular docking study was performed for the determination of binding modes of designed molecules.

  4. Inhibitors of pancreatic lipase: state of the art and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lunagariya, Nitin A.; Patel, Neeraj K.; Jagtap, Sneha C.; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a disorder of lipid metabolism and continues to be a global problem, ranking fifth for deaths worldwide. It also leads to diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and some types of cancer. Obesity is regarded as the output of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by pancreatic lipase, a major source of excess calorie intake, can be targeted for development of anti-obesity agents. Being the major factor of concern, food materials and edible plants are most widely studied for the anti-obesity activity, so that they can be incorporated in the routine diet. In this review, an attempt was made to present a current scenario of the bioactive compounds from plant and microbial origin that have been investigated for their pancreatic lipase inhibition. Compounds belonging to various classes of natural products such as alkaloids, carotenoids, glycosides, polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins and terpenoids are well studied while lipophilic compounds from microbial sources are the most active against the pancreatic lipase. Few studies on the synthetic analogues, structurally similar to the triglycerides have been described in the review. Despite of tremendous research on the finding of potential pancreatic lipase inhibitor, very few compounds have entered the clinical studies and no new molecule after orlistat has been marketed. Along with HTS based screening, detailed structure-activity relationship studies on semi-synthetic and synthetic derivatives might also provide a direction for the development of potential lead(s) or pharmacophore for pancreatic lipase inhibition in order to treat and/or prevent obesity and related disorders. PMID:26417311

  5. Cell-based assay of MGAT2-driven diacylglycerol synthesis for profiling inhibitors: use of a stable isotope-labeled substrate and high-resolution LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Joelle M; Chu, Ching-Hsuen; Ma, Zhengping; Kopcho, Lisa M; Chao, Hannguang J; Lawrence, R Michael; Cheng, Dong

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2)-mediated enzyme activity in a cellular context, cells of the murine secretin tumor cell-1 line of enteroendocrine origin were used to construct human MGAT2-expressing recombinant cell lines. Low throughput and utilization of radiolabeled substrate in a traditional TLC technique were circumvented by development of a high-resolution LC/MS platform. Monitoring incorporation of stable isotope-labeled D31-palmitate into diacylglycerol (DAG) allowed selective tracing of the cellular DAG synthesis activity. This assay format dramatically reduced background interference and increased the sensitivity and the signal window compared with the TLC method. Using this assay, several MGAT2 inhibitors from different chemotypes were characterized. The described cell-based assay adds a new methodology for the development and evaluation of MGAT2 inhibitors for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase: New Targets for Future Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis and analogs of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been used for therapeutic purposes, but their therapeutic use remains limited because of various adverse effects. Endogenous cannabinoids have been discovered, and dysregulation of endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have become new therapeutic targets in the treatment of MDD. Several FAAH or MAGL inhibitors are reported to have no cannabimimetic side effects and, therefore, are new potential therapeutic options for patients with MDD who are resistant to first-line antidepressants (selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors). In this review, we focus on the possible relationships between MDD and the endocannabinoid system as well as the inhibitors’ therapeutic potential. MAGL inhibitors may reduce inflammatory responses through activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2. In the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, repeated FAAH inhibitor administration may be beneficial for reducing circulating glucocorticoid levels. Both FAAH and MAGL inhibitors may contribute to dopaminergic system regulation. Recently, several new inhibitors have been developed with strong potency and selectivity. FAAH inhibitor, MAGL inhibitor, or dual blocker use would be promising new treatments for MDD. Further pre-clinical studies and clinical trials using these inhibitors are warranted. PMID:26630956

  7. Fast identification of lipase inhibitors in oolong tea by using lipase functionalised Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coupled with UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Ren, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Li; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liang, Jian; Liao, Xun

    2015-04-15

    Oolong tea is an important member in tea family, which claims for various health benefits such as preventing obesity and improving lipid metabolism. In this work, using pancreatic lipase (PL) functionalised magnetic nanoparticles (PL-MNPs) as solid phase extraction absorbent in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), we developed a method for rapid screening and identification of lipase inhibitors from oolong tea. Three PL ligands were selectively extracted and identified as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG). Their lipase inhibitory activities were significantly higher than those non-ligands. Structure-activity analysis revealed that the presence of a galloyl moiety in the structure was required for binding to PL-MNPs, and therefore, exhibiting a strong inhibition on the enzyme. Taking advantages of the specificity in enzyme binding and the convenience of magnetic separation, this method has great potential for fast screening of lipase inhibitors from natural resources.

  8. Remarkably selective inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase bearing a reactive group that is bioisosteric with endocannabinoid substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Niphakis, Micah J.; Lum, Kenneth M.; Cognetta, Armand B.; Wang, Chu; Matthews, Megan L.; Niessen, Sherry; Buczynski, Matthew W.; Parsons, Loren H.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) are principally degraded by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), respectively. The recent discovery of O-aryl carbamates such as JZL184 as selective MAGL inhibitors has enabled the functional investigation of 2-AG signaling pathways in vivo. Nonetheless, JZL184 and other reported MAGL inhibitors still display low-level cross-reactivity with FAAH and peripheral carboxylesterases, which can complicate their use in certain biological studies. Here, we report a distinct class of O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP) carbamates that inhibit MAGL in vitro and in vivo with excellent potency and greatly improved selectivity, including showing no detectable cross-reactivity with FAAH. These findings designate HFIP-carbamates as a versatile chemotype for inhibiting MAGL and should encourage the pursuit of other serine hydrolase inhibitors that bear reactive groups resembling the structures of natural substrates. PMID:22542104

  9. Natural inhibitors of pancreatic lipase as new players in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Milagro, Fermín I; Boque, Noemí; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by an excessive weight for height due to an enlarged fat deposition such as adipose tissue, which is attributed to a higher calorie intake than the energy expenditure. The key strategy to combat obesity is to prevent chronic positive impairments in the energy equation. However, it is often difficult to maintain energy balance, because many available foods are high-energy yielding, which is usually accompanied by low levels of physical activity. The pharmaceutical industry has invested many efforts in producing antiobesity drugs; but only a lipid digestion inhibitor obtained from an actinobacterium is currently approved and authorized in Europe for obesity treatment. This compound inhibits the activity of pancreatic lipase, which is one of the enzymes involved in fat digestion. In a similar way, hundreds of extracts are currently being isolated from plants, fungi, algae, or bacteria and screened for their potential inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. Among them, extracts isolated from common foodstuffs such as tea, soybean, ginseng, yerba mate, peanut, apple, or grapevine have been reported. Some of them are polyphenols and saponins with an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity, which could be applied in the management of the obesity epidemic.

  10. Synthesis and kinetic evaluation of Cyclophostin and Cyclipostins phosphonate analogs as selective and potent inhibitors of microbial lipases

    PubMed Central

    Point, Vanessa; Malla, Raj K.; Diomande, Sadia; Martin, Benjamin P.; Delorme, Vincent; Carriere, Frederic; Canaan, Stephane; Rath, Nigam P.; Spilling, Christopher D.; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    New series of customizable diastereomeric cis- and trans-monocyclic enol-phosphonate analogs to Cyclophostin and Cyclipostins were synthesized. Their potencies and mechanisms of inhibition toward six representative lipolytic enzymes belonging to distinct lipase families were examined. With mammalian gastric and pancreatic lipases no inhibition occurred with any of the compounds tested. Conversely, Fusarium solani Cutinase and lipases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv0183 and LipY) were all fully inactivated. Best inhibitors displayed a cis conformation (H and OMe) and exhibited higher inhibitory activities than the lipase inhibitor Orlistat towards same enzymes. Our results have revealed that chemical group at the γ-carbon of the phosphonate ring strongly impacts the inhibitory efficiency, leading to a significant improvement in selectivity toward a target lipase over another. The powerful and selective inhibition of microbial (fungal and mycobacterial) lipases suggests that these 7-membered monocyclic enol-phosphonates should provide useful leads for the development of novel and highly selective antimicrobial agents. PMID:23095026

  11. Simplified assays of lipolysis enzymes for drug discovery and specificity assessment of known inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Jose; Lamontagne, Julien; Erb, Heidi; Gezzar, Sari; Zhao, Shangang; Joly, Erik; Truong, Vouy Linh; Skorey, Kathryn; Crane, Sheldon; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are used as cellular building blocks and condensed energy stores and also act as signaling molecules. The glycerolipid/ fatty acid cycle, encompassing lipolysis and lipogenesis, generates many lipid signals. Reliable procedures are not available for measuring activities of several lipolytic enzymes for the purposes of drug screening, and this resulted in questionable selectivity of various known lipase inhibitors. We now describe simple assays for lipolytic enzymes, including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), monoacylglycerol lipase, α/β-hydrolase domain 6, and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) using recombinant human and mouse enzymes either in cell extracts or using purified enzymes. We observed that many of the reported inhibitors lack specificity. Thus, Cay10499 (HSL inhibitor) and RHC20867 (DAGL inhibitor) also inhibit other lipases. Marked differences in the inhibitor sensitivities of human ATGL and HSL compared with the corresponding mouse enzymes was noticed. Thus, ATGListatin inhibited mouse ATGL but not human ATGL, and the HSL inhibitors WWL11 and Compound 13f were effective against mouse enzyme but much less potent against human enzyme. Many of these lipase inhibitors also inhibited human CES1. Results describe reliable assays for measuring lipase activities that are amenable for drug screening and also caution about the specificity of the many earlier described lipase inhibitors.

  12. Piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Jani; Kuusisto, Anne; van Bruchem, John; Patel, Jayendra Z; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Savinainen, Juha R; Parkkari, Teija; Nevalainen, Tapio J

    2014-12-01

    The key hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), are potential targets for various therapeutic applications. In this paper, we present more extensively the results of our previous work on piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as FAAH and MAGL inhibitors. The best compounds of these series function as potent and selective MAGL/FAAH inhibitors or as dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations. This study revealed that MAGL inhibitors should comprise leaving-groups with a conjugate acid pKa of 8-10, while diverse leaving groups are tolerated for FAAH inhibitors.

  13. R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, inhibits inducible nitric oxide production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Goto, Kaoru; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-02-01

    Although diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is known to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell, its functional significance remains to be clarified. We hypothesized that DGK is involved in the pathway of cytokine-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular smooth muscle cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of R59949, a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor, on inducible nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cell. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were used to elucidate the effects of R59949 on basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced NO production. The effects of R59949 on protein and mRNA expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and on transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake were also evaluated using RASMCs. Treatment of RASMCs with R59949 (10 μM) inhibited IL-1β (10 ng/ml)-induced NO production but not basal NO production. Neither protein nor mRNA expression level of iNOS after stimulation with IL-1β was significantly affected by R59949. Estimated enzymatic activities of iNOS in RASMCs were comparable in the absence and presence of R59949. Stimulation of RASMCs with IL-1β caused a marked increase in transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake into RASMCs. L-Arginine uptake in the presence of IL-1β was markedly inhibited by R59949, while basal L-arginine uptake was not significantly affected by R59949. Both IL-1β-induced NO production and L-arginine uptake were abolished in the presence of cycloheximide (1 μM). The results indicate that R59949 inhibits inducible NO production through decreasing transplasmalemmal L-arginine uptake. DGK is suggested to be involved in cytokine-stimulated L-arginine transport and regulate its intracellular concentration in vascular smooth muscle cell.

  14. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors produce pro- or antidepressant responses via hippocampal CA1 GABAergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Gu, N; Duan, T; Kesner, P; Blaskovits, F; Liu, J; Lu, Y; Tong, L; Gao, F; Harris, C; Mackie, K; Li, J; Tan, Q; Hill, M N; Yuan, Z; Zhang, X

    2017-01-01

    The probability of suffering the mood disorder depression is up to 30% in women and 15% in men during their life span. Pharmacological options for depression are limited: conventional antidepressants have low efficacy and a delayed onset of action (several weeks). Here we investigate the antidepressant actions of inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the major degradative enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. A low-dose of MAGL inhibitors produces antidepressant effects on acute stress-exposed mice, through glutamatergic synaptic long-term depression (LTD), without significant effects on chronic corticosterone-exposed mice. In contrast, a high-dose of MAGL inhibitors produces pro- or antidepressant effects on acute stress- or chronic corticosterone-exposed mice, respectively, through GABAergic synaptic disinhibition. In the hippocampus, in vivo inhibition of MAGL induces a CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-dependent suppression of inhibitory GABAergic synapses and an in vivo LTD of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. LTD induction requires CB1R in astroglial cells (but not in GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons) and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. The conventional antidepressant fluoxetine produces rapid or delayed antidepressant effects in acute stress- or chronic corticosterone-exposed mice, respectively. We propose that depression-like behavior of animals in response to acute stress is the normal behavioral response, and thus, MAGL inhibitors, which produce antidepressant effects in chronic corticosterone-exposed animals through GABAergic synaptic disinhibition, represent a new class of rapidly-acting and long-lasting antidepressants. PMID:27001616

  15. Chitosan dosage regimen to trap fecal oil excretion after peroral lipase inhibitor administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yura; Je, Young Tae; Yun, Cheol-Won; Chung, Hesson

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the oil entrapment and systemic oil absorption-reducing activities of chitosan. High-molecular-weight chitosan formed gel aggregates with oil and bile salts in vitro. The oil/chitosan ratio and the molecular weight of chitosan were optimized for the in vivo study, and a molecular weight >100,000 was effective in reducing the oil contamination of mouse fur. The oil/chitosan weight ratio required for effective oil entrapment was less than 13 and 5 in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively. Chitosan administration was most effective during meals, and high-molecular-weight chitosan could trap and facilitate the reduction of systemic absorption of oil droplets separated by orlistat. The activity of the lipase inhibitor was not altered by chitosan as evidenced by thin layer chromatography, and orlistat was not absorbed systemically by the co-administration of chitosan.

  16. Phorbol diesters inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis of diacylglycerols in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Chabbott, H; Cabot, M C

    1986-01-01

    The effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on diacylglycerol lipase activity was examined in rat serum, tissue, and cellular preparations by using di[14C]oleoylglycerol, [3H]palmitoylacetylglycerol, and membrane-resident phospholipase C-generated diacylglycerols as substrates. These experiments were conducted to address whether phorbol esters can mimic diacylglycerols in interacting with enzymes other than protein kinase C. Serum hydrolysis of palmitoylacetylglycerol, assayed by the formation of [3H]palmitic acid, was inhibited by PMA, 4-O-methyl-PMA, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (in order of decreasing potency). The hydrolysis of palmitoylacetylglycerol was inhibited more than 40% by the addition of PMA at a 1:1 molar ratio with substrate. The inhibition resembled the competitive type, with a Ki of approximately 2.7 microM. PMA in the 10-60 microM range also inhibited hydrolysis of palmitoylacetylglycerol by lipases from rat brain microsomes and by homogenates of C3H/10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts. PMA was likewise inhibitory when assayed in an intramembrane enzyme-substrate milieu in which diacylglycerols were generated, in situ, by treatment of [3H]palmitate-labeled cell homogenates with phospholipase C. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PMA, which is now thought to act by mimicry of diacylglycerols, can inhibit the action of diacylglycerol lipase. It is possible that such a mechanism is linked to the multiplicity of responses elicited by phorbol diesters and that other agents may function by means of enzyme interactions (post-phospholipase C) to influence the levels of the cellular diacylglycerol mediators. PMID:3458169

  17. The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 decreases inflammatory response in skeletal muscle contusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Tian, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Li, Jiao-Yong; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Guan, Da-Wei

    2015-08-15

    Muscle wound healing process is a typical inflammation-evoked event. The monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor (4-nitrophenyl)4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol -5-yl)-hydroxymethyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) has been previously reported to reduce inflammation in colitis and acute lung injury in mice, which provide a new strategy for primary care of skeletal muscle injury. We investigated the effect of JZL184 on inflammation in rat muscle contusion model, and found decreased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. With extension of post-traumatic interval, myofiber regeneration was significantly hindered with increased collagen types I and ІІІ mRNAfibroblast infiltration as well as promoted fibrosis. Furthermore, 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-morpholin-4-ylpyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM281, a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) and [6-iodo-2-methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl]-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630, a selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist) treatment alleviated the anti-inflammatory effect of JZL184. Our findings demonstrate that JZL184 is able to inhibit the inflammatory response and interfere with contused muscle healing, in which the anti-inflammatory action may be mediated through cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Operon for Biosynthesis of Lipstatin, the Beta-Lactone Inhibitor of Human Pancreatic Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tingli; Zhang, Daozhong; Lin, Shuangjun; Long, Qingshan; Wang, Yemin; Ou, Hongyu; Kang, Qianjin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Lipstatin, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini as a potent and selective inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase, is a precursor for tetrahydrolipstatin (also known as orlistat, Xenical, and Alli), the only FDA-approved antiobesity medication for long-term use. Lipstatin features a 2-hexyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic-β-lactone structure with an N-formyl-l-leucine group attached as an ester to the 5-hydroxy group. It has been suggested that the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid β-lactone moiety of lipstatin in S. toxytricini is derived from Claisen condensation between two fatty acid substrates, which are derived from incomplete oxidative degradation of linoleic acid based on feeding experiments. In this study, we identified a six-gene operon (lst) that was essential for the biosynthesis of lipstatin by large-deletion, complementation, and single-gene knockout experiments. lstA, lstB, and lstC, which encode two β-ketoacyl–acyl carrier protein synthase III homologues and an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase homologue, were indicated to be responsible for the generation of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid backbone. Subsequently, the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene lstE and the putative formyltransferase gene lstF were involved in decoration of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid chain with an N-formylated leucine residue. Finally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-homologous gene lstD might be responsible for the reduction of the β-keto group of the biosynthetic intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of the unique β-lactone ring. PMID:25239907

  19. Fungal endophytes associated with Viola odorata Linn. as bioresource for pancreatic lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Katoch, M; Paul, A; Singh, G; Sridhar, S N C

    2017-08-03

    As per the recent statistical reports of World Health Organisation (WHO), 13% of total global population is obese. Orlistat remains to be the only drug approved for the long term treatment of obesity. Recent findings highlighted severe adverse effects of orlistat that included hepatotoxicity, gall stones, kidney stones and acute pancreatitis. Therefore, search for new drug is required. The investigations based on endophytic natural products would prove pivotal in the global fight against this health issue. Obesity is associated with lipid metabolism involving pancreatic lipase enzyme. The inhibition of pancreatic lipase is demonstrated by using the extracts of endophytes isolated from Viola odorata Linn. In addition, endophytes were identified using ITS based rDNA sequencing. Present study involves the isolation and identification of 27 endophytes from V. odorata. All the endophytes were evaluated for lipase inhibitory activities. The extracts of seven endophytes exhibited lipase inhibitory activity with IC50 < 10 μg/mL. The extract of VOLF4 (Aspergillus sp.) displayed promising lipase inhibitory activity (IC50 3.8 μg/mL). The present study demonstrates that V. odorata harbors endophytic community with potent lipase inhibitory activity. VOLF4 is the potential endophyte. The extract of VOLF4 can be used to develop the potential drug to treat obesity.

  20. Structure–activity studies in the development of a hydrazone based inhibitor of adipose-triglyceride lipase (ATGL)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Nicole; Schweiger, Martina; Melcher, Michaela-Christina; Fledelius, Christian; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Breinbauer, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the degradation of cellular triacylglycerol stores and strongly determines the concentration of circulating fatty acids (FAs). High serum FA levels are causally linked to the development of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which eventually progresses to overt type 2 diabetes. ATGL-specific inhibitors could be used to lower circulating FAs, which can counteract the development of insulin resistance. In this article, we report about structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies of small molecule inhibitors of ATGL based on a hydrazone chemotype. The SAR indicated that the binding pocket of ATGL requests rather linear compounds without bulky substituents. The best inhibitor showed an IC50 = 10 μM in an assay with COS7-cell lysate overexpressing murine ATGL. PMID:25778769

  1. Bioengineering recombinant diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. At least 115 DGAT sequences are identified from 69 organisms in the GenBank databases. Only a few papers have been published in the last 28 years on the exp...

  2. Structure of product-bound SMG1 lipase: active site gating implications.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaohua; Xu, Jinxin; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Lan, Dongming; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-12-01

    Monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases are industrially interesting enzymes, due to the health benefits that arise from the consumption of diglycerides compared to the traditional triglyceride oils. Most lipases possess an α-helix (lid) directly over the catalytic pocket which regulates the activity of the enzyme. Generally, lipases exist in active and inactive conformations, depending on the positioning of this lid subdomain. However, lipase SMG1, a monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol specific lipase, has an atypical activation mechanism. In the present study we were able to prove by crystallography, in silico analysis and activity tests that only two positions, residues 102 and 278, are responsible for a gating mechanism that regulates the active and inactive states of the lipase, and that no significant structural changes take place during activation except for oxyanion hole formation. The elucidation of the gating effect provided data enabling the rational design of improved lipases with 6-fold increase in the hydrolytic activity toward diacylglycerols, just by providing additional substrate stabilization with a single mutation (F278N or F278T). Due to the conservation of F278 among the monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases in the Rhizomucor miehei lipase-like family, the gating mechanism described herein might represent a general mechanism applicable to other monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol lipases as well. Database: Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 4ZRE (F278D mutant) and 4ZRD (F278N mutant). © 2015 FEBS.

  3. High-throughput virtual screening with e-pharmacophore and molecular simulations study in the designing of pancreatic lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Veeramachaneni, Ganesh Kumar; Raj, K Kranthi; Chalasani, Leela Madhuri; Bondili, Jayakumar Singh; Talluri, Venkateswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a progressive metabolic disorder in the current world population, and is characterized by the excess deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Pancreatic lipase is one of the key enzymes in the hydrolysis of triglycerides into monoglycerides and free fatty acids, and is thus considered a promising target for the treatment of obesity. The present drugs used for treating obesity do not give satisfactory results, and on prolonged usage result in severe side effects. In view of the drastic increase in the obese population day-to-day, there is a greater need to discover new drugs with lesser side effects. High-throughput virtual screening combined with e-pharmacophore screening and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) filters were applied to screen out the ligand molecules from the ZINC natural molecule database. The screened molecules were subjected to Glide XP docking to study the molecular interactions broadly. Further, molecular dynamic simulations were used to validate the stability of the enzyme-ligand complexes. Finally, the molecules with better results were optimized for in vitro testing. The screening protocols identified eight hits from the natural molecule database, which were further filtered through pharmacological filters. The final four hits were subjected to extra precision docking, and the complexes were finally studied with molecular dynamic simulations. The results pointed to the zinc 85893731 molecule as the most stable in the binding pocket, producing consistent H-bond interaction with Ser152 (G=-7.18). The optimized lead molecule exhibited good docking score, better fit, and improved ADME profile. The present study specifies zinc 85893731 as a lead molecule with higher binding score and energetically stable complex with pancreatic lipase. This lead molecule, along with its various analogs, can be further tested as a novel inhibitor against pancreatic lipase using in vitro

  4. Effects of RHC 80267, a diglyceride lipase inhibitor, on prolactin secretion and calcium uptake in GH/sub 3/ pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Camoratto, A.M.; Grandison, L.

    1987-01-19

    The effect of the diglyceride lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 on the prolactin secretory process was examined in clonal anterior pituitary GH/sub 3/ cells. This compound reduced basal prolactin secretion as well as secretion induced by TRH and phospholipase C but not that induced by phorbol myristate acetate. Although exogenous phospholipase C increased diglyceride, no increase in the products of diglyceride lipase was detected. Moreover, low doses of RHC 80267 were observed to effectively block potassium-stimulated /sup 45/calcium influx. It is unlikely that RHC 80267 inhibits prolactin release solely by inhibiting diglyceride lipase. These data suggest blockage of plasma membrane calcium channels as an alternate mechanism for the inhibitory actions of RHC 80267 on intact GH/sub 3/ cells. These observations may have implications for RHC 80267 action in other cell types.

  5. (4-Phenoxyphenyl)tetrazolecarboxamides and related compounds as dual inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

    PubMed

    Holtfrerich, Angela; Hanekamp, Walburga; Lehr, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Inhibitors of the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the principle enzymes involved in the degradation of endogenous cannabinoids like anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, have potential utility in the treatment of several disorders including pain, inflammation and anxiety. In the present study, the effectivity and selectivity of eight known FAAH and MAGL inhibitors for inhibition of the appropriate enzyme were measured applying in vitro assays, which work under comparable conditions. Because many of the known FAAH and MAGL inhibitors simply consist of a lipophilic scaffold to which a heterocyclic system is bound, furthermore, different heterocyclic structures were evaluated for their contribution to enzyme inhibition by attaching them to the same lipophilic backbone, namely 4-phenoxybenzene. One of the most active compound synthesized during this investigation was N,N-dimethyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-2H-tetrazole-2-carboxamide (16) (IC50 FAAH: 0.012 μM; IC50 MAGL: 0.028 μM). This inhibitor was systematically modified in the lipophilic 4-phenoxyphenyl region. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the inhibitory potency against FAAH and MAGL, respectively, could still be increased by replacement of the phenoxy residue of 16 by 3-chlorophenoxy (45) or pyrrol-1-yl groups (49). Finally, the tetrazolecarboxamide 16 and some related compounds were tested for metabolic stability with rat liver S9 fractions showing that these kind of FAAH/MAGL inhibitors are readily inactivated by cleavage of the bond between the tetrazole ring and its carboxamide substituent.

  6. Sequence analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knock...

  7. Crystal structure of a soluble form of human monoglyceride lipase in complex with an inhibitor at 1.35 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schalk-Hihi, Céline; Schubert, Carsten; Alexander, Richard; Bayoumy, Shariff; Clemente, Jose C.; Deckman, Ingrid; DesJarlais, Renee L.; Dzordzorme, Keli C.; Flores, Christopher M.; Grasberger, Bruce; Kranz, James K.; Lewandowski, Frank; Liu, Li; Ma, Hongchang; Maguire, Diane; Macielag, Mark J.; McDonnell, Mark E.; Haarlander, Tara Mezzasalma; Miller, Robyn; Milligan, Cindy; Reynolds, Charles

    2011-12-22

    A high-resolution structure of a ligand-bound, soluble form of human monoglyceride lipase (MGL) is presented. The structure highlights a novel conformation of the regulatory lid-domain present in the lipase family as well as the binding mode of a pharmaceutically relevant reversible inhibitor. Analysis of the structure lacking the inhibitor indicates that the closed conformation can accommodate the native substrate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. A model is proposed in which MGL undergoes conformational and electrostatic changes during the catalytic cycle ultimately resulting in its dissociation from the membrane upon completion of the cycle. In addition, the study outlines a successful approach to transform membrane associated proteins, which tend to aggregate upon purification, into a monomeric and soluble form.

  8. Crystal structure of a soluble form of human monoglyceride lipase in complex with an inhibitor at 1.35 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Schalk-Hihi, Céline; Schubert, Carsten; Alexander, Richard; Bayoumy, Shariff; Clemente, Jose C; Deckman, Ingrid; DesJarlais, Renee L; Dzordzorme, Keli C; Flores, Christopher M; Grasberger, Bruce; Kranz, James K; Lewandowski, Frank; Liu, Li; Ma, Hongchang; Maguire, Diane; Macielag, Mark J; McDonnell, Mark E; Mezzasalma Haarlander, Tara; Miller, Robyn; Milligan, Cindy; Reynolds, Charles; Kuo, Lawrence C

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution structure of a ligand-bound, soluble form of human monoglyceride lipase (MGL) is presented. The structure highlights a novel conformation of the regulatory lid-domain present in the lipase family as well as the binding mode of a pharmaceutically relevant reversible inhibitor. Analysis of the structure lacking the inhibitor indicates that the closed conformation can accommodate the native substrate 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. A model is proposed in which MGL undergoes conformational and electrostatic changes during the catalytic cycle ultimately resulting in its dissociation from the membrane upon completion of the cycle. In addition, the study outlines a successful approach to transform membrane associated proteins, which tend to aggregate upon purification, into a monomeric and soluble form. Copyright © 2011 The Protein Society.

  9. A critical cysteine residue in monoacylglycerol lipase is targeted by a new class of isothiazolinone-based enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    King, A R; Lodola, A; Carmi, C; Fu, J; Mor, M; Piomelli, D

    2009-07-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a presynaptic serine hydrolase that inactivates the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol. Recent studies suggest that cysteine residues proximal to the enzyme active site are important for MGL function. In the present study, we characterize the role of cysteines in MGL function and identify a series of cysteine-reactive agents that inhibit MGL activity with nanomolar potencies by interacting with cysteine residue 208. A series of cysteine traps were screened for the ability to inhibit MGL in vitro. Rapid dilution assays were performed to determine reversibility of inhibition. Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to identify cysteine residues targeted by the inhibitors. The screening revealed that 2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (octhilinone) inhibited purified rat recombinant MGL (IC(50)= 88 +/- 12 nM) through a partially reversible mechanism. Initial structure-activity relationship studies showed that substitution of the n-octyl group of octhilinone with a more lipophilic oleoyl group increased inhibitor potency (IC(50)= 43 +/- 8 nM), while substitution with a methyl group produced the opposite effect (IC(50)= 239 +/- 68 nM). The inhibitory potency of octhilinone was selectively decreased by mutating cysteine 208 in MGL to glycine (IC(50); wild-type, 151 +/- 17 nM; C208G, 722 +/- 74 nM), but not by mutation of other cysteine residues (C32, C55, C201, C208 and C242). The results indicated that cysteine 208 plays an important role in MGL function and identified a novel class of isothiazolinone-based MGL inhibitors with nanomolar potency in vitro.

  10. A critical cysteine residue in monoacylglycerol lipase is targeted by a new class of isothiazolinone-based enzyme inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    King, AR; Lodola, A; Carmi, C; Fu, J; Mor, M; Piomelli, D

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a presynaptic serine hydrolase that inactivates the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol. Recent studies suggest that cysteine residues proximal to the enzyme active site are important for MGL function. In the present study, we characterize the role of cysteines in MGL function and identify a series of cysteine-reactive agents that inhibit MGL activity with nanomolar potencies by interacting with cysteine residue 208. Experimental approach: A series of cysteine traps were screened for the ability to inhibit MGL in vitro. Rapid dilution assays were performed to determine reversibility of inhibition. Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to identify cysteine residues targeted by the inhibitors. Key results: The screening revealed that 2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (octhilinone) inhibited purified rat recombinant MGL (IC50= 88 ± 12 nM) through a partially reversible mechanism. Initial structure–activity relationship studies showed that substitution of the n-octyl group of octhilinone with a more lipophilic oleoyl group increased inhibitor potency (IC50= 43 ± 8 nM), while substitution with a methyl group produced the opposite effect (IC50= 239 ± 68 nM). The inhibitory potency of octhilinone was selectively decreased by mutating cysteine 208 in MGL to glycine (IC50; wild-type, 151 ± 17 nM; C208G, 722 ± 74 nM), but not by mutation of other cysteine residues (C32, C55, C201, C208 and C242). Conclusions and implications: The results indicated that cysteine 208 plays an important role in MGL function and identified a novel class of isothiazolinone-based MGL inhibitors with nanomolar potency in vitro. PMID:19486005

  11. Brominated polyunsaturated lipids from the Chinese sponge Xestospongia testudinaria as a new class of pancreatic lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lin-Fu; Wang, Ting; Cai, You-Sheng; He, Wen-Fei; Sun, Peng; Li, Yu-Fen; Huang, Qi; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Wang, He-Yao; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2014-05-22

    Chemical analysis of the Chinese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria afforded a library of brominated polyunsaturated lipids including eight new compounds, named xestonarienes A-H (3-10) and thirteen known analogues (11-23). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. The isolated lipids were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase (PL), an essential enzyme for efficient fat digestion and the major metabolite, 14, exhibited a marked inhibitory activity (IC50 = 3.11 μM), similar to that of the positive control Orlistat (IC50 = 0.78 μM). The preliminary structure-activity relationships on the series of compounds clearly evidenced that a terminal (E)-enyne functionality, a diyne within the chain, and methyl ester group are all key functional groups for the activity of this class of PL inhibitors. Further biological investigation on compound 14 revealed a significant decrease in the plasma triglyceride level following an oral lipid challenge in C57BLKS/J male mice. Acute toxicology study demonstrated that compound 14 was non-toxic up to 1600 mg/kg p.o in mice. This is the first report of the PL inhibitory activity for brominated polyunsaturated lipids and the obtained results qualify compound 14 as a potent and bioavailable drug candidate for a mild and safe treatment to prevent and reduce obesity.

  12. Refsum's Disease—Use of the Intestinal Lipase Inhibitor, Orlistat, as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to a Complex Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Nimalie J.; Lewis, Barry; Tran, Huy; Fietz, Michael; Sullivan, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Refsum's Disease is an inherited metabolic disorder in which a metabolite of branched chain fatty acids accumulates due to lack of appropriate oxidative enzymes. Patients have elevated plasma phytanic acid levels and high concentrations of phytanic acid in a variety of tissues leading to progressive tissue damage. Besides retinal degeneration or retinal dystrophy associated with adult onset retinitis pigmentosa, additional symptoms include chronic polyneuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, anosmia, ichthyosis, as well as skeletal, cardiac, hepatic, and renal abnormalities. Current management includes avoidance of dietary sources of branched chain fatty acids and regular plasmapheresis to prevent accumulation of these compounds to ameliorate progressive neurological deficits. Two brothers with Refsum's disease who experienced progressive symptoms despite optimal diet and plasmapheresis were commenced on a novel therapy. We report the effect of the intestinal lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, which led to significant reduction (P-value <0.001 on 2-sample unpaired t-test) of mean preplasmapheresis phytanic acid levels with retardation of the progression of most of their dermatological and neurological symptoms. PMID:20871815

  13. Optimal Extraction Conditions of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus and Nutritional Characteristics of the Extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kug; Song, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2010-03-01

    In an effort to develop novel mushroom-derived anti-obesity nutraceuticals, water and ethanol extracts containing the lipaseinhibitory compound from Phellinus linteus were prepared, and their nutritional components were determined. The optimal conditions for the extraction of P. linteus lipase inhibitor involved the treatment of the fruiting bodies with distilled water at 80℃ for 72 hr and 80% ethanol at 100℃ for 60 hr, respectively. The distilled water extract and ethanol extract contained 10.9% and 6.11% of crude protein, and 0.96% and 15.86% of crude fat, respectively. Additionally, the distilled water extract contained a large quantity of minerals, including 239.5 mg of K, 39.3 mg of Mg, and 39.3 mg of Na. The free amino acid content of the distilled water extracts was also higher than that of the ethanol extracts, and in particular, the distilled water extracts contained 5,139 mg of asparagine, 3,891 mg of tryptophan, 2,598 mg of alanine, and 2,066 mg of serine in 100 g of the distilled water extracts. 100 g of the distilled water and ethanol extracts were found to contain 12.31 g and 8.16 g of malic acid, respectively.

  14. Optimal Extraction Conditions of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus and Nutritional Characteristics of the Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Kug; Song, Jung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop novel mushroom-derived anti-obesity nutraceuticals, water and ethanol extracts containing the lipaseinhibitory compound from Phellinus linteus were prepared, and their nutritional components were determined. The optimal conditions for the extraction of P. linteus lipase inhibitor involved the treatment of the fruiting bodies with distilled water at 80℃ for 72 hr and 80% ethanol at 100℃ for 60 hr, respectively. The distilled water extract and ethanol extract contained 10.9% and 6.11% of crude protein, and 0.96% and 15.86% of crude fat, respectively. Additionally, the distilled water extract contained a large quantity of minerals, including 239.5 mg of K, 39.3 mg of Mg, and 39.3 mg of Na. The free amino acid content of the distilled water extracts was also higher than that of the ethanol extracts, and in particular, the distilled water extracts contained 5,139 mg of asparagine, 3,891 mg of tryptophan, 2,598 mg of alanine, and 2,066 mg of serine in 100 g of the distilled water extracts. 100 g of the distilled water and ethanol extracts were found to contain 12.31 g and 8.16 g of malic acid, respectively. PMID:23956626

  15. The Selective Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor MJN110 Produces Opioid-Sparing Effects in a Mouse Neuropathic Pain Model.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Jenny L; Niphakis, Micah J; Grim, Travis W; Mustafa, Mohammed A; Abdullah, Rehab A; Poklis, Justin L; Dewey, William L; Akbarali, Hamid; Banks, Matthew L; Wise, Laura E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2016-04-01

    Serious clinical liabilities associated with the prescription of opiates for pain control include constipation, respiratory depression, pruritus, tolerance, abuse, and addiction. A recognized strategy to circumvent these side effects is to combine opioids with other antinociceptive agents. The combination of opiates with the primary active constituent of cannabis (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) produces enhanced antinociceptive actions, suggesting that cannabinoid receptor agonists can be opioid sparing. Here, we tested whether elevating the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol through the inhibition of its primary hydrolytic enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), will produce opioid-sparing effects in the mouse chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve model of neuropathic pain. The dose-response relationships of i.p. administration of morphine and the selective MAGL inhibitor 2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 4-(bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate (MJN110) were tested alone and in combination at equieffective doses for reversal of CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The respective ED50 doses (95% confidence interval) of morphine and MJN110 were 2.4 (1.9-3.0) mg/kg and 0.43 (0.23-0.79) mg/kg. Isobolographic analysis of these drugs in combination revealed synergistic antiallodynic effects. Acute antinociceptive effects of the combination of morphine and MJN110 required μ-opioid, CB1, and CB2 receptors. This combination did not reduce gastric motility or produce subjective cannabimimetic effects in the drug discrimination assay. Importantly, combinations of MJN110 and morphine given repeatedly (i.e., twice a day for 6 days) continued to produce antiallodynic effects with no evidence of tolerance. Taken together, these findings suggest that MAGL inhibition produces opiate-sparing events with diminished tolerance, constipation, and cannabimimetic side effects.

  16. Comparative biochemical characterization of the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor KML29 in brain, spinal cord, liver, spleen, fat and muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Pasquarelli, Noemi; Porazik, Christoph; Hanselmann, Johannes; Weydt, Patrick; Ferger, Boris; Witting, Anke

    2015-04-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is part of the endocannabinoid and the prostaglandin signaling system. MAGL degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) into glycerol and arachidonic acid. MAGL-induced arachidonic acid is the primary source for prostaglandin synthesis in the brain. 2-AG mainly induces neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, whereas prostaglandins are related to pro-inflammatory effects inducing neurotoxicity. Therefore, inhibition of MAGL represents a promising target for neurological diseases characterized by inflammation. However, as 2-AG is an agonist for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), inhibition of MAGL might be associated with unwanted cannabimimetic effects. Here, we show that oral administration of KML29, a highly selective inhibitor of MAGL, induced large and dose-dependent changes in 2-AG levels in vivo in brain and spinal cord of mice. Of note, MAGL inhibition by KML29 induced a decrease in prostaglandin levels in brain and most peripheral tissues but not in the spinal cord. MAGL expression was highest in fat, liver and brain, whereas the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), a further enzyme responsible for arachidonic acid production, was highly expressed in spinal cord, muscle and spleen. In addition, high doses (10 mg/kg) of KML29 induced some cannabimimetic effects in vivo in the tetrad test, including hypothermia, analgesia and hypomotility without induction of cataleptic behavior. In summary, inhibition of MAGL by KML29 represents a promising strategy for targeting the cannabinoid and prostaglandin system of the brain with only a moderate induction of cannabimimetic effects.

  17. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor JZL184 Improves Behavior and Neural Properties in Ts65Dn Mice, a Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lysenko, Larisa V.; Kim, Jeesun; Henry, Cassandra; Tyrtyshnaia, Anna; Kohnz, Rebecca A.; Madamba, Francisco; Simon, Gabriel M.; Kleschevnikova, Natalia E.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Ezekowitz, R . Alan B.; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic alterations or pharmacological treatments affecting endocannabinoid signaling have profound effects on synaptic and neuronal properties and, under certain conditions, may improve higher brain functions. Down syndrome (DS), a developmental disorder caused by triplication of chromosome 21, is characterized by deficient cognition and inevitable development of the Alzheimer disease (AD) type pathology during aging. Here we used JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to examine the effects of chronic MAGL inhibition on the behavioral, biochemical, and synaptic properties of aged Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. In both Ts65Dn mice and their normosomic (2N) controls, JZL184-treatment increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and decreased levels of its metabolites such as arachidonic acid, prostaglandins PGD2, PGE2, PGFα, and PGJ2. Enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity of Ts65Dn mice was reduced by the JZL184-treatement to the levels observed in 2N animals. Deficient long-term memory was also improved, while short-term and working types of memory were unaffected. Furthermore, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was increased in the JZL184-treated Ts65Dn mice to the levels observed in 2N mice. Interestingly, changes in synaptic plasticity and behavior were not observed in the JZL184-treated 2N mice suggesting that the treatment specifically attenuated the defects in the trisomic animals. The JZL184-treatment also reduced the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, but had no effect on the levels of full length APP and BACE1 in both Ts65Dn and 2N mice. These data show that chronic MAGL inhibition improves the behavior and brain functions in a DS model suggesting that pharmacological targeting of MAGL may be considered as a perspective new approach for improving cognition in DS. PMID:25474204

  18. Lipase Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: LPS Formal name: Lipase Related tests: Amylase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance Test Sample The ... lipase is most often used, along with an amylase test , to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis . ...

  19. Enzymatic catalyzed palm oil hydrolysis under ultrasound irradiation: diacylglycerol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Awadallak, Jamal A; Voll, Fernando; Ribas, Marielen C; da Silva, Camila; Filho, Lucio Cardozo; da Silva, Edson A

    2013-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) rich oils have an organoleptic property like that of regular edible oils, but these oils do not tend to be accumulated as fat. Palm oil ranks first in the world in terms of edible oil production owing to its low cost. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology to produce diacylglycerol by hydrolysis of palm oil using Lipozyme RM IM commercial lipase as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The reactions were carried out at 55 °C with two different methods. First, the reaction system was exposed to ultrasonic waves for the whole reaction time, which led to enzymatic inactivation and water evaporation. Ultrasound was then used to promote emulsification of the water/oil system before the hydrolysis reaction, avoiding contact between the probe and the enzymes. An experimental design was used to optimize the ultrasound-related parameters and maximize the hydrolysis rate, and in these conditions, with a change in equilibrium, DAG production was evaluated. Better reaction conditions were achieved for the second method: 11.20 wt.% (water+oil mass) water content, 1.36 wt.% (water+oil mass) enzyme load, 12 h of reaction time, 1.2 min and 200 W of exposure to ultrasound. In these conditions diacylglycerol yield was 34.17 wt.%.

  20. [Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates adipocyte lipolysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated concentration of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs), which are critically governed by the process of triglyceride lipolysis in adipocytes. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are two major enzymes in the control of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue. ATGL expressed predominantly in white adipose tissue specifically initiates triacylglycerol hydrolysis to generate diacylglycerols and FFA, a role distinguished from HSL that mainly hydrolyzes diacylglycerols. The transcription of ATGL is regulated by several factors. ATGL activity is regulated by CGI-58. Under basal conditions, interaction of CGI-58 with a lipid droplet associating protein, perilipin, results in an inactivation of ATGL activity. During PKA-stimulated lipolysis, CGI-58 is released from phosphorylated perilipin and in turn, binds to ATGL. This action facilitates triglyceride lipolysis. This review focuses on the regulation and function of ATGL in adipose lipolysis and metabolism.

  1. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Benzimidazole Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) Inhibitor That Suppresses Body Weight Gain in Diet-Induced Obese Dogs and Postprandial Triglycerides in Humans.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Katsumasa; Chatelain, Ricardo; Clairmont, Kevin B; Commerford, Renee; Coppola, Gary M; Daniels, Thomas; Forster, Cornelia J; Gilmore, Thomas A; Gong, Yongjin; Jain, Monish; Kanter, Aaron; Kwak, Youngshin; Li, Jingzhou; Meyers, Charles D; Neubert, Alan D; Szklennik, Paul; Tedesco, Vivienne; Thompson, James; Truong, David; Yang, Qing; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2017-06-08

    Modification of a gut restricted class of benzimidazole DGAT1 inhibitor 1 led to 9 with good oral bioavailability. The key structural changes to 1 include bioisosteric replacement of the amide with oxadiazole and α,α-dimethylation of the carboxylic acid, improving DGAT1 potency and gut permeability. Since DGAT1 is expressed in the small intestine, both 1 and 9 can suppress postprandial triglycerides during acute oral lipid challenges in rats and dogs. Interestingly, only 9 was found to be effective in suppressing body weight gain relative to control in a diet-induced obese dog model, suggesting the importance of systemic inhibition of DGAT1 for body weight control. 9 has advanced to clinical investigation and successfully suppressed postprandial triglycerides during an acute meal challenge in humans.

  2. Identification of 1H-indene-(1,3,5,6)-tetrol derivatives as potent pancreatic lipase inhibitors using molecular docking and molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Kalathiya, Umesh; Padariya, M; Baginski, M

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic lipase is a potential therapeutic target to treat diet-induced obesity in humans, as obesity-related diseases continue to be a global problem. Despite intensive research on finding potential inhibitors, very few compounds have been introduced to clinical studies. In this work, new chemical scaffold 1H-indene-(1,3,5,6)-tetrol was proposed using knowledge-based approach, and 36 inhibitors were derived by modifying its functional groups at different positions in scaffold. To explore binding affinity and interactions of ligands with protein, CDOCKER and AutoDock programs were used for molecular docking studies. Analyzing results of rigid and flexible docking algorithms, inhibitors C_12, C_24, and C_36 were selected based on different properties and high predicted binding affinities for further analysis. These three inhibitors have different moieties placed at different functional groups in scaffold, and to characterize structural rationales for inhibitory activities of compounds, molecular dynamics simulations were performed (500 nSec). It has been shown through simulations that two structural fragments (indene and indole) in inhibitor can be treated as isosteric structures and their position at binding cleft can be replaced by each other. Taking into account these information, two lines of inhibitors can further be developed, each line based on a different core scaffold, that is, indene/indole.

  3. Direct activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1(TRPV1) by Diacylglycerol (DAG)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Dong Ho; Jung, Sung Jun; Zhu, Mei Hong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Kim, Yong Ho; Oh, Seog Bae; Lee, C Justin

    2008-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), is activated by a wide range of noxious stimulants and putative ligands such as capsaicin, heat, pH, anandamide, and phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the identity of endogenous activators for TRPV1 under physiological condition is still debated. Here, we report that diacylglycerol (DAG) directly activates TRPV1 channel in a membrane-delimited manner in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), a membrane-permeable DAG analog, elicited intracellular Ca2+ transients, cationic currents and cobalt uptake that were blocked by TRPV1-selective antagonists, but not by inhibitors of PKC and DAG lipase in rat DRG neurons or HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing TRPV1. OAG induced responses were about one fifth of capsaicin induced signals, suggesting that OAG displays partial agonism. We also found that endogenously produced DAG can activate rat TRPV1 channels. Mutagenesis of rat TRPV1 revealed that DAG-binding site is at Y511, the same site for capsaicin binding, and PtdIns(4,5)P2binding site may not be critical for the activation of rat TRPV1 by DAG in heterologous system. We propose that DAG serves as an endogenous ligand for rat TRPV1, acting as an integrator of Gq/11-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases that are linked to phospholipase C. PMID:18826653

  4. Characterization of the Yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent Diacylglycerol Kinase*♦

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; O'Hara, Laura; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DGK1 gene encodes a diacylglycerol kinase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidate from diacylglycerol. Unlike the diacylglycerol kinases from bacteria, plants, and animals, the yeast enzyme utilizes CTP, instead of ATP, as the phosphate donor in the reaction. Dgk1p contains a CTP transferase domain that is present in the SEC59-encoded dolichol kinase and CDS1-encoded CDP-diacylglycerol synthase enzymes. Deletion analysis showed that the CTP transferase domain was sufficient for diacylglycerol kinase activity. Point mutations (R76A, K77A, D177A, and G184A) of conserved residues within the CTP transferase domain caused a loss of diacylglycerol kinase activity. Analysis of DGK1 alleles showed that the in vivo functions of Dgk1p were specifically due to its diacylglycerol kinase activity. The DGK1-encoded enzyme had a pH optimum at 7.0-7.5, required Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions for activity, was potently inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, and was labile at temperatures above 40 °C. The enzyme exhibited positive cooperative (Hill number = 2.5) kinetics with respect to diacylglycerol (apparent Km = 6.5 mol %) and saturation kinetics with respect to CTP (apparent Km = 0.3 mm). dCTP was both a substrate (apparent Km = 0.4 mm) and competitive inhibitor (apparent Ki = 0.4 mm) of the enzyme. Diacylglycerol kinase activity was stimulated by major membrane phospholipids and was inhibited by CDP-diacylglycerol and sphingoid bases. PMID:18458076

  5. Diacylglycerols mimic phorbol diester induction of leukemic cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, J G; Vandenbark, G R; Kuhn, L J; Ganong, B R; Bell, R M; Niedel, J E

    1985-01-01

    Activation of cellular protein kinase C appears to be involved in the mechanism by which phorbol diesters induce differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells (HL-60). Protein kinase C is thought to be physiologically activated by diacylglycerol derived from receptor-mediated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis. sn-1,2-diacylglycerols with short saturated acyl side chains (C4-C10) were synthesized and found to be potent activators of protein kinase C partially purified from HL-60 cells. These diacylglycerols were also competitive inhibitors of [3H]phorbol dibutyrate binding to the soluble phorbol diester receptor. The most potent diacylglycerol, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, displaced greater than 90% of [3H]phorbol dibutyrate from the phorbol diester receptor of intact HL-60 cells. Because of probable cellular metabolism of sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, hourly doses were required to maintain persistent occupancy of the phorbol diester binding site. Treatment of HL-60 cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol produced identical phosphoprotein changes. Finally, sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol induced differentiation of the HL-60 cells into cells with morphologic characteristics of macrophages. Substitution of the hydroxyl group at position 3 with a hydrogen, chloro, or sulfhydryl moiety inactivated sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol. These data strengthen the hypothesis that protein kinase C activation plays a role in macrophage differentiation. Images PMID:3156372

  6. Diacylglycerol kinase θ: regulation and stability.

    PubMed

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Petro, Elizabeth; Raben, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-established roles of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) in a variety of signaling cascades, it is not surprising that there is an increasing interest in understanding their physiological roles and mechanisms that regulate their cellular levels. One class of enzymes capable of coordinately regulating the levels of these two lipids is the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs). These enzymes catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to the hydroxyl group of DAG, which generates PtdOH while reducing DAG. As these enzymes reciprocally modulate the relative levels of these two signaling lipids, it is essential to understand the regulation and roles of these enzymes in various tissues. One system where these enzymes play important roles is the nervous system. Of the ten mammalian DGKs, eight of them are readily detected in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS): DGK-α, DGK-β, DGK-γ, DGK-η, DGK-ζ, DGK-ι, DGK-ε, and DGK-θ. Despite the increasing interest in DGKs, little is known about their regulation. We have focused some attention on understanding the enzymology and regulation of one of these DGK isoforms, DGK-θ. We recently showed that DGK-θ is regulated by an accessory protein containing polybasic regions. We now report that this accessory protein is required for the previously reported broadening of the pH profile observed in cell lysates in response to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). Our data further reveal DGK-θ is regulated by magnesium and zinc, and sensitive to the known DGK inhibitor R599022. These data outline new parameters involved in regulating DGK-θ.

  7. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  8. Characterization and identification of a lipoprotein lipase from Manduca sexta flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Van Heusden, M C

    1993-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity in Manduca sexta flight muscle tissue was measured using in vivo radiolabeled lipophorin as a substrate. LpL hydrolyses diacylglycerol in the low density lipophorin (that occurs during flight) at a higher rate than diacylglycerol in the high density lipophorin (present in the resting insect). LpL has a pH-optimum of 7.5 and is less sensitive to NaCl than mammalian LpL. LpL is inhibited by bovine albumin and chicken ovalbumin. LpL is inhibited by the serine protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), which indicates the presence of an active site serine similar to mammalian LpL. Flight muscle LpL shows affinity for immobilized copper as well as for immobilized heparin. Using radiolabeled DFP, a protein of 37 kDa was identified (after SDS-PAGE) as the DFP-binding protein in a partially purified preparation of LpL. This 37 kDa protein is proposed to be the LpL or a subunit thereof.

  9. Lipase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholecystitis Chronic pancreatitis Enzyme Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency Pancreatic cancer Triglyceride level Review Date 2/4/2015 Updated ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gastroenteritis Genetic Disorders Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Diseases Pancreatitis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  10. Does triacylglycerol biosynthesis require diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT)?

    PubMed

    Fraser, T; Waters, A; Chatrattanakunchai, S; Stobart, K

    2000-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) catalyse the conversion of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA to triacylglycerol via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid was Mg2+ dependent and in the presence of EDTA phosphatidic acid accumulated. This property was used to generate large quantities of endogenous radioactive phosphatidic acid in the membranes. On addition of Mg2+ the phosphatidic acid was used in triacylglycerol formation. Acyl-CoA had little effect on the label which accumulated in triacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase, therefore, may not play a major role in oil formation as originally envisaged and other enzymes, including diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol transacylase [Stobart, Mancha, Lenman, Dahlqvist and Stymne (1997) Planta 203, 58-66] may have important biosynthetic functions.

  11. Secreted lipases from Malassezia globosa: recombinant expression and determination of their substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Bettina; Overy, David P; Haltli, Bradley; Kerr, Russell G

    2016-07-01

    Malassezia globosa, which is associated with skin conditions such as dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis, possesses 13 secreted lipases, but only MgLip1, MgMDL2 and MgLip2 have been characterized. To understand the substrate preferences of these lipases and by extension their potential role in colonizing human skin, we expressed all 13 predicted secreted lipases in Pichia pastoris and evaluated their ability to utilize mono-, di- and triolein substrates. The M. globosa family class 3 lipases were shown to be specific for mono- and diacylglycerols, but exhibited no regio-selective production of diacylglycerols, which are of special interest for industrial applications. Lipases belonging to the Lip family utilized all substrates. In a further step, five lipases previously demonstrated to be expressed on human skin were tested against the eight most common di- and triacylglycerols in human sebum. All lipases liberated free fatty acids from three to eight of these substrates, proving their ability to hydrolyse key components of human sebum. Again, only Lip family lipases showed activity on triacylglycerides. Based on the demonstrated activity and expression levels of MgLip2 in M. globosa, the Lip lipase family appears to have the highest impact for the pathogenicity of M. globosa.

  12. Regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L.-F.; Purushotham, A.; Wendel, A. A.; Koba, K.; DeIuliis, J.; Lee, K.; Belury, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To elucidate the mechanism by which rosiglitazone regulates adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Methods Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with rosiglitazone daily (10 mg/kg body weight), and adipose tissues were weighed and preserved for mRNA and protein analysis of ATGL. In parallel, preadipocyte (3T3-L1) cells were differentiated with insulin/dexamethasone/3-isobutyl-1-methlxanthine cocktail or rosiglitazone, and ATGL levels were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Rosiglitazone concomitantly promoted differentiation of pre-adipocytes to functional adipocytes and induced mRNA levels of ATGL. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether significantly abrogated the induction of mRNA, but not protein levels of ATGL by rosiglitazone in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the presence of epinephrine rosiglitazone stimulated free fatty acid release and increased diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) mRNA suggest that ATGL and DGAT-1 may be cooperatively involved in rosiglitazone-stimulated triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with rosiglitazone or insulin did not appear to alter localization of ATGL staining surrounding lipid droplets. Finally, we found that rosiglitazone increased ATGL mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone regulation of ATGL occurs at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Rosiglitazone directly regulates transcription of ATGL, likely through a PPARγ-mediated mechanism. PMID:18643838

  13. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  14. Response of cardiac myocytes to a ramp increase of diacylglycerol generated by photolysis of a novel caged diacylglycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, X P; Sreekumar, R; Patel, J R; Walker, J W

    1996-01-01

    To test the responsiveness of living cells to the intracellular messenger diacylglycerol, we developed a prototype caged diacylglycerol compound, 3-O-(alpha-carboxyl-2,4-dinitrobenzyl)-1 ,2-dioctanoyl-rac-glycerol (designated alpha-carboxyl caged diC(8)), that produces dioctanoylglycerol (diC(8)) on photolysis. Alpha-Carboxyl caged diC(8) is biologically inert toward diacylglycerol kinase and protein kinase C in vitro and is readily incorporated into cardiac myocyte membranes, where it has no effect before irradiation. Exposure to near-UV light releases biologically active diC8 in good yield (quantum efficiency = 0.2). Here we examine a cellular response to controlled elevation of diC8 within single cardiac myocytes. Twitch amplitude was monitored in electrically stimulated myocytes, and a ramp increase in the concentration of diC(8) was generated by continuous irradiation of cells loaded with the caged compound. The myocyte response was biphasic with a positive inotropic phase (39% increase in twitch amplitude), followed by a large negative inotropic phase (>80% decrease). The time to peak inotropy for both phases depended on the light intensity, decreasing from 376 +/- 51 S to 44 +/- 5 s (positive phase) and 422 +/- 118 S to 51 +/- 9 S (negative phase) as the light intensity was increased eightfold. Both phases were inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelethyrine chloride. An increase in extracellular K+ from 5 mM to 20 mM to partially depolarize the cell membrane eliminated the positive inotropic phase, but the negative inotropic response was largely unaltered. The results reveal new features in the response of cardiac muscle to diacylglycerol, including a positive inotropic phase and a complex responsiveness to a simple linear increase in diacylglycerol. The effects of photoreleased diC(8) were similar to the effects of opiate agonists selective for kappa receptors, consistent with a major role for diacylglycerol in these responses. Images FIGURE 2

  15. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130

  16. Diacylglycerol, when simplicity becomes complex.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Silvia; Mérida, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) has unique functions as a basic component of membranes, an intermediate in lipid metabolism and a key element in lipid-mediated signaling. In eukaryotes, for example, impaired DAG generation and/or consumption have severe effects on organ development and cell growth associated with diseases such as cancer, diabetes, immune system disorders and Alzheimer's disease. Although DAG has been studied intensively as a signaling lipid, early models of its function are no longer adequate to explain its numerous roles. The interplay between enzymes that control DAG levels, the identification of families of DAG-regulated proteins, and the overlap among DAG metabolic and signaling processes are providing new interpretations of DAG function. Recent discoveries are also delineating the complex and strategic role of DAG in regulating biochemical networks.

  17. Diverse antidepressants increase CDP-diacylglycerol production and phosphatidylinositide resynthesis in depression-relevant regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tyeryar, Kimberly R; Vongtau, Habiba O U; Undieh, Ashiwel S

    2008-01-24

    Major depression is a serious mood disorder affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. While the etiopathology of depression remains obscure, antidepressant medications increase synaptic levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions associated with the disease. Monoamine transmitters activate multiple signaling cascades some of which have been investigated as potential mediators of depression or antidepressant drug action. However, the diacylglycerol arm of phosphoinositide signaling cascades has not been systematically investigated, even though downstream targets of this cascade have been implicated in depression. With the ultimate goal of uncovering the primary postsynaptic actions that may initiate cellular antidepressive signaling, we have examined the antidepressant-induced production of CDP-diacylglycerol which is both a product of diacylglycerol phosphorylation and a precursor for the synthesis of physiologically critical glycerophospholipids such as the phosphatidylinositides. For this, drug effects on [3H]cytidine-labeled CDP-diacylglycerol and [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositides were measured in response to the tricyclics desipramine and imipramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, the atypical antidepressants maprotiline and nomifensine, and several monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Multiple compounds from each antidepressant category significantly stimulated [3H]CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation in cerebrocortical, hippocampal, and striatal tissues, and also enhanced the resynthesis of inositol phospholipids. Conversely, various antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and non-antidepressant psychotropic agents failed to significantly induce CDP-diacylglycerol or phosphoinositide synthesis. Drug-induced CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation was independent of lithium and only partially dependent on phosphoinositide hydrolysis, thus indicating that antidepressants can mobilize CDP-diacylglycerol from additional

  18. Diverse antidepressants increase CDP-diacylglycerol production and phosphatidylinositide resynthesis in depression-relevant regions of the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Tyeryar, Kimberly R; Vongtau, Habiba OU; Undieh, Ashiwel S

    2008-01-01

    Background Major depression is a serious mood disorder affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. While the etiopathology of depression remains obscure, antidepressant medications increase synaptic levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions associated with the disease. Monoamine transmitters activate multiple signaling cascades some of which have been investigated as potential mediators of depression or antidepressant drug action. However, the diacylglycerol arm of phosphoinositide signaling cascades has not been systematically investigated, even though downstream targets of this cascade have been implicated in depression. With the ultimate goal of uncovering the primary postsynaptic actions that may initiate cellular antidepressive signaling, we have examined the antidepressant-induced production of CDP-diacylglycerol which is both a product of diacylglycerol phosphorylation and a precursor for the synthesis of physiologically critical glycerophospholipids such as the phosphatidylinositides. For this, drug effects on [3H]cytidine-labeled CDP-diacylglycerol and [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositides were measured in response to the tricyclics desipramine and imipramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, the atypical antidepressants maprotiline and nomifensine, and several monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Results Multiple compounds from each antidepressant category significantly stimulated [3H]CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation in cerebrocortical, hippocampal, and striatal tissues, and also enhanced the resynthesis of inositol phospholipids. Conversely, various antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and non-antidepressant psychotropic agents failed to significantly induce CDP-diacylglycerol or phosphoinositide synthesis. Drug-induced CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation was independent of lithium and only partially dependent on phosphoinositide hydrolysis, thus indicating that antidepressants can mobilize CDP-diacylglycerol

  19. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase by the anandamide uptake inhibitor VDM11: evidence that VDM11 acts as an FAAH substrate.

    PubMed

    Vandevoorde, Séverine; Fowler, Christopher J

    2005-08-01

    There is some dispute concerning the extent to which the uptake inhibitor VDM11 (N-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl) arachidonoyl amide) is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). In view of a recent study demonstrating that the closely related compound AM404 (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)arachidonylamide) is a substrate for FAAH, we re-examined the interaction of VDM11 with FAAH. In the presence of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.125% w v(-1)), both AM404 and VDM11 inhibited the metabolism of AEA by rat brain FAAH with similar potencies (IC(50) values of 2.1 and 2.6 microM, respectively). The compounds were about 10-fold less potent as inhibitors of the metabolism of 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG) by cytosolic monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The potency of VDM11 towards FAAH was dependent upon the assay concentration of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA). Thus, in the absence of fatty acid-free BSA, the IC(50) value for inhibition of FAAH was reduced by a factor of about two (from 2.9 to 1.6 microM). A similar reduction in the IC(50) value for the inhibition of membrane bound MAGL by both this compound (from 14 to 6 microM) and by arachidonoyl serinol (from 24 to 13 microM) was seen. An HPLC assay was set up to measure 4-amino-m-cresol, the hypothesised product of FAAH-catalysed VDM11 hydrolysis. 4-Amino-m-cresol was eluted with a retention time of approximately 2.4 min, but showed a time-dependent degradation to compounds eluting at peaks of approximately 5.6 and approximately 8 min. Peaks with the same retention times were also found following incubation of the membranes with VDM11, but were not seen when the membranes were preincubated with the FAAH inhibitors URB597 (3'-carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl-cyclohexylcarbamate) and CAY10401 (1-oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl-9-octadecyn-1-one) prior to addition of VDM11. The rate of metabolism of VDM11 was estimated to be roughly 15-20% of that for

  20. Repeated Low-Dose Administration of the Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor JZL184 Retains Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1–Mediated Antinociceptive and Gastroprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Wise, Laura E.; Ramesh, Divya; Abdullah, Rehab; Selley, Dana E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    The monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. However, repeated administration of high-dose JZL184 (40 mg/kg) causes dependence, antinociceptive tolerance, cross-tolerance to the pharmacological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists, and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) downregulation and desensitization. This functional CB1 receptor tolerance poses a hurdle in the development of MAGL inhibitors for therapeutic use. Consequently, the present study tested whether repeated administration of low-dose JZL184 maintains its antinociceptive actions in the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve neuropathic pain model and protective effects in a model of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug–induced gastric hemorrhages. Mice given daily injections of high-dose JZL184 (≥16 mg/kg) for 6 days displayed decreased CB1 receptor density and function in the brain, as assessed in [3H]SR141716A binding and CP55,940 [(−)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexanol]-stimulated guanosine 5′-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding assays, respectively. In contrast, normal CB1 receptor expression and function were maintained following repeated administration of low-dose JZL184 (≤8 mg/kg). Likewise, the antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of high-dose JZL184 underwent tolerance following repeated administration, but these effects were maintained following repeated low-dose JZL184 treatment. Consistent with these observations, repeated high-dose JZL184, but not repeated low-dose JZL184, elicited cross-tolerance to the common pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This same pattern of effects was found in a rimonabant [(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide)]-precipitated withdrawal model of cannabinoid

  1. Inhibition of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases in ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) by lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett Josefina; Gang, David Roger

    2013-11-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), members of the Zingiberaceae, are widely used in traditional Asian cuisines and herbal medicine. Gingerols and diarylheptanoids, important compounds from these plants, appear to be produced by enzymes of the type III polyketide synthase class. Previous efforts to detect activity of such enzymes in tissues from these plants were only marginally successful in turmeric and completely unsuccessful in ginger because of very rapid hydrolysis of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA substrates (p-coumaroyl-CoA, feruloyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA) in these assays, presumably due to the presence of thioesterases in these tissues. In order to determine whether such thioesterase activities were specific and could be reduced so that the polyketide synthase activities could be better characterized, three inhibitors of the thioesterase domain of fatty acid synthase were tested in assays with leaf and rhizome crude protein extracts from these plants: orlistat, a reduced form of lipstatin, and peptide 1 and peptide 2 from hydrolysates of soybean β-conglycinin. Results of these analyses indicated that specific thioesterases do exist in these plants and that they could indeed be inhibited, with highest inhibition occurring with a mixture of these three compounds, leading for example to a reduction of caffeoyl-CoA hydrolysis in leaves and rhizomes of ginger by 40-fold and 27-fold, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of turkey pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Sayari, A; Mejdoub, H; Gargouri, Y

    2000-02-01

    Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was purified from delipidated pancreases. Pure TPL (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) was obtained after ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose) and size exclusion column using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). The pure lipase, which is not a glycoprotein, was presented as a monomer having a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. The lipase activity was maximal at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. TPL hydrolyses the long chains triacylglycerols more efficiently than the short ones. A specific activity of 4300 U/mg was measured on triolein as substrate at 37 degrees C and at pH 8.5 in the presence of colipase and 4 mM NaTDC. This enzyme presents the interfacial activation when using tripropionin as substrate. TPL was inactivated when the enzyme was incubated at 65 degrees C or at pH less than 5. Natural detergent (NaTDC), synthetic detergent (Tween-20) or amphipatic protein (beta-lactoglobulin A) act as potent inhibitors of TPL activity. To restore the lipase activity inhibited by NaTDC, colipase should be added to the hydrolysis system. When lipase is inhibited by synthetic detergent or protein, simultaneous addition of colipase and NaTDC was required to restore the TPL activity. The first 22 N-terminal amino acid residues were sequenced. This sequence was similar to those of mammal's pancreatic lipases. The biochemical properties of pancreatic lipase isolated from bird are similar to those of mammals.

  3. Coordinated regulation of endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic suppression in the cerebellum by neuronal and astrocytic monoacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojie; Chen, Yao; Vickstrom, Casey R.; Li, Yan; Viader, Andreu; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Liu, Qing-song

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic depression including depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). 2-AG is degraded primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Using knockout mice in which MAGL is deleted globally or selectively in neurons or astrocytes, we investigated the relative contribution of neuronal and astrocytic MAGL to the termination of DSE and DSI in Purkinje cells (PCs) in cerebellar slices. We report that neuronal MAGL plays a predominant role in terminating DSE at climbing fiber (CF) to PC synapses, while both neuronal and astrocytic MAGL significantly contributes to the termination of DSE at parallel fiber (PF) to PC synapses and DSI at putative Stellate cell to PC synapses. Thus, DSE and DSI at different synapses is not uniformly affected by global and cell type-specific knockout of MAGL. Additionally, MAGL global knockout, but not cell type-specific knockout, caused tonic activation and partial desensitization of the CB1 receptor at PF-PC synapses. This tonic CB1 activation is mediated by 2-AG since it was blocked by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor DO34. Together, these results suggest that both neuronal and astrocytic MAGL contribute to 2-AG clearance and prevent CB1 receptor over-stimulation in the cerebellum. PMID:27775008

  4. Lid mobility in lipase SMG1 validated using a thiol/disulfide redox potential probe.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaohua; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Li, Daoming; Yuan, Dongjuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-05-01

    Most lipases possess a lid domain above the catalytic site that is responsible for their activation. Lipase SMG1 from Malassezia globose CBS 7966 (Malassezia globosa LIP1), is a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase with an atypical loop-like lid domain. Activation of SMG1 was proposed to be solely through a gating mechanism involving two residues (F278 and N102). However, through disulfide bond cross-linking of the lid, this study shows that full activation also requires mobility of the lid domain, contrary to a previous proposal. The newly introduced disulfide bond makes lipase SMG1 eligible as a ratiometric thiol/disulfide redox potential probe, when it is coupled with chromogenic substrates. This redox-switch lipase could also be of potential use in cascade biocatalysis.

  5. Chronic study of diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Kimura, H; Burdock, G A

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diacylglycerol oil following long-term administration to rats. Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with comparable taste and physicochemical properties of several naturally occurring oils. Diacylglycerol oil can be used as a replacement for any generally used edible oil in the home and has been approved for use in cooking oil in Japan. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed low-fat (1.7%) basal diets containing an edible oil composed of rapeseed, corn, high linoleic safflower and high oleic safflower oils at 5.3% (control group 1); an edible oil composed of rapeseed and soybean oils at 5.3% (control group 2); diacylglycerol oil at 2.65% plus edible oil composed of rapeseed, corn, high linoleic safflower and high oleic safflower oils at 2.65% (low-dose group); and diacylglycerol oil at 5.3% (high-dose group) for 2 years. Interim sacrifices were conducted at weeks 30 and 77 and the study was terminated following 105 weeks of feeding. No compound-related effects were noted on clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, cumulative survival rates, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights or on microscopic non-neoplastic changes. Compared to control group 2, but not control group 1, there was a significant increase in the number of high-dose group females with either benign or malignant epithelial mammary gland neoplasms. These changes were not considered biologically significant, because the tumor incidence was not similar in control group 1 and 2, and the neoplastic findings were not dose related. In summary, the two-year chronic rat study revealed no toxicologically significant or treatment-related effects of diacylglycerol oil consumption at levels of up to 5.3% in the diet.

  6. Regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by CDP-diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Nickels, J T; Buxeda, R J; Carman, G M

    1994-04-15

    Regulation of the 45- and 55-kDa forms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (ATP:phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphotransferase) by phospholipids was examined using Triton X-100/phospholipid-mixed micelles. CDP-diacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol inhibited 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Kinetic analyses of the 45-kDa PI 4-kinase showed that phosphatidylglycerol was a competitive inhibitor with respect to PI (Ki = 2 mol %), and CDP-diacylglycerol was a mixed type of inhibitor with respect to PI (Ki = 4 mol %) and MgATP (Ki = 5 mol %). 55-kDa PI 4-kinase activity was not significantly affected by phospholipids. The physiological relevance of CDP-diacylglycerol inhibition of 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity was examined using plasma membranes from inositol auxotrophic (ino1) cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that 45-kDa PI 4-kinase expression in plasma membranes was not affected by inositol starvation of ino1 cells. However, both 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity and its product PI 4-phosphate were reduced in plasma membranes from inositol-starved ino1 cells. The CDP-diacylglycerol concentration (9.6 mol %) in plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells was 12-fold higher than its concentration (0.8 mol %) in plasma membranes of inositol-supplemented cells. Plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells also had increased levels of phosphatidate, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin. However, these phospholipids did not affect pure 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity. The concentration of CDP-diacylglycerol in plasma membranes of inositol-starved ino1 cells was in the range of the inhibitor constants determined for CDP-diacylglycerol by kinetic analyses using pure 45-kDa PI 4-kinase. These results raised the suggestion that 45-kDa PI 4-kinase activity may be regulated in vivo by CDP-diacylglycerol.

  7. Role of phospholipase D and diacylglycerol in activating constitutive TRPC-like cation channels in rabbit ear artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Albert, A P; Piper, A S; Large, W A

    2005-08-01

    Previously we have described a constitutively active Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel in freshly dispersed rabbit ear artery myocytes that has similar properties to canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel proteins. In the present study we have investigated the transduction pathways responsible for stimulating constitutive channel activity in these myocytes. Application of the pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D (PC-PLD), butan-1-ol and C2 ceramide, produced marked inhibition of constitutive channel activity in cell-attached patches and also butan-1-ol produced pronounced suppression of resting membrane conductance measured with whole-cell recording whereas the inactive isomer butan-2-ol had no effect on constitutive whole-cell or channel activity. In addition butan-1-ol had no effect on channel activity evoked by the diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Inhibitors of PC-phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) had no effect on constitutive channel activity. Application of a purified PC-PLD enzyme and its metabolite phosphatidic acid to inside-out patches markedly increased channel activity. The phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) inhibitor dl-propranolol also inhibited constitutive and phosphatidic acid-induced increases in channel activity but had no effect on OAG-evoked responses. The DAG lipase and DAG kinase inhibitors, RHC80267 and R59949 respectively, which inhibit DAG metabolism, produced transient increases in channel activity which were mimicked by relatively high concentrations (40 microm) of OAG. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine did not prevent channel activation by OAG but blocked the secondary inhibitory response of OAG. It is proposed that endogenous DAG is involved in the activation of channel activity and that its effects on channel activity are concentration-dependent with higher concentrations of DAG also inhibiting channel

  8. Expression and purification of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to ...

  9. Phospholipase D¿ enhances diacylglycerol flux into triacylglycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant seeds are the primary source of triacylglycerols (TAG) for food, feed, fuel, and industrial applications. As TAG is produced from diacylglycerol (DAG) successful engineering strategies to enhance TAG levels have focused on the conversion of DAG to TAG. However, the production of TAG can be lim...

  10. Bioengineering recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Plants and animals defici...

  11. The Immunomodulatory Functions of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brenal K.; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical for promoting immune cell activation, regulation, and function. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) serves as an important negative regulator of DAG by enzymatically converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA) to shut down DAG-mediated signaling. Consequently, the loss of DGKζ increases DAG levels and the duration of DAG-mediated signaling. However, while the enhancement of DAG signaling is thought to augment immune cell function, the loss of DGKζ can result in both immunoactivation and immunomodulation depending on the cell type and function. In this review, we discuss how different immune cell functions can be selectively modulated by DGKζ. Furthermore, we consider how targeting DGKζ can be potentially beneficial for the resolution of human diseases by either promoting immune responses important for protection against infection or cancer or dampening immune responses in immunopathologic conditions such as allergy and septic shock. PMID:27656643

  12. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  13. Determination of the quantitative stereoselectivity fingerprint of lipases during hydrolysis of a prochiral triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, David Alexander; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Carrière, Frederic; Krieger, Nadia

    2008-06-01

    We propose a method for characterizing quantitatively the stereoselectivity of lipases during hydrolysis of triacylglycerols. Although it is of general applicability, we demonstrate it specifically for sn-1,3-regiospecific lipases. In this case the method generates a "stereoselectivity fingerprint" that consists of ratios of the specificity constants for the various reactions that produce and consume the 1,2-sn- and 2,3-sn-diacylglycerols. We use the method to determine the stereoselectivity fingerprint of several lipases during the hydrolysis of the prochiral substrate triolein. Our method opens up the possibility of correlating quantitative fingerprints with structural information, in the quest to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the stereoselectivity of lipases.

  14. Screening and characterization of a thermostable lipase from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    A screening method along with the combination of genome sequence of microorganism, pairwise alignment, and lipase classification was used to search the thermostable lipase. Then, a potential thermostable lipase (named MAS1) from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 was expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, and the biochemical properties were characterized. Lipase MAS1 belongs to the subfamily I.7, and it has 38% identity to the well-characterized Bacillus subtilis thermostable lipases in the subfamily I.4. The purified enzyme was estimated to be 29 kDa. The enzyme showed optimal temperature at 40 °C, and retained more than 80% of initial activity after 1 H incubation at 60 °C, suggesting that MAS1 was a thermostable lipase. MAS1 was an alkaline enzyme with optimal pH value at 7.0 and had stable activity for 12 H of incubation at pH 6.0-9.0. It was stable and retained about 90% of initial activity in the presence of Cu(2+) , Ca(2+) , Ni(2+) , and Mg(2+) , whereas 89.05% of the initial activity was retained when ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid was added. MAS1 showed the tolerance to organic solvents, but was inhibited by various surfactants. MAS1 was verified to be a triglyceride lipase and could hydrolyze triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol. The result represents a good example for researchers to discover thermostable lipase for industrial application.

  15. New lipase assay using Pomegranate oil coating in microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Ülker, Serdar; Placidi, Camille; Point, Vanessa; Gadenne, Benoît; Serveau-Avesque, Carole; Canaan, Stéphane; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Lipases play various roles in fat digestion, lipoprotein metabolism, and in the mobilization of fat stored in lipid bodies in animals, plants and microorganisms. In association with these physiological functions, there is an important field of research for discovering lipase inhibitors and developing new treatments of diseases such as obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes and tuberculosis. In this context, the development of convenient, specific and sensitive analytical methods for the detection and assay of lipases and/or lipase inhibitors is of major importance. It is shown here that purified triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Punica granatum (Pomegranate) seed oil coated on microtiter plates can be used for the continuous assay of lipase activity by recording the variations with time of the UV absorption spectra at 275 nm. UV absorption is due the release of punicic acid (9Z,11E,13Z-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid), a conjugated triene contained in Pomegranate oil. This new microtiter plate assay allows to accurately measure the activity of a wider range of lipases compared to the similar assay previously developed with Tung oil containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z,11E,13E-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid), including the LipY lipase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although punicic acid is a diastereoisomer of α-eleostearic acid, the Δ(13)cis double bound found in punicic acid gives a different structure to the acyl chain that probably favours the interaction of Pomegranate TAGs with the lipase active site. The microplate lipase assay using Pomegranate TAGs shows high sensitivity, reproducibility and remarkable relevance for the high-speed screening of lipases and/or lipase inhibitors directly from raw culture media without any purification step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. CGI-58 knockdown sequesters diacylglycerols in lipid droplets/ER-preventing diacylglycerol-mediated hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jennifer L.; Yoshimura, Toru; Camporez, Joao Paulo G.; Zhang, Dongyan; Jornayvaz, Francois R.; Kumashiro, Naoki; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Jurczak, Michael J.; Kahn, Mario; Guigni, Blas A.; Serr, Julie; Hankin, Joseph; Murphy, Robert C.; Cline, Gary W.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Manchem, Vara Prasad; Brown, J. Mark; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) is a lipid droplet-associated protein that promotes the hydrolysis of triglyceride by activating adipose triglyceride lipase. Loss-of-function mutations in CGI-58 in humans lead to Chanarin–Dorfman syndrome, a condition in which triglyceride accumulates in various tissues, including the skin, liver, muscle, and intestines. Therefore, without adequate CGI-58 expression, lipids are stored rather than used for fuel, signaling intermediates, and membrane biosynthesis. CGI-58 knockdown in mice using antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment also leads to severe hepatic steatosis as well as increased hepatocellular diacylglycerol (DAG) content, a well-documented trigger of insulin resistance. Surprisingly, CGI-58 knockdown mice remain insulin-sensitive, seemingly dissociating DAG from the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, we sought to determine the mechanism responsible for this paradox. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies reveal that the maintenance of insulin sensitivity with CGI-58 ASO treatment could entirely be attributed to protection from lipid-induced hepatic insulin resistance, despite the apparent lipotoxic conditions. Analysis of the cellular compartmentation of DAG revealed that DAG increased in the membrane fraction of high fat-fed mice, leading to PKCɛ activation and hepatic insulin resistance. However, DAG increased in lipid droplets or lipid-associated endoplasmic reticulum rather than the membrane of CGI-58 ASO-treated mice, and thus prevented PKCɛ translocation to the plasma membrane and induction of insulin resistance. Taken together, these results explain the disassociation of hepatic steatosis and DAG accumulation from hepatic insulin resistance in CGI-58 ASO-treated mice, and highlight the importance of intracellular compartmentation of DAG in causing lipotoxicity and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:23302688

  17. Human Carboxylesterase 2 Reverses Obesity-Induced Diacylglycerol Accumulation and Glucose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Massart, Julie; Hunerdosse, Devon M; Schönke, Milena; Correia, Jorge C; Louie, Sharon M; Ruas, Jorge L; Näslund, Erik; Nomura, Daniel K; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-17

    Serine hydrolases are a large family of multifunctional enzymes known to influence obesity. Here, we performed activity-based protein profiling to assess the functional level of serine hydrolases in liver biopsies from lean and obese humans in order to gain mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. We identified reduced hepatic activity of carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in human obesity. In primary human hepatocytes, CES2 knockdown impaired glucose storage and lipid oxidation. In mice, obesity reduced CES2, whereas adenoviral delivery of human CES2 reversed hepatic steatosis, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased inflammation. Lipidomic analysis identified a network of CES2-regulated lipids altered in human and mouse obesity. CES2 possesses triglyceride and diacylglycerol lipase activities and displayed an inverse correlation with HOMA-IR and hepatic diacylglycerol concentrations in humans. Thus, decreased CES2 is a conserved feature of obesity and plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diacylglycerol kinase ε localizes to subsurface cisterns of cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Yasukazu; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Kaneko, Kenya; Fujii, Satoshi; Topham, Matthew K; Watanabe, Masahiko; Goto, Kaoru

    2017-02-13

    Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers: diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid, another second messenger. Of the DGK family, DGKε is the only DGK isoform that exhibits substrate specificity for DG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain at the sn-2 position. Recently, we demonstrated that hydrophobic residues in the N-terminus of DGKε play an important role in targeting the endoplasmic reticulum in transfected cells. However, its cellular expression and subcellular localization in the brain remain elusive. In the present study, we investigate this issue using specific DGKε antibody. DGKε was richly expressed in principal neurons of higher brain regions, including pyramidal cells in the hippocampus and neocortex, medium spiny neurons in the striatum and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. In Purkinje cells, DGKε was localized to the subsurface cisterns and colocalized with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-1 in dendrites and axons. In dendrites of Purkinje cells, DGKε was also distributed in close apposition to DG lipase-α, which catalyzes arachidonoyl-DG to produce 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, a major endocannabinoid in the brain. Behaviorally, DGKε-knockout mice exhibited hyper-locomotive activities and impaired motor coordination and learning. These findings suggest that DGKε plays an important role in neuronal and brain functions through its distinct neuronal expression and subcellular localization and also through coordinated arrangement with other molecules involving the phosphoinositide signaling pathway.

  19. Characterization of typo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivities of babaco latex lipase in aqueous and organic media.

    PubMed

    Cambon, E; Rodriguez, J A; Pina, M; Arondel, V; Carriere, F; Turon, F; Ruales, J; Villeneuve, P

    2008-04-01

    The unripe fruit of babaco (Vasconcellea x heilbornii; syn. Carica pentagona) contains a latex, similar to that in Carica papaya, which exhibits lipolytic activity. Herein, the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and typoselectivity in both hydrolysis and acyltransfer reactions of babaco latex lipases were studied and compared to those of Carica papaya latex. In hydrolysis, both biocatalysts are 1,3-regioselective with ratios for 1,2-2,3-diacylglycerols/1,3-diacylglycerol of 6.5 and 21 for babaco and papaya, respectively. In contrast, papaya latex had a slight sn-3 stereopreference. Babaco latex displayed a higher activity on triacylglycerols with short chain and unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. SAP-MEDIATED INHIBITION OF DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE ALPHA REGULATES TCR-INDUCED DIACYLGLYCEROL SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Pighini, Andrea; Bettio, Valentina; Rainero, Elena; Traini, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Song, Shuping; Schweighoffer, Tamas; Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Nichols, Kim E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Parolini, Ornella; Graziani, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) metabolize diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In T lymphocytes, DGKα acts as a negative regulator of TCR signaling by decreasing diacylglycerol levels and inducing anergy. Here, we show that upon co-stimulation of the TCR with CD28 or SLAM, DGKα, but not DGKζ, exit from the nucleus and undergoes rapid negative regulation of its enzymatic activity. Inhibition of DGKα is dependent on the expression of SAP, an adaptor protein mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is essential for SLAM-mediated signaling and contributes to TCR/CD28-induced signaling and T cell activation. Accordingly, over-expression of SAP is sufficient to inhibit DGKα, while SAP mutants unable to bind either phospho-tyrosine residues or SH3 domain are ineffective. Moreover phospholipase C activity and calcium, but not Src-family tyrosine kinases, are also required for negative regulation of DGKα. Finally, inhibition of DGKα in SAP-deficient cells partially rescues defective TCR/CD28 signaling, including Ras and ERK-1/2 activation, PKCθ membrane recruitment, induction of NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 production. Thus SAP-mediated inhibition of DGKα sustains diacylglycerol signaling, thereby regulating T cell activation and may represent a novel pharmacological strategy for XLP treatment. PMID:22048771

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of new bis-1,3,4,2-triazaphospholinoalkane derivatives as in vitro α-amylase and lipase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Salwa; Ben Salah, Bochra; Hamden, Khaled; Rekik, Awatef; Kossentini, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    A series of new 1,ω-bis-(5-alkyl-2-oxide-3-tosyl-1,3,4,2-triazaphospholino)alkanes 2 and 3 were prepared in good yields by the treatment of 1,ω-bis-(1-tosylamidrazone)alkanes 1 with two molar equivalents of phosphoryl trichloride and phenylphosphonic dichloride, respectively. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, (31) P NMR, and elemental analysis. All the new compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect on the key enzymes related to diabetes and obesity, as α-amylase and lipase. The in vitro study revealed that these alkane derivatives exert an inhibitory action against these key enzymes, especially 2b with an IC50 of 16 μg/mL against α-amylase and lipase. Overall, the findings of the current study indicate that 2d exhibits attractive properties and can therefore be considered for future application in the development of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic drugs.

  2. Use of a fluorescent radiolabeled triacylglycerol as a substrate for lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Dousset, N.; Negre, A.; Salvayre, R.; Rogalle, P.; Dang, Q.Q.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1988-06-01

    A fluorescent radiolabeled triacylglycerol has been synthesized by using a fluorescent fatty acid (pyrene decanoic acid) and a radiolabeled oleic acid. This analog of the natural substrate, 1(3)pyrene decanoic-2,3 (1,2)-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol, has been tested as substrate for determining lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase activities in post-heparin plasma. Optimal conditions for the determination of the two post-heparin plasma lipases were similar to those using radiolabeled triolein. Using this substrate, both post-heparin lipases exhibited their characteristic properties (pH optimum and effect of inhibitors) and attacked external ester bonds (1 or 3) containing pyrene decanoic and oleic acids at a similar rate.

  3. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  4. Transcription factor Reb1p regulates DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase and lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yixuan; Fakas, Stylianos; Han, Gil-Soo; Barbosa, Antonio Daniel; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Carman, George M

    2013-10-04

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase catalyzes the CTP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to form phosphatidate. This enzyme, in conjunction with PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase, controls the levels of phosphatidate and diacylglycerol for phospholipid synthesis, membrane growth, and lipid droplet formation. In this work, we showed that a functional level of diacylglycerol kinase is regulated by the Reb1p transcription factor. In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, purified recombinant Reb1p was shown to specifically bind its consensus recognition sequence (CGGGTAA, -166 to -160) in the DGK1 promoter. Analysis of cells expressing the PDGK1-lacZ reporter gene showed that mutations (GT→TG) in the Reb1p-binding sequence caused an 8.6-fold reduction in β-galactosidase activity. The expression of DGK1(reb1), a DGK1 allele containing the Reb1p-binding site mutation, was greatly lower than that of the wild type allele, as indicated by analyses of DGK1 mRNA, Dgk1p, and diacylglycerol kinase activity. In the presence of cerulenin, an inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis, the dgk1Δ mutant expressing DGK1(reb1) exhibited a significant defect in growth as well as in the synthesis of phospholipids from triacylglycerol mobilization. Unlike DGK1, the DGK1(reb1) expressed in the dgk1Δ pah1Δ mutant did not result in the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane expansion, which occurs in cells lacking phosphatidate phosphatase activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the Reb1p-mediated regulation of diacylglycerol kinase plays a major role in its in vivo functions in lipid metabolism.

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of digestive lipase in whiteleg shrimp.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; García-Carreño, Fernando L; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2011-04-01

    Penaeus vannamei lipase was purified from midgut gland of whiteleg shrimp. Pure lipase (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was obtained after Superdex 200 gel filtration and Resource Q anionic exchange. The pure lipase, which is a glycosylated molecule, is a monomer having a molecular mass of about 44.8 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The lipase hydrolyses short and long-chain triacylglycerols and naphthol derivates at comparable rates. A specific activity of 1787 U mg(-1) and 475 U mg(-1) was measured with triolein and tributyrin as substrates, respectively, at pH 8.0 and 30°C in the absence of colipase. The lipase showed a K (m, app) of 3.22 mM and k (cat, app)/K (m, app) of 0.303 × 10(3) mM(-1) s(-1) using triolein as substrate. Natural detergents, such as sodium deoxycholate, act as potent inhibitors of the lipase. This inhibition can be reversed by adding fresh oil emulsion. Result with tetrahydrolipstatin, an irreversible inhibitor, suggests that the lipase is a serine enzyme. Peptide sequences of the lipase were determined and compared with the full-length sequence of lipase which was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full cDNA of the pvl was 1,186 bp, with a deduced protein of 362 amino acids that includes a consensus sequence (GXSXG) of the lipase superfamily of α/β-hydrolase. The gene exhibits features of conserved catalytic residues and high homology with various mammalian and insect lipase genes. A potential lid sequence is suggested for pvl.

  6. Monoacylglycerol lipase – a target for drug development?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, CJ

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in processes as diverse as control of appetite, perception of pain and the limitation of cancer cell growth and invasion. The enzymes responsible for eCB breakdown are attractive pharmacological targets, and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors, which potentiate the levels of the eCB anandamide, are now undergoing pharmaceutical development. ‘Drugable’ selective inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase, a key enzyme regulating the levels of the other main eCB, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, were however not identified until very recently. Their availability has resulted in a large expansion of our knowledge concerning the pharmacological consequences of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition and hence the role(s) played by the enzyme in the body. In this review, the pharmacology of monoacylglycerol lipase will be discussed, together with an analysis of the therapeutic potential of monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors as analgesics and anticancer agents. PMID:22428756

  7. Lipase of Mucor pusillus1

    PubMed Central

    Somkuti, G. A.; Babel, F. J.; Somkuti, A. C.

    1969-01-01

    Lipase of Mucor pusillus NRRL 2543 was recovered with ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75, and anion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-50. Maximal glycerol ester hydrolase (lipase) activity was observed at pH 5.0 to 5.5 and 50 C when trioctanoin and olive oil were used as substrates. The enzyme also showed esterase activity; it hydrolyzed, with the exception of methyl butyrate, all methyl esters tested. A minimum chain length of six carbons appeared to be a requirement for esterase activity, which was maximal at about pH 5.5 with methyl dodecanoate (C12) as the substrate. Neither the glycerol ester hydrolase (lipase) nor the esterase activity of the enzyme appeared to be affected by thiol group inhibitors, chelating agents, and reducing compounds. On the other hand, hydrolysis of triolein and methyl dodecanoate was arrested to the same extent in the presence of diisopropyl fluorophosphate, which suggested the involvement of serine in the active center of the enzyme. The enzyme remained stable during a 30-day storage at - 10 C. PMID:5772396

  8. Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Pomoransky, Julia L; Parks, Robin J; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Bell, John C; Gee, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Macropinosomes arise from the closure of plasma membrane ruffles to bring about the non-selective uptake of nutrients and solutes into cells. The morphological changes underlying ruffle formation and macropinosome biogenesis are driven by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements under the control of the Rho GTPase Rac1. We showed previously that Rac1 is activated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show DGKζ is required for optimal macropinocytosis induced by growth factor stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Time-lapse imaging of live cells and quantitative analysis revealed DGKζ was associated with membrane ruffles and nascent macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was attenuated in DGKζ-null cells, as determined by live imaging and vaccinia virus uptake experiments. Moreover, macropinosomes that did form in DGKζ-null cells were smaller than those found in wild type cells. Rescue of this defect required DGKζ catalytic activity, consistent with it also being required for Rac1 activation. A constitutively membrane bound DGKζ mutant substantially increased the size of macropinosomes and potentiated the effect of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant on macropinocytosis. Collectively, our results suggest DGKζ functions in concert with Rac1 to regulate macropinocytosis.

  9. Benzisothiazolinone as a useful template for the design of new monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors: investigation of the target residues and comparison with octhilinone.

    PubMed

    Matuszak, Nicolas; Es Saadi, Bouazza; Labar, Geoffray; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Lambert, Didier M

    2011-12-15

    The regulation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels is a major issue as 2-AG has been proven to participate in numerous physiopathological phenomena such as neuroprotection or analgesia. Octhilinone, a cysteine-reagent compound, has recently been shown to inhibit in the nanomolar range monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the major enzyme responsible for the degradation of 2-AG. Here, we further investigate the mechanism by which octhilinone and its benzisothiazolinone analog inhibit human MAGL. We also provide new information on the structural requirements for MAGL inhibition by these compounds. Finally, we describe for N-octylbenzisothiazolinone a mode of inhibition which is partially different from that described for octhilinone, especially with regard to the targeted cysteine residues in the vicinity of the catalytic site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic silencing of diacylglycerol kinase gamma in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kai, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Sato, Akiko; Yamano, Hiro-O; Niinuma, Takeshi; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Harada, Taku; Aoki, Hironori; Maruyama, Reo; Toyota, Mutsumi; Hatahira, Tomo; Nakase, Hiroshi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Toyota, Minoru; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2017-02-20

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are important regulators of cell signaling and have been implicated in human malignancies. Whether epigenetic alterations are involved in the dysregulation of DGKs in cancer is unknown, however. We therefore analyzed methylation of the promoter CpG islands of DGK genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We found that DGKG, which encodes DGKγ, was hypermethylated in all CRC cell lines tested (n = 9), but was not methylated in normal colonic tissue. Correspondingly, DGKG expression was suppressed in CRC cell lines but not in normal colonic tissue, and was restored in CRC cells by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). DGKG methylation was frequently observed in primary CRCs (73/141, 51.8%) and was positively associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations and with the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). DGKG methylation was also frequently detected in colorectal adenomas (89 of 177, 50.3%), which suggests it is an early event during colorectal tumorigenesis. Ectopic expression of wild-type DGKγ did not suppress CRC cell proliferation, but did suppress cell migration and invasion. Notably, both constitutively active and kinase-dead DGKγ mutants exerted inhibitory effects on CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and the wild-type and mutant forms of DGKγ all suppressed Rac1 activity in CRC cells. These data suggest DGKG may play a tumor suppressor role in CRC.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Respond to Hypoxia by Increasing Diacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Kinga; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Merkely, Béla; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently being tested clinically for a plethora of conditions, with most approaches relying on the secretion of paracrine signals by MSC to modulate the immune system, promote wound healing, and induce angiogenesis. Hypoxia has been shown to affect MSC proliferation, differentiation, survival and secretory profile. Here, we investigate changes in the lipid composition of human bone marrow-derived MSC after exposure to hypoxia. Using mass spectrometry, we compared the lipid profiles of MSC derived from five different donors, cultured for two days in either normoxia (control) or hypoxia (1% oxygen). Hypoxia induced a significant increase of total triglycerides, fatty acids and diacylglycerols (DG). Remarkably, reduction of DG levels using the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor D609 inhibited the secretion of VEGF and Angiopoietin-2, but increased the secretion of interleukin-8, without affecting significantly their respective mRNA levels. Functionally, incubation of MSC in hypoxia with D609 inhibited the potential of the cells to promote migration of human endothelial cells in a wound/scratch assay. Hence, we show that hypoxia induces in MSC an increase of DG that may affect the angiogenic potential of these cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Diacylglycerol analogues activate second messenger-operated calcium channels exhibiting TRPC-like properties in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Tu, Peng; Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Lucke, Silke; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Bouron, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    The lipid diacylglycerol (DAG) analogue 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) was used to verify the existence of DAG-sensitive channels in cortical neurons dissociated from E13 mouse embryos. Calcium imaging experiments showed that OAG increased the cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in nearly 35% of the KCl-responsive cells. These Ca(2+) responses disappeared in a Ca(2+)-free medium supplemented with EGTA. Mn(2+) quench experiments showed that OAG activated Ca(2+)-conducting channels that were also permeant to Ba(2+). The OAG-induced Ca(2+) responses were unaffected by nifedipine or omega-conotoxin GVIA (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint-Quentin Fallavier, France) but blocked by 1-[beta-(3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)propoxy)-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SKF)-96365 and Gd(3+). Replacing Na(+) ions with N-methyl-D-glucamine diminished the amplitude of the OAG-induced Ca(2+) responses showing that the Ca(2+) entry was mediated via Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent mechanisms. Experiments carried out with the fluorescent Na(+) indicator CoroNa Green showed that OAG elevated [Na(+)]i. Like OAG, the DAG lipase inhibitor RHC80267 increased [Ca(2+)]i but not the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Moreover, the OAG-induced Ca(2+) responses were not regulated by protein kinase C activation or inhibition but they were augmented by flufenamic acid which increases currents through C-type transient receptor potential protein family (TRPC) 6 channels. In addition, application of hyperforin, a specific activator of TRPC6 channels, elevated [Ca(2+)]i. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that hyperforin activated non-selective cation channels. They were blocked by SKF-96365 but potentiated by flufenamic acid. Altogether, our data show the presence of hyperforin- and OAG-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channels displaying TRPC6-like properties. This is the first report revealing the existence of second messenger-operated channels in cortical

  13. Diacylglycerols Activate Mitochondrial Cationic Channel(s) and Release Sequestered Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Grigoriev, Sergey; Dejean, Laurent M.; Kinnally, Kathleen W.; Liu, Xibao; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria contribute to cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis through several uptake and release pathways. Here we report that 1,2-sn-diacylglycerols (DAGs) induce Ca2+ release from Ca2+-loaded mammalian mitochondria. Release is not mediated by the uniporter or the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, nor is it attributed to putative catabolites. DAGs-induced Ca2+ efflux is biphasic. Initial release is rapid and transient, insensitive to permeability transition inhibitors, and not accompanied by mitochondrial swelling. Following initial rapid release of Ca2+ and relatively slowreuptake, a secondary progressive release of Ca2+ occurs, associated with swelling, and mitigated by permeability transition inhibitors. The initial peak of DAGs-induced Ca2+ efflux is abolished by La3+ (1mM) and potentiated by protein kinase C inhibitors. Phorbol esters, 1,3-diacylglycerols and 1-monoacylglycerols do not induce mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux. Ca2+-loaded mitoplasts devoid of outer mitochondrial membrane also exhibit DAGsinduced Ca2+ release, indicating that this mechanism resides at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Patch clamping brainmitoplasts reveal DAGs-induced slightly cation-selective channel activity that is insensitive to bongkrekic acid and abolished by La3+. The presence of a second messenger-sensitive Ca2+ release mechanism in mitochondria could have an important impact on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:16167179

  14. Direct coupling of thin-layer chromatography-bioautography with electrostatic field induced spray ionization-mass spectrometry for separation and identification of lipase inhibitors in lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shi, Jiyao; Tang, Jihe; Cheng, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaohui; Kong, Yao; Wu, Tao

    2017-05-15

    In situ profiling compounds in complex matrices is important technology to develop in analytic chemistry. The aim of this study is to develop a direct coupling method of thin layer chromatography (TLC) to mass spectrometry (MS) via electrostatic field induced spray ionization (EFISI). We proposed a surface treatment method of normal-phase thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates with dimethyl silicone oil coating which successfully allowed TLC to couple to MS via EFISI. Different parameters affecting the ionization efficiency were investigated and optimized, including silicone oil concentrations, air-drying times, applied voltages, and TLC plate types. This optimized TLC-EFISI-MS method was successfully applied to examine lipase inhibitory components present in lotus leaves. Six active alkaloids including three aporphines and three benzylisoquinolines were profiled with their MS(n) (n = 4) data, or with a comparison with reference substances. This is the first report on the coupling EFISI-MS to TLC or TLC bioautography for in situ identification of active natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diacylglycerol regulates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction via TRPC6

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an essential mechanism of the lung that matches blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation to optimize gas exchange. Recently we have demonstrated that acute but not sustained HPV is critically dependent on the classical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) channel. However, the mechanism of TRPC6 activation during acute HPV remains elusive. We hypothesize that a diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent activation of TRPC6 regulates acute HPV. Methods We investigated the effect of the DAG analog 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) on normoxic vascular tone in isolated perfused and ventilated mouse lungs from TRPC6-deficient and wild-type mice. Moreover, the effects of OAG, the DAG kinase inhibitor R59949 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 on the strength of HPV were investigated compared to those on non-hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction elicited by the thromboxane mimeticum U46619. Results OAG increased normoxic vascular tone in lungs from wild-type mice, but not in lungs from TRPC6-deficient mice. Under conditions of repetitive hypoxic ventilation, OAG as well as R59949 dose-dependently attenuated the strength of acute HPV whereas U46619-induced vasoconstrictions were not reduced. Like OAG, R59949 mimicked HPV, since it induced a dose-dependent vasoconstriction during normoxic ventilation. In contrast, U73122, a blocker of DAG synthesis, inhibited acute HPV whereas U73343, the inactive form of U73122, had no effect on HPV. Conclusion These findings support the conclusion that the TRPC6-dependency of acute HPV is induced via DAG. PMID:21294865

  16. A novel organic solvent tolerant lipase from Bacillus sphaericus 205y: extracellular expression of a novel OST-lipase gene.

    PubMed

    Sulong, Moohamad Ropaning; Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2006-10-01

    An organic solvent tolerant (OST) lipase gene from Bacillus sphaericus 205y was successfully expressed extracellularly. The expressed lipase was purified using two steps purification; ultrafiltration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) to 8-fold purity and 32% recovery. The purified 205y lipase revealed homogeneity on denaturing gel electrophoresis and the molecular mass was at approximately 30 kDa. The optimum pH for the purified 205y lipase was 7.0-8.0 and its stability showed a broad range of pH value between pH 5.0 to 13.0 at 37 degrees C. The purified 205y lipase exhibited an optimum temperature of 55 degrees C. The activity of the purified lipase was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has no effect on its activity; however inhibition was observed with phenylmethane sulfonoyl fluoride (PMSF) a serine hydrolase inhibitor. Organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, p-xylene and n-decane enhanced the activity. Studies on the effect of oil showed that the lipase was most active in the presence of tricaprin (C10). The lipase exhibited 1,3 positional specificity. Bacter

  17. Identification and characterization of lipases from Malassezia restricta, a causative agent of dandruff.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Bettina; Overy, David P; Kerr, Russell G

    2015-11-01

    Dandruff, a skin disorder affecting 50% of the world population, is linked with proliferation of lipophilic yeasts of the genus Malassezia (particularly Malassezia globosa and M. restricta). Most Malassezia species show a unique lipid dependency and require external lipids for growth. Genome mining of the incomplete M. restricta genome led to the identification of eight lipase sequences. Sequences representing the class 3 and LIP lipase families were used to clone the lipases MrLip1, MrLip2 and MrLip3, recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, and tested for their activity using mono-, di- and triacylglycerol substrates. Hydrolysis by the M. restricta lipase MrLip1 and MrLip2 (family class 3) was limited to the mono- and diacylglycerol, while MrLip3 (family LIP) hydrolyzed all three substrates. This result confirms that Malassezia family LIP lipases are responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols, the main component of human sebum. Furthermore, the information regarding lipases from M. restricta presented here might aid in the search for anti-dandruff agents. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Alterations in endocannabinoid tone following chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Effects of endocannabinoid deactivation inhibitors targeting fatty-acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase in comparison to reference analgesics following cisplatin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, Josée; Lai, Yvonne; Takacs, Sara M.; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Cisplatin, a platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent, produces mechanical and cold allodynia reminiscent of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in humans. The endocannabinoid system represents a novel target for analgesic drug development. The endocannabinoid consists of endocannabinoids (e.g. anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), cannabinoid receptors (e.g. CB1 and CB2) and the enzymes controlling endocannabinoid synthesis and degradation. AEA is hydrolyzed by fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) whereas 2-AG is hydrolyzed primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). We compared effects of brain permeant (URB597) and impermeant (URB937) inhibitors of FAAH with an irreversible inhibitor of MGL (JZL184) on cisplatin-evoked behavioral hypersensitivities. Endocannabinoid modulators were compared with agents used clinically to treat neuropathy (i.e. the opioid analgesic morphine, the anticonvulsant gabapentin and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline). Cisplatin produced robust mechanical and cold allodynia but did not alter responsiveness to heat. After neuropathy was fully established, groups received acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of vehicle, amitriptyline (30 mg/kg), gabapentin (100 mg/kg), morphine (6 mg/kg), URB597 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg), URB937 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) or JZL184 (1, 3 or 8 mg/kg). Pharmacological specificity was assessed by coadministering each endocannabinoid modulator with either a CB1 (AM251 3 mg/kg), CB2 (AM630 3 mg/kg), TRPV1 (AMG9810 3 mg/kg) or TRPA1 (HC030031 8 mg/kg) antagonist. Effects of cisplatin on endocannabinoid levels and transcription of receptors (CB1, CB2, TRPV1, TRPA1) and enzymes (FAAH, MGL) linked to the endocannabinoid system were also assessed. URB597, URB937, JZL184 and morphine reversed cisplatin-evoked mechanical and cold allodynia to pre-cisplatin levels. By contrast, gabapentin only partially reversed the neuropathy while amitriptyline, administered acutely, was ineffective. CB1 or CB2 antagonist

  19. Alterations in endocannabinoid tone following chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: effects of endocannabinoid deactivation inhibitors targeting fatty-acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase in comparison to reference analgesics following cisplatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Josée; Lai, Yvonne; Takacs, Sara M; Bradshaw, Heather B; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-derived chemotherapeutic agent, produces mechanical and coldallodynia reminiscent of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in humans. The endocannabinoid system represents a novel target for analgesic drug development. The endocannabinoid signaling system consists of endocannabinoids (e.g. anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), cannabinoid receptors (e.g. CB(1) and CB(2)) and the enzymes controlling endocannabinoid synthesis and degradation. AEA is hydrolyzed by fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) whereas 2-AG is hydrolyzed primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). We compared effects of brain permeant (URB597) and impermeant (URB937) inhibitors of FAAH with an irreversible inhibitor of MGL (JZL184) on cisplatin-evoked behavioral hypersensitivities. Endocannabinoid modulators were compared with agents used clinically to treat neuropathy (i.e. the opioid analgesic morphine, the anticonvulsant gabapentin and the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline). Cisplatin produced robust mechanical and cold allodynia but did not alter responsiveness to heat. After neuropathy was fully established, groups received acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of vehicle, amitriptyline (30 mg/kg), gabapentin (100 mg/kg), morphine (6 mg/kg), URB597 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg), URB937 (0.1 or 1 mg/kg) or JZL184 (1, 3 or 8 mg/kg). Pharmacological specificity was assessed by coadministering each endocannabinoid modulator with either a CB(1) (AM251 3 mg/kg), CB(2) (AM630 3 mg/kg), TRPV1 (AMG9810 3 mg/kg) or TRPA1 (HC030031 8 mg/kg) antagonist. Effects of cisplatin on endocannabinoid levels and transcription of receptors (CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1, TRPA1) and enzymes (FAAH, MGL) linked to the endocannabinoid system were also assessed. URB597, URB937, JZL184 and morphine reversed cisplatin-evoked mechanical and cold allodynia to pre-cisplatin levels. By contrast, gabapentin only partially reversed the observed allodynia while amitriptyline, administered acutely, was ineffective

  20. Triton WR1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, decreases vitamin E concentration in some tissues of rats by inhibiting its transport to liver.

    PubMed

    Abe, Chisato; Ikeda, Saiko; Uchida, Tomono; Yamashita, Kanae; Ichikawa, Tomio

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to clarify the contribution of the alpha-tocopherol transfer activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to vitamin E transport to tissues in vivo. We studied the effect of Triton WR1339, which prevents the catabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins by LPL on vitamin E distribution in rats. Vitamin E-deficient rats fed a vitamin E-free diet for 4 wk were injected with Triton WR1339 and administered by oral gavage an emulsion containing 10 mg of alpha-tocopherol, 10 mg of gamma-tocopherol, or 29.5 mg of a tocotrienol mixture with 200 mg of sodium taurocholate, 200 mg of triolein, and 50 mg of albumin. alpha-Tocopherol was detected in the serum and other tissues of the vitamin E-deficient rats, but gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were not detected. Triton WR1339 injection elevated (P<0.05) the serum alpha-tocopherol concentration and inhibited (P<0.05) the elevation of alpha-tocopherol concentration in the liver, adrenal gland, and spleen due to the oral administration of alpha-tocopherol. Neither alpha-tocopherol administration nor Triton WR1339 injection affected (P>or=0.05) the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the perirenal adipose tissue, epididymal fat, and soleus muscle despite a high expression of LPL in the adipose tissue and muscle. These data show that alpha-tocopherol transfer activity of LPL in adipose tissue and muscle is not important for alpha-tocopherol transport to the tissue after alpha-tocopherol intake or that the amount transferred is small relative to the tissue concentration. Furthermore, Triton WR1339 injection tended to elevate the serum gamma-tocopherol (P=0.071) and alpha-tocotrienol (P=0.053) concentrations and lowered them (P<0.05) in the liver and adrenal gland of rats administered gamma-tocopherol or alpha-tocotrienol. These data suggest that lipolysis of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron by LPL is necessary for postprandial vitamin E transport to the liver and subsequent transport to the

  1. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ regulates RhoA activation via a kinase-independent scaffolding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Abramovici, Hanan; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Fottinger, Alexandra; Foley, Tanya; Byham, Michèle-Renée; Iqbal, Tasfia Ahmed; Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R; Parks, Robin J; Gee, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Rho GTPases share a common inhibitor, Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI), which regulates their expression levels, membrane localization, and activation state. The selective dissociation of individual Rho GTPases from RhoGDI ensures appropriate responses to cellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, selectively dissociates Rac1 by stimulating PAK1-mediated phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-101/174. Similarly, phosphorylation of RhoGDI on Ser-34 by protein kinase Cα (PKCα) selectively releases RhoA. Here we show DGKζ is required for RhoA activation and Ser-34 phosphorylation, which were decreased in DGKζ-deficient fibroblasts and rescued by wild-type DGKζ or a catalytically inactive mutant. DGKζ bound directly to the C-terminus of RhoA and the regulatory arm of RhoGDI and was required for efficient interaction of PKCα and RhoA. DGKζ-null fibroblasts had condensed F-actin bundles and altered focal adhesion distribution, indicative of aberrant RhoA signaling. Two targets of the RhoA effector ROCK showed reduced phosphorylation in DGKζ-null cells. Collectively our findings suggest DGKζ functions as a scaffold to assemble a signaling complex that functions as a RhoA-selective, GDI dissociation factor. As a regulator of Rac1 and RhoA activity, DGKζ is a critical factor linking changes in lipid signaling to actin reorganization.

  2. Diacylglycerol Kinases: Shaping Diacylglycerol and Phosphatidic Acid Gradients to Control Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Bettio, Valentina; Malacarne, Valeria; Graziani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) terminate diacylglycerol (DAG) signaling and promote phosphatidic acid (PA) production. Isoform specific regulation of DGKs activity and localization allows DGKs to shape the DAG and PA gradients. The capacity of DGKs to constrain the areas of DAG signaling is exemplified by their role in defining the contact interface between T cells and antigen presenting cells: the immune synapse. Upon T cell receptor engagement, both DGK α and ζ metabolize DAG at the immune synapse thus constraining DAG signaling. Interestingly, their activity and localization are not fully redundant because DGKζ activity metabolizes the bulk of DAG in the cell, whereas DGKα limits the DAG signaling area localizing specifically at the periphery of the immune synapse. When DGKs terminate DAG signaling, the local PA production defines a new signaling domain, where PA recruits and activates a second wave of effector proteins. The best-characterized example is the role of DGKs in protrusion elongation and cell migration. Indeed, upon growth factor stimulation, several DGK isoforms, such as α, ζ, and γ, are recruited and activated at the plasma membrane. Here, local PA production controls cell migration by finely modulating cytoskeletal remodeling and integrin recycling. Interestingly, DGK-produced PA also controls the localization and activity of key players in cell polarity such as aPKC, Par3, and integrin β1. Thus, T cell polarization and directional migration may be just two instances of the general contribution of DGKs to the definition of cell polarity by local specification of membrane identity signaling. PMID:27965956

  3. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h. PMID:26904539

  4. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  5. PRD125, a potent and selective inhibitor of sterol O-acyltransferase 2 markedly reduces hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation and improves liver function in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Posey, Kenneth S; Ohshiro, Taichi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-11-01

    In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders. While these conditions can be corrected with enzyme replacement therapy, the question arose as to whether pharmacological inhibition of SOAT2 might reduce tissue EC accretion in CESD. When weaned at 21 days, Lal(-/-) mice, of either gender, had a whole liver cholesterol content that was 12- to 13-fold more than that of matching Lal(+/+) littermates (23 versus 1.8 mg, respectively). In Lal(-/-) males given the selective SOAT2 inhibitor PRD125 1,11-O-o-methylbenzylidene-7-O-p-cyanobenzoyl-1,7,11-trideacetylpyripyropene A in their diet (∼10 mg/day per kg body weight) from 21 to 53 days, whole liver cholesterol content was 48.6 versus 153.7 mg in untreated 53-day-old Lal(-/-) mice. This difference reflected a 59% reduction in hepatic EC concentration (mg/g), combined with a 28% fall in liver mass. The treated mice also showed a 63% reduction in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, in parallel with decisive falls in hepatic mRNA expression levels for multiple proteins that reflect macrophage presence and inflammation. These data implicate SOAT2 as a potential target in CESD management.

  6. PRD125, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2 Markedly Reduces Hepatic Cholesteryl Ester Accumulation and Improves Liver Function in Lysosomal Acid Lipase-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Adam M.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Posey, Kenneth S.; Ohshiro, Taichi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders. While these conditions can be corrected with enzyme replacement therapy, the question arose as to whether pharmacological inhibition of SOAT2 might reduce tissue EC accretion in CESD. When weaned at 21 days, Lal−/− mice, of either gender, had a whole liver cholesterol content that was 12- to 13-fold more than that of matching Lal+/+ littermates (23 versus 1.8 mg, respectively). In Lal−/− males given the selective SOAT2 inhibitor PRD125 1,11-O-o-methylbenzylidene-7-O-p-cyanobenzoyl-1,7,11-trideacetylpyripyropene A in their diet (∼10 mg/day per kg body weight) from 21 to 53 days, whole liver cholesterol content was 48.6 versus 153.7 mg in untreated 53-day-old Lal−/− mice. This difference reflected a 59% reduction in hepatic EC concentration (mg/g), combined with a 28% fall in liver mass. The treated mice also showed a 63% reduction in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, in parallel with decisive falls in hepatic mRNA expression levels for multiple proteins that reflect macrophage presence and inflammation. These data implicate SOAT2 as a potential target in CESD management. PMID:26283692

  7. Decreased concentrations of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor angiopoietin-like protein 4 and increased serum triacylglycerol are associated with increased neonatal fat mass in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Schaefer-Graf, Ute; Meitzner, Katrin; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an extracellular inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. No studies have been done in pregnancy in which hypertriglyceridemia and tissue-specific changes in LPL activity are present. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between neonatal fat mass (FM) and concentrations of ANGPTL4 and triacylglycerols (TAG) in maternal and cord serum of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with controls. Maternal blood samples (control, n = 90, and GDM, n= 80) and umbilical cord blood were drawn before and after vaginal delivery, respectively. Control and GDM subjects were grouped separately into 3 subgroups, according to neonatal FM: 0-25th percentiles, 25th-75th percentiles, and 75th-100th percentiles. Glucose, insulin, TAG, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and ANGPTL4 were determined in maternal and neonatal serum. Age and pregestational body mass index did not differ between GDM and control women in any subgroups. Maternal serum of GDM pregnant women who delivered the newborn with the highest FM showed the highest concentrations of TAG and NEFAs and lowest concentration of ANGPTL4, despite glucose and insulin concentrations being independent of changes in neonatal FM. However, cord serum of neonates of GDM patients with the highest FM showed higher concentrations of insulin and lower concentrations of TAG than those with lower neonatal FM but no significant differences in NEFAs or ANGPTL4 concentrations. In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, decreased maternal ANGPTL4 concentrations and a gradient of TAG toward the fetus are related with higher neonatal FM. However, in GDM fetuses with the highest FM, the potential effect of ANGPTL4 inhibiting adipose tissue LPL activity could be overcome by their hyperinsulinemia.

  8. Lipase activity of Mucor pusillus.

    PubMed

    Somkuti, G A; Babel, F J

    1968-04-01

    Two strains of Mucor pusillus were examined for their ability to synthesize lipase in a complex medium used in the production of milk-clotting protease. Lipase activity of both strains reached maximal after 6 days of incubation under submerged conditions at 35 C. Lipase secreted into the medium hydrolyzed butterfat and vegetable lipids, as well as selected synthetic triglycerides. About 50% of lipase activity was destroyed after a 45-min heat treatment at 58 C.

  9. Monoacylglycerol Lipase Regulates Fever Response.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Nguyen, William; Mori, Simone; Moroncini, Gianluca; Viader, Andreu; Nomura, Daniel K; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Conti, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as ibuprofen have been used for decades to control fever through reducing the levels of the pyrogenic lipid transmitter prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Historically, phospholipases have been considered to be the primary generator of the arachidonic acid (AA) precursor pool for generating PGE2 and other eicosanoids. However, recent studies have demonstrated that monoacyglycerol lipase (MAGL), through hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, provides a major source of AA for PGE2 synthesis in the mammalian brain under basal and neuroinflammatory states. We show here that either genetic or pharmacological ablation of MAGL leads to significantly reduced fever responses in both centrally or peripherally-administered lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-1β-induced fever models in mice. We also show that a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist does not attenuate these anti-pyrogenic effects of MAGL inhibitors. Thus, much like traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, MAGL inhibitors can control fever, but appear to do so through restricted control over prostaglandin production in the nervous system.

  10. Oxidation Stability of O/W Emulsion Prepared with Linolenic Acid Enriched Diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2016-10-01

    The sn-1,3-regiospecific Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) was employed to produce structured diacylglycerol (SL-DAG), which contained 67.3 mol% DAG with 27.2 area% of C18:3. To investigate the oxidative stability of the SL-DAG in emulsion form, 5% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were prepared with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid. It was shown that the hydroperoxide values of the control (without any antioxidant) was the highest (117.7 meq/L) on day 43 of storage and thereafter the value decreased. However, the emulsions with 200 and 400 ppm sinapic acid resulted in slow oxidation degree until day 64 of storage (30.3 and 7.3 meq/L, respectively). Aldehyde measurements for the 200 ppm sinapic acid emulsion (12.8 mmol/mol) and the 400 ppm sinapic acid emulsion (7.5 mmol/mol) also showed better oxidative stability than that for the 200 ppm catechin emulsion (27.4 mmol/mol) and the control (52.7 mmol/mol). Although the SL-DAG in the emulsions contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the degree of oxidation in the emulsions can be reduced when sinapic acid is used as an antioxidant. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Potential role of salicylic acid in modulating diacylglycerol homeostasis in response to freezing temperatures in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei-Juan; Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang

    2015-01-01

    In our recent article in Molecular Plant, we reported that 3 lipase-like defense regulators SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 (SAG101), ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The transcripts of SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 were inducible by cold stress and their knockout or knockdown mutants exhibited enhanced chilling and freezing tolerance in comparison to the wild type. The freezing tolerance phenotype showed in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants was correlated with the transcriptional upregulation of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs (CBFs) and their regulons as well as increased levels of proline. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants showed ameliorated cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, which were highly induced by freezing stress in the wild-type leaves. Moreover, the contents of salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) were significantly decreased in the sag101, eds1 and pad4 mutants compared to the wild type. Taken together, our results suggest that the SAG101, EDS1 and PAD4 are negative regulators in the freezing response and function, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG in Arabidopsis.

  12. Structured Mono- and Diacylglycerols with a High Content of Medium Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Esperón-Rojas, Alaina A; Baeza-Jiménez, R; Cano-Sarmiento, Cynthia; García, Hugo S

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, direct enzyme-catalysed esterification of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) from three different sources (Medium chain triacylglycerols, MCT; saponified MCT and a mixture of free MCFA) was evaluated to obtain structured mono- and diacylglycerols. The esterifications were carried out mixing the different sources of MCFA with glycerol at two weight ratios (1:1 and 4:1, w/w), using three immobilized lipases: Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM and Lipozyme TL IM; different reaction times (t = 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 min); enzyme loadings (5, 10 or 15% with respect to the total weight of substrates). The extent of esterification was determined by gas chromatography (GC) analysis of the acylglycerols produced. The highest incorporation of free MCFA into glycerol was obtained for a 1:1 (w/w) glycerol to free MCFA ratio, 5% of Novozym 435, at 50°C, 300 rpm, 10% of molecular sieves and a commercial MCFA mixture as starting material. Under these conditions, incorporation of at least 90% of MCFA into glycerol was achieved after 30 min of reaction.

  13. Structural elements of ligand recognition site in secretory phospho-lipase A2 and structure-based design of specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nagendra; Somvanshi, Rishi K; Sharma, Sujata; Dey, Sharmistha; Kaur, Punit; Singh, Tej P

    2007-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (phosphotide 2-acylhydrolases, PLA2s, EC 3.1.1.4) are widely distributed enzymes in the animal world. They catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl ester linkage of phospholipids, producing fatty acids and lysophospholipids. The mammalian type II secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2-II) is one of the most extensively studied member of low molecular weight (13-18 kDa) PLA2s. PLA2-II contains 120-125 amino acid residues and seven disulphide bridges. The important features of overall structure of PLA2-II contain an N-terminal helix, H1 (residues: 2-12), an external loop (residues: 14-23), a calcium binding loop (Ca2+-loop, residues: 25-35), a second alpha-helix, H2 (residues: 40-55), a short two stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet referred to as beta-wing (residues: 75-84), a third alpha-helix, H3 (residues: 90-108) which is antiparallel to H2 and two single helical turns, SH4 (residues: 114-117) and SH5 (residues: 121-125). The three-dimensional structure of PLA2-II has defined a conserved active site within a hydrophobic channel lined by invariant hydrophobic residues. The active site residues His48, Asp49, Tyr52 and Asp99 are directly connected to the channel. An important water molecule that bridges His48 and Asp49 through hydrogen bonds is a part of catalytic network. Based on the structures of various complexes of group II PLA2, the ligand-recognition site has been divided into six subsites consisting of residues 2-10 (subsite 1), residues 17-23 (subsite 2), residues 28-32 (subsite 3), residues 48-52 (subsite 4), residues 68-70 (subsite 5) and residues 98-106 (subsite 6). It is observed that most of the currently available ligands saturate only part of the ligand-recognition site leaving a wide scope to improve the ligand complementarity. Naturally, the ligands that interact with the largest number of subsites would also correspond to the maximum affinity. Therefore, for the design of potent inhibitors of PLA2, the stereochemical knowledge of the

  14. Contribution of lipase deficiency to mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in hMADS adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jocken, J W E; Goossens, G H; Popeijus, H; Essers, Y; Hoebers, N; Blaak, E E

    2016-03-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular lipid catabolism. We have previously shown decreased expression and activity of these lipases in adipose tissue of obese insulin resistant individuals. Here we hypothesized that lipase deficiency might impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis in adipocytes not just by enhancing lipid accumulation, but also by altering lipid and carbohydrate catabolism in a peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor (PPAR)-dependent manner. To address our hypothesis, we performed a series of in vitro experiments in a human white adipocyte model, the human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells, using genetic (siRNA) and pharmacological knockdown of ATGL and/or HSL. We show that ATGL and HSL knockdown in hMADS adipocytes disrupted mitochondrial respiration, which was accompanied by a decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) protein content. This lead to a reduced exogenous and endogenous palmitate oxidation following ATGL knockdown, but not in HSL deficient adipocytes. ATGL deficiency was followed by excessive triacylglycerol accumulation, and HSL deficiency further increased diacylglycerol accumulation. Both single and double lipase knockdown reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, which was attributable to impaired insulin signaling. These effects were accompanied by impaired activation of the nuclear receptor PPARα, and restored on PPARα agonist treatment. The present study indicates that lipase deficiency in human white adipocytes contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, in a PPARα-dependent manner. Therefore, modulation of adipose tissue lipases may provide a promising strategy to reverse insulin resistance in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Diacylglycerols induce both ion pumping in patch-clamped guard-cell protoplasts and opening of intact stomata.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y; Assmann, S M

    1991-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells in leaves regulate the apertures of microscopic pores through which photosynthetic gas exchange and water vapor loss occur. Environmental signals, including light, high humidity, and low CO2 concentrations, open stomata by increasing the volume of guard cells. Activation of a plasma membrane H+ pump initiates K+ and Cl- influx, accompanied by malate synthesis, resulting in osmotic water flow into the guard cells, a bowing apart of the guard-cell pair, and consequent stomatal opening. Physiological and electrophysiological techniques were employed to investigate the possibility that a second-messenger lipid, 1,2-diacylglycerol, is involved in the transduction of opening stimuli. The synthetic diacylglycerols 1,2-dihexanoylglycerol and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol enhanced light-induced stomatal opening in Commelina communis and induced stomatal opening under darkness, whereas an isomer with no known second-messenger role, 1,3-dioctanoylglycerol, did not affect stomatal responses. 1-(5-Isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, the enzyme typically activated by 1,2-diacylglycerol in animal cells, inhibited light-stimulated stomatal opening and enhanced dark-induced stomatal closure. N-[(2-Methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-8), which inhibits cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases preferentially over lipid-dependent protein kinases such as protein kinase C, had little effect on stomatal apertures. Whole-cell patch clamping of guard-cell protoplasts of Vicia faba revealed that 1,2-dihexanoylglycerol and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol activated an ATP-dependent, voltage-independent current, suggesting activation of an electrogenic ion pump such as the H+ pump. Diacylglycerol or functionally similar lipids may act through protein phosphorylation to provide the intracellular signals that mediate H+-ATPase activation and stomatal opening in response to light or other opening stimuli. PMID:11607161

  16. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secr...

  17. Expression and purification of membrane protein diacylglycerol acyltransferase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in seeds and other tissues. DGAT knockout mice are resista...

  18. Purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases from E. coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Over-expression of DGATs ...

  19. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT isoforms have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii) which contains 80% high-value eleostearic acid in its seed oils. ...

  20. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are responsible for the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Different forms of DGATs have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii), which contains approximately 80% high-valu...

  1. Biochemical Properties and Structure Analysis of a DAG-Like Lipase from Malassezia globosa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Lan, Dongming; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG)-like lipases are found to play an important role in the life sciences and industrial fields. A putative DAG-like lipase (MgMDL2) from Malassezia globosa was cloned and expressed in recombinant Pichia pastoris. The recombinant MgMDL2 was expressed as a glycosylated protein and purified into homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography. The activity of recombinant MgMDL2 was optimal at 15 °C and pH 6.0, and it keeps over 50% of relative activity at 5 °C, suggesting that MgMDL2 was a cold active lipase. MgMDL2 retained over 80% of initial activity after incubation at 30 and 40 °C for 2.5 h, but it was not stable at 50 °C. Incubation of methanol and ethanol at a concentration of 30% for 2 h did not affect the recombinant enzyme activity, while metal ions, including Ca2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+, sharply inhibited the MgMDL2 activity at 5 mM by 42%, 35% and 36%, respectively. MgMDL2 exhibited a preference for medium chain-length esters with highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl caprylate, while it was active on mono- and diacylglycerol but not on triacylglycerol, indicating that it was a typical DAG-like lipase. By homology modeling, Phe278 was predicted to be involved in the preference of MgMDL2 for monoacyl- and diacyl-glyceride substrates, but not triglycerides. PMID:25749469

  2. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2006-12-27

    Pharmacological inhibition of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bioassay-guided isolation of CHCl3 extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae), using an in vitro DGAT inhibitory assay, lead to isolation of a new alkamide named (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (2), together with four known alkamides: retrofractamide C (1), pipernonaline (3), piperrolein B (4), and dehydropipernonaline (5). Compounds 2-5 inhibited DGAT with IC50 values of 29.8 (2), 37.2 (3), 20.1 (4), and 21.2 (5) microM, respectively, but the IC50 value for 1 was more than 900 microM. This finding indicates that compounds possessing piperidine groups (2-5) can be potential DGAT inhibitors.

  3. Protein kinase C–independent inhibition of arterial smooth muscle K+ channels by a diacylglycerol analogue

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, RD; Parker, AM; Davies, NW

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Analogues of the endogenous diacylglycerols have been used extensively as pharmacological activators of protein kinase C (PKC). Several reports show that some of these compounds have additional effects that are independent of PKC activation, including direct block of K+ and Ca2+ channels. We investigated whether dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8), a commonly used diacylglycerol analogue, blocks K+ currents of rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle in a PKC-independent manner. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Conventional whole-cell and inside-out patch clamp was used to measure the inhibition of K+ currents of rat isolated mesenteric smooth muscle cells by DiC8 in the absence and presence of PKC inhibitor peptide. KEY RESULTS Mesenteric artery smooth muscle Kv currents inactivated very slowly with a time constant of about 2 s following pulses from −65 to +40 mV. Application of 1 µM DiC8 produced an approximate 40-fold increase in the apparent rate of inactivation. Pretreatment of the cells with PKC inhibitor peptide had a minimal effect on the action of DiC8, and substantial inactivation still occurred, indicating that this effect was mainly independent of PKC. We also found that DiC8 blocked BK and KATP currents, and again a significant proportion of these blocks occurred independently of PKC activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results show that DiC8 has a direct effect on arterial smooth muscle K+ channels, and this precludes its use as a PKC activator when investigating PKC-mediated effects on vascular K+ channels. PMID:21323899

  4. Diacylglycerol Kinases as Emerging Potential Drug Targets for a Variety of Diseases: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Fumio; Mizuno, Satoru; Komenoi, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α–κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively. In addition, the DGKη gene has been repeatedly identified as a bipolar disorder (BPD) susceptibility gene. Intriguingly, we found that DGKη-knockout mice showed lithium (BPD remedy)-sensitive mania-like behaviors, suggesting that DGKη is one of key enzymes of the etiology of BPD. Because DGKs are potential drug targets for a wide variety of diseases, the development of DGK isozyme-specific inhibitors/activators has been eagerly awaited. Recently, we have identified DGKα-selective inhibitors. Because DGKα has both pro-tumoral and anti-immunogenic properties, the DGKα-selective inhibitors would simultaneously have anti-tumoral and pro-immunogenic (anti-tumor immunogenic) effects. Although the ten DGK isozymes are highly similar to each other, our current results have encouraged us to identify and develop specific inhibitors/activators against every DGK isozyme that can be effective regulators and drugs against a wide variety of physiological events and diseases. PMID:27583247

  5. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°C for 96h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50°C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60°C for 1h, and the optimum enzyme-substrate reaction time was 30min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30°C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn(2+), followed by Mg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1mM) and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation.

  6. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V; Mattes, Richard D

    2014-06-15

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort.

  7. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V.

    2014-01-01

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were masticated by 15 healthy human subjects at the rate of one chew per second with and without lipase inhibitor orlistat. Salivary NEFA concentrations were measured. To determine the role of lingual lipase in oral fat detection, sensory ratings were obtained from the same 15 human subjects for almond butter with and without orlistat. Lingual lipase was active during oral processing of almond and coconut. No activity of lingual lipase was detected during processing of almond butter. There was only weak evidence lingual lipase is a determinant of oral fat detection. Lingual lipase may only contribute to NEFA generation and oral fat detection of fatty foods that require stronger oral processing effort. PMID:24694384

  8. Role of lipase in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) invasion of lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullen, T; Markey, K; Murphy, P; McClean, S; Callaghan, M

    2007-12-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a group of ten closely related species associated with life-threatening infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). These bacteria are highly antibiotic resistant, with some strains transmissible, and in a subgroup of patients, they can cause a rapid and fatal necrotising pneumonia. The Bcc organisms produce a range of exoproducts with virulence potential, including exopolysaccharide, proteases and lipases. Many members of the Bcc are also capable of epithelial cell invasion, although the mechanism(s) involved are poorly understood. This study investigates a role for Bcc lipase in epithelial cell invasion by Bcc strains. Lipase activity was measured in eight species of the Bcc. Strains that produced high levels of lipase were predominantly from the B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia species. Pre-treatment of two epithelial cell lines with Bcc lipase significantly increased invasion by two B. multivorans strains and one B. cenocepacia strain and did not affect either plasma membrane or tight junction integrity. Inhibition of Bcc lipase production by the lipase inhibitor Orlistat significantly decreased invasion by both B. multivorans and B. cenocepacia strains in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the extent of lipase production across the Bcc and establishes a potential role for lipase in Bcc epithelial cell invasion.

  9. Diacylglycerol kinase α promotes 3D cancer cell growth and limits drug sensitivity through functional interaction with Src

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ayuso, Pedro; Daza-Martín, Manuel; Martín-Pérez, Jorge; Ávila-Flores, Antonia; Mérida, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK)α converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. This lipid kinase sustains survival, migration and invasion of tumor cells, with no effect over untransformed cells, suggesting its potential as a cancer-specific target. Nonetheless the mechanisms that underlie DGKα specific contribution to cancer survival have not been elucidated. Using three-dimensional (3D) colon and breast cancer cell cultures, we demonstrate that DGKα upregulation is part of the transcriptional program that results in Src activation in these culture conditions. Pharmacological or genetic DGKα silencing impaired tumor growth in vivo confirming its function in malignant transformation. DGKα-mediated Src regulation contributed to limit the effect of Src inhibitors, and its transcriptional upregulation in response to PI3K/Akt inhibitors resulted in reduced toxicity. Src oncogenic properties and contribution to pharmacological resistance have been linked to its overactivation in cancer. DGKα participation in this central node helps to explain why its pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated targeting specifically alters tumor viability with no effect on untransformed cells. Our results identify DGKα-mediated stabilization of Src activation as an important mechanism in tumor growth, and suggest that targeting this enzyme, alone or in combination with other inhibitors in wide clinical use, could constitute a treatment strategy for aggressive forms of cancer. PMID:25339152

  10. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions lysosomal acid lipase deficiency lysosomal acid lipase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  12. Synthesis of monoacylglycerol containing pinolenic acid via stepwise esterification using a cold active lipase.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Gil; Hong, Seung In; Kim, Yangha; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    High purity monoacylglycerol (MAG) containing pinolenic acid was synthesized via stepwise esterification of glycerol and fatty acids from pine nut oil using a cold active lipase from Penicillium camembertii as a biocatalyst. Effects of temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, and vacuum on the synthesis of MAG by lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid from pine nut oil were investigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) as well as MAG increased significantly when temperature was increased from 20 to 40 °C. At a molar ratio of 1:1, MAG content decreased because of the significant increase in DAG content. Water has a profound influence on both MAG and DAG content through the entire course of reaction. The reaction rate increased significantly as enzyme loading increased up to 600 units. Vacuum was an effective method to reduce DAG content. The optimum temperature, molar ratio, water content, enzyme loading, vacuum, and reaction time were 20 °C, 1:5 (fatty acid to glycerol), 2%, 600 units, 5 torr, and 24 h, respectively. MAG content further increased via lipase-catalyzed second step esterification at subzero temperature. P. camembertii lipase exhibited esterification activity up to -30 °C.

  13. Rapid Triacylglycerol Turnover in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Requires a Lipase with Broad Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaobo; Benning, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    When deprived of nitrogen (N), the photosynthetic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates large quantities of triacylglycerols (TAGs), making it a promising source of biofuel. Prominent transcriptional changes associated with the conditions leading to TAG accumulation have been found, suggesting that the key enzymes for TAG metabolism might be among those that fluctuate in their expression during TAG synthesis and breakdown. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipase null mutant strain for functional complementation, we identified the CrLIP1 gene from Chlamydomonas based on its ability to suppress the lipase deficiency-related phenotypes of the yeast mutant. In Chlamydomonas, an inverse correlation was found between the CrLIP1 transcript level and TAG abundance when Chlamydomonas cultures were reversibly deprived of N. The CrLIP1 protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited lipolytic activity against diacylglycerol (DAG) and polar lipids. The lipase domain of CrLIP1 is most similar to two human DAG lipases, DAGLα and DAGLβ. The involvement of CrLIP1 in Chlamydomonas TAG hydrolysis was corroborated by reducing the abundance of the CrLIP1 transcript with an artificial micro-RNA, which resulted in an apparent delay in TAG lipolysis when N was resupplied. Together, these data suggest that CrLIP1 facilitates TAG turnover in Chlamydomonas primarily by degrading the DAG presumably generated from TAG hydrolysis. PMID:23042128

  14. Rapid triacylglycerol turnover in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires a lipase with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Benning, Christoph; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2012-12-01

    When deprived of nitrogen (N), the photosynthetic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates large quantities of triacylglycerols (TAGs), making it a promising source of biofuel. Prominent transcriptional changes associated with the conditions leading to TAG accumulation have been found, suggesting that the key enzymes for TAG metabolism might be among those that fluctuate in their expression during TAG synthesis and breakdown. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipase null mutant strain for functional complementation, we identified the CrLIP1 gene from Chlamydomonas based on its ability to suppress the lipase deficiency-related phenotypes of the yeast mutant. In Chlamydomonas, an inverse correlation was found between the CrLIP1 transcript level and TAG abundance when Chlamydomonas cultures were reversibly deprived of N. The CrLIP1 protein expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited lipolytic activity against diacylglycerol (DAG) and polar lipids. The lipase domain of CrLIP1 is most similar to two human DAG lipases, DAGLα and DAGLβ. The involvement of CrLIP1 in Chlamydomonas TAG hydrolysis was corroborated by reducing the abundance of the CrLIP1 transcript with an artificial micro-RNA, which resulted in an apparent delay in TAG lipolysis when N was resupplied. Together, these data suggest that CrLIP1 facilitates TAG turnover in Chlamydomonas primarily by degrading the DAG presumably generated from TAG hydrolysis.

  15. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Schweiger, Martina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Zechner, Rudolf; Portillo, María del Puy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to increase adrenaline-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The general aim of the present work was to gain more insight concerning the effects of trans-resveratrol on lipid mobilization. The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule. For lipolysis experiments, 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes as well as adipose tissue from wild-type, ATGL knockout and HSL knockout mice were used. Moreover, gene and protein expressions of these lipases were analyzed. Resveratrol-induced free fatty acids release but not glycerol release in 3T3-L1 under basal and isoproterenol-stimulating conditions and under isoproterenol-stimulating conditions in SGBS adipocytes. When HSL was blocked by compound 76-0079, free fatty acid release was still induced by resveratrol. By contrast, in the presence of the compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, resveratrol effect was totally blunted. Resveratrol increased ATGL gene and protein expressions, an effect that was not observed for HSL. Resveratrol increased fatty acids release in epididymal adipose tissue from wild-type and HSL knockout mice but not in that adipose tissue from ATGL knockout mice. Taking as a whole, the present results provide novel evidence that resveratrol regulates lipolytic activity in human and murine adipocytes, as well as in white adipose tissue from mice, acting mainly on ATGL at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Enzyme activation seems to be induced via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemoproteomic, biochemical and pharmacological approaches in the discovery of inhibitors targeting human α/β-hydrolase domain containing 11 (ABHD11).

    PubMed

    Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Patel, Jayendra Z; López Navarro, Miriam; Jakupović, Hermina; Goffart, Steffi; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Nevalainen, Tapio J; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tuomo; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Savinainen, Juha R

    2016-10-10

    ABHD11 (α/β-hydrolase domain containing 11) is a non-annotated enzyme belonging to the family of metabolic serine hydrolases (mSHs). Its natural substrates and products are unknown. Using competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to identify novel inhibitors of human (h)ABHD11, three compounds from our chemical library exhibited low nanomolar potency towards hABHD11. Competitive ABPP of various proteomes revealed fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the sole off-target among the mSHs. Our fluorescent activity assays designed for natural lipase substrates revealed no activity of hABHD11 towards mono- or diacylglycerols. A broader profiling using para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates indicated no amidase/protease, phosphatase, sulfatase, phospholipase C or phosphodiesterase activity. Instead, hABHD11 readily utilized para-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPC4), indicating lipase/esterase-type activity that could be exploited in inhibitor discovery. Additionally, a homology model was created based on the crystal structure of bacterial esterase YbfF. In contrast to YbfF, which reportedly hydrolyze long-chain acyl-CoA, hABHD11 did not utilize oleoyl-CoA or arachidonoyl-CoA. In conclusion, the present study reports the discovery of potent hABHD11 inhibitors with good selectivity among mSHs. We developed substrate-based activity assays for hABHD11 that could be further exploited in inhibitor discovery and created the first homology-based hABHD11 model, offering initial insights into the active site of this poorly characterized enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residue Asn277 affects the stability and substrate specificity of the SMG1 lipase from Malassezia globosa.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongming; Wang, Qian; Xu, Jinxin; Zhou, Pengfei; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-03-31

    Thermostability and substrate specificity are important characteristics of enzymes for industrial application, which can be improved by protein engineering. SMG1 lipase from Malassezia globosa is a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase (MDL) that shows activity toward mono- and diacylglycerols, but no activity toward triacylglycerols. SMG1 lipase is considered a potential biocatalyst applied in oil/fat modification and its crystal structure revealed that an interesting residue-Asn277 may contribute to stabilize loop 273-278 and the 3104 helix which are important to enzyme characterization. In this study, to explore its role in affecting the stability and catalytic activity, mutagenesis of N277 with Asp (D), Val (V), Leu (L) and Phe (F) was conducted. Circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis and half-life measurement showed that the N277D mutant has better thermostability. The melting temperature and half-life of the N277D mutant were 56.6 °C and 187 min, respectively, while that was 54.6 °C and 121 min for SMG1 wild type (WT). Biochemical characterization of SMG1 mutants were carried out to test whether catalytic properties were affected by mutagenesis. N277D had similar enzymatic properties as SMG1 WT, but N277F showed a different substrate selectivity profile as compared to other SMG1 mutants. Analysis of the SMG1 3D model suggested that N277D formed a salt bridge via its negative charged carboxyl group with a positively charged guanidino group of R227, which might contribute to confer N277D higher temperature stability. These findings not only provide some clues to understand the molecular basis of the lipase structure/function relationship but also lay the framework for engineering suitable MDL lipases for industrial applications.

  18. Ternary structure reveals mechanism of a membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dianfan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Keogh, Aaron; Vogeley, Lutz; Howe, Nicole; Lyons, Joseph A.; Aragao, David; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Basu, Shibom; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Rendek, Kimberley; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei; Bandaru, Sateesh; English, Niall J.; Gati, Cornelius; Barty, Anton; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Chapman, Henry N.; Diederichs, Kay; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Marvin Seibert, M.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-12-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. The small size of this integral membrane trimer, which has 121 residues per subunit, means that available protein must be used economically to craft three catalytic and substrate-binding sites centred about the membrane/cytosol interface. How nature has accomplished this extraordinary feat is revealed here in a crystal structure of the kinase captured as a ternary complex with bound lipid substrate and an ATP analogue. Residues, identified as essential for activity by mutagenesis, decorate the active site and are rationalized by the ternary structure. The γ-phosphate of the ATP analogue is positioned for direct transfer to the primary hydroxyl of the lipid whose acyl chain is in the membrane. A catalytic mechanism for this unique enzyme is proposed. As a result, the active site architecture shows clear evidence of having arisen by convergent evolution.

  19. Diacylglycerol Kinases in T Cell Tolerance and Effector Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shelley S.; Hu, Zhiming; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR) signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules, such as RasGRP1, PKCθ, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms, α and ζ, in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation. PMID:27891502

  20. Ternary structure reveals mechanism of a membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dianfan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Keogh, Aaron; Vogeley, Lutz; Howe, Nicole; Lyons, Joseph A.; Aragao, David; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Basu, Shibom; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Rendek, Kimberley; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei; Bandaru, Sateesh; English, Niall J.; Gati, Cornelius; Barty, Anton; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Chapman, Henry N.; Diederichs, Kay; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Marvin Seibert, M.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. The small size of this integral membrane trimer, which has 121 residues per subunit, means that available protein must be used economically to craft three catalytic and substrate-binding sites centred about the membrane/cytosol interface. How nature has accomplished this extraordinary feat is revealed here in a crystal structure of the kinase captured as a ternary complex with bound lipid substrate and an ATP analogue. Residues, identified as essential for activity by mutagenesis, decorate the active site and are rationalized by the ternary structure. The γ-phosphate of the ATP analogue is positioned for direct transfer to the primary hydroxyl of the lipid whose acyl chain is in the membrane. A catalytic mechanism for this unique enzyme is proposed. The active site architecture shows clear evidence of having arisen by convergent evolution.

  1. The inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signalling pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, R; Pignataro, O P

    1991-01-01

    Using [32P]Pi and [3H]inositol as precursors, we have detected the presence of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and their derivatives inositol phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate respectively, in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells it was possible to detect a stimulation in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate as well as an increased generation of diacylglycerol in the presence of 1 mM-CaCl2. These results are consistent with the operation of a functional inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in T. cruzi, and constitute the first demonstration of the presence and activation of this pathway in a parasitic protozoan. These results also indicate that this pathway is conserved during evolution from lower to higher eukaryotic organisms. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2025225

  2. Ternary structure reveals mechanism of a membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianfan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Keogh, Aaron; Vogeley, Lutz; Howe, Nicole; Lyons, Joseph A.; Aragao, David; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Basu, Shibom; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Rendek, Kimberley; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Wei; Bandaru, Sateesh; English, Niall J.; Gati, Cornelius; Barty, Anton; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Chapman, Henry N.; Diederichs, Kay; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J.; Marvin Seibert, M.; Caffrey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. The small size of this integral membrane trimer, which has 121 residues per subunit, means that available protein must be used economically to craft three catalytic and substrate-binding sites centred about the membrane/cytosol interface. How nature has accomplished this extraordinary feat is revealed here in a crystal structure of the kinase captured as a ternary complex with bound lipid substrate and an ATP analogue. Residues, identified as essential for activity by mutagenesis, decorate the active site and are rationalized by the ternary structure. The γ-phosphate of the ATP analogue is positioned for direct transfer to the primary hydroxyl of the lipid whose acyl chain is in the membrane. A catalytic mechanism for this unique enzyme is proposed. The active site architecture shows clear evidence of having arisen by convergent evolution. PMID:26673816

  3. Lipases at interfaces: a review.

    PubMed

    Reis, P; Holmberg, K; Watzke, H; Leser, M E; Miller, R

    2009-01-01

    Lipases are acyl hydrolases that play a key role in fat digestion by cleaving long-chain triglycerides into polar lipids. Due to an opposite polarity between the enzyme (hydrophilic) and their substrates (lipophilic), lipase reaction occurs at the interface between the aqueous and the oil phases. Hence, interfaces are the key spots for lipase biocatalysis and an appropriate site for modulating lipolysis. Surprisingly enough, knowledge about the effects of the interfacial composition on lipase catalysis is still limited and only described by the term "interfacial quality". Recent systematic studies based on a biophysical approach allowed for the first time to show the effects of the interfacial microenvironment on lipase catalysis. These studies demonstrate that lipase activity as a function of interfacial composition is more attributed to substrate inaccessibility rather than to enzyme denaturation or inactivation, as it is often hypothesized. A detailed analysis of the interfacial properties of all compounds involved in triglyceride digestion revealed that lipolysis is a self-regulated reaction. This feedback mechanism can be explored as a new avenue to control lipase catalysis. To substantiate this hypothesis, oil hydrolysis in a model gastro-intestinal system was performed, which can be seen as an interfacial engineering approach to enzyme reactivity control. The presented characterization of the interfacial composition and its consequences provide a new approach for the understanding of lipase reactions at interfaces with direct impact on biotechnological and health care applications.

  4. [Regulation of Lipid Metabolism by Diacylglycerol Kinases in Pancreatic β-cells].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukiko K; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells is essential for regulating blood glucose levels. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) involves the following steps: Glucose uptake by pancreatic β-cells is metabolized to produce ATP. Increased ATP levels result in the closure of ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, resulting in membrane depolarization that activates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels to subsequently trigger insulin secretion. In addition to this primary mechanism through KATP channels, insulin secretion is regulated by cyclic AMP and diacylglycerol (DAG), which mediate the effects of receptor agonists such as GLP-1 and acetylcholine. Glucose by itself can also increase the levels of these second messengers. Recently, we have shown an obligatory role of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid, in GSIS. Of the 10 known DGK isoforms, we focused on type-I DGK isoforms (i.e., DGKα, DGKβ, and DGKγ), which are activated by Ca(2+). The protein expression of DGKα and DGKγ was detected in mouse pancreatic islets and the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6. Depletion of these DGKs by a specific inhibitor or siRNA decreased both [Ca(2+)]i and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Similar [Ca(2+)]i responses were induced by DiC8, a membrane-permeable DAG analog. These results suggest that DGKα and DGKγ play crucial roles in insulin secretion, and that their depletion impairs insulin secretion through DAG accumulation. In this article, we review the current understanding of the roles of DAG- and DGK-signaling in pancreatic β-cells, and discuss their pathophysiological roles in the progression of type-2 diabetes.

  5. Soluble human TLR2 ectodomain binds diacylglycerol from microbial lipopeptides and glycolipids

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Maximiliano J; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Harvey, David J; Wormald, Mark R; Verdino, Petra; Ainge, Gary D; Larsen, David S; Painter, Gavin F; Ulevitch, Richard; Beutler, Bruce; Rudd, Pauline M; Dwek, Raymond A; Wilson, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key innate immune receptors that recognize conserved features of biological molecules that are found in microbes. In particular, TLR2 has been reported to be activated by different kinds of microbial ligands. To advance our understanding of the interaction of TLR2 with its ligands, the recombinant human TLR2 ectodomain (hTLR2ED) was expressed using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and its biochemical as well as ligand binding properties were investigated. The hTLR2ED binds synthetic bacterial and mycoplasmal lipopeptides, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus, and synthetic lipoarabinomannan precursors from Mycobacterium at extracellular physiological conditions, in the absence of its co-receptors TLR1 and TLR6. We also determined that lipopeptides and glycolipids cannot bind simultaneously to hTLR2ED and that the phosphatidyl inositol mannoside 2 (Pim2) is the minimal lipoarabinomannan structure for binding to hTLR2ED. Binding of hTLR2ED to Pim4, which contains a diacylglycerol group with one of its acyl chain containing 19 carbon atoms, indicates that hTLR2ED can bind ligands with acyl chains longer than 16 carbon atoms. In summary, our data indicate that diacylglycerol is the ligand moiety of microbial glycolipids and lipoproteins that bind to hTLR2ED and that both types of ligands bind to the same binding site of hTLR2ED. The design of novel inhibitors of TLR2, based on their ability to bind to TLR2 but not activate the TLR2 signaling pathway, may lead to the development of novel treatments for septic shock caused by Gram- positive bacteria. PMID:24591200

  6. Psychrophilic Lipase from Arctic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ramle, Zakiah; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A lipase producer psychrophilic microorganism isolated from Arctic sample was studied. The genomic DNA of the isolate was extracted using modified CTAB method. Identification of the isolate by morphological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the isolate is closely related to Arthrobacter gangotriensis (97% similarity). A. gangotriensis was determined as positive lipase producer based on the plate screening using specific and sensitive plate assay of Rhodamine B. The PCR result using Arthrobacter sp.’s full lipase gene sequence as the template primers emphasised a possible lipase gene at 900 bp band size. The gene is further cloned in a suitable vector system for expression of lipase. PMID:27965754

  7. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Diacylglycerol Kinase δ Phosphorylates Phosphatidylcholine-specific Phospholipase C-dependent, Palmitic Acid-containing Diacylglycerol Species in Response to High Glucose Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. PMID:25112873

  9. Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Is a Multifunctional Enzyme Involved in Membrane Lipid Turnover and Degradation While Synthesizing Triacylglycerol in the Unicellular Green Microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production. PMID:23012436

  10. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase is a multifunctional enzyme involved in membrane lipid turnover and degradation while synthesizing triacylglycerol in the unicellular green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kangsup; Han, Danxiang; Li, Yantao; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-09-01

    Many unicellular microalgae produce large amounts (∼20 to 50% of cell dry weight) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) under stress (e.g., nutrient starvation and high light), but the synthesis and physiological role of TAG are poorly understood. We present detailed genetic, biochemical, functional, and physiological analyses of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which catalyzes TAG synthesis via two pathways: transacylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) with acyl groups from phospholipids and galactolipids and DAG:DAG transacylation. We demonstrate that PDAT also possesses acyl hydrolase activities using TAG, phospholipids, galactolipids, and cholesteryl esters as substrates. Artificial microRNA silencing of PDAT in C. reinhardtii alters the membrane lipid composition, reducing the maximum specific growth rate. The data suggest that PDAT-mediated membrane lipid turnover and TAG synthesis is essential for vigorous growth under favorable culture conditions and for membrane lipid degradation with concomitant production of TAG for survival under stress. The strong lipase activity of PDAT with broad substrate specificity suggests that this enzyme could be a potential biocatalyst for industrial lipid hydrolysis and conversion, particularly for biofuel production.

  11. A novel eurythermic and thermostale lipase LipM from Pseudomonas moraviensis M9 and its application in the partial hydrolysis of algal oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjuan; Cao, Hai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Houjin; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-10-14

    Lipases are regularly used in biotechnology to catalyse the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the synthesis of esters. Microbial lipases in particular have been widely used in a variety of industrial applications. However, the current commercial microbial lipases cannot meet industrial demand due to rapid inactivation under harsh conditions. Therefore, in order to identify more stable enzymes, we isolated novel eurythermic and thermostable lipase(s) from Pseudomonas moraviensis M9. Cloning of lipM was based on Touchdown PCR and genome walking, and then recombinant LipM was purified by guanidine hydrochloride and the nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid resins affinity chromatography. Finally, the hydrolysis of algal oil by LipM was analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatograph. The lipM gene was first cloned from Pseudomonas moraviensis M9 via Touchdown PCR and genome walking. Sequence analysis reveals that LipM is a member of subfamily I.3 of lipases, and the predicted amino acid sequences of LipM has 82 % identity to lipase LipT from Pseudomonas mandelii JR-1, and 54 % identity to lipase PML from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 and lipase Lip I.3 from Pseudomonas sp. CR-611. LipM was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified from inclusion bodies, and further biochemically characterized. Purified LipM differed significantly from previously reported subfamily I.3 lipases, and was eurythermic between 10 °C-95 °C. LipM activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), and Ba(2+), but sharply inhibited by Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and EDTA. Compared with other lipases, LipM exhibited medium tolerance to methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol. When applied for hydrolysis of algal oil, LipM could enrich 65.88 % polyunsaturated fatty acids, which include 1.25 % eicosapentaenoic acid, 17.61 % docosapentaenoic acid, and 47.02 % docosahexaenoic acid with derivative glycerides containing 32.46 % diacylglycerols. A novel eurythermic I

  12. Various Molecular Species of Diacylglycerol Hydroperoxide Activate Human Neutrophils via PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Takekoshi, Susumu; Tanino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Keiichi; Nakano, Minoru; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that diacylglycerol hydroperoxide-induced unregulated signal transduction causes oxidative stress-related diseases. In this study, we investigated which molecular species of diacylglycerol hydroperoxide activated human peripheral neutrophils. All diacylglycerol hydroperoxides, diacylglycerol hydroxides, and diacyglycerols tested in the present study induced superoxide production by neutrophils. The ability to activate neutrophils among molecular species containing the same fatty acid composition was as follows; diacylglycerol hydroperoxide>diacylglycerol hydroxide≥diacylglycerol. The diacylglycerol hydroperoxide composed of linoleate was a stronger activator for neutrophils than that composed of arachidonate. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylglycerol hydroperoxide (PLG-OOH) was the strongest stimulator for neutrophils. We reconfirmed that PLG-OOH activated protein kinase C (PKC) in neutrophils. PLG-OOH induced the phosphorylation of p47phox, a substrate of PKC and a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase, in neutrophils, as did N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate. Moreover, the time course of p47phox phosphorylation was comparable to that of superoxide production. These results suggest that PLG-OOH activated intracellular protein kinase C. PLG-OOH, produced via an uncontrolled process, can act as a biological second messenger to cause inflammatory disease from oxidative stress. PMID:18392102

  13. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from tung tree and 82 other Organisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase family (DGATs) catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with v...

  14. A transient increase in diacylglycerols is associated with the action of vasopressin on hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, B P; Rye, K A; Pickford, L B; Barritt, G J; Chalmers, A H

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin induced a transient increase of 50% in the total concentration of diacylglycerols (determined by g.l.c.) in isolated hepatocytes. The increase was maximal at 0.25 min, and the concentration of diacylglycerols in cells treated with vasopressin had returned to the basal value by 4 min. No change in the concentration of diacylglycerols was observed after the treatment of cells with glucagon. The dependency of this effect on the concentration of vasopressin was similar to that of the effect of the hormone on 45Ca2+ efflux measured at 0.1 mM extracellular Ca2+. Vasopressin increased the proportion of arachidonic acid and stearic acid and decreased the proportion of oleic acid present in the diacylglycerols. In hepatocytes prelabelled with [14C]arachidonic acid, vasopressin increased the amount of [14C]diacylglycerol. The effects of vasopressin on the total concentration of diacylglycerols and [14C]diacylglycerol were mimicked by an exogenous phospholipid phosphodiesterase (phospholipase C) from Clostridium perfringens. The results are consistent with the conclusion that the transient increase in diacylglycerols induced by vasopressin is caused by the rapid hydrolysis of both the phosphoinositides and one or more other phospholipids. PMID:6477530

  15. Snail hepatopancreatic lipase: a new member of invertebrates lipases' group.

    PubMed

    Amara, Sawsan; Fendri, Ahmed; Ben Salem, Nadia; Gargouri, Youssef; Miled, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    Higher animal's lipases are well characterized; however, much less is known about lipases from mollusks. A lipolytic activity was located in the land snail (Eobania vermiculata) digestive glands (hepatopancreas), from which a snail digestive lipase (SnDL) was purified. Pure SnDL has a molecular mass of 60 kDa; it does not present the interfacial activation phenomenon. It was found to be more active on short-chain triacylglycerols than on long-chain triacylglycerols. The NH2-terminal sequence of the SnDL shows 66% of identity with the 17 NH2-terminal amino acids of a putative lipase from sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). No sequence identity was found with known lipases. Interestingly, neither colipase nor bile salts were detected in the snail hepatopancreas. This suggests that colipase evolved in vertebrates simultaneously with the appearance of an exocrine pancreas and a true liver which produces bile salts. Altogether, these results suggest that SnDL is a member of a new group of digestive lipases belonging to invertebrates.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1465 - Lipase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Lipase test system. (a) Identification. A lipase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzymes lipase in serum. Lipase measurements are used in diagnosis and treatment of...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1465 - Lipase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Lipase test system. (a) Identification. A lipase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzymes lipase in serum. Lipase measurements are used in diagnosis and treatment of...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1465 - Lipase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Lipase test system. (a) Identification. A lipase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzymes lipase in serum. Lipase measurements are used in diagnosis and treatment of...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1465 - Lipase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Lipase test system. (a) Identification. A lipase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzymes lipase in serum. Lipase measurements are used in diagnosis and treatment of...

  20. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  1. Lipase Activity in the Larval Midgut of Rhynchophorus palmarum: Biochemical Characterization and the Effects of Reducing Agents.

    PubMed

    Santana, Camilla Camerino; Barbosa, Leandro A; Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio; Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes do; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Grillo, Luciano A M

    2017-09-13

    Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R. palmarum palm weevil. Lipase activity was highest between the temperatures of 37 °C and 45 °C and at pH 6.5. Lipase activity was also sensitive to variations in salt and calcium concentrations. Lipases have been described structurally as enzymes with the Ser-His-Asp Catalytic Triad, containing an active serine. The serine protease inhibitor PMSF (phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride) inhibited the lipases from R. palmarum, demonstrating the importance of a serine residue for this activity. The ability of the lipases to hydrolyze p-Nitrophenyl esters with different chain lengths has revealed the activities of a broad range of substrates. The lipase activities of R. palmarum increased in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), while in the presence of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), activities were drastically reduced. To our knowledge, this study has provided the first information about lipase activity in the R. palmarum palm weevil.

  2. Optimal production and biochemical properties of a lipase from Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongming; Hou, Shulin; Yang, Ning; Whiteley, Chris; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    Lipases from microorganisms have multi-faceted properties and play an important role in ever-growing modern biotechnology and, consequently, it is of great significance to develop new ones. In the present work, a lipase gene from Candida albicans (CaLIP10) was cloned and two non-unusual CUG serine codons were mutated into universal codons, and its expression in Pichia pastoris performed optimally, as shown by response surface methodology. Optimal conditions were: initial pH of culture 6.86, temperature 25.53 °C, 3.48% of glucose and 1.32% of yeast extract. The corresponding maximal lipolytic activity of CaLIP10 was 8.06 U/mL. The purified CaLIP10 showed maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25 °C, and a good resistance to non-ionic surfactants and polar organic solvent was noticed. CaLIP10 could effectively hydrolyze coconut oil, but exhibited no obvious preference to the fatty acids with different carbon length, and diacylglycerol was accumulated in the reaction products, suggesting that CaLIP10 is a potential lipase for the oil industry.

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase-ζ regulates mTORC1 and lipogenic metabolism in cancer cells through SREBP-1

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ayuso, P; Tello-Lafoz, M; Mérida, I; Ávila-Flores, A

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) transform diacylglycerol (DAG) into phosphatidic acid (PA), balancing the levels of these key metabolic and signaling lipids. We previously showed that PA derived from the DGKζ isoform promotes mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. This function might be crucial for the growth and survival of cancer cells, especially for those resistant to the allosteric mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. How this positive function of DGKζ coordinates with DAG metabolism and signaling is unknown. In this study, we used a rapamycin-resistant colon cancer cell line as a model to address the role of DGKζ in tumor cells. We found that DGKζ predominated over other PA sources such as DGKα or phospholipase D to activate mTORC1, and that its activity was a component of the rapamycin-induced feedback loops. We show that the DGKζ DAG-consuming function is central to cell homeostasis, as DAG negatively regulates levels of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1. Our findings suggest a model in which simultaneous regulation of DAG and PA levels by DGKζ is integrated with mTOR function to maintain tumor cell homeostasis; we provide new evidence of the crosstalk between mTOR and lipid metabolism that will be advantageous in the design of drug therapies. PMID:26302180

  4. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibition enhances intestinal fatty acid oxidation and reduces energy intake in rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Gudrun; Arnold, Myrtha; Birtles, Susan; Buckett, Linda K.; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2013-01-01

    Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and is highly expressed in the small intestine. Because DGAT-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we investigated the acute effects of intragastric (IG) infusion of a small molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 inhibitor (DGAT-1i) on eating, circulating fat metabolites, indirect calorimetry, and hepatic and intestinal expression of key fat catabolism enzymes in male rats adapted to an 8 h feeding-16 h deprivation schedule. Also, the DGAT-1i effect on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was investigated in enterocyte cell culture models. IG DGAT-1i infusions reduced energy intake compared with vehicle in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, but scarcely in chow-fed rats. IG DGAT-1i also blunted the postprandial increase in serum TAG and increased β-hydroxybutyrate levels only in HFD-fed rats, in which it lowered the respiratory quotient and increased intestinal, but not hepatic, protein levels of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and of mitochondrial hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase. Finally, the DGAT-1i enhanced FAO in CaCo2 (EC50 = 0.3494) and HuTu80 (EC50 = 0.00762) cells. Thus, pharmacological DGAT-1 inhibition leads to an increase in intestinal FAO and ketogenesis when dietary fat is available. This may contribute to the observed eating-inhibitory effect. PMID:23449193

  5. Lipases in Medicine: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Loli, Heni; Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Saun, Nitin Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Lipases are part of the family of hydrolases that act on carboxylic ester bonds. They are involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) into chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Uses of lipases are evolving rapidly and currently they are reported to show high potential in medicine. Intensive study and investigations have led researchers to explore lipases for their use in substitution therapy, where in enzyme deficiency during diseased conditions is compensated by their external administration. In our body, they are used to break down fats present in food so that they can be absorbed in the intestine and deficiency of lipases leads to malabsorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Lipases help a person who has cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and act as a candidate target for cancer prevention and therapy. They act as diagnostic tool and their presence or increasing levels can indicate certain infection or disease. Obesity causes metabolic disease and is a serious health problem around the world. Thus inhibiting digestive lipase to reduce fat absorption has become the main pharmacological approach to the treatment of obesity in recent years.

  6. Ternary structure reveals mechanism of a membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Dianfan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Diacylglycerol kinase catalyses the ATP-dependent conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid in the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli. The small size of this integral membrane trimer, which has 121 residues per subunit, means that available protein must be used economically to craft three catalytic and substrate-binding sites centred about the membrane/cytosol interface. How nature has accomplished this extraordinary feat is revealed here in a crystal structure of the kinase captured as a ternary complex with bound lipid substrate and an ATP analogue. Residues, identified as essential for activity by mutagenesis, decorate the active site and are rationalized by the ternarymore » structure. The γ-phosphate of the ATP analogue is positioned for direct transfer to the primary hydroxyl of the lipid whose acyl chain is in the membrane. A catalytic mechanism for this unique enzyme is proposed. As a result, the active site architecture shows clear evidence of having arisen by convergent evolution.« less

  7. Crystal structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dianfan; Lyons, Joseph A.; Pye, Valerie E.; Vogeley, Lutz; Aragão, David; Kenyon, Colin P.; Shah, Syed T. A.; Doherty, Christine; Aherne, Margaret; Caffrey, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid for use in shuttling water-soluble components to membrane derived oligosaccharide and lipopolysaccharide in the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria1. For half a century, this 121-residue kinase has served as a paradigm for investigating membrane protein enzymology1,3-7, folding8,9, assembly10-13, and stability1,14. Here, we present crystal structures for three functional forms of this unique and paradigmatic kinase, one of which is wild type (WT). These reveal a homo-trimeric enzyme with three transmembrane helices and an N-terminal amphiphilic helix per monomer. Bound lipid substrate and docked ATP identify the putative active site which is of the composite, shared site type. The crystal structures rationalize extensive biochemical and biophysical data on the enzyme. They are however at variance with a published solution NMR model2 in that domain swapping, a key feature of the solution form, is not observed in the crystal structures. PMID:23676677

  8. Relative oxidative stability of diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin F; Wang, Xiang Y; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Young-Hwa; Jang, Young-Seok; Lee, Jeung Hee; Hong, Soon-Taek; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2015-03-01

    To compare the oxidative stability between diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and conventional triacylglycerol (TAG) oil (that is, soybean oil), the prepared stripped diacylglycerol oil (SDO) and soybean oil (SSBO) were stored at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h. During storage peroxide values (POVs), contents of aldehydes, unsaturated fatty acids were measured to evaluate the oxidative stabilities of the 2 oils. The results showed the content of C18:2, C18:3, and total unsaturated fatty acid decreased faster in DAG oil than in soybean oil, whereas the decreased rate of C18:1 was similar in 2 oils. Also, both rate constants (K1 and K2) obtained from POV (K1 ) and total aldehydes (K2 ) indicated that DAG oil (K1 = 3.22 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.023 h(-1)) was oxidized more rapidly than soybean oil (K1 = 2.56 mmol/mol FA h(-1) , K2 = 0.021 h(-1)), which was mainly due to the difference of acylglycerol composition of the 2 oils along with higher C18:3 (9.6%) in SDO than SSBO (5.7%). It is concluded that DAG was more easily oxidized than soybean oil at 60 °C in the dark for 144 h.

  9. Arachidonoyl-Specific Diacylglycerol Kinase ε and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Hirooki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Iseki, Ken; Kawamae, Kaneyuki; Goto, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises an interconnected membrane network, which is made up of lipid bilayer and associated proteins. This organelle plays a central role in the protein synthesis and sorting. In addition, it represents the synthetic machinery of phospholipids, the major constituents of the biological membrane. In this process, phosphatidic acid (PA) serves as a precursor of all phospholipids, suggesting that PA synthetic activity is closely associated with the ER function. One enzyme responsible for PA synthesis is diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to PA. DGK is composed of a family of enzymes with distinct features assigned to each isozyme in terms of structure, enzymology, and subcellular localization. Of DGKs, DGKε uniquely exhibits substrate specificity toward arachidonate-containing DG and is shown to reside in the ER. Arachidonic acid, a precursor of bioactive eicosanoids, is usually acylated at the sn-2 position of phospholipids, being especially enriched in phosphoinositide. In this review, we focus on arachidonoyl-specific DGKε with respect to the historical context, molecular basis of the substrate specificity and ER-targeting, and functional implications in the ER. PMID:27917381

  10. Effects of dietary fibers and cholestyramine on the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lairon, D; Lafont, H; Vigne, J L; Nalbone, G; Léonardi, J; Hauton, J C

    1985-10-01

    Most experiments were conducted in the presence of human gallbladder bile; colipase and pancreatic lipase were purified using porcine pancreas. The adsorption of bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol from the bile, together with that of pancreatic lipase was measured on wheat bran, cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan), slightly methylated pectin (42%) and cholestyramine. In contrast to cholestyramine which intensively binds biliary lipids (61.7-81.7%) and pancreatic lipase (47.5%), the fibers studied only had a low adsorbent power. The direct influence of these fibers and of cholestyramine at concentrations ranging from 0-5% on lipase activity was measured at constant pH, using two conventional assay systems, long chain triglycerides and tributyrin. In the presence of human bile and colipase, a drastic reduction in triglyceride hydrolysis by lipase was observed with cholestyramine (loss of 66-82%) and wheat bran (loss of 77-94%) at 1% concentration. The other fibers did not have any marked effects on enzyme activity. The use of a radio labeled lipase made it possible to demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of bran on enzyme activity was independent of adsorption phenomena on bran. The fraction of bran that can be solubilized in the aqueous phase, in fact, induced this reduction in activity. The presence of protein inhibitor in bran may be responsible for the reduction in pancreatic lipase activity.

  11. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are the major enzymes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol catabolism.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate; Haemmerle, Guenter; Lass, Achim; Fledelius, Christian; Jacobsen, Poul; Tornqvist, Hans; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert

    2006-12-29

    The mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose triacylglycerol (TG) stores requires the activities of triacylglycerol lipases. In this study, we demonstrate that adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are the major enzymes contributing to TG breakdown in in vitro assays and in organ cultures of murine white adipose tissue (WAT). To differentiate between ATGL- and HSL-specific activities in cytosolic preparations of WAT and to determine the relative contribution of these TG hydrolases to the lipolytic catabolism of fat, mutant mouse models lacking ATGL or HSL and a mono-specific, small molecule inhibitor for HSL (76-0079) were used. We show that 76-0079 had no effect on TG catabolism in HSL-deficient WAT but, in contrast, essentially abolished free fatty acid mobilization in ATGL-deficient fat. CGI-58, a recently identified coactivator of ATGL, stimulates TG hydrolase activity in wild-type and HSL-deficient WAT but not in ATGL-deficient WAT, suggesting that ATGL is the sole target for CGI-58-mediated activation of adipose lipolysis. Together, ATGL and HSL are responsible for more than 95% of the TG hydrolase activity present in murine WAT. Additional known or unknown lipases appear to play only a quantitatively minor role in fat cell lipolysis.

  12. The dissimilar effect of diacylglycerols on Ca(2+)-induced phosphatidylserine vesicle fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Migallón, M P; Aranda, F J; Gómez-Fernández, J C

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the effect of physiological concentrations of different diacylglycerols on Ca(2+)-induced fusion between phosphatidylserine vesicles. We monitored vesicle fusion as mixing of membrane lipids under conditions where the limiting factor was the aggregation and also in conditions where this aggregation was not the limiting factor. We found that diacylglycerols have a different modulating effect on the Ca(2+)-induced fusion: i) depending on their interfacial conformation, so that 1,2-isomers of diacylglycerols containing unsaturated or short saturated acyl chains stimulated fusion and their 1,3-isomers did not, and ii) depending on their specific type of bilayer interior perturbation, so that diacylglycerols containing unsaturated or short chain saturated acyl chains stimulated fusion but those containing long-chain saturated acyl chains did not. These requirements resembled those required for the diacylglycerol activation of protein kinase C, suggesting that diacylglycerol acts in both the specific activation of this enzyme and the induction of membrane fusion through the same perturbation of lipid structure. We found that polylysine affected the stimulatory role of 1,2-dioleoylglycerol differently, depending on whether aggregation was the limiting factor of fusion. When we studied the effect of very low concentrations of diacylglycerols on the bulk structural properties of phosphatidylserine, we found that they neither significantly perturbed the thermotropic transitions of phosphatidylserine nor affected the interaction of Ca2+ with the phosphate group of phosphatidylserine. The underlying mechanism of fusion between phosphatidylserine vesicles is discussed. PMID:7696508

  13. Insulin rapidly increases diacylglycerol by activating de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Farese, R V; Konda, T S; Davis, J S; Standaert, M L; Pollet, R J; Cooper, D R

    1987-05-01

    The mechanisms whereby insulin increases diacylglycerol in BC3H-1 myocytes were examined. When [3H]arachidonate labeling of phospholipids was used as an indicator of phospholipase C activation, transient increases in [3H]diacylglycerol were observed between 0.5 and 10 minutes after the onset of insulin treatment. With [3H]glycerol labeling as an indicator of de novo phospholipid synthesis, [3H]diacylglycerol was increased maximally at 1 minute and remained elevated for 20 minutes. [3H]Glycerol-labeled diacylglycerol was largely derived directly from phosphatidic acid. Insulin increased de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis within 5 to 10 seconds; within 1 minute, this synthesis was 60 times greater than that of controls. Thus, the initial increase in diacylglycerol is due to both increased hydrolysis of phospholipids and a burst of de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis. After 5 to 10 minutes, de novo phosphatidic acid synthesis continues as a major source of diacylglycerol. Both phospholipid effects of insulin seem important for generating diacylglycerol and other phospholipid-derived intracellular signaling substances.

  14. Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, R; Laroche-Traineau, J; Shaha, R; Lapaillerie, D; Solier, E; Rualès, J; Pina, M; Villeneuve, P; Carrière, F; Bonneu, M; Arondel, V

    2011-01-01

    Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex.

  15. Diacylglycerol kinases activate tobacco NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative burst in response to cryptogein.

    PubMed

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Fromentin, Jérôme; Cantrel, Catherine; Thomas, Dominique; Jeannette, Emmanuelle; Kalachova, Tetiana; Mongrand, Sébastien; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Ruelland, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Cryptogein is a 10 kDa protein secreted by the oomycete Phytophthora cryptogea that activates defence mechanisms in tobacco plants. Among early signalling events triggered by this microbial-associated molecular pattern is a transient apoplastic oxidative burst which is dependent on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity of the RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG isoform D (RBOHD). Using radioactive [(33) P]-orthophosphate labelling of tobacco Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells, we here provide in vivo evidence for a rapid accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) in response to cryptogein because of the coordinated onset of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) activities. Both enzyme specific inhibitors and silencing of the phylogenetic cluster III of the tobacco DGK family were found to reduce PA production upon elicitation and to strongly decrease the RBOHD-mediated oxidative burst. Therefore, it appears that PA originating from DGK controls NADPH-oxidase activity. Amongst cluster III DGKs, the expression of DGK5-like was up-regulated in response to cryptogein. Besides DGK5-like is likely to be the main cluster III DGK isoform silenced in one of our mutant lines, making it a strong candidate for the observed response to cryptogein. The relevance of these results is discussed with regard to early signalling lipid-mediated events in plant immunity.

  16. Diacylglycerol levels modulate the cellular distribution of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Mateos, Melina V; Vallés, Ana S; Pediconi, María F; Barrantes, Francisco J; Borroni, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG), a second messenger involved in different cell signaling cascades, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and D (PKD), among other kinases. The present work analyzes the effects resulting from the alteration of DAG levels on neuronal and muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) distribution. We employ CHO-K1/A5 cells, expressing adult muscle-type AChR in a stable manner, and hippocampal neurons, which endogenously express various subtypes of neuronal AChR. CHO-K1/A5 cells treated with dioctanoylglycerol (DOG) for different periods showed augmented AChR cell surface levels at short incubation times (30min-4h) whereas at longer times (18h) the AChR was shifted to intracellular compartments. Similarly, in cultured hippocampal neurons surface AChR levels increased as a result of DOG incubation for 4h. Inhibition of endogenous DAG catabolism produced changes in AChR distribution similar to those induced by DOG treatment. Specific enzyme inhibitors and Western blot assays revealed that DAGs exert their effect on AChR distribution through the modulation of the activity of classical PKC (cPKC), novel PKC (nPKC) and PKD activity.

  17. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50 °C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60 °C for 1 h, and the optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time was 30 min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30 °C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn2+, followed by Mg2+ and Fe2+. Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1 mM) and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation. PMID:26887237

  18. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  1. [The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2015-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.

  2. Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malanowski, Aleksander; Rostocki, A. J.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Kościesza, R.; Tarakowski, R.; Ptasznik, S.; Siegoczyński, R. M.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.

  3. Diacylglycerol Kinases in the Coordination of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Kim, Eunjoon; Tanaka-Yamamoto, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is activity-dependent modification of the efficacy of synaptic transmission. Although, detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity are diverse and vary at different types of synapses, diacylglycerol (DAG)-associated signaling has been considered as an important regulator of many forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent evidences indicate that DAG kinases (DGKs), which phosphorylate DAG to phosphatidic acid to terminate DAG signaling, are important regulators of LTP and LTD, as supported by the results from mice lacking specific DGK isoforms. This review will summarize these studies and discuss how specific DGK isoforms distinctly regulate different forms of synaptic plasticity at pre- and postsynaptic sites. In addition, we propose a general role of DGKs as coordinators of synaptic plasticity that make local synaptic environments more permissive for synaptic plasticity by regulating DAG concentration and interacting with other synaptic proteins. PMID:27630986

  4. Agonist-induced production of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in intact resistance arteries. Evidence that accumulation of diacylglycerol is not a prerequisite for contraction.

    PubMed

    Ohanian, J; Ollerenshaw, J; Collins, P; Heagerty, A

    1990-05-25

    The production of total amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerol as well as those specifically derived from inositol lipid hydrolysis was studied in intact rat resistance arteries stimulated with either noradrenaline, vasopressin, or angiotensin II at 20 s when the onset of contraction would be nearing its maximum, and at 5 min during the sustained phase of contraction. Total amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerol were not altered by any agonist at 20 s, or at 5 min. However, arachidonate-containing species of 1,2-diacylglycerol were differentially influenced being increased at 5 min by noradrenaline, and decreased at 20 s and 5 min by vasopressin. Only angiotensin II produced substantial increases in this class of 1,2-diacylglycerol at both time points. In order to investigate the fate of this second messenger total and inositol lipid derived phosphatidic acids were then measured at both 20 s and 5 min. Noradrenaline induced a rise in both total and arachidonate-containing phosphatidic acid at both times as did vasopressin. Only small increases were induced by angiotensin II at 20 s. These data demonstrate that the accumulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol generated from inositol lipid breakdown is only observed with activation by angiotensin II. Other agonists produced phosphatidic acids with time and the rate of generation of these lipids is agonist-specific. Thus phosphatidic acid may play a more prominent role during the sustained phase of contraction than previously anticipated.

  5. The SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 Lipase Limits Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Vegetative Tissues of Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Amélie A.; van Erp, Harrie; Quettier, Anne-Laure; Shaw, Eve; Menard, Guillaume; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the prospect of engineering crops to produce triacylglycerol (TAG) in their vegetative tissues as a means to achieve a step change in oil yield. Here, we show that disruption of TAG hydrolysis in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lipase mutant sugar-dependent1 (sdp1) leads to a substantial accumulation of TAG in roots and stems but comparatively much lower TAG accumulation in leaves. TAG content in sdp1 roots increases with the age of the plant and can reach more than 1% of dry weight at maturity, a 50-fold increase over the wild type. TAG accumulation in sdp1 roots requires both ACYL-COENZYME A:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 and can also be strongly stimulated by the provision of exogenous sugar. In transgenic plants constitutively coexpressing WRINKLED1 and DGAT1, sdp1 also doubles the accumulation of TAG in roots, stems, and leaves, with levels ranging from 5% to 8% of dry weight. Finally, provision of 3% (w/v) exogenous Suc can further boost root TAG content in these transgenic plants to 17% of dry weight. This level of TAG is similar to seed tissues in many plant species and establishes the efficacy of an engineering strategy to produce oil in vegetative tissues that involves simultaneous manipulation of carbohydrate supply, fatty acid synthesis, TAG synthesis, and also TAG breakdown. PMID:23686420

  6. Expression of human hormone-sensitive lipase in white adipose tissue of transgenic mice increases lipase activity but does not enhance in vitro lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Stéphanie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Tiraby, Claire; Mairal, Aline; Langin, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters (CEs). The enzyme is highly expressed in adipose tissues (ATs), where it is thought to play an important role in fat mobilization. The purpose of the present work was to study the effect of a physiological increase of HSL expression in vivo. Transgenic mice were produced with a 21 kb human genomic fragment encompassing the exons encoding the adipocyte form of HSL. hHSL mRNA was expressed at 3-fold higher levels than murine HSL mRNA in white adipocytes. Transgene expression was also observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. The human protein was detected in ATs of transgenic (Tg) mice. The hydrolytic activities against triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG) analog, and CE were increased in transgenic mouse AT. However, cAMP-inducible adipocyte lipolysis was lower in transgenic animals. In the B6CBA genetic background, transgenic mice up to 14 weeks of age showed lower body weight and fat mass. The phenotype was not observed in older animals and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the OF1 genetic background, there was no difference in fat mass of mice fed ad libitum. However, transgenic mice became leaner than their wild-type (WT) littermates after a 4 day calorie restriction. The data show that overexpression of HSL, despite increased lipase activity, does not lead to enhanced lipolysis.

  7. Lipolysis of Visceral Adipocyte Triglyceride by Pancreatic Lipases Converts Mild Acute Pancreatitis to Severe Pancreatitis Independent of Necrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N.; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A.; DeLany, James P.; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. PMID:25579844

  8. Lipolysis of visceral adipocyte triglyceride by pancreatic lipases converts mild acute pancreatitis to severe pancreatitis independent of necrosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A; DeLany, James P; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2015-03-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Modeling of Pancreatic Lipase from a Cartilaginous Fish, the Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca).

    PubMed

    Bouchaâla, Emna; BouAli, Madiha; Ben Ali, Yassine; Miled, Nabil; Gargouri, Youssef; Fendri, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we have chosen the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), one of the most primitive living jawed aquatic vertebrates as a starting biological material to purify a lipase. A stingray pancreatic lipase (SPL) was purified from delipidated pancreatic powder. The SPL molecular weight was around 55 kDa which is slightly higher than that of known classical pancreatic lipases (50 kDa). This increase in the molecular weight was due to glycosylation. Like classic pancreatic lipases, SPL was found to be much more active on short-chain triacylglycerols than on long-chain ones. Natural detergents act as inhibitors of the SPL activity. This inhibition can be reversed by the addition of stingray colipase. Starting from total pancreatic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), partial stingray pancreatic lipase complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the PGEM-T vector. Partial amino acid sequence of the SPL was homologous to that of Japanese eel, porcine, and human pancreatic lipases. A 3D structure model of the sequenced part of SPL was built using the 3D structure of porcine pancreatic lipase as template, since both lipases shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60%.

  10. Determination of a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor, 2-[4-(4-{5-[2-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl) oxazole-4-carboxamido]-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl} phenyl) cyclohexyl] acetic acid (KR-69232) in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyewon; Choi, Sung Heum; Kwak, Eun-Young; Zheng, Zhi; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Jin Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae; Song, Jin Sook

    2014-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of KR-69232, a diacyltransferase 1 inhibitor, in rat plasma. KR-69232 in the concentration range of 0.004-4 µg/mL was linear. The intra-and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable (<20%). KR-69232 was stable under various storage and handling conditions. The method was applied successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of KR-69232 in rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaohu; Niehus, Xochitl; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.

  12. Safety assessment of heated diacylglycerol oil: subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Morita, Osamu; Tamaki, Yasushi; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Chengelis, Christopher P

    2008-08-01

    Diacylglycerol oil is an edible oil with similar taste and usability characteristics as conventional edible oil rich in triacylglycerol oil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate potential adverse effects of heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil in rats following subchronic administration. The heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oils were prepared separately following deep frying potato slices at 180 degrees C for 8h per day for three days. Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets containing different ratios (concentrations) of heated to unheated diacylglycerol oil. The ratio of heated to unheated diacylglycerol was as follows: 0%/5.5% (control-1; Group 1), 1.0%/4.5% (Group 2), 2.75%/2.75% (Group 3), and 5.5%/0% (Group 4). Two additional groups received the feed containing 5.5% of unheated or 5.5% of heated triacylglycerol oil. Compared to the unheated oils, feeding of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant changes in clinical observation, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, ophthalmic examinations, functional observational battery and motor activity, clinical pathology evaluations and organ weights. Similarly, terminal necropsy did not reveal treatment-related gross or histopathology findings. Based on the results of this subchronic study, the no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) of heated diacylglycerol or triacylglycerol oil were 5.5%, the highest levels tested. The mean dietary exposure levels at the highest dose for the heated diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol oil for male and female rats ranged from 3,178 to 4,120 mg/kg/day.

  13. Antioxidant property and [Formula: see text]-glucosidase, [Formula: see text]-amylase and lipase inhibiting activities of Flacourtia inermis fruits: characterization of malic acid as an inhibitor of the enzymes.

    PubMed

    Alakolanga, A G A W; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Flacourtia inermis Roxb. (Flacourtiaceae), is a moderate sized tree cultivated in Sri Lanka for its fruits known as Lovi. The current study was undertaken to study the biological activity of extracts of the fruits in an attempt to increase the value of the under exploited fruit crops. Fruits of F. inermis were found to be rich in phenolics and anthocyanins. Polyphenol content of the fruits was determined to be 1.28 g gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruit and anthocyanin content was estimated as 108 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g of fresh fruits. The EtOAc extract showed moderate antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 value of 66.2 ppm. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the fruits also exhibited inhibitory activities toward α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase enzymes with IC50values ranging from 549 to 710 ppm, 1021 to 1949 ppm and 1290 to 2096 ppm, respectively. The active principle for the enzyme inhibition was isolated through activity-guided fractionation and was characterized as (S)-malic acid. The results of this study indicate that F. inermis fruits have the potential to be used in health foods and in nutritional supplements.

  14. The role of diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein I in lipid transport during insect vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chino, H; Downer, R G; Takahashi, K

    1977-06-22

    A diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein was isolated from mature eggs of the silkworm, Philosamia cynthia and compared, for physiochemical properties, with the major diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein I (LP-I) of hemolymph. The two molecules are identical an electrophoretic mobility, structural configuration as revealed by electron microscopy, and amino acid composition. In addition mannose was detected in the lipid-free protein moiety, thus enabling classification of the molecules as glycoproteins. The molecules differ in lipid content with egg-LP-I containing only 3.6% of the diacylglycerol content of hemolymph LP-I and the phospholipid and cholesterol components also showing a marked reduction. Analysis of the LP-I and vitellogenin (another diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein; LP-II) concentrations of mature eggs indicates that the amounts of the two glycolipoproteins in eggs are insufficient to account for the total acylglycerol content of the eggs. The results suggest that LP-I functions as a true carrier-protein serving to transport diacylglycerol from the fat body to the ovary. This proposal is supported by the observation that LP-I isolated from the egg retains the physiological capacity of hemolymph-LPi to take up diacylglycerol from fat body. Thus it is suggested that LP-I is the major source of lipid for vitellogenesis, whereas vitellogenin is the primary source of protein.

  15. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source.

  16. Screening for Hydrolytic Enzymes Reveals Ayr1p as a Novel Triacylglycerol Lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317–23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301–37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

  17. Diacylglycerol Kinase-ε: Properties and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Richard M.; So, Vincent; Jennings, William; Khadka, Bijendra; Gupta, Radhey S.; Lemaire, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals there are at least 10 isoforms of diacylglycerol kinases (DGK). All catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Among DGK isoforms, DGKε has several unique features. It is the only DGK isoform with specificity for a particular species of DAG, i.e., 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl glycerol. The smallest of all known DGK isoforms, DGKε, is also the only DGK devoid of a regulatory domain. DGKε is the only DGK isoform that has a hydrophobic segment that is predicted to form a transmembrane helix. As the only membrane-bound, constitutively active DGK isoform with exquisite specificity for particular molecular species of DAG, the functional overlap between DGKε and other DGKs is predicted to be minimal. DGKε exhibits specificity for DAG containing the same acyl chains as those found in the lipid intermediates of the phosphatidylinositol-cycle. It has also been shown that DGKε affects the acyl chain composition of phosphatidylinositol in whole cells. It is thus likely that DGKε is responsible for catalyzing one step in the phosphatidylinositol-cycle. Steps of this cycle take place in both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. DGKε is likely present in both of these membranes. DGKε is the only DGK isoform that is associated with a human disease. Indeed, recessive loss-of-function mutations in DGKε cause atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS). This condition is characterized by thrombosis in the small vessels of the kidney. It causes acute renal insufficiency in infancy and most patients develop end-stage renal failure before adulthood. Disease pathophysiology is poorly understood and there is no therapy. There are also data suggesting that DGKε may play a role in epilepsy and Huntington disease. Thus, DGKε has many unique molecular and biochemical properties when compared to all other DGK isoforms. DGKε homologs also contain a number of conserved sequence features that are distinctive

  18. Inhibition of lipase activities by citrus pectin.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Sumiyosh, Maho; Han, Li-Kun; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsujita, Junji; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2003-10-01

    The oral administration of pectin to rats reduced and delayed the peak plasma triacylglycerol concentration. Pectin inhibited the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol emulsified with soybean phosphatidylcholine by pancreatic, carboxylester, and lingual lipases in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the effective concentration of pectin for lingual lipase was 100 times lower than that for pancreatic lipase. Pectin did not inhibit the tributyrin- and p-nitrophenylbutyrate-hydrolyzing activities by pancreatic and carboxylester lipase. When low molecular weight pectin was assayed, pectin at a molecular weight of 90,000 (MW 90) most strongly inhibited three lipase activities. When the effect of pH on pectin inhibition was analyzed using pancreatic lipase, strong inhibition was observed at an acidic pH (below pH 7.0). In the assay system, the pancreatic lipase protein levels in the supernatant and fat layer were estimated by Western blotting with an anti-pancreatic lipase antibody. Pectin reduced the amount of pancreatic lipase protein in the fat layer in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly increased that in the supernatant. These results suggest that pectin may interact with emulsified substrates and inhibit the adsorption of lipase to the surface of substrate emulsion.

  19. Differential effects of fenofibrate or simvastatin treatment of rats on hepatic microsomal overt and latent diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Ian J; Zammit, Victor A

    2002-06-01

    Hepatic triacylglycerol secretion is elevated in insulin-resistant states. Microsomal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). We have previously described two DGAT activities in rat liver microsomes, one overt (cytosol-facing) and one latent (endoplasmic reticulum lumen-facing) (Owen MR, Corstorphine CG, Zammit VA: Overt and latent activities of diacylglycerol acytransferase in rat liver microsomes: possible roles in very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol secretion. Biochem J 323:17-21, 1977). It was suggested that they are involved in the synthesis of TAG for the cytosolic droplet and VLDL lipidation, respectively. In the present study, we measured the overt and latent DGAT activities in rats fed diets containing one of two hypolipidemic drugs: fenofibrate (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [PPARalpha] agonist) and simvastatin (a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl [HMG]-CoA reductase inhibitor). We found that the activities of the two DGATs could be varied independently by these treatments. Fenofibrate raised overt DGAT activity but lowered that of latent DGAT. In contrast, simvastatin markedly lowered overt DGAT activity without affecting that of latent DGAT. The increase in overt DGAT activity induced by fenofibrate could not be mimicked by feeding a diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which lowered overt DGAT activity but did not affect latent DGAT, suggesting that n-3 PUFA act through a mechanism independent of PPARalpha activation. The fibrate-induced increase in overt DGAT activity and the inhibition of latent DGAT may provide a mechanism through which acyl moieties are retained within the liver for oxidation through the pathways concomitantly upregulated by PPARalpha activation.

  20. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Clostridium perfingens

    SciTech Connect

    Carmen, G.M.; Zaniewski, R.L.; Cousminer, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    CTP: phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) was identified in the cell envelope fraction of the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens. The association of this enzyme with the cell envelope fraction of cell extracts was demonstrated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation and by activity sedimenting with the 100,000 x g pellet. The enzyme exhibited a broad pH optimium between pH 6.5 and pH 7.5. Enzyme activity was dependent on magnesium (5 mM) or manganese (1 mM) ions. Activity was also dependent on the addition on the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 (5 mM). The apparent Km values for CTP and phosphatidic acid were 0.18 mM and 0.22 mM respectively. Thioreactive agents inhibited activity, indicating that a sulfhydryl group is essential for activity. Maximal enzyme activity was observed at 50 degrees C. (Refs. 24).

  1. Diacylglycerol induces fusion of nuclear envelope membrane precursor vesicles.

    PubMed

    Barona, Teresa; Byrne, Richard D; Pettitt, Trevor R; Wakelam, Michael J O; Larijani, Banafshe; Poccia, Dominic L

    2005-12-16

    Purified membrane vesicles isolated from sea urchin eggs form nuclear envelopes around sperm nuclei following GTP hydrolysis in the presence of cytosol. A low density subfraction of these vesicles (MV1), highly enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), is required for nuclear envelope formation. Membrane fusion of MV1 with a second fraction that contributes most of the nuclear envelope can be initiated without GTP by an exogenous bacterial PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) which hydrolyzes PtdIns to form diacylglycerides and inositol 1-phosphate. This PI-PLC hydrolyzes a subset of sea urchin membrane vesicle PtdIns into diglycerides enriched in long chain, polyunsaturated species as revealed by a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Large unilammelar vesicles (LUVs) enriched in PtdIns can substitute for MV1 in PI-PLC induced nuclear envelope formation. Moreover, MV1 prehydrolyzed with PI-PLC and washed to remove inositols leads to spontaneous nuclear envelope formation with MV2 without further PI-PLC treatment. LUVs enriched in diacylglycerol mimic prehydrolyzed MV1. These results indicate that production of membrane-destabilizing diglycerides in membranes enriched in PtdIns may facilitate membrane fusion in a natural membrane system and suggest that MV1, which binds only to two places on the sperm nucleus, may initiate fusion locally.

  2. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, René

    2011-03-01

    The properties of fat are of major importance when meat products are produced. By enzymatic modification triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to diacylglycerols (DAGs) resulting in changes of the physical and chemical properties of the fat. In this study the texture as well as the hydration and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness. The results suggest future opportunities for the application of DAGs to improve the quality of meat products. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Arabidopsis DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed by basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C coupled to diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Djafi, Nabila; Vergnolle, Chantal; Cantrel, Catherine; Wietrzyñski, Wojciech; Delage, Elise; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Gey, Delphine; Collin, Sylvie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipases C (PI-PLCs) are activated in response to various stimuli. They utilize substrates provided by type III-Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinases (PI4KIII) to produce inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) that is phosphorylated into phosphatidic acid (PA) by DAG-kinases (DGKs). The roles of PI4KIIIs, PI-PLCs, and DGKs in basal signaling are poorly understood. We investigated the control of gene expression by basal PI-PLC pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis allowed the identification of genes whose expression was altered by edelfosine, 30 μM wortmannin, or R59022, inhibitors of PI-PLCs, PI4KIIIs, and DGKs, respectively. We found that a gene responsive to one of these molecules is more likely to be similarly regulated by the other two inhibitors. The common action of these agents is to inhibit PA formation, showing that basal PI-PLCs act, in part, on gene expression through their coupling to DGKs. Amongst the genes up-regulated in presence of the inhibitors, were some DREB2 genes, in suspension cells and in seedlings. The DREB2 genes encode transcription factors with major roles in responses to environmental stresses, including dehydration. They bind to C-repeat motifs, known as Drought-Responsive Elements that are indeed enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated by PI-PLC pathway inhibitors. PA can also be produced by phospholipases D (PLDs). We show that the DREB2 genes that are up-regulated by PI-PLC inhibitors are positively or negatively regulated, or indifferent, to PLD basal activity. Our data show that the DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed in resting conditions and that DGK coupled to PI-PLC is active in this process, in suspension cells and seedlings. We discuss how this basal negative regulation of DREB2 genes is compatible with their stress-triggered positive regulation.

  4. The Arabidopsis DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed by basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C coupled to diacylglycerol kinase

    PubMed Central

    Djafi, Nabila; Vergnolle, Chantal; Cantrel, Catherine; Wietrzyñski, Wojciech; Delage, Elise; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Gey, Delphine; Collin, Sylvie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipases C (PI-PLCs) are activated in response to various stimuli. They utilize substrates provided by type III-Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinases (PI4KIII) to produce inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) that is phosphorylated into phosphatidic acid (PA) by DAG-kinases (DGKs). The roles of PI4KIIIs, PI-PLCs, and DGKs in basal signaling are poorly understood. We investigated the control of gene expression by basal PI-PLC pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis allowed the identification of genes whose expression was altered by edelfosine, 30 μM wortmannin, or R59022, inhibitors of PI-PLCs, PI4KIIIs, and DGKs, respectively. We found that a gene responsive to one of these molecules is more likely to be similarly regulated by the other two inhibitors. The common action of these agents is to inhibit PA formation, showing that basal PI-PLCs act, in part, on gene expression through their coupling to DGKs. Amongst the genes up-regulated in presence of the inhibitors, were some DREB2 genes, in suspension cells and in seedlings. The DREB2 genes encode transcription factors with major roles in responses to environmental stresses, including dehydration. They bind to C-repeat motifs, known as Drought-Responsive Elements that are indeed enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated by PI-PLC pathway inhibitors. PA can also be produced by phospholipases D (PLDs). We show that the DREB2 genes that are up-regulated by PI-PLC inhibitors are positively or negatively regulated, or indifferent, to PLD basal activity. Our data show that the DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed in resting conditions and that DGK coupled to PI-PLC is active in this process, in suspension cells and seedlings. We discuss how this basal negative regulation of DREB2 genes is compatible with their stress-triggered positive regulation. PMID:23964284

  5. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin[S

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. PMID:25748441

  6. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de Los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A

    2015-05-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... In people with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency , increased fat levels can also cause neurological features, such as depression, memory loss, and mild intellectual decline (dementia). These problems are ...

  8. Novel ciliate lipases for enzyme replacement during exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Brock, Alexander; Aldag, Ingo; Edskes, Stella; Hartmann, Marcus; Herzog, Torsten; Uhl, Waldemar; Schnekenburger, Juergen

    2016-11-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by inflammation or pancreatic tumors results in nutrient malfunction by a lack of digestive enzymes and neutralization compounds. Despite satisfactory clinical results with current enzyme therapies, a normalization of fat absorption in patients is rare. An individualized therapy is required that includes high dosage of enzymatic units, usage of enteric coating, and addition of gastric proton pump inhibitors. The key goal to improve this therapy is to identify digestive enzymes with high activity and stability in the gastrointestinal tract. We cloned and analyzed three novel ciliate lipases derived from Tetrahymena thermophila. Using highly precise pH-STAT-titration and colorimetric methods, we determined stability and lipolytic activity under physiological conditions in comparison with commercially available porcine and fungal digestive enzyme preparations. We measured from pH 2.0 to 9.0, with different bile salts concentrations, and substrates such as olive oil and fat derived from pig diet. Ciliate lipases CL-120, CL-130, and CL-230 showed activities up to 220-fold higher than Creon, pancreatin standard, and rizolipase Nortase within a pH range from pH 2.0 to 9.0. They are highly active in the presence of bile salts and complex pig diet substrate, and more stable after incubation in human gastric juice compared with porcine pancreatic lipase and rizolipase. The newly cloned and characterized lipases fulfilled all requirements for high activity under physiological conditions. These novel enzymes are therefore promising candidates for an improved enzyme replacement therapy for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

  9. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase: potential targets for metabolic engineering of microorganism oil.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-01

    Oleaginous microorganism is becoming one of the most promising oil feedstocks for biodiesel production due to its great advantages in triglyceride (TAG) accumulation. Previous studies have shown that de novo TAG biosynthesis can be divided into two parts: the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (the upstream part which generates acyl-CoAs) and the glycerol-3-phosphate acylation pathway (the downstream part in which three acyl groups are sequentially added onto a glycerol backbone). This review mainly focuses on two enzymes in the G3P pathway, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). The former catalyzes a dephosphorylation reaction, and the latter catalyzes a subsequent acylation reaction. Genes, functional motifs, transmembrane domains, action mechanism, and new studies of the two enzymes are discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review also covers diacylglycerol kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reverse reaction of diacylglycerol formation. In addition, PAP and DGAT are the conjunction points of the G3P pathway, the Kennedy pathway, and the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway (CDP-DAG pathway), and the mutual transformation between TAGs and phospholipids is discussed as well. Given that both the Kennedy and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways are in metabolic interlock (MI) with the G3P pathway, it is suggested that, via metabolic engineering, TAG accumulation can be improved by the two pathways based on the pivotal function of PAP and DGAT.

  10. Diacylglycerol isomers in extra virgin olive oil: Effect of different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito M; Bilancia, Maria T; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso

    2013-10-15

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to investigate on the isomerisation of 1,2-diacylglycerols to 1,3-diacylglycerols as a function of the storage conditions, as well as to identify indices useful to evaluate the freshness of the oils. Two oils derived from two different cultivars (Coratina and Ogliarola barese) were stored for two years as follows: in bottles at dark; in clear glass bottles at light; in green glass bottles at light; in bottles at dark, the latter subjected to repeated opening and samplings to simulate domestic use. The obtained results evinced that during the storage period a significant increase in the 1,3-isomers was observed due to an isomerisation from the 1,2 to the 1,3 isomeric form, consequently the 1,3/1,2 ratio increased in both oils. The covariance analysis of the data showed that the isomerisation of diacylglycerols, taking place during time, was affected by the type of oil, probably due to the different initial hydrolysis level, but was not affected by the storage conditions. Among the parameters considered, the total diacylglycerols/1,3-diacylglycerols ratio could be used as freshness index of extra virgin olive oil, since it is not affected by either oil or storage conditions.

  11. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Database search has identified at least 59 DGAT1 sequences from 48 organisms, but the expression of any DGAT1 as a full-length protein in E. coli had not been reported because DGAT1s are integral membrane proteins and difficult to express and purify. The objective of this study was to establish a procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 in E. coli. Results An expression plasmid containing the open reading frame for tung tree (Vernicia fordii) DGAT1 fused to maltose binding protein and poly-histidine affinity tags was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). Immunoblotting showed that the recombinant DGAT1 (rDGAT1) was expressed, but mostly targeted to the membranes and insoluble fractions. Extensive degradation also occurred. Nonetheless, the fusion protein was partially purified from the soluble fraction by Ni-NTA and amylose resin affinity chromatography. Multiple proteins co-purified with DGAT1 fusion protein. These fractions appeared yellow in color and contained fatty acids. The rDGAT1 was solubilized from the insoluble fraction by seven detergents and urea, with SDS and Triton X-100 being the most effective detergents. The solubilized rDGAT1 was partially purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. PreScission protease digestion confirmed the identity of rDGAT1 and showed extensive precipitation following Ni-NTA affinity purification. Conclusions This study reports the first procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 from any species using a bacterial expression system. The results suggest that recombinant DGAT1 is degraded extensively from the carboxyl terminus and associated with other proteins, lipids, and membranes. PMID:21745386

  12. Medium-Chain Enriched Diacylglycerol (MCE-DAG) Oil Decreases Body Fat Mass in Mice by Increasing Lipolysis and Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeun; Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Jong Hun; Kim, Hun Jung; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Moon Won; Kim, Wooki; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2017-08-01

    Medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) escapes the formation of chylomicrons in the small intestine, resulting in energy expenditure through beta-oxidation. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is susceptible to oxidation rather than being stored in the adipose tissue. This study was conducted to verify the effect of MCE-DAG oil on body fat mass in vivo. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12) as follows: (1) normal diet (18% kcal from fat), (2) canola oil as a control (40% kcal from canola oil), (3) MCE-DAG10 (10% kcal from MCE-DAG + 30% kcal from canola oil), and (4) MCE-DAG20 (20% kcal from MCE-DAG + 20% kcal from canola oil). The body weight and fat mass of MCE-DAG20 group mice were decreased relative to those of control mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). Serum triacylglycerol (TAG) was decreased in both MCE-DAG10 and MCE-DAG20 groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) were increased in the MCE-DAG20 group relative to the control in white adipose tissue (WAT) (P < 0.05). Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was also increased in the MCE-DAG20 group relative to the control in brown adipose tissue (BAT) (P < 0.05). In summary, MCE-DAG reduced body fat mass likely by stimulating lipolysis in WAT and thermogenesis in BAT.

  13. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Modulates Adipose Metabolism Through PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Yu, Zaixin; Patel, Shailja; Jue, Dyron; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2010-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is rate-limiting for diacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in adipose tissue and essential for complete hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Gene expression profiling in HSL−/− mice suggests that HSL is important for modulating adipogenesis and adipose metabolism. To test whether HSL is required for the supply of intrinsic ligands for PPARγ for normal adipose differentiation, HSL−/− and wild type (WT) littermates were fed normal chow (NC) and high fat (HF) diets supplemented with or without rosiglitazone (200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. Results show that supplementing rosiglitazone to a NC diet completely normalized the decreased body weight and adipose depots in HSL−/− mice. Additionally, rosiglitazone resulted in similar serum glucose, total cholesterol, FFA and adiponectin values in WT and HSL−/− mice. Furthermore, rosiglitazone normalized the expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and metabolism, and cholesteryl ester homeostasis, in HSL−/− mice. Supplementing rosiglitazone to a HF diet resulted in improved glucose tolerance in both WT and HSL−/− animals and also partial normalization in HSL−/− mice of abnormal WAT gene expression, serum chemistries, organ and body weight changes. In vitro studies showed that adipocytes from WT animals can provide ligands for activation of PPARγ, and that activation is further boosted following lipolytic stimulation; whereas adipocytes from HSL−/− mice displayed attenuated activation of PPARγ, with no change following lipolytic stimulation. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which HSL modulates adipose metabolism is by providing intrinsic ligands or pro-ligands for PPARγ. PMID:20950707

  14. Lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl butyrate synthesis in n-hexane- a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Devi, N Annapurna; Radhika, G B; Bhargavi, R J

    2017-08-01

    Kinetics of lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl caprate and butyric acid was investigated. The objective of this work was to propose a reaction mechanism and develop a rate equation for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate by transesterification using surfactant coated lipase from Candida rugosa. The reaction rate could be described in terms of Michaelis-Menten equation with a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism and competitive inhibition by both the substrates. The values of kinetic parameters computed were Vmax = 2.861 μmol/min/mg; Km(acid) = 0.0746 M; Km(ester) = 0.125 M; Ki acid = 0.450 M. This study indicated a competitive enzyme inhibition by butyric acid during lipase catalyzed transesterification reaction. Experimental observations had clearly indicated that the substrates as well as product act as dead-end inhibitors.

  15. Modeling species-specific diacylglycerol dynamics in the RAW 264.7 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Callender, Hannah L; Horn, Mary Ann; DeCamp, Dianne L; Sternweis, Paul C; Alex Brown, H

    2010-02-21

    A mathematical model of the G protein signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages downstream of P2Y(6) receptors activated by the ubiquitous signaling nucleotide uridine 5'-diphosphate is developed. The model, which is based on time-course measurements of inositol trisphosphate, cytosolic calcium, and diacylglycerol, focuses particularly on differential dynamics of multiple chemical species of diacylglycerol. When using the canonical pathway representation, the model predicted that key interactions were missing from the current network structure. Indeed, the model suggested that accurate depiction of experimental observations required an additional branch to the signaling pathway. An intracellular pool of diacylglycerol is immediately phosphorylated upon stimulation of an extracellular receptor for uridine 5'-diphosphate and subsequently used to aid replenishment of phosphatidylinositol. As a result of sensitivity analysis of the model parameters, key predictions can be made regarding which of these parameters are the most sensitive to perturbations and are therefore most responsible for output uncertainty.

  16. Selective immunostaining of Mehlis' gland of Opisthorchis viverrini by antibody against rat diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Chaisiwamongkol, Kowit; Kanla, Pipatphong; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Kondo, Hisatake

    2014-09-01

    The Mehlis' gland of Opisthorchis viverrini was selectively and intensely immunopositive with an antibody against rat diacylglycerol kinase gamma, and its entire structure with associated radiating processes was clearly demonstrated by immuno-light microscopy. In immuno-electron microscopy, the immunopositive processes were revealed to contain many vesicles and vacuoles and the immunoreactive materials were deposited diffusely in the cytoplasm except for the vesicular interior. The present findings suggest that diacylglycerol kinase is present and plays roles in PKC (protein kinase C)-related signaling in the Mehlis' gland of O. viverrini. This further suggests the possibility of a new way to protect from the infection of O. viverrini in humans by using diacylglycerol kinase as a therapeutic target.

  17. Anti- and pro-lipase activity of selected medicinal, herbal and aquatic plants, and structure elucidation of an anti-lipase compound.

    PubMed

    Ado, Muhammad Abubakar; Abas, Faridah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ghazali, Hasanah M

    2013-11-26

    Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents). Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4%) exhibited moderate inhibition (41%-80%) and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C Nielsen L. (jering), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam) and Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd (candle nut/buah keras) had the highest (100%) anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis), activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.

  18. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 reduces viability, migration and invasiveness of human colon adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cell line: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, Andrzej; Krajewska, Urszula; Owczarek, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Urszula; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reports suggest that the endocannabinoids may play a role of endogenous tumor growth modulators. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids may reduce colorectal cancer cell invasion and migration. The human colon adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267 (fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), mono- (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) inhibitors, respectively) for 48 h. The MTT colorimetric assay was performed to quantify cell viability. Next, Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845 alone or with PF-3845 together with selected antagonists: AM 251, AM 630, SB 366791, RN 1734 and G-15 (CB1, CB2, TRPV1, TRPV4 and GPR30 antagonists, respectively). Western blot assay was applied to identify the changes in CB1 and CB2 receptor expression. Migration and invasion assays were employed to characterize the effect of PF-3845 on colorectal cancer cell invasion. We found that of all the inhibitors used, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 reduced the Colo-205 cell line viability the most effectively (IC50=52.55 μM). We also showed that the effect of decreased cell viability was enhanced when Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845 and RN-1734, a TRPV4 antagonist (IC50=30.54 μM). Western blot assay revealed significantly decreased CB1 receptor expression levels, while CB2 expression was increased in response to PF-3845 when compared to control. Furthermore, PF-3845 inhibited migration and invasion of Colo-205 cell line. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of FAAH and consequent enhancement of the endocannabinoid levels may reduce the colorectal cancer growth and progression.

  19. [Identification of catalytically active groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ lipase].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, O S; Popova, T N; Kapranchikov, V S; Motina, E A

    2008-01-01

    The active site of wheat germ lipase was studied by the Dixon method and chemical modification. The profile of curve logV = f(pH), pK and ionization heat values, lipase photoinactivation, and lipase inactivation with diethylpyrocarbonate and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide led us to assume that the active site of the enzyme comprises the carboxylic group of aspartic or glutamic acid and the imidazole group of histidine. Apparently, the OH-group of serine plays a key role in catalysis: as a result of incubation for 1 h in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, the enzyme activity decreased by more than 70%. It is shown that ethylenediamine tetraacetate is a noncompetitive inhibitor of lipase. Wheat germs are very healthful because they are rich in vitamins, essential amino acids, and proteins. For this reason, wheat germs are widely used in food, medical, and feed mill industries [1-3]. However, their use is limited by instability during storage, which is largely determined by the effect of hydrolytic and redox enzymes. Representative enzymes of this group are lipase (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3), which hydrolyzes triglycerides of higher fatty acids, and lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.13), which oxidizes polyunsaturated higher fatty acids.

  20. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Shamsher S.

    2014-01-01

    Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s) could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s) not only improve(s) the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s) the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented. PMID:24672342

  1. Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase reduces nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, P P; Chen, J; Harenza, J L; Abdullah, R A; Sim-Selley, L J; Cravatt, B F; Miles, M F; Chen, X; Lichtman, A H; Damaj, M I

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abrupt discontinuation of nicotine, the main psychoactive component in tobacco, induces a withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent animals, consisting of somatic and affective signs, avoidance of which contributes to drug maintenance. While blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the primary catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide), exacerbates withdrawal responses in nicotine-dependent mice, the role of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main hydrolytic enzyme of a second endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), in nicotine withdrawal remains unexplored. Experimental Approach To evaluate the role of MAGL enzyme inhibition in nicotine withdrawal, we initially performed a genetic correlation approach using the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel. We then assessed nicotine withdrawal intensity in the mouse after treatment with the selective MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, and after genetic deletion of the enzyme. Lastly, we assessed the association between genotypes and smoking withdrawal phenotypes in two human data sets. Key Results BXD mice displayed significant positive correlations between basal MAGL mRNA expression and nicotine withdrawal responses, consistent with the idea that increased 2-AG brain levels may attenuate withdrawal responses. Strikingly, the MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, dose-dependently reduced somatic and aversive withdrawal signs, which was blocked by rimonabant, indicating a CB1 receptor-dependent mechanism. MAGL-knockout mice also showed attenuated nicotine withdrawal. Lastly, genetic analyses in humans revealed associations of the MAGL gene with smoking withdrawal in humans. Conclusions and Implications Overall, our findings suggest that MAGL inhibition maybe a promising target for treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:25258021

  2. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol. 29. Cells Sort Diacylglycerol-Lactone Chemical Zip Codes to Produce Diverse and Selective Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dehui; Sigano, Dina M.; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Lewin, Nancy E.; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L.; Lee, Jeewoo; Abeyweera, Thushara P.; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Kim, Hee; Kim, Young Ho; Kazzouli, Saïd El; Chung, Jae-Uk; Young, Howard A.; Young, Matthew R.; Baker, Alyson; Colburn, Nancy H.; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Truman, Jean-Philip; Parrish, Damon A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Perry, Nicholas A.; Surawski, Robert J.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone) libraries generated by a solid-phase approach using IRORI technology produced a variety of unique biological activities. Subtle differences in chemical diversity in two areas of the molecule, the combination of which generates what we have termed “chemical zip codes”, are able to transform a relatively small chemical space into a larger universe of biological activities, as membrane-containing organelles within the cell appear to be able to decode these “chemical zip codes”. It is postulated that after binding to protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes or other non-kinase target proteins that contain diacylglycerol responsive, membrane interacting domains (C1 domains), the resulting complexes are directed to diverse intracellular sites where different sets of substrates are accessed. Multiple cellular bioassays show that DAG-lactones, which bind in vitro to PKCα to varying degrees, expand their biological repertoire into a larger domain, eliciting distinct cellular responses. PMID:18698758

  3. In vitro stability evaluation of coated lipase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu Jie; Zhu, Jia; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Chu; Du, Yong Jie; Wang, Min Qi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study was conducted to evaluate the stability of commercial coated lipase (CT-LIP) in vitro. Methods The capsules were tested under different conditions with a range of temperature, pH, dry heat treatment and steaming treatment, simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) in this work, respectively. Free lipase (uncoated lipase, UC-LIP) was the control group. Lipase relative activities measured in various treatments were used as a reference frame to characterize the stability. Results The lipase activities were decreased with increasing temperatures (p<0.05), and there was a markedly decline (p<0.01) in lipase comparative activities of UC-LIP at 80°C compared with CT-LIP group. Higher relative activities of lipase were observed in CT-LIP group compared with the free one under acidic ambient (pH 3 to 7) and an alkaline medium (pH 8 to 12). Residual lipase activities of CT-LIP group were increased (p<0.05) by 5.67% and 35.60% in dry heat and hydrothermal treatments, respectively. The lipase relative activity profile of CT-LIP was raised at first and dropped subsequently (p<0.05) compared with constantly reduced tendency of UC-LIP exposed to both SGF and SIF. Conclusion The results suggest that the CT-LIP possesses relatively higher stability in comparison with the UC-LIP in vitro. The CT-LIP could retain the potential property to provide sustained release of lipase and thus improved its bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27507179

  4. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  5. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  6. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from 70 organisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with value-added properties and provide clues for therapeutic intervention for obes...

  7. Identification of a soluble diacylglycerol kinase required for lipoteichoic acid production in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Jerga, Agoston; Lu, Ying-Jie; Schujman, Gustavo E; de Mendoza, Diego; Rock, Charles O

    2007-07-27

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DagKs) are key enzymes in lipid metabolism that function to reintroduce diacylglycerol formed from the hydrolysis of phospholipids into the biosynthetic pathway. Bacillus subtilis is a prototypical Gram-positive bacterium with a lipoteichoic acid structure containing repeating units of sn-glycerol-1-P groups derived from phosphatidylglycerol head groups. The B. subtilis homolog of the prokaryotic DagK gene family (dgkA; Pfam01219) was not a DagK but rather was an undecaprenol kinase. The three members of the soluble DagK protein family (Pfam00781) in B. subtilis were tested by complementation of an E. coli dgkA mutant, and only the essential yerQ gene possessed DagK activity. This gene was dubbed dgkB, and the soluble protein product was purified, and its DagK activity was verified in vitro. Conditional inactivation of dgkB led to the accumulation of diacylglycerol and the cessation of lipoteichoic acid formation in B. subtilis. This study identifies a soluble protein encoded by the dgkB (yerQ) gene as an essential kinase in the diacylglycerol cycle that drives lipoteichoic acid production.

  8. Topology and Secondary Structure of the N-terminal Domain of Diacylglycerol Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Oxenoid, Kirill; Soennichsen, Frank D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2002-09-28

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) functions as a homotrimer of 13 kDa subunits, each of which has three transmembrane segments. This enzyme is conditionally essential to some bacteria and serves as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, stability, folding, and misfolding. In this work, the detailed topology and secondary structure of DAGKs N-terminus up through the loop

  9. Specificity and mechanism of protein kinase C activation by sn-1,2-diacylglycerols.

    PubMed Central

    Ganong, B R; Loomis, C R; Hannun, Y A; Bell, R M

    1986-01-01

    The specificity of protein kinase C activation by sn-1,2-diacylglycerols and analogues was investigated by using a Triton X-100 mixed micellar assay [Hannun, Y. A., Loomis, C. R. & Bell, R. M. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 10039-10043]. Analogues containing acyl or alkyl chains eight carbons in length were synthesized because sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol is an effective cell-permeant activator of protein kinase C. These analogues were tested as activators and antagonists of rat brain protein kinase C to determine the exact structural features important for activity. The analogues established that activation of protein kinase C by diacylglycerols is highly specific. Several analogues established that both carbonyl moieties of the oxygen esters are required for maximal activity and that the 3-hydroxyl moiety is also required. None of the analogues were antagonists. These data, combined with previous investigations, permitted formulation of a model of protein kinase C activation. A three-point attachment of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to the surface-bound protein kinase C-phosphatidylserine-Ca2+ complex is envisioned to cause activation. Direct ligation of diacylglycerol to Ca2+ is proposed to be an essential step in the mechanism of activation of protein kinase C. Images PMID:3456578

  10. A ROLE FOR DIACYLGLYCEROL IN ANNEXIN A7-MEDIATED FUSION OF LUNG LAMELLAR BODIES

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Avinash; Chen, Xiao-Liang; Naidu, Devendra G

    2007-01-01

    Lung surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells occurs following lamellar body fusion with plasma membrane. Annexin A7 is a Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein that is postulated to promote membrane fusion during exocytosis in some cell types including type II cells. Since annexin A7 preferably binds to lamellar body membranes, we postulated that specific lipids could modify the mode of annexin A7 interaction with membranes and its membrane fusion activity. Initial studies with phospholipid vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and other lipids showed that certain lipids affected protein interaction with vesicle membranes as determined by change in protein tryptophan fluorescence, protein interaction with trans membranes, and by protein sensitivity to limited proteolysis. The presence of signaling lipids, diacylglycerol or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, as minor components also modified the lipid vesicle effect on these characteristics and membrane fusion activity of annexin A7. In vitro incubation of lamellar bodies with diacylglycerol or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate caused their enrichment with either lipid, and increased the annexin A7 and Ca2+-mediated fusion of lamellar bodies. Treatment of isolated lung lamellar bodies with phosphatidylinositol- or phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C to increase diacylglycerol, without or with preincubation with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, augmented the fusion activity of annexin A7. Thus, increased diacylglycerol in lamellar bodies following cell stimulation with secretagogues may enhance membrane fusion activity of annexin A7. PMID:17765009

  11. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences for metabolic engineering and drug discovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase families (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secretion. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in plants. Therefore, unde...

  12. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R. )

    1990-12-31

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with ({sup 3}H)glycerol or ({sup 3}H)choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 ({sup 3}H))phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein.

  13. Developmental regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase family gene expression in tung tree tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are responsible for the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes, including DGAT1 and DGAT2 of tung tre...

  14. Castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase type1(DGAT1)displays greater activity with diricinolein than Arabidopsis DGAT1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil contains the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleate as a major (90%) component. The diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) carries out the final reaction step in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol, the principal constituent of seed oil, and has been considered to be the step that controls the oil...

  15. Expression of tung seed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) in E. coli and yeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG, resist obesity, and/or lack milk secretion. Over-expression of the DGATs increases TAG content in seeds and other t...

  16. Purification of extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Stuer, W; Jaeger, K E; Winkler, U K

    1986-01-01

    Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) was excreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAC1R during the late logarithmic growth phase. Characterization of cell-free culture supernatants by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of significant amounts of lipopolysaccharide, part of which seemed to be tightly bound to lipase. After concentration of culture supernatants by ultrafiltration, lipase-lipopolysaccharide complexes were dissociated by treatment with EDTA-Tris buffer and subsequent sonication in the presence of the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The solubilized lipase was purified by isoelectric focusing in an agarose gel containing the same detergent; the lipase activity appeared in a single peak corresponding to a distinct band in the silver-stained gel. The isoelectric point was 5.8. Analysis of purified lipase by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and scanning revealed an apparent molecular weight of 29,000 and a specific activity of 760 mu kat/mg of protein. Estimations based on these data showed that a single P. aeruginosa cell excreted about 200 molecules of lipase, each having a molecular activity of 2.2 X 10(4) per s. Images PMID:3096967

  17. Advances in lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Filippou, Michalis; Koukouritaki, Maria; Parapouli, Maria; Theodorou, Leonidas G; Hatziloukas, Efstathios; Afendra, Amalia; Pandey, Ashok; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2013-12-01

    Lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions are among the most significant chemical and biochemical processes of industrial relevance. Lipases catalyze hydrolysis as well as esterification reactions. Enzyme-catalyzed esterification has acquired increasing attention in many applications, due to the significance of the derived products. More specifically, the lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions attracted research interest during the past decade, due to an increased use of organic esters in biotechnology and the chemical industry. Lipases, as hydrolyzing agents are active in environments, which contain a minimum of two distinct phases, where all reactants are partitioned between these phases, although their distribution is not fixed and changes as the reaction proceeds. The kinetics of the lipase-catalyzed reactions is governed by a number of factors. This article presents a thorough and descriptive evaluation of the applied trends and perspectives concerning the enzymatic esterification, mainly for biofuel production; an emphasis is given on essential factors, which affect the lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction. Moreover, the art of using bacterial and/or fungal strains for whole cell biocatalysis purposes, as well as carrying out catalysis by various forms of purified lipases from bacterial and fungal sources is also reviewed.

  18. Hydrolysis of fluorescent pyrenetriacylglycerols by lipases from human stomach and gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Nègre, A; Salvayre, R; Dousset, N; Rogalle, P; Dang, Q Q; Douste-Blazy, L

    1988-11-25

    Fluorescent triacylglycerols containing pyrenedecanoic (P10) and pyrenebutanoic (P4) acids were synthesized and their hydrolysis by lipases from human gastric juice and stomach homogenate was investigated. The existence in stomach homogenate of four different lipolytic enzymes hydrolyzing fluorescent triacylglycerols is suggested by the comparison of various enzymatic properties: acyl chain length specificity, heat inactivation and effect of detergents (Triton X-100 and taurocholate), serum albumin, diethyl-para-nitrophenyl phosphate (E600) and other inhibitors. (1) The acid pH4-lipase hydrolyzes P10-triacylglycerols but not P4-triacylglycerol and exhibited the characteristic properties of the lysosomal lipase: the maximal activating effect of detergents occurs at relatively high concentrations (the substrate/detergent optimal molar ratios were 1:5 and 1:25 for triacylglycerols/taurocholate and triacylglycerols/Triton X-100, respectively); its activity was strongly inhibited by para-chloromercuribenzoate (2.5 mmol/l), but was not significantly affected by serum albumin and E600 (10(-2) mmol/l). (2) The neutral pH7-lipase hydrolyzes P10-triacylglycerols but not P4-triacylglycerol. It is resistant to E600 and heat-stable, similarly to the acid pH4-lipase, but it is well discriminated from the acid enzyme by its substrate/detergent optimal molar ratios (1:2 and 1:3 for triacylglycerols/taurocholate and triacylglycerols/Triton X-100, respectively), whereas higher detergent concentrations, optimal for the acid lipase, are strongly inhibitory for the neutral enzyme. (3) The pH5-lipase present in gastric juice as well as in stomach homogenate exhibited properties obviously discriminating it from the other lipolytic enzymes from stomach homogenate: broad substrate specificity for P10- as well as P4-triacylglycerols, activation by low concentrations of amphiphiles (with optimal ratios triacylglycerols/taurocholate, triacylglycerols/taurocholate and triacylglycerols

  19. Organization of the human lipoprotein lipase gene and evolution of the lipase gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchgessner, T G; Chuat, J C; Heinzmann, C; Etienne, J; Guilhot, S; Svenson, K; Ameis, D; Pilon, C; d'Auriol, L; Andalibi, A

    1989-01-01

    The human lipoprotein lipase gene was cloned and characterized. It is composed of 10 exons spanning approximately equal to 30 kilobases. The first exon encodes the 5'-untranslated region, the signal peptide plus the first two amino acids of the mature protein. The next eight exons encode the remaining 446 amino acids, and the tenth exon encodes the long 3'-untranslated region of 1948 nucleotides. The lipoprotein lipase transcription start site and the sequence of the 5'-flanking region were also determined. We compared the organization of genes for lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, pancreatic lipase, and Drosophila yolk protein 1, which are members of a family of related genes. A model for the evolution of the lipase gene family is presented that involves multiple rounds of gene duplication plus exon-shuffling and intron-loss events. Images PMID:2602366

  20. Synthesis of hepatic lipase in liver and extrahepatic tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Doolittle, M.H.; Wong, H.; Davis, R.C.; Schotz, M.C.

    1987-11-01

    Immunoprecipitations of hepatic lipase from pulse-labeled rat liver have demonstrated that hepatic lipase is synthesized in two distinct molecular weight forms, HL-I (Mr = 51,000) and HL-II (Mr = 53,000). Both forms are immunologically related to purified hepatic lipase, but not to lipoprotein lipase. HL-I and HL-II are also kinetically related and represent different stages of intracellular processing. Glycosidase experiments suggest that HL-I is the high mannose microsomal form of the mature, sialylated HL-II enzyme. Hepatic lipase activity was detected in liver and adrenal gland but was absent in brain, heart, kidney, testes, small intestine, lung, and spleen. The adrenal and liver lipase activities were inhibited in a similar dose-dependent manner by hepatic lipase antiserum. Immunoblot analysis of partially purified adrenal lipase showed an immunoreactive band co-migrating with HL-II at 53,000 daltons which was absent in a control blot treated with preimmune serum. Adrenal lipase and authentic hepatic lipase yielded similar peptide maps, confirming the presence of the lipase in adrenal gland. However, incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into immunoprecipitable hepatic lipase was not detected in this tissue. In addition, Northern blot analysis showed the presence of hepatic lipase mRNA in liver but not adrenal gland. The presence of hepatic lipase in adrenal gland in the absence of detectable synthesis or messenger suggests that hepatic lipase originates in liver and is transported to this extrahepatic site.

  1. Lipases That Activate at High Solvent Polarities.

    PubMed

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan; Bjerrum, Morten J

    2016-01-12

    Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases become activated in low-polarity environments that exist at the water-lipid interface where a structural change of the "lid" region occurs. In this work, we have investigated the activation of TlL (Lipase_W89) and certain lid mutants, containing either a single positive charge mutation, E87K (Lipase_K87_W89), within the lid region or a lid residue composition of both lipase and esterase character (Hybrid_W89) as a function of solvent polarity. Activation differences between the variants and TlL were studied by a combination of biophysical and theoretical methods. To investigate the structural changes taking place in the lid region upon lipase activation, we used a fluorescence-based method measuring the efficiency of Trp89 in the lid to quench the fluorescence of a bimane molecule attached in front (C255) and behind (C61) the lid. These structural changes were compared to the enzymatic activity of each variant at the water-substrate interface and to theoretical calculations of the energies associated with lid opening as a function of the dielectric constant (ε) of the environment. Our results show that the lid in Lipase_K87_W89 undergoes a pronounced structural transition toward an open conformation around ε = 50, whereas only small changes are detected for Lipase_W89 ascribed to the stabilizing effect of the positive charge mutation on the open lid conformation. Interestingly, Hybrid_W89, with the same charge as Lipase_W89, shows a stabilization of the open lid even more pronounced at high solvent polarities than that of Lipase_K87_W89, allowing activation at ε < 80. This is further indicated by measurement of the lipase activity for each variant showing that Hybrid_W89 is more quickly activated at the water-lipid interface of a true, natural substrate. Combined, we show that a correlation exists between structural changes and enzymatic activities detected on one hand and theoretical calculations on lid

  2. Expression of Soluble Forms of Yeast Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 That Integrate a Broad Range of Saturated Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Haïli, Nawel; Louap, Julien; Canonge, Michel; Jagic, Franjo; Louis-Mondésir, Christelle; Chardot, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y. lipolytica Dga1p as fusion proteins: the first one lacking the N-terminal hydrophilic segment (Dga1pΔ19), the second one also devoid of the N-terminal putative transmembrane domain (Dga1pΔ85). Most DGAT assays are performed on membrane fractions or microsomes, using radiolabeled substrates. We implemented a fluorescent assay in order to decipher the substrate specificity of purified Dga1p enzymes. Both enzyme versions prefer acyl-CoA saturated substrates to unsaturated ones. Dga1pΔ85 preferentially uses long-chain saturated substrates. Dga1p activities are inhibited by niacin, a specific DGAT2 inhibitor. The N-terminal transmembrane domain appears important, but not essential, for TG biosynthesis. The soluble and active proteins described here could be useful tools for future functional and structural studies in order to better understand and optimize DGAT enzymes for biotechnological applications. PMID:27780240

  3. The uncoupling effect of diacylglycerol on gap junctional communication of mammalian heart cells is independent of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Bastide, B; Hervé, J C; Délèze, J

    1994-10-01

    Possible regulatory effects on cell-to-cell communication of a synthetic diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), were examined in pairs of synchronously beating ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats in primary culture. Junctional communication was estimated by measuring either the rate constant of dye diffusion, with the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, or the cell-to-cell electrical conductance with a double whole-cell voltage clamp. The addition of a freshly prepared emulsion of 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG, 100 micrograms/ml), either in the bath or in the solution filling the patch pipet, was seen to interrupt intercellular communication within approximately 8 to 10 min. This effect is neither mimicked by stimulation of PKC by a phorbol ester, nor prevented by PKC inhibitors, making it unlikely that, in these cells, PKC activation could induce intercellular uncoupling. During OAG exposures, the intracellular calcium concentration was very modestly increased (by a factor 1.5 to 2), which does not suffice to account for uncoupling. OAG might trigger interruption of cell-to-cell communication by a mechanism analogous to that of other lipophilic molecules (such as aliphatic alcohols or long chain unsaturated fatty acids) which interfere with gap junctions.

  4. Expression of Soluble Forms of Yeast Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 That Integrate a Broad Range of Saturated Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Haïli, Nawel; Louap, Julien; Canonge, Michel; Jagic, Franjo; Louis-Mondésir, Christelle; Chardot, Thierry; Briozzo, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The membrane proteins acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are essential actors for triglycerides (TG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Microbial production of TG is of interest for producing biofuel and value-added novel oils. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, Dga1p enzyme from the DGAT2 family plays a major role in TG biosynthesis. Producing recombinant DGAT enzymes pure and catalytically active is difficult, hampering their detailed functional characterization. In this report, we expressed in Escherichia coli and purified two soluble and active forms of Y. lipolytica Dga1p as fusion proteins: the first one lacking the N-terminal hydrophilic segment (Dga1pΔ19), the second one also devoid of the N-terminal putative transmembrane domain (Dga1pΔ85). Most DGAT assays are performed on membrane fractions or microsomes, using radiolabeled substrates. We implemented a fluorescent assay in order to decipher the substrate specificity of purified Dga1p enzymes. Both enzyme versions prefer acyl-CoA saturated substrates to unsaturated ones. Dga1pΔ85 preferentially uses long-chain saturated substrates. Dga1p activities are inhibited by niacin, a specific DGAT2 inhibitor. The N-terminal transmembrane domain appears important, but not essential, for TG biosynthesis. The soluble and active proteins described here could be useful tools for future functional and structural studies in order to better understand and optimize DGAT enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  5. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-In

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 microg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 microg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC(50) of 78.2 microg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary.

  6. Lipase and phospholipase biosensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of biology, electronics, and nanotechnology have improved the development of biosensors. A biosensor is a device composed of a biological recognition element and a sensor element. Biosensor applications are becoming increasingly important in areas such as biotechnology, pharmaceutics, food, and environment. Lipases and phospholipases are enzymes which have been used widely in food industry, oleochemical industry, biodegradable polymers, detergents, and other applications. In the medical industry, lipases and phospholipases are used as diagnostic tools to detect triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids levels in blood samples. Therefore, the development of lipase and phospholipase biosensors is of paramount importance in the clinical area. This chapter introduces the reader into the preliminaries of biosensor and reviews recent developments of lipase and phospholipase biosensors.

  7. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of silicone polyesters.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Yadagiri; Clarson, Stephen J

    2009-11-28

    Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was successfully employed as a catalyst to synthesize silicone aromatic polyesters by the transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate with alpha,omega-bis(hydroxyalkyl)-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) in toluene under mild reaction conditions.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hepatic lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the body's ability to break down fats (lipids). People with this disorder have increased amounts of ... It is unclear what effect this change in lipid levels has on people with hepatic lipase deficiency . ...

  9. Lipase

    MedlinePlus

    ... in wheat products (celiac disease), Crohn's disease, and cystic fibrosis. ... the pancreas (pancreatic insufficiency) that is associated with cystic fibrosis.Allergy to gluten in wheat products (celiac disease). ...

  10. Immobilised lipase for in vitro lipolysis experiments.

    PubMed

    Phan, Stephanie; Salentinig, Stefan; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-04-01

    In vitro lipolysis experiments are used to assess digestion of lipid-based formulations, and probe solubilisation by colloidal phases during digestion. However, proteins and other biological components in the pancreatin often used as the lipase result in high-background scattering when interrogating structures using scattering approaches, complicating the resolution of colloidal structures. In this study, to circumvent this problem, a modified in vitro digestion model employing lipase immobilised on polymer beads, which allows for separation of the lipid digestion components during lipolysis, was investigated. Titration of the fatty acids released during digestion of medium chain triglycerides using pancreatin compared with immobilised lipase, combined with HPLC was used to follow the digestion, and small-angle X-ray scattering was used to determine colloidal structure formation. Digestion of medium chain triglycerides at the same nominal activity revealed that for the immobilised lipase, a longer digestion time was required to achieve the same extent of digestion. However, the same structural endpoint was observed, indicating that structure formation was not affected by the choice of lipase used. Lipolysis with immobilised lipase led to the reduction of parasitic scattering, resulting in clearer and more defined scattering from the structures generated by the lipolysis products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Effects of the diacylglycerol complexing agent, cremophor, on nerve-conduction velocity and perfusion in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jack, A M; Cameron, N E; Cotter, M A

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of diacylglycerol (DAG) and protein kinase C (PKC) to diabetic complications has been the subject of debate. In vascular tissues, diabetes increases DAG content, which activates PKC and causes abnormal tissue perfusion. Reduced nerve blood flow has been implicated in the development of neuropathy. However, nerve DAG/PKC activity is not increased and may even be reduced by diabetes, which has also been implicated in neuropathy. The aim was to test whether 2 weeks of treatment with cremophor, an agent that complexes DAG and prevents PKC activation, could correct nerve-conduction velocity (NCV) deficits in rats with 6 weeks of untreated diabetes, as predicted on a vascular hypothesis, or whether this worsened the deficits, as predicted for a direct effect on nerve fibers. Diabetes caused 17.9 +/- 0.9% (+/- SEM) and 15.5 +/- 1.6% reductions in sciatic motor and saphenous sensory NCV, respectively, that were largely (79.6 +/- 6.3% and 57.8 +/- 11.5%) corrected by 100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) cremophor treatment. The effects of cremophor on motor and sensory NCV were completely attenuated by co-treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine. In contrast, co-treatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, had no effect on NCV. Sciatic nutritive and total endoneurial perfusion were 49.7 +/- 3.4% and 51.8 +/- 4.2% reduced by diabetes, respectively, and these deficits were 69.5 +/- 7.4% and 79.0 +/- 11.6% corrected by cremophor treatment. Thus the data suggest that an increased DAG/PKC vascular mechanism, perhaps linked to the nitric oxide system, contributes to the etiology of diabetic nerve dysfunction.

  12. The interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol production in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-11-15

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalyse the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. Under these conditions the radioactive glycerol in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate accumulates in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol. The incorporation of glycerol into phosphatidylcholine is via diacylglycerol and probably involves a cholinephosphotransferase. The results show that the glycerol moiety and the acyl components in phosphatidylcholine exchange with the diacylglycerol during the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. The continuous reversible transfer of diacylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine, which operates during active triacylglycerol synthesis, will control in part the polyunsaturated-fatty-acid quality of the final seed oil.

  13. Membrane translocation of protein kinase Ctheta during T lymphocyte activation requires phospholipase C-gamma-generated diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Ernesto; Siliceo, María; Martínez-A, Carlos; Mérida, Isabel

    2003-08-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is the only PKC isoform recruited to the immunological synapse after T cell receptor stimulation, suggesting that its activation mechanism differs from that of the other isoforms. Previous studies have suggested that this selective PKC recruitment may operate via a Vav-regulated, cytoskeletal-dependent mechanism, independent of the classical phospholipase C/diacylglycerol pathway. Here, we demonstrate that, together with tyrosine phosphorylation of PKC in the regulatory domain, binding of phospholipase C-dependent diacylglycerol is required for PKC recruitment to the T cell synapse. In addition, we demonstrate that diacylglycerol kinase alpha-dependent diacylglycerol phosphorylation provides the negative signal required for PKC inactivation, ensuring fine control of the T cell activation response.

  14. The interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol production in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalyse the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. Under these conditions the radioactive glycerol in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate accumulates in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol. The incorporation of glycerol into phosphatidylcholine is via diacylglycerol and probably involves a cholinephosphotransferase. The results show that the glycerol moiety and the acyl components in phosphatidylcholine exchange with the diacylglycerol during the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. The continuous reversible transfer of diacylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine, which operates during active triacylglycerol synthesis, will control in part the polyunsaturated-fatty-acid quality of the final seed oil. PMID:4084230

  15. Crystallographic study of the structure of colipase and of the interaction with pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, M. P.; Sarda, L.; Verger, R.; Cambillau, C.; van Tilbeurgh, H.

    1995-01-01

    Colipase (Mr 10 kDa) confers catalytic activity to pancreatic lipase under physiological conditions (high bile salt concentrations). Previously determined 3-A-resolution X-ray structures of lipase-colipase complexes have shown that, in the absence of substrate, colipase binds to the noncatalytic C-terminal domain of pancreatic lipase (van Tilbeurgh H, Sarda L, Verger R, Cambillau C, 1992, Nature 359:159-162; van Tilbeurgh et al., 1993a, Nature 362:814-820). Upon lipid binding, conformational changes at the active site of pancreatic lipase bring a surface loop (the lid) in contact with colipase, creating a second binding site for this cofactor. Covalent inhibition of the pancreatic lipase by a phosphonate inhibitor yields better diffracting crystals of the lipase-colipase complex. From the 2.4-A-resolution structure of this complex, we give an accurate description of the colipase. It confirms the previous proposed disulfide connections (van Tilbeurgh H, Sarda L, Verger R, Cambillau C, 1992, Nature 359:159-162; van Tilbeurgh et al., 1993a, Nature 362:814-820) that were in disagreement with the biochemical assignment (Chaillan C, Kerfelec B, Foglizzo E, Chapus C, 1992, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184:206-211). Colipase lacks well-defined secondary structure elements. This small protein seems to be stabilized mainly by an extended network of five disulfide bridges that runs throughout the flatly shaped molecule, reticulating its four finger-like loops. The colipase surface can be divided into a rather hydrophilic part, interacting with lipase, and a more hydrophobic part, formed by the tips of the fingers. The interaction between colipase and the C-terminal domain of lipase is stabilized by eight hydrogen bonds and about 80 van der Waals contacts. Upon opening of the lid, three more hydrogen bonds and about 28 van der Waals contacts are added, explaining the higher apparent affinity in the presence of a lipid/water interface. The tips of the fingers are very mobile and

  16. Medicinal Plants and Their Inhibitory Activities against Pancreatic Lipase: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Seyedan, Atefehalsadat; Alshawsh, Mohammed Abdullah; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Koosha, Sanaz; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major life style disorder especially in developing countries and it is prevailing at an alarming speed in new world countries due to fast food intake, industrialization, and reduction of physical activity. Furthermore, it is associated with a vast number of chronic diseases and disabilities. To date, relatively effective drugs, from either natural or synthetic sources, are generally associated with serious side effects, often leading to cessation of clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. In order to find new compounds which are more effective or with less adverse effects compared to orlistat, the drug that has been approved for obesity, new compounds isolated from natural products are being identified and screened for antiobesity effects, in particular, for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity has been extensively used for the determination of potential efficacy of natural products as antiobesity agents. In attempts to identify natural products for overcoming obesity, more researches have been focused on the identification of newer pancreatic lipase inhibitors with less unpleasant adverse effects. In this review, we consider the potential role of plants that have been investigated for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. PMID:26640503

  17. Daio-Orengedokuto inhibits HMG-CoA reductase and pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Jung, Eun-Ah; Shin, Ji-Eun; Chang, Jong-Chul; Yang, Hyung-Kil; Kim, Nam-Jae; Cho, Ki-Ho; Bae, Hyung-Sup; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the antihyperlipidemic activities of Orengedokuto (OT) and Daio-Orengedokuto (DOT), the inhibitory effects of these polyprescriptions on HMG-CoA reductase and pancreatic lipase and on the rat hyperlipidemic model induced by Triton WR-1339 were measured. OT potently inhibited HMG-CoA reductase but did not inhibit lipase. Among their ingredients, Coptidis Rhizoma was the most potent inhibitor, followed by Rhei Rhizoma. The HMG-CoA reductase-inhibitory activity of 80% EtOH extract was superior to that of water extract. However, DOT potently inhibited HMG CoA-reductase as well as pancreatic lipase. In the rat hyperlipidemic model induced by Triton WR-1339, OT and DOT decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. DOT also decreased serum triglyceride levels, but OT did not decrease it. These results suggest that the antihyperlipidemic activity of DOT may originate from the inhibition of pancreatic lipase as well as HMG-CoA reductase.

  18. Utilization of agroindustrial residues for lipase production by solid-state fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Damaso, Mônica Caramez Triches; Passianoto, Moisés Augusto; de Freitas, Sidinéa Cordeiro; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Lago, Regina Celi Araujo; Couri, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to produce lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using, as substrate, agroindustrial residue supplemented with by-products from corn oil refining process or olive oil. For a group of ten fungi strains selected in the first steps, the lipase activity obtained by SSF varied from 7.7 to 58.6 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Among the evaluated strains, the Aspergillus niger mutant 11T53A14 was selected by presenting the best enzymatic production. For the fermentation tests, two substrates were also investigated: wheat bran and corn cob, both supplemented with olive oil. The best results were obtained with wheat bran. Additionally, three industrial by-products from corn oil refining (soapstock, stearin and fatty acids) were evaluated as substitutes to the olive oil in the function of lipases production inducer. Among them, soapstock and stearin were the best inducers, whereas fatty acids presented an inhibitor effect. The highest lipase activities using soapstock, stearin and fatty acids were 62.7 U/gds, 37.7 U/gds and 4.1 U/gds, respectively. PMID:24031288

  19. Antisense suppression of type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase adversely affects plant development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Lock, Yee-Ying; Snyder, Crystal L; Zhu, Weiming; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Weselake, Randall J; Shah, Saleh

    2009-09-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form triacylglycerol in the terminal step of seed oil formation. Previous work has suggested that the level of DGAT activity may have a substantial effect on the flow of carbon into triacylglycerol, implying that the enzyme may represent a promising target for seed oil modification through biotechnological approaches. In the current study, Brassica napus DH12075 was transformed with an antisense type 1 DGAT construct, resulting in a reduction in DGAT1 gene expression, total DGAT activity and seed oil content. In addition, reduced seed yield and germination rates were observed along with severe developmental abnormalities. These data suggest that in addition to its critical role in seed oil formation, DGAT1 enzyme may also be important for normal seed development in B. napus, although the underlying mechanism(s) remain to be determined. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha promotes radiation-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Christoph; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Oakes, Christopher C; Seibold, Petra; Slynko, Alla; Liesenfeld, David B; Rabionet, Mariona; Hanke, Sabrina A; Wenz, Frederik; Sperk, Elena; Benner, Axel; Rösli, Christoph; Sandhoff, Roger; Assenov, Yassen; Plass, Christoph; Herskind, Carsten; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2016-03-11

    Radiotherapy is a fundamental part of cancer treatment but its use is limited by the onset of late adverse effects in the normal tissue, especially radiation-induced fibrosis. Since the molecular causes for fibrosis are largely unknown, we analyse if epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in fibrosis risk. DNA methylation profiling of dermal fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients prior to irradiation identifies differences associated with fibrosis. One region is characterized as a differentially methylated enhancer of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA). Decreased DNA methylation at this enhancer enables recruitment of the profibrotic transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and facilitates radiation-induced DGKA transcription in cells from patients later developing fibrosis. Conversely, inhibition of DGKA has pronounced effects on diacylglycerol-mediated lipid homeostasis and reduces profibrotic fibroblast activation. Collectively, DGKA is an epigenetically deregulated kinase involved in radiation response and may serve as a marker and therapeutic target for personalized radiotherapy.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha promotes radiation-induced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Christoph; Veldwijk, Marlon R.; Oakes, Christopher C.; Seibold, Petra; Slynko, Alla; Liesenfeld, David B.; Rabionet, Mariona; Hanke, Sabrina A.; Wenz, Frederik; Sperk, Elena; Benner, Axel; Rösli, Christoph; Sandhoff, Roger; Assenov, Yassen; Plass, Christoph; Herskind, Carsten; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a fundamental part of cancer treatment but its use is limited by the onset of late adverse effects in the normal tissue, especially radiation-induced fibrosis. Since the molecular causes for fibrosis are largely unknown, we analyse if epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in fibrosis risk. DNA methylation profiling of dermal fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients prior to irradiation identifies differences associated with fibrosis. One region is characterized as a differentially methylated enhancer of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA). Decreased DNA methylation at this enhancer enables recruitment of the profibrotic transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and facilitates radiation-induced DGKA transcription in cells from patients later developing fibrosis. Conversely, inhibition of DGKA has pronounced effects on diacylglycerol-mediated lipid homeostasis and reduces profibrotic fibroblast activation. Collectively, DGKA is an epigenetically deregulated kinase involved in radiation response and may serve as a marker and therapeutic target for personalized radiotherapy. PMID:26964756

  2. Diacylglycerol Kinases (DGKs): Novel Targets for Improving T Cell Activity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Riese, Matthew J.; Moon, Edmund K.; Johnson, Bryon D.; Albelda, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of diacylglycerol (DAG). Two isoforms of DGK, DGKα, and DGKζ, specifically regulate the pool of DAG that is generated as a second messenger after stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR). Deletion of either isoform in mouse models results in T cells bearing a hyperresponsive phenotype and enhanced T cell activity against malignancy. Whereas, DGKζ appears to be the dominant isoform in T cells, rationale exists for targeting both isoforms individually or coordinately. Additional work is needed to rigorously identify the molecular changes that result from deletion of DGKs in order to understand how DAG contributes to T cell activation, the effect of DGK inhibition in human T cells, and to rationally develop combined immunotherapeutic strategies that target DGKs. PMID:27800476

  3. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ståhl, Ulf; Carlsson, Anders S.; Lenman, Marit; Dahlqvist, Anders; Huang, Bangquan; Banaś, Walentyna; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2004-01-01

    A new pathway for triacylglycerol biosynthesis involving a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) was recently described (Dahlqvist A, Stahl U, Lenman M, Banas A, Lee M, Sandager L, Ronne H, Stymne S, [2000] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 6487–6492). The LRO1 gene that encodes the PDAT was identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and shown to have homology with animal lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. A search of the Arabidopsis genome database identified the protein encoded by the At5g13640 gene as the closest homolog to the yeast PDAT (28% amino acid identity). The cDNA of At5g13640 (AtPDAT gene) was overexpressed in Arabidopsis behind the cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Microsomal preparations of roots and leaves from overexpressers had PDAT activities that correlated with expression levels of the gene, thus demonstrating that this gene encoded PDAT (AtPDAT). The AtPDAT utilized different phospholipids as acyl donor and accepted acyl groups ranging from C10 to C22. The rate of activity was highly dependent on acyl composition with highest activities for acyl groups containing several double bonds, epoxy, or hydroxy groups. The enzyme utilized both sn-positions of phosphatidylcholine but had a 3-fold preference for the sn-2 position. The fatty acid and lipid composition as well as the amounts of lipids per fresh weight in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPDAT were not significantly different from the wild type. Microsomal preparations of roots from a T-DNA insertion mutant in the AtPDAT gene had barely detectable capacity to transfer acyl groups from phospholipids to added diacylglycerols. However, these microsomes were still able to carry out triacylglycerol synthesis by a diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol acyltransferase reaction at the same rate as microsomal preparations from wild type. PMID:15247387

  4. Dramatic Differences in the Roles in Lipid Metabolism Of Two Isoforms of Diacylglycerol Kinase†

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Stephen B.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Myers, David S.; Lubarda, Jovana; Shulga, Yulia V.; Topham, Matthew K.; Brown, H. Alex; Epand, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid species change for SV40 transformed fibroblasts from wild-type or from diacylglycerol kinase-ε (DGKε) or diacylglycerol kinase-α (DGKα) knock out mice, were determined for glycerophospholipids, poly-phosphatidylinositides (GPInsPn), and diacylglycerol (DAG) using direct infusion mass spectrometry. Dramatic differences in arachidonate (20:4 fatty acid)-containing lipids were observed for multiple classes of glycerophospholipids and polyphosphatidylinositides between wild-type and DGKε knock out cells. However, no difference was observed in either the amount or the acyl chain composition of DAG between DGKε knock out and wild-type cells, suggesting that DGKε catalyzed the phosphorylation of a minor fraction of the DAG in these cells. The differences in arachidonate content between the two cell lines were greatest for the GPInsPn lipids and least for DAG. These findings indicate that DGKε plays a significant role in determining the enrichment of GPInsPn with 20:4 and that there is a pathway for the selective translocation of arachidonoyl-phosphatidic acid from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, no substantial difference was observed in the acyl chain composition of any class of glycerophospholipid or diacylglycerol between lipid extracts from fibroblasts from wild-type mice or from DGKα knock out mice. However, the cells from the DGKα knock out mice had a higher concentration of DAG, consistent with the lack of down regulation of the major fraction of DAG by DGKα, in contrast with DGKε that is primarily responsible for enrichment of GPInsPn with arachidonoyl acyl chains. PMID:18702510

  5. Modeling Species-Specific Diacylglycerol Dynamics in the RAW 264.7 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Hannah L.; Horn, Mary Ann; DeCamp, Dianne L.; Sternweis, Paul C.; Brown, H. Alex

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model of the G protein signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages downstream of P2Y6 receptors activated by the ubiquitous signaling nucleotide uridine 5′-diphosphate is developed. The model, which is based on time-course measurements of inositol trisphosphate, cytosolic calcium, and diacylglycerol, focuses particularly on differential dynamics of multiple chemical species of diacylglycerol. When using the canonical pathway representation, the model predicted that key interactions were missing from the current network structure. Indeed, the model suggested that accurate depiction of experimental observations required an additional branch to the signaling pathway. An intracellular pool of diacylglycerol is immediately phosphorylated upon stimulation of an extracellular receptor for uridine 5′-diphosphate and subsequently used to aid replenishment of phosphatidylinositol. As a result of sensitivity analysis of the model parameters, key predictions can be made regarding which of these parameters are the most sensitive to perturbations and are therefore most responsible for output uncertainty. PMID:19883664

  6. Diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein of hemolymph of the locust and some insects.

    PubMed

    Chino, H; Kitazawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The diacylglycerol-carrying lipoprotein (DGLP) was purified from hemolymph of the locust, Locusta migratoria, by a rapid method which included a specific precipitation at low ionic concentration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The final preparation was highly homogeneous as judged by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and immunodiffusion. The locust DGLP molecule was almost spherical in shape with a diameter of about 130 A. The molecular weight, determined by a sedimentation equilibrium method, was approximately 580,000. The total lipid content amounted to about 40%. The lipids comprised diacylglycerol (33% of total lipid), hydrocarbon (21%), cholesterol (8%), and phospholipids (36%). The hydrocarbon fraction contained a number of n-alkanes and methylalkanes ranging from C25 to C38 in chain length. Mannose (3%) and glucosamine (0.5%) were associated with the apoprotein of DGLP. Apoprotein of locust DGLP consisted of two subunits, heavy chain (mol wt 250,000) and light chain (mol wt 85,000); carbohydrate (mannose) was associated only with the heavy chain. Tests of physiological function of DGLPs from locust, cockroach, and silkworm suggest that the insect DGLP serves multiple roles as a true carrier molecule in transporting diacylglycerol, cholesterol, and hydrocarbon from sites of storage, absorption, and synthesis to sites where these lipids are utilized as metabolic fuel, precursors for triacylglycerol and phospholipid synthesis, or structural components of cell membrane and cuticle. In addition, the insect DGLPs displayed no species-specificity in terms of the functions, whereas they were immunologically distinguishable.

  7. Resolution of diacylglycerol moieties of natural glycerophospholipids by gas-liquid chromatography on polar capillary columns.

    PubMed

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A

    1982-06-01

    A rapid and practical method has been developed for the gas-liquid chromatographic determination of the sn-1,2-diacylglycerol moieties of natural glycerophospholipids using polar wall-coated open tubular columns. The method gives complete resolution and quantitative estimates for all species according to molecular weight and degree of unsaturation, including stearoyl docosahexaenoylglycerol and related polyunsaturates. For this purpose the sn-1,2-diacylglycerols are obtained from the glycerophospholipids by hydrolysis with phospholipase C and are converted into the trimethylsilyl or tertiary-butyldimethylsilyl ethers. The silyl ethers are separated by gas-liquid chromatography on the capillary glass columns coated with a polar cyanopropylsiloxane polymer, in the temperature range 175-250 degrees C, using hydrogen as the carrier gas. Practical applications of the method are illustrated by analyses of the sn-1,2-diacylglycerol moieties of the phosphatidylcholines of soybean phosphatides, egg yolk, and rat liver. The method of analysis is applicable to other classes of glycerophospholipids and the total time requirements for the analysis of any one phospholipid class are comparable to those for a fatty acid analysis.

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Coumarin-Triazole Hybrid Molecules as Potential Antitumor and Pancreatic Lipase Agents.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Bahittin; Yılmaz, Fatih; Menteşe, Emre; Ülker, Serdar

    2017-08-01

    The design, synthesis, and investigation of antitumor and anti-lipase activities of some coumarin-triazole hybrid molecules are reported. The synthesis of these hybrid molecules was performed under microwave irradiation and conventional heating procedures. The newly synthesized hybrid molecules were investigated as inhibitors against four tumor cell lines (BT20 human breast carcinoma, SK-Mel 128 melanoma, DU-145 prostate carcinoma, and A549 lung carcinoma) and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL). Most of these compounds showed notable antitumor activities against the tested tumor cell lines, and compounds 8i and 8l showed the best anti-lipase activity of 99.30 ± 0.56% and 99.85 ± 1.21%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM. © 2017 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  9. Arabidopsis lipins, PDAT1 acyltransferase, and SDP1 triacylglycerol lipase synergistically direct fatty acids toward β-oxidation, thereby maintaining membrane lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Roston, Rebecca; Shanklin, John; Xu, Changcheng

    2014-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular lipid homeostasis in yeast and mammals, but its role in vegetative tissues of plants remains poorly defined. We previously reported that PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (PDAT1) is crucial for diverting fatty acids (FAs) from membrane lipid synthesis to TAG and thereby protecting against FA-induced cell death in leaves. Here, we show that overexpression of PDAT1 enhances the turnover of FAs in leaf lipids. Using the trigalactosyldiacylglycerol1-1 (tgd1-1) mutant, which displays substantially enhanced PDAT1-mediated TAG synthesis, we demonstrate that disruption of SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) TAG lipase or PEROXISOMAL TRANSPORTER1 (PXA1) severely decreases FA turnover, leading to increases in leaf TAG accumulation, to 9% of dry weight, and in total leaf lipid, by 3-fold. The membrane lipid composition of tgd1-1 sdp1-4 and tgd1-1 pxa1-2 double mutants is altered, and their growth and development are compromised. We also show that two Arabidopsis thaliana lipin homologs provide most of the diacylglycerol for TAG synthesis and that loss of their functions markedly reduces TAG content, but with only minor impact on eukaryotic galactolipid synthesis. Collectively, these results show that Arabidopsis lipins, along with PDAT1 and SDP1, function synergistically in directing FAs toward peroxisomal β-oxidation via TAG intermediates, thereby maintaining membrane lipid homeostasis in leaves. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Arabidopsis Lipins, PDAT1 Acyltransferase, and SDP1 Triacylglycerol Lipase Synergistically Direct Fatty Acids toward β-Oxidation, Thereby Maintaining Membrane Lipid Homeostasis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Roston, Rebecca; Shanklin, John

    2014-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism is a key aspect of intracellular lipid homeostasis in yeast and mammals, but its role in vegetative tissues of plants remains poorly defined. We previously reported that PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (PDAT1) is crucial for diverting fatty acids (FAs) from membrane lipid synthesis to TAG and thereby protecting against FA-induced cell death in leaves. Here, we show that overexpression of PDAT1 enhances the turnover of FAs in leaf lipids. Using the trigalactosyldiacylglycerol1-1 (tgd1-1) mutant, which displays substantially enhanced PDAT1-mediated TAG synthesis, we demonstrate that disruption of SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 (SDP1) TAG lipase or PEROXISOMAL TRANSPORTER1 (PXA1) severely decreases FA turnover, leading to increases in leaf TAG accumulation, to 9% of dry weight, and in total leaf lipid, by 3-fold. The membrane lipid composition of tgd1-1 sdp1-4 and tgd1-1 pxa1-2 double mutants is altered, and their growth and development are compromised. We also show that two Arabidopsis thaliana lipin homologs provide most of the diacylglycerol for TAG synthesis and that loss of their functions markedly reduces TAG content, but with only minor impact on eukaryotic galactolipid synthesis. Collectively, these results show that Arabidopsis lipins, along with PDAT1 and SDP1, function synergistically in directing FAs toward peroxisomal β-oxidation via TAG intermediates, thereby maintaining membrane lipid homeostasis in leaves. PMID:25293755

  11. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice.

    PubMed

    Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-01

    Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A double blind lipase for lipase comparison of a high lipase and standard pancreatic enzyme preparation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, I M; Wolfe, S P; Owens, H M; Sheldon, T A; Littlewood, J M; Walters, M P

    1993-01-01

    A standard acid resistant microsphere pancreatic enzyme preparation was compared with identical capsules half filled with mini-tablets of a new high lipase preparation in a randomised double blind crossover study in children with cystic fibrosis. Each patient received his/her usual number of capsules and the same dose of lipase during each period of the study. Eighteen patients completed the study. There were fewer gastrointestinal symptoms when pancreatic enzyme was supplied as the high lipase preparation. There was also a significant improvement in fat absorption (17%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6 to 27), reduction in faecal fat output (15.8 g/day, 95% CI 6.4 to 22.5), and faecal energy loss (789 kJ/day, 95% CI 211 to 1384). It is concluded that half filled capsules of the new high lipase preparation are more effective than the standard preparation and it is likely that filled capsules would allow patients to use fewer than half the number of pancreatic enzyme capsules. PMID:7683190

  13. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun Tae; Qi, Feng; Yuan, Chongli; Zhao, Xuebing; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Liu, Dehua; Varma, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the recent advances in lipase engineering, including both protein modification and production. Recent advances in biotechnology such as in protein engineering, recombinant methods and metabolic engineering have been employed but are yet to impact lipase engineering for cost-effective production of biodiesel. A summary of the current challenges and perspectives for potential solutions are also provided. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using the reversible inhibition of gastric lipase by Orlistat for investigating simultaneously lipase adsorption and substrate hydrolysis at the lipid-water interface.

    PubMed

    Bénarouche, Anaïs; Point, Vanessa; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    The lipolysis reaction carried out by lipases at the water-lipid interface is a complex process including enzyme conformational changes, adsorption/desorption equilibrium and substrate hydrolysis. Mixed monomolecular films of the lipase inhibitor Orlistat and 1,2-dicaprin were used here to investigate the adsorption of dog gastric lipase (DGL) followed by the hydrolysis of 1,2-dicaprin. The combined study of these two essential catalysis steps was made possible thanks to the highest affinity of DGL for Orlistat than 1,2-dicaprin and the fact that the inhibition of DGL by Orlistat is reversible. Upon DGL binding to mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayers, an increase in surface pressure reflecting lipase adsorption was first recorded. Limited amounts of Orlistat allowed to maintain DGL inactive on 1,2-dicaprin during a period of time that was sufficient to determine DGL adsorption and desorption rate constants. A decrease in surface pressure reflecting 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis and product desorption was observed after the slow hydrolysis of the covalent DGL-Orlistat complex was complete. The rate of 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis was recorded using the surface barostat technique. Based on a kinetic model describing the inhibition by Orlistat and the activity of DGL on a mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayer spread at the air-water interface combined with surface pressure measurements, it was possible to monitor DGL adsorption at the lipid-water interface and substrate hydrolysis in the course of a single experiment. This allowed to assess the kcat/KM* ratio for DGL acting on 1,2-dicaprin monolayer, after showing that mixed monolayers containing a low fraction of Orlistat were similar to pure 1,2-dicaprin monolayers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klig, L S; Homann, M J; Kohlwein, S D; Kelley, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1988-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (cdg1 mutation) was isolated on the basis of an inositol excretion phenotype and exhibited pleiotropic deficiencies in phospholipid biosynthesis. Genetic analysis of the mutant confirmed that the cdg1 mutation represents a new genetic locus and that a defect in a single gene was responsible for the Cdg1 phenotype. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in mutant haploid cells was 25% of the wild-type derepressed level. Biochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that the defect in CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in the cdg1 mutant was due to a reduced level of the CDP-diacylglycerol synthase Mr-56,000 subunit rather than to an alteration in the enzymological properties of the enzyme. This defect resulted in a reduced rate of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis, an elevated phosphatidate content, and alterations in overall phospholipid synthesis. Unlike wild-type cells, CDP-diacylglycerol synthase was not regulated in response to water-soluble phospholipid precursors. The cdg1 lesion also caused constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and elevated phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylinositol synthase was not affected in the cdg1 mutant. Images PMID:2832385

  16. Diacylglycerol Is Required for the Formation of COPI Vesicles in the Golgi-to-ER Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Vilella, Montserrat; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Sarri, Elisabet; Martínez, Susana E.; Jiménez, Nuria; Claro, Enrique; Mérida, Isabel; Burger, Koert N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol is necessary for trans-Golgi network (TGN) to cell surface transport, but its functional relevance in the early secretory pathway is unclear. Although depletion of diacylglycerol did not affect ER-to-Golgi transport, it led to a redistribution of the KDEL receptor to the Golgi, indicating that Golgi-to-ER transport was perturbed. Electron microscopy revealed an accumulation of COPI-coated membrane profiles close to the Golgi cisternae. Electron tomography showed that the majority of these membrane profiles originate from coated buds, indicating a block in membrane fission. Under these conditions the Golgi-associated pool of ARFGAP1 was reduced, but there was no effect on the binding of coatomer or the membrane fission protein CtBP3/BARS to the Golgi. The addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol or the diacylglycerol analogue phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate reversed the effects of endogenous diacylglycerol depletion. Our findings implicate diacylglycerol in the retrograde transport of proteins from Golgi to the ER and suggest that it plays a critical role at a late stage of COPI vesicle formation. PMID:17567948

  17. Diet quality determines lipase gene expression and lipase/esterase activity in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzenberger, Anke; Wacker, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We studied the short- (12 h) and long-term (144 h) response of Daphnia pulex lipases to quality shifts in diets consisting of different mixtures of the green alga Scenedesmus with the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, two species with contrasting lipid compositions. The lipase/esterase activity in both the gut and the body tissues had fast responses to the diet shift and increased with higher dietary contributions of Synechococcus. When screening the Daphnia genome for TAG lipases, we discovered a large gene-family expansion of these enzymes. We used a subset of eight genes for mRNA expression analyses and distinguished between influences of time and diet on the observed gene expression patterns. We identified five diet-responsive lipases of which three showed a sophisticated short- and long-term pattern of expression in response to small changes in food-quality. Furthermore, the gene expression of one of the lipases was strongly correlated to lipase/esterase activity in the gut suggesting its potentially major role in digestion. These findings demonstrate that the lipid-related enzymatic machinery of D. pulex is finely tuned to diet and might constitute an important mechanism of physiological adaptation in nutritionally complex environments. PMID:28069588

  18. Lipase maturation factor 1 is required for endothelial lipase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Osnat; Hosseini, Maryam; Lai, Ching-Mei; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Wong, Howard; Cefalù, Angelo B.; Noto, Davide; Averna, Maurizio R.; Doolittle, Mark H.; Péterfy, Miklós

    2011-01-01

    Lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein involved in the posttranslational folding and/or assembly of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) into active enzymes. Mutations in Lmf1 are associated with diminished LPL and HL activities (“combined lipase deficiency”) and result in severe hypertriglyceridemia in mice as well as in human subjects. Here, we investigate whether endothelial lipase (EL) also requires Lmf1 to attain enzymatic activity. We demonstrate that cells harboring a (cld) loss-of-function mutation in the Lmf1 gene are unable to generate active EL, but they regain this capacity after reconstitution with the Lmf1 wild type. Furthermore, we show that cellular EL copurifies with Lmf1, indicating their physical interaction in the ER. Finally, we determined that post-heparin phospholipase activity in a patient with the LMF1W464X mutation is reduced by more than 95% compared with that in controls. Thus, our study indicates that EL is critically dependent on Lmf1 for its maturation in the ER and demonstrates that Lmf1 is a required factor for all three vascular lipases, LPL, HL, and EL. PMID:21447484

  19. Temporal regulation of the IgE-dependent 1,2-diacylglycerol production by tyrosine kinase activation in a rat (RBL 2H3) mast-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, P; Fung, S J; Li, S; Chen, T; Repetto, B; Huang, K S; Gilfillan, A M

    1994-01-01

    We explored the possible role of tyrosine kinases in the IgE-dependent regulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) production in RBL 2H3 cells. When triggered via their high-affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI), there was a rapid phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on a number of proteins. The phosphorylation of these proteins and ultimately histamine release were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin. In cells labelled with [3H]myristic acid, we observed a characteristic biphasic increase in [3H]DAG production. In the presence of tyrosine kinase inhibitor, the initial increase in DAG was still observed, but the secondary increase, which was dependent on phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PC-PLD) activation, was completely abolished. Tyrphostin significantly inhibited IgE-dependent activation of PC-PLD, suggesting that PC-PLD activation was regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, when proteins from RBL 2H3 cells were immunoprecipitated with an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, PC-PLD activity was recovered from the immunoprecipitated fraction. These results demonstrate that the secondary, but not the initial, phase of 1,2-DAG production in response to Fc epsilon RI aggregation is regulated by the initial activation of tyrosine kinases and that PC-PLD may be regulated directly by this mechanism. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7513150

  20. Polyphenols extracted from black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue by hot-compressed water and their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Suzuki, Manabu; Asano, Yuzo; Ochi, Hiroshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Polyphenols, retained in black tea wastes following the commercial production of tea beverages, represent an underutilized resource. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of hot-compressed water (HCW) for the extraction of pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea residues. Black tea residues were treated with HCW at 10 °C intervals, from 100 to 200 °C. The resulting extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed to determine their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Four theaflavins (TF), 5 catechins, 2 quercetin glycosides, quinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeine were identified. The total polyphenol content of extracts increased with increasing temperature but lipase inhibitors (TF, theaflavin 3-O-gallate, theaflavin 3'-O-gallate, theaflavin 3,3'-O-gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate) decreased over 150 °C. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase but extracts obtained at 100 to 140 °C showed the greatest lipase inhibition (IC(50) s of 0.9 to 1.3 μg/mL), consistent with the optimal extraction of TFs and catechins except catechin by HCW between 130 and 150 °C. HCW can be used to extract pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea waste. These extracts have potential uses, as dietary supplements and medications, for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  1. New extremophilic lipases and esterases from metagenomics.

    PubMed

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, Maria E; González Siso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the presence of water. In media with low water content or in organic solvents, they can catalyze synthetic reactions such as esterification and transesterification. Lipases and esterases, in particular those from extremophilic origin, are robust enzymes, functional under the harsh conditions of industrial processes owing to their inherent thermostability and resistance towards organic solvents, which combined with their high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity make them very attractive biocatalysts for a variety of industrial applications. Likewise, enzymes from extremophile sources can provide additional features such as activity at extreme temperatures, extreme pH values or high salinity levels, which could be interesting for certain purposes. New lipases and esterases have traditionally been discovered by the isolation of microbial strains producing lipolytic activity. The Genome Projects Era allowed genome mining, exploiting homology with known lipases and esterases, to be used in the search for new enzymes. The Metagenomic Era meant a step forward in this field with the study of the metagenome, the pool of genomes in an environmental microbial community. Current molecular biology techniques make it possible to construct total environmental DNA libraries, including the genomes of unculturable organisms, opening a new window to a vast field of unknown enzymes with new and unique properties. Here, we review the latest advances and findings from research into new extremophilic lipases and esterases, using metagenomic approaches, and their potential industrial and biotechnological applications.

  2. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  3. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronne, Antonio; Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Fanelli, Esther; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2014-11-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  4. New Extremophilic Lipases and Esterases from Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, Maria E; González Siso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the presence of water. In media with low water content or in organic solvents, they can catalyze synthetic reactions such as esterification and transesterification. Lipases and esterases, in particular those from extremophilic origin, are robust enzymes, functional under the harsh conditions of industrial processes owing to their inherent thermostability and resistance towards organic solvents, which combined with their high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity make them very attractive biocatalysts for a variety of industrial applications. Likewise, enzymes from extremophile sources can provide additional features such as activity at extreme temperatures, extreme pH values or high salinity levels, which could be interesting for certain purposes. New lipases and esterases have traditionally been discovered by the isolation of microbial strains producing lipolytic activity. The Genome Projects Era allowed genome mining, exploiting homology with known lipases and esterases, to be used in the search for new enzymes. The Metagenomic Era meant a step forward in this field with the study of the metagenome, the pool of genomes in an environmental microbial community. Current molecular biology techniques make it possible to construct total environmental DNA libraries, including the genomes of unculturable organisms, opening a new window to a vast field of unknown enzymes with new and unique properties. Here, we review the latest advances and findings from research into new extremophilic lipases and esterases, using metagenomic approaches, and their potential industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:24588890

  5. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  7. Interfacial Partitioning of a Loop Hinge Residue Contributes to Diacylglycerol Affinity of Conserved Region 1 Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela D.; Cole, Taylor R.; Igumenova, Tatyana I.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and novel isoenzymes of PKC are activated by the membrane-embedded second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) through its interactions with the C1 regulatory domain. The affinity of C1 domains to DAG varies considerably among PKCs. To gain insight into the origin of differential DAG affinities, we conducted high-resolution NMR studies of C1B domain from PKCδ (C1Bδ) and its W252Y variant. The W252Y mutation was previously shown to render C1Bδ less responsive to DAG (Dries, D. R., Gallegos, L. L., and Newton, A. C. (2007) A single residue in the C1 domain sensitizes novel protein kinase C isoforms to cellular diacylglycerol production. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 826–830) and thereby emulate the behavior of C1B domains from conventional PKCs that have a conserved Tyr at the equivalent position. Our data revealed that W252Y mutation did not perturb the conformation of C1Bδ in solution but significantly reduced its propensity to partition into a membrane-mimicking environment in the absence of DAG. Using detergent micelles doped with a paramagnetic lipid, we determined that both the residue identity at position 252 and complexation with diacylglycerol influence the geometry of C1Bδ-micelle interactions. In addition, we identified the C-terminal helix α1 of C1Bδ as an interaction site with the head groups of phosphatidylserine, a known activator of PKCδ. Taken together, our studies (i) reveal the identities of C1Bδ residues involved in interactions with membrane-mimicking environment, DAG, and phosphatidylserine, as well as the affinities associated with each event and (ii) suggest that the initial ligand-independent membrane recruitment of C1B domains, which is greatly facilitated by the interfacial partitioning of Trp-252, is responsible, at least in part, for the differential DAG affinities. PMID:25124034

  8. Rat Hormone Sensitive Lipase Inhibition by Cyclipostins and Their Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Vasilieva, Elena; Dutta, Supratik; Malla, Raj K.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Spilling, Christopher D.; Dupureur, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclipostins are bicyclic lipophilic phosphate natural products. We report here that synthesized individual diastereomers of cyclipostins P and R have nanomolar IC50s toward hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). The less potent diastereomers of these compounds have 10-fold weaker IC50s. The monocyclic phosphate analog of cyclipostin P is nearly as potent as the bicyclic natural product. Bicyclic phosphonate analogs of both cyclipostins exhibit IC50s similar to those of the weaker diastereomer phosphates (about 400 nM). The monocyclic phosphonate analog of cyclipostin P has similar potency. A series of monocyclic phosphonate analogs in which a hydrophobic tail extends from the lactone side of the ring are considerably poorer inhibitors, with IC50s around 50 μM. Finally cyclophostin, a related natural product inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that lacks the hydrocarbon tail of cyclipostins, is not active against HSL. These results indicate a critical SAR for these compounds, the hydrophobic tail. The smaller lactone ring is not critical to activity, a similarity shared with cyclophostin and AChE. The HSL kinetics of inhibition for the cyclipostin P trans diastereomer were examined in detail. The reaction is irreversible with a KI of 40 nM and a rate constant for inactivation of 0.2 min−1. These results are similar to those observed for cyclophostin and AChE. PMID:25678014

  9. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. PMID:26193433

  11. Role of protein kinase C in diacylglycerol-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase and reduction of epidermal growth factor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, A M; Ganong, B R; Vandenbark, G R; Shirley, J E; Bell, R M

    1985-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol esters induce ornithine decarboxylase (ODCase) activity and reduce epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding in rat tracheal epithelial 2C5 cells. Phorbol esters activate protein kinase C by interacting at the same site as sn-1,2-diacylglycerols, the presumed physiological regulators. The effects of added sn-1,2-diacylglycerols and those generated by phospholipase C treatment of 2C5 cells on ODCase induction and EGF binding were investigated to establish a role for protein kinase C in these cellular responses. Treatment of 2C5 cells with phospholipase C induced ODCase activity and reduced EGF binding, whereas phospholipases A2 and D were inactive. When sn-1,2-diacylglycerols containing fatty acids 3-10 carbons in length were added to 2C5 cells, those diacylglycerols containing fatty acids 5-10 carbons in length caused ODCase induction and reduction in EGF binding. sn-1,2-Dioctanoylglycerol was one of the most active compounds tested. It induced ODCase in a dose- (50-500 microM) and time-dependent manner. The reduction of binding of 125I-labeled EGF by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol was also time and dose dependent and appeared to result from a change in EGF affinity and not the number of receptor sites. This series of sn-1,2-diacylglycerols showed similar structure-function relationships in their ability to induce ODCase activity, to decrease EGF binding, to stimulate protein kinase C, and to inhibit [3H]phorbol dibutyrate binding to the phorbol ester receptor. These data demonstrate biological activities for a number of diacylglycerols and indicate that protein kinase C activation is implicated in ODCase induction and decreased EGF binding. PMID:3157191

  12. Immobilisation and application of lipases in organic media.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2013-08-07

    Different methods of preparing lipases for use in organic media are critically reviewed. Solid lipase preparations can be made by typical immobilisation methods such as adsorption, entrapment, covalent coupling or cross-linking. Immobilisation is especially attractive for lipases because, in addition to the normal benefits of enzyme immobilisation, it can also lead to a considerable increase in catalytic activity, probably caused by conformational changes in the lipase molecules. Activation can be achieved, for example, using hydrophobic support materials or surfactants during the immobilisation procedure. Surfactants can also be used to solubilise lipases in organic media via the formation of hydrophobic ion pairs, surfactant-coated lipase or reversed micelles. Lipase preparation methods are discussed with regard to potential lipase inactivation and activation effects, mass transfer limitations, lipase stability and other features important for applications. The practical applications of lipases in organic media reviewed include ester synthesis, modification of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, fatty acid enrichment, enantiomer resolution, biodiesel production and acylation of carbohydrates and bioactive compounds.

  13. Efficient biocatalyst by encapsulating lipase into nanoporous gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xueying; Li, Yufei; Wu, Chao; Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Lipases are one of the most important biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. Immobilization is an efficient method to increase the stability and reusability of lipases. In this study, nanoporous gold (NPG), a new kind of nanoporous material with tunable porosity and excellent biocompatibility, was employed as an effective support for lipase immobilization. The pore size of NPG and adsorption time played key roles in the construction of lipase-NPG biocomposites. The morphology and composition of NPG before and after lipase loading are verified using a scanning electron microscope, equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The resulting lipase-NPG biocomposites exhibited excellent catalytic activity and remarkable reusability. The catalytic activity of the lipase-NPG biocomposite with a pore size of 35 nm had no decrease after ten recycles. Besides, the lipase-NPG biocomposite exhibited high catalytic activity in a broader pH range and higher temperature than that of free lipase. In addition, the leaching of lipase from NPG could be prevented by matching the protein's diameter and pore size. Thus, the encapsulation of enzymes within NPG is quite useful for establishing new functions and will have wide applications for different chemical processes.

  14. Human adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) is not regulated by obesity and exhibits low in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Mairal, A; Langin, D; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2006-07-01

    The recent identification of murine adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, now known as patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2 [PNPLA2]), gene product of Pnpla2, has questioned the unique role of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, now known as LIPE), gene product of Lipe, in fat cell lipolysis. Here, we investigated human ATGL and HSL adipose tissue gene expression and in vitro lipase activity. Levels of mRNA in adipose tissue from healthy obese and non-obese subjects were measured and lipase activity and adipocyte lipolytic capacity determined. HSL and ATGL cDNAs were transfected into Cos-7 cells and the relative tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activities were measured. Obesity was associated with a decreased subcutaneous and increased omental adipose tissue level of HSL mRNA. Subcutaneous HSL mRNA content was normalised upon weight reduction. In contrast, ATGL mRNA levels were unaffected by obesity and weight reduction. A high adipose tissue lipase activity was associated with increased maximal lipolysis and increased HSL, but not with ATGL mRNA levels. The in vitro triglyceride hydrolase activity of HSL was markedly higher than that of ATGL and contrary to HSL, ATGL was devoid of diglyceride hydrolase activity. The use of a selective HSL-inhibitor resulted in complete inhibition of HSL-mediated tri- and diglyceride hydrolase activity. The pH profile of human white adipose tissue triolein hydrolase activity was identical to that of HSL but differed from the ATGL profile. HSL, but not ATGL gene expression shows a regulation according to obesity status and is associated with increased adipose tissue lipase activity. Moreover, HSL has a higher capacity than ATGL to hydrolyse triglycerides in vitro.

  15. Placental lipases in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    PubMed

    Barrett, Helen L; Kubala, Marta H; Scholz Romero, Katherin; Denny, Kerina J; Woodruff, Trent M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2014-01-01

    Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase (EL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02). None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM.

  16. In silico and experimental characterization of chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase with the complete conserved pentapeptide of Candida rugosa lipase.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Shamsara, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Morshedi, Dena; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Esmat; Safari, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Lipases are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have broad applications in detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and dairy industries. To provide chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (BTL2), the completely conserved pentapeptide (¹¹²Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly¹¹⁶) was replaced with similar sequences (²⁰⁷Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly²¹¹) of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR) at the nucleophilic elbow region. For this purpose, three mutations including A112G, H113E, and Q115A were inserted in the conserved pentapeptide sequence of btl2 gene. Based on the crystal structures of 2W22, the best structure of opened form of the chimeric lipases were garnered using the MODELLER v9.10 software. The native and chimeric lipases were docked to a set of ligands, and a trial version of Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software was used to obtain the energy values. Docking results confirmed chimeric lipase to be better than the native lipase. Following the in silico study, cloning experiments were conducted and expression of native and chimeric btl2 gene in Pichia pastoris was performed. The native and chimeric lipases were purified, and the effect of these mutations on characteristics of chimeric lipase studied and then compared with those of native lipase. Chimeric lipase exhibited 1.6-fold higher activity than the native lipase at 55 °C. The highest percentage of both lipases activity was observed at 60 °C and pH of 8.0. The ion Ca²⁺ slightly inhibited the activity of both lipases, whereas the organic solvent enhanced the lipase stability of chimeric lipase as compared with the native lipase. According to the results, the presence of two glycine residues at the conserved pentapeptide region of this chimeric lipase (¹¹²Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly¹¹⁶) may increase the flexibility of the nucleophilic elbow region and affect the enzyme activity level.

  17. Prediction and evaluation of the lipase inhibitory activities of tea polyphenols with 3D-QSAR models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Fang; Chang, Yi-Qun; Deng, Jie; Li, Wei-Xi; Jian, Jie; Gao, Jia-Suo; Wan, Xin; Gao, Hao; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Sun, Ping-Hua; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary hypolipidemic effects of polyphenolic compounds from tea have been confirmed in our previous study. To gain compounds with more potent activities, using the conformations of the most active compound revealed by molecular docking, a 3D-QSAR pancreatic lipase inhibitor model with good predictive ability was established and validated by CoMFA and CoMISA methods. With good statistical significance in CoMFA (r2cv = 0.622, r2 = 0.956, F = 261.463, SEE = 0.096) and CoMISA (r2cv = 0.631, r2 = 0.932, F = 75.408, SEE = 0.212) model, we summarized the structure-activity relationship between polyphenolic compounds and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities and find the bulky substituents in R2, R4 and R5, hydrophilic substituents in R1 and electron withdrawing groups in R2 are the key factors to enhance the lipase inhibitory activities. Under the guidance of the 3D-QSAR results, (2R,3R,2′R,3′R)-desgalloyloolongtheanin-3,3′-O-digallate (DOTD), a potent lipase inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.08 μg/ml, was obtained from EGCG oxidative polymerization catalyzed by crude polyphenol oxidase. Furthermore, DOTD was found to inhibit lipid absorption in olive oil-loaded rats, which was related with inhibiting the activities of lipase in the intestinal mucosa and contents. PMID:27694956

  18. Postnatal ethanol exposure alters levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol-metabolizing enzymes and pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase does not cause neurodegeneration in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Subbanna, Shivakumar; Psychoyos, Delphine; Xie, Shan; Basavarajappa, Balapal S

    2015-07-01

    The consumption of ethanol by pregnant women may cause neurological abnormalities, affecting learning and memory processes in children, and are collectively described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are still poorly understood. In our previous studies, we found that ethanol treatment of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice significantly enhances the anandamide levels but not the 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) levels and induces widespread neurodegeneration, but the reason for the lack of significant effects of ethanol on the 2-AG level is unknown. In this study, we examined developmental changes in diacylglycerol lipase-α, β (DAGL-α and β) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). We found that the levels of these proteins were significantly higher in adult brains compared to those detected early in brain development. Next, we examined the influence of P7 ethanol treatment on these enzymes, finding that it differentially altered the DAGL-α protein and mRNA levels but consistently enhanced those of the DAGL-β. Interestingly, the ethanol treatment enhanced MAGL protein and mRNA levels. Inhibition of MAGL with KML29 failed to induce neurodegeneration in P7 mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ethanol significantly activates DAGL-β and MAGL in the neonatal brain, resulting in no net change in 2-AG levels. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase α controls RCP-dependent integrin trafficking to promote invasive migration.

    PubMed

    Rainero, Elena; Caswell, Patrick T; Muller, Patricia A J; Grindlay, Joan; McCaffrey, Mary W; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J O; Vousden, Karen H; Graziani, Andrea; Norman, Jim C

    2012-01-23

    Inhibition of αvβ3 integrin or expression of oncogenic mutants of p53 promote invasive cell migration by enhancing endosomal recycling of α5β1 integrin under control of the Rab11 effector Rab-coupling protein (RCP). In this paper, we show that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA), was required for RCP to be mobilized to and tethered at the tips of invasive pseudopods and to allow RCP-dependent α5β1 recycling and the resulting invasiveness of tumor cells. Expression of a constitutive-active mutant of DGK-α drove RCP-dependent invasion in the absence of mutant p53 expression or αvβ3 inhibition, and conversely, an RCP mutant lacking the PA-binding C2 domain was not capable of being tethered at pseudopod tips. These data demonstrate that generation of PA downstream of DGK-α is essential to connect expression of mutant p53s or inhibition of αvβ3 to RCP and for this Rab11 effector to drive the trafficking of α5β1 that is required for tumor cell invasion through three-dimensional matrices.

  20. A fluorescent assay to quantitatively measure in vitro acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McFie, Pamela J; Stone, Scot J

    2011-09-01

    Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage form of energy in eukaryotic organisms and are synthesized primarily by acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. In vitro DGAT activity has previously been quantified by measuring the incorporation of either radiolabeled fatty acyl CoA or diacylglycerol (DG) into TG. We developed a modified acyltransferase assay using a fluorescent fatty acyl CoA substrate to accurately quantify in vitro DGAT activity. In the modified assay, radioactive fatty acyl CoA is replaced with fluorescent NBD-palmitoyl CoA, which is used as a substrate by DGAT with DG to produce NBD-TG. After extraction with organic solvents and separation by thin layer chromatography, NBD-TG formation can be detected and accurately quantified using a fluorescent imaging system. We demonstrate that this method can be adapted to detect other acyltransferase activities. Because NBD-palmitoyl CoA is commercially available at a much lower cost compared with radioactive acyl CoA substrates, it is a more economical alternative to radioactive tracers. In addition, the exposure of laboratory personnel to radioactivity is greatly reduced.

  1. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities.

    PubMed

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Marquez, Victor E; Jelinek, Raz

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a 'molecular rod', namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Use of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques revealed that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of the PKC translocation from the cytosol to membranes that is induced by the molecular-rod DAG lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side residues of DAG lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions, and thus may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands.

  2. Acute Manipulation of Diacylglycerol Reveals Roles in Nuclear Envelope Assembly & Endoplasmic Reticulum Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Peddie, Christopher J.; Chung, Gary H. C.; Wang, Alan; Yeh, Karen; Jethwa, Nirmal; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J. O.; Woscholski, Rudiger; Byrne, Richard D.; Collinson, Lucy M.; Poccia, Dominic L.; Larijani, Banafshé

    2012-01-01

    The functions and morphology of cellular membranes are intimately related and depend not only on their protein content but also on the repertoire of lipids that comprise them. In the absence of in vivo data on lipid asymmetry in endomembranes, it has been argued that motors, scaffolding proteins or integral membrane proteins rather than non-lamellar bilayer lipids such as diacylglycerol (DAG), are responsible for shaping of organelles, local membrane curvature and fusion. The effects of direct alteration of levels of such lipids remain predominantly uninvestigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a well documented second messenger. Here we demonstrate two additional conserved functions of DAG: a structural role in organelle morphology, and a role in localised extreme membrane curvature required for fusion for which proteins alone are insufficient. Acute and inducible DAG depletion results in failure of the nuclear envelope (NE) to reform at mitosis and reorganisation of the ER into multi-lamellar sheets as revealed by correlative light and electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions. Remarkably, depleted cells divide without a complete NE, and unless rescued by 1,2 or 1,3 DAG soon die. Attenuation of DAG levels by enzyme microinjection into echinoderm eggs and embryos also results in alterations of ER morphology and nuclear membrane fusion. Our findings demonstrate that DAG is an in vivo modulator of organelle morphology in mammalian and echinoderm cells, indicating a fundamental role conserved across the deuterostome superphylum. PMID:23227247

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase α regulates tubular recycling endosome biogenesis and major histocompatibility complex class I recycling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2014-11-14

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presents intracellular-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and its subcellular itinerary is important in regulating the immune response. While a number of diacylglycerol kinase isoforms have been implicated in clathrin-dependent internalization, MHC I lacks the typical motifs known to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that depletion of diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα), a kinase devoid of a clathrin-dependent adaptor protein complex 2 binding site, caused a delay in MHC I recycling to the plasma membrane without affecting the rate of MHC I internalization. We demonstrate that DGKα knock-down causes accumulation of intracellular and surface MHC I, resulting from decreased degradation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DGKα is required for the generation of phosphatidic acid required for tubular recycling endosome (TRE) biogenesis. Moreover, we show that DGKα forms a complex with the TRE hub protein, MICAL-L1. Given that MICAL-L1 and the F-BAR-containing membrane-tubulating protein Syndapin2 associate selectively with phosphatidic acid, we propose a positive feedback loop in which DGKα generates phosphatidic acid to drive its own recruitment to TRE via its interaction with MICAL-L1. Our data support a novel role for the involvement of DGKα in TRE biogenesis and MHC I recycling.

  4. Diacylglycerol kinase ε deficiency preserves glucose tolerance and modulates lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Schönke, Milena; Brozinick, Joseph T; Vetterli, Laurène; Bui, Hai-Hoang; Sanders, Philip; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Björnholm, Marie; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-05-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) catalyze the phosphorylation and conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) into phosphatidic acid. DGK isozymes have unique primary structures, expression patterns, subcellular localizations, regulatory mechanisms, and DAG preferences. DGKε has a hydrophobic segment that promotes its attachment to membranes and shows substrate specificity for DAG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain in the sn-2 position of the substrate. We determined the role of DGKε in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in relation to diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity using DGKε-KO and wild-type mice. Lipidomic analysis revealed elevated unsaturated and saturated DAG species in skeletal muscle of DGKε KO mice, which was paradoxically associated with increased glucose tolerance. Although skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was unaltered, whole-body respiratory exchange ratio was reduced, and abundance of mitochondrial markers was increased, indicating a greater reliance on fat oxidation and intracellular lipid metabolism in DGKε KO mice. Thus, the increased intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle from DGKε KO mice may undergo rapid turnover because of increased mitochondrial function and lipid oxidation, rather than storage, which in turn may preserve insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, DGKε plays a role in glucose and energy homeostasis by modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The Escherichia coli pgpB gene encodes for a diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Dillon, D A; Wu, W I; Riedel, B; Wissing, J B; Dowhan, W; Carman, G M

    1996-11-29

    We provided genetic and biochemical evidence that supported the conclusion that the product of pgpB gene of Escherichia coli exhibited diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase activity. DGPP phosphatase activity was absent in pgpB mutant cells and was expressed at high levels in cells carrying the wild-type pgpB gene on a runaway replication plasmid. The pgpB mutant has been primarily characterized by a defect in phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase activity and also exhibits defects in lyso-PA phosphatase and phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase activities. The defective PA phosphatase in the pgpB mutant was shown to be a Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity of the DGPP phosphatase enzyme. We characterized DGPP phosphatase activity in membranes from cells overproducing the pgpB gene product. DGPP phosphatase catalyzed the dephosphorylation of the beta phosphate of DGPP to form PA followed by the dephosphorylation of PA to form diacylglycerol. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) for DGPP was 9.3-fold greater than that for PA. The pH optimum for the DGPP phosphatase reaction was 6. 5. Activity was independent of a divalent cation requirement, was potently inhibited by Mn2+ ions, and was insensitive to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide. Pure DGPP phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be similar to the E. coli DGPP phosphatase in its ability to utilize lyso-PA and phosphatidylglycerophosphate as substrates in vitro.

  6. Distinct Properties of the Two Isoforms of CDP-Diacylglycerol Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    CDP-diacylglycerol synthases (CDS) are critical enzymes that catalyze the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) from phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we show in vitro that the two isoforms of human CDS, CDS1 and CDS2, show different acyl chain specificities for its lipid substrate. CDS2 is selective for the acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, the most preferred species being 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidic acid. CDS1, conversely, shows no particular substrate specificity, displaying similar activities for almost all substrates tested. Additionally, we show that inhibition of CDS2 by phosphatidylinositol is also acyl chain-dependent, with the strongest inhibition seen with the 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species. CDS1 shows no acyl chain-dependent inhibition. Both CDS1 and CDS2 are inhibited by their anionic phospholipid end products, with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate showing the strongest inhibition. Our results indicate that CDS1 and CDS2 could create different CDP-DAG pools that may serve to enrich different phospholipid species with specific acyl chains. PMID:25375833

  7. Enhanced Effector Responses in Activated CD8+ T Cells Deficient in Diacylglycerol Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Riese, Matthew J.; Wang, Liang-Chuan S.; Moon, Edmund K.; Joshi, Rohan P.; Ranganathan, Anjana; June, Carl H.; Koretzky, Gary A.; Albelda, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown promise in the use of chimeric antigen receptor(CAR)-transduced T cells; however, augmentation of their activity may broaden their clinical utility and improve their efficacy. We hypothesized that, since CAR action requires proteins essential for TCR signal transduction, deletion of negative regulators of these signaling pathways would enhance CAR signaling and effector T cell function. We tested CAR activity and function in T cells that lacked one or both isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase (dgk) expressed highly in T cells, dgkα and dgkζ, enzymes that metabolize the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) and limit Ras/ERK activation. We found that primary murine T cells transduced with CARs specific for the human tumor antigen mesothelin demonstrated greatly enhanced cytokine production and cytotoxicity when co-cultured with a murine mesothelioma line that stably expresses mesothelin. Additionally, we found that dgk-deficient CAR-transduced T cells were more effective in limiting the growth of implanted tumors, both concurrent with and after establishment of tumor. Consistent with our studies in mice, pharmacologic inhibition of dgks also augments function of primary human T cells transduced with CARs. These results suggest that deletion of negative regulators of TCR signaling enhances the activity and function of CAR-expressing T cells and identify dgks as potential targets for improving the clinical potential of CARs. PMID:23576561

  8. Membrane-surface anchoring of charged diacylglycerol-lactones correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kazzouli, Said El; Sigano, Dina M.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Lopez-Nicolas, Ruben; Ortiz-Espin, Ana; Gomez-Fernandez, Juan C.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Corbalan, Senena; Jelinek, Raz

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study examines the biological properties of charged DAG-lactones exhibiting different alkyl groups attached to the heterocyclic nitrogen of an α–pyridylalkylidene chain, and particularly the relationship between membrane interactions of the substituted DAG-lactones and their respective biological activities. Our results suggest that bilayer interface localization of the N-alkyl chain in the R2 position of the DAG-lactones inhibits translocation of PKC isoenzymes onto the cellular membrane. However, the orientation of a branched alkyl chain at the bilayer surface facilitates PKC binding and translocation. This investigation emphasizes that bilayer localization of the aromatic side residues of positively-charged DAG lactone derivatives play a central role in determining biological activity and that this factor contributes to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:20715268

  9. Diacylglycerol kinase α controls RCP-dependent integrin trafficking to promote invasive migration

    PubMed Central

    Rainero, Elena; Caswell, Patrick T.; Muller, Patricia A.J.; Grindlay, Joan; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Zhang, Qifeng; Wakelam, Michael J.O.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of αvβ3 integrin or expression of oncogenic mutants of p53 promote invasive cell migration by enhancing endosomal recycling of α5β1 integrin under control of the Rab11 effector Rab-coupling protein (RCP). In this paper, we show that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA), was required for RCP to be mobilized to and tethered at the tips of invasive pseudopods and to allow RCP-dependent α5β1 recycling and the resulting invasiveness of tumor cells. Expression of a constitutive-active mutant of DGK-α drove RCP-dependent invasion in the absence of mutant p53 expression or αvβ3 inhibition, and conversely, an RCP mutant lacking the PA-binding C2 domain was not capable of being tethered at pseudopod tips. These data demonstrate that generation of PA downstream of DGK-α is essential to connect expression of mutant p53s or inhibition of αvβ3 to RCP and for this Rab11 effector to drive the trafficking of α5β1 that is required for tumor cell invasion through three-dimensional matrices. PMID:22270919

  10. Nuclear transportation of diacylglycerol kinase gamma and its possible function in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Takehiro; Shirai, Yasuhito; Miyasaka, Kei; Murakami, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Yasuto; Ueyama, Takehiko; Kai, Masahiro; Sakane, Fumio; Kanoh, Hideo; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Kamada, Shinji; Kikkawa, Ushio; Saito, Naoaki

    2006-03-10

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid, and both lipids are known to play important roles in lipid signal transduction. Thereby, DGKs are considered to be a one of the key players in lipid signaling, but its physiological function remains to be solved. In an effort to investigate one of nine subtypes, we found that DGKgamma came to be localized in the nucleus with time in all cell lines tested while seen only in the cytoplasm at the early stage of culture, indicating that DGKgamma is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The nuclear transportation of DGKgamma didn't necessarily need DGK activity, but its C1 domain was indispensable, suggesting that the C1 domain of DGKgamma acts as a nuclear transport signal. Furthermore, to address the function of DGKgamma in the nucleus, we produced stable cell lines of wild-type DGKgamma and mutants, including kinase negative, and investigated their cell size, growth rate, and cell cycle. The cells expressing the kinase-negative mutant of DGKgamma were larger in size and showed slower growth rate, and the S phase of the cells was extended. These findings implicate that nuclear DGKgamma regulates cell cycle.

  11. Nuclear Localization of Diacylglycerol Kinase Alpha in K562 Cells Is Involved in Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Fiume, Roberta; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Capello, Daniela; Ratti, Stefano; Gesi, Marco; Manzoli, Lucia; Graziani, Andrea; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Cocco, Lucio; Follo, Matilde Y

    2017-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling is an essential regulator of cell motility and proliferation. A portion of PI metabolism and signaling takes place in the nuclear compartment of eukaryotic cells, where an array of kinases and phosphatases localize and modulate PI. Among these, Diacylglycerol Kinases (DGKs) are a class of phosphotransferases that phosphorylate diacylglycerol and induce the synthesis of phosphatidic acid. Nuclear DGKalpha modulates cell cycle progression, and its activity or expression can lead to changes in the phosphorylated status of the Retinoblastoma protein, thus, impairing G1/S transition and, subsequently, inducing cell cycle arrest, which is often uncoupled with apoptosis or autophagy induction. Here we report for the first time not only that the DGKalpha isoform is highly expressed in the nuclei of human erythroleukemia cell line K562, but also that its nuclear activity drives K562 cells through the G1/S transition during cell cycle progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2550-2557, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dictyostelium discoideum has a single diacylglycerol kinase gene with similarity to mammalian theta isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    De La Roche, Marc A; Smith, Janet L; Rico, Maribel; Carrasco, Silvia; Merida, Isabel; Licate, Lucila; Côté, Graham P; Egelhoff, Thomas T

    2002-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) phosphorylate the neutral lipid diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). In mammalian systems DGKs are a complex family of at least nine isoforms that are thought to participate in down-regulation of DG-based signalling pathways and perhaps activation of PA-stimulated signalling events. We report here that the simple protozoan amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum appears to contain a single gene encoding a DGK enzyme. This gene, dgkA, encodes a deduced protein that contains three C1-type cysteine-rich repeats, a DGK catalytic domain most closely related to the theta subtype of mammalian DGKs and a C-terminal segment containing a proline/glutamine-rich region and a large aspargine-repeat region. This gene corresponds to a previously reported myosin II heavy chain kinase designated myosin heavy chain-protein kinase C (MHC-PKC), but our analysis clearly demonstrates that this protein does not, as suggested by earlier data, contain a protein kinase catalytic domain. A FLAG-tagged version of DgkA expressed in Dictyostelium displayed robust DGK activity. Earlier studies indicating that disruption of this locus alters myosin II assembly levels in Dictyostelium raise the intriguing possibility that DG and/or PA metabolism may play a role in controlling myosin II assembly in this system. PMID:12296770

  13. Diacylglycerol Kinase α Regulates Tubular Recycling Endosome Biogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Recycling*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presents intracellular-derived peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes and its subcellular itinerary is important in regulating the immune response. While a number of diacylglycerol kinase isoforms have been implicated in clathrin-dependent internalization, MHC I lacks the typical motifs known to mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that depletion of diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα), a kinase devoid of a clathrin-dependent adaptor protein complex 2 binding site, caused a delay in MHC I recycling to the plasma membrane without affecting the rate of MHC I internalization. We demonstrate that DGKα knock-down causes accumulation of intracellular and surface MHC I, resulting from decreased degradation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that DGKα is required for the generation of phosphatidic acid required for tubular recycling endosome (TRE) biogenesis. Moreover, we show that DGKα forms a complex with the TRE hub protein, MICAL-L1. Given that MICAL-L1 and the F-BAR-containing membrane-tubulating protein Syndapin2 associate selectively with phosphatidic acid, we propose a positive feedback loop in which DGKα generates phosphatidic acid to drive its own recruitment to TRE via its interaction with MICAL-L1. Our data support a novel role for the involvement of DGKα in TRE biogenesis and MHC I recycling. PMID:25248744

  14. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-03-05

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using /sup 3/H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined.

  15. Burkholderia cepacia lipase: A versatile catalyst in synthesis reactions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Daniel Alberto; Tonetto, Gabriela Marta; Ferreira, María Luján

    2017-09-23

    The lipase from Burkholderia cepacia, formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia lipase, is a commercial enzyme in both soluble and immobilized forms widely recognized for its thermal resistance and tolerance to a large number of solvents and short-chain alcohols. The main applications of this lipase are in transesterification reactions and in the synthesis of drugs (because of the properties mentioned above). This review intends to show the features of this enzyme and some of the most relevant aspects of its use in different synthesis reactions. Also, different immobilization techniques together with the effect of various compounds on lipase activity are presented. This lipase shows important advantages over other lipases, especially in reaction media including solvents or reactions involving short-chain alcohols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytochemical localization of lipases during spore germination from Bryum capillare.

    PubMed

    Carrapiço, F; Salomé, M; Pais, S

    1983-03-01

    In the oil containing spores of Bryum capillare, lipid breakdown occurs within three days after sowing. The periods of activity of acid, neutral and alkaline lipases are coincident. They start at the first day after sowing the spores. After 3 days of germination, when storage fats forming large globules are mobilised no lipase activity could be detected any longer in the glyoxysomes. Acid lipase is preferentially located in spherosomal membrane but is also present at the glyoxysomal membrane. Alkaline lipase is specifically located in the glyoxysomes and mitochondria. A cooperation presumably exists between acid and alkaline lipases in the hydrolysis of monoglycerides at the glyoxysomal level. Neutral lipase activity is localized at the spherosomal membrane, in the endoplasmic reticulum and in dictyosomes. It is absent from glyoxysomes.

  17. A spectrophotometric assay for lipase activity utilizing immobilized triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Safarík, I

    1991-01-01

    New substrates for the determination of lipase activity have been developed. Triacylglycerols were immobilized by adsorption on an appropriate carrier or adsorbent yielding a lipase substrate in a powder form. The adsorbed triacylglycerols were easily hydrolyzed by lipases present in a reaction mixture. The released fatty acids were extracted with benzene and converted to the corresponding Cu (II) salts (copper soaps) which were measured spectrophotometrically.

  18. Preparation and properties of immobilized lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, N; Shirai, K; Jackson, R L

    1980-11-07

    Purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase has been covalently attached to CH-Sepharose with water-soluble carbodiimide. The immobilized enzyme retained enzymic activity and was stimulated 7-fold by the addition of human apolipoprotein C-II. Both [3H]heparin and 125I-labeled apolipoprotein C-II bound to the immobilized enzyme; unlabeled heparin and apolipoprotein C-II competed for binding of their respective labeled compounds. Apolipoprotein C-II did not compete for binding of [3H]heparin and vice versa. Human apolipoprotein C-III did not bind to the immobilized enzyme nor did it compete for apolipoprotein C-II binding. We conclude from these studies that both apolipoprotein C-II and heparin interact with immobilized lipoprotein lipase and that they have different binding sites.

  19. Comparative and functional genomics of lipases in holometabolous insects.

    PubMed

    Horne, Irene; Haritos, Victoria S; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-08-01

    Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage and mobilisation and are also fundamental to many physiological processes underpinning insect reproduction, development, defence from pathogens and oxidative stress, and pheromone signalling. We have screened the recently sequenced genomes of five species from four orders of holometabolous insects, the dipterans Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae, the hymenopteran Apis mellifera, the moth Bombyx mori and the beetle Tribolium castaneum, for the six major lipase families that are also found in other organisms. The two most numerous families in the insects, the neutral and acid lipases, are also the main families in mammals, albeit not in Caenorhabditis elegans, plants or microbes. Total numbers of the lipases vary two-fold across the five insect species, from numbers similar to those in mammals up to numbers comparable to those seen in C. elegans. Whilst there is a high degree of orthology with mammalian lipases in the other four families, the great majority of the insect neutral and acid lipases have arisen since the insect orders themselves diverged. Intriguingly, about 10% of the insect neutral and acid lipases have lost motifs critical for catalytic function. Examination of the length of lid and loop regions of the neutral lipase sequences suggest that most of the insect lipases lack triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis activity, although the acid lipases all have intact cap domains required for TAG hydrolysis. We have also reviewed the sequence databases and scientific literature for insights into the expression profiles and functions of the insect neutral and acid lipases and the orthologues of the mammalian adipose triglyceride lipase which has a pivotal role in lipid mobilisation. These data suggest that some of the acid and neutral lipase diversity may be due to a requirement for rapid accumulation of dietary lipids. The different roles required of lipases at the four discrete life stages of

  20. Sonochemical Effect on Activity and Conformation of Commercial Lipases.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2017-04-01

    The enzyme under lower-intensity ultrasonic irradiation leads to favourable conformational changes, thereby enhancing its activity. The augmentation of activity of ultrasound-treated enzyme is strongly dependent on ultrasound intensity, duty cycle and exposure time, which was investigated for commercial lipases. Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) lipase showed a 1.3-fold enhanced activity after irradiating at 22 kHz and 11.38 W cm(-2) with 50 % duty cycle for 25-min ultrasonic treatment and 1.5-fold enhanced activity was observed for lipozyme (candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)) lipase, at 22 kHz and 15.48 W cm(-2) with 66.67 % duty cycle for 20-min ultrasonic treatment. After sonication, thermodynamic parameters viz. E a, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were evaluated and values were found to be significantly lower for both lipases. In addition, the changes in secondary structure due to sonication were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), which revealed increase in a certain number of random coiled structure, loss of β-sheets, β-turns and α-helix content in TL lipase and CALB lipase. Also, fluorescence spectroscopy exhibited the increased number of tryptophan on surface of both lipases. Moreover, particle size distribution after sonication also helped to improve surface area and enhanced mass transfer, which contributed to improvement in lipase activity.

  1. Covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by lipase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qing; Yang, Dong; Su, Yanlei; Li, Jian; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Yuan, Weikang

    2007-12-01

    Lipase from Candida rugosa was covalently anchored onto acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) through a self-catalytic mechanism. A variety of characterization techniques including FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS were employed to demonstrate the formation of the ester linkage between lipase and MWNTs. The MWNTs-lipase biocomposites showed significantly increased solubility in some common-used organic solvents, such as THF, DMF and chloroform. This study may offer a novel and facile route for covalent modification of carbon nanotubes, and expand the potential utilization of both lipases and MWNTs in the fields of biocatalyst and biosensor.

  2. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  3. New tools for exploring "old friends-microbial lipases".

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Saisubramanian

    2012-11-01

    Fat-splitting enzymes (lipases), due to their natural, industrial, and medical relevance, attract enough attention as fats do in our lives. Starting from the paper that we write, cheese and oil that we consume, detergent that we use to remove oil stains, biodiesel that we use as transportation fuel, to the enantiopure drugs that we use in therapeutics, all these applications are facilitated directly or indirectly by lipases. Due to their uniqueness, versatility, and dexterity, decades of research work have been carried out on microbial lipases. The hunt for novel lipases and strategies to improve them continues unabated as evidenced by new families of microbial lipases that are still being discovered mostly by metagenomic approaches. A separate database for true lipases termed LIPABASE has been created recently which provides taxonomic, structural, biochemical information about true lipases from various species. The present review attempts to summarize new approaches that are employed in various aspects of microbial lipase research, viz., screening, isolation, production, purification, improvement by protein engineering, and surface display. Finally, novel applications facilitated by microbial lipases are also presented.

  4. Production of ricinoleic acid from castor oil by immobilised lipases.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Hakki Mevlut; Sagiroglu, Ayten

    2009-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), and Castor bean lipase (CBL) were immobilized on celite by deposition from aqueous solution by the addition of hexane. Lipolytic performance of free and immobilized lipases were compared and optimizations of lipolytic enzymatic reactions conditions were performed by free and immobilized derivatives using olive oil as substrate. Afterwards, the influence on lipolysis of castor oil of free lipases and immobilized lipase derivatives have been studied in the case of production of ricinoleic acid. All of the lipases performances were compared and enzyme derivative was selected to be very effective on the production of ricinoleic acid by lipolysis reaction. Various reaction parameters affecting the production of ricinoleic acid were investigated with selected the enzyme derivative. The maximum ricinoleic acid yield was observed at pH 7-8, 50 degrees C, for 3 hours of reaction period with immobilized 1,3-specific PPL on celite. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) were calculated as 1.6 x 10(-4) mM and 22.2 mM from a Lineweaver-Burk plot with the same enzyme derivative. To investigate the operational stability of the lipase, the three step lipolysis process was repeated by transferring the immobilized lipase to a substrate mixture. As a result, the percentage of conversion after usage decreased markedly.

  5. Detergent compatible alkaline lipase produced by marine Bacillus smithii BTMS 11.

    PubMed

    Lailaja, V P; Chandrasekaran, M

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus smithii BTMS 11, isolated from marine sediment, produced alkaline and thermostable lipase. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography which resulted in 0.51 % final yield and a 4.33 fold of purification. The purified enzyme was found to have a specific activity of 360 IU/mg protein. SDS-PAGE analyses, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, yielded a single band of 45 kDa indicating the single polypeptide nature of the enzyme and zymogram analysis using methylumbelliferyl butyrate as substrate confirmed the lipolytic activity of the protein band. The enzyme was found to have 50 °C and pH 8.0 as optimum conditions for maximal activity. However, the enzyme was active over wide range of temperatures (30-80 °C) and pH (7.0-10.0). Effect of a number of metal salts, solvents, surfactants, and other typical enzyme inhibitors on lipase activity was studied to determine the novel characteristics of the enzyme. More than 90 % of the enzyme activity was observed even after 3 h of incubation in the presence of commercial detergents Surf, Sunlight, Ariel, Henko, Tide and Ujala indicating the detergent compatibility of B. smithii lipase. The enzyme was also found to be efficient in stain removal from cotton cloths. Further it was observed that the enzyme could catalyse ester synthesis between fatty acids of varying carbon chain lengths and methanol with high preference for medium to long chain fatty acids showing 70 % of esterification. Results of the study indicated scope for application of this marine bacterial lipase in various industries.

  6. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  7. Assignment of the human diacylglycerol kinase 4 (DAGK4) gene to chromosome 4p16.3

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, S.; Zabel, B.; Winterpacht, A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the localization of the human gene for diacylglycerol kinase 4 (DAGK4) to human chromosome 4p16.3 using an exon amplification scheme. It also discusses the possible implications of the chromosomal location of this gene in certain hereditary malignancies. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  9. Beta2-chimaerin provides a diacylglycerol-dependent mechanism for regulation of adhesion and chemotaxis of T cells.

    PubMed

    Siliceo, María; García-Bernal, David; Carrasco, Silvia; Díaz-Flores, Ernesto; Coluccio Leskow, Federico; Leskow, Federico C; Teixidó, Joaquín; Kazanietz, Marcelo G; Mérida, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac contributes to regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during chemokine-induced lymphocyte adhesion and migration in a multi-step process that is very precisely coordinated. Chimaerins are Rac1-specific GTPase-activating proteins of unknown biological function, which have a canonical diacylglycerol C1-binding domain. Here we demonstrate endogenous expression of beta2-chimaerin in T lymphocytes and study the functional role of this protein in phorbol ester and chemokine (CXCL12)-regulated T-cell responses. We used green fluorescent protein-tagged beta2-chimaerin and phorbol ester stimulation to investigate changes in protein localization in living lymphocytes. Our results demonstrate that active Rac cooperates with C1-dependent phorbol ester binding to induce sustained GFP-beta2-chimaerin localization to the membrane. Subcellular distribution of GFP beta2-chimaerin in living cells showed no major changes following CXCL12 stimulation. Nonetheless Rac1-GTP levels were severely inhibited in GFP-beta2-chimaerin-expressing cells, which displayed reduced CXCL12-induced integrin-dependent adhesion and spreading. This effect was dependent on chimaerin GTPase-activating protein function and required diacylglycerol generation. Whereas beta2-chimaerin overexpression decreased static adhesion, it enhanced CXCL12-dependent migration via receptor-dependent diacylglycerol production. These studies demonstrate that beta2-chimaerin provides a novel, diacylglycerol-dependent mechanism for Rac regulation in T cells and suggest a functional role for this protein in Rac-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling.

  10. Quantification of the molecular species of diacylglycerols,triacylglycerols and tetraacylglycerols in lesquerella (Physaria fendleri) oil by HPLC and MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten diacylglycerols (DAG), 74 triacylglycerols (TAG) and 13 tetraacylglycerols in the seed oil of Physaria fendleri were recently identified by HPLC and MS. These acylglycerols (AG) were quantified by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of th...

  11. Diacylglycerol and the promotion of lamellar-hexagonal and lamellar-isotropic phase transitions in lipids: implications for membrane fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Basanez, G; Nieva, J L; Rivas, E; Alonso, A; Goni, F M

    1996-01-01

    Changes in steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1 -(4-trimethylaminophenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene TMA-DPH) are applied to the detection of lamellar-hexagonal transitions in egg phosphatidylethanolamine. Even low (2 mole%) proportions of diacylglycerol decrease the hexagonal transition temperature considerably, as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. Diacylglycerol is also found to promote a lamellar to "isotropic" (Q(224) cubic) transition in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine: phosphatidylethanolamine:cholesterol. This nonreversible transition is also observed by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and detected as a large increase in TMA-DPH steady-state anisotropy. The same technique reveals as well that lysophosphatidylcholine counteracts the effect of diacylglycerol and stabilizes the lamellar phase in both transitions. Diacylglycerol and lysophosphatidylcholine are known to respectively promote and inhibit membrane fusion in a variety of systems. These data are interpreted in support of the hypothesis of a highly bent structural fusion intermediate ("stalk"). They also show the interest of lipid-phase studies in predicting and rationalizing membrane fusion mechanisms. PMID:9172753

  12. Immobilization of a Commercial Lipase from Penicillium camembertii (Lipase G) by Different Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Adriano A.; Freitas, Larissa; de Carvalho, Ana Karine F.; de Oliveira, Pedro C.; de Castro, Heizir F.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to select the most suitable procedure to immobilize lipase from Penicillium camembertii (Lipase G). Different techniques and supports were evaluated, including physical adsorption on hydrophobic supports octyl-agarose, poly(hydroxybutyrate) and Amberlite resin XAD-4; ionic adsorption on the anionic exchange resin MANAE-agarose and covalent attachment on glyoxyl-agarose, MANAE-agarose cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, MANAE-agarose-glutaraldehyde, and epoxy-silica-polyvinyl alcohol composite. Among the tested protocols, the highest hydrolytic activity (128.2 ± 8.10 IU·g−1 of support) was achieved when the lipase was immobilized on epoxy-SiO2-PVA using hexane as coupling medium. Lipase immobilized by ionic adsorption on MANAE-agarose also gave satisfactory result, attaining 55.6 ± 2.60 IU·g−1 of support. In this procedure, the maximum loading of immobilized enzyme was 9.3 mg·g−1 of gel, and the highest activity (68.8 ± 2.70 IU·g−1 of support) was obtained when 20 mg of protein·g−1 was offered. Immobilization carried out in aqueous medium by physical adsorption on hydrophobic supports and covalent attachment on MANAE-agarose-glutaraldehyde and glyoxyl-agarose was shown to be unfeasible for Lipase G. Thermal stability tests revealed that the immobilized derivative on epoxy-SiO2-PVA composite using hexane as coupling medium had a slight higher thermal stability than the free lipase. PMID:21811674

  13. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol. 30. An Investigation of Diacylglycerol-lactones Containing Heteroaryl Groups Reveals Compounds with High Selectivity for Ras Guanyl Nucleotide-Releasing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazzouli, Saïd El; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    Using a diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone) template previously developed in our laboratory as a scaffold with high binding affinity for C1 domains, we describe herein a series of novel DAG-lactones containing heterocyclic moieties (pyridines, quinolines and indoles) as α-arylidene fragments. Some of the DAG-lactones obtained show selective binding to RasGRP3 as compared to PKCα by more than two orders of magnitude and possess subnanomolar affinities. Because activated C1 domains bound to their ligands (DAG or DAG-lactones) insert into membranes, the lipid composition of membranes (cellular, nuclear, and those of internal organelles) are an important determinant for specificity. Therefore, reaching a proper hydrophilic/lipophilic balance for these molecules is critical. This was achieved by carefully selecting partnering acyl fragments for the DAG-lactones with the appropriate lipophilicity. The results clearly show that the combination of chemical and physical properties in these molecules needs to be perfectly balanced to achieve the desired specificity. PMID:18707088

  14. Hormone-sensitive hepatic Na/sup +/-pump: evidence for regulation by diacylglycerol and tumor promoters

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.J.; Wilson, P.B.; Blackmore, P.F.; Exton, J.H.

    1986-11-05

    Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes was studied to elucidate how Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing hormones stimulate the Na/sup +/-pump. Stimulation of this uptake was observed with concentrations of vasopressin ((8-arginine)vasopressin, AVP), angiotensin II, and norepinephrine which elicited Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization and phosphorylase activation. These results suggested that changes in cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/, mediated by inositol trisphosphate, might trigger sodium pump stimulation by AVP. However, in hepatocytes incubated in Ca/sup 2 +/-free Krebs-Henseleit buffer, Na/sup +/-pump activity was not altered over 15 min by either 1.5 mM EGTA or 1.5 mM Ca/sup 2 +/. Furthermore, incubation of cells in 5 mM EGTA for 15-30 min drastically impaired the ability of AVP to increase cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/, but only modestly attenuated AVP-stimulated Na/sup +/-pump activity. Two tumor promoters, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and mezerein, stimulated Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase-mediated transport activity. Similarly, addition of synthetic diacylglycerols or of exogenous phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens to increase endogenous diacylglycerol levels also resulted in a stimulation of the Na/sup +/-pump in the absence of changes in cytosolic or total cellular Ca/sup 2 +/ levels. Stimulation of the Na/sup +/-pump by the combination of maximal concentrations of PMA and AVP did not produce an additive response, and both agents displayed a transient time course, suggesting that the two agents share a common mechanism. Stimulation of the Na/sup +/-pump by AVP and PMA was not blocked by amiloride analogs which inhibit Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange, but these compounds blocked the action of insulin. These data suggest that the elevated Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase-mediated transport activity observed in hepatocytes following exposure to Ca/sup 2 +/-mobilizing hormones is a consequence of stimulated diacylglycerol formation and may involve protein kinase C.

  15. Hydrolysis of used frying palm olein and sunflower oil catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, R; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Cuesta, C; Burguillo, F J; Sánchez-Montero, J M

    1996-11-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of frying used vegetable oils with different degrees of alteration were measured using porcine pancreatic lipase (acylglycerol acylhydrolase EC 3.1.1.3). Successive frying of potatoes significantly increased the level of total polar lipid content in the palm olein from 9.3 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mg oil to 26.4 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg oil after 90 fryings, and from 4.0 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mg oil to 27.7 +/- 0.3 mg/100 mg oil in sunflower oil after 60 fryings. Triacylglycerol polymers, triacylglycerol dimers, and oxidized triacylglycerols also increased 37-, 7.9-, and 7.5-times in palm olein, respectively, and 56-, 22-, and 4.7-times in sunflower oil, respectively. However, diacylglycerols and free fatty acid levels related to hydrolytic alteration did not increase with the number of fryings in both oils. The substrate concentration in the reactor was determined by calculating the molecular weight of each oil showing a different degree of alteration. We compared the methodology used by us and that used by other authors. The results show that the methods are reproducible and that the values obtained are in concordance with theoretical values. The kinetic parameters apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KMapp) and apparent maximum velocity of hydrolysis (Vmaxapp) were different in unused palm olein (5.1 +/- 0.7 and 166 +/- 7.6, respectively) than in sunflower oil (2.2 +/- 0.3 and 62 +/- 2.2, respectively). However, changes in KMapp and Vmaxapp were not related to the degree of alteration of the oils.

  16. Phenolic profiles of 20 Canadian lentil cultivars and their contribution to antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Ramdath, D Dan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Liu, Qiang; Tsao, Rong

    2015-04-01

    Phenolic extracts from 20 Canadian lentil cultivars (Lens culinaris) were evaluated for total phenolic contents and composition, antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC), and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Twenty one phenolic compounds were identified in the present study, with the majority being flavonoids, including kaempeferol glycosides, catechin/epicatechin glucosides and procyanidins. These phenolic compounds not only contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities, but they were also good inhibitors of α-glucosidase and lipase, two enzymes, respectively, associated with glucose and lipid digestion in the human intestine, thus contributing significantly to the control of blood glucose levels and obesity. More interestingly, it was the flavonols, not the flavanols, which showed the inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Our result provides supporting information for developing lentil cultivars and functional foods with improved health benefits and suggests a potential role of lentil consumption in managing weight and control of blood glucose.

  17. Enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of racemic pharmaceuticals: a facile one-pot in situ preparation of lipase-based polymer monoliths in capillary format.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    New affinity monolithic capillary columns of 150 µm internal diameter were prepared in situ fused glass capillary via either immobilization or encapsulation of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) on or within polymer monoliths, respectively. The immobilized lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 19.1% monomers (8.9% MMA and 10.2% GMA), 19.8% EDMA, and 61.1% porogens (54.2% formamide and 6.9% 1-propanol) w/w or 20% GMA, 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (51.6% cyclohexanol and 8.4% 1-dodecanol) in the presence of AIBN (1%) as a radical initiator. This was followed by pumping a solution of lipase through the capillaries and rinsing with potassium phosphate buffer. On the other hand, the encapsulated lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 20% monomers (GMA), 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (48% 1-propanol, 6% 1,4-butanediol) or 16.4% monomers (16% BuMA, 0.4% SPMA), 23.6% EDMA, and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol along with 6% lipase aqueous solution in potassium phosphate buffer. The prepared capillary columns were investigated for the enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of a set of different classes of racemic pharmaceuticals, namely, α- and β-blockers, antiinflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Run-to-run repeatability was quite satisfactory. The encapsulated lipase-based capillary monolith showed better enantioselective separations of most of the investigated compounds. Baseline separation was achieved for alprenolol, atenolol, bromoglutithimide, carbuterol, chloropheneramine, cizolertine carbinol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid, desmethylcizolertine, nomifensine, normetanephrine, and sulconazole under reversed phase chromatographic conditions. A speculation about the understanding of the chiral recognition mechanism of

  18. Isolation and biochemical characterization of Bacillus pumilus lipases from the Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Arifin, Arild Ranlym; Kim, Soon-Ja; Yim, Joung Han; Suwanto, Antonius; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2013-05-01

    Lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from Antarctic soil samples using the tricaprylin agar plate method. Seven strains with relatively strong lipase activities were selected. All of them turned out to be Bacillus pumilus strains by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their corresponding lipase genes were cloned, sequenced, and compared. Finally, three different Bacillus pumilus lipases (BPL1, BPL2, and BPL3) were chosen. Their amino acid sequence identities were in the range of 92-98% with the previous Bacillus pumilus lipases. Their optimum temperatures and pHs were measured to be 40 degrees C and pH 9. Lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL2 were stable up to 30 degrees C, whereas lipase BPL3 was stable up to 20 degrees C. Lipase BPL2 was stable within a pH range of 6-10, whereas lipase BPL1 and lipase BPL3 were stable within a pH range of 5-11, showing strong alkaline tolerance. All these lipases exhibited high hydrolytic activity toward pnitrophenyl caprylate (C8). In addition, lipase BPL1 showed high hydrolytic activity toward tributyrin, whereas lipase BPL2 and lipase BPL3 hydrolyzed tricaprylin and castor oil preferentially. These results demonstrated that the three Antarctic Bacillus lipases were alkaliphilic and had a substrate preference toward short- and mediumchain triglycerides. These Antarctic Bacillus lipases might be used in detergent and food industries.

  19. DAG tales: the multiple faces of diacylglycerol--stereochemistry, metabolism, and signaling.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Thomas Oliver; Lass, Achim

    2015-10-01

    The neutral lipids diacylglycerols (DAGs) are involved in a plethora of metabolic pathways. They function as components of cellular membranes, as building blocks for glycero(phospho)lipids, and as lipid second messengers. Considering their central role in multiple metabolic processes and signaling pathways, cellular DAG levels require a tight regulation to ensure a constant and controlled availability. Interestingly, DAG species are versatile in their chemical structure. Besides the different fatty acid species esterified to the glycerol backbone, DAGs can occur in three different stereo/regioisoforms, each with unique biological properties. Recent scientific advances have revealed that DAG metabolizing enzymes generate and distinguish different DAG isoforms, and that only one DAG isoform holds signaling properties. Herein, we review the current knowledge of DAG stereochemistry and their impact on cellular metabolism and signaling. Further, we describe intracellular DAG turnover and its stereochemistry in a 3-pool model to illustrate the spatial and stereochemical separation and hereby the diversity of cellular DAG metabolism.

  20. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase-controlled phosphoinositide availability limits VEGFA signaling and vascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weijun; Pham, Van N.; Stratman, Amber N.; Castranova, Daniel; Kamei, Makoto; Kidd, Kameha R.; Lo, Brigid D.; Shaw, Kenna M.; Torres-Vazquez, Jesus; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Davis, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis and translating these into effective therapies are of enormous scientific and clinical interests. In this report, we demonstrate the central role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS) in the regulation of VEGFA signaling and angiogenesis. CDS activity maintains phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) availability through resynthesis of phosphoinositides, whereas VEGFA, mainly through phospholipase Cγ1, consumes PIP2 for signal transduction. Loss of CDS2, 1 of 2 vertebrate CDS enzymes, results in vascular-specific defects in zebrafish in vivo and failure of VEGFA-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells in vitro. Absence of CDS2 also results in reduced arterial differentiation and reduced angiogenic signaling. CDS2 deficit-caused phenotypes can be successfully rescued by artificial elevation of PIP2 levels, and excess PIP2 or increased CDS2 activity can promote excess angiogenesis. These results suggest that availability of CDS-controlled resynthesis of phosphoinositides is essential for angiogenesis. PMID:22649102

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-02

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings.

  2. Inhibition of endothelial lipase activity by sphingomyelin in the lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Belikova, Natalia A.; Billheimer, Jeff; Rader, Daniel J.; Hill, John S.; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of plasma HDL concentration, its activity being inversely proportional to HDL levels. Although it is known that it preferentially acts on HDL, compared to LDL and VLDL, the basis for this specificity is not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid in lipoproteins is a physiological inhibitor of EL, and that the preference of the enzyme for HDL may be due to low sphingomyelin/ phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) ratio in HDL, compared to other lipoproteins. Using recombinant human EL, we showed that sphingomyelin inhibits the hydrolysis of PtdCho in the liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. While the enzyme showed lower hydrolysis of LDL PtdCho, compared to HDL PtdCho, this difference disappeared after the degradation of lipoprotein sphingomyelin by bacterial sphingomyelinase. Analysis of molecular species of PtdCho hydrolyzed by EL in the lipoproteins showed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PtdCho containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as 22:6, 20:5, 20:4 at sn-2 position, generating the corresponding PUFA-lyso PtdCho. This specificity for PUFA-PtdCho species was not observed after depletion of sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase. These results show that sphingomyelin not only plays a role in regulating EL activity, but also influences its specificity towards PtdCho species. PMID:25167836

  3. Inhibition of endothelial lipase activity by sphingomyelin in the lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Belikova, Natalia A; Billheimer, Jeff; Rader, Daniel J; Hill, John S; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of plasma HDL concentration, its activity being inversely proportional to HDL levels. Although it is known that it preferentially acts on HDL compared to LDL and VLDL, the basis for this specificity is not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid in lipoproteins is a physiological inhibitor of EL, and that the preference of the enzyme for HDL may be due to low sphingomyelin/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) ratio in HDL, compared to other lipoproteins. Using recombinant human EL, we showed that sphingomyelin inhibits the hydrolysis of PtdCho in the liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. While the enzyme showed lower hydrolysis of LDL PtdCho, compared to HDL PtdCho, this difference disappeared after the degradation of lipoprotein sphingomyelin by bacterial sphingomyelinase. Analysis of molecular species of PtdCho hydrolyzed by EL in the lipoproteins showed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PtdCho containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as 22:6, 20:5, 20:4 at the sn-2 position, generating the corresponding PUFA-lyso PtdCho. This specificity for PUFA-PtdCho species was not observed after depletion of sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase. These results show that sphingomyelin not only plays a role in regulating EL activity, but also influences its specificity towards PtdCho species.

  4. Diacylglycerol kinase zeta inhibits myocardial atrophy and restores cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bilim, Olga; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kitahara, Tatsuro; Arimoto, Takanori; Niizeki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Toshiki; Goto, Kaoru; Kubota, Isao

    2008-02-04

    Activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diabetic complications. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) converts DAG to phosphatidic acid and acts as an endogenous regulator of PKC activity. Akt/PKB is associated with a downstream insulin signaling, and PKCbeta attenuates insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. We examined transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of DGKzeta (DGKzeta-TG) compared to wild type (WT) mice in streptozotocin-induced (STZ, 150 mg/kg) diabetic and nondiabetic conditions. After 8 weeks, decreases in heart weight and heart weight/body weight ratio in diabetic WT mice were inhibited in DGKzeta-TG mice. Echocardiography at 8 weeks after STZ-injection demonstrated that decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and fractional shortening observed in WT mice were attenuated in DGKzeta-TG mice. Thinning of the interventricular septum and the posterior wall in diabetic WT hearts were blocked in DGKzeta-TG mice. Reduction of transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes isolated from the left ventricle in diabetic WT mice was attenuated in DGKzeta-TG mice. Cardiac fibrosis was much less in diabetic DGKzeta-TG than in diabetic WT mice. Western blots showed translocation of PKCbeta and delta isoforms to membrane fraction and decreased Akt/PKB phosphorylation in diabetic WT mouse hearts. However in diabetic DGKzeta-TG mice, neither translocation of PKC nor changes Akt/PKB phosphorylation was observed. DGKzeta modulates intracellular signaling and improves the course of diabetic cardiomyopathy. These data may suggest that DGKzeta is a new therapeutic target to prevent or reverse diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) controls diacylglycerol kinase activity in neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Ricardos; Moutin, Enora; Becker, Jérôme A J; Heintz, Dimitri; Fouillen, Laetitia; Flatter, Eric; Krężel, Wojciech; Alunni, Violaine; Koebel, Pascale; Dembélé, Doulaye; Tassone, Flora; Bardoni, Barbara; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Vitale, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Le Merrer, Julie; Moine, Hervé

    2016-06-28

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in neurons. In the mouse, the lack of FMRP is associated with an excessive translation of hundreds of neuronal proteins, notably including postsynaptic proteins. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the observed defects of glutamatergic synapse maturation and function and to affect preferentially the hundreds of mRNA species that were reported to bind to FMRP. How FMRP impacts synaptic protein translation and which mRNAs are most important for the pathology remain unclear. Here we show by cross-linking immunoprecipitation in cortical neurons that FMRP is mostly associated with one unique mRNA: diacylglycerol kinase kappa (Dgkκ), a master regulator that controls the switch between diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways. The absence of FMRP in neurons abolishes group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent DGK activity combined with a loss of Dgkκ expression. The reduction of Dgkκ in neurons is sufficient to cause dendritic spine abnormalities, synaptic plasticity alterations, and behavior disorders similar to those observed in the FXS mouse model. Overexpression of Dgkκ in neurons is able to rescue the dendritic spine defects of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene KO neurons. Together, these data suggest that Dgkκ deregulation contributes to FXS pathology and support a model where FMRP, by controlling the translation of Dgkκ, indirectly controls synaptic proteins translation and membrane properties by impacting lipid signaling in dendritic spine.

  6. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  7. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  8. Plasma lipidomic profile signature of hypertension in Mexican American families: specific role of diacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Meikle, Peter J; Mamtani, Manju; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Barlow, Christopher K; Jowett, Jeremy B; Bellis, Claire; Dyer, Thomas D; Johnson, Matthew P; Rainwater, David L; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E

    2013-09-01

    Both as a component of metabolic syndrome and as an independent entity, hypertension poses a continued challenge with regard to its diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Previous studies have documented connections between hypertension and indicators of lipid metabolism. Novel technologies, such as plasma lipidomic profiling, promise a better understanding of disorders in which there is a derangement of the lipid metabolism. However, association of plasma lipidomic profiles with hypertension in a high-risk population, such as Mexican Americans, has not been evaluated before. Using the rich data and sample resource from the ongoing San Antonio Family Heart Study, we conducted plasma lipidomic profiling by combining high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy to characterize 319 lipid species in 1192 individuals from 42 large and extended Mexican American families. Robust statistical analyses using polygenic regression models, liability threshold models, and bivariate trait analyses implemented in the SOLAR software were conducted after accounting for obesity, insulin resistance, and relative abundance of various lipoprotein fractions. Diacylglycerols, in general, and the DG 16:0/22:5 and DG 16:0/22:6 lipid species, in particular, were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as liability of incident hypertension measured during 7140.17 person-years of follow-up. Four lipid species, including the DG 16:0/22:5 and DG 16:0/22:6 species, showed significant genetic correlations with the liability of hypertension in bivariate trait analyses. Our results demonstrate the value of plasma lipidomic profiling in the context of hypertension and identify disturbance of diacylglycerol metabolism as an independent biomarker of hypertension.

  9. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol-lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Jelinek, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Summary Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG-lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a “molecular rod”, namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Application of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques reveals that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG-lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit displayed at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG-lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of PKC translocation from cytosol to membranes induced by the molecular-rod DAG-lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side-residues of DAG-lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions and in that fashion may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:19961537

  10. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) controls diacylglycerol kinase activity in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Ricardos; Moutin, Enora; Becker, Jérôme A. J.; Heintz, Dimitri; Fouillen, Laetitia; Flatter, Eric; Krężel, Wojciech; Alunni, Violaine; Koebel, Pascale; Dembélé, Doulaye; Tassone, Flora; Bardoni, Barbara; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Vitale, Nicolas; Muller, Dominique; Le Merrer, Julie; Moine, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in neurons. In the mouse, the lack of FMRP is associated with an excessive translation of hundreds of neuronal proteins, notably including postsynaptic proteins. This local protein synthesis deregulation is proposed to underlie the observed defects of glutamatergic synapse maturation and function and to affect preferentially the hundreds of mRNA species that were reported to bind to FMRP. How FMRP impacts synaptic protein translation and which mRNAs are most important for the pathology remain unclear. Here we show by cross-linking immunoprecipitation in cortical neurons that FMRP is mostly associated with one unique mRNA: diacylglycerol kinase kappa (Dgkκ), a master regulator that controls the switch between diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid signaling pathways. The absence of FMRP in neurons abolishes group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent DGK activity combined with a loss of Dgkκ expression. The reduction of Dgkκ in neurons is sufficient to cause dendritic spine abnormalities, synaptic plasticity alterations, and behavior disorders similar to those observed in the FXS mouse model. Overexpression of Dgkκ in neurons is able to rescue the dendritic spine defects of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 gene KO neurons. Together, these data suggest that Dgkκ deregulation contributes to FXS pathology and support a model where FMRP, by controlling the translation of Dgkκ, indirectly controls synaptic proteins translation and membrane properties by impacting lipid signaling in dendritic spine. PMID:27233938

  11. Development and validation of a lipase nasogastric tube position test.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Oliver; Carr, Reuben; Harbinson, Merrilee; Hanna, George Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tube position should be checked every day by either aspirate pH or chest radiography to prevent fatal misplaced feeding into the lungs. Many patients do not have acidic gastric aspirates and require daily chest radiographs. We developed and validated a lipase test that was compatible with non-acidic gastric aspirates. We conducted evaluations of diagnostic test accuracy at a teaching hospital in development and validation stages. We collected gastric and lung aspirates from 34 consecutive patients. We measured pH and human gastric lipase activity in the laboratory. These data helped us develop the lipase test. Ingenza Ltd (Roslin, Scotland) created tributyrin-coated pH test paper, which human gastric lipase converted into butyric acid, thus correcting false negatives. We tested nasogastric feeding tube aspirates from 36 consecutive patients with pH and lipase tests, using chest radiography or trial by use as the reference standard. We demonstrated human gastric lipase activity in the non-acidic stomach aspirates. The accuracy of the lipase test (sensitivity 97.2%, specificity 100%) was significantly better than pH (sensitivity 65.7%, specificity 100%, p<0.05). When nasogastric tube stomach aspirates were not acidic and pH was falsely negative, the lipase test showed a true positive and was significantly more accurate.

  12. Development and validation of a lipase nasogastric tube position test

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Oliver; Carr, Reuben; Harbinson, Merrilee; Hanna, George Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasogastric tube position should be checked every day by either aspirate pH or chest radiography to prevent fatal misplaced feeding into the lungs. Many patients do not have acidic gastric aspirates and require daily chest radiographs. We developed and validated a lipase test that was compatible with non-acidic gastric aspirates. Methods We conducted evaluations of diagnostic test accuracy at a teaching hospital in development and validation stages. Development: We collected gastric and lung aspirates from 34 consecutive patients. We measured pH and human gastric lipase activity in the laboratory. These data helped us develop the lipase test. Ingenza Ltd (Roslin, Scotland) created tributyrin-coated pH test paper, which human gastric lipase converted into butyric acid, thus correcting false negatives. Validation: We tested nasogastric feeding tube aspirates from 36 consecutive patients with pH and lipase tests, using chest radiography or trial by use as the reference standard. Results Development: We demonstrated human gastric lipase activity in the non-acidic stomach aspirates. Validation: The accuracy of the lipase test (sensitivity 97.2%, specificity 100%) was significantly better than pH (sensitivity 65.7%, specificity 100%, p<0.05). Conclusions When nasogastric tube stomach aspirates were not acidic and pH was falsely negative, the lipase test showed a true positive and was significantly more accurate. PMID:26966548

  13. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  14. Activation of a bacterial lipase by its chaperone.

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, A H; Buckley, C M; Aamand, J L; Jørgensen, S T; Diderichsen, B; McConnell, D J

    1993-01-01

    The gene lipA of Pseudomonas cepacia DSM 3959 encodes a prelipase from which a signal peptide is cleaved during secretion, producing a mature extracellular lipase. Expression of lipase in several heterologous hosts depends on the presence of another gene, limA, in cis or in trans. Lipase protein has been overproduced in Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the lipase modulator gene limA. Therefore, limA is not required for the transcription of lipA or for the translation of the lipA mRNA. However, no lipase activity is observed in the absence of limA. limA has been overexpressed and encodes a 33-kDa protein, Lim. If lipase protein is denatured in 8 M urea and the urea is removed by dialysis, lipase activity is quantitatively recovered provided Lim protein is present during renaturation. Lip and Lim proteins form a complex precipitable either by an anti-lipase or anti-Lim antibody. The Lim protein has therefore the properties of a chaperone. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7685908

  15. Marine invertebrate lipases: Comparative and functional genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra

    2015-09-01

    Lipases are key enzymes involved in lipid digestion, storage and mobilization of reserves during fasting or heightened metabolic demand. This is a highly conserved process, essential for survival. The genomes of five marine invertebrate species with distinctive digestive system were screened for the six major lipase families. The two most common families in marine invertebrates, the neutral an acid lipases, are also the main families in mammals and insects. The number of lipases varies two-fold across analyzed genomes. A high degree of orthology with mammalian lipases was observed. Interestingly, 19% of the marine invertebrate lipases have lost motifs required for catalysis. Analysis of the lid and loop regions of the neutral lipases suggests that many marine invertebrates have a functional triacylglycerol hydrolytic activity as well as some acid lipases. A revision of the expression profiles and functional activity on sequences in databases and scientific literature provided information regarding the function of these families of enzymes in marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unraveling the rationale behind organic solvent stability of lipases.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Debamitra; Parameswaran, Saravanan; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta

    2012-06-01

    Organic solvent-stable lipases have pronounced impact on industrial economy as they are involved in synthesis by esterification, interesterification, and transesterification. However, very few of such natural lipases have been isolated till date. A study of the recent past provided few pillars to rely on for this work. The three-dimensional structure, inclusive of the surface and active site, of 29 organic solvent-stable lipases was analyzed by subfamily classification and protein solvent molecular docking based on fast Fourier transform correlation approach. The observations revealed that organic solvent stability of lipases is their intrinsic property and unique with respect to each lipase. In this paper, factors like surface distribution of charged, hydrophobic, and neutral residues, interaction of solvents with catalytically immutable residues, and residues interacting with essential water molecules required for lipase activity, synergistically and by mutualism contribute to render a stable lipase organic solvent. The propensity of surface charge in relation to stability in organic solvents by establishing repulsive forces to exclude solvent molecules from interacting with the surface and prohibiting the same from gaining entry to the protein core, thus stabilizing the active conformation, is a new finding. It was also interesting to note that lipases having equivalent surface-exposed positive and negative residues were stable in a wide range of organic solvents, irrespective of their LogP values.

  17. Characterization of lipolytic inhibitor G(0)/G(1) switch gene-2 protein (G0S2) expression in male Sprague-Dawley rat skeletal muscle compared to relative content of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparitive gene identification-58 (CGI-58).

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Patrick C; Ramos, Sofhia V; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Roy, Brian D; Peters, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), is activated by comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and inhibited by the G(0)/G(1) switch gene-2 (G0S2) protein. It is speculated that inhibition of ATGL is through a dose dependent manner of relative G0S2 protein content. There is little work examining G0S2 expression in lipolytic tissues, and the relative expression across oxidative tissues such as skeletal muscle has not yet been described. Three muscles, soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius (WG) were excised from 57-day old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9). QRT-PCR was used for mRNA analysis, and western blotting was conducted to determine protein content. ATGL and G0S2 protein content were both greatest in the lipolytic SOL, with the least amount of both ATGL and G0S2 protein content found in the WG. CGI-58 protein content however did not mirror ATGL and G0S2 protein content, since the RG had the greatest CGI-58 protein content when compared to the SOL and WG. When comparing our tissues based on CGI-58-to-ATGL ratio and G0S2-to-ATGL ratio, it was discovered that contrary to oxidative demand, the glycolytic WG had the greatest activator CGI-58-to-ATGL ratio with the oxidative SOL having the least, and no differences in G0S2-to-ATGL across the three muscle types. These data suggest that the content of G0S2 relative to the lipase in skeletal muscle would not predict lipolytic potential.

  18. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone: optimization of reaction conditions and lipase reusability.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Marija; Velićković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed ascorbyl oleate synthesis is eco-friendly and selective way of production of liposoluble biocompatible antioxidants, but still not present on an industrial level due to the high biocatalyst costs. In this study, response surface methodology was applied in order to estimate influence of individual experimental factors, identify interactions among them, and to determine optimum conditions for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl oleate in acetone, in terms of limiting substrate conversion, product yield, and yield per mass of consumed enzyme. As a biocatalyst, commercial immobilized preparation of lipase B from Candida antarctica, Novozym 435, was used. In order to develop cost-effective process, at reaction conditions at which maximum amount of product per mass of biocatalyst was produced (60°C, 0.018 % (v/v) of water, 0.135 M of vitamin C, substrates molar ratio 1:8, and 0.2 % (w/v) of lipase), possibilities for further increase of ester yield were investigated. Addition of molecular sieves at 4(th) hour of reaction enabled increase of yield from 16.7 mmol g⁻¹ to 19.3 mmol g⁻¹. Operational stability study revealed that after ten reaction cycles enzyme retained 48 % of its initial activity. Optimized synthesis with well-timed molecular sieves addition and repeated use of lipase provided production of 153 mmol per gram of enzyme. Further improvement of productivity was achieved using procedure for the enzyme reactivation.

  19. Substrate specificity of lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase: studies of lid chimeras.

    PubMed

    Griffon, Nathalie; Budreck, Elaine C; Long, Christopher J; Broedl, Uli C; Marchadier, Dawn H L; Glick, Jane M; Rader, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    The triglyceride (TG) lipase gene subfamily, consisting of LPL, HL, and endothelial lipase (EL), plays a central role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Compared with LPL and HL, EL is relatively more active as a phospholipase than as a TG lipase. The amino acid loop or "lid" covering the catalytic site has been implicated as the basis for the difference in substrate specificity between HL and LPL. To determine the role of the lid in the substrate specificity of EL, we studied EL in comparison with LPL by mutating specific residues of the EL lid and exchanging their lids. Mutation studies showed that amphipathic properties of the lid contribute to substrate specificity. Exchanging lids between LPL and EL only partially shifted the substrate specificity of the enzymes. Studies of a double chimera possessing both the lid and the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of EL in the LPL backbone showed that the role of the lid in determining substrate specificity does not depend on the nature of the C-domain of the lipase. Using a kinetic assay, we showed an additive effect of the EL lid on the apparent affinity for HDL(3) in the presence of the EL C-domain.

  20. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-induced changes in plasma corticosterone levels, anxiety and locomotor activity in male CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aliczki, Mano; Zelena, Dora; Mikics, Eva; Varga, Zoltan K; Pinter, Otto; Bakos, Nikoletta Venczkone; Varga, Janos; Haller, Jozsef

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis is strongly controlled by the endocannabinoid system. The specific impact of enhanced 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling on corticosterone plasma levels, however, was not investigated so far. Here we studied the effects of the recently developed monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 on basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in male CD1 mice, and found that this compound dramatically increased basal levels without affecting stress responses. Since acute changes in corticosterone levels can affect behavior, JZL184 was administered concurrently with the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, to investigate whether the previously shown behavioral effects of JZL184 are dependent on corticosterone. We found that in the elevated plus-maze, the effects of JZL184 on "classical" anxiety-related measures were abolished by corticosterone synthesis blockade. By contrast, effects on the "ethological" measures of anxiety (i.e. risk assessment) were not affected by metyrapone. In the open-field, the locomotion-enhancing effects of the compound were not changed either. These findings show that monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition dramatically increases basal levels of corticosterone. This endocrine effect partly affects the anxiolytic, but not the locomotion-enhancing effects of monoacylglycerol lipase blockade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory activity of benzophenones from Anemarrhena asphodeloides on pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Liu, Qing; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-04-01

    Pancreatic lipase is a key enzyme for lipid absorption by hydrolysis of total dietary fats. Therefore, inhibition of pancreatic lipase is suggested to be an effective therapy in the regulation of obesity. The EtOAc-soluble fraction of Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizomes significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity as assessed using porcine pancreatic lipase as an in vitro assay system. Further fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of A. asphodeloides led to the isolation of a new benzophenone glycoside, zimoside A (1), together with the eleven known compounds iriflophenone (2), 2,4',6-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (3), foliamangiferoside A (4), (2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)(4-hydroxyphenyl)-methanone (5), 1,4,5,6,-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6), isosakuranetin (7), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (9), vanillic acid (10), tyrosol (11) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (12). Among the isolated compounds, 3, 5 and 10 showed significant inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity.

  2. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Genomic organization of the murine CTL lipase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.H.; Boyer, S.N.; Grusby, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    Murine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) lipase was originally identified as an IL-4-inducible gene in CD8-positive T cells. To further our understanding of both the function and the regulation of CTL lipase in T cells, we have cloned and characterized the murine gene. Two overlapping phage clones spanning 29 kb contain the entire CTL lipase gene. The exon structure in similar to those characterized for the human and canine pancreatic lipase-related protein 1 genes, with notable differences in the 5{prime} end. Transcripts initiate from a site that matches a consensus for an initiator sequence. Potential cis-regulatory elements in the CTL lipase 5{prime} regulatory region that would confer dual tissue specificity in exocrine pancreas and cytotoxic T lymphocytes are identified. The implications of this promoter organization are discussed. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Importance of the lid and cap domains for the catalytic activity of gastric lipases.

    PubMed

    Miled, N; Bussetta, C; De caro, A; Rivière, M; Berti, L; Canaan, S

    2003-09-01

    Human gastric lipase (HGL) is an enzyme secreted by the stomach, which is stable and active despite the highly acidic environment. It has been clearly established that this enzyme is responsible for 30% of the fat digestion processes occurring in human. This globular protein belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family and its catalytic serine is deeply buried under a domain called the extrusion domain, which is composed of a 'cap' domain and a segment consisting of 58 residues, which can be defined as a lid. The exact roles played by the cap and the lid domains during the catalytic step have not yet been elucidated. We have recently solved the crystal structure of the open form of the dog gastric lipase in complex with a covalent inhibitor. The detergent molecule and the inhibitor were mimicking a triglyceride substrate that would interact with residues belonging to both the cap and the lid domains. In this study, we have investigated the role of the cap and the lid domains, using site-directed mutagenesis procedures. We have produced truncated mutants lacking the lid and the cap. After expressing these mutants and purifying them, their activity was found to have decreased drastically in comparison with the wild type HGL. The lid and the cap domains play an important role in the catalytic reaction mechanism. Based on these results and the structural data (open form of DGL), we have pointed out the cap and the lid residues involved in the binding with the lipidic substrate.

  5. Structural Elucidation of Diglycosyl Diacylglycerol and Monoglycosyl Diacylglycerol from Streptococcus pneumoniae by Multiple-Stage Linear Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Tatituri, Raju Venkata Veera; Brenner, Michael B.; Turk, John; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    The cell wall of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) contains glucopyranosyl diacylglycerol (GlcDAG) and galactoglucopyranosyldiacylglycerol (GalGlcDAG). The specific GlcDAG consisting of vaccenic acid substituent at sn-2 was recently identified as another glycolipid antigen family recognized by invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Here, we describe a linear ion-trap (LIT) multiple-stage (MSn) mass spectrometric approach towards structural analysis of GalGlcDAG and GlcDAG. Structural information derived from MSn (n = 2,3) on the [M + Li]+ adduct ions desorbed by electrospray ionization (ESI) affords identification of the fatty acid substituents, assignment of the fatty acyl groups on the glycerol backbone, as well as the location of double bond along the fatty acyl chain. The identification of the fatty acyl groups and determination of their regio-specificity were confirmed by MSn (n = 2,3) on the [M + NH4]+ ions. We establish the structures of GalGlcDAG and GlcDAG isolated from S. pneumoniae, in which the major species consists of a 16:1- or 18:1-fatty acid substituent mainly at sn-2, and the double bond of the fatty acid is located at ω-7 (n-7). More than one isomers were found for each mass in the family. This mass spectrometric approach provides a simple method to achieve structure identification of this important lipid family that would be very difficult to define using the traditional method. PMID:22282097

  6. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases.

    PubMed

    Franken, Benjamin; Eggert, Thorsten; Jaeger, Karl E; Pohl, Martina

    2011-02-22

    Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the enzymes. Lyophilization of the enzymes from buffer at pH 6

  7. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the enzymes. Lyophilization of

  8. Isolation of lipase producing thermophilic bacteria: optimization of production and reaction conditions for lipase from Geobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akshita; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, Reena

    2012-12-01

    Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long chain fatty acids. Lipases occur widely in nature, but only microbial lipases are commercially significant. In the present study, thirty-two bacterial strains, isolated from soil sample of a hot spring were screened for lipase production. The strain TS-4, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Geobacillus sp. at MTCC, IMTECH, Chandigarh. The isolated lipase producing bacteria were grown on minimal salt medium containing olive oil. Maximal quantities of lipase were produced when 30 h old inoculum was used at 10% (v/v) in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (150 rpm) for 72 h. The optimal temperature and pH for the bacterial growth and lipase production were found to be 60°C and 9.5, respectively. Maximal enzyme production resulted when mustard oil was used as carbon source and yeast extract as sole nitrogen source at a concentration of 1% (v/v) and 0.15% (w/v), respectively. The different optimized reaction parameters were temperature 65°C, pH 8.5, incubation time 10 min and substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The Km and Vmax values of enzyme were found to be 14 mM and 17.86 μmol ml-1min-1, respectively, with p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate. All metal ions studied (1 mM) increased the lipase activity.

  9. A rare entity in ED: Normal lipase level in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Limon, Onder; Sahin, Erkan; Kantar, Funda Ugur; Oray, Deniz; Ugurhan, Asli Aydinoglu

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis can have a variable presentation and diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, serum amylase and lipase levels and computed tomography. Negative predictive value of serum lipase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis is approximately to 100 percent and a normal blood lipase level in acute pancreatitis is an extremely rare condition. Here we reported two cases with normal serum amylase and lipase levels.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1), which is obtained from the...

  15. Harmful effect of detergents on lipase.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Sadaf; Ajmal, Rehan; Badr, Gamal; Khan, Rizwan H

    2014-11-01

    In order to study effects of detergents at molecular level, we have done activity measurements of wheat germ lipase in increasing concentration of some commercial detergents. Conformational changes in protein structure using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were studied in increasing concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our study proves that detergents may lead to loss of enzymatic activity and structure of plant enzymes. Since detergents are common source of pollution in water bodies and the water from these resources can be used in fields, our study may prove helpful in creating awareness about harmful action of detergents.

  16. Effect of clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline on growth and extracellular lipase production by propionibacteria in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Unkles, S E; Gemmell, C G

    1982-01-01

    Two propionibacteria identified as Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum were grown anaerobically in the presence of growth subinhibitory concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 minimal inhibitory concentrations) of clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin, and tetracycline. Viable counts and assays of extracellular lipase were performed on samples taken at 24-h intervals over a 96-h period. The results showed that lincomycin and clindamycin could inhibit the production of the enzyme by both strains with little effect on their growth rates. Tetracycline caused inhibition of lipase production by P. granulosum only. Although production of the enzyme by P. acnes was delayed in the presence of tetracycline, the final titer was the same as the control. Erythromycin had little effect on growth and enzyme production of either strain. It is possible, therefore, that certain antibiotics used in acne therapy may act not only as bactericidal agents but also as inhibitors of enzyme production under non-growth-limiting conditions. PMID:7081974

  17. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, R; Arulpandi, I; Geetha, A

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

  18. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2

    PubMed Central

    Sangeetha, R.; Arulpandi, I.; Geetha, A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease. PMID:25242920

  19. Effects of Regioselectivity and Lipid Class Specificity of Lipases on Transesterification, Exemplified by Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Sinkūnienė, Dovilė; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of triolein was studied as a model for biodiesel production. Four lipases were immobilized on porous polypropylene, and ethanolysis reactions were carried out in methyl t-butyl ether. The reaction products were analyzed using gas chromatography. Three of the four lipases studied were efficient in the conversion of triolein to 2-monoolein, but slow in the final step of producing glycerol. However, Candida antarctica lipase B was slow in the conversion of triolein, but more efficient in the subsequent two steps than the other lipases. The 1,3-selectivity of the lipases was less pronounced for the monooleins than for triolein. Silica gel was investigated as a catalyst for acyl migration, showing an increase in biodiesel yield with three of the lipases, but a reduction in yield when C. antarctica lipase B was used. The highest biodiesel yield (96 %) was obtained with a combination of Rhizopus arrhizus lipase and C. antarctica lipase B.

  20. Bile salt-stimulated lipase and pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 are the dominating lipases in neonatal fat digestion in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Lindquist, Susanne; Lowe, Mark; Noppa, Laila; Hernell, Olle

    2007-11-01

    During infancy, the basic conditions for digestion of dietary fat differ from later in life. The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is an enzyme expressed in the exocrine pancreas and in some species (including human) also in the lactating mammary gland and secreted with the milk. The aim of this study was to compare the ontogeny of four pancreatic lipases [BSSL, pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PL), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)] in one species that supplies BSSL with milk (the mouse) and one that does not (the rat). We followed expression of the four pancreatic lipases from postnatal d 1 until after weaning in both species. We found that BSSL and PLRP2, two lipases with broad substrate specificity, dominated. It was not until weaning that significant expression of PL and PLA2 were induced. Thus, BSSL and PLRP2 seem to be responsible for fat digestion as long as milk is the main food. Moreover, the early temporal pattern of BSSL expression differed between species. We speculate that the milk-borne BSSL is able to compensate for a slower ontogeny of pancreatic BSSL expression in the mouse.

  1. Pancreatic lipase/colipase-mediated triacylglycerol hydrolysis is required for cholesterol transport from lipid emulsions to intestinal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S C; Hui, D Y

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cholesterol uptake by intestinal cells is dependent on the structure and composition of the lipid carriers in the extracellular milieu. In in vivo experiments with female C57BL/6 mice, cholesterol absorption from phospholipid/triacylglycerol emulsions was significantly reduced by administration of tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. This inhibitor had no effect on the absorption of cholesterol from phospholipid vesicles. The importance of pancreatic-lipase-mediated triacylglycerol hydrolysis for cholesterol transport from emulsions to intestinal cells was confirmed by in vitro experiments with rat IEC-6 intestinal cells. Cellular uptake of cholesterol from emulsions with a phospholipid/triacylglycerol molar ratio of <0.3 could be stimulated by pancreatic lipase/colipase hydrolysis of the core neutral lipids. However, pancreatic lipase/colipase was ineffective in hydrolysing triacylglycerols in emulsions with a phospholipid/triacylglycerol molar ratio of >0.3. Phospholipase A2-mediated hydrolysis of the surface phospholipids was necessary prior to triacylglycerol hydrolysis in these phospholipid-rich emulsions and to the stimulation of cholesterol transport from these particles to IEC-6 cells. The data also revealed that minimal triacylglycerol hydrolysis was sufficient to significantly increase cholesterol transport from lipid emulsions to the intestinal cells. Thus the products of triacylglycerol hydrolysis, namely monoacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids, are key determinants in mediating cholesterol transport from lipid emulsions to intestinal cells. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that remodelling of the surface and core components of lipid carriers is necessary prior to absorption of dietary cholesterol from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:10215600

  2. Production of lipases by four anoxygenic purple non-sulphur phototrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Munjam, Srinivas; Girisham, S; Reddy, S M

    Production of lipases by Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodocyclus gelatinosus and Rhodocyclus tenuis in different synthetic media was investigated. Rc. gelatinosus followed by Rb. sphaeroides were good producers of lipases, while Rps. palustris and Rc. tenuis were poor in lipase secretion. Lipase secretion by Rc. gelatinosus was adaptive in nature, while other three bacterial behavior was inconsistent. No positive correlation could be observed between growth and lipase production.

  3. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus DgkB Structure Reveals a Common Catalytic Mechanism for the Soluble Diacylglycerol Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Darcie J.; Jerga, Agoston; Rock, Charles O.; White, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Soluble diacylglycerol (DAG) kinases function as regulators of diacylglycerol metabolism in cell signaling and intermediary metabolism. We report the first structure of a DAG kinase, DgkB from Staphylococcus aureus, both as the free enzyme and in complex with ADP. The molecule is a tight homodimer, and each monomer comprises two domains with the catalytic center located within the interdomain cleft. Two distinctive features of DkgB are a structural Mg2+ site and an associated Asp•water•Mg2+ network that extends towards the active site locale. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that these features have important roles in the catalytic mechanism. The key active site residues and the components of the Asp•water•Mg2+ network are conserved in the catalytic cores of the mammalian signaling DAG kinases, indicating that these enzymes use the same mechanism and have similar structures as DgkB. PMID:18611377

  4. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus DgkB Structure Reveals a Common Catalytic Mechanism for the Soluble Diacylglycerol Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Darcie J.; Jerga, Agoston; Rock, Charles O.; White, Stephen W.

    2008-08-11

    Soluble diacylglycerol (DAG) kinases function as regulators of diacylglycerol metabolism in cell signaling and intermediary metabolism. We report the structure of a DAG kinase, DgkB from Staphylococcus aureus, both as the free enzyme and in complex with ADP. The molecule is a tight homodimer, and each monomer comprises two domains with the catalytic center located within the interdomain cleft. Two distinctive features of DkgB are a structural Mg{sup 2+} site and an associated Asp{center_dot}water{center_dot}Mg{sup 2+} network that extends toward the active site locale. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that these features play important roles in the catalytic mechanism. The key active site residues and the components of the Asp{center_dot}water{center_dot}Mg{sup 2+} network are conserved in the catalytic cores of the mammalian signaling DAG kinases, indicating that these enzymes use the same mechanism and have similar structures as DgkB.

  5. Analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus DgkB structure reveals a common catalytic mechanism for the soluble diacylglycerol kinases.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darcie J; Jerga, Agoston; Rock, Charles O; White, Stephen W

    2008-07-01

    Soluble diacylglycerol (DAG) kinases function as regulators of diacylglycerol metabolism in cell signaling and intermediary metabolism. We report the structure of a DAG kinase, DgkB from Staphylococcus aureus, both as the free enzyme and in complex with ADP. The molecule is a tight homodimer, and each monomer comprises two domains with the catalytic center located within the interdomain cleft. Two distinctive features of DkgB are a structural Mg2+ site and an associated Asp*water*Mg2+ network that extends toward the active site locale. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that these features play important roles in the catalytic mechanism. The key active site residues and the components of the Asp*water*Mg2+ network are conserved in the catalytic cores of the mammalian signaling DAG kinases, indicating that these enzymes use the same mechanism and have similar structures as DgkB.

  6. Lipase production in lipolytic yeast from Wonorejo mangrove area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Nasihah, Liziyatin; Umar, Rurin Luswidya Artaty; Kuswytasari, Nengah Dwianita; Zulaika, Enny; Shovitri, Maya

    2017-06-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that is often used in industry and become a commercial enzyme. One group of microorganisms capable of producing lipase is a yeast. This study aims to screen yeast from Wonorejo mangrove that potential to produce lipase and to optimize the production of these enzymes. Screening test include the measurement of lipolytic index and value of fatty acid. Yeast with the best value of fatty acid will be continued to the measurement of lipase activity. It is affected by several environmental factors, such as pH, temperature, and incubation time. This research was conducted to observe the optimization variation on environmental factors combination to produce lipase. Lipase activity was tested by using p-Nitrophenyl Palmitate (pNPP). Absorbency was measured by spectrofotometer on wavelength of 410 nm. Measurement of the enzyme activity was done by interpolating the absorbance values on the p-nitrophenol standard curve then calculated by the formula. All data were analyzed by using descriptive quantitative method. The results show that the highest lypolityc index was 2.08. The highest value of fatty acid was 0.49 that was reached on 168 hours of incubation. Candida W3.8 expressed the highest lypolylitic potential. The optimum environment to produce lipase by Candida W 3.8 was on 120 hours of incubation time, in temperature range of 27°C - 45°C and pH range of 4,5 - 7.

  7. Investigation of deactivation thermodynamics of lipase immobilized on polymeric carrier.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, we have investigated biochemical thermo-kinetic stability of lipases immobilized on a biocompatible polymeric material. Immobilization of lipase Candida rugosa (CRL) was carried out on biocompatible blend of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan (CHY) support via entrapment and glutardehyde (Glu) cross-linking method to produce PVA:CHY:CRL and PVA:CHY:Glu:CRL as robust biocatalyst. These immobilized lipases were characterized by various physico-biochemical characterization techniques. Later on, thermal and solvent stability of polymer immobilized lipase was determined in term of half-life time (t 0.5), D values, enthalpy (ΔH°), entropy (ΔS°), and free energy (ΔG°) of deactivation at different temperatures and in various solvents. The thermodynamic deactivation stability trend was found as: cross-linked lipase CRL > entrapped lipase CRL > free lipase CRL. Moreover, kinetic parameters, such as K m, V max, and catalytic efficiency, were also determined to understand the kinetic features. The polymer immobilized enzyme was reused to investigate the economic viability of the developed biocatalyst.

  8. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Gilijamse, Pim W; Versteeg, Ruth I; Ackermans, Mariette T; Nederveen, Aart J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Romijn, Johannes A; Nieuwdorp, Max; Zhang, Dongyan; Samuel, Varman T; Vatner, Daniel F; Petersen, Kitt F; Shulman, Gerald I; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-06-06

    Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKCε activation, as reflected by PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Phosphatidylcholine Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase Is Required for Efficient Hydroxy Fatty Acid Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaohui; Ren, Zhonghai; Lu, Chaofu

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified an enzyme, phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), that plays an important role in directing fatty acyl fluxes during triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. The PDCT mediates a symmetrical interconversion between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and diacylglycerol (DAG), thus enriching PC-modified fatty acids in the DAG pool prior to forming TAG. We show here that PDCT is required for the efficient metabolism of engineered hydroxy fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. When a fatty acid hydroxylase (FAH12) from castor (Ricinus communis) was expressed in Arabidopsis seeds, the PDCT-deficient mutant accumulated only about half the amount of hydroxy fatty acids compared with that in the wild-type seeds. We also isolated a PDCT from castor encoded by the RcROD1 (Reduced Oleate Desaturation1) gene. Seed-specific coexpression of this enzyme significantly increased hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in wild type-FAH12 and in a previously produced transgenic Arabidopsis line coexpressing a castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2. Analyzing the TAG molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of fatty acid composition in TAG and PC during seed development, indicate that PDCT acts in planta to enhance the fluxes of fatty acids through PC and enrich the hydroxy fatty acids in DAG, and thus in TAG. In addition, PDCT partially restores the oil content that is decreased in FAH12-expressing seeds. Our results add a new gene in the genetic toolbox for efficiently engineering unusual fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds. PMID:22371508

  10. Inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase alpha restores restimulation-induced cell death and reduces immunopathology in XLP-1

    PubMed Central

    Ruffo, Elisa; Malacarne, Valeria; Larsen, Sasha E.; Das, Rupali; Patrussi, Laura; Wülfing, Christoph; Biskup, Christoph; Kapnick, Senta M.; Verbist, Katherine; Tedrick, Paige; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Baldari, Cosima T.; Rubio, Ignacio; Nichols, Kim E.; Snow, Andrew L.; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1) is an often-fatal primary immunodeficiency associated with the exuberant expansion of activated CD8+ T cells following Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. XLP-1 is caused by defects in SAP, an adaptor protein that modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. SAP-deficient T cells exhibit impaired TCR restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) and diminished TCR-induced inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKα), leading to increased diacylglycerol metabolism and decreased signaling through Ras and PKCθ. Here, we show that down-regulation of DGKα activity in SAP-deficient T cells restores diacylglycerol signaling at the immune synapse and rescues RICD via induction of the pro-apoptotic proteins NUR77 and NOR1. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of DGKα prevents the excessive CD8+ T cell expansion and IFNγ production that occur in Sap-deficient mice following Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection without impairing lytic activity. Collectively, these data highlight DGKα as a viable therapeutic target to reverse the life-threatening EBV-associated immunopathology that occurs in XLP-1 patients. PMID:26764158

  11. Inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase α restores restimulation-induced cell death and reduces immunopathology in XLP-1.

    PubMed

    Ruffo, Elisa; Malacarne, Valeria; Larsen, Sasha E; Das, Rupali; Patrussi, Laura; Wülfing, Christoph; Biskup, Christoph; Kapnick, Senta M; Verbist, Katherine; Tedrick, Paige; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Baldari, Cosima T; Rubio, Ignacio; Nichols, Kim E; Snow, Andrew L; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea

    2016-01-13

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1) is an often-fatal primary immunodeficiency associated with the exuberant expansion of activated CD8(+) T cells after Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. XLP-1 is caused by defects in signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), an adaptor protein that modulates T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. SAP-deficient T cells exhibit impaired TCR restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) and diminished TCR-induced inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase α (DGKα), leading to increased diacylglycerol metabolism and decreased signaling through Ras and PKCθ (protein kinase Cθ). We show that down-regulation of DGKα activity in SAP-deficient T cells restores diacylglycerol signaling at the immune synapse and rescues RICD via induction of the proapoptotic proteins NUR77 and NOR1. Pharmacological inhibition of DGKα prevents the excessive CD8(+) T cell expansion and interferon-γ production that occur in SAP-deficient mice after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection without impairing lytic activity. Collectively, these data highlight DGKα as a viable therapeutic target to reverse the life-threatening EBV-associated immunopathology that occurs in XLP-1 patients.

  12. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    PubMed

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  13. Superparamagnetic nanotraps containing MIP based mimic lipase for biotransformations uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keçili, Rüstem; Özcan, Ayça Atılır; Ersöz, Arzu; Hür, Deniz; Denizli, Adil; Say, Rıdvan

    2011-05-01

    The nanoparticle comprises a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core conjugated with trimethoxylsilyl propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) and methacryloylamido serine (MASE), methacryloylamido histidine (MAH), methacryloylamido glutamic acid (MAGA) monomers, and p-nitrophenyl palmitate ( p-NPP) which is a substrate of lipase as a template molecule, which enables the creation of lipase active region. The resulting hybrid superparamagnetic nanotraps are magnetically separable, highly active, and stable under harsh conditions. In this study, the advantages of high selectivity of molecular imprinting technique have used to get mimic lipase for the synthesis of methyl jasmonate and methyl oleate.

  14. Lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction on acrylate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Steunenberg, Peter; Sijm, Maarten; Zuilhof, Han; Sanders, Johan P M; Scott, Elinor L; Franssen, Maurice C R

    2013-04-19

    A methodology has been developed for an efficient and selective lipase-catalyzed aza-Michael reaction of various amines (primary and secondary) with a series of acrylates and alkylacrylates. Reaction parameters were tuned, and under the optimal conditions it was found that Pseudomonas stutzeri lipase and Chromobacterium viscosum lipase showed the highest selectivity for the aza-Michael addition to substituted alkyl acrylates. For the first time also, some CLEAs were examined that showed a comparable or higher selectivity and yield than the free enzymes and other formulations.

  15. [Heterologous expression and characterization of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 4 and lipase 5 in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heyun; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Li; Liu, Yun; Yan, Yunjun

    2011-10-01

    To clone cDNA sequences of lipase 4 (LIP4) and lipase 5 (LIPS), analyze gene structures and express them in Pichia pastoris so as to investigate their enzymatic characteristics. We first cloned cDNA sequences of LIP4 and LIP5 by reverse transcription PCR and analyzed their gene structures by SignalP 3.0. Then, intracellular expression vectors pPIC3. 5K-Lip4, pPIC3. 5K-Lip5 and inducible secretion vectors pPIC9K-Lip4, pPIC9K-Lip5 were constructed. All vectors were transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation, resulting in a series of engineered strains. After fermentation and NTA-Ni resin purification, the enzymatic properties of LIP4 and LIP5 were examined. The cloned cDNA sequences revealed that there was no intron in both of Lip4 and Lip5. The two lipases both contained catalytic triads and conserved GHSLG motifs. Their optimal substrate, pH, temperature were respectively pNP-caprylate (C8), 7.0 and 40 degrees C. The activities of LIP4 and LIPS were 10.16 U/mg and 5.1 U/mg, respectively. It was found that LIP4 was more sensitive to the variations of pH and temperature than LIP5. LIP4 and LIP5 could both be stimulated by Ca2+, besides LIPS could also be activated by Mg2+. They were both strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and Dithiothreitol (DTT). The cloning of Lip4 and Lip5, expression in P. pastoris and characterization of their properties would offer a solid basis for their large-scale production and future application. In addition, the results also enriched the data for a systematic research on the lipase gene family of Y. lipolytica.

  16. Controlled lid-opening in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase- An engineered switch for studying lipase function.

    PubMed

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Moroz, Olga V; Blagova, Elena; Bhatia, Vikram K; Svendsen, Allan; Wilson, Keith S; Bjerrum, Morten J

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a lipase mutant containing a biochemical switch allowing a controlled opening and closing of the lid independent of the environment. The closed form of the TlL mutant shows low binding to hydrophobic surfaces compared to the binding observed after activating the controlled switch inducing lid-opening. We directly show that lipid binding of this mutant is connected to an open lid conformation demonstrating the impact of the exposed amino acid residues and their participation in binding at the water-lipid interface. The switch was created by introducing two cysteine residues into the protein backbone at sites 86 and 255. The crystal structure of the mutant shows the successful formation of a disulfide bond between C86 and C255 which causes strained closure of the lid-domain. Control of enzymatic activity and binding was demonstrated on substrate emulsions and natural lipid layers. The locked form displayed low enzymatic activity (~10%) compared to wild-type. Upon release of the lock, enzymatic activity was fully restored. Only 10% binding to natural lipid substrates was observed for the locked lipase compared to wild-type, but binding was restored upon adding reducing agent. QCM-D measurements revealed a seven-fold increase in binding rate for the unlocked lipase. The TlL_locked mutant shows structural changes across the protein important for understanding the mechanism of lid-opening and closing. Our experimental results reveal sites of interest for future mutagenesis studies aimed at altering the activation mechanism of TlL and create perspectives for generating tunable lipases that activate under controlled conditions.

  17. In vitro lipolysis tests on lipid nanoparticles: comparison between lipase/co-lipase and pancreatic extract.

    PubMed

    Jannin, Vincent; Dellera, Eleonora; Chevrier, Stéphanie; Chavant, Yann; Voutsinas, Christophe; Bonferoni, Cristina; Demarne, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are lipid nanocarriers aimed to the delivery of drugs characterized by a low bioavailability, such as poorly water-soluble drugs and peptides or proteins. The oral administration of these lipid nanocarriers implies the study of their lipolysis in presence of enzymes that are commonly involved in dietary lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a comparison between two methods was performed: on one hand, the lipase/co-lipase assay, commonly described in the literature to study the digestion of lipid nanocarriers, and on the other hand, the lipolysis test using porcine pancreatic extract and the pH-stat apparatus. This pancreatic extract contains both the pancreatic lipase and carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH) that permit to mimic in a biorelevant manner the duodenal digestive lipolysis. The test was performed by means of a pH-stat apparatus to work at constant pH, 5.5 or 6.25, representing respectively the fasted or fed state pH conditions. The evolution of all acylglycerol entities was monitored during the digestion by sampling the reaction vessel at different time points, until 60 min, and the lipid composition of the digest was analyzed by gas chromatography. SLN and NLC systems obtained with long-chain saturated acylglycerols were rapidly and completely digested by pancreatic enzymes. The pH-stat titration method appears to be a powerful technique to follow the digestibility of these solid lipid-based nanoparticles.

  18. Harmaline and hispidin from Peganum harmala and Inonotus hispidus with binding affinity to Candida rugosa lipase: In silico and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Benarous, Khedidja; Bombarda, Isabelle; Iriepa, Isabel; Moraleda, Ignacio; Gaetan, Herbette; Linani, Abderrahmane; Tahri, Djillali; Sebaa, Mohamed; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds and alkaloids of Inonotus hispidus and Peganum harmala on Candida rugosa lipase was investigated, also, their antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS and phosphomolybdenum were studied in this paper. The phenolic extracts have shown a stronger antiradical activity than the alkaloids extracts. The enzymatic inhibition produced by these extracts is described here for the first time. The results have shown that the phenolic and the alkaloid extracts are good inhibitors of C. rugosa lipase. Thus, the inhibitor molecules (harmaline and hispidin) have been isolated from P. harmala and I. hispidus. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H NMR analysis. Molecular docking has been achieved using AutoDock Vina program to discuss the nature of interactions and the mechanism of inhibition. Therefore, these isolated molecules could be used in the treatment of candidiasis.

  19. Cardiotrophin-1 stimulates lipolysis through the regulation of main adipose tissue lipases[S

    PubMed Central

    López-Yoldi, Miguel; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Laiglesia, Laura M.; Larequi, Eduardo; Prieto, Jesús; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Bustos, Matilde; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with antiobesity properties and with a role in lipid metabolism regulation and adipose tissue function. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the lipolytic actions of CT-1 in adipocytes. Recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) effects on the main proteins and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of lipolysis were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice. rCT-1 treatment stimulated basal glycerol release in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. rCT-1 (20 ng/ml for 24 h) raised cAMP levels, and in parallel increased protein kinase (PK)A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) at Ser660. siRNA knock-down of HSL or PKA, as well as pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89, blunted the CT-1-induced lipolysis, suggesting that the lipolytic action of CT-1 in adipocytes is mainly mediated by activation of HSL through the PKA pathway. In ob/ob mice, acute rCT-1 treatment also promoted PKA-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and HSL at Ser660 and Ser563, and increased adipose triglyceride lipase (desnutrin) content in adipose tissue. These results showed that the ability of CT-1 to regulate the activity of the main lipases underlies the lipolytic action of this cytokine in vitro and in vivo, and could contribute to CT-1 antiobesity effects. PMID:25351614

  20. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity through enhancing its cleavage by proprotein convertases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Afroza, Huq; Rader, Daniel J; Jin, Weijun

    2010-09-03

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated lipolysis of triglycerides is the first and rate-limiting step in chylomicron/very low density lipoprotein clearance at the luminal surface of the capillaries. Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is shown to inhibit LPL activity and plays important roles in modulating lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits LPL activity remains poorly understood. Using cell-based analysis of the interaction between ANGPTL3, furin, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), paired amino acid converting enzyme-4 (PACE4), and LPL, we demonstrated that the cleavage of LPL by proprotein convertases is an inactivation process, similar to that seen for endothelial lipase cleavage. At physiological concentrations and in the presence of cells, ANGPTL3 is a potent inhibitor of LPL. This action is due to the fact that ANGPTL3 can enhance LPL cleavage by endogenous furin and PACE4 but not by PCSK5. This effect is specific to LPL but not endothelial lipase. Both N- and C-terminal domains of LPL are required for ANGPTL3-enhanced cleavage, and the N-terminal domain of ANGPTL3 is sufficient to exert its effect on LPL cleavage. Moreover, ANGPTL3 enhances LPL cleavage in the presence of either heparan sulfate proteoglycans or glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). By enhancing LPL cleavage, ANGPTL3 dissociates LPL from the cell surface, inhibiting both the catalytic and noncatalytic functions of LPL. Taken together, our data provide a molecular connection between ANGPTL3, LPL, and proprotein convertases, which may represent a rapid signal communication among different metabolically active tissues to maintain energy homeostasis. These novel findings provide a new paradigm of specific protease-substrate interaction and further improve our knowledge of LPL biology.

  1. Cardiotrophin-1 stimulates lipolysis through the regulation of main adipose tissue lipases.

    PubMed

    López-Yoldi, Miguel; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Laiglesia, Laura M; Larequi, Eduardo; Prieto, Jesús; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bustos, Matilde; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2014-12-01

    Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with antiobesity properties and with a role in lipid metabolism regulation and adipose tissue function. The aim of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the lipolytic actions of CT-1 in adipocytes. Recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) effects on the main proteins and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of lipolysis were evaluated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice. rCT-1 treatment stimulated basal glycerol release in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. rCT-1 (20 ng/ml for 24 h) raised cAMP levels, and in parallel increased protein kinase (PK)A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) at Ser660. siRNA knock-down of HSL or PKA, as well as pretreatment with the PKA inhibitor H89, blunted the CT-1-induced lipolysis, suggesting that the lipolytic action of CT-1 in adipocytes is mainly mediated by activation of HSL through the PKA pathway. In ob/ob mice, acute rCT-1 treatment also promoted PKA-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin and HSL at Ser660 and Ser563, and increased adipose triglyceride lipase (desnutrin) content in adipose tissue. These results showed that the ability of CT-1 to regulate the activity of the main lipases underlies the lipolytic action of this cytokine in vitro and in vivo, and could contribute to CT-1 antiobesity effects. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Synergistic activation by cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol of protein kinase C and protein phosphorylation in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Chen, S G; Murakami, K

    1995-10-01

    cis-Unsaturated fatty acid, which activates protein kinase C in vitro, stimulates protein phosphorylation in intact hippocampal slices. Two protein bands (44,000 and 47,000 mol. wt) are particularly sensitive to cis-fatty acid and are phosphorylated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cis-fatty acid-stimulated protein phosphorylation can be further potentiated with diacylglycerol or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. Several lines of evidence indicate that the cis-fatty acid-stimulated phosphorylation of these proteins is mediated by protein kinase C. First, the cis-fatty acid effect is mimicked by other protein kinase C activators such as diacylglycerol. Second, the stimulation of the phosphorylation by these activators can be blocked by staurosporine, which potently inhibits protein kinase C. Third, a concomitant application of cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate enhances the 44,000 and 47,000 mol. wt phosphorylation in a synergistic manner, which is a novel activation mode for protein kinase C. Fourth, they can be phosphorylated by purified protein kinase C (type III: alpha). Moreover, the synergistic activation of purified protein kinase C by cis-fatty acid and diacylglycerol leads to a drastic increase in the phosphorylation of these two protein bands. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis revealed that they are both acidic proteins. The 47,000 mol. wt band consists of two protein components; one is found to be F1/growth-associated protein-43 (pI = 4.5), and the other 47,000 mol, wt protein has broad pI ranging from 4.6 to 4.9. The 44,000 mol. wt component is a major phosphoprotein with pI of 4.8-5.1. Our results strongly indicate that cis-fatty acid can act as a regulator of endogenous protein kinase C in concert with diacylglycerol, and stimulate protein phosphorylation of its substrates such as F1/growth-associated protein-43 in the hippocampus.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel lipase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia GS11: The first member of a new bacterial lipase family XVI.

    PubMed

    Li, Mu; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang; Wu, Jian-Ping

    2016-06-20

    Bacterial lipases are an important group of enzymes that offer enormous potential in organic synthesis, and there is considerable interest in identifying and developing novel bacterial lipases. In previous studies, strains of the genus Stenotrophomonas were proved to be potential source of lipases, but there is little genetic information describing lipase from the genus Stenotrophomonas. We have cloned and characterized a novel lipase (LipSM54), the first lipase described from the genus Stenotrophomonas. Enzymatic study showed that LipSM54 was a cold-active, solvent-tolerant and alkaline lipase. Using bioinformatics tools, LipSM54 was found to be related only to several putative lipases from different bacterial origins, none of which could be assigned to any previously described bacterial lipase family. LipSM54 and these related putative lipases share four conserved motifs around the catalytic residues. These motifs clearly distinguish them from the known bacterial lipase families. Consequently, LipSM54 is the first characterized member of the novel bacterial lipase family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: molecular biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Lehner, Richard; Stone, Scot J; Weselake, Randall J

    2012-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TG) is a storage lipid which serves as an energy reservoir and a source of signalling molecules and substrates for membrane biogenesis. TG is essential for many physiological processes and its metabolism is widely conserved in nature. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) catalyzes the final step in the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate pathway leading to TG. DGAT activity resides mainly in two distinct membrane bound polypeptides, known as DGAT1 and DGAT2 which have been identified in numerous organisms. In addition, a few other enzymes also hold DGAT activity, including the DGAT-related acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGAT). Progress on understanding structure/function in DGATs has been limited by the lack of detailed three-dimensional structural information due to the hydrophobic properties of theses enzymes and difficulties associated with purification. This review examines several aspects of DGAT and MGAT genes and enzymes, including current knowledge on their gene structure, expression pattern, biochemical properties, membrane topology, functional motifs and subcellular localization. Recent progress in probing structural and functional aspects of DGAT1 and DGAT2, using a combination of molecular and biochemical techniques, is emphasized. Biotechnological applications involving DGAT enzymes ranging from obesity therapeutics to oilseed engineering are also discussed.

  5. tRNA-dependent alanylation of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Angela M.; Harrison, Jesse S.; Grube, Christopher D.; Sheppe, Austin E.F.; Sahara, Nahoko; Ishii, Ryohei; Nureki, Osamu; Roy, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aminoacyl-phosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) are membrane proteins that utilize aminoacylated tRNAs to modify membrane lipids with amino acids. Aminoacylation of membrane lipids alters the biochemical properties of the cytoplasmic membrane, and enables bacteria to adapt to changes in environmental conditions. aaPGSs utilize alanine, lysine, and arginine as modifying amino acids, and the primary lipid recipients have heretofore been defined as phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin. Here we identify a new pathway for lipid aminoacylation, conserved in many Actinobacteria, which results in formation of Ala-PG and a novel alanylated lipid, Ala-diacylglycerol (Ala-DAG). Ala-DAG formation in Corynebacterium glutamicum is dependent on the activity of an aaPGS homolog, while formation of Ala-PG requires the same enzyme acting in concert with a putative esterase encoded upstream. The presence of alanylated lipids is sufficient to enhance the bacterial fitness of C. glutamicum cultured in the presence of certain antimicrobial agents, and elucidation of this system expands the known repertoire of membrane lipids acting as substrates for amino acid modification in bacterial cells. PMID:26235234

  6. An Unconventional Diacylglycerol Kinase That Regulates Phospholipid Synthesis and Nuclear Membrane Growth*♦

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; O'Hara, Laura; Carman, George M.; Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2008-01-01

    Changes in nuclear size and shape during the cell cycle or during development require coordinated nuclear membrane remodeling, but the underlying molecular events are largely unknown. We have shown previously that the activity of the conserved phosphatidate phosphatase Pah1p/Smp2p regulates nuclear structure in yeast by controlling phospholipid synthesis and membrane biogenesis at the nuclear envelope. Two screens for novel regulators of phosphatidate led to the identification of DGK1. We show that Dgk1p is a unique diacylglycerol kinase that uses CTP, instead of ATP, to generate phosphatidate. DGK1 counteracts the activity of PAH1 at the nuclear envelope by controlling phosphatidate levels. Overexpression of DGK1 causes the appearance of phosphatidate-enriched membranes around the nucleus and leads to its expansion, without proliferating the cortical endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Mutations that decrease phosphatidate levels decrease nuclear membrane growth in pah1Δ cells. We propose that phosphatidate metabolism is a critical factor determining nuclear structure by regulating nuclear membrane biogenesis. PMID:18458075

  7. A type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase accelerates the triacylglycerol biosynthesis in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Cen, Shi-Ying; Liu, Yu-Hong; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Zheng, Xin-Yan; Alimujiang, Adili; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2016-07-10

    Oleaginous microalgae have received a considerable attention as potential biofuel feedstock. However, lack of industry-suitable strain with lipid rich biomass limits its commercial applications. Targeted engineering of lipogenic pathways represents a promising strategy to enhance the efficacy of microalgal oil production. In this study, a type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), a rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was identified and overexpressed in heterokont oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica for the first time. Overexpression of DGAT2 in Nannochloropsis increased the relative transcript abundance by 3.48-fold in engineered microalgae cells. TAG biosynthesis was subsequently accelerated by DGAT2 overexpression and neutral lipid content was significantly elevated by 69% in engineered microalgae. The fatty acid profile determined by GC-MS revealed that fatty acid composition was altered in engineered microalgae. Saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to be increased whereas monounsaturated fatty acids content decreased. Furthermore, DGAT2 overexpression did not show negative impact on algal growth parameters. The present investigation showed that the identified DGAT2 would be a potential candidate for enhancing TAG biosynthesis and might facilitate the development of promising oleaginous strains with industrial potential.

  8. Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase Type-1 Synthesizes Retinyl Esters in the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Radu, Roxana A.; Bischoff, Nicholas; Makshanoff, Jacob; Hu, Jane; Lloyd, Marcia; Eddington, Shannan; Bianconi, Tran; Bok, Dean; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2015-01-01

    Retinyl esters represent an insoluble storage form of vitamin A and are substrates for the retinoid isomerase (Rpe65) in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The major retinyl-ester synthase in RPE cells is lecithin:retinol acyl-transferase (LRAT). A second palmitoyl coenzyme A-dependent retinyl-ester synthase activity has been observed in RPE homogenates but the protein responsible has not been identified. Here we show that diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) is expressed in multiple cells of the retina including RPE and Müller glial cells. DGAT1 catalyzes the synthesis of retinyl esters from multiple retinol isomers with similar catalytic efficiencies. Loss of DGAT1 in dgat1 -/- mice has no effect on retinal anatomy or the ultrastructure of photoreceptor outer-segments (OS) and RPE cells. Levels of visual chromophore in dgat1 -/- mice were also normal. However, the normal build-up of all-trans-retinyl esters (all-trans-RE’s) in the RPE during the first hour after a deep photobleach of visual pigments in the retina was not seen in dgat1 -/- mice. Further, total retinyl-ester synthase activity was reduced in both dgat1 -/- retina and RPE. PMID:25974161

  9. Expression of Fungal diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 Genes to Increase Kernel Oil in Maize[OA

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Janette; Brackenridge, Doug; Colletti, Ron; Daley, Maureen; Hawkins, Deborah J.; Xiong, Hui; Mai, Jennifer; Screen, Steve E.; Val, Dale; Lardizabal, Kathryn; Gruys, Ken; Deikman, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) oil has high value but is only about 4% of the grain by weight. To increase kernel oil content, fungal diacylglycerol acyltransferase2 (DGAT2) genes from Umbelopsis (formerly Mortierella) ramanniana and Neurospora crassa were introduced into maize using an embryo-enhanced promoter. The protein encoded by the N. crassa gene was longer than that of U. ramanniana. It included 353 amino acids that aligned to the U. ramanniana DGAT2A protein and a 243-amino acid sequence at the amino terminus that was unique to the N. crassa DGAT2 protein. Two forms of N. crassa DGAT2 were tested: the predicted full-length protein (L-NcDGAT2) and a shorter form (S-NcDGAT2) that encoded just the sequences that share homology with the U. ramanniana protein. Expression of all three transgenes in maize resulted in small but statistically significant increases in kernel oil. S-NcDGAT2 had the biggest impact on kernel oil, with a 26% (relative) increase in oil in kernels of the best events (inbred). Increases in kernel oil were also obtained in both conventional and high-oil hybrids, and grain yield was not affected by expression of these fungal DGAT2 transgenes. PMID:21245192

  10. Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate inhibits the alpha-amylase secretion stimulated by gibberellic acid in barley aleurone.

    PubMed

    Racagni, Graciela; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela

    2008-11-01

    ABA plays an important regulatory role in seed germination because it inhibits the response to GA in aleurone, a secretory tissue surrounding the endosperm. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a well-known intermediary in ABA signaling, but the role of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) in germination processes is not clearly established. In this study, we show that PA produced by phospholipase D (E.C. 3.1.4.4) during the antagonist effect of ABA in GA signaling is rapidly phosphorylated by phosphatidate kinase (PAK) to DGPP. This is a crucial fact for aleurone function because exogenously added dioleoyl-DGPP inhibits secretion of alpha-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1). Aleurone treatment with ABA and 1-butanol results in normal secretory activity, and this effect is reversed by addition of dioleoyl-DGPP. We also found that ABA decreased the activity of an Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive form of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP2) (E.C. 3.1.3.4), leading to reduction of PA dephosphorylation and increased PAK activity. Sequence analysis using Arabidopsis thaliana lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) sequences as queries identified two putative molecular homologues, termed HvLPP1 and HvLPP2, encoding putative Lpps with the presence of well-conserved structural Lpp domains. Our results are consistent with a role of DGPP as a regulator of ABA antagonist effect in GA signaling and provide evidence about regulation of PA level by a PAP2 during ABA response in aleurone.

  11. Dynamic NHERF interaction with TRPC4/5 proteins is required for channel gating by diacylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Ursula; Forst, Anna-Lena; Pardatscher, Franziska; Erdogmus, Serap; Philipp, Maximilian; Gregoritza, Manuel; Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Gudermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The activation mechanism of the classical transient receptor potential channels TRPC4 and -5 via the Gq/11 protein-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway has remained elusive so far. In contrast to all other TRPC channels, the PLC product diacylglycerol (DAG) is not sufficient for channel activation, whereas TRPC4/5 channel activity is potentiated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) depletion. As a characteristic structural feature, TRPC4/5 channels contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif allowing for binding of the scaffolding proteins Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and 2. PKC inhibition or the exchange of threonine for alanine in the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif conferred DAG sensitivity to the channel. Altogether, we present a DAG-mediated activation mechanism for TRPC4/5 channels tightly regulated by NHERF1/2 interaction. PIP2 depletion evokes a C-terminal conformational change of TRPC5 proteins leading to dynamic dissociation of NHERF1/2 from the C terminus of TRPC5 as a prerequisite for DAG sensitivity. We show that NHERF proteins are direct regulators of ion channel activity and that DAG sensitivity is a distinctive hallmark of TRPC channels. PMID:27994151

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 7 (TRPC7): A Diacylglycerol-Activated Non-Selective Cation Channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuexin

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical 7 (TRPC7) channel is the seventh member of the mammalian TRPC channel family. TRPC7 mRNA, protein and channel activity have been detected in many tissues and organs from mouse, rat and human. TRPC7 has high sequence homology with TRPC3 and TRPC6 and all three channels are activated by membrane receptors that couple to isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC) and mediate non-selective cation currents. TRPC7, along with TRPC3 and TRPC6 can be activated by direct exogenous application of diacylglycerol (DAG) analogs and by pharmacological maneuvers that increase endogenous DAG in cells. TRPC7 shows distinct properties of activation, such as constitutive activity, susceptibility to negative regulation by extracellular Ca2+ and by protein kinase C. TRPC7 can form heteromultimers with TRPC3 and TRPC6. Although TRPC7 remains one of the least studied TRPC channel, its role in various cell types and physiological and pathophysiological conditions is begining to emerge. PMID:24756707

  13. Occurrence of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol in some members of the family Rhizobiaceae.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, R A; Hollingsworth, R I

    1994-08-01

    A radiolabeled component of a membrane extract of Rhizobium meliloti 2011 cells grown in the presence of 35S-labeled sulfate was isolated by silica flash chromatography and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Based on 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, the structure of the compound was determined to be sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG). NMR analyses indicated substantial heterogeneity in the fatty acid composition and that an important group was the cyclopropyl fatty acids. This first report of the occurrence of SQDG outside of the plant kingdom, photosynthetic bacteria or diatoms deserves special attention as, in this case, the bacterium is one that can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with plants. The origins of the bacterium's ability to synthesize this class of membrane lipids is an important question. Membrane extracts of other strains of the family Rhizobiaceae were screened for the presence of SQDG. The occurrence of SQDG in the symbiotic organisms was confirmed, while no SQDG was detected in either the Agrobacterium tumefaciens or the Escherichia coli strains tested. The current function of these lipids in symbiosis and the commonality of the ability of bacteria that function as plant symbionts to synthesize such molecules are all germane to studies of the Rhizobium/legume symbiosis.

  14. Expression pattern of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, an enzyme involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu Lu; de Noyer, Shen Bayon; Hobbs, Douglas H; Kang, Jinling; Wen, Yancheng; Krachtus, Dieter; Hills, Matthew J

    2003-05-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major carbon storage reserve in oilseeds such as Arabidopsis. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the final step of the TAG synthesis pathway. Although TAG is mainly accumulated during seed development, and DGAT has presumably the highest activity in developing seeds, we show here that TAG synthesis is also actively taking place during germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of the DGAT1 gene was studied in transgenic plants containing the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fused with DNA sequences flanking the DGAT1 coding region. GUS activity was not only detected in developing seeds and pollen, which normally accumulate storage TAG, but also in germinating seeds and seedlings. Western blots showed that DGAT1 protein is present in several tissues, though is most abundant in developing seeds. In seedlings, DGAT1 is expressed in shoot and root apical regions, correlating with rapid cell division and growth. The expression of GUS in seedlings was consistent with the results of RNA gel blot analyses, precursor feeding and DGAT assay. In addition, DGAT1 gene expression is up-regulated by glucose and associated with glucose-induced changes in seedling development.

  15. Cloning and functional analysis of three diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Ruibo; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chen, Mingna; Chen, Na; Pan, Lijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Quanfu; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final and only committed acylation step in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. In this study, three novel AhDGATs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that the AhDGAT1-2 transcript was more abundant in roots, seeds, and cotyledons, whereas the transcript abundances of AhDGAT1-1 and AhDGAT3-3 were higher in flowers than in the other tissues examined. During seed development, transcript levels of AhDGAT1-1 remained relatively low during the initial developmental stage but increased gradually during later stages, peaking at 50 days after pegging (DAP). Levels of AhDGAT1-2 transcripts were higher at 10 and 60 DAPs and much lower during other st