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Sample records for diacylgycerol lactones dag-lactones

  1. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol (DAG). 31. Modulation of the Biological Properties of Diacylgycerol Lactones (DAG-lactones) Containing Rigid-Rod Acyl Groups Separated from the Core Lactone by Spacer Units of Different Lengths

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lactones built with a rigid 4-[(methylphenyl)ethynyl]phenyl rod that is separated from the exocyclic acylcarbonyl of the DAG-lactone core by a spacer unit of variable length were synthesized and studied. Binding affinities for a panel of classical and novel PKC isozymes in two different phospholipid environments, one corresponding to the plasma membrane of cells, were determined. The kinetics and site of translocation for the PKC isozymes α and δ upon treatment with the compounds were also studied as well as the early response of ERK phosphorylation and the late response of induction of apoptosis in the human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP. Finally, the compounds were evaluated in terms of their interaction with biomimetic lipid/polydiacetylene membranes by the associated chromatic response. The different spatial disposition of the rigid structural motif on the DAG-lactones contributes to differential activity. PMID:19379015

  2. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol (DAG). 25. Exploration of the sn-1 and sn-2 carbonyl functionality reveals the essential role of the sn-1 carbonyl at the lipid interface in the binding of DAG-lactones to protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji-Hye; Peach, Megan L.; Pu, Yongmei; Lewin, Nancy E.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    A group of DAG-lactones with altered functionality (C=O → CH2 or C=O → C=S) at the sn-1 and sn-2 carbonyl pharmacophores was synthesized and used as probes to dissect the individual role of each carbonyl in binding to protein kinase C (PKC). The results suggest that the hydrated sn-1 carbonyl is engaged in very strong hydrogen bonding interactions with the charged lipid headgroups and organized water molecules at the lipid interface. Conversely, the sn-2 carbonyl has a more modest contribution to the binding process as a result of its involvement with the receptor (C1 domain) via conventional hydrogen bonding to the protein. The parent DAG-lactones, E-6 and Z-7, were designed to bind exclusively in the sn-2 binding mode to insure the correct orientation and disposition of pharmacophores at the binding site. PMID:16134942

  3. Membrane-Surface Anchoring of Charged Diacylglycerol-Lactones Correlates with Biological Activities | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The inside cover picture shows the molecular structure of a DAG lactone derivative on top of the inner leaflet of a DMPC bilayer. The confocal microscopy image illustrates DAG-lactone-stimulated membrane localization of PKCδ-ECFP in living cells, while the space-filling model shows the surface of the C1B domain of PKCδ, the target of the lactone.

  4. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities.

    PubMed

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Marquez, Victor E; Jelinek, Raz

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a 'molecular rod', namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Use of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques revealed that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of the PKC translocation from the cytosol to membranes that is induced by the molecular-rod DAG lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side residues of DAG lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions, and thus may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands.

  5. Self-assembly and lipid interactions of diacylglycerol lactone derivatives studied at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Philosof-Mazor, Liron; Volinsky, Roman; Comin, Maria J; Lewin, Nancy E; Kedei, Noemi; Blumberg, Peter M; Marquez, Victor E; Jelinek, Raz

    2008-10-07

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) have been shown to be effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways. The biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules depends in part upon their lipid interactions within the cellular plasma membrane. This study explores the thermodynamic and structural features of DAG-lactone derivatives and their lipid interactions at the air/water interface. Surface-pressure/area isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy revealed the significance of specific side-groups attached to the terminus of a very rigid 4-(2-phenylethynyl)benzoyl chain of the DAG-lactones, which affected both the self-assembly of the molecules and their interactions with phospholipids. The experimental data highlight the formation of different phases within mixed DAG-lactone/phospholipid monolayers and underscore the relationship between the two components in binary mixtures of different mole ratios. Importantly, the results suggest that DAG-lactones are predominantly incorporated within fluid phospholipid phases rather than in the condensed phases that form, for example, by cholesterol. Moreover, the size and charge of the phospholipid headgroups do not seem to affect DAG-lactone interactions with lipids.

  6. Membrane-surface anchoring of charged diacylglycerol-lactones correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kazzouli, Said El; Sigano, Dina M.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Lopez-Nicolas, Ruben; Ortiz-Espin, Ana; Gomez-Fernandez, Juan C.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Corbalan, Senena; Jelinek, Raz

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study examines the biological properties of charged DAG-lactones exhibiting different alkyl groups attached to the heterocyclic nitrogen of an α–pyridylalkylidene chain, and particularly the relationship between membrane interactions of the substituted DAG-lactones and their respective biological activities. Our results suggest that bilayer interface localization of the N-alkyl chain in the R2 position of the DAG-lactones inhibits translocation of PKC isoenzymes onto the cellular membrane. However, the orientation of a branched alkyl chain at the bilayer surface facilitates PKC binding and translocation. This investigation emphasizes that bilayer localization of the aromatic side residues of positively-charged DAG lactone derivatives play a central role in determining biological activity and that this factor contributes to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:20715268

  7. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol-lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Jelinek, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Summary Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG-lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a “molecular rod”, namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Application of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques reveals that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG-lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit displayed at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG-lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of PKC translocation from cytosol to membranes induced by the molecular-rod DAG-lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side-residues of DAG-lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions and in that fashion may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:19961537

  8. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol. 30. An Investigation of Diacylglycerol-lactones Containing Heteroaryl Groups Reveals Compounds with High Selectivity for Ras Guanyl Nucleotide-Releasing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazzouli, Saïd El; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    Using a diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone) template previously developed in our laboratory as a scaffold with high binding affinity for C1 domains, we describe herein a series of novel DAG-lactones containing heterocyclic moieties (pyridines, quinolines and indoles) as α-arylidene fragments. Some of the DAG-lactones obtained show selective binding to RasGRP3 as compared to PKCα by more than two orders of magnitude and possess subnanomolar affinities. Because activated C1 domains bound to their ligands (DAG or DAG-lactones) insert into membranes, the lipid composition of membranes (cellular, nuclear, and those of internal organelles) are an important determinant for specificity. Therefore, reaching a proper hydrophilic/lipophilic balance for these molecules is critical. This was achieved by carefully selecting partnering acyl fragments for the DAG-lactones with the appropriate lipophilicity. The results clearly show that the combination of chemical and physical properties in these molecules needs to be perfectly balanced to achieve the desired specificity. PMID:18707088

  9. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Diacylglycerol. 29. Cells Sort Diacylglycerol-Lactone Chemical Zip Codes to Produce Diverse and Selective Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dehui; Sigano, Dina M.; Kelley, James A.; Lai, Christopher C.; Lewin, Nancy E.; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L.; Lee, Jeewoo; Abeyweera, Thushara P.; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Kim, Hee; Kim, Young Ho; Kazzouli, Saïd El; Chung, Jae-Uk; Young, Howard A.; Young, Matthew R.; Baker, Alyson; Colburn, Nancy H.; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Truman, Jean-Philip; Parrish, Damon A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Perry, Nicholas A.; Surawski, Robert J.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.

    2008-01-01

    Diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone) libraries generated by a solid-phase approach using IRORI technology produced a variety of unique biological activities. Subtle differences in chemical diversity in two areas of the molecule, the combination of which generates what we have termed “chemical zip codes”, are able to transform a relatively small chemical space into a larger universe of biological activities, as membrane-containing organelles within the cell appear to be able to decode these “chemical zip codes”. It is postulated that after binding to protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes or other non-kinase target proteins that contain diacylglycerol responsive, membrane interacting domains (C1 domains), the resulting complexes are directed to diverse intracellular sites where different sets of substrates are accessed. Multiple cellular bioassays show that DAG-lactones, which bind in vitro to PKCα to varying degrees, expand their biological repertoire into a larger domain, eliciting distinct cellular responses. PMID:18698758

  10. Lactones. 6. Microbial lactonization of gamma,delta-epoxy esters.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, T; Gawroński, J; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 19 microorganisms to perform the enantioselective lactonization of racemic gamma,delta-epoxy ester 3a and its 7-methyl homolog 3b was checked. It was found that Rhodotorula rubra preferentialy transformed both substrates to (-)-enantiomers of trans delta-hydroxy-gamma-lactones with ee 76% for 3a and 24% for 3b. The best efficiency (20-30%) and enantioselectivity (ee 60-100%) of formation of (-)-gamma-hydroxy-delta-lactones 6a and 6b was observed for lactonization by Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium semitectum, respectively.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones from Staehelina fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Kotsos, Maria P; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Myrianthopoulos, Vasillios; Mitaku, Sofia; Skaltsounis, Leandros

    2008-05-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Staehelina fruticosa led to the isolation of four germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones (1- 4), including two new glycosides. The structures of these sesquiterpene lactones were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to confirm the nature of the two glycoside derivatives. Molecular modeling was incorporated to substantiate their relative configuration.

  12. Lactones. 9. Synthesis of terpenoid lactones-active insect antifeedants.

    PubMed

    Paruch, E; Ciunik, Z; Nawrot, J; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    2000-10-01

    Starting from (+)- and (-)-perillyl alcohols, via Claisen rearrangement and iodolactonization, four enantiomeric pairs of gamma-lactones were obtained. The structures of compounds were established by both spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. The lactones were tested for antifeeding activity toward grain storage pests-the granary weevil beetle (Sitophilus granarius L.), the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Ev.), and the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv.). The results of the tests proved that two compounds, (1R,4R, 6R)-(-)-4-(1-methylethenyl)-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one (8a) and its enantiomer (8b), are very active antifeedants against all of the above tested species. The lactone 8b is also active against the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulz.). The activity depends on the absolute configurations of compound chiral centers. Additionally, the lactones 8a and 8b are characterized by interesting fragrances.

  13. Microbial Reduction of Ketopantoyl Lactone to Pantoyl Lactone1

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Raymond P.; Bradley, Dorothy G.; McDonald, Kerry M.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a microbial survey study have shown that the ability to reduce added ketopantoic acid (or ketopantoyl lactone) and accumulate pantoic acid (or pantoyl lactone) in the growth medium is widespread among diverse fungi. The reductions generally proceeded with less than full stereoselectivity. However, specific strains of the ascomycete Byssochlamys fulva were found to form D[-]-pantoic acid in unusually high yields and optical purity. PMID:4589122

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones from Taraxacum obovatum.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Klaudia; Kisiel, Wanda

    2003-02-01

    Two new guaianolide glucosides, deacetylmatricarin 8-O-beta-glucopyranoside and 11beta-hydroxyleukodin 11-O-beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from roots of Taraxacum obovatum, along with four known sesquiterpene lactones, deacetylmatricarin, sonchuside A, taraxinic acid beta-glucopyranosyl ester and its 11beta,13-dihydro derivative. Their structures were established by spectral methods.

  15. Role of the Chemokine MCP-1 in Sensitization of PKC-Medicated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Q., Blumberg, P.M., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., 5 Han, K.C., Lee, J., Marquez, V.E., and Kazanietz, M.G. Diacylglycerol (DAG)- lactones , a new class of...added to a fresh culture of LNCaP cells. Twenty four h later cells were collected and subjected to DAPI staining . Results are presented as mean

  16. Carbohydrate-Based Lactones: Synthesis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Nuno M.; Rauter, Amélia P.; Queneau, Yves

    The synthesis and uses of different kinds of carbohydrate-based lactones are described. This group of compounds includes aldonolactones, other related monocyclic lactones and bicyclic systems. The latter can arise from uronic acids, carboxymethyl ethers or glycosides, or from C-branched sugars.

  17. Sesquiterpenoids lactones: benefits to plants and people.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Martin; Trewin, Harriet; Gawthrop, Frances; Wagstaff, Carol

    2013-06-19

    Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans. Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments. This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage. Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed.

  18. Sesquiterpenoids Lactones: Benefits to Plants and People

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Martin; Trewin, Harriet; Gawthrop, Frances; Wagstaff, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans. Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments. This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage. Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed. PMID:23783276

  19. Mechanisms of lactone hydrolysis in acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2013-07-19

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of linear esters and lactones was studied using a hybrid supermolecule-polarizable continuum model (PCM) approach including up to six water molecules. The compounds studied included two linear esters, four β-lactones, two γ-lactones, and one δ-lactone: ethyl acetate, methyl formate, β-propiolactone, β-butyrolactone, β-isovalerolactone, diketene (4-methyleneoxetan-2-one), γ-butyrolactone, 2(5H)-furanone, and δ-valerolactone. The theoretical results are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements reported in the literature and also in excellent qualitative agreement with long-held views regarding the nature of the hydrolysis mechanisms at molecular level. The present results help to understand the balance between the unimolecular (A(AC)1) and bimolecular (A(AC)2) reaction pathways. In contrast to the experimental setting, where one of the two branches is often occluded by the requirement of rather extreme experimental conditions, we have been able to estimate both contributions for all the compounds studied and found that a transition from A(AC)2 to A(AC)1 hydrolysis takes place as acidity increases. A parallel work addresses the neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of lactones.

  20. Acute human toxicity of macrocyclic lactones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Chang

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones, including avermectins and milbemycins, are novel parasiticides and insecticides that are produced through fermentation by soil-dwelling microorganisms. Although various macrocyclic lactones may differ in their potency and safety, all of them are believed to share common pharmacologic/toxicologic mechanisms, i.e. leading to paralysis and death of parasites and other target organisms via the activation of a glutamate-gated chloride channel in the invertebrate nerve and muscle cells and/or through the effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Ivermectin is the first macrocyclic lactone that was released for use in both animals and humans, and has demonstrated both excellent efficacy and high tolerability in the treatment of parasite infestations. Other macrocyclic lactones, such as abamectin, emamectin, and moxidectin were subsequently commercialized and have been used as insecticides and acaricides for crop protection or parasiticides for animal health. Although ivermectin therapy is generally well tolerated, adverse effects that are usually transient and mild-to-moderate can occur. Severe adverse effects are rare and can generally be effectively controlled by symptomatic measures. Non-therapeutic exposures to ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones may also result in toxic effects; significant toxicity however probably develops only after large amount of oral ingestion. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, macrocyclic lactones in large doses may pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to produce GABA-mimetic toxic effects. Severely poisoned patients usually present with coma, hypotension, respiratory failure, and even death. Despite the lack of specific therapy, the prognosis is likely to be favorable unless the poisoned patients are complicated with severe hypotension or respiratory failure.

  1. Abietane lactones and iridoids from Goldfussia yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Wei; Li, Bo-Gang; Li, Guo-You; Li, Chang-Song; Fang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Lin

    2007-12-01

    Two new abietane diterpene lactones (1--2), three new abietane diterpene lactone glycosides (3--5) and a new iridoid glycoside (6), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Goldfussia yunnanensis. The new compounds were determined to be 18-hydroxyhelioscopinolide A (1), 18-oxohelioscopinolide A (2), 18-hydroxy-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylhelioscopinolide A (3), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylhelioscopinolide A (4), 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosylhelioscopinolide A (5), and 6-O-trans-cinnamoyl E-harpagoside (6) on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.

  2. Galactaro δ-Lactone Isomerase: Lactone Isomerization by a Member of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 can utilize d-galacturonate as a sole source of carbon via a pathway in which the first step is oxidation of d-galacturonate to d-galactaro-1,5-lactone. We have identified a novel enzyme, d-galactarolactone isomerase (GLI), that catalyzes the isomerizaton of d-galactaro-1,5-lactone to d-galactaro-1,4-lactone. GLI, a member of the functionally diverse amidohydrolase superfamily, is a homologue of LigI that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate in lignin degradation. The ability of GLI to catalyze lactone isomerization instead of hydrolysis can be explained by the absence of the general basic catalysis used by 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonase. PMID:24450804

  3. Galactaro δ-lactone isomerase: lactone isomerization by a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jason T; Groninger-Poe, Fiona P; Vetting, Matthew; Almo, Steven C; Gerlt, John A

    2014-02-04

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 can utilize d-galacturonate as a sole source of carbon via a pathway in which the first step is oxidation of d-galacturonate to D-galactaro-1,5-lactone. We have identified a novel enzyme, D-galactarolactone isomerase (GLI), that catalyzes the isomerizaton of D-galactaro-1,5-lactone to D-galactaro-1,4-lactone. GLI, a member of the functionally diverse amidohydrolase superfamily, is a homologue of LigI that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate in lignin degradation. The ability of GLI to catalyze lactone isomerization instead of hydrolysis can be explained by the absence of the general basic catalysis used by 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonase.

  4. Lactones: Part 11. Feeding-deterrent activity of some bi- and tricyclic terpenoid lactones.

    PubMed

    Paruch, E; Nawrot, J; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    2001-09-01

    The feeding-deterrent activities of thirteen synthetic terpenoid lactones, including isomeric bicyclic gamma-spirolactones with the limonene system and tricyclic gamma-lactones with the pinane system, were determined towards three storage pest insects: the adults of Sitophilus granarius, the adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum and the larvae of Trogoderma granarium. The configuration of chiral centres, as well as the presence of additional functional groups (double bond, iodine and hydroxy group) are important for antifeeding activity.

  5. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  6. New Sesquiterpene Lactones from Illicium floridanum

    PubMed

    Schmidt; Schmidt; Müller; Peters; Fronczek; Truesdale; Fischer

    1998-02-27

    In continuation of our phytochemical investigation of Illicium floridanum Ellis (American star anise, star bush), three new sesquiterpene lactones possessing the anisatin-type carbon skeleton (8,9-seco-prezizaane skeleton), 14-acetoxy-3-oxofloridanolide (1), 13-acetoxy-14-(n-butyryloxy)floridanolide (2), and 3beta-acetoxy-14-n-butyryloxy-10-deoxyfloridanolide (3), were isolated from fruits of this plant. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR measurements. The molecular structure of 1 was obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The 11,3-delta-lactone structure of the compound previously described as debenzoyldunnianin in our previous communication, on grounds of NMR spectral evidence and X-ray crystallographic analysis is revised to a delta-lactone closed between C-11 and C-7 (compound 4). The neurotoxic sesquiterpene lactone anisatin (5) and its isomer 2alpha-hydroxyneoanisatin (3-deoxy-2alpha-hydroxyanisatin, 6) were also isolated and identified by spectroscopic means. The presence of the neurotoxin 5 in relatively high amounts in the fruits and leaves confirms and explains early reports on the toxicity of this plant.

  7. Chicory cultivars differ in sesquiterpene lactone composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a valuable forage species for small ruminants because it is nutritious and contains sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) that have anthelmintic activity. Three SLs, lactucin (lac), 8-deoxylactucin (dol), and lactucopicrin (lpic), occur in chicory leaves. Comprehensive dat...

  8. Formation of lactones from sialylated MUC1 glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Pudelko, Maciej; Lindgren, Anna; Tengel, Tobias; Reis, Celso A; Elofsson, Mikael; Kihlberg, Jan

    2006-02-21

    The tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens TN, T, sialyl TN and sialyl T are expressed on mucins in several epithelial cancers. This has stimulated studies directed towards development of glycopeptide-based anticancer vaccines. Formation of intramolecular lactones involving sialic acid residues and suitably positioned hydroxyl groups in neighboring saccharide moieties is known to occur for glycolipids such as gangliosides. It has been suggested that these lactones are more immunogenic and tumor-specific than their native counterparts and that they might find use as cancer vaccines. We have now investigated if lactonization also occurs for the sialyl TN and T antigens of mucins. It was found that the model compound sialyl T benzyl glycoside , and the glycopeptide Ala-Pro-Asp-Thr-Arg-Pro-Ala from the tandem repeat of the mucin MUC1, in which Thr stands for the 2,3-sialyl-T antigen, lactonized during treatment with glacial acetic acid. Compound gave the 1''--> 2' lactone as the major product and the corresponding 1''--> 4' lactone as the minor product. For glycopeptide the 1''--> 4' lactone constitued the major product, whereas the 1''--> 2' lactone was the minor one. When lactonized was dissolved in water the 1''--> 4' lactone underwent slow hydrolysis, whereas the 1''--> 2' remained stable even after a 30 days incubation. In contrast the corresponding 2,6-sialyl-TN glycopeptide did not lactonize in glacial acetic acid.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of sesquiterpene lactone grossheimin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenova, Sh. B.; Atazhanova, G. A.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Kasenov, B. K.; Kishkentaeva, A. S.; Adekenov, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The enthalpy of dissolution of sesquiterpene lactone grossheimin C15H18O4 is measured using a DAK-I-IA calorimeter at a lactone/ethanol (96%) molar ratios equal to 1 : 18000, 1 : 36000, and 1 : 72000. The standard enthalpy of dissolution of grossheimin in a 96% ethanol solution is calculated based on the resulting data. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity of grossheimin C p ° ˜ f ( T) is studied by means of dynamic calorimetry using a IT-C-400 device in the temperature range of 298.15-423 K. An equation describing this dependence is derived. The standard enthalpies of combustion, melting, and formation of grossheimin are calculated using approximate methods.

  10. Guaiane sesquiterpene lactones from Salvia nubicola (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad S; Ibrahim, Syed A; Ahmed, Shakeel; Lobkovsky, Emil

    2007-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone, nubiol (1), belonging to the guaiane class, along with a dimer, bisnubidiol (2), has been isolated from Salvia nubicola collected from Quetta, Pakistan. The structures of both metabolites were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including 2D-NMR. Additionally, the structure of nubiol (1) was finally confirmed via the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Nubiol (1) was found moderately active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Novel secoiridoid lactones from Jasminum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y C; Chen, C H

    1989-01-01

    Four new secoiridoid lactones, jasmolactones A [1], B [2], C [3], and D [4], were isolated from the aerial part of Jasminum multiflorum. The structures of these compounds, which contain a novel bicyclic 2-oxo-oxepano[4,5-c]pyran ring system, were established by spectral analyses and chemical correlations. Pharmacological testing revealed that jasmolactones B and D possess coronary vasodilating and cardiotropic activities.

  12. Activity of isosteviol lactone on mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Braguini, Welligton L; Gomes, Maria A Biazon; de Oliveira, Brás H; Carnieri, Eva G S; Rocha, Maria Eliane M; de Oliveira, Maria Benigna M

    2003-06-05

    Isosteviol lactone (LAC), a lactone derivative of the diterpenic acid isosteviol (ISO) was evaluated for its effect on the oxidative metabolism of mitochondria isolated from rat liver. In this model, LAC (1 mM) depressed the phosphorylation efficiency, as shown by the decreased respiratory control coefficient (RCC) and ADP/O ratio. LAC (1 mM) inhibited NADH oxidase (45%), succinate oxidase (34%) and promoted low-level inhibitions on succinate dehydrogenase (13%), succinate-cytochrome c oxide-reductase (23%), cytochrome c oxidase (10%), and NADH dehydrogenase (13%). Glutamate dehydrogenase was also a target for LAC, as it was 85% inhibited by 1 mM LAC. Cyclic voltammetry data showed that LAC, as well as ISO, does not undergo redox reactions under current experimental conditions. LAC (0.05-0.75 mM) inhibited the swelling dependent on the glutamate oxidation, 50% of the effect occurring at 0.5 mM LAC. Swelling supported by KNO(3) and valinomycin was also inhibited over all concentrations used of LAC and ISO, the effect being of a lower intensity for LAC, suggesting that the modification of the structure of ISO by lactonization diminished its interaction with the membrane. This could contribute to attenuation of the toxic effects described for ISO on mitochondrial function, such as those on respiratory chain enzymatic complexes and phosphorylating activity.

  13. PKCα activation down-regulates ATM and radio-sensitizes androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Kang, Ji-Hye; Lerman, Gabriel; Fuks, Zvi; Kolesnick, Richard; Marquez, Victor E.; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that treatment of human androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and CWR22-Rv1 with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a known protein kinase C (PKC) activator, decreases ATM protein levels, thus de-repressing the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and promoting apoptosis as well as radio-sensitizing these cells.1 Here we show that PKCα mediates the TPA effect on ATM expression, since ATM suppression and apoptosis induced by either TPA or diacylglycerol-lactone (DAG-lactone), both inducing PKCα activation,2 are abrogated in LNCaP cells following transfection of a kinase-dead PKCα mutant (KD-PKCα). Similarly, KD-PKCα blocks the apoptotic response elicited by combination of TPA and radiation, whereas expression of constitutively active PKCα is sufficient to sensitize cells to radiation alone, without a need to pre-treat the cells with TPA. These findings identify CS activation as a downstream event of PKCα activity in LNCaP cells. Similar results were obtained in CWR22-Rv1 cells with DAG-lactone treatment. Using the LNCaP orthotopic prostate model it is shown that treatment with TPA or DAG-lactone induces significant reduction in tumor ATM levels coupled with tumor growth delay. Furthermore, while fractionated radiation alone produces significant tumor growth delay, pretreatment with TPA or DAG-lactone significantly potentiates tumor cure. These findings support a model in which activation of PKCα downregulates ATM, thus relieving CS repression by ATM and enhancing apoptosis via ceramide generation. This model may provide a basis for the design of new therapies in prostate cancer. PMID:19029835

  14. Reduction of sugar lactones to hemiacetals with lithium triethylborohydride.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Cesar; Kavoosi, Sam; Sanchez, Andersson; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

    2016-09-02

    Reduction of ribono-1,4-lactones and gulono-1,4-lactone as well as ribono-1,5-lactone and glucono-1,5-lactones with LTBH (1.2 equiv.) in CH2Cl2 at 0 °C for 30 min provided the corresponding pentose or hexose hemiacetals in high yields. Commonly used in carbohydrate chemistry protecting groups such as trityl, benzyl, silyl, acetals and to some extent acyls are compatible with this reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactones 46. Synthesis, antifeedant and antibacterial activity of γ-lactones with a p-methoxyphenyl substituent.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Marcelina; Skrobiszewski, Andrzej; Gładkowski, Witold; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bania, Jacek; Nawrot, Jan; Klejdysz, Tomasz; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2016-03-01

    Lactones are well known for their biological activity. Grosheimin and repin are potent deterrents against storage pests. The unsaturated lactones have exhibited a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. In our study we focused on the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activity of anisaldehyde derivatives containing lactone function. Four new lactones were synthesized in one-step reductive dehalogenation or dehydrohalogenation reactions. These compounds, together with halolactones synthesized earlier, were tested for their antifeedant activity towards Sitophilus granaries, Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium confusum. The results of the tests showed that the highest activity, comparable with that of azadirachtin, towards all tested pests (total coefficient of deterrence 143.3-183.9) was observed for lactone with a vinyl substituent. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was also evaluated. The most potent lactone was active towards gram-positive bacteria strains. The results of biological tests showed that halogen atom removal significantly increased the antifeedant properties of γ-lactones with a p-methoxyphenyl substituent. Unsaturated lactones are most promising in the context of their possible industrial application as crop protection agents. Further structural modifications of lactones with aromatic rings are needed to find important structural factors increasing the antibacterial activity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization of a novel enzyme-Starmerella bombicola lactone esterase (SBLE)-responsible for sophorolipid lactonization.

    PubMed

    Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Roelants, Sophie L K W; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; De Waele, Stijn; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Groeneboer, Sara; Soetaert, Wim; Devreese, Bart

    2016-11-01

    We recently discovered a novel enzyme in the exoproteome of Starmerella bombicola, which is structurally related to Candida antarctica lipase A. A knockout strain for this enzyme does no longer produce lactonic sophorolipids, prompting us to believe that this protein is the missing S. bombicola lactone esterase (SBLE). SBLE catalyzes a rather unusual reaction, i.e., an intramolecular esterification (lactonization) of acidic sophorolipids in an aqueous environment, which raised questions about its activity and mode of action. Here, we report the heterologous production of this enzyme in Pichia pastoris and its purification in a two-step strategy. Purified recombinant SBLE (rSBLE) was used to perform HPLC and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS)-based assays with different sophorolipid mixtures. We experimentally confirmed that SBLE is able to perform ring closure of acetylated acidic sophorolipids. This substrate was selected for rSBLE kinetic studies to estimate the apparent values of K m . We established that rSBLE displays optimal activity in the pH range of 3.5 to 6 and has an optimal temperature in the range of 20 to 50 °C. Additionally, we generated a rSBLE mutant through site-directed mutagenesis of Ser194 in the predicted active site pocket and show that this mutant is lacking the ability to lactonize sophorolipids. We therefore propose that SBLE operates via the common serine hydrolase mechanism in which the catalytic serine residue is assisted by a His/Asp pair.

  17. Lactones 42. Stereoselective enzymatic/microbial synthesis of optically active isomers of whisky lactone.

    PubMed

    Boratyński, Filip; Smuga, Małgorzata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-11-01

    Two different methods, enzyme-mediated reactions and biotrasformations with microorganisms, were applied to obtain optically pure cis- and trans-isomers of whisky lactone 4a and 4b. In the first method, eight alcohol dehydrogenases were investigated as biocatalysts to enantioselective oxidation of racemic erythro- and threo-3-methyloctane-1,4-diols (1a and 1b). Oxidation processes with three of them, alcohol dehydrogenases isolated from horse liver (HLADH) as well as recombinant from Escherichia coli and primary alcohol dehydrogenase (PADH I), were characterized by the highest degree of conversion with moderate enantioselectivity (ee=27-82%) of the reaction. In all enzymatic reactions enantiomerically enriched not naturally occurring isomers of trans-(-)-(4R,5S)-4b or cis-(+)-(4R,5R)-4a were formed preferentially. In the second strategy, based on microbial lactonization of γ-oxoacids, naturally occurring opposite isomers of whisky lactones were obtained. Trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-isomer (ee=99%) of whisky lactone 4b was stereoselectively formed as the only product of biotransformations of 3-methyl-4-oxooctanoic acid (5) catalyzed by Didimospheria igniaria KCH6651, Laetiporus sulphurens AM525, Chaetomium sp.1 KCH6670 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM464. Biotransformation of γ-oxoacid 5, in the culture of Beauveria bassiana AM278 and Pycnidiella resinae KCH50 afforded a mixtures of trans-(+)-(4S,5R)-4b with enantiomeric excess ee=99% and cis-(-)-(4S,5S)-4a with enantiomeric excesses ee=77% and ee=45% respectively.

  18. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  19. Lactones 12. Enzymatic lactonization of gamma, delta-epoxy esters by the apple fruit and Jerusalem artichoke bulb.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, Teresa; Mironowicz, Agnieszka; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2003-06-01

    The enzymatic lactonization of three acyclic gamma, delta-epoxy esters (ethyl 3,7-dimethyl-4,5-epoxyoctanoate, ethyl 3,7,7-trimethyl-4,5-epoxyoctanoate, and ethyl 3,3,7-trimethyl-4,5-epoxyoctanoate) by apple fruit (Malus silvestris) and Jerusalem artichoke bulb (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was investigated. The substrates were transformed into a mixture of isomeric delta-hydroxy-gamma-lactones and gamma-hydroxy-delta-lactones. The gamma-lactones (yields ranging from 45-70%) predominated over delta-lactones (yields ranging from 8-40%). The composition of the product mixture depended on the structure of substrate as well as the biocatalyst. The enzymatic system in these biocatalysts also exhibited diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity.

  20. Lactones 41. Synthesis and microbial hydroxylation of unsaturated terpenoid lactones with p-menthane ring systems.

    PubMed

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-03-01

    Racemic [(±)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxa-cis-bicyclo[4.3.0]non-4-en-8-one] and optically active δ,ε-unsaturated lactones [(-)-(1R,6R)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]non-4-en-8-one and (+)-(1S,6S)-4-isopropyl-1-methyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.3.0] non-4-en-8-one)] with the p-menthane system were obtained and their odoriferous properties were evaluated. Biotransformations of the racemic lactone with three fungal strains: Absidia cylindrospora AM336, Absidia glauca AM177 and Syncephalastrum racemosum AM105, were carried out. Microbial transformations afforded hydroxylactones with the hydroxy group in the allylic position.

  1. Lactones. 21. Synthesis and odoriferous properties of lactones with the p-menthane system.

    PubMed

    Dams, Iwona; Bialoniska, Agata; Ciunik, Zbigniew; Wawrzenczyk, Czesław

    2004-03-24

    Starting from (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-pulegone, enantiomeric pairs of esters and lactones with the p-menthane system were obtained. The Claisen rearrangement of allylic alcohols and iodolactonization of gamma,delta-unsaturated acids were the key steps of syntheses presented. The structures of compounds were determined by both spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Some of the synthesized compounds are characterized by interesting odoriferous properties.

  2. Chemotypes in Achillea collina based on sesquiterpene lactone profile.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Mikhova, Bozhanka; Vitkova, Antonina; Duddeck, Helmut

    2007-07-01

    The lactone profile of six origins of Achillea collina growing in Bulgaria was studied and significant variability was observed. The reasons for the differences in the lactone composition are discussed. Twenty-five components in total were isolated and identified, while the presence of ten lactones was proved by intensive TLC analysis in comparison with reference compounds. The structures of the components 17, 20, 25-30 were established by spectroscopic methods. The structure of 7, a cyclization product of 6, was also discussed. The anti-inflammatory activity of some extracts, fractions and individual compounds was tested in vitro by determining the inhibitory effects on induced human neutrophils.

  3. New sources and antifungal activity of sesquiterpene lactones.

    PubMed

    Barrero, A F; Oltra, J E; Alvarez, M; Raslan, D S; Saúde, D A; Akssira, M

    2000-02-01

    In the search for new sources of sesquiterpene lactones, six Centaurea species have been analyzed. The activity against the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata of (+)-cnicin (1) and (+)-salonitenolide (2), isolated from the Centaurea plants, as well as that of (+)-costunolide (3), (-)-dehydrocostuslactone (4), (-)-lychnopholide (5) and (-)-eremantholide C (6), has been evaluated. Compounds 3 and 4 showed noticeable EC50 values, whilst more polar lactones were inactive. These results suggest that a relatively low polarity is one of the molecular requirements for the antifungal activity of sesquiterpene lactones.

  4. Characteristic gamma-lactone odor production of the genus Pityrosporum.

    PubMed Central

    Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Leyden, J J; Webster, G F

    1979-01-01

    Mass spectrometric-gas chromatographic analysis of culture headspaces revealed that members of the genous Pityrosporum produce volatile gamma-lactones during growth on lipid-containing media. Representative members of other yeast genera found on humans failed to produce these compounds. Addition of lecithin, oleic acids, triolein, or human sebum to the culture media stimulated gamma-lactone production by Pityrosporum species. All yeasts tested produced isopentanol and phenylethanol. Production of gamma-lactones may serve as a valuable characteristic in the identification of organisms of the genus Pityrosporum. PMID:533274

  5. New sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Usuga, Nora Del Socorro; Malafronte, Nicola; Cotugno, Roberta; De Leo, Marinella; Osorio, Edison; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including three new natural products (1-3), were isolated from the n-butanolic extract of Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. aerial parts. The structure of all isolated compounds was elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. All compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on HeLa, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines. Compound 3, 2,3-dehydropsilostachyn C, showed cytotoxic activity with different potency in all cell lines. By means of flow cytometric studies, compound 3 was demonstrated to induce in Jurkat cells a G2/M cell cycle block, while in U937 elicited both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial metabolism of quorum-sensing molecules acyl-homoserine lactones, γ-heptalactone and other lactones.

    PubMed

    Safari, Maryam; Amache, Rana; Esmaeilishirazifard, Elham; Keshavarz, Tajalli

    2014-04-01

    The cell-to-cell communication of microorganisms is known to be via exertion of certain chemical compounds (signal molecules) and is referred to as quorum sensing (QS). QS phenomenon is widespread in microbial communities. Several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi use lactone-containing compounds (e.g. acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), γ-heptalactone, butyrolactone-I) as signalling molecules. The ability of microorganisms to metabolise these compounds and the mechanisms they employ for this purpose are not clearly understood. Many studies, however, have focused on identifying AHL and other lactone-degrading enzymes produced by bacteria and fungi. Various strains that are able to utilise these signalling molecules as carbon and energy sources have also been isolated. In addition, several reports have provided evidence on the involvement of lactones and lactone-degrading enzymes in numerous biological functions. These studies, although focused on processes other than metabolism of lactone signalling molecules, still provide insights into further understanding of the mechanisms employed by various microorganisms to metabolise the QS compounds. In this review, we consider conceivable microbial strategies to metabolise AHL and other lactone-containing signalling molecules such as γ-heptalactones.

  7. Novel anticancer alkene lactone from Persea americana.

    PubMed

    Falodun, Abiodun; Engel, Nadja; Kragl, Udo; Nebe, Barbara; Langer, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) root bark is used in ethnomedicine for a variety of diseases including cancer. To isolate and characterize the chemical constituent in P. americana, and also to determine the anticancer property of a new alkene lactone from the root bark of P. americana. The MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of the pure compound for 48 h. The percentage of cells in the various phases, online monitoring of metabolic changes and integrin receptor expression determined by flow cytometry. One novel alkene lactone (4-hydroxy-5-methylene-3-undecyclidenedihydrofuran-2 (3H)-one) (1) was isolated and characterized using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, infrared, UV and MS. At a concentration of 10 µg/mL, significant reduction of proliferation of MCF-7 was induced while MCF-12 A cell was significantly stimulated by 10 µg/mL. The IC50 value for MCF-7 cells is 20.48 µg/mL. Lower concentration of 1 harbor no significant effect on either MCF-7 or MCF-12A. The apoptotic rates of MCF-7 cells were increased significantly. At the final concentration 10 µg/mL, up to 80% of all breast cancer cells were dead. On the non-tumorigenic cell line MCF-12A, the same concentrations (1 and 10 µg/mL) of compound 1 caused significant enhanced apoptotic rates. A total of 1 µg/mL of 1 caused a decrease of α4-, α6-, β1- and β3-integrin expression. The compound caused a stimulatory effect on non-tumorigenic MCF-12A cells with respect to cell adhesion while tumorigenic MCF-7 cells detached continuously. This is the first report on the anticancer effects of this class of compound.

  8. Effect of α-tocopherol on lactone formation in marbled beef and changes in lactone volatility during storage.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Imanari, Mai; Yonai, Miharu; Shiba, Nobuya

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic-headspace sampling with a standard-addition method was employed to quantitatively analyze aliphatic lactones in rendered fat from marbled beef and to evaluate the effect of the matrix on volatility. Further, the effects of different levels of the antioxidant α-tocopherol on lactone formation were examined. The slopes of the linear regression curves from the standard-addition method were significantly changed (P < 0.05 or 0.01) for all lactones after storage, with the exception of γ-octalactone, indicating the volatility of the longer-chain lactones were increased after storage. The concentrations of γ-lactones were increased after 7 d of storage at 2 °C (P < 0.01), and the α-tocopherol content in the meat affected the formation of γ-octalactone (P < 0.05) and γ-nonalactone (P < 0.01). The greatest increase was observed for γ-nonalactone in the lowest α-tocopherol (2.9 ppm) group: the concentration of 51.4 ppb was 11.7-fold higher than that before storage. Meanwhile, δ-tetradecalactone in the highest α-tocopherol (28.8 ppm) group showed the highest concentration for the lactones at 415.8 ppb, which was 2.6-fold higher than the concentration before storage. The effect of α-tocopherol was unclear for the δ-lactones. The results indicate that most of the γ-lactones are produced by oxidation during storage but that the other lactones are also generated by other processes as well.

  9. Mechanisms of lactone hydrolysis in neutral and alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2013-07-19

    The neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of nine carboxylic acid esters was studied using a hybrid supermolecule-PCM approach including six explicit water molecules. The molecules studied included two linear esters, four β-lactones, two γ-lactones, and one δ-lactone: ethyl acetate and methyl formate, β-propiolactone, β-butyrolactone, β-isovalerolactone, diketene (4-methyleneoxetan-2-one), γ-butyrolactone, 2(5H)-furanone, and δ-valerolactone. DFT and ab initio methods were used to analyze the features of the various possible hydrolysis mechanisms. For all compounds, reasonable to very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental work was found, and evidence is provided to support long-standing hypotheses regarding the role of solvent molecule as a base catalyst. In addition, novel evidence is presented for the existence of an elimination-addition mechanism in the basic hydrolysis of diketene. A parallel work addresses the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lactones.

  10. Rh-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Aryl and Alkenyl Boronic Acids to α-Methylene-β-lactones: Stereoselective Synthesis of trans-3,4-Disubstituted β-Lactones.

    PubMed

    Malapit, Christian A; Luvaga, Irungu K; Caldwell, Donald R; Schipper, Nicholas K; Howell, Amy R

    2017-09-01

    A one-step preparation of 3,4-disubstituted β-lactones through Rh-catalyzed conjugate addition of aryl or alkenyl boronic acids to α-methylene-β-lactones is described. The operationally simple, stereoselective transformation provides a broad range of β-lactones from individual α-methylene-β-lactone templates. This methodology allowed for a direct, final-step C-3 diversification of nocardiolactone, an antimicrobial natural product.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones from Achillea collina J. Becker ex Reichenb.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Mikhova, Bozhanka; Vitkova, Antonina; Duddeck, Helmut

    2006-04-01

    The flower heads of Achillea collina afforded 31 individual sesquiterpene lactones, among which nine guaianolides (1, 16, 20, 21, 23, 27-30), a germacranolide (18) and a dimeric guaianolide (31) were found to be new natural products. The lactones 2-4, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19 and 25 were isolated for the first time from the investigated species. Their structures were established by spectral methods.

  12. Diterpene lactones with labdane, halimane and clerodane frameworks.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lúcia; Gomes, Arlindo C; Rodilla, Jesus M L

    2011-04-01

    The labdane, halimane and clerodane type diterpenoids are compounds that have been isolated in plants of several families. These molecules and their derivatives with a lactone group on the side chain or on the decaline system, have a great interest because of their biological properties as insect antifeedant, antiviral, cytotoxic and trypanocidal. The scope of this review is lactones diterpenoids with labdane, halimane and clerodane frameworks.

  13. Kava lactones and the kava-kava controversy.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Peter A; Lau, Andrew; Salisbury, Alicia; Whitehouse, Julie; Evans, Christine S

    2003-10-01

    Kava-kava is a traditional beverage of the South Pacific islanders and has had centuries of use without major side effects. Standardised extracts of kava-kava produced in Europe have led to many serious health problems and even to death. The extraction process (aqueous vs. acetone in the two types of preparations) is responsible for the difference in toxicity as extraction of glutathione in addition to the kava lactones is important to provide protection against hepatotoxicity. The Michael reaction between glutathione and kava lactones, resulting in opening of the lactone ring, reduces the side effects of the kava kava extracts. This protective activity was demonstrated using Acanthamoebae castellanii in which 100% cell death occurred with 100 mg ml(-1) kava lactones alone, and 40% cell death with a mixture of 100 mg ml (-1)glutathione and 100 mg ml (-1) kava lactones. A comparison of kava lactone toxicity with other pharmaceutical products is discussed and recommendations made for safe usage of kava-kava products

  14. Treatment of MDR1 Mutant Dogs with Macrocyclic Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Joachim; Janko, Christina

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, is an ATP-driven drug efflux pump which is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier of vertebrates. Drug efflux of macrocyclic lactones by P-glycoprotein is highly relevant for the therapeutic safety of macrocyclic lactones, as thereby GABA-gated chloride channels, which are confined to the central nervous system in vertebrates, are protected from high drug concentrations that otherwise would induce neurological toxicity. A 4-bp deletion mutation exists in the MDR1 gene of many dog breeds such as the Collie and the Australian Shepherd, which results in the expression of a non-functional P-glycoprotein and is associated with multiple drug sensitivity. Accordingly, dogs with homozygous MDR1 mutation are in general prone to neurotoxicity by macrocyclic lactones due to their increased brain penetration. Nevertheless, treatment of these dogs with macrocyclic lactones does not inevitably result in neurological symptoms, since, the safety of treatment highly depends on the treatment indication, dosage, route of application, and the individual compound used as outlined in this review. Whereas all available macrocyclic lactones can safely be administered to MDR1 mutant dogs at doses usually used for heartworm prevention, these dogs will experience neurological toxicity following a high dose regimen which is common for mange treatment in dogs. Here, we review and discuss the neurotoxicological potential of different macrocyclic lactones as well as their treatment options in MDR1 mutant dogs. PMID:22039792

  15. Stabilization of the Karenitecin® lactone by alpha-1 acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shijie; Petluru, Pavankumar; Parker, Aulma; Ding, Daoyuan; Chen, Xinghai; Huang, Qiuli; Kochat, Harry; Hausheer, Frederick

    2015-04-01

    Camptothecins contain a lactone ring that is necessary for antitumor activity, and hydrolysis of the lactone ring yields an inactive carboxylate species. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) are clinically significant plasma proteins thought to have important roles in camptothecin lactone stability. Herein, we examined the effect(s) of HSA and AGP on the lactone stability of Karenitecin, a novel, highly lipophilic camptothecin analog, currently at the phase 3 clinical testing stage. An AGP-immobilized protein column was used to develop HPLC methods to evaluate the effect(s) of physiologically relevant HSA and AGP concentrations on the lactone/carboxylate ratio and hydrolysis kinetics of Karenitecin, camptothecin (CPT), and topotecan (TPT). Physiologically relevant concentrations of HSA and AGP substantially slowed Karenitecin lactone hydrolysis. AGP was notably more effective at protecting the Karenitecin lactone from hydrolysis than HSA was in promoting hydrolysis. Additionally, AGP reversed the hydrolysis of partially hydrolyzed Karenitecin lactone. In contrast, HSA and AGP had minimal effects on hydrolysis of the TPT lactone, while the AGP/HSA solutions dramatically accelerated hydrolysis of the CPT lactone. AGP strongly enhances the lactone stability of Karenitecin. Since Karenitecin is highly protein-bound in human plasma and exhibits greater lactone stability, relative to other camptothecins, in patient plasma samples, this newly identified role of AGP in promoting lactone stability may have important implications for the design of more effective anticancer agents within the Karentecin™ and camptothecin classes.

  16. Biosynthesis of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Aldana M.; Saillard, Nils; Yang, Ting; Franssen, Maurice C. R.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2013-01-01

    The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent problematic allergenic residues in the extracts that are removed by the pyrethrum industry. The STLs are stored in glandular trichomes present on the pyrethrum achenes, and have been shown to be active against herbivores, micro-organisms and in the below-ground competition with other plants. Despite these reported bioactivities and industrial significance, the biosynthetic origin of pyrethrum sesquiterpene lactones remains unknown. In the present study, we show that germacratrien-12-oic acid is most likely the central precursor for all sesquiterpene lactones present in pyrethrum. The formation of the lactone ring depends on the regio- (C6 or C8) and stereo-selective (α or β) hydroxylation of germacratrien-12-oic acid. Candidate genes implicated in three committed steps leading from farnesyl diphosphate to STL and other oxygenated derivatives of germacratrien-12-oic acid were retrieved from a pyrethrum trichome EST library, cloned, and characterized in yeast and in planta. The diversity and distribution of sesquiterpene lactones in different tissues and the correlation with the expression of these genes are shown and discussed. PMID:23741445

  17. Seasonal variation in sesquiterpene lactone concentration and composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage contains sesquiterpene lactones that are believed to help control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. Because the anthelmintic effect could be related to both total sesquiterpene lactone concentration and the proportions of the principal constituent...

  18. C-Ring Cannabinoid Lactones: A Novel Cannabinergic Chemotype

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As a part of our controlled-deactivation ligand development project, we recently disclosed a series of (−)-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) with a metabolically labile ester group at the 2′-position of the side chain. Now, we have replaced the C-ring in the classical THC structure with a hydrolyzable seven-membered lactone. One of the synthesized analogues binds with high affinity to the CB1 receptor (Ki = 4.6 nM) and exhibits much lower affinities for the mCB2 and the hCB2. Also, in vitro functional characterization found the compound to be an agonist at rCB1. Consistent with our rational design, the lead cannabinergic lactone identified here is susceptible to metabolic inactivation by plasma esterases, while the respective acid metabolite is inactive at CB receptors. These results are highlighted with molecular modeling of the two regiosomeric lactones. PMID:24900848

  19. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  20. Synthesis of γ- and δ-lactone natural products by employing a trans-cis isomerization/lactonization strategy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Machiko; Kato, Keisuke; Akita, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of 4-hydroxy- or/and 5-hydroxy-(2E)-alkenoate followed by acid treatment gave the corresponding (2E)-alkenoic acids which were subjected to lactone formation reaction without further purification. The crude acids were treated with 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford γ-lactone or δ-lactone, respectively, accompanied by trans-cis isomerization. By this procedure, (±)-(4,5)-trans-5-benzyloxy-2-hexen-4-olide (90% overall yield), (S)-5-hydroxy-2-penten-4-olide (86% overall yield), (4S,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-hexen-4-olide (86% overall yield), (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-2-hexen-4-olide (82% overall yield), (S)-parasorbic acid (58% overall yield) and natural product, (5R,7S)-7-hydroxy-2-octen-5-olide (euscapholide: 20% overall yield) were synthesized.

  1. Thermochemistry and kinetics of angelica and cognate lactones.

    PubMed

    Wurmel, Judith; Simmie, John M

    2014-06-12

    The enthalpies of formation, bond dissociation energies, ionization potentials, and kinetics of reaction with hydrogen atoms and methyl radicals have been systematically calculated for angelica lactone and a number of related furanones. The objective was to provide comprehensive thermodynamic and kinetic data of compounds that are projected to play a role as intermediates in the production of platform chemicals and biofuels.

  2. Asymmetric gold-catalyzed lactonizations in water at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sachin; Lippincott, Daniel J; Aue, Donald H; Lipshutz, Bruce H

    2014-09-26

    Asymmetric gold-catalyzed hydrocarboxylations are reported that show broad substrate scope. The hydrophobic effect associated with in situ-formed aqueous nanomicelles gives good to excellent ee's of product lactones. In-flask product isolation, along with the recycling of the catalyst and the reaction medium, are combined to arrive at an especially environmentally friendly process.

  3. Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical that can be produced in yeast. To evaluate the potential for industrial yeast strains to produce TAL, the g2ps1 gene encoding 2-pyrone synthase was transformed into thirteen industrial yeast strains of varied genetic background. TAL produ...

  4. Natural Sesquiterpene Lactones Induce Oxidative Stress in Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Patricia; Sülsen, Valeria P.; Lozano, Esteban; Rivera, Mónica; Beer, María Florencia; Tonn, Carlos; Martino, Virginia S.; Sosa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a worldwide parasitic disease, caused by monoflagellate parasites of the genus Leishmania. In the search for more effective agents against these parasites, the identification of molecular targets has been attempted to ensure the efficiency of drugs and to avoid collateral damages on the host's cells. In this work, we have investigated some of the mechanisms of action of a group of natural sesquiterpene lactones that are effective against Leishmania mexicana mexicana promastigotes. We first observed that the antiproliferative effect of mexicanin I (Mxc), dehydroleucodine (DhL), psilostachyin (Psi), and, at lesser extent, psilostachyin C (Psi C) is blocked by 1.5 mM reduced glutathione. The reducing agent was also able to reverse the early effect of the compounds, suggesting that lactones may react with intracellular sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, we have shown that all the sesquiterpene lactones, except Psi C, significantly decreased the endogenous concentration of glutathione within the parasite. Consistent with these findings, the active sesquiterpene lactones increased between 2.7 and 5.4 times the generation of ROS by parasites. These results indicate that the induction of oxidative stress is at least one of the mechanisms of action of DhL, Mxc, and Psi on parasites while Psi C would act by another mechanism. PMID:23861697

  5. Lactones in 193 nm resists: What do they do?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Brock, Phil J.

    2008-03-01

    Lactones are almost ubiquitously employed in 193 nm resists to increase the polarity of hydrophobic alicyclic polymers. What else do lactones do in 193 nm resists? We studied the behavior of methacrylate (MA) resists consisting of different protecting groups, hexafluoroalcohols, and norbornane lactone methacrylate (NLM, 2-oxo-3-oxatricyclo[4.2.1.04,8]nonan-5-yl methacrylate). When the protecting group is large [ethylcyclooctyl (ECO) and methyladamantyl (MAd)], thinning of the resist film that occurs in highly exposed areas upon postexposure bake (PEB) is significantly smaller than what is expected from the polymer composition. When the concentration of isopropylhexafluoroalcohol methacrylate (iPrHFAMA) is increased in the ECOMA-NLM polymer, the thinning increases and reaches 100% of theory and the ECOMA-norbornenehexafluoroalcohol methacrylate (NBHFAMA) resist loses quantitative thickness in highly-exposed areas upon PEB at 90 °C. This indicates that small lactones which are more basic than esters can trap deprotection fragments especially when the protecting group is large. Such entrapment was detected by IR spectroscopy and also observed at temperatures as high as 200 °C in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Incorporation of lactone appears to decrease the bake temperature sensitivity and the sensitivity of the resist perhaps due to trapping of photochemically generated acids by basic lactone. The lactone ring can be hydrolyzed during aqueous base development but does not seem to affect the dissolution rate, indicating that hydrolysis occurs in aqueous base solution after dissolution. Poly(methacrylic acid-NLM) dissolves as fast as poly(methacrylic acid) in 0.26 N tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) aqueous solution. While exposed P(ECOMA 47-NLM 53) resist dissolves in 0.26 N developer at about the same rate as authentically prepared poly(methacrylic acid 47-NLM 53), the dissolution rate of highly-exposed P(MAdMA 44-NLM 56) resist is much slower, indicating

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and properties of novel lactone-type anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mori, Keisuke; Matsumura, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    Two series of lactone-type surfactants with and without a hexyl side chain were prepared by the cyclocondensation of dimethyl alkanedioates with unsaturated diols, such as cis-2-butene-1,4-diol and ricinoleyl alcohol, using a lipase, followed by the addition of hydrophilic 3-mercaptopropionic acid in the presence of triethylamine. The lactone-type surfactants showed clear cmc values and surface tension lowering in aqueous solution irrespective of the hexyl side chain. It was found that the cmc values of lactone-type surfactants were lower than that of typical anionics, e.g., sodium laurate, and the cmc value became lower with increasing size of the lactone ring. The adsorption area at the surface of the aqueous lactone-type surfactant solution was larger when compared to the corresponding non-lactone-type surfactants. Lactone-type surfactants without the hexyl side chain aggregated quickly, forming 3-10 nm micelles; on the other hand, lactone-type surfactants with the hexyl side chain formed significantly larger micelles. This is due to the steric hindrance of the hexyl group on the lactone ring. The solubilization ability of the lactone-type surfactants with a hexyl side chain was superior to those without a hexyl side chain. The lactone-type surfactants showed a high foaming power and low foaming stability. They were also biodegraded by activated sludge.

  7. Biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone lasiodiplodin in Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Takasumi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2009-05-01

    The biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5S)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)C-labeled acetates to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)C-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)C-NMR and INADEQUATE spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. Taking into account the biosynthetic study of resorcylic acid lactones, the involvement of highly reduced acyl intermediates in the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodins was presumed; thus, we synthesized (2)H-labeled hypothetical acyl intermediates of 1, 9-hydroxydecanoic acid (4) and its N-acetylcysteamine thioester (SNAC, 5). When L. theobromae was incubated with 5 mM of a (2)H-labeled intermediate, the (2)H-label from the intermediate was incorporated at the expected position of 1. These incorporation studies revealed that 1 was produced via a pathway which closely resembles that of resorcylic acid lactone biosynthesis.

  8. Thiourea-Catalyzed Aminolysis of N-acyl Homoserine Lactones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), molecules integral to bacterial quorum sensing . The catalysts afford rate enhancement of up to 10 times the...SUBJECT TERMS quorum sensing Michael A. Bertucci, Stephen J. Lee, Michel R. Gagné University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Office of Sponsored... quorum sensing . The catalysts afford rate enhancement of up to 10 times the control in CD3CN. Mild catalysis in other polar aprotic solvents is

  9. Lactonic Sophorolipids Increase Tumor Burden in Apcmin+/- Mice

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Breedge; Lydon, Helen; Roelants, Sophie L. K. W.; Van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Mitchell, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SL) are amphiphilic biosurfactant molecules consisting of a disaccharide sophorose with one fatty acid at the C1 position and optional acetylation at the C6’and C6” positions. They exist in a closed ring lactonic (LSL) or open acidic (ASL) structure Sophorolipids are produced in crude mixtures in economically viable amounts by the yeast Starmerella bombicola and used in a variety of consumer products. Varying levels of anti- proliferative and anti-cancer activity of crude sophorolipid mixtures are described in a number of tumor cell lines in vitro. However, significant inter-study variation exists in the composition of sophorolipid species as well as other biologically active compounds in these mixtures, which makes interpretation of in vitro and in vivo studies difficult. We produced a 96% pure C18:1 lactonic sophorolipid that dose-dependently reduces the viability of colorectal cancer, as well as normal human colonic and lung cell lines in vitro. Oral administration of vehicle-only; or lactonic sophorolipids (50 mg/kg for 70 days), to Apcmin+/- mice resulted in an increase in the number (55.5 ± 3.3 vs 70.50 ± 7.8: p < 0.05) and size (modal size 2mm vs 4mm) of intestinal polyps. Lactonic administration resulted in a systematic effect via reduced hematocrit (49.5 ± 1.0 vs 28.2 ± 2.0 vs: p<0.03) and splenomegaly (0.56 ± 0.03g vs 0.71 ± 0.04g; p<0.01) confirming exacerbation of disease progression in this model. PMID:27271048

  10. A kinetic approach to the alkylating potential of carcinogenic lactones.

    PubMed

    Manso, José A; Pérez-Prior, M Teresa; García-Santos, M del Pilar; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2005-07-01

    The alkylating potential of beta-propiolactone (BPL), beta-butyrolactone (BBL), gamma-butyrolactone, and delta-valerolactone, which can be formed by the in vivo nitrosation of primary amino acids, was investigated kinetically. The nucleophile NBP, 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine, a trap for alkylating agents, was used as an alkylation substrate. The alkylation reactions were performed under mimicked cellular conditions at neutral pH in water/dioxane solvent mixtures. To gain insight into the effect of the hydrolysis of lactones on their alkylating efficiency, alkylation and competing hydrolysis were studied in parallel. Conclusions were drawn as follows: (i) gamma-Butyrolactone and delta-valerolactone afford neither appreciable NBP alkylation nor hydrolysis reactions; (ii) the alkylating potential of BPL is 10-fold higher than that of BBL, the reactivity of both being essentially enthalpy-controlled; (iii) a correlation was found between the alkylating potential of lactones and their carcinogenicity; (iv) the hydrolysis of lactones is not sufficiently effective to prevent alkylation; (v) the efficiency of alkylation, expressed as the alkylation rate/hydrolysis rate ratio, decreases strongly with increasing amounts of dioxane in the reaction media; (vi) the absorption coefficients of the NBP-lactone adducts are as follows: epsilon(NBP-BPL) = 5101 +/- 111 M(-1) cm(-1) (lambda = 584 nm) and epsilon(NBP-BBL) = 462 +/- 19 M(-1) cm(-1) (lambda = 586 nm), the pronounced difference between these values being rationalized in terms of the adducts' structure; and (vii) linear correlations exist between the adducts' absorption coefficients and the water/dioxane ratio in the reaction media.

  11. Molluscicidal sesquiterpene lactones from species of the tribe Vernonieae (Compositae).

    PubMed

    Borkosky, Susana; Ponce de León, Susana; Juárez, Gabriela; Sierra, Manuel González; Bardón, Alicia

    2009-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, and some snails, particularly of the genus Biomphalaria (Planorbidae), are directly implicated in the transmission of the disease. Continuing with our investigations of bioactive plant constituents, we evaluated and report in the present article, the molluscicidal effects of 16 sesquiterpene lactones, as well as the commercial reagents tetrahydrofuran, furfural, and furfuryl alcohol, on an adult population of B. peregrina. The natural sesquiterpene lactones tested are characteristic constituents of species of the tribe Vernonieae, family Asteraceae. Compounds 1-3 and 7 came from a Bolivian collection of Vernonanthura pinguis, compounds 4 and 5 from an Argentine collection of Cyrtocymura cincta var. cincta, 6 was obtained from a Bolivian collection of Eirmocephala megaphylla, 8-14 from an Argentine collection of Centratherum punctatum ssp. punctatum, and compounds 15 and 16 were obtained by chemical derivatization from 5 and 14, respectively. Ten of the sesquiterpene lactones displayed moderate molluscicidal activity (LD50<100 microg/ml). Commercial reagents were inactive.

  12. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) isozymes Q and R hydrolyze lactones and cyclic carbonate esters.

    PubMed

    Billecke, S; Draganov, D; Counsell, R; Stetson, P; Watson, C; Hsu, C; La Du, B N

    2000-11-01

    It is well established that human serum paraoxonase (PON1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents, as well as that of a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Our laboratory has recently found a new class of PON1 substrates that includes at least 30 lactones and cyclic carbonate esters. The lactone substrates vary in their ring size from 4 to 7 atoms. Substituents on the ring carbons may enhance or reduce the rate of lactone hydrolysis. An appreciable degree of stereospecificity exists with some activities differing up to 9-fold between enantiomers (i.e., S-alpha-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone is hydrolyzed 5 to 9 times faster than the R form). Thiolactones are hydrolyzed less efficiently, and some lactams are potent inhibitors. Four lactone-containing drugs-spironolactone, mevastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin-have been identified as substrates for PON1. All lactone substrates are hydrolyzed by both the Q and R isozymes of human serum PON1. However, some lactone substrates are hydrolyzed faster by the Q than R isozyme, whereas others show a reverse preference. Moreover, these new substrates include homogentisic acid lactone, mevalonic acid lactone, homocysteine thiolactone, and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone-all lactone forms of endogenous compounds. It is reasonable to expect that further investigations may uncover PON1 lactone substrates that are, themselves, endogenous compounds. In this article we characterize the basic enzymatic properties of PON1's newly identified hydrolytic activities with lactone and cyclic carbonate ester substrates and compare these properties with those of representative arylesters and organophosphates.

  13. Kinetics of lactone hydrolysis in antitumor drugs of camptothecin series as studied by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chourpa, I; Millot, J M; Sockalingum, G D; Riou, J F; Manfait, M

    1998-03-02

    Potent antitumor activity exhibited by 20-S-camptothecin (CPT) and numerous derivatives is known to be lost upon opening of the alpha-hydroxy-lactone ring of these drugs, hydrolyzable at neutral and basic pH. To quantify in 'real time' the lactone hydrolysis reaction in CPTs under physiological conditions, we have applied a non-perturbing approach by fluorescence spectroscopy. CPT and a set of its derivatives (21-lactam-S-CPT, 10,11-(methylenedioxy)-CPT, CPT-11, SN-38, topotecan, tricyclic ketone-CPT) with antitumor activity varying from negligible to 10 times that of CPT have been studied. Prior to the kinetic measurements, the effects of substitutions, pH, polarity of molecular environment, lactone ring opening (lactone-carboxylate transition) have been investigated in terms of the UV-visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of CPTs. Then the determined parameters of the fluorescence emission spectra corresponding to the respective lactone and carboxylate forms have been used to estimate the residual lactone percentage as a function of time. The reproducibility of the obtained data demonstrates that the spectroscopic approach provides a satisfactory precision for this kind of measurements. For CPT at pH 7.3, the lactone half-life was 29.4 +/- 1.7 min and the lactone percentage at equilibrium was 20.9 +/- 0.3%. Within a series of derivatives with substitutions at quinoline rings, the lactone half-life varied from 29 to 32 min and the equilibrium lactone content varied from 15% to 23%. For each compound, even slight increase of pH from 7.1 to 7.3 or from 7.3 to 7.6 logically leads to a remarkable decrease of both lactone half-life and equilibrium lactone percentage.

  14. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents.

  15. [Feverfew lactone induces autophagic death of hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC 7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Pei; Li, Yan-Yan; Gao, Bo; Li, Jun; Gao, Jun-Ping; Lin, Ping

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effect and mechanism of feverfew lactone on inducing autophagic death of hepatocellular carcinoma. The proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC 7721 cells treated with feverfew lactone was measured by MTT assay. The autophagy of SMMC 7721 induced with feverfew lactone was assessed by acridine orange staining, autophagic marker LC3 and p62 detecting and autophagic flows analyzing. In addition, a role of ROS in this process was stated by treatment with antioxidant agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The proliferation of SMMC 7721 cells were inhibited by feverfew lactone in a concentration dependence manner. The expression of LC3 and autophagic flows of SMMC 7721 cells were increased by feverfew lactone, while p62 was decreased, which implied that feverfew lactone could induce the autophagy of SMMC 7721 cells. Further more, the autophagy effect induced by feverfew lactone was declined obviously when treated with NAC suggested that ROS played an important role in this effect. Feverfew lactone induces autophagic death of SMMC 7721 cells by stimulating cells to produce ROS. The study will be helpful for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and to provide theoretical basis for the clinical application of feverfew lactone.

  16. Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid (HOHA) Lactone by Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Linetsky, Mikhail; Guo, Junhong; Yu, Annabelle O; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenic acid (HOHA)-lactone is a biologically active oxidative truncation product released (t1/2 = 30 min at 37 °C) by nonenzymatic transesterification/deacylation from docosahexaenoate lipids. We now report that HOHA-lactone readily diffuses into retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells where it is metabolized. A reduced glutathione (GSH) Michael adduct of HOHA-lactone is the most prominent metabolite detected by LC-MS in both the extracellular medium and cell lysates. This molecule appeared inside of ARPE-19 cells within seconds after exposure to HOHA-lactone. The intracellular level reached a maximum concentration at 30 min and then decreased with concomitant increases in its level in the extracellular medium, thus revealing a unidirectional export of the reduced GSH-HOHA-lactone adduct from the cytosol to extracellular medium. This metabolism is likely to modulate the involvement of HOHA-lactone in the pathogenesis of human diseases. HOHA-lactone is biologically active, e.g., low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) induce secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from ARPE-19 cells. HOHA-lactone is also a precursor of 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amino groups in proteins and ethanolamine phospholipids that have significant pathological and physiological relevance to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), cancer, and wound healing. Both HOHA-lactone and the derived CEP can contribute to the angiogenesis that defines the neovascular "wet" form of AMD and that promotes the growth of tumors. While GSH depletion can increase the lethality of radiotherapy, because it will impair the metabolism of HOHA-lactone, the present study suggests that GSH depletion will also increase levels of HOHA-lactone and CEP that may promote recurrence of tumor growth.

  17. β2-Chimaerin is a novel target for diacylglycerol: Binding properties and changes in subcellular localization mediated by ligand binding to its C1 domain

    PubMed Central

    Caloca, Maria José; Garcia-Bermejo, Maria Laura; Blumberg, Peter M.; Lewin, Nancy E.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mischak, Harald; Wang, Shaomeng; Nacro, Kassoum; Bienfait, Bruno; Marquez, Victor E.; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.

    1999-01-01

    The members of the chimaerin family of Rac-GTPase-activating proteins possess a single C1 domain with high homology to those present in protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. This domain in PKCs is involved in phorbol ester and diacylglycerol (DAG) binding. We previously have demonstrated that one of the chimaerin isoforms, β2-chimaerin, binds phorbol esters with high affinity. In this study we analyzed the properties of β2-chimaerin as a DAG receptor by using a series of conformationally constrained cyclic DAG analogues (DAG lactones) as probes. We identified analogs that bind to β2-chimaerin with more than 100-fold higher affinity than 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol. The potencies of these analogs approach those of the potent phorbol ester tumor promoters. The different DAG lactones show some selectivity for this novel receptor compared with PKCα. Cellular studies revealed that these DAG analogs induce translocation of β2-chimaerin from cytosolic (soluble) to particulate fractions. Using green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins for β2-chimaerin we determined that this novel receptor translocates to the perinuclear region after treatment with DAG lactones. Binding and translocation were prevented by mutation of the conserved Cys-246 in the C1 domain. The structural homology between the C1 domain of β2-chimaerin and the C1b domain of PKCδ also was confirmed by modeling analysis. Our results demonstrate that β2-chimaerin is a high affinity receptor for DAG through binding to its C1 domain and supports the emerging concept that multiple pathways transduce signaling through DAG and the phorbol esters. PMID:10518540

  18. beta2-chimaerin is a novel target for diacylglycerol: binding properties and changes in subcellular localization mediated by ligand binding to its C1 domain.

    PubMed

    Caloca, M J; Garcia-Bermejo, M L; Blumberg, P M; Lewin, N E; Kremmer, E; Mischak, H; Wang, S; Nacro, K; Bienfait, B; Marquez, V E; Kazanietz, M G

    1999-10-12

    The members of the chimaerin family of Rac-GTPase-activating proteins possess a single C1 domain with high homology to those present in protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes. This domain in PKCs is involved in phorbol ester and diacylglycerol (DAG) binding. We previously have demonstrated that one of the chimaerin isoforms, beta2-chimaerin, binds phorbol esters with high affinity. In this study we analyzed the properties of beta2-chimaerin as a DAG receptor by using a series of conformationally constrained cyclic DAG analogues (DAG lactones) as probes. We identified analogs that bind to beta2-chimaerin with more than 100-fold higher affinity than 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol. The potencies of these analogs approach those of the potent phorbol ester tumor promoters. The different DAG lactones show some selectivity for this novel receptor compared with PKCalpha. Cellular studies revealed that these DAG analogs induce translocation of beta2-chimaerin from cytosolic (soluble) to particulate fractions. Using green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins for beta2-chimaerin we determined that this novel receptor translocates to the perinuclear region after treatment with DAG lactones. Binding and translocation were prevented by mutation of the conserved Cys-246 in the C1 domain. The structural homology between the C1 domain of beta2-chimaerin and the C1b domain of PKCdelta also was confirmed by modeling analysis. Our results demonstrate that beta2-chimaerin is a high affinity receptor for DAG through binding to its C1 domain and supports the emerging concept that multiple pathways transduce signaling through DAG and the phorbol esters.

  19. Phosphorylation of α-Tubulin by Protein Kinase C Stimulates Microtubule Dynamics in Human Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Shatarupa; Tsimounis, Areti; Chen, Xiangyu; Rotenberg, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) engenders motility through phosphorylation of α-tubulin at Ser-165 in non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Live cell imaging explored the impact of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on microtubule (MT) dynamics. MTs fluorescently labeled with GFP-α-tubulin were treated with diacylglycerol (DAG)-lactone (a membrane-permeable PKC activator), or co-transfected with a pseudo-phosphorylated S165D-α6-tubulin mutant. Each condition increased the dynamicity of MTs by stimulating the rate and duration of the growth phase and decreasing the frequency of catastrophe. In MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cells where the intrinsic PKC activity is high, these MT growth parameters were also high but could be suppressed by expression of phosphorylation-resistant S165N-α6-tubulin or by treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor (bis-indoleylmaleimide). Sub-cellular fractionation and immunofluorescence of MCF-10A cells showed that phosphorylation (via DAG-lactone) or pseudo-phosphorylation of α6-tubulin increased its partitioning into MTs as compared to controls, and produced longer, more stable MTs. Following expression of the plus-end binding protein GFP-EB1, DAG-lactone accelerated the formation and increased the number of nascent MTs. Expression of S165D-α6-tubulin promoted Rac1 activation and Rac1-dependent cell motility. These findings call attention to PKC-mediated phosphorylation of α-tubulin as a novel mechanism for controlling the dynamics of MTs that result in cell movement. PMID:24574051

  20. Macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics: spectrum of activity and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Geary, Timothy G; Moreno, Yovany

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), exemplified by the prototype of the class, ivermectin (IVM), are mainstays of programs for the control of nematode and arthropod parasites and pests. Since their introduction 30 years ago, research has revealed that they act on a family of ligand-gated chloride channels gated by glutamate, which is largely restricted to animals in the phyla Nematoda and Arthropoda. Studies on IVM in model organisms have contributed greatly to our understanding of ML pharmacology, but our understanding of the basis for differences among species and among MLs in potency and spectrum remains far from complete.

  1. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Montanoa tomentosa ssp. microcephala.

    PubMed

    Braca, A; Cioffi, G; Morelli, I; Venturella, F; Pizza, C; De Tommasi, N

    2001-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones: 8alpha-(4'-acetoxymethacryloyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alpha-olide (1) and 8alpha-(2'E)-(2'-acetoxymethyl-2'-butenoyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alphaolide (2), together with the known zoapatanolide A were isolated from the aerial parts of Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. in La Llave et Lex ssp. microcephala (Sch. Bip. In K. Koch) V.A. Funk (Asteraceae). The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and EIMS analysis.

  2. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  3. A new sesquiterpene lactone with sulfonic acid group from Saussurea lappa.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong-Quan; Hua, Hui-Ming; Fu, Hong-Wei; Qi, Xiu-Lan; Li, Wen; Sha, Yi; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2007-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene lactone with an unusual sulfonic acid group, 13-sulfo-dihydrodehydrocostus lactone (1), was isolated from the roots of Saussurea lappa C. (Compositae), together with a known lignan (2). The structure of 1 was characterized on the basis of spectral evidence including 2DNMR studies. Compound 2 was obtained from this plant for the first time.

  4. Identifying lactone hydrolysis in pharmaceuticals. A tool for metabolite structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lin; Bandu, Mary L; Desaire, Heather

    2005-10-15

    Methods to characterize metabolic transformations in a rapid and reliable fashion are required for facilitating the development of all new pharmaceuticals. One metabolic transformation, which is the focus of this study, is lactone hydrolysis. For pharmaceuticals containing lactones, hydrolysis occurs readily due to both enzymatic and nonenzymatic processes. Hydrolysis affects both the bioavailability and the efficacy of lactone-containing drugs and pro-drugs. To facilitate the characterization of lactones and their corresponding hydrolysis products, we have developed a mass spectrometric method that can readily discriminate between a lactone and its corresponding carboxylic acid, even when these changes are accompanied by other modifications that occur during metabolism. This method uses characteristic product ions in MS/MS experiments, and the trends described herein can be applied broadly to several types of lactones. To demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, two different lactones that had undergone multiple modifications were characterized, and in both cases, lactone hydrolysis was readily discernible, based on the MS/MS data.

  5. A novel plasmid for detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Ling, Elizabeth A; Ellison, Matthew L; Pesci, Everett C

    2009-07-01

    Many bacteria utilize acyl-homoserine lactones as cell to cell signals that can regulate the expression of numerous genes. Structural differences in acyl-homoserine lactones produced by different bacteria, such as acyl side chain length and the presence or absence of an oxy group, make many of the commonly used detection bioassays impractical for broad range detection. Here we present a simple, broad range acyl-homoserine lactone detection bioassay that can be used to detect a wide range of these chemical signals. A plasmid (pEAL01) was constructed and transformed into Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain QSC105 to allow for detection of a broad range of acyl-homoserine lactones through induction of a lasB'-lacZ transcriptional fusion. Monitoring beta-galactosidase activity from this bioassay showed that P. aeruginosa strain QSC105 (pEAL01) could detect the presence of eight acyl-homoserine lactones tested at physiological concentrations. This novel strain could also detect acyl-homoserine lactones from the extracts of four different bacteria that produce different acyl-homoserine lactones signals. These data indicate that strain QSC105 (pEAL01) can be used to detect a wide variety of acyl-homoserine lactones by a simple beta-galactosidase assay and this bioassay could be a useful and inexpensive tool to quickly identify the presence of these signal molecules.

  6. Piperitone-derived saturated lactones: synthesis and aphid behavior-modifying activity.

    PubMed

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Białońska, Agata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław; Gabryś, Beata

    2013-04-10

    Two racemic and two enantiomeric pairs of new saturated lactones with the p-menthane system were obtained. The lactones were synthesized from racemic and enantiomerically enriched cis- and trans-piperitols, which were obtained from piperitone. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data. The antifeedant activity of piperitone to Myzus persicae was studied, and the biological consequences of structural modifications of piperitone, that is, lactonization and chiral center configuration, were examined as well. The behavioral responses of M. persicae to piperitone and piperitone-derived saturated lactones were investigated to reveal the biological background of their deterrent activity. Piperitone appeared rather neutral or weakly deterrent to aphids. The introduction of a lactone moiety into a piperitone molecule dramatically changed its biological activity. All piperitone-derived lactones evoked negative aphid responses. However, the deterrent activity of individual compounds varied in potency, the time of expression, and the duration of the effect, depending on the spatial structure of the lactone. Lactones (1R,3S,6R)-3-isopropyl-6-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one and trans-3-isopropyl-6-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one showed the broadest ranges and the highest potencies and durabilities of deterrent activity to M. persicae: they acted immediately after application, caused a cessation of probing before aphids reached phloem elements, and decreased the quality of phloem sap.

  7. Radical photocyclization route for macrocyclic lactone ring expansion and conversion to macrocyclic lactams and ketones.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Yoshimi, Yasuharu; Maeda, Kousuke; Morita, Toshio; Takahashi, Ichiro; Itou, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Sho; Hatanaka, Minoru

    2013-01-18

    A new method for the synthesis of macrocyclic lactones, lactams, and ketones, which utilizes photoinduced intramolecular radical cyclization reactions of substrates containing tethered carboxylic acids and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties, has been uncovered. Photocyclization of the carboxylic acids tethered acrylate ester, which were prepared starting from the macrocyclic lactones, gave the two-carbon elongated macrocyclic lactones via decarboxylation. Similar photoreactions of carboxylic acid tethered acryl amide or α,β-unsaturated ketone moieties, which were also prepared starting from the macrocyclic lactones, produced macrocyclic lactams or ketones, respectively. The simple approach can be readily applied to the preparation of a variety of macrocyclic lactones, lactams, and ketones with tunable ring sizes.

  8. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid Lactone Induces Angiogenesis through Several Different Molecular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Linetsky, Mikhail; Yu, Annabelle O; Zhang, Liang; Howell, Scott J; Folkwein, Heather J; Wang, Hua; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-12-19

    Oxidative stress and angiogenesis have been implicated not only in normal phenomena such as tissue healing and remodeling but also in many pathological processes. However, the relationships between oxidative stress and angiogenesis still remain unclear, although oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated to influence the progression of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. The retina is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because of its intensive oxygenation and high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acyls. In particular, it has high levels of docosahexanoates, whose oxidative fragmentation produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone (HOHA-lactone). Previously, we found that HOHA-lactone is a major precursor of 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives, which are tightly linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CEPs promote the pathological angiogenesis of late-stage AMD. We now report additional mechanisms by which HOHA-lactone promotes angiogenesis. Using cultured ARPE-19 cells, we observed that HOHA-lactone induces secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is correlated to increases in reactive oxygen species and decreases in intracellular glutathione (GSH). Wound healing and tube formation assays provided, for the first time, in vitro evidence that HOHA-lactone induces the release of VEGF from ARPE-19 cells, which promotes angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. Thus, HOHA-lactone can stimulate vascular growth through a VEGF-dependent pathway. In addition, results from MTT and wound healing assays as well as tube formation experiments showed that GSH-conjugated metabolites of HOHA-lactone stimulate HUVEC proliferation and promote angiogenesis in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that HOHA-lactone, through its CEP derivatives, promotes angiogenesis in a novel Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner that is independent of the VEGF receptor or VEGF

  9. The thermodynamic properties of alkylated γ-lactones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'Yanenko, V. N.; Verevkin, S. P.; Burakova, E. N.; Roganov, G. N.; Georgieva, M. K.

    2009-04-01

    The enthalpies of formation of γ-pentanolactone ( I), γ-hexanolactone ( II), and γ-nonanolactone ( III) were determined by combustion calorimetry. The enthalpies of vaporization of these lactones were measured by the transfer method. Conformational analysis was performed and equilibrium structures, sets of fundamental vibrations, moments of inertia, and total energies of the stablest conformers of I, II, and III were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311G( d, p), G3MP2, and CBS-QB3 methods. The experimental IR spectra and calculated vibrational frequencies were used to obtain sets of fundamental vibrations of the stablest conformations. The thermodynamic properties of I- III in the ideal gas state were determined over the temperature range 0-1500 K. Additive and quantum-chemical methods were applied to estimate the Δf H o(g) values of a number of γ-lactones. Composite quantum-chemical methods were used to obtain the energies of monomethyl γ-butyrolactones and estimate their relative stability depending on the position of the methyl substituent in the ring.

  10. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  11. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  12. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the root of Saussurea lappa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Ming; Syu, Wan-Jr; Don, Ming-Jaw; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lee, Gum-Hee

    2003-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of Saussurea lappa led to the isolation of a novel lappadilactone (1) and seven sesquiterpene lactones (2-8) as cytotoxic principles against selected human cancer cell lines. Lappadilactone (1), dehydrocostuslactone (2), and costunolide (5) exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity with CD50 values in the range 1.6-3.5 microg/mL in dose- and time-dependent manners. The cytotoxicities were not specific and showed similar activities against HepG2, OVCAR-3 and HeLa cell lines. The structure-activity relationship showed that the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety is necessary for cytotoxicity, and activity is reduced with the presence of a hydroxyl group. In addition, seven noncytotoxic compounds (9-15) were also isolated, including two novel sesquiterpenes, a guaianolide-type with a C17 skeleton, lappalone (13), and 1beta,6alpha-dihydroxycostic acid ethyl ester (14). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated from spectroscopic and/or X-ray data interpretations. Some representative compounds were also tested for antibacterial activity; however, only marginal activities were observed. Therefore, compounds 1-8 are potential cytotoxic agents but without significant antibacterial effect.

  13. Hologram QSAR studies of antiprotozoal activities of sesquiterpene lactones.

    PubMed

    Trossini, Gustavo H G; Maltarollo, Vinícius G; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2014-07-18

    Infectious diseases such as trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are considered neglected tropical diseases due the lack for many years of research and development into new drug treatments besides the high incidence of mortality and the lack of current safe and effective drug therapies. Natural products such as sesquiterpene lactones have shown activity against T. brucei and L. donovani, the parasites responsible for these neglected diseases. To evaluate structure activity relationships, HQSAR models were constructed to relate a series of 40 sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) with activity against T. brucei, T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum and also with their cytotoxicity. All constructed models showed good internal (leave-one-out q2 values ranging from 0.637 to 0.775) and external validation coefficients (r2test values ranging from 0.653 to 0.944). From HQSAR contribution maps, several differences between the most and least potent compounds were found. The fragment contribution of PLS-generated models confirmed the results of previous QSAR studies that the presence of α,β-unsatured carbonyl groups is fundamental to biological activity. QSAR models for the activity of these compounds against T. cruzi, L. donovani and P. falciparum are reported here for the first time. The constructed HQSAR models are suitable to predict the activity of untested STLs.

  14. Homoserine Lactones Influence the Reaction of Plants to Rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Zarkani, Azhar A.; Stein, Elke; Röhrich, Christian R.; Schikora, Marek; Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Elena; Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Klug, Gabriele; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing molecules not only grant the communication within bacterial communities, but also influence eukaryotic hosts. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by pathogenic or beneficial bacteria were shown to induce diverse reactions in animals and plants. In plants, the reaction to AHLs depends on the length of the lipid side chain. Here we investigated the impact of two bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana, which usually enter a close symbiosis with plants from the Fabaceae (legumes) family and produce a long-chain AHL (Sinorhizobium meliloti) or a short-chain AHL (Rhizobium etli). We demonstrate that, similarly to the reaction to pure AHL molecules, the impact, which the inoculation with rhizosphere bacteria has on plants, depends on the type of the produced AHL. The inoculation with oxo-C14-HSL-producing S. meliloti strains enhanced plant resistance towards pathogenic bacteria, whereas the inoculation with an AttM lactonase-expressing S. meliloti strain did not. Inoculation with the oxo-C8-HSL-producing R. etli had no impact on the resistance, which is in agreement with our previous hypothesis. In addition, plants seem to influence the availability of AHLs in the rhizosphere. Taken together, this report provides new insights in the role of N-acyl-homoserine lactones in the inter-kingdom communication at the root surface. PMID:23965976

  15. Potent Cytotoxic Arylnaphthalene Lignan Lactones from Phyllanthus poilanei

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two new (1 and 2) and four known arylnaphthalene lignan lactones (3–6) were isolated from different plant parts of Phyllanthus poilanei collected in Vietnam, with two further known analogues (7 and 8) being prepared from phyllanthusmin C (4). The structures of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectroscopic data and by chemical methods, and the structure of phyllanthusmin D (1) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Several of these arylnaphthalene lignan lactones were cytotoxic toward HT-29 human colon cancer cells, with compounds 1 and 7-O-[(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)]diphyllin (7) found to be the most potent, exhibiting IC50 values of 170 and 110 nM, respectively. Compound 1 showed activity when tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay using HT-29 cells implanted in immunodeficient NCr nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies showed that this compound mediated its cytotoxic effects by inducing tumor cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, but it did not inhibit DNA topoisomerase IIα activity. PMID:24937209

  16. Towards the industrialization of new biosurfactants: Biotechnological opportunities for the lactone esterase gene from Starmerella bombicola.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Moens, Helena; Everaert, Bernd; Verweire, Stijn; Denon, Quenten; Vanlerberghe, Brecht; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Van der Meeren, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Soetaert, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Although sophorolipids (SLs) produced by S. bombicola are a real showcase for the industrialization of microbial biosurfactants, some important drawbacks are associated with this efficient biological process, e.g., the simultaneous production of acidic and lactonic SLs. Depending on the application, there is a requirement for the naturally produced mixture to be manipulated to give defined ratios of the components. Recently, the enzyme responsible for the lactonization of SLs was discovered. The discovery of the gene encoding this lactone esterase (sble) enabled the development of promising S. bombicola strains producing either solely lactonic (using a sble overexpression strain described in this paper: oe sble) or solely acidic SLs (using a sble deletion strain, which was recently described, but not characterized yet: Δsble). The new S. bombicola strains were used to investigate the production processes (fermentation and purification) of either lactonic or acidic SLs. The strains maintain the high inherent productivities of the wild-type or even perform slightly better and thus represent a realistic industrial opportunity. 100% acidic SLs with a mixed acetylation pattern were obtained for the Δsble strain, while the inherent capacity to selectively produce lactonic SLs was significantly increased (+42%) for the oe sble strain (99% lactonic SLs). Moreover, the regulatory effect of citrate on lactone SL formation for the wild-type was absent in this new strain, which indicates that it is more robust and better suited for the industrial production of lactonic SLs. Basic parameters were determined for the purified SLs, which confirm that the two new strains produce molecules with distinctive properties of which the application potential can now easily be investigated independently.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activity of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wzorek, Alicja; Gawdzik, Barbara; Gładkowski, Witold; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Barańska, Anita; Malińska, Maura; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    A convenient pathway for the synthesis of new of β-aryl-δ-iodo-γ-lactones is described. The synthetic route led to both cis and trans isomers which were separated by column chromatography or crystallization. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods: IR, NMR and HR-MS. For lactones with naphthyl ring (6e and 7e) the crystal structures were also obtained. The lactones were screened for biological evaluation against cancer line HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia). The tests showed that the presence of substituent at the benzene ring does not significantly affect the antiproliferative activity of the compound.

  18. Remodeling Natural Products: Chemistry and Serine Hydrolase Activity of a Rocaglate-Derived β-Lactone

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavaglines are a class of natural products with potent insecticidal and anticancer activities. β-Lactones are a privileged structural motif found in both therapeutic agents and chemical probes. Herein, we report the synthesis, unexpected light-driven di-epimerization, and activity-based protein profiling of a novel rocaglate-derived β-lactone. In addition to in vitro inhibition of the serine hydrolases ABHD10 and ACOT1/2, the most potent β-lactone enantiomer was also found to inhibit these enzymes, as well as the serine peptidases CTSA and SCPEP1, in PC3 cells. PMID:24447064

  19. 180 degree unidirectional bond rotation in a biaryl lactone artificial molecular motor prototype.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Bart J; Branchaud, Bruce P

    2006-12-07

    A bifunctional biaryl lactone has been synthesized that should be capable of iterative unidirectional aryl-aryl bond rotation via: (1) a diastereoselective lactone ring opening, (S)-1 to (P,S)-2 or (M,S)-2; (2) a chemoselective lactonization, (P,S)-2 or (M,S)-2 to (S)-3; and (3) a chemoselective hydrolysis, (S)-3 to (S)-1. Preliminary results of a racemic sample have indicated unidirectional 180 degrees rotation with very high directional selectivity per individual artificial molecular motor molecule through the first two steps of this sequence. [reaction: see text

  20. How do the macrocyclic lactones kill filarial nematode larvae?

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Maclean, Mary J.; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J.; Reaves, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system. PMID:27279086

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthase Assays.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel; Frane, Nicole D; Brecht, Ryan M; Keeler, Jesse; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing is cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinate attacks on their hosts by inducing virulent gene expression, biofilm production, and other cellular functions, including antibiotic resistance. AHL synthase enzymes synthesize N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones, commonly referred to as autoinducers, to facilitate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. Studying the synthases, however, has proven to be a difficult road. Two assays, including a radiolabeled assay and a colorimetric (DCPIP) assay are well-documented in literature to study AHL synthases. In this paper, we describe additional methods that include an HPLC-based, C-S bond cleavage and coupled assays to investigate this class of enzymes. In addition, we compare and contrast each assay for both acyl-CoA- and acyl-ACP-utilizing synthases. The expanded toolkit described in this study should facilitate mechanistic studies on quorum sensing signal synthases and expedite discovery of antivirulent compounds.

  2. Acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing: from evolution to application.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Martin; Sexton, D Joseph; Diggle, Stephen P; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread process in bacteria that employs autoinducing chemical signals to coordinate diverse, often cooperative activities such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and exoenzyme secretion. Signaling via acyl-homoserine lactones is the paradigm for QS in Proteobacteria and is particularly well understood in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite thirty years of mechanistic research, empirical studies have only recently addressed the benefits of QS and provided support for the traditional assumptions regarding its social nature and its role in optimizing cell-density-dependent group behaviors. QS-controlled public-goods production has served to investigate principles that explain the evolution and stability of cooperation, including kin selection, pleiotropic constraints, and metabolic prudence. With respect to medical application, appreciating social dynamics is pertinent to understanding the efficacy of QS-inhibiting drugs and the evolution of resistance. Future work will provide additional insight into the foundational assumptions of QS and relate laboratory discoveries to natural ecosystems.

  3. Five new lactone derivatives from the stems of Dendrobium nobile.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Ming; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Wu, Jia-Ting; Chen, Guang-Ying; Chen, Jun; Sun, Chong-Ge

    2016-12-01

    Five new lactone derivatives decumbic acids A and B (1 and 2), (-)-decumbic acid (3a), (-)- and (+)-dendrolactone (4a and 4b) together with four known compounds (3b and 5-7) were isolated from the stems of Dendrobium nobile. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3a and 3b, 4a and 4b were isolated as two pair of enantiomers by chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of 1, 2, 3a, 4a and 4b were determined by optical rotation and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against nine phytopathogenic fungi and three cancer cell lines were evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing in the Roseobacter Clade

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Liu, Yue; Fuqua, Clay; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Roseobacter clade are ecologically important and numerically abundant in coastal environments and can associate with marine invertebrates and nutrient-rich marine snow or organic particles, on which quorum sensing (QS) may play an important role. In this review, we summarize current research progress on roseobacterial acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS, particularly focusing on three relatively well-studied representatives, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 and the dinoflagellate symbiont Dinoroseobacter shibae. Bioinformatic survey of luxI homologues revealed that over 80% of available roseobacterial genomes encode at least one luxI homologue, reflecting the significance of QS controlled regulatory pathways in adapting to the relevant marine environments. We also discuss several areas that warrant further investigation, including studies on the ecological role of these diverse QS pathways in natural environments. PMID:24402124

  5. How do the macrocyclic lactones kill filarial nematode larvae?

    PubMed

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Maclean, Mary J; Coates, Ruby; McCoy, Ciaran J; Reaves, Barbara J

    2016-09-01

    The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms. Recent evidence has shed new light on the likely functions of the ML target, glutamate-gated chloride channels, in filarial nematodes and supports the hypothesis that the rapid clearance of microfilariae that follows treatment involves the host immune system.

  6. Polypropionate lactones of deoxysugars glycosides from slime mold Lycogala epidendrum.

    PubMed

    Rezanka, Tomás; Dvoráková, Radmila

    2003-08-01

    Two novel polypropionate lactone glycosides (1 and 2, i.e. lycogalinosides A and B) were isolated from the slime mold Lycogala epidendrum. Their structures, including the absolute configurations of the hydroxyl and methyls groups, were determined by means of extensive spectroscopic data such as mass, IR, UV, and 1D and 2D NMR spectra and chemical degradation followed by spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are unique in structure containing a 2-deoxy-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-4)-6-deoxy-beta-D-gulopyranosyl unit and a beta-D-olivopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl unit, respectively, and showed growth inhibitory activities against Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Oxyuris equi: lack of efficacy in treatment with macrocyclic lactones.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Denis; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja

    2014-03-17

    Whilst anthelminthic resistance of small strongyles is well documented, anthelmintic failures against infections with Oxyuris equi have scarcely been published so far. We describe two cases of equine oxyurosis and the anthelminthic failure of macrocyclic lactones (moxidectin, ivermectin) resulting in persistent O. equi infections with continuous egg shedding. The horses were kept in two different herds in the federal state of Hessia, Germany. Herd A kept two geldings: an 8-year-old Welsh-Cob-Mix and a 7-year-old Haflinger. Herd B was composed of four animals: 2 Connemara-mares, 31 and 19 years old, one 18-year-old Connemara-gelding and a 27-year-old Norwegian Fjord mare. All animals had a case history of various anthelmintic treatments with macrocyclic lactones (moxidectin and ivermectin alternating irregulary) in 2010 and 2011, nonetheless, they continued to shed O. equi nematodes and eggs. Animals were treated anew with moxidectin by members of the institute and were continuously monitored on a daily base by adhesive tape samples. Follow-up examinations for the reappearance of eggs were performed for 30 days in Herd A and 57 days in Herd B. In total, recurrence of O. equi egg shedding was detected in three out of six horses within 1-4 weeks after treatment. In both herds accompanying horses sharing the same stable and paddock remained negative for detection of O. equi-eggs or worms throughout the whole observation period. This is the first report in Europe showing inefficacy of commercial ivermectin compounds and furthermore the first report at all documenting ineffectiveness of moxidectin compounds in the treatment of O. equi-infections in horses indicating a possible development of resistance or confirming an existing incomplete oxyuricidal efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sesquiterpene Lactone Composition of Wild and Cultivated Sunflowers and Biological Activity against an Insect Pest.

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Spring, Otmar; Conrad, Jürgen; Cook, Leonard W; Palmquist, Debra E; Foley, Michael E

    2015-04-29

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds, and insects. Across a broad range of Helianthus annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from disc florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers and also between distinct groups of inbreds used to produce sunflower hybrids. Discriminant function analysis showed the presence and relative abundance of argophyllone B, niveusin B, and 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxyfruticin were usually (75%) effective at classifying wild sunflowers, cultivated inbreds, and hybrids. Argophyllone B reduced the larval mass of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum, by >30%, but only at a dose greater than that found in florets. Low doses of mixed extracts from cultivated florets produced a similar (≈40%) reduction in larval mass, suggesting combinations of sesquiterpene lactones act additively. Although the results support a role for sesquiterpene lactones in herbivore defense of cultivated sunflowers, additional information is needed to use these compounds purposefully in breeding.

  9. Variecolactol: A New Sesterterpene Lactone from the Sclerotia of Aspergillus auricomus (Guegen) Saito

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variecolactol (1), a new sesterterpene lactone related to variecolin (2), has been isolated from the organic extracts of Aspergillus auricomus. Structure determination of this compound was achieved primarily through HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments. The known compounds dihydropenicillic acid (3) ...

  10. Long Chain N-acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Enterobacter sp. Isolated from Human Tongue Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surfaces of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent supernatants extract from Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 activated the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4), suggesting production of long chain AHLs by these isolates. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts confirmed that Enterobacter sp. isolate T1-1 produced a long chain N-acyl homoserine lactone, namely N-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation of Enterobacter sp., strain T1-1 from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and N-acyl homoserine lactones production by this bacterium. PMID:23202161

  11. Dehydrocostus lactone prevents mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Mi

    2011-08-16

    The dried root of Saussurea lappa Clarke (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine. Dehydrocostus lactone is one of the main bioactive constituents of this medicinal plant. In the present study, the protective effect of dehydrocostus lactone against antimycin A (an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex III)-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pre-treatment with dehydrocostus lactone prior to antimycin A exposure significantly prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, complex IV inactivation, ATP loss, cytochrome c release, intracellular calcium elevation and potassium loss, and reactive oxygen species production induced by antimycin A. These results suggest that dehydrocostus lactone protects osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells from antimycin A-induced cell damage through the improved mitochondrial function.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of α,β-unsaturated lactones as potent immunosuppressive agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Lee, Won-Gil; Kim, Young-Chul; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ko, Hyojin

    2011-10-01

    Compounds having α,β-unsaturated lactones display a variety of biological activities. Many research groups have tested both natural and unnatural α,β-unsaturated lactones for as-yet undiscovered biological properties. We synthesized α,β-unsaturated lactones with various substituents at the δ-position and studied their immunosuppressive effects, that is, the inhibition of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Among the compounds synthesized, the benzofuran-substituted α,β-unsaturated lactone 4h showed the best inhibitory activity toward IL-2 production in Jurkat e6-1 T lymphocytes (IC(50)=66.9 nM) without cytotoxicity at 10 μM. The results indicated that 4h may be useful as a potent immunosuppressive agent, as well as in IL-2-related studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. β-Lactone formation during product release from a nonribosomal peptide synthetase.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Jason E; Reck, Margaret R; Prasad, Neha K; Wencewicz, Timothy A

    2017-07-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multidomain modular biosynthetic assembly lines that polymerize amino acids into a myriad of biologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). NRPS thioesterase (TE) domains employ diverse release strategies for off-loading thioester-tethered polymeric peptides from termination modules typically via hydrolysis, aminolysis, or cyclization to provide mature antibiotics as carboxylic acids/esters, amides, and lactams/lactones, respectively. Here we report the enzyme-catalyzed formation of a highly strained β-lactone ring during TE-mediated cyclization of a β-hydroxythioester to release the antibiotic obafluorin (Obi) from an NRPS assembly line. The Obi NRPS (ObiF) contains a type I TE domain with a rare catalytic cysteine residue that plays a direct role in β-lactone ring formation. We present a detailed genetic and biochemical characterization of the entire Obi biosynthetic gene cluster in plant-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 39502 that establishes a general strategy for β-lactone biogenesis.

  14. [Kinetics of the lactone-carboxylate transition of hybrid camptothecin-netropsin molecules].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnikov, V A; Ustinova, O A; Mochalov, K E; Ermishov, M A; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Zhuze, A L; Sukhanova, A V; Nabiev, I R

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the hydrolysis of the lactone ring of a hybrid molecule containing the molecules of the antitumor drug camptothecin and a derivative of the antibiotic netropsines, which is highly affine and specific to the DNA A-T sequences was investigated. It was shown that intramolecular interaction significantly slows down the rate of hydrolysis but does not change the equilibrium ratio of concentrations of the lactone and carboxylate forms of the camptothecin fragment of the hybrid molecule, which corresponds to the pH value. The use of intramolecular interaction for controlling the kinetics of the lactone/carboxylate transition makes it possible to create the drugs of the camptothecin family, which preserve the biologically active lactone form under the physiological conditions for a longer time and, therefore, are more effective as anticancer agents.

  15. Sesquiterpene lactones derived from Saussurea lappa induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion and migration in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Keiichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Takeda, Taiji; Kurita, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Taketo; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is among the most fatal of solid tumors in the pediatric age group, even when treated aggressively. Therefore, a new effective therapeutic drug(s) for neuroblastoma is urgently needed. To clarify the anticancer effects of the sesquiterpene lactones dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, derived from Saussurea lappa, we examined the cytotoxic and migration/invasion-inhibitory effects of these compounds against neuroblastoma cell lines. Both the compounds exerted significant cytotoxicity against the neuroblastoma cell lines IMR-32, NB-39, SK-N-SH, and LA-N-1. Evidence of cellular apoptosis, such as nuclear condensation and membrane inversion, were observed after treatment with these compounds. Both compounds induced caspase-7 activation and PARP cleavage as confirmed by Western blotting. Furthermore, the sesquiterpene lactones also suppressed invasion and migration of the neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide are promising candidates for being developed into novel anticancer drugs effective against neuroblastoma.

  16. Statin induced myotoxicity: the lactone forms are more potent than the acid forms in human skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Skottheim, Ine Blankenberg; Gedde-Dahl, Ane; Hejazifar, Solmaz; Hoel, Kjersti; Asberg, Anders

    2008-04-23

    Statins exist in both acid and lactone forms in vivo. High plasma levels of the lactone forms have been observed in patients with statin induced myopathy. In the present study, the hypothesis that lactone forms have a higher potency of inducing myotoxicity as compared to acid forms was investigated. Primary human skeletal muscle cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of lactone and acid forms of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin. Following incubation, living myotubes were quantified by fluorescence staining. Atorvastatin lactone showed a 14-fold, fluvastatin lactone a 26-fold, pravastatin lactone a 23-fold, and simvastatin lactone a 37-fold higher potency to induce myotoxicity compared to their corresponding acid forms. Thus, for the four different statins the present study shows a significantly higher potency of the lactone forms, than the respective acid forms, to induce myotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cells in vitro. These results clearly indicate the need to differentiate between acid and lactone forms in future investigation of statin myotoxicity.

  17. Xanthates as synthetic equivalents of oxyacyl radicals: access to lactones under tin-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Davy, Jason A; Mason, Jeremy W; Moreau, Benoît; Wulff, Jeremy E

    2012-07-20

    In addition to their utility in Barton-McCombie deoxygenations, xanthates can engage in 5-exo-trig radical cyclizations to afford lactones after oxidative workup. In this paper, we describe a tin-free protocol that provides direct access to lactones via hydrolysis of labile thioketal intermediates. Analysis of several systems of varying complexity reveals that the reaction is most applicable for constrained systems in which the reacting center is prepositioned near the radical-accepting alkene.

  18. Enantiodifferentiation of whisky and cognac lactones using gas chromatography with different cyclodextrin chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Mathes, Maximilian; Wall, Kristina; Metzner, Frank; Fraefel, Marius

    2017-09-22

    The chiral lactone 5-butyl-4-methyloxolan-2-one or 5-butyl-4-methyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone, often named whisky lactone, is found in oak wood, then contributing to the appreciated flavor of beverages stored in such wooden barrels. Its next higher homologue is named cognac lactone (5-pentyl-4-methyloxolan-2-one or 5-pentyl-4-methyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone), however is much less known, probably due to its minor concentration level. In order to study the direct enantioseparation of both lactones by gas chromatography on chiral stationary phases, individual enantiomers, particularly for cognac lactone were made available. This was achieved by baker's yeast reduction of synthesized ethyl 3-methyl-4-oxononanoate or, after hydrolysis, of the corresponding 4-ketoacid, that gave access to individual enantiomers of cognac lactone. Good enantioseparation was achieved for both whisky and cognac lactone with high values for the chiral resolution with 6-O-tert. butyl dimethylsilyl-2,3-dialkylated or 6-O-tert. butyl dimethylsilyl-2,3-diacylated cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors. The influence of the nature and position of derivatization of the cyclodextrin moiety revealed a strong impact on the chiral recognition mechanism, as the investigated alkylated derivatives heptakis-(2,6-di-O-iso-pentyl-3-O-allyl)-β-cyclodextrin and octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin did not provide any or only minor chiral selectivity for the two lactones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lactone pathway to statins utilizing the Wittig reaction. The synthesis of rosuvastatin.

    PubMed

    Casar, Zdenko; Steinbücher, Miha; Kosmrlj, Janez

    2010-10-01

    The first entry to statins via lactonized side chain is reported, exemplified by the synthesis of rosuvastatin. The key step is Wittig coupling of (2S,4R)-4-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-6-oxotetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carbaldehyde and phosphonium salt of an appropriately functionalized pyrimidine heterocycle. One-pot deprotection and hydrolysis of the resulting 4-O-TBS rosuvastatin lactone provided rosuvastatin in high yield.

  20. Sesquiterpene lactone stereochemistry influences herbivore resistance and plant fitness in the field

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Jeffrey R.; Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Stereochemical variation is widely known to influence the bioactivity of compounds in the context of pharmacology and pesticide science, but our understanding of its importance in mediating plant–herbivore interactions is limited, particularly in field settings. Similarly, sesquiterpene lactones are a broadly distributed class of putative defensive compounds, but little is known about their activities in the field. Methods Natural variation in sesquiterpene lactones of the common cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium (Asteraceae), was used in conjunction with a series of common garden experiments to examine relationships between stereochemical variation, herbivore damage and plant fitness. Key Results The stereochemistry of sesquiterpene lactone ring junctions helped to explain variation in plant herbivore resistance. Plants producing cis-fused sesquiterpene lactones experienced significantly higher damage than plants producing trans-fused sesquiterpene lactones. Experiments manipulating herbivore damage above and below ambient levels found that herbivore damage was negatively correlated with plant fitness. This pattern translated into significant fitness differences between chemotypes under ambient levels of herbivore attack, but not when attack was experimentally reduced via pesticide. Conclusions To our knowledge, this work represents only the second study to examine sesquiterpene lactones as defensive compounds in the field, the first to document herbivore-mediated natural selection on sesquiterpene lactone variation and the first to investigate the ecological significance of the stereochemistry of the lactone ring junction. The results indicate that subtle differences in stereochemistry may be a major determinant of the protective role of secondary metabolites and thus of plant fitness. As stereochemical variation is widespread in many groups of secondary metabolites, these findings suggest the possibility of dynamic evolutionary histories

  1. Influence of cultivation site on sesquiterpene lactone composition of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Foster, Joyce G; Clapham, William M; Belesky, David P; Labreveux, Maria; Hall, Marvin H; Sanderson, Matt A

    2006-03-08

    The forage potential of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has not been realized in southern West Virginia (WV) because ruminants are reluctant to consume the herbage. Chicory contains bitter sesquiterpene lactones that can adversely impact palatability. This study was undertaken to determine whether sesquiterpene lactone concentrations in chicory grown in southern WV differ from those in chicory grown in central Pennsylvania (PA) where chicory is grazed readily. Herbage was collected in 1997 and 1998 from cultivars Grasslands Puna (Puna), INIA le Lacerta (Lacerta), and Forage Feast established at research sites near State College, PA, and Beckley, WV. The total concentration of sesquiterpene lactones in WV-grown cultivars was 0.58% (dry matter basis) in Puna, 0.59% in Lacerta, and 0.79% in Forage Feast in 1997 and ranged from 1.03 (Lacerta) to 1.52% (Forage Feast) in 1998. In PA-grown cultivars, sesquiterpene lactones represented 0.16 (Puna), 0.18 (Lacerta), and 0.27% (Forage Feast) of the forage dry matter in 1997 and ranged from 0.32 (Lacerta) to 0.55% (Forage Feast) in 1998. Concentrations of lactucin, lactucopicrin, and total sesquiterpene lactones in Forage Feast exceeded those in the other cultivars grown at the same site. The lowest concentrations of lactucopicrin and total sesquiterpene lactones observed among WV-grown cultivars were higher (2-fold or more) than the highest concentrations present in cultivars grown the same year in PA. Mineral analyses of soils from the two cultivation sites indicate that P availability may influence sesquiterpene lactone composition of chicory herbage. Results provide a foundation for future studies of environmental effects on sesquiterpene lactone composition and palatability of chicory herbage.

  2. Chirality of the gamma-lactones formed by Fusarium poae INRA 45.

    PubMed

    Latrasse, A; Guichard, E; Piffaut, C; Fournier, N; Dufosse, L

    1993-01-01

    A filamentous fungus, Fusarium poae INRA 45, was grown in two liquid Czapek-type media (a Czapek medium, and a yeast extract plus casaminoacids-enriched Czapek medium). Eight gamma-lactones, i.e., gamma-penta-, gamma-octa-, gamma-nona-, gamma-deca-, and gamma-dodecalactone, (6Z)-gamma- and (6E)-gamma-dodecenolactones, and a di-unsaturated gamma-dodecalactone, were tentatively, or conclusively, identified by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-MS, in the volatile fractions of the cultures. Kinetics of the formation of gamma-dodecalactone, (6Z)-gamma- and (6E)-gamma-dodecenolactones, (three major lactones), and gamma-dodecalactone (a minor lactone) were quantitatively studied by computerized GC integration. Variations of the (R/S) ratios of the lactone enantiomers were quantitatively studied by computerized multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) integration. The levels of the lactones were superior in the enriched Czapek-type medium to those of the Czapek medium, but the compositions of these media did not influence significantly the (R/S) ratios of these lactones. Formation of the enantiomers is discussed in terms of metabolism of potential precursors.

  3. Two new aliphatic lactones from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of two new aliphatic δ-lactones along with three glycerides and n-nonadecanyl cetoleate from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Results Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits resulted in the isolation of two new aliphatic δ-lactones characterized as 2α-n-heptatriacont-(Z)-3-en-1,5-olide (1) (coriander lactone) and 2α-n-tetracont-(Z,Z)-3,26-dien-18α-ol-1,5-olide (2) (hydroxy coriander lactone) together with glyceryl-1,2-dioctadec-9,12-dienoate-3-octadec-9-enoate (3); glyceryl-1,2,3-trioctadecanoate (4); n-nonadecanyl-n-docos-11-enoate (5) and oleiyl glucoside (6). Conclusions Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum gave coriander lactone and hydroxy coriander lactone as the new phytoconstituents. PMID:22800677

  4. Modified hydrolysis kinetics of the active lactone moiety of 10-hydroxycamptothecin by liposomal encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Yanbo; Wang, Lan; Cui, Fude

    2010-12-01

    The key structural requirement for the antitumor activity of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) is the intact lactone moiety which is always instability and suffered from pH-dependent hydrolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection effects of liposomal encapsulation on the labile lactone ring. Mono-modal dispersed quasi-spherical liposomes with mean diameter of 145 nm and high drug entrapment efficiency of 90% were obtained under optimal conditions. The in vitro hydrolysis kinetics behaviors of lactone were studied in varied pH buffers. Compared to that of free HCPT in solution formulation, both the hydrolysis half-life and observed equilibrium constant of liposomal HCPT were increased significantly along with the decreased apparent hydrolysis rate constant. The plasma pharmacokinetics was studied by assessing the lactone stability versus time profiles in vivo following intravenous administration of free and liposomal HCPT. The liposomal encapsulation led to a twofold increase in the AUC values and significant decrease in the plasma clearance of lactone (P < 0.05). There was a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo stability of HCPT-lactone. These results suggested a potential application of the novel liposome formulation for the stable delivery system of HCPT.

  5. Germa-gamma-lactones as novel inhibitors of bacterial urease activity.

    PubMed

    Amtul, Zareen; Follmer, Cristian; Mahboob, Sumera; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Mazhar, Muhammad; Khan, Khalid M; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Muhammad, Sajjad; Kazmi, Syed A; Choudhary, Mohammad Iqbal

    2007-05-04

    Organogermanium compounds have been used as pharmacological agents. However, very few reports are available on the synthesis and antibacterial activities of lactones containing organogermaniums. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of different lactone-substituted organogermaniums on bacterial growth and their urease activity. We report synthesis of 12 germa-gamma-lactones (GeL) and their antimicrobial activities against several bacterial pathogens. Antibacterial action of all GeL was highly selective against Gram-negative bacilli, particularly Proteus mirabilis, an important pathogen infecting the urinary tract. Furthermore, our data indicate that 8-quinoline derivatives were more potent against P. mirabilis than 2-methyl-8-quinoline. For example, the beta-(o-methylphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone and beta-(o-methoxyphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone were maximally active with MIC(90) of 61 and 94 microM, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated a linear correlation between antibacterial activity and inhibition of P. mirabilis urease enzyme. Further kinetic analyses revealed that inhibition occurred in a noncompetitive and concentration-dependent manner with the minimum IC(50) of 31 microM for beta-(o-methoxyphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GeL have potential to be developed as antimicrobial agents against P. mirabilis infection.

  6. Labrenzia sp. BM1: A Quorum Quenching Bacterium That Degrades N-acyl Homoserine Lactones via Lactonase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Norshazliza Ab; Norizan, Siti Nur Maisarah; Chan, Xin Yue; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    We report the degradation of quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules by a bacterium isolated from a Malaysian marine water sample. MALDI-TOF and phylogenetic analysis indicated this isolate BM1 clustered closely to Labrenzia sp. The quorum quenching activity of this isolate was confirmed by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Labrenzia sp. degraded a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactones namely N-(3-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Re-lactonisation bioassays confirmed Labrenzia sp. BM1 degraded these signalling molecules efficiently via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a Labrenzia sp. capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones and confirmation of its lactonase-based mechanism of action. PMID:24995373

  7. Evaluation of the regioselective delactonization of tri-sialic acid lactone by in-solution molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Yu, Yi-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Zou, Wei; Fang, Jim-Min; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    An approximate model for the delactonization of tri-sialic acid lactone is presented with two water-layers that led to neutral hydrolysis of δ-lactone. The hydrolytic reactivity was studied with a 10-ns in-solution molecular dynamics simulation. The initial step of this hydrolysis involves a reactant water nucleophile complex via a proton transfer with another water molecule. Therefore, the probability of water molecules localized at the hydrolytic center correlates to the hydrolysis of δ-lactone. The stepwise delactonization of α2,8-(NeuAc)(3) lactone results/resulted from water concentration discrepancy near the carbonyl carbon of lactones in two water oxygen···carbonyl carbon shells, and the distances of OC···O(water) layers were 2.8 Å and 5.1 Å. Based on in-solution molecular dynamics study, the motion of water molecules over the re-face of the carbonyl groups was used for the quantitative description of the residence probability, p, whose value is 0.11 for lactone I and 0.33 for lactone II. The geometric criteria used to determine the residence statistics are (1) the distance of water-oxygen···carbonyl carbon in less than 5.1 Å and (2) the cone angle, θ, of carbonyl OC···O(water) in the range of 85-115°. As expected, a higher residence probability at lactone II led to its faster hydrolysis. Both the radial g(r) and angular p(θ) pair distribution functions of water oxygen and carbonyl groups of lactones ensure a better surrounding hydration encounter for lactone II. In contrast, water molecules around lactone I are deduced due to a steric hindrance by the turn structure of α2,8-(NeuAc)(3) lactone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The pharmacokinetics and conversion of the lactone to the carboxylate forms of ginkgolide B in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dian-Lei; Peng, Dai-Yin; Tao, Xiu-Hua; Cao, Yin; Chen, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yan; Xie, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgolide B consists of three lactone groups, which may undergo hydrolysis, and lead to the rings opening in aqueous solution with different pHs. From mechanisms of pharmacological activity in vivo, the lactone appears to be the active form of the drug. Pharmacokinetics of lactone form (GB-lac) and the total of the lactone and carboxylate form (GB-tot) of ginkgolide B were investigated after intravenous administration of a dose of 4 mg/kg ginkgolide B. The rate of lactone hydrolysis was also studied in plasma in vitro. After intravenous administration, ginkgolide B in the original form was converted to its carboxylate form under simulated physiological conditions. The AUC0 - ∞ of GB-lac constituted 63.5 ± 17.4% of the AUC0 - ∞ of GB-tot. The ratio of average cumulation of excretion of lactone to carboxylate reached approximately 1 to 1 in urine. From the equilibrium of lactone hydrolysis in rat plasma in vitro, the k obs was - 0.0176 min(- 1) and t 1/2 was 39.38 min. In conclusion, the equilibrium existed between lactone of ginkgolide B and its carboxylate form in vivo at physiological pH, which suggested that more attention should be focused on the original and the ionization forms of ginkgolide B and the conversion of the lactone into carboxylate in vivo.

  9. Lactonization and protonation of gluconic acid: a thermodynamicand kinetic study by potentiometry, nmr and esi-ms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Gibson, P.; Clark, S.B.; Tian, G.; Zanonato, P.; Rao, L.

    2007-01-10

    In acidic aqueous solutions, gluconate protonation is coupled with lactonization of gluconic acid. With the decrease of pC{sub H}, two lactones ({delta}/{gamma}) are sequentially formed. The {delta}-lactone forms more readily than the {gamma}-lactone. In 0.1 M gluconate solutions, if pC{sub H} is above 2.5, only the {delta}-lactone is generated. When pC{sub H} is decreased below 2.0, the formation of the {gamma}-lactone is observable although the {delta}-lactone predominates. At I = 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} and room temperature, the deprotonation constant of the carboxylic group, using the NMR technique, was determined to be log K{sub a} = 3.30 {+-} 0.02; the {delta}-lactonization constant, by the batch potentiometric titrations, was obtained to be log K{sub L} = - (0.54 {+-} 0.04). Using ESI-MS, the rate constants of the {delta}-lactonization and the hydrolysis at pC{sub H} {approx} 5.0 were estimated to be k{sub 1} = 3.2 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} and k{sup -1} = 1.1 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, respectively.

  10. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues.

  11. Dermatobia hominis: Potencial risk of resistance to macrocyclic lactones.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José Henrique; Carvalho, Nadino; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-09-15

    Dermatobia hominis is an ectoparasite that infests various species of mammals, including cattle, impairing the quality of cowhides and leather. After observing natural infestation with D. hominis larvae in cattle on two farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, we evaluated the efficacy of two macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin and moxidectin, against this parasite. The drugs were administered to 10 animals in each group, following the manufacturer's instructions. The groups were: Group 1-treated with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg of body weight (BW)); Group 2-treated with moxidectin (0.2mg/kg BW); and Group 3-control (untreated). On the farm in Pardinho, a total of 12 and 16 live larvae were found in 6 and in 8 animals 10 days after the treatment with ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively, while in the control group 4 bovines had a total of 7 live larvae. On the farm in Anhembi, 2, 4 and 6 live larvae were extracted from ivermectin, moxidectin and control groups, respectively, after the treatment. This is the first report of the presence of live D. hominis larvae after the treatment of cattle with ivermectin and moxidectin in Brazil.

  12. Anti-inflammatory lanostanoids and lactone derivatives from Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chen, Yu-Chang; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Tsai, Yao-Ching; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chao, Louis Kuoping; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Huang, Hui-Chi; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Four new lanostanoids, ethyl lucidenate A (1), ethyl lucidenate F (2), 15-O-acetylganolucidate A (3), and 3,11,15,23-tetraoxo-27ξ-lanosta-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (4), and two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-5-(methoxymethyl)-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (5) and 3-(4-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)propanoic acid (6), together with four known compounds, 11α-hydroxy-3,7-dioxolanost-8,24(E)-dien-26- oic acid (7), 3,7,11-trioxo-5α-lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oic acid (8), methyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5α-lanost-8-en-26-oate (9), and ethyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5α-lanost-8-en-26-oate (10), were characterized from Antrodia camphorata. The structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Ten components were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by examining their effect on LPS-iNOS-dependent NO production in murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 10 significantly suppressed the NO concentration in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values ≤ 10 μM.

  13. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia

    PubMed Central

    Sülsen, V.; Gutierrez Yappu, D.; Laurella, L.; Anesini, C.; Gimenez Turba, A.; Martino, V.; Muschietti, L.

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Ambrosia tenuifolia organic extract and its isolated sesquiterpene lactones, psilostachyin and peruvin, has been evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum F32 and W2 strains. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was determined on lymphoid cells, and their corresponding selectivity indexes (SIs) were calculated. Peruvin was the most active compound on F32 strain of P. falciparum with a 50% inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 0.3 μg/mL (1.1 μM) whereas psilostachyin showed activity on both strains (IC50 = 0.6 (2.1 μM) and 1.8 μg/mL (6.4 μM)). Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values (48 h) were 6.8 μg/mL (24.3 μM) and 10.0 μg/mL (37.9 μM) for psilostachyin and peruvin, respectively. PMID:21716685

  14. Biosynthesis of Costunolide, Dihydrocostunolide, and Leucodin. Demonstration of Cytochrome P450-Catalyzed Formation of the Lactone Ring Present in Sesquiterpene Lactones of Chicory

    PubMed Central

    de Kraker, Jan-Willem; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Joerink, Maaike; de Groot, Aede; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2002-01-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is known to contain guaianolides, eudesmanolides, and germacranolides. These sesquiterpene lactones are postulated to originate from a common germacranolide, namely (+)-costunolide. Whereas a pathway for the formation of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid from farnesyl diphosphate had previously been established, we now report the isolation of an enzyme activity from chicory roots that converts the germacrene acid into (+)-costunolide. This (+)-costunolide synthase catalyzes the last step in the formation of the lactone ring present in sesquiterpene lactones and is dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen. Incubation of the germacrene acid in the presence of 18O2 resulted in the incorporation of one atom of 18O into (+)-costunolide. The label was situated at the ring oxygen atom. Hence, formation of the lactone ring most likely occurs via C6-hydroxylation of the germacrene acid and subsequent attack of this hydroxyl group at the C12-atom of the carboxyl group. Blue light-reversible CO inhibition and experiments with cytochrome P450 inhibitors demonstrated that the (+)-costunolide synthase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme. In addition, enzymatic conversion of (+)-costunolide into 11(S),13-dihydrocostunolide and leucodin, a guaianolide, was detected. The first-mentioned reaction involves an enoate reductase, whereas the formation of leucodin from (+)-costunolide probably involves more than one enzyme, including a cytochrome P450 enzyme. PMID:12011356

  15. Structure-Based Function Discovery of an Enzyme for the Hydrolysis of Phosphorylated Sugar Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Dao Feng; Kolb, Peter; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Xu, Chengfu; Fedorov, Elena V.; Narindoshivili, Tamari; Williams, Howard J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Almo, Steven C.; Raushel, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Two enzymes of unknown function from the cog1735 subset of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS), LMOf2365_2620 (Lmo2620) from Listeria monocytogenes str. 4b F2365 and Bh0225 from Bacillus halodurans C-125, were cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The catalytic functions of these two enzymes were interrogated by an integrated strategy encompassing bioinformatics, computational docking to three-dimensional crystal structures, and library screening. The three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å with two phosphates and a binuclear zinc center in the active site. The proximal phosphate bridges the binuclear metal center and is 7.1 Å away from the distal phosphate. The distal phosphate hydrogen bonds with Lys-242, Lys-244, Arg-275 and Tyr-278. Enzymes within cog1735 of the AHS have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of substituted lactones. Computational docking of the high energy intermediate (HEI) form of the KEGG database to the three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 highly enriched anionic lactones versus other candidate substrates. The active site structure and the computational docking results suggested that probable substrates would likely include phosphorylated sugar lactones. A small library of diacid sugar lactones and phosphorylated sugar lactones was synthesized and tested for substrate activity with Lmo2620 and Bh0225. Two substrates were identified for these enzymes, d-lyxono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate and l-ribono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate. The kcat/Km values for the cobalt-substituted enzymes with these substrates are ~105 M−1 s−1. PMID:22313111

  16. Structure-based function discovery of an enzyme for the hydrolysis of phosphorylated sugar lactones.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dao Feng; Kolb, Peter; Fedorov, Alexander A; Xu, Chengfu; Fedorov, Elena V; Narindoshivili, Tamari; Williams, Howard J; Shoichet, Brian K; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

    2012-02-28

    Two enzymes of unknown function from the cog1735 subset of the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS), LMOf2365_2620 (Lmo2620) from Listeria monocytogenes str. 4b F2365 and Bh0225 from Bacillus halodurans C-125, were cloned, expressed, and purified to homogeneity. The catalytic functions of these two enzymes were interrogated by an integrated strategy encompassing bioinformatics, computational docking to three-dimensional crystal structures, and library screening. The three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å with two phosphates and a binuclear zinc center in the active site. The proximal phosphate bridges the binuclear metal center and is 7.1 Å from the distal phosphate. The distal phosphate hydrogen bonds with Lys-242, Lys-244, Arg-275, and Tyr-278. Enzymes within cog1735 of the AHS have previously been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of substituted lactones. Computational docking of the high-energy intermediate form of the KEGG database to the three-dimensional structure of Lmo2620 highly enriched anionic lactones versus other candidate substrates. The active site structure and the computational docking results suggested that probable substrates would likely include phosphorylated sugar lactones. A small library of diacid sugar lactones and phosphorylated sugar lactones was synthesized and tested for substrate activity with Lmo2620 and Bh0225. Two substrates were identified for these enzymes, D-lyxono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate and l-ribono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate. The k(cat)/K(m) values for the cobalt-substituted enzymes with these substrates are ~10(5) M(-1) s(-1).

  17. The formation of wine lactone from grape-derived secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Joanne; Capone, Dimitra L; Håkansson, Anders E; Smyth, Heather E; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2011-01-26

    Wine lactone (i.e., 3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethylbenzofuran-2(3H)-one, 1a/1b) was formed hydrolytically at wine pH from both racemic (E)-2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxyocta-2,7-dienoic acid (3) and the corresponding glucose ester 2a at 45 °C but at room temperature was only formed from the acid 3. The glucose ester does not appear to be a significant precursor for the formation of wine lactone in wine. The slow formation of wine lactone from the free acid 3 indicates that the acid is not likely to be an important precursor to wine lactone in young wines unless present in high concentration (≫ 1 mg/L), but could be a significant precursor to wine lactone in wine that is several years old. The wine lactone formed in hydrolysates of the (6R)-enantiomer of 3 was partially enriched in the (3S,3aS,7aR)-enantiomer 1a when the hydrolysis was conducted at pH 3.2 and 100 °C in a closed vessel or under simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) conditions, and the enantiomeric excess (ee) varied from 5 to 22%. Hydrolysis of (6R)-3 in sealed ampules at 45 °C and at pH 3.0, 3.2, or 3.4 gave near-racemic wine lactone, but when the hydrolyses were conducted at room temperature, the product was enriched in the (3S,3aS,7aR)-enantiomer 1a and the ee was greater at higher pH (up to 60% at pH 3.4).

  18. First identification of three p-menthane lactones and their potential precursor, menthofuran, in red wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-02-15

    The p-menthane lactones constitute a family of powerful odorants, including the isomers of mintlactone and menthofurolactone that occur naturally in peppermint oil, known for their potent, mint-like olfactory properties. These lactones are closely related to the monoterpene-limonene secondary biotransformation and menthofuran has been identified as their common precursor in Mentha species. Using targeted GC-olfactometry and GC-MS analyses, together with quantification methods, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of the diastereoisomers of these p-menthane lactones, as well as their common precursor, menthofuran, in red wines. In addition, we linked the presence of those lactones to interesting odorant zones, reminiscent of mint, detected in the studied wine. Although these p-menthane lactones may contribute individually to mint and coconut odors, sensory studies suggested for the first time that their combination at the levels found in the red wine studied resulted in a significant accentuation of freshness and mint notes.

  19. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia Genus: Biological Activities and Methods of Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Bianca; Miron, Anca; Corciova, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a large group of natural compounds, found primarily in plants of Asteraceae family, with over 5000 structures reported to date. Within this family, genus Artemisia is very well represented, having approximately 500 species characterized by the presence of eudesmanolides and guaianolides, especially highly oxygenated ones, and rarely of germacranolides. Sesquiterpene lactones exhibit a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, and insect deterrent. Many of the biological activities are attributed to the α-methylene-γ-lactone group in their molecule which reacts through a Michael-addition with free sulfhydryl or amino groups in proteins and alkylates them. Due to the fact that most sesquiterpene lactones are thermolabile, less volatile compounds, they present no specific chromophores in the molecule and are sensitive to acidic and basic mediums, and their identification and quantification represent a difficult task for the analyst. Another problematic aspect is represented by the complexity of vegetal samples, which may contain compounds that can interfere with the analysis. Therefore, this paper proposes an overview of the methods used for the identification and quantification of sesquiterpene lactones found in Artemisia genus, as well as the optimal conditions for their extraction and separation. PMID:26495156

  20. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  1. Triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones targeting the quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette R; Jakobsen, Tim H; Bang, Claus G; Cohrt, Anders Emil; Hansen, Casper L; Clausen, Janie W; Le Quement, Sebastian T; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to devise new antimicrobial treatments for biofilm infections, the bacterial cell-cell communication system termed quorum sensing has emerged as an attractive target. It has proven possible to intercept the communication system by synthetic non-native ligands and thereby lower the pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance of a bacterial biofilm. To identify the structural elements important for antagonistic or agonistic activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR protein, we report the synthesis and screening of new triazole-containing mimics of natural N-acyl homoserine lactones. A series of azide- and alkyne-containing homoserine lactone building blocks was used to prepare an expanded set of 123 homoserine lactone analogues through a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis methods. The resulting compounds were subjected to cell-based quorum sensing screening assays, thereby revealing several bioactive compounds, including 13 compounds with antagonistic activity and 9 compounds with agonistic activity.

  2. Macrocyclic lactones: A versatile source for omega radiohalogenated fatty acid analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A.H.; Lyster, D.M.; Robertson, K.A.; Vincent, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    For each omega halogenated fatty acid there exists a potential omega hydroxy fatty acid and the corresponding macrocyclic lactone. The authors have utilized such lactones as starting materials for omega /sup 123/I fatty acid analogs intended for myocardial imaging. Macrocyclic musk lactones are industrially available; 120 analogs are described in the literature. The preparation requires saponification, tosylation, and radio-iodide substitution. Iodo-fatty acids are readily separated from tosylate fatty acids on TLC. While providing a secure source of 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid and 17-iodo-heptadecanoic acid, the scheme allows ready access to a large number of untried fatty acid analogs. Examples presented are 16-iodo-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-7-hexadecanoic acid, 16-iodo-12-oxa-hexadecanoic acid, 15-iodo-pentadecanoic acid, and 15-iodo-12-keto-pentadecanoic acid. Metabolic studies are in progress in mice and dogs to assess the utility of these analogs for myocardial imaging.

  3. Pseudomonas cremoricolorata Strain ND07 Produces N-acyl Homoserine Lactones as Quorum Sensing Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-to-cell communication system controlling QS-mediated genes which is synchronized with the population density. The regulation of specific gene activity is dependent on the signaling molecules produced, namely N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). We report here the identification and characterization of AHLs produced by bacterial strain ND07 isolated from a Malaysian fresh water sample. Molecular identification showed that strain ND07 is clustered closely to Pseudomonas cremoricolorata. Spent culture supernatant extract of P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 activated the AHL biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was confirmed that P. cremoricolorata strain ND07 produced N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation on the production of C10-HSL in P. cremoricolorata strain ND07. PMID:24984061

  4. Lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones to polyesters and its mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, S; Suda, S; Uyama, H; Kobayashi, S

    1999-01-01

    Lipase catalysis induced a ring-opening polymerization of lactones with different ring-sizes. Small-size (four-membered) and medium-size lactones (six- and seven-membered) as well as macrolides (12-, 13-, 16-, and 17-membered) were subjected to lipase-catalyzed polymerization. The polymerization behaviors depended primarily on the lipase origin and the monomer structure. The macrolides showing much lower anionic polymerizability were enzymatically polymerized faster than epsilon-caprolactone. The granular immobilized lipase derived from Candida antartica showed extremely efficient catalysis in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone. Single-step terminal functionalization of the polyester was achieved by initiator and terminator methods. The enzymatic polymerizability of lactones was quantitatively evaluated by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  5. Dehydrocostus lactone enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, G S; Pae, H O; Chung, H T; Kwon, J W; Lee, J H; Kwon, T O; Kwon, S Y; Chon, B H; Yun, Young Gab

    2004-05-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones have raised considerable interest because of their ability to block the activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). NF-kappaB plays an important role in the resistance of cancer cells to the induction of apoptosis by anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Pharmacological inhibition of NF-kappaB offers the promise of enhancing the efficacy of anticancer therapies. Here, we demonstrate that dehydrocostus lactone (DL), the major sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Saussurea lappa, inhibits NF-kappaB activation by preventing TNF-alpha-induced degradation and phosphorylation of its inhibitory protein I-kappaB alpha in human leukemia HL-60 cells and that DL renders HL-60 cells susceptible to TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by enhancing caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities.

  6. Catabolism of hydroxyacids and biotechnological production of lactones by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Waché, Y; Aguedo, M; Nicaud, J-M; Belin, J-M

    2003-06-01

    The gamma- and delta-lactones of less than 12 carbons constitute a group of compounds of great interest to the flavour industry. It is possible to produce some of these lactones through biotechnology. For instance, gamma-decalactone can be obtained by biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate. Among the organisms used for this bioproduction, Yarrowia lipolytica is a yeast of choice. It is well adapted to growth on hydrophobic substrates, thanks to its efficient and numerous lipases, cytochrome P450, acyl-CoA oxidases and its ability to produce biosurfactants. Furthermore, genetic tools have been developed for its study. This review deals with the production of lactones by Y. lipolytica with special emphasis on the biotransformation of methyl ricinoleate to gamma-decalactone. When appropriate, information from the lipid metabolism of other yeast species is presented.

  7. Capillary zone electrophorsis for the analysis of naturally occurring 2-hydroxycitric acids and their lactones.

    PubMed

    Abhijith, B L; Mohan, Moolya; Joseph, David; Haleema, Simimole; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis method with direct ultraviolet detection has been developed for the analysis of naturally occurring diastereomeric 2-hydroxycitric acid lactones. Using 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer of pH 7, a baseline resolution Rs > 3.0 was observed for all organic acids selected for the present study. This method was employed for the quantitative determination of title acids present in the plant sources namely Garcinia cambogia fruit rinds and Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx. Conversion of 2-hydroxycitric acids to their lactones on heating the above plant sources is deliberated. The Hydrolysis of hydroxycitric acid lactones in aqueous solution is reported for the first time. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes of microorganisms: their diversity and applications.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, S; Kataoka, M; Honda, K; Sakamoto, K

    2001-12-28

    Microbial lactonohydrolases (lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes) with unique characteristics were found. The Fusarium oxysporum enzyme catalyzes the reversible and stereospecific hydrolysis of aldonate lactones and D-pantolactone (D-PL), and is useful for the optical resolution of racemic PL. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens enzyme hydrolyzes several aromatic lactones, and catalyzes the stereospecific hydrolysis of PL like the Fusarium enzyme, but its selectivity is opposite. The Acinetobacter calcoaceticus enzyme catalyzing the specific hydrolysis of dihydrocoumarin belongs to serine-enzyme family, and is useful for enantioselective hydrolysis of methyl DL-beta-acetylthioisobutyrate and regioselective hydrolysis of methyl cetraxate. This enzyme also catalyzes the bromination of monochlorodimedon when incubated with H(2)O(2) and dihydrocoumarin.

  9. Thermoregulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level.

  10. Neocosmospora sp.-derived resorcylic acid lactones with in vitro binding capacity for human opioid and cannabinoid receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a fungus Neocosmospora sp. (UM-031509) resulted in the isolation of three new resorcyclic acid lactones, neocosmosin A (2), neocosmosin B (3) and neocosmosin C (4). Three known resorcylic acid lactones, monocillin IV (1), monocillin II (5) and monorden (6) were also ...

  11. Preservation of the active lactone form of irinotecan using drug eluting beads for the treatment of colorectal cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yiqing; Czuczman, Peter R; Chung, Shui T; Lewis, Andrew L

    2008-04-07

    The distribution of the active lactone and the inactive carboxylate forms of irinotecan released from drug eluting beads composed of a sulfonate-modified PVA hydrogel was studied in order to ascertain the interaction between irinotecan, a water-soluble derivative of anti-cancer drug camptothecin, and the sulfonate groups in beads. Under a neutral condition of pH 7.0, it was demonstrated that the lactone form preferentially binds with sulfonate groups in the hydrogel beads through charge-charge interaction, and the equilibrium of the two forms shifts in favour of the lactone. In terms of stability, the drug-sulfonate interaction results in the retention of the active lactone form within the hydrogel beads. Kinetic experiments indicated that in PBS, the rate constants of lactone hydrolysis and carboxylate lactonization were 3.10 (+/-0.33)x10(-3) min(-1) and 1.36 (+/-0.04)x10(-3) min(-1), respectively. The modelling and elution experiments of the distribution of the lactone and carboxylate during irinotecan delivery by different methods, such as bolus injection, infusion and bead delivery, showed that both infusion and embolic bead delivery provided the lactone form with prolonged half-life. In addition, drug eluting beads have the characteristics of targeted delivery and low toxicity and the advantage of storage of the active form of irinotecan by polyanion stabilisation for use in local therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer to the liver.

  12. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Okutsu, Noriya; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-12-30

    The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  13. Quantification of several 4-alkyl substituted gamma-lactones in Australian wines.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Rachel C; Capone, Dimitra L; van Leeuwen, Katryna A; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A

    2009-01-28

    Stable isotope dilution assays have been developed for gamma-octalactone (1), gamma-nonalactone (2), gamma-decalactone (3) and gamma-dodecalactone (4) in both white and red wines for the first time. (2)H(7)-analogues of each lactone were prepared for use as internal standards via a strategy employing ring-opening, esterification and oxidation of the respective starting lactones. The methods were shown to be highly accurate and reproducible (R(2) > or = 0.999; SD < or = 1%). A large selection of Australian wines (n = 178) were analyzed for the presence of lactones 1-4. Fifty-eight white wines covering the varieties Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon and Viognier, as well as Botrytis style wines, were analyzed and showed broadly that gamma-octalactone (1) was the most common lactone, being observed above its limit of detection in 28 of the wines, followed by gamma-nonalactone (2) in 23 wines. The Botrytis style white wines had the highest concentrations of 1 and 2 (maximum concentrations 8.5 and 59 microg/L respectively). A total of 120 red wines covering the varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Durif, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Shiraz were also studied and showed gamma-octalactone (1) and gamma-nonalactone (2) to be the most common lactones present, in 56 and 57 of the wines, respectively. gamma-Decalactone (3) was observed in only a small number (13) of red wine samples and not at all in the white varieties. gamma-Dodecalactone (4) was absent from all 178 samples studied. The highest concentrations of lactones 1, 2 and 3 in the red wines were 4.2, 39.7 and 4.0 microg/L respectively.

  14. Mechanistic studies of inactivation of glutathione S-transferase Pi isozyme by a haloenol lactone derivative.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiang; Liu, Guangxian; Tozkoparan, Birsen; Wen, Dingyi

    2005-03-01

    Cancer chemotherapy often fails due to acquired drug resistance. One of the most critical biochemical changes observed in drug-resistant tumor cells is over-expression of glutathione S-transferase Pi isozyme (GSTP1). Glutathione S-transferase inhibitors have been used as potentiating agents of chemotherapeutic drugs. Earlier we reported haloenol lactone 1 as a site-directed GSTP1 inactivator. We proposed that enzymatic hydrolysis of the haloenol lactone may be the initial step of GSTP1 chemical modification, resulting in the inactivation of the enzyme. Enzyme inactivation is initiated through addition of Cys-47 to the lactone ring, which is opened in the process to form an alpha-bromoketone adduct. The acidity of Cys-47 confers good leaving group properties, and rapid hydrolysis occurs to generate an alpha-bromoketoacid intermediate. The reaction may proceed via alkylation of the transient thioester to form a six-membered ring episulfonium ion intermediate which would be yet more reactive toward hydrolysis, with either process leading to the observed mass increase of 230 Da. To probe the importance of the bromine of the lactone in GST inactivation, we designed and synthesized compound 2. Unlike lactone 1, lactone 2 did not show time-dependent inhibitory effect on GSTP1. Incubation of compounds 1 and 2 with excess of N-acetyl cysteine produced the corresponding di-N-acetyl cysteine conjugate and mono-N-acetyl cysteine conjugate, respectively. To probe the role of Cys-47 in the inactivation of GSTP1 by compound 1, we prepared mutant C47A GSTP1. The mutant GSTP1 still showed good activity toward CDNB, but it lost susceptibility to the inactivation by compound 1. In addition, LC-MS/MS technique allowed us to identify the modified Cys-47 after the enzyme was exposed to compound 1.

  15. Synthesis and Antifeedant Activity of Racemic and Optically Active Hydroxy Lactones with the p-Menthane System

    PubMed Central

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Kłobucki, Marek; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Szczepanik, Maryla; Gabryś, Beata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    Two racemic and two enantiomeric pairs of new δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones based on the p-menthane system were prepared from racemic and optically active cis- and trans-piperitols. The Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of the piperitols, epoxidation of the γδ-unsaturated esters, and acidic lactonization of the epoxy esters were described. The structures of the compounds were confirmed spectroscopically. The antifeedant activities of the hydroxy lactones and racemic piperitone were evaluated against three insect pests: lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say); and peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.). The chemical transformation of piperitone by the introduction of a lactone moiety and a hydroxy group changed its antifeedant properties. Behavioral bioassays showed that the feeding deterrent activity depended on the insect species and the structure of the compounds. All hydroxy lactones deterred the settling of M. persicae. Among chewing insects, the highest sensitivity showed A. diaperinus adults. PMID:26132506

  16. Unusual Multiple Production of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones a by Burkholderia sp. Strain C10B Isolated from Dentine Caries

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Share Yuan; Tan, Wen-Si; Khan, Saad Ahmed; Chew, Hooi Pin; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria realize the ability to communicate by production of quorum sensing (QS) molecules called autoinducers, which regulate the physiological activities in their ecological niches. The oral cavity could be a potential area for the presence of QS bacteria. In this study, we report the isolation of a QS bacterial isolate C10B from dentine caries. Preliminary screening using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor showed that isolate C10B was able to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). This bacterium was further identified as a member of Burkholderia, an opportunistic pathogen. The isolated Burkholderia sp. was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). PMID:24854358

  17. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium

    PubMed Central

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A.; De Vos, Ric C.H.; Todorović, Slađana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Tanacetum parthenium (Asteraceae) produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of the Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 sesquiterpene lactones from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in-vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All sesquiterpene lactones containing the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE although a number of compounds displayed significant cellular toxicity towards the cultures. The structure activity relationship of the sesquiterpene lactones indicate that the guaianolides isolated were more active and less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

  18. Synthesis and Antifeedant Activity of Racemic and Optically Active Hydroxy Lactones with the p-Menthane System.

    PubMed

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Kłobucki, Marek; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Szczepanik, Maryla; Gabryś, Beata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    Two racemic and two enantiomeric pairs of new δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones based on the p-menthane system were prepared from racemic and optically active cis- and trans-piperitols. The Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of the piperitols, epoxidation of the γδ-unsaturated esters, and acidic lactonization of the epoxy esters were described. The structures of the compounds were confirmed spectroscopically. The antifeedant activities of the hydroxy lactones and racemic piperitone were evaluated against three insect pests: lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say); and peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.). The chemical transformation of piperitone by the introduction of a lactone moiety and a hydroxy group changed its antifeedant properties. Behavioral bioassays showed that the feeding deterrent activity depended on the insect species and the structure of the compounds. All hydroxy lactones deterred the settling of M. persicae. Among chewing insects, the highest sensitivity showed A. diaperinus adults.

  19. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the sesquiterpene lactones cnicin and onopordopicrin.

    PubMed

    Bach, Sandra M; Fortuna, Mario A; Attarian, Rodgoun; de Trimarco, Juliana T; Catalán, César A N; Av-Gay, Yossef; Bach, Horacio

    2011-02-01

    The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of chloroform extracts from the weeds Centaurea tweediei and C. diffusa, and the main sesquiterpene lactones isolated from these species, onopordopicrin and cnicin, respectively, were assayed. Results show that the chloroform extracts from both Centaurea species possess antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Remarkable antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was also measured. Both the extracts and the purified sesquiterpene lactones show high cytotoxicity against human-derived macrophages. Despite this cytotoxicity, C. diffusa chloroform extract and cnicin are attractive candidates for evaluation as antibiotics in topical preparations against skin-associated pathogens.

  20. Samarium(II) promoted stereoselective synthesis of antiproliferative cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones.

    PubMed

    Donadel, Osvaldo J; Martín, Tomás; Martín, Víctor S; Padrón, José M

    2007-01-01

    Samarium(II) iodide promotes the stereoselective synthesis of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones under mild conditions starting from linear precursors. The in vitro antiproliferative activities were examined in the human solid tumor cell lines from diverse origin A2780, SW1573, and WiDr. From the growth inhibition data a structure-activity relationship was obtained. Overall the results point to the relevant role of cis-beta-alkoxy-gamma-alkyl-gamma-lactones as novel scaffolds for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  1. Synthesis of “clickable” acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing probes: unanticipated effects on mammalian cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Amanda L.; Yu, Jing; Struss, Anjali Kumari; Lowery, Colin A.; Zhu, Jie; Kim, Sook Kyung; Park, Junguk; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Kravchenko, Vladimir V.; Janda, Kim D.

    2010-01-01

    Alkynyl- and azido-tagged 3-oxo-C12-acylhomoserine lactone probes have been synthesized to examine their potential utility as probes for discovering the mammalian protein target of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa autoinducer, 3-oxo-C12-acylhomoserine lactone. Although such substitutions are commonly believed to be quite conservative, from these studies, we have uncovered a drastic difference in activity between the alkynyl- and azido-modified compounds, and provide an example where such structural modification has proved to be much less than conservative. PMID:21190852

  2. (1)H chemical shift differences of Prelog-Djerassi lactone derivatives: DFT and NMR conformational studies.

    PubMed

    Aímola, Túlio J; Lima, Dimas J P; Dias, Luiz C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Ferreira, Marco A B

    2015-02-21

    This work reports an experimental and theoretical study of the conformational preferences of several Prelog-Djerassi lactone derivatives, to elucidate the (1)H NMR chemical shift differences in the lactonic core that are associated with the relative stereochemistry of these derivatives. The boat-like conformation of explains the anomalous (1)H chemical shift between H-5a and H-5b, in which the two methyl groups (C-8 and C-9) face H-5b, leading to its higher shielding effect.

  3. Short Flow-Photochemistry Enabled Synthesis of the Cytotoxic Lactone (+)-Goniofufurone.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Michael; Ng, Sean; Booker-Milburn, Kevin I

    2016-03-04

    A photochemical approach to the cytotoxic lactone (+)-goniofufurone (1) is reported. Paternò-Büchi [2 + 2] photocycloaddition from known enol ether 4, derived from the readily available sugar d-isosorbide, yielded oxetane 7. This slow, dilute reaction was scaled up by using flow photochemistry to yield >40 g of 7. Installation of the key lactone ring was achieved via a unique Wacker-style oxidation of an enol-ether bond. Acid-catalyzed aqueous ring opening provided 1 in five steps from 4 (11.5% overall).

  4. [Effects of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection's activated carbon adsorption technology on officinal components].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-li; Wang, Ren-jie; Li, Miao; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dian-hong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Yu-an; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With the diversion rate of ginkgolide A, B, K as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the amount of activated carbon, ad- sorption time, mix rate, and adsorption temperature were selected as factors, orthogonal design which based on the evaluation method of information entropy was used to optimize activated carbon adsorption technology of ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection. Opti- mized adsorption conditions were as follows: adsorbed 30 min with 0.2% activated carbon in 25 °C, 40 r ·min⁻¹, validation test re- sult display. The optimum extraction condition was stable and feasible, it will provide a basis for ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection' activated carbon adsorption process.

  5. Purification and identification of antimicrobial sesquiterpene lactones from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) leaves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fengqiu; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Kodama, Osamu

    2003-10-01

    The extraction of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson; Asteraceae] leaves and chromatographic separation yielded two new antibacterial melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester and 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, as well as the four known melampolides, sonchifolin, uvedalin, enhydrin and fluctuanin. The newly identified compound, 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester, exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pyricularia oryzae, while 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester showed lower activity. Fluctuanin exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis among these six sesquiterpene lactones.

  6. Gamma-lactone-Functionalized antitumoral acetogenins are the most potent inhibitors of mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Tormo, J R; Estornell, E; Gallardo, T; González, M C; Cavé, A; Granell, S; Cortes, D; Zafra-Polo, M C

    2001-03-12

    To study the relevance of the terminal alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-methyl-gamma-lactone moiety of the antitumoral acetogenins of Annonaceae for potent mitochondrial complex I inhibition, we have prepared a series of semisynthetic acetogenins with modifications only in this part of the molecule, from the natural rolliniastatin-1 (1) and cherimolin-1 (2). Some of the hydroxylated derivatives (1b, 1d and 1e) in addition to two infrequent natural beta-hydroxy gamma-methyl gamma-lactone acetogenins, laherradurin (3) and itrabin (4), are more potent complex I inhibitors than any other known compounds.

  7. Acyl-homoserine lactones suppresses IEC-6 cell proliferation and increase permeability of isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    Joe, Ga-Hyun; Andoh, Midori; Nomura, Mikako; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Lee, Jae-Sung; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Tsuji, Youhei; Maseda, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated to determine whether a variety of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) influences epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal permeability. 3-Oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) and 3-oxo-C14-HSL significantly suppressed IEC-6 cell proliferation. A significant increase in mucosal permeability was observed in isolated rat colon tissue exposed to C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL, and 3-oxo-C14-HSL. These data indicate that AHLs suppress epithelial proliferation and disrupt barrier function in intestinal mucosa.

  8. Anticancer activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Cyathocline purpurea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoyi; Chong, Li; Li, Zuqiang; Cheung, Andrew H T; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2009-06-01

    L1210 cells could be related to alkylation of the sulfhydryl enzymes involved in nucleic acids and protein synthesis, as previously found for other sesquiterpenes with the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety present in santamarine, 9beta-acetoxycostunolide and 9beta-acetoxyparthenolide. It may also be related to suppression of microtubular proteins. Santamarine and 9beta-acetoxycostunolide induced apoptosis of L1210 cells via activation of caspase 3.

  9. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of a cyclic nitrone derived from 2-deoxy-D-ribose to α,β-unsaturated lactones: An entry to carbapenem antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pieczykolan, Michał; Staszewska-Krajewska, Olga; Furman, Bartłomiej; Chmielewski, Marek

    2016-10-04

    1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of 2-deoxy-D-ribose-derived L-threo five-membered cyclic nitrone to α,β-unsaturated γ- and δ-lactones were investigated. Cycloadducts obtained from δ-lactones, after NO bond cleavage, opening of the lactone ring, and protection of hydroxyl groups were subjected to β-lactam ring formation by using Mukaiyama's salt. Cycloadducts from γ-lactones subjected to the same reaction sequence undergo β-elimination of a water molecule to provide pyrrolidine-substituted unsaturated γ-lactones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental and Environmental Effects on Sesquiterpene Lactones in Cultivated Arnica montana L.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Vitkova, Antonina; Petrova, Maria; Zayova, Ely; Antonova, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    The amount of sesquiterpene lactones and the lactone profile of Arnica montana L. in flowering and seed formation stages in vitro and in vivo propagated from seeds of German, Ukrainian, and Austrian origin and grown in two experimental fields were studied. It was found that in vitro propagated 2-year plants in full flowering stage accumulated higher amount of lactones in comparison to in vivo propagated 3-year plants and to the seed formation stage, respectively. Helenalins predominated in in vivo propagated 2-year or in vitro propagated 3-year plants. 2-Methylbutyrate (2MeBu) was the principal ester in the samples with prevalence of helenalins, while isobutyrate (iBu) was the major one in the samples with predominance of 11,13-dihydrohelenalins. The results revealed that the environmental conditions on Vitosha Mt. are more suitable for cultivation of A. montana giving higher content of lactones.

  11. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF ANHYDRIDES TO LACTONES UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective Hydrogenation of Anhydrides to Lactones Under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

    Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie Unnikrishnan R Pillai
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7739
    Fax: 513-569-7677
    Abstract:
    Hydrogenat...

  12. Ficuschlorins A - D, lactone Chlorins from the leaves of ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-You; Chiu, Hsi-Lin; Lan, Yu-Hsuang; Tzeng, Chih-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chang, Chi-I; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-09-01

    Four new lactone chlorins, ficuschlorins A - D (1-4, resp.), and six known pheophytins were isolated from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, and other techniques. New natural pheophytins were rarely obtained. In the past ten years, only three new pheophytins were isolated from natural sources.

  13. Concurrent and supercritical fluid chromatographic analysis of Terpene Lactones and ginkolic acids in Ginko biloba

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supercritical fluid chromatography was used to resolve and determine ginkgolic acids (GAs) and terpene lactones concurrently in ginkgo plant materials and commercial dietary supplements. Analysis of GAs (C13:0, C15:0, C15:1 and C17:1) was carried out by ESI (-) mass detection. The ESI (-) spectra of...

  14. Structure-hepatoprotective activity relationship study of sesquiterpene lactones: A QSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukku, Yuliya; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Syrov, Vladimir; Khushbaktova, Zainab; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    This study has been carried out using quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis (QSAR) for 22 sesquiterpene lactones to correlate and predict their hepatoprotective activity. Sesquiterpenoids, the largest class of terpenoids, are a widespread group of substances occurring in various plant organisms. QSAR analysis was carried out using methods such as genetic algorithm for variables selection among generated and calculated descriptors and multiple linear regression analysis. Quantum-chemical calculations have been performed by density functional theory at B3LYP/6-311G(d, p) level for evaluation of electronic properties using reference geometries optimized by semi-empirical AM1 approach. Three models describing hepatoprotective activity values for series of sesquiterpene lactones are proposed. The obtained models are useful for description of sesquiterpene lactones hepatoprotective activity and can be used to estimate the hepatoprotective activity of new substituted sesquiterpene lactones. The models obtained in our study show not only statistical significance, but also good predictive ability. The estimated predictive ability (rtest2) of these models lies within 0.942-0.969.

  15. Chirality of the gamma-lactones produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor grown in two different media.

    PubMed

    Dufossé, L; Féron, G; Latrasse, A; Guichard, E; Spinnler, H E

    1997-01-01

    Sporidiobolus salmonicolor is an aroma-producing yeast which gives a peach-like smell to the culture media. The enantiomeric ratios of the five gamma-lactones produced by this yeast cultivated in two different media were determined by multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) on a fused silica capillary column coupled to a modified beta-cyclodextrin column. These ratios remain constant during growth and are not affected by the composition of the medium. The (R)-enantiomer is highly predominant (99%) for gamma-decalactone and predominant (68-88%) for gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and (Z6)-gamma-dodecenolactone. A ratio close to racemic was found for gamma-dodecalactone. A discussion on the metabolic origin of these lactones is based on the analysis of the enantiomeric ratios obtained. With respect to consumers' preference for products considered as "natural," microbial lactone production may represent a valuable alternative to fruit flavors. The enantiomeric lactone ratios produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor are compared with those reported from some fruits.

  16. Lactones with methylcyclohexane systems obtained by chemical and microbiological methods and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Mączka, Wanda; Żołnierczyk, Anna K; Żarowska, Barbara; Anioł, Mirosław

    2015-02-16

    Eight new lactones (δ-chloro-, δ-bromo- and δ-iodo-γ-lactones), each with a methylcyclohexane ring, were obtained by chemical means from (4-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid or (6-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl) acetic acid. Whole cells of ten fungal strains (Fusarium species, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Botrytis cinerea) were tested on their ability to convert these lactones into other products. Some of the tested fungal strains transformed chloro-, bromo- and iodolactone with a methyl group at C-5 into 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one during hydrolytic dehalogenation. When the same lactones had the methyl group at C-3, no structural modifications of halolactones were observed. In most cases, the optical purity of the product was low or medium, with the highest rate for chlorolactone (45.4%) and iodolactone (45.2% and 47.6%). All of the obtained compounds were tested with reference to their smell. Seven halolactones and the hydroxylactone obtained via biotransformation of halolactones with 5-methylcyclohexane ring were examined for their antimicrobial activity. These compounds were capable of inhibiting growth of some bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

  17. SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF ANHYDRIDES TO LACTONES UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective Hydrogenation of Anhydrides to Lactones Under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

    Endalkachew Sahle-Demessie Unnikrishnan R Pillai
    U.S. EPA , 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45268 Phone: 513-569-7739
    Fax: 513-569-7677
    Abstract:
    Hydrogenat...

  18. New 3-methyoxyflavones, an iridoid lactone and a flavonol from duroia hirsuta

    PubMed

    Aquino; Tommasi; Tapia; Lauro; Rastrelli

    1999-04-01

    Investigation of the roots of Duroia hirsuta from Ecuador yielded the iridoid lactone duroin (1) together with 3,7,3', 5'-tetramethoxy-4'-hydroxyflavone (2), 3,7,3'-trimethoxy-4', 5'-dihydroxyflavone (3), and 7,3',5'-trimethoxy-3, 4'-dihydroxyflavone (4) as novel constituents.

  19. Two new sesquiterpene lactones with the sulfonic acid group from Saussurea lappa.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong-quan; Fu, Hong-wei; Hua, Hui-ming; Qi, Xiu-lan; Li, Wen; Sha, Yi; Pei, Yue-hu

    2005-07-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones with the unusual sulfonic acid group, 13-sulfo-dihydrosantamarine (1) and 13-sulfo-dihydroreynosin (2), have been isolated from the roots of Saussurea lappa C. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Divergent synthesis and chemical reactivity of bicyclic lactone fragments of complex rearranged spongian diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Schnermann, Martin J; Beaudry, Christopher M; Genung, Nathan E; Canham, Stephen M; Untiedt, Nicholas L; Karanikolas, Breanne D W; Sütterlin, Christine; Overman, Larry E

    2011-11-02

    The synthesis and direct comparison of the chemical reactivity of the two highly oxidized bicyclic lactone fragments found in rearranged spongian diterpenes (8-substituted 6-acetoxy-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one and 6-substituted 7-acetoxy-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one) are reported. Details of the first synthesis of the 6-acetoxy-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one ring system, including an examination of several possibilities for the key bridging cyclization reaction, are described. In addition, the first synthesis of 7-acetoxy-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanones containing quaternary carbon substituents at C6 is disclosed. Aspects of the chemical reactivity and Golgi-modifying properties of these bicyclic lactone analogs of rearranged spongian diterpenes are also reported. Under both acidic and basic conditions, 8-substituted 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octanones are converted to 6-substituted-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanones. Moreover, these dioxabicyclic lactones react with primary amines and lysine side chains of lysozyme to form substituted pyrroles, a conjugation that could be responsible for the unique biological properties of these compounds. These studies demonstrate that acetoxylation adjacent to the lactone carbonyl group, in either the bridged or fused series, is required to produce fragmented Golgi membranes in the pericentriolar region that is characteristic of macfarlandin E.

  1. The molecular receptive range of a lactone receptor in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Pask, Gregory M; Romaine, Ian M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    In an environment filled with a complex spectrum of chemical stimuli, insects rely on the specificity of odorant receptors (ORs) to discern odorants of ecological importance. In nature, cyclic esters, or lactones, represent a common class of semiochemicals that exhibit a range of diversity through ring size and substituents, as well as stereochemistry. We have used heterologous expression to explore the lactone sensitivity of AgOr48, an odorant-sensitive OR from the principal malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Voltage clamp and calcium-imaging experiments revealed that AgOr48 is particularly sensitive to changes in the size of the lactone ring and in the length of the carbon chain substituent. In addition, the two enantiomers of a strong agonist, δ-decalactone, elicited significantly different potency values, implicating AgOr48 as an enantioselective odorant receptor. Investigation of the molecular receptive range of this lactone receptor may contribute to a greater understanding of ligand-OR interactions and provide insight into the chemical ecology of An. gambiae.

  2. The Molecular Receptive Range of a Lactone Receptor in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In an environment filled with a complex spectrum of chemical stimuli, insects rely on the specificity of odorant receptors (ORs) to discern odorants of ecological importance. In nature, cyclic esters, or lactones, represent a common class of semiochemicals that exhibit a range of diversity through ring size and substituents, as well as stereochemistry. We have used heterologous expression to explore the lactone sensitivity of AgOr48, an odorant-sensitive OR from the principal malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Voltage clamp and calcium-imaging experiments revealed that AgOr48 is particularly sensitive to changes in the size of the lactone ring and in the length of the carbon chain substituent. In addition, the two enantiomers of a strong agonist, δ-decalactone, elicited significantly different potency values, implicating AgOr48 as an enantioselective odorant receptor. Investigation of the molecular receptive range of this lactone receptor may contribute to a greater understanding of ligand–OR interactions and provide insight into the chemical ecology of An. gambiae. PMID:22944613

  3. A novel bioactive delta lactone FD-211. Taxonomy, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, O; Okazaki, T; Sakai, N; Komurasaki, T; Hanada, K; Morimoto, S; Chen, Z X; He, B M; Mizoue, K

    1995-02-01

    During our screening program for natural product drugs effective against multidrug-resistant mammalian cells, we have discovered a new delta lactone FD-211 from the fermantation broth of Myceliophthora lutea TF-0409. FD-211 had a broad spectrum activity against cultured tumor cell lines, including adriamycin-resistant HL-60 cells.

  4. A five-membered lactone prodrug of CBI-based analogs of the duocarmycins

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Mika; Brody, Daniel M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    The preparation, characterization and examination of the CBI-based 5-membered lactone 5 capable of serving as a prodrug or protein (antibody) conjugation reagent are disclosed along with its incorporation into the corresponding CC-1065 and duocarmycin analog 6, and the establishment of their properties. PMID:26069351

  5. DFT study on hydroxy acid-lactone interconversion of statins: the case of atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Marcin; Nowosielski, Marcin

    2008-10-07

    Atorvastatin (ATV), the best known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor family member, undergoes pH-dependent hydroxy acid-lactone interconversion similar to other statins. Although the only active form is a linear one, it was shown that drug interactions should also be considered for the lactone. The ATV lactonisation-hydrolysis mechanism was investigated theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT) method. Under both mildly acidic and basic conditions, the ATV lactone form is less stable than its hydroxy acid form. However, in the presence of a carboxylic acid, the equilibrium was only slightly shifted towards the lactone side (4 kcal mol(-1) difference between the substrate and the product), while energy gain for the hydrolysis under basic conditions amounts to 18 kcal mol(-1). Hydrolysis activation energy barriers were 19 and 6 kcal mol(-1), in acidic and basic conditions, respectively. We determined one-step interconversion as unfavourable under physiological conditions due to a 35 kcal mol(-1) activation energy barrier. All data were compared with analogue ones for fluvastatin (FLV) reported earlier and indicated that ATV is more flexible than FLV, not only due to the fact that it has more rotatable carbon-carbon single bonds, but also because ATV lactonistation-hydrolysis energy barriers are lower.

  6. Organocatalytic synthesis of beta-alkylaspartates via beta-lactone ring opening.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Alan; Geldart, Stephen P; Jenner, Chloe R; Scutt, James N

    2007-10-12

    Cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed reaction of ethyl glyoxylate with substituted ketenes, formed in situ, gives disubstituted beta-lactones in moderate yield and high enantiomeric excess. Subsequent azide ring opening, reduction, and ester hydrolysis allows access to chiral beta-alkyl aspartates.

  7. Divergent Synthesis and Chemical Reactivity of Bicyclic Lactone Fragments of Complex Rearranged Spongian Diterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Beaudry, Christopher M.; Genung, Nathan E.; Canham, Stephen M.; Untiedt, Nicholas L.; Karanikolas, Breanne D. W.; Sütterlin, Christine; Overman, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and direct comparison of the chemical reactivity of the two highly oxidized bicyclic lactone fragments found in rearranged spongian diterpenes (8-substituted 6-acetoxy-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one and 6-substituted 7-acetoxy-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one) are reported. Details of the first synthesis of the 6-acetoxy-2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one ring system, including an examination of several possibilities for the key bridging cyclization reaction, are described (Schemes 2–5). In addition, the first synthesis of 7-acetoxy-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanones containing quaternary carbon substituents at C6 is disclosed (Scheme 6). Aspects of the chemical reactivity and Golgi-modifying properties of these bicyclic lactone analogs of rearranged spongian diterpenes are also reported. Under both acidic and basic conditions, 8-substituted 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octanones are converted to 6-substituted-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octanones. Moreover, these dioxabicyclic lactones react with primary amines and lysine side chains of lysozyme to form substituted pyrroles, a conjugation that could be responsible for the unique biological properties of these compounds. These studies demonstrate that acetoxylation adjacent to the lactone carbonyl group—in either the bridged or fused series—is required to produce fragmented Golgi membranes in the pericentriolar region that is characteristic of macfarlandin E. PMID:21988207

  8. A grapevine cytochrome P450 generates the precursor of wine lactone, a key odorant in wine.

    PubMed

    Ilc, Tina; Halter, David; Miesch, Laurence; Lauvoisard, Florian; Kriegshauser, Lucie; Ilg, Andrea; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Hugueney, Philippe; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Duchêne, Eric; Navrot, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Monoterpenes are important constituents of the aromas of food and beverages, including wine. Among monoterpenes in wines, wine lactone has the most potent odor. It was proposed to form via acid-catalyzed cyclization of (E)-8-carboxylinalool during wine maturation. It only reaches very low concentrations in wine but its extremely low odor detection threshold makes it an important aroma compound. Using LC-MS/MS, we show here that the (E)-8-carboxylinalool content in wines correlates with their wine lactone content and estimate the kinetic constant for the very slow formation of wine lactone from (E)-8-carboxylinalool. We show that (E)-8-carboxylinalool is accumulated as a glycoside in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and that one of the cytochrome P450 enzymes most highly expressed in maturing berries, CYP76F14, efficiently oxidizes linalool to (E)-8-carboxylinalool. Our analysis of (E)-8-carboxylinalool in Riesling × Gewurztraminer grapevine progeny established that the CYP76F14 gene co-locates with a quantitative trait locus for (E)-8-carboxylinalool content in grape berries. Our data support the role of CYP76F14 as the major (E)-8-carboxylinalool synthase in grape berries and the role of (E)-8-carboxylinalool as a precursor to wine lactone in wine, providing new insights into wine and grape aroma metabolism, and new methods for food and aroma research and production.

  9. delta-Lactone from Oedogonium capillare and their effects on rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Rosario Vargas, Solis; Martinez Martinez, Francisco; Garcia Baez, Efren; Figueroa Torres, Guadalupe

    2006-03-01

    Antispasmodic activity-guided fractionation together with chemical analysis led to the isolation of one novel delta-lactone named oedogonolide from Oedogonium capillare. Identification was based on spectroscopic methods. The oedogonolide produces a significant antispasmodic effect on the contractions of the rat ileum induced by acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride.

  10. Anthelmintic potential of chicory forage is influenced by sesquiterpene lactone composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Chicory leaves contain lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the amounts of these three SLs vary among cultivars. The objective of this study was...

  11. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Novel Sesquiterpene Lactones from Iceberg Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2016-01-13

    Lactuca sativa var. capitate (iceberg lettuce) is a delicious vegetable and popular for its mild taste. Nevertheless, iceberg lettuce is a source of bitter substances, such as the sesquiterpene lactones. Chemical investigations on the n-butanol extract led to the isolation of three novel sesquiterpene lactones. All compounds were isolated by multilayer countercurrent chromatography followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures were verified by means of spectroscopic methods, including NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. For the first time 11ß,13-dihydrolactucin-8-O-sulfate (jaquinelin-8-O-sulfate) was structurally elucidated and identified in plants. In addition, the sesquiterpene lactones cichorioside B and 8-deacetylmatricarin-8-O-sulfate were identified as novel ingredients of iceberg lettuce. Further flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae were examined for the above three compounds. At least one of the compounds was identified in nine plants. The comparison between the lettuce butt end and the leaves of five types of the Cichorieae tribe showed an accumulation of the compounds in the butt end. Further experiments addressed the impact of sesquiterpene lactones on color formation and bitter taste.

  12. The trypanocidal effect of sesquiterpene lactones helenalin and mexicanin on cultured epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Ortiz, Verónica; Brengio, Silvia D; Giordano, Oscar; Tonn, Carlos; Sánchez, Matías; Burgos, Mario H; Sosa, Miguel A

    2005-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones constitute a large group of biologically active compounds obtained from plants. The lactones, mexicanin (MXN) and helenalin (HLN), were reported recently as active against the infective form of Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we studied the effects of these compounds on the growth and viability of the noninfective epimastigote, to compare the sensitivity of the 2 stages and to characterize their actions. Both compounds were cytotoxic to the parasites, with HLN (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 1.9 +/- 0.08 microM) more potent than MXN (IC50 3.8 +/- 0.19 microM) and the typanocidal drug, benznidazole (IC50 8.6 +/- 2.5 microM). The results showed that epimastigotes are less sensitive than trypomastigotes to the compounds. The trypanocidal effect of these lactones, irreversible after 12-hr exposure, was not reversed by the reducing agents dithiotreitol or beta-mercaptoethanol. Ultrastructurally, we observed cytoplasmic vacuolization and nuclear disorganization. Although concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 microM of the drugs were not lethal to the parasites, epimastigotes became thinner and their nuclei became more pycnotic after exposure. We conclude that MXN and HLN are deleterious for T. cruzi epimastigotes and that their mechanism of action is different than that of the related lactone, dehydroleucodine.

  13. Paraoxonase (PON1 and PON3) Polymorphisms: Impact on Liver Expression and Atorvastatin-Lactone Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Riedmaier, Stephan; Klein, Kathrin; Winter, Stefan; Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2011-01-01

    Atorvastatin δ-lactone, a major, pharmacologically inactive metabolite, has been associated with toxicity. In a previous study we showed that polymorphisms of UGT1A3 influence atorvastatin δ-lactone formation. Here we investigated the reverse reaction, atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis, in a human liver bank. Screening of microarray data revealed paraoxonases PON1 and PON3 among 17 candidate esterases. Microsomal δ-lactone hydrolysis was significantly correlated to PON1 and PON3 protein (rs = 0.60; rs = 0.62, respectively; P < 0.0001). PON1 and PON3 were strongly correlated to each other (rs = 0.60) but PON1 was shown to be more extensively glycosylated than PON3. In addition a novel splice-variant of PON3 was identified. Genotyping of 40 polymorphisms within the PON-locus identified PON1 promoter polymorphisms (−108T > C, −832G > A, −1741G > A) and a tightly linked group of PON3 polymorphisms (−4984A > G, −4105G > A, −1091A > G, −746C > T, and F21F) to be associated with changes in atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis and expression of PON1 but not PON3. However, carriers of the common PON1 polymorphisms L55M or Q192R showed no difference in δ-lactone hydrolysis or PON expression. Haplotype analysis revealed decreased δ-lactone hydrolysis in carriers of the most common haplotype *1 compared to carriers of haplotypes *2, *3, *4, and *7. Analysis of non-genetic factors showed association of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma with decreased PON1 and PON3 expression, respectively. Increased C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transferase levels were associated with decreased protein expression of both enzymes, and increased bilirubin levels, cholestasis, and presurgical exposure to omeprazole or pantoprazole were related to decreased PON3 protein. In conclusion, PON-locus polymorphisms affect PON1 expression whereas non-genetic factors have an effect on PON1 and PON3 expression. This may

  14. Paraoxonase (PON1 and PON3) Polymorphisms: Impact on Liver Expression and Atorvastatin-Lactone Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, Stephan; Klein, Kathrin; Winter, Stefan; Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2011-01-01

    Atorvastatin δ-lactone, a major, pharmacologically inactive metabolite, has been associated with toxicity. In a previous study we showed that polymorphisms of UGT1A3 influence atorvastatin δ-lactone formation. Here we investigated the reverse reaction, atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis, in a human liver bank. Screening of microarray data revealed paraoxonases PON1 and PON3 among 17 candidate esterases. Microsomal δ-lactone hydrolysis was significantly correlated to PON1 and PON3 protein (r(s) = 0.60; r(s) = 0.62, respectively; P < 0.0001). PON1 and PON3 were strongly correlated to each other (r(s) = 0.60) but PON1 was shown to be more extensively glycosylated than PON3. In addition a novel splice-variant of PON3 was identified. Genotyping of 40 polymorphisms within the PON-locus identified PON1 promoter polymorphisms (-108T > C, -832G > A, -1741G > A) and a tightly linked group of PON3 polymorphisms (-4984A > G, -4105G > A, -1091A > G, -746C > T, and F21F) to be associated with changes in atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis and expression of PON1 but not PON3. However, carriers of the common PON1 polymorphisms L55M or Q192R showed no difference in δ-lactone hydrolysis or PON expression. Haplotype analysis revealed decreased δ-lactone hydrolysis in carriers of the most common haplotype *1 compared to carriers of haplotypes *2, *3, *4, and *7. Analysis of non-genetic factors showed association of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma with decreased PON1 and PON3 expression, respectively. Increased C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transferase levels were associated with decreased protein expression of both enzymes, and increased bilirubin levels, cholestasis, and presurgical exposure to omeprazole or pantoprazole were related to decreased PON3 protein. In conclusion, PON-locus polymorphisms affect PON1 expression whereas non-genetic factors have an effect on PON1 and PON3 expression. This may influence

  15. Minimal structural requirements of alkyl γ-lactones capable of antagonizing the cocaine-induced motility decrease in planarians.

    PubMed

    Baker, Debra; Deats, Sean; Boor, Peter; Pruitt, James; Pagán, Oné R

    2011-11-01

    We recently reported that the natural cyclic lactone, parthenolide, and related analogs prevent the expression of behavioral effects induced by cocaine in planarians and that parthenolide's γ-lactone ring is required for this effect. In the present work, we tested a series of alkyl γ-lactones with varying chain length (1-8 carbons) to determine their ability to antagonize the planarian motility decrease induced by 200 μM cocaine. Alkyl lactones with up to a 4-carbon alkyl chain did not affect planarian motility or antagonized the cocaine-induced motility decrease; only the compound γ-nonalactone (a γ-lactone with a 5-carbon chain) was able to prevent the cocaine-induced behavioral patterns, while alkyl lactones with longer carbon chains failed to prevent the cocaine-induced effects. Thus, we conclude that the optimal structural features of this family of compounds to antagonize cocaine's effect in this experimental system is a γ-lactone ring with at a 5-carbon long functional group.

  16. Minimal structural requirements of alkyl γ-lactones capable of antagonizing the cocaine-induced motility decrease in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Debra; Deats, Sean; Boor, Peter; Pruitt, James; Pagán, Oné R.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that the natural cyclic lactone, parthenolide, and related analogs prevent the expression of behavioral effects induced by cocaine in planarians and that parthenolide’s γ-lactone ring is required for this effect. In the present work, we tested a series of alkyl γ-lactones with varying chain length (1–8 carbons) to determine their ability to antagonize the planarian motility decrease induced by 200 μM cocaine. Alkyl lactones with up to a 4-carbon alkyl chain did not affect planarian motility or antagonized the cocaine-induced motility decrease; only the compound γ-nonalactone (a γ-lactone with a 5-carbon chain) was able to prevent the cocaine-induced behavioral patterns, while alkyl lactones with longer carbon chains failed to prevent the cocaine-induced effects. Thus, we conclude that the optimal structural features of this family of compounds to antagonize cocaine’s effect in this experimental system is a γ-lactone ring with at a 5-carbon long functional group. PMID:21878350

  17. Experimental and computational evidence for alpha-lactone intermediates in the addition of aqueous bromine to disodium dimethyl-maleate and -fumarate.

    PubMed

    Pirinççioğlu, Necmettin; Robinson, James J; Mahon, Mary F; Buchanan, J Grant; Williams, Ian H

    2007-12-21

    Structural analysis of the bromo-beta-lactones obtained by addition of bromine to aqueous solutions of disodium 2,3-dimethylmaleate and 2,3-dimethylfumarate reveals stereochemistries opposite to those originally assigned in 1937: cis alkene yields erythro lactone, and trans alkene yields threo lactone. B3LYP/6-31+G(d) calculations using a PCM description of aqueous solvation confirm the validity of our proposed mechanism, in which the first-formed intermediate in each case is an alpha-lactone. The cyclic bromonium species is not an intermediate. An alternative pathway leading directly from cis alkene to cis lactone, via an unusual frontside displacement mechanism, is over 20 kJ mol(-1) higher in free energy. Hydrolysis of the bromo-beta-lactones yields bromohydrins whose stereochemistries as determined by X-ray crystallography indicate stereospecific formation by acyl-oxygen cleavage of the lactone ring, again contrary to the original view.

  18. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid lactones in a model system and in a coffee extract. Application to reduction of coffee bitterness.

    PubMed

    Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Page-Zoerkler, Nicole; Mauroux, Olivier; Gartenmann, Karin; Blank, Imre; Bel-Rhlid, Rachid

    2017-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid lactones have been identified as key contributors to coffee bitterness. These compounds are formed during roasting by dehydration and cyclization of their precursors, the chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present study, we investigated an approach to decompose these lactones in a selective way without affecting the positive coffee attributes developed during roasting. A model system composed of (3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone (3-CQAL), 4- caffeoyl quinic acid lactone (4-CQAL), and 4-feruloylquinic acid lactone (4-FQAL)) was used for the screening of enzymes before treatment of the coffee extracts. Hog liver esterase (HLE) hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid lactones (CQALs, FQALs) selectively, while chlorogenate esterase hydrolyzed all chlorogenic acids (CQAs, FQAs) and their corresponding lactones (CQALs, FQALs) in a non-selective way. Enzymatically treated coffee samples were evaluated for their bitterness by a trained sensory panel and were found significantly less bitter than the untreated samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Lombardo, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas’ disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its

  20. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Puente, Vanesa; Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S; Frank, Fernanda M; Lombardo, María E

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its antiparasitic

  1. Mouse serum paraoxonase-1 lactonase activity is specific for medium-chain length fatty acid lactones.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Philip W; Picardo, Clive M; Potter, Philip M; Teiber, John F; Maguire, Graham F; Ng, Dominic S

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON1), complexed with high-density lipoproteins, is the major lactonase in the circulation. Using 5-hydroxy eicosatetraenoate δ-lactone (5-HETEL) as the substrate, we observed lactonase activity in serum from Pon1-/- mice. However, 6-12 carbon fatty acid γ- and δ-lactones were not hydrolyzed in serum from Pon1-/- mice. Serum from both wild-type and Pon1-/- mice contained a lactonase activity towards 5-HETEL and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone that was resistant to inactivation by EDTA. This lactonase activity was sensitive to the serine esterase inhibitor phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride and co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by size-exclusion chromatography. Analysis of serum from the Es1e mouse strain, which has a deficiency in the carboxylesterase, ES-1, proved that this activity was due to ES-1. PON1 activity predominated at early time points (30 s), whereas both PON1 and ES-1 contributed equally at later time points (15 min). When both PON1 and ES-1 were inhibited, 5-HETEL was stable in mouse serum. Thus, while long-chain fatty acid lactones are substrates for PON1, they can be hydrolyzed by ES-1 at neutral pH. In contrast, medium-chain length fatty acid lactones are stable in mouse serum in the absence of PON1, suggesting that PON1 plays a specific role in the metabolism of these compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Excretion of Glycolate, Mesotartrate and Isocitrate Lactone by Synchronized Cultures of Ankistrodesmus braunii1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Hsein; Tolbert, N. E.

    1970-01-01

    Fixation of 14CO2 by synchronized cultures of Ankistrodesmus braunii was highest for young growing cells, low for mature cells, and lowest for dividing cells. The amount of 14C excreted during photosynthesis followed the same trend. Cells at the end of the growing phase, after 10 hours of a 16-hour light phase, excreted nearly 35% of the total 14C fixed as one product, glycolate. Dividing cells from the dark phase, when tested in the light, excreted only 4% as much glycolate-14C as the young growing cells. Dividing cells also excreted as much mesotartrate as glycolate and also some isocitrate lactone and an unidentified acid. None of these excreted acids were found inside the cells in significant amounts. Methods for isolation and identification of the excreted acids are present. With 14C-labeled algae, it was shown that the excretion of glycolate was light-dependent and inhibited by 1,1-dimethyl-3-(p-chlorophenyl) urea. The excretion of labeled mesotartrate, isocitrate lactone, and an unknown acid, but not glycolate, also occurred in the dark. The excreted mesotartrate was predominantly carboxyl-labeled even after long periods of 14CO2 fixation. Since glycolate is known to be uniformly labeled, glycolate could not be the precursor of the carboxyl-labeled mesotartrate. The reason for the specific excretion of glycolate, mesotartrate, and isocitrate lactone is not known, but the metabolism of all three acids by the algae may be limited and each can form dilactides or lactones by dehydration. In this context isocitrate lactone was excreted rather than the free acid. PMID:16657471

  3. Excretion of Glycolate, Mesotartrate and Isocitrate Lactone by Synchronized Cultures of Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Chang, W H; Tolbert, N E

    1970-09-01

    Fixation of (14)CO(2) by synchronized cultures of Ankistrodesmus braunii was highest for young growing cells, low for mature cells, and lowest for dividing cells. The amount of (14)C excreted during photosynthesis followed the same trend. Cells at the end of the growing phase, after 10 hours of a 16-hour light phase, excreted nearly 35% of the total (14)C fixed as one product, glycolate. Dividing cells from the dark phase, when tested in the light, excreted only 4% as much glycolate-(14)C as the young growing cells. Dividing cells also excreted as much mesotartrate as glycolate and also some isocitrate lactone and an unidentified acid. None of these excreted acids were found inside the cells in significant amounts. Methods for isolation and identification of the excreted acids are present. With (14)C-labeled algae, it was shown that the excretion of glycolate was light-dependent and inhibited by 1,1-dimethyl-3-(p-chlorophenyl) urea. The excretion of labeled mesotartrate, isocitrate lactone, and an unknown acid, but not glycolate, also occurred in the dark. The excreted mesotartrate was predominantly carboxyl-labeled even after long periods of (14)CO(2) fixation. Since glycolate is known to be uniformly labeled, glycolate could not be the precursor of the carboxyl-labeled mesotartrate. The reason for the specific excretion of glycolate, mesotartrate, and isocitrate lactone is not known, but the metabolism of all three acids by the algae may be limited and each can form dilactides or lactones by dehydration. In this context isocitrate lactone was excreted rather than the free acid.

  4. Production of N-acyl homoserine lactones by the sponge-associated marine actinobacteria Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica.

    PubMed

    Bose, Utpal; Ortori, Catharine A; Sarmad, Sarir; Barrett, David A; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P; Fuerst, John A; Shaw, P Nicholas; Boden, Rich

    2017-01-01

    The structures of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) compounds and their quantification were accomplished using an integrated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach. The precursor and product ions, along with retention times of peaks, were searched against an in-house database of AHLs and structures confirmed by accurate mass and by comparison with authentic AHL standards. The two compounds, N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, were characterised and quantified in Salinispora sp. cultures. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Synthesis of L-iduronic acid derivatives via [3.2.1] and [2.2.2] L-iduronic lactones from bulk glucose-derived cyanohydrin hydrolysis: a reversible conformationally switched superdisarmed/rearmed lactone route to heparin disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen U; Dalton, Charlotte E; Baráth, Marek; Kwan, Glenn; Raftery, James; Jayson, Gordon C; Miller, Gavin J; Gardiner, John M

    2015-04-17

    L-Idofuranoside cyanohydrin 1 is converted on large scale into a mixture of L-IdoA methyl pyranosides and furanosides, which is converged to provide short 2-step routes to bicyclic [3.2.1] or [2.2.2] L-iduronate lactones. The former is obtained via a 100 g scale synthesis of 3-OBn L-IdoA. A two-step conversion of this mixture provides either pure anomer of the novel [2.2.2] l-iduronate thioglycoside lactones. Both [3.2.1] and [2.2.2] lactones are converted into GlcN-IdoA heparin precursor disaccharides. The [2.2.2] lactone enables a scalable 3-step route from 1 to a new type of highly disarmed O-4 iduronate thioglycoside, which is an effective acceptor with glucoazide thioglycoside donors. The resulting new iduronic [2.2.2] lactone disaccharides are readily rearmed by mild methanolysis to provide GlcN-IdoA thiophenyl disaccharide donors, intercepting their established utility for the assembly of both heparin- and heparan sulfate-like oligosaccharides. The [2.2.2] lactonization acts as a conformational switch to superdisarm iduronate components, reversible by lactone ring opening. In addition, the separated 2,4-diacetates also provide short access to all four anomeric and ring size isomers of l-iduronic acid methyl glycosides, including the first syntheses of the parent idofuranosides. X-ray structures are reported for a [2.2.2] iduronate lactone and examples of both methyl L-idopyranoside and novel methyl-L-idofuranoside systems.

  6. Diversity-oriented synthesis of fused pyran gamma-lactones via an efficient Pd-thiourea-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylative annulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengtao; Gao, Yingxiang; Jiao, Zhaodong; Wu, Na; Wang, David Zhigang; Yang, Zhen

    2008-11-20

    We reported herein a diversity-oriented synthesis of a range of fused pyran-gamma-lactones that was effected through a versatile Pd-thiourea complex-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxycarbonylative annulation.

  7. Effects of α,β-unsaturated lactones on larval survival and gut trypsin as well as oviposition response of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Barros, Maria Ester S B; Freitas, Juliano C R; Santos, Geanne K N; da Silva, Rayane Cristine Santos; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Napoleão, Thiago H; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Menezes, Paulo H

    2015-09-01

    Lactones are organic cyclic esters that have been described as larvicides against Aedes aegypti and as components of oviposition pheromone of Culex quinquefasciatus. This work describes the effect of six α,β-unsaturated lactones (5a-5f) on survival of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4). It is also reported the effects of the lactones on L4 gut trypsin activity and oviposition behavior of A. aegypti females. Five lactones were able to kill L4 being the lactones 5a (LC50 of 39.05 ppm), 5e (LC50 of 36.30 ppm) and 5f (LC50 of 40.46 ppm) the most promising larvicides. Only the lactone 5a inhibited L4 gut trypsin activity, with an IC50 of 115.15 µg/mL. Lactones 5a, 5c, 5d and 5e did not exert deterrent or stimulatory effects on oviposition, whereas lactone 5b exhibited a strong deterrent oviposition activity. In conclusion, this work introduces new α,β-unsaturated lactones as promising alternatives to control A. aegypti dissemination. The larvicidal mechanism of the lactone 5a can involve the disruption of proteolysis at larval gut.

  8. Accumulation of Glycoconjugates of 3-Methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic Acid in Fruits, Leaves, and Shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following Foliar Applications of Oak Extract or Oak Lactone.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2015-05-13

    Grapevines are capable of absorbing volatile compounds present in the vineyard during the growing season, and in some cases, volatiles have been found to accumulate in fruits or leaves in glycoconjugate forms, that is, with one or more sugar moieties attached. The presence of oak lactone in wine is usually attributable to oak maturation, but oak lactone has been detected in wines made with fruit from grapevines treated with oak extract or oak lactone. This study investigated the accumulation of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (i.e., the ring-opened form of oak lactone) in the fruits, leaves, and shoots of Monastrell grapevines following foliar application of either oak extract or oak lactone at approximately 7 days postveraison. Fruits, leaves, and shoots were collected at three different time points, including at maturity. The oak lactone content of fruit was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with declining concentrations observed in fruit from grapevines treated with oak lactone with ripening. The concentrations of a β-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in fruits, leaves, and shoots was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the highest oak lactone glucoside levels observed in leaves of grapevines treated with oak lactone. A glucose-glucose disaccharide was also tentatively identified. These results demonstrate both ring-opening and glycosylation of oak lactone occurred after experimental treatments were imposed.

  9. The bacterial quorum-sensing molecule, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, inhibits mediator release and chemotaxis of murine mast cells.

    PubMed

    Khambati, Ibrahim; Han, Sangsu; Pijnenburg, Daniëlle; Jang, Hannah; Forsythe, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial colonization relies on communication between bacteria via so-called "quorum-sensing molecules", which include the acyl-homoserine lactone group. Certain acyl-homoserine lactones can modulate mammalian cell function and are thought to contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. Given the role of mast cells in host defense, we investigated the ability of acyl-homoserine lactones to modulate mast cell function. We utilized murine primary mast cell cultures to assess the effect of acyl-homoserine lactones on degranulation and cytokine release in response to different stimuli. We also assessed cell migration in response to chemoattractants. The effect of acyl-homoserine lactones in vivo was tested using a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model. Two of the tested quorum-sensing molecules, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and N-Dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, inhibited IgE dependent and independent degranulation and mediator release from primary mast cells. Further testing of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the most potent inhibitor and a product of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed that it also attenuated chemotaxis and LPS induced cytokine production. In vivo, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response in mice. The ability of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone to stabilize mast cells may contribute to the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa but could potentially be exploited therapeutically in allergic disease.

  10. N-acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing in Azospirillum: an exception rather than a rule.

    PubMed

    Vial, Ludovic; Cuny, Caroline; Gluchoff-Fiasson, Katia; Comte, Gilles; Oger, Phil M; Faure, Denis; Dessaux, Yves; Bally, René; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2006-11-01

    Forty Azospirillum strains were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL production was detected for four strains belonging to the lipoferum species and isolated from a rice rhizosphere. AHL molecules were structurally identified for two strains: Azospirillum lipoferum TVV3 produces 3O,C(8)-HSL (N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine-lactone), C(8)-HSL (N-3-octanoyl-homoserine-lactone), 3O,C(10)-HSL (N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone), 3OH,C(10)-HSL (N-3-hydroxy-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone) and C(10)-HSL (N-3-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone), whereas A. lipoferum B518 produced 3O,C(6)-HSL (N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine-lactone), C(6)-HSL (N-3-hexanoyl-homoserine-lactone), 3O,C(8)-HSL, 3OH,C(8)-HSL and C(8)-HSL. Genes involved in AHL production were characterized for A. lipoferum TVV3 by generating a genomic library and complementing an AHL-deficient strain with sensor capabilities. Those genes, designated alpI and alpR, were found to belong to the luxI and luxR families, respectively. When cloned in a suitable heterologous host, alpI and alpR could direct the synthesis of the five cognate AHLs present in A. lipoferum TVV3. These two adjacent genes were found to be located on a 85 kb plasmid. Southern hybridization experiments with probes alpI/R indicated that genes involved in AHL production in the three other AHL-producing strains were not closely related to alpI and alpR. This study demonstrates that AHL-based quorum-sensing is not widespread among the genus Azospirillum and could be found only in some A. lipoferum strains.

  11. Factors affecting the in vivo lactone stability and systemic clearance of the lipophilic camptothecin analogue AR-67.

    PubMed

    Adane, Eyob D; Liu, Zhiwei; Xiang, Tian-Xiang; Anderson, Bradley D; Leggas, Markos

    2010-07-01

    The narrow efficacy-toxicity window of anticancer agents necessitates understanding of factors contributing to their disposition. This is especially true for camptothecins as they exist in the lactone and carboxylate forms with each moiety differentially interacting with efflux or uptake transporters. Here we determined the disposition of the lactone and carboxylate forms of AR-67, a 3(rd) generation camptothecin analogue. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rats given intravenous boluses of AR-67 lactone or carboxylate with or without pharmacologic inhibitor pretreatment (GF120918 or rifampin). Pharmacokinetic modeling was used to estimate clearances, while simulations assessed the impact of clearance changes on overall AR-67 exposure. Our modeling showed that carboxylate clearance was 3.5-fold higher than that of the lactone. GF120918 decreased lactone clearance only, but rifampin decreased both lactone and carboxylate clearances. Simulations showed that decreasing carboxylate clearance, which controls the overall drug disposition, leads to significant increase in AR-67 exposure. The apparent in vivo blood stability of AR-67 is partly dependent on the increased carboxylate clearance. This may have clinical implications for populations with single nucleotide polymorphisms that impair the function of uptake transporter genes (e.g., SLCO1B1), which are potentially responsible for AR-67 carboxylate clearance.

  12. High-performance CE: an effective method to study lactonization of alpha2,8-linked oligosialic acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Mou-Chi; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2006-11-01

    A sensitive and efficient method using high-performance CE (HPCE) and neuraminidase hydrolysis was developed to study the lactonization and hydrolysis of alpha2,8-pentasialic acid. Eleven lactone species of pentasialic acid formed in glacial acetic acid were detected and classified into three groups based on the number of carboxylic acids: monolactones with four carboxylic acids, dilactones with three carboxylic acids, and trilactones with two carboxylic acids. These lactones eluted between the original pentamer (with five carboxylic acids) and the fully lactonized species (with one carboxylic acid) in HPCE. Eight of the isomers were identified by hydrolysis with neuraminodase. Results obtained from previous reports and from this study together reveal a general rule for predicting the subtle difference in the acidity of each carboxylic acid in oligosialic acids: the closer the carboxylic acid is to the nonreducing end, the more acidic it is. Therefore, the elution order of lactone isomers having the same number of carboxylic groups can be predicted from the position of the free carboxylic groups in pentasialic acid. We used this principle and the results of hydrolysis with neuraminidase to identify hexamer lactone isomers separated by HPCE.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis [corrected].

    PubMed

    LaRock, Christopher N; Yu, Jing; Horswill, Alexander R; Parsek, Matthew R; Minion, F Chris

    2013-01-01

    The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

  14. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2015-06-02

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  15. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2017-08-08

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  16. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Mair E.A.; Sibhatu, Hiruy M.; Uhlson, Charis L.

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample. PMID:21031311

  17. Evaluation of sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa on transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Damre, A A; Damre, A S; Saraf, M N

    2003-08-01

    The sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa roots was evaluated for its effect on the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats. The fraction (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of the increase in wet weight of the cotton pellet at 3 h (transudative phase), leakage of dye from the bloodstream around granuloma at 24 h (exudative phase) and increase in dry weight of the cotton pellet on day 6 (proliferative phase). It significantly lowered the elevated biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and significantly elevated the lowered albumin concentration in serum. The studies suggest that the antiinflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactone fraction of S. lappa may, in part, be due to stabilization of lysosomal membranes and an antiproliferative effect.

  18. Complexation of sesquiterpene lactones with cyclodextrins: synthesis and effects on their activities on parasitic weeds.

    PubMed

    Cala, Antonio; Molinillo, José M G; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Ayuso, Jesús; Álvarez, José A; Rubiales, Diego; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-08-09

    Allelochemicals are safer, more selective and more active alternatives than synthetic agrochemicals for weed control. However, the low solubility of these compounds in aqueous media limits their use as agrochemicals. Herein, we propose the application of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins to improve the physicochemical properties and biological activities of three sesquiterpene lactones: dehydrocostuslactone, costunolide and (-)-α-santonin. Complexation was achieved by kneading and coprecipitation methods. Aqueous solubility was increased in the range 100-4600% and the solubility-phase diagrams suggested that complex formation had been successful. The results of the PM3 semiempirical calculations were consistent with the experimental results. The activities on etiolated wheat coleoptiles, Standard Target Species and parasitic weeds were improved. Cyclodextrins preserved or enhanced the activity of the three sesquiterpene lactones. Free cyclodextrins did not show significant activity and therefore the enhancement in activity was due to complexation. These results are promising for applications in agrochemical design.

  19. Defining the structure and function of acyl-homoserine lactone autoinducers.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Mair E A; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Uhlson, Charis L

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing plays a central role in regulating many community-derived symbiotic and pathogenic relationships of bacteria, and as such has attracted much attention in recent years. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are important signaling molecules in the quorum sensing gene-regulatory processes found in numerous gram-negative species of bacteria that interact with eukaryotic organisms. AHLs are produced by acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. Bacteria can have multiple genes for AHL synthase enzymes, and such species are likely to produce several different types of AHLs. Determination of the types and the relative amounts of AHLs produced by AHL synthases in bacteria under varied conditions provides important insights into the mechanism of AHL synthase function and the regulation of transcriptional cascades initiated by quorum sensing signaling. This chapter describes a mass spectrometry method for determining the types and relative amounts of AHLs present in a sample.

  20. Isolation of two new bioactive sesquiterpene lactone glycosides from the roots of Ixeris dentata.

    PubMed

    Park, SeonJu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Nanyoung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Chae, Han-Jung; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-15

    Two new sesquiterpene lactone glycosides, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-hydroxy-(1,5,6,7,11)-guaia-3,10(14)-dien-12,6-olide (1) and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-(4-hydroxyphenylacetyloxy)-(1.5.6,7)-guaia-3,10(14),11(13)-trien-12,6-olide (2), and 12 known sesquiterpene lactone derivatives (3-14) were isolated from the roots of Ixeris dentata. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra data. All compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 microglial cell. 3-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl-8-(4-hydroxyphenylacetyloxy)-(1.5.6,7)-guaia-3,10(14),11(13)-trien-12,6-olide (2) showed the most potent inhibitory activity at a concentration of 20μM.

  1. Kinase inhibition by deoxy analogues of the resorcylic lactone L-783277.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Marc; Neuhaus, Christian; Hofmann, Tatjana; Fransioli-Ignazio, Luca; Jordi, Michel; Drueckes, Peter; Trappe, Jörg; Fabbro, Doriano; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-13

    The natural product L-783277 is a resorcylic lactone type covalent kinase inhibitor. We have prepared the 5'-deoxy analogue of L-783277 (1) in a stereoselective fashion. Remarkably, this analogue retains almost the full kinase inhibitory potential of natural L-783277, with low nanomolar IC50 values against the most sensitive kinases, and it exhibits essentially the same selectivity profile (within the panel of 39 kinases investigated). In contrast, removal of both the 4'- and the 5'-hydroxyl groups leads to a more significant reduction in kinase inhibitory activity and so does a change in the geometry of the C7'-C8' double bond in 1 from Z to E. These findings offer new perspectives for the design of second generation resorcylic lactone-based kinase inhibitors.

  2. gfp-Based N-Acyl Homoserine-Lactone Sensor Systems for Detection of Bacterial Communication

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Heydorn, Arne; Hentzer, Morten; Eberl, Leo; Geisenberger, Otto; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Molin, So/ren; Givskov, Michael

    2001-01-01

    In order to perform single-cell analysis and online studies of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated communication among bacteria, components of the Vibrio fischeri quorum sensor encoded by luxR-PluxI have been fused to modified versions of gfpmut3∗ genes encoding unstable green fluorescent proteins. Bacterial strains harboring this green fluorescent sensor detected a broad spectrum of AHL molecules and were capable of sensing the presence of 5 nM N-3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone in the surroundings. In combination with epifluorescent microscopy, the sensitivity of the sensor enabled AHL detection at the single-cell level and allowed for real-time measurements of fluctuations in AHL concentrations. This green fluorescent AHL sensor provides a state-of-the-art tool for studies of communication between the individuals present in mixed bacterial communities. PMID:11157219

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolysis by paraoxonases.

    PubMed

    Teiber, John F; Draganov, Dragomir I

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian paraoxonases (PONs) are a unique, highly conserved family of calcium-dependent esterases consisting of PON1, PON2, and PON3. The PONs can hydrolyze the lactone ring of a range of N-acyl-L: -homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules, rendering them inactive. This chapter describes a method that utilizes high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection for determining the rate of AHL hydrolysis in cell lysates, tissue homogenates, serum, and with purified proteins. Also described are the techniques used to prepare cell culture lysates and tissue homogenates for analysis and the use of class-specific enzyme inhibitors to determine the contribution of PONs to AHL hydrolysis in the samples.

  4. A β-lactone-based antivirulence drug ameliorates Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Weinandy, Franziska; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Korotkov, Vadim S; Böttcher, Thomas; Sethi, Shneh; Chakraborty, Trinad; Sieber, Stephan A

    2014-04-01

    Skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are a major clinical concern, especially if they are caused by multi-resistant strains. In these cases, a spread into deeper soft tissues or the bloodstream results in life-threatening conditions that are difficult to treat by conventional antibiotics. Previous in vitro experiments with a small β-lactone-based molecule demonstrated that antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus strains are effectively disarmed in their virulence and corresponding pathogenicity. In this work, in vivo mouse studies show that this methodology is effective for the treatment of skin abscesses in mice. A single dose of the β-lactone significantly decreased abscess size even when applied 6 h post-infection. Although the molecule requires pharmacological optimization (improved stability, for example), this study emphasizes the potential value of antivirulence therapies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Lactone form of stachybotrydial: a new inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from stachybotrys sp. FN298.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun-Ju; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Won-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) has been confirmed to be a novel target for antibacterial drug development. In this study, we determined that a fungal metabolite from Stachybotrys sp. FN298 can inhibit the DHFR of Staphylococcus aureus. Its structure was identified as a lactone form of stachybotrydial using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. This compound inhibited S. aureus DHFR with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 41 µM. It also prevented the growth of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 32 µg·mL(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first description of a DHFR inhibitor of microbial origin. The inhibitory function of the lactone form of stachybotrydial highlights its potential for development into a new broad-spectrum antibacterial agent and as an agent against MRSA.

  6. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activity of precocene derivatives with lactone moiety.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Maryla; Obara, Robert; Szumny, Antoni; Gabryś, Beata; Halarewicz-Pacan, Aleksandra; Nawrot, Jan; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2005-07-27

    Starting from precocenes I and II, four of their derivatives with a lactone moiety were obtained. The compounds have been assessed as antifeedants against several diverse insect species including the storage pests the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv., larvae and adults), the granary weevil beetle (Sitophilus granarius L., adults), and the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Ev., larvae) and against the herbivorous pest insects Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, adults and larvae) and aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz.). Precocenes, especially precocene II, showed a very strong antifeedant effect against all storage pests and aphids. The introduction of a lactone moiety caused a decrease in antifeedant activity against these species. Both precocenes were moderately active against L. decemlineata adults. The best antifeedants to this species were precocene derivatives, especially iodolactones. The introduction of iodine into a molecule had a great effect on the antifeedant activity of those compounds.

  7. 12α-Hy­droxy-3,27-dioxooleanano-28,13-lactone

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun-yi; Wu, Gang-gang; Xu, Ying-qian; Xiao, Guo-yong; Lei, Peng

    2012-01-01

    There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H44O5. They comprise a triterpenoid skeleton of five six-membered rings and a five-membered lactone ring. The five six-membered rings are all trans-fused. In both independent mol­ecules the D rings adopt a slightly distorted half-chair conformation due the presence of the lactone ring while the other four six-membered rings all adopt chair conformations. The characteristic carbon–carbon double bond of the oleanoic skeleton is absent. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the hy­droxy and carbonyl groups occur in the crystal structure. PMID:22719397

  8. Cascade Synthesis of Five-Membered Lactones using Biomass-Derived Sugars as Carbon Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sho; Matsuo, Takeaki; Motokura, Ken; Miyaji, Akimitsu; Baba, Toshihide

    2016-06-06

    We report the cascade synthesis of five-membered lactones from a biomass-derived triose sugar, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and various aldehydes. This achievement provides a new synthetic strategy to generate a wide range of valuable compounds from a single biomass-derived sugar. Among several examined Lewis acid catalysts, homogeneous tin chloride catalysts exhibited the best performance to form carbon-carbon bonds. The scope and limitations of the synthesis of five-membered lactones using aldehyde compounds are investigated. The cascade reaction led to high product selectivity as well as diastereoselectivity, and the mechanism leading to the diastereoselectivity was discussed based on isomerization experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The present results are expected to support new approaches for the efficient utilization of biomass-derived sugars.

  9. Design of Countercurrent Separation of Ginkgo biloba Terpene Lactones by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feng; Friesen, Brent J.; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established. Taking advantage of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) methodology, partition coefficients (K) of individual terpene lactones were calculated directly from crude G. biloba leaf extract, using their H-12 signals as distinguishing feature. The partitioning experiment assisted the design of a two dimensional (2D) HSCCC procedure using a pair of orthogonal HSCCC solvent systems (SSs), ChMWat +4 and HEMSoWat +3/0.05%. It was surprising that the resolution of ginkgolides A and B was improved by 25% in the HEMWat +3 SS modified with 0.5% DMSO. Consequently, all five terpene lactones could be well separated with qHNMR purity > 95% from G. biloba leaf extract. The separation was further evaluated by offline qHNMR analysis of HSCCC fractions associated with Gaussian curve fitting. The results showed less than 2% error in HSCCC retention predicted from the partitioning experiment. This compelling consistency demonstrates that qHNMR-derived K determination (“K-by-NMR”) can be used to predict CCC fractionation and target purification of analytes from complex mixtures. Furthermore, Gaussian curve fitting enabled an accurate prediction of less than 2% impurity in the CCC fraction, which demonstrates its potential as a powerful tool to study the presence of minor constituents, especially when they are beyond the detection limit of conventional spectroscopic detectors. PMID:22579361

  10. Amino acid-derived heterocycles as combinatorial library targets: spirocyclic ketal lactones.

    PubMed

    Trump, Ryan P; Bartlett, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    The spirocyclic ketal-lactone frameworks of 3 and 4 were designed as novel structures amenable to combinatorial synthesis. The synthesis of representative analogues was developed in solution and on solid support, the scope of effective input materials was determined, and the stability and stereochemistry of the products was evaluated. The spirocycles are obtained in modest overall yields (5-36%) and excellent purities (>72%) and offer a promising motif for combinatorial prospecting libraries.

  11. Quorum Quenching: Enzymatic Disruption of N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Mediated Bacterial Communication in Burkholderia thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Ricky L.

    2004-01-01

    Many species of gram-negative bacteria communicate by synthesizing, secreting, and responding to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), a mechanism termed quorum sensing. Several investigations have characterized numerous AHL-degrading enzymes (AiiA lactonases) encoded by environmental isolates of Bacillus spp. The Burkholderia thailandensis quorum system is comprised of at least three AHL synthases (AHSs) and five transcriptional regulators belonging to the LuxIR class of proteins. Expression of the Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) AiiA lactonase in B. thailandensis completely abolished the accumulation of N-decanoylhomoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), reduced N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL) levels, altered both swarming and twitching motility, caused a significant increase in generation time, and affected carbon metabolism. In contrast, heterologous expression of the Bacillus cereus strain A24 AiiA lactonase in B. thailandensis reduced the concentrations of C6-HSL, C8-HSL, and C10-HSL to nondetectable levels; altered both swarming and twitching motility; and caused fluctuations in carbon utilization. Individual disruption of the B. thailandensis AHSs, specifically disruption of the btaI1 and btaI3 genes, which encode the proteins that direct the synthesis of C8-HSL and C6-HSL, respectively, caused the hyper-beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes on blood agar plates. In contrast, AHL cleavage in B. thailandensis by the Bacillus AiiA lactonases failed to enhance beta-hemolytic activity. The results of this study demonstrate that heterologous expression of Bacillus sp. AiiA lactonases in B. thailandensis reduced AHL accumulation, affected both swarming and twitching motility, increased generation time, altered substrate utilization, and prevented the beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes. PMID:15466564

  12. Quorum quenching: enzymatic disruption of N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated bacterial communication in Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Ricky L

    2004-10-01

    Many species of gram-negative bacteria communicate by synthesizing, secreting, and responding to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), a mechanism termed quorum sensing. Several investigations have characterized numerous AHL-degrading enzymes (AiiA lactonases) encoded by environmental isolates of Bacillus spp. The Burkholderia thailandensis quorum system is comprised of at least three AHL synthases (AHSs) and five transcriptional regulators belonging to the LuxIR class of proteins. Expression of the Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) AiiA lactonase in B. thailandensis completely abolished the accumulation of N-decanoylhomoserine lactone (C(10)-HSL) and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C(8)-HSL), reduced N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C(6)-HSL) levels, altered both swarming and twitching motility, caused a significant increase in generation time, and affected carbon metabolism. In contrast, heterologous expression of the Bacillus cereus strain A24 AiiA lactonase in B. thailandensis reduced the concentrations of C(6)-HSL, C(8)-HSL, and C(10)-HSL to nondetectable levels; altered both swarming and twitching motility; and caused fluctuations in carbon utilization. Individual disruption of the B. thailandensis AHSs, specifically disruption of the btaI1 and btaI3 genes, which encode the proteins that direct the synthesis of C(8)-HSL and C(6)-HSL, respectively, caused the hyper-beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes on blood agar plates. In contrast, AHL cleavage in B. thailandensis by the Bacillus AiiA lactonases failed to enhance beta-hemolytic activity. The results of this study demonstrate that heterologous expression of Bacillus sp. AiiA lactonases in B. thailandensis reduced AHL accumulation, affected both swarming and twitching motility, increased generation time, altered substrate utilization, and prevented the beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes.

  13. Physalindicanols, New Biogenetic Precursors of C28-Steroidal Lactones from Physalis minima var. indica.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S C; Ali, A; Bagchi, A; Sahai, M; Ray, A B

    1987-02-01

    The structures of two isomeric C (28)-sterols isolated from PHYSALIS MINIMA Linn. var. INDICA were elucidated as ergosta-5,25-dien-3beta,24zeta,-diol and ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta,25-diol on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The isolated sterols are regarded as precursors in the elaboration of complex C (28)-steroidal lactones, native in this plant and related species.

  14. Development of Acid Functional Groups and Lactones During the Thermal Degradation of Wood and Wood Components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, David W.; Wershaw, Robert L.; Reeves, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (pyrogenic materials including chars) in soils has been recognized as a substantial portion of soil organic matter, and has been shown to play a vital role in nutrient cycling; however, little is known concerning the properties of this material. Previous studies have largely been concerned with the creation of high-surface-area materials for use as sorbents. These materials have been manufactured at high temperature and have often been activated. Chars occurring in the environment can be formed over a wide range of temperature. Because it is extremely difficult to isolate black carbon once it has been incorporated in soils, chars produced in the laboratory under controlled conditions can be used to investigate the range of properties possible for natural chars. This report shows that charring conditions (temperature and time) have substantial impact on the acid functional group and lactone content of chars. Low temperatures (250?C) and long charring times (greater than 72 hours) produce chars with the highest acid functional group and lactone content. The charring of cellulose appears to be responsible for the creation of the acid functional group and lactones. The significance of this study is that low-temperature chars can have acid functional group contents comparable to humic materials (as high as 8.8 milliequivalents per gram). Acid functional group and lactone content decreases as charring temperature increases. The variation in formation conditions expected under natural fire conditions will result in a wide range of sorption properties for natural chars which are an important component of soil organic matter. By controlling the temperature and duration of charring, it is possible to tailor the sorption properties of chars, which may be used as soil amendments.

  15. Quorum quenching by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Sio, Charles F; Otten, Linda G; Cool, Robbert H; Diggle, Stephen P; Braun, Peter G; Bos, Rein; Daykin, Mavis; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Quax, Wim J

    2006-03-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase that removes the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone (HSL) nucleus of AHL-dependent quorum-sensing signal molecules. Analysis showed that the posttranslational processing of the acylase and the hydrolysis reaction type are similar to those of the beta-lactam acylases, strongly suggesting that the PA2385 protein is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. In a bioassay, the purified acylase was shown to degrade AHLs with side chains ranging in length from 11 to 14 carbons at physiologically relevant low concentrations. The substituent at the 3' position of the side chain did not affect activity, indicating broad-range AHL quorum-quenching activity. Of the two main AHL signal molecules of P. aeruginosa PAO1, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), only 3-oxo-C12-HSL is degraded by the enzyme. Addition of the purified protein to P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures completely inhibited accumulation of 3-oxo-C12-HSL and production of the signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone and reduced production of the virulence factors elastase and pyocyanin. Similar results were obtained when the PA2385 gene was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that the protein has in situ quorum-quenching activity. The quorum-quenching AHL acylase may enable P. aeruginosa PAO1 to modulate its own quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenic potential and, moreover, offers possibilities for novel antipseudomonal therapies.

  16. Quorum Quenching by an N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sio, Charles F.; Otten, Linda G.; Cool, Robbert H.; Diggle, Stephen P.; Braun, Peter G.; Bos, Rein; Daykin, Mavis; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Quax, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 is controlled by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing system. During functional analysis of putative acylase genes in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, the PA2385 gene was found to encode an acylase that removes the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone (HSL) nucleus of AHL-dependent quorum-sensing signal molecules. Analysis showed that the posttranslational processing of the acylase and the hydrolysis reaction type are similar to those of the beta-lactam acylases, strongly suggesting that the PA2385 protein is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. In a bioassay, the purified acylase was shown to degrade AHLs with side chains ranging in length from 11 to 14 carbons at physiologically relevant low concentrations. The substituent at the 3′ position of the side chain did not affect activity, indicating broad-range AHL quorum-quenching activity. Of the two main AHL signal molecules of P. aeruginosa PAO1, N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL), only 3-oxo-C12-HSL is degraded by the enzyme. Addition of the purified protein to P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures completely inhibited accumulation of 3-oxo-C12-HSL and production of the signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone and reduced production of the virulence factors elastase and pyocyanin. Similar results were obtained when the PA2385 gene was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa. These results demonstrate that the protein has in situ quorum-quenching activity. The quorum-quenching AHL acylase may enable P. aeruginosa PAO1 to modulate its own quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenic potential and, moreover, offers possibilities for novel antipseudomonal therapies. PMID:16495538

  17. Enantioselective Trifluoromethylthiolating Lactonization Catalyzed by an Indane-Based Chiral Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; An, Rui; Zhang, Xuelin; Luo, Jie; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2016-05-04

    Enantioselective trifluoromethylthiolation, especially of alkenes, is a challenging task. In this work, we have developed an efficient approach for enantioselective trifluoromethylthiolating lactonization by designing an indane-based bifunctional chiral sulfide catalyst and a shelf-stable electrophilic SCF3 reagent. The desired products were formed with diastereoselectivities of >99:1 and good to excellent enantioselectivities. The transformation represents the first enantioselective trifluoromethylthiolation of alkenes and the first enantioselective trifluoromethylthiolation that is enabled by a catalyst with a Lewis basic sulfur center.

  18. Two lactones in the androconial scent of the lycaenid butterfly Celastrina argiolus ladonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ômura, Hisashi; Yakumaru, Kazuhisa; Honda, Keiichi; Itoh, Takao

    2013-04-01

    Male adult butterflies of many species have characteristic odors originating from the disseminating organs known as androconia. Despite the fact that androconia exist in several species, there have been few investigations on adult scents from the lycaenid species. Celastrina argiolus ladonides (Lycaenidae) is a common species in Eurasia. We have reported that male adults of this species emit a faint odor, and the major components causing this odor have been newly found in the Insecta. By using field-caught individuals, we determined the chemical nature and location of this odor in the butterfly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that two lactone compounds, lavender lactone and δ-decalactone, are present in the extracts of males but absent in those of the females. On an average, approximately 50 ng of each compound was found per male. Chiral GC analyses performed using enantiomerically pure standards revealed that the natural lavender lactone was a mixture of two enantiomers with an R/ S ratio of 32:68, whereas the natural δ-decalactone contained only the R-enantiomer. When the analyses were conducted using different parts—forewings, hindwings, and body—of three males, the lactones were more abundantly found on the forewings and hindwings than on the body. Microscopic observation of the wings demonstrated that battledore scales known as androconia are scattered on the upper surface of both the wings of C. argiolus ladonides males. These results indicate that the specialized scales on the wings of males serve as scent-disseminating organs.

  19. Two lactones in the androconial scent of the lycaenid butterfly Celastrina argiolus ladonides.

    PubMed

    Ômura, Hisashi; Yakumaru, Kazuhisa; Honda, Keiichi; Itoh, Takao

    2013-04-01

    Male adult butterflies of many species have characteristic odors originating from the disseminating organs known as androconia. Despite the fact that androconia exist in several species, there have been few investigations on adult scents from the lycaenid species. Celastrina argiolus ladonides (Lycaenidae) is a common species in Eurasia. We have reported that male adults of this species emit a faint odor, and the major components causing this odor have been newly found in the Insecta. By using field-caught individuals, we determined the chemical nature and location of this odor in the butterfly. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that two lactone compounds, lavender lactone and δ-decalactone, are present in the extracts of males but absent in those of the females. On an average, approximately 50 ng of each compound was found per male. Chiral GC analyses performed using enantiomerically pure standards revealed that the natural lavender lactone was a mixture of two enantiomers with an R/S ratio of 32:68, whereas the natural δ-decalactone contained only the R-enantiomer. When the analyses were conducted using different parts-forewings, hindwings, and body-of three males, the lactones were more abundantly found on the forewings and hindwings than on the body. Microscopic observation of the wings demonstrated that battledore scales known as androconia are scattered on the upper surface of both the wings of C. argiolus ladonides males. These results indicate that the specialized scales on the wings of males serve as scent-disseminating organs.

  20. Stereodivergent organocatalytic intramolecular Michael addition/lactonization for the asymmetric synthesis of substituted dihydrobenzofurans and tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Belmessieri, Dorine; de la Houpliere, Alix; Calder, Ewen D D; Taylor, James E; Smith, Andrew D

    2014-07-28

    A stereodivergent asymmetric Lewis base catalyzed Michael addition/lactonization of enone acids into substituted dihydrobenzofuran and tetrahydrofuran derivatives is reported. Commercially available (S)-(-)-tetramisole hydrochloride gives products with high syn diastereoselectivity in excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99:1 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eesyn ), whereas using a cinchona alkaloid derived catalyst gives the corresponding anti-diastereoisomers as the major product (up to 10:90 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eeanti ).

  1. Lactones 35 [1]. Metabolism of iodolactones with cyclohexane ring in Absidia cylindrospora culture.

    PubMed

    Gładkowski, Witold; Mazur, Marcelina; Białońska, Agata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2011-04-07

    The metabolism of δ-iodo-γ-lactones containing cyclohexane ring with an increasing number of methyl substituents in Absidia cylindrospora was studied and seven metabolites were isolated as the products of biotransformations of these substrates. They were formed as the result of various dehalogenation pathways and four of them (hydroxylactones and epoxylactone) turned out to be new compounds. The conversion of substrates ranged from 60% to 90% and the highest conversion was observed for the iodolactone with an unsubstituted cyclohexane ring. The products were fully characterized by the spectroscopic methods and for the hydroxylactone with gem-dimethyl group at C-5 and hydroxylactone with trimethylcyclohexane system the crystal structures were obtained. The main products formed in the process of hydrolytic dehalogenation were δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones with the hydroxy group located cis in relation to lactone moiety. In case of lactone with 4,4,6-trimethylcyclohexane system the dehydrohalogenation followed by the epoxidation of double bond was also observed. One of the metabolites 4,5-epoxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-8-one was formed in the sequence of three reactions: hydroxylation at C-5, translactonization and intramolecular nucleophilic substitution of the iodine by the hydroxy group. Some of the isolated products of transformation of the iodolactone with trimethylcyclohexane system were obtained as the single enantiomers. The application of fungi studied to the dehalogenation of iodolactones could be a useful method in the production of new metabolites with oxygen-containing functional groups with antifeedant activity.

  2. Dehydrocostus lactone, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, suppresses the biological characteristics of glioma, through inhibition of the NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway by targeting IKKβ

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinkui; Yu, Zhenlong; Wang, Chao; Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yan; Sun, Chengpeng; Feng, Lei; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Baojing; Yang, Qining; Ma, Xiaochi; Xu, Yinghui

    2017-01-01

    Dehydrocostus lactone (DHE), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has been used for treatment of various diseases with its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it has caused extensive interest in researchers due to it has anti-cancer abilities in some types of carcinomas. However, the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of DHE in glioma remains unclear. The present study conducted to determine the biological effects of DHE on the glioblastoma cells, as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects. After treatment with DHE, the glioblastoma (U118, U251 or U87) cells were significantly inhibited in their viability, proliferation and migration. At the meantime, DHE also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by promoting the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, which activating caspase signaling pathway. Furthermore, our results fully demonstrate that DHE significantly suppressed COX-2 expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IKKβ via targeting the ATP-binding site, thereby abrogating NF-κB binding and p300 recruitment to COX-2 promoter. Moreover, the current study firstly demonstrated that DHE can cross blood-brain barrier (BBB). In addition, treatment with DHE markedly inhibited neoplastic weight and volume without the notable adverse effects in the xenograft nude mice model, and these effects may be mediated through inhibition of the IKKβ/NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway. These findings provide the pharmacological evidence for development of DHE as a potential agent against glioma. PMID:28670490

  3. Short Chain N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Production by Clinical Multidrug Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain CSG20

    PubMed Central

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Cheng, Huey Jia; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in clinical practice. It is associated with a wide range of disorders, ranging from superficial skin and soft tissue infections to potentially fatal sepsis in the lungs and blood stream. Quorum sensing, or bacterial cell-cell communication, refers to population density-dependent gene expression modulation. Quorum sensing in Proteobacteria relies on the production and sensing of signaling molecules which are mostly N-acylhomoserine lactones. Here, we report the identification of a multidrug resistant clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae strain CSG20, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We further confirmed quorum sensing activity in this strain with the use of high resolution tandem liquid chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry and provided evidence K. pneumoniae strain CSG20 produced N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL) in clinical isolate K. pneumoniae. PMID:24284772

  4. Improvement of bioelectrochemical property and energy recovery by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Anzhou; Ren, Ge; Li, Zhiling; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Wang, Aijie

    2015-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been extensively studied as a cell-cell communication system, where small chemical signal molecules (acylhomoserine lactones, AHLs) can regulate the bacterial communications in bioelectrochemical systems via chemical signaling and electric signaling. In this study, electrochemical activity of bio-anode is substantially promoted by adding two kinds of AHLs with different chain length at the stage of community formation in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yield increase is observed by adding of two chain length AHLs, 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL). A higher MEC current is acquired with addition of 3OC6-HSL than 3OC12-HSL at a fixed voltage of 0.8 V (vs. SHE). The highest yield is up to 3.8 ± 0.2 mol H2 mol-1 acetate at 10 μM 3OC6-HSL, which is increased 29% over control MECs. Evaluated on applied voltage, energy efficiency is increased to 171.6 ± 21.3% with short chain AHL, however, no significant improvement is performed on energy efficiency and coulombic efficiency with long-chain AHL. The study shows that bioelectrochemical characteristics of MECs varied on the chain length of AHL signal molecules and short-chain AHLs have a more positive effect on electron transfer and energy recovery in MECs.

  5. Short chain N-acylhomoserine lactone production by clinical multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain CSG20.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Yun Fong; Cheng, Huey Jia; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-11-07

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in clinical practice. It is associated with a wide range of disorders, ranging from superficial skin and soft tissue infections to potentially fatal sepsis in the lungs and blood stream. Quorum sensing, or bacterial cell-cell communication, refers to population density-dependent gene expression modulation. Quorum sensing in Proteobacteria relies on the production and sensing of signaling molecules which are mostly N-acylhomoserine lactones. Here, we report the identification of a multidrug resistant clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae strain CSG20, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We further confirmed quorum sensing activity in this strain with the use of high resolution tandem liquid chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry and provided evidence K. pneumoniae strain CSG20 produced N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the production of N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL) in clinical isolate K. pneumoniae.

  6. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a background to current concerns relative to the possible resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones, this review summarizes various studies in which lack of efficacies (LOEs) have been observed in dogs on macrocyclic lactone preventives relative to the United States of America. Some of these studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, others have appeared in various reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA as New Animal Drug Application (NADA) summaries, and one appeared as a letter to US veterinarians. This review also discusses reports relating to the potential problem of heartworm resistance in microfilariae and third-stage larvae, as well as molecular markers associated with resistance to macrocyclic lactones within Dirofilaria immitis. As more work is being done in this area of great concern relative to the protection of dogs from infection using this class of preventives, it seems timely to summarize what is known about heartworms, their potential resistance to treatment, and the means of selecting for resistance genes in populations of this helminth in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:22776618

  7. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on lactones in beef headspace during storage.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Imanari, M; Higuchi, M; Shiba, N; Yonai, M

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) on the production of lactones, a desirable flavor in Wagyu beef (Japanese Black Cattle), in meat headspace. Fresh beef was minced and divided into 4 groups containing different alpha-Toc levels (1.9, 2.7, 6.1, and 10.7 mg/kg) or packed with oxygen absorber. After 10 d of storage at 2 °C, these samples were cooked in distilled water and rendered fat was collected. The headspace of the fat was analyzed with solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The DB-17MS capillary column led to good separation of aliphatic lactones. Oxygen was important for the development of all lactones during storage. The amounts of gamma-octalactone and gamma-nonalactone decreased linearly with increasing alpha-Toc levels. The effect of alpha-Toc on delta-decalactone, delta-undecalactone, and delta-tetoradecalactone was weaker, and that on delta-hexadecalactone was ambiguous. These observations suggest that oxidation was necessary to develop the flavor of Wagyu beef, and warn that an excessive increase of alpha-Toc could reduce levels of positive flavor components, gamma-octalactone and gamma-nonalactone, in the headspace of Wagyu beef.

  8. Heliolactone, a non-sesquiterpene lactone germination stimulant for root parasitic weeds from sunflower.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kotomi; Furumoto, Toshio; Umeda, Shuhei; Mizutani, Masaharu; Takikawa, Hirosato; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2014-12-01

    Root exudates of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) line 2607A induced germination of seeds of root parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche cumana, Orobanche minor, Orobanche crenata, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of a germination stimulant designated as heliolactone. FT-MS analysis indicated a molecular formula of C20H24O6. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies established a methylfuranone group, a common structural component of strigolactones connected to a methyl ester of a C14 carboxylic acid via an enol ether bridge. The cyclohexenone ring is identical to that of 3-oxo-α-ionol and the other part of the molecule corresponds to an oxidized carlactone at C-19. It is a carlactone-type molecule and functions as a germination stimulant for seeds of root parasitic weeds. Heliolactone induced seed germination of the above mentioned root parasitic weeds, while dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, sesquiterpene lactones isolated from sunflower root exudates, were effective only on O. cumana and O. minor. Heliolactone production in aquacultures increased when sunflower seedlings were grown hydroponically in tap water and decreased on supplementation of the culture with either phosphorus or nitrogen. Costunolide, on the other hand, was detected at a higher concentration in well-nourished medium as opposed to nutrient-deficient media, thus suggesting a contrasting contribution of heliolactone and the sesquiterpene lactone to the germination of O. cumana under different soil fertility levels.

  9. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, A; Jeyachandran, R; Cindrella, L; Thangadurai, D; Veerapur, V P; Muralidhara Rao, D

    2010-06-01

    The hepatocurative potential of ethanolic extract (ETO) and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The diagnostic markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin contents were significantly elevated, whereas significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation, liver weight and liver protein were observed in CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. Further, significant reduction in the liver weight and liver protein in drug-treated hepatotoxic mice and also reduced oxidative stress by increasing reduced glutathione content and decreasing lipid peroxidation level has been noticed. The histopathological evaluation of the liver also revealed that ETO and SL reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl 4 . The results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones have a protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by the administration of CCl 4 in mice. Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method.

  10. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production by Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Human Tongue Surface

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Chan, Xin-Yue; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria communicate by producing quorum sensing molecules called autoinducers, which include autoinducer-1, an N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (AHL), and autoinducer-2. Bacteria present in the human oral cavity have been shown to produce autoinducer-2, but not AHL. Here, we report the isolation of two AHL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue of a healthy individual. Spent culture supernatant extracts from K. pneumoniae activated the biosensors Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) and Escherichia coli [pSB401], suggesting the presence of both long and short chain AHLs. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses of these extracts confirmed that both K. pneumoniae isolates produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone and N-3-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of K. pneumoniae from the posterior dorsal surface of the human tongue and the production of these AHLs by this bacterium. PMID:22737019

  11. DFT study on hydroxy acid-lactone interconversion of statins: The case of fluvastatin.

    PubMed

    Grabarkiewicz, Tomasz; Grobelny, Pawel; Hoffmann, Marcin; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

    2006-12-07

    Fluvastatin is a member of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor family of drugs, commonly referred to as statins. It is generally known that, under physiological conditions, statins are susceptible to pH-dependent interconversion between their active (hydroxy acid) and inactive (lactone) forms. The mechanism of this interconversion, under both acidic and basic conditions, was investigated theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT) method. Regardless of the conditions, the lactone form was always higher in energy by 6-19 kcal mol(-1). However, under basic conditions, the activation barrier for the hydrolysis was significantly lower (9 kcal mol(-1)) than for the reverse reaction (28 kcal mol(-1)), making the lactone form unstable. The activation barriers under acidic conditions were of comparable height in both directions (22 and 28 kcal mol(-1)), making the occurrence of both forms equally probable. Due to the high activation barrier (>40 kcal mol(-1)), a one-step, direct interconversion between the two forms turned out to be unfavourable. Moreover, the potential energy surface of fluvastatin was briefly inspected, revealing relatively small energetic differences (<5 kcal mol(-1)) between the key conformers.

  12. Reversal of cocaine-induced planarian behavior by parthenolide and related sesquiterpene lactones.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Oné R; Rowlands, Amanda L; Azam, Mahrukh; Urban, Kimberly R; Bidja, Apurva H; Roy, Danielle M; Feeney, Ryan B; Afshari, Lilly K

    2008-04-01

    Here we report the prevention and reversal of cocaine-induced behaviors in planarian worms by parthenolide and two related cyclic sesquiterpene lactones (SL), costunolide and santonin. Using established protocols, we studied two cocaine-induced behavioral effects in planaria; the induction of motility decrease and the induction of C-like hyperkinesia. Cocaine, parthenolide, costunolide, santonin, and a lactone-less cyclic sesquiterpene, beta-eudesmol, decreased planarian motility in a concentration-dependent manner. Only cocaine induced C-like hyperkinesia. At concentrations that did not show any motility decrease, parthenolide, costunolide and santonin, but not beta-eudesmol, significantly reduced the cocaine-induced motility decrease and C-like hyperkinesia, in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, parthenolide, costunolide and santonin were able to rescue planaria from C-like hyperkinesia, after the worms were exposed to cocaine. Conversely, cocaine at a concentration that did not show any measurable effects (10 microM), was able to alleviate the SL-, but not the beta-eudesmol-induced motility decrease. Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry experiments demonstrated that cocaine does not interact directly with any of the cyclic sesquiterpenoids, which suggests specific biochemical targets for these compounds in planarians. Our data suggests a common binding site for cocaine and the sesquiterpene lactones in planarians.

  13. Positive Autoregulation of an Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Circuit Synchronizes the Population Response.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Rebecca L; Greenberg, E Peter

    2017-07-25

    Many proteobacteria utilize acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals. At low population densities, cells produce a basal level of signal, and when sufficient signal has accumulated in the surrounding environment, it binds to its receptor, and quorum-sensing-dependent genes can be activated. A common characteristic of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing is that signal production is positively autoregulated. We have examined the role of positive signal autoregulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We compared population responses and individual cell responses in populations of wild-type P. aeruginosa to responses in a strain with the signal synthase gene controlled by an arabinose-inducible promoter so that signal was produced at a constant rate per cell regardless of cell population density. At a population level, responses of the wild type and the engineered strain were indistinguishable, but the responses of individual cells in a population of the wild type showed greater synchrony than the responses of the engineered strain. Although sufficient signal is required to activate expression of quorum-sensing-regulated genes, it is not sufficient for activation of certain genes, the late genes, and their expression is delayed until other conditions are met. We found that late gene responses were reduced in the engineered strain. We conclude that positive signal autoregulation is not a required element in acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing, but it functions to enhance synchrony of the responses of individuals in a population. Synchrony might be advantageous in some situations, whereas a less coordinated quorum-sensing response might allow bet hedging and be advantageous in other situations.IMPORTANCE There are many quorum-sensing systems that involve a transcriptional activator, which responds to an acyl-homoserine lactone signal. In all of the examples studied, the gene coding for signal production is positively autoregulated by the signal, and it has even

  14. Interconvertions between delta-lactam and delta-lactone derivatives initiated by unique transannular interactions of the rigid cyclohexane boat structure in pentacycloundecane.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Hendrik G; Martins, Frans J C; Viljoen, Agatha M

    2004-07-09

    The pentacycloundecane (PCU) cage structure resembles a perfect boat conformation, and for the first time unique lactam/lactone interconversions on the flagpole carbons of a cyclohexane boat structure are reported. The syntheses of a novel dihydroxy-PCU-delta-lactone and two novel N-substituted PCU-delta-lactams are reported. Hydrolysis of some of the PCU-delta-lactam compounds produced delta-lactones, and reaction of the lactones with ammonia or primary amines again produced delta-lactams. Reaction mechanisms to account for the unusual interconversion reactions induced by transannular interactions are proposed.

  15. Multiple N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone autoinducers of luminescence in the marine symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, A; Blough, N V; Dunlap, P V

    1994-01-01

    In Vibrio fischeri, the synthesis of N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the autoinducer for population density-responsive induction of the luminescence operon (the lux operon, luxICDABEG), is dependent on the autoinducer synthase gene luxI. Gene replacement mutants of V. fischeri defective in luxI, which had been expected to produce no autoinducer, nonetheless exhibited lux operon transcriptional activation. Mutants released into the medium a compound that, like N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, activated expression of the lux system in a dose-dependent manner and was both extractable with ethyl acetate and labile to base. The luxI-independent compound, also like N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, was produced by V. fischeri cells in a regulated, population density-responsive manner and required the transcriptional activator LuxR for activity in the lux system. The luxI-independent compound was identified as N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone by coelution with the synthetic compound in reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, by derivatization treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, by mass spectrometry, and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A locus, ain, necessary and sufficient for Escherichia coli to synthesize N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone was cloned from the V. fischeri genome and found to be distinct from luxI by restriction mapping and Southern hybridization. N-Octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and ain constitute a second, novel autoinduction system for population density-responsive signalling and regulation of lux gene expression, and possibly other genes, in V. fischeri. A third V. fischeri autoinducer, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, dependent on luxI for its synthesis, was also identified. The presence of multiple chemically and genetically distinct but cross-acting autoinduction systems in V. fischeri indicates unexpected complexity for autoinduction as a regulatory mechanism in this bacterium. Images PMID:8002580

  16. Immunologic evidence that the gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase is not expressed in animals subject to scurvy.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikimi, M; Udenfriend, S

    1976-01-01

    L-Gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (L-gulono-gamma-lactone:oxygen 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.3.8) is the enzyme that catalyzes the terminal step of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mammalian liver. The absence of the oxidase activity in primates and guinea pigs is the reason why these animals are subject to scurvy, which must be considered an inborn error of metabolism. Attempts were made to determine if a protein immunologically crossreactive with L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase is present in these animals. Detergent-solubilized microsomal preparations from guinea pig and African green monkey liver did not precipitate the antisera directed to either rat or goat enzyme, nor did any of the other cell fractions obtained from guinea pig liver react with either antiserum. No crossreactive protein was detectable in guinea pig microsomes even with the sensitive procedure or micro-complement fixation. On the other hand, extracts of all 10 other mammalian (4 orders) liver microsomes tested were shown to contain L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase activity that did crossreact with antibodies to the rat and goat enzymes. One explanation of these findings is that, in the guinea pig, and perhaps in primates too, the structural gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase is not expressed. Images PMID:819930

  17. Biochemistry of lactone formation in yeast and fungi and its utilisation for the production of flavour and fragrance compounds.

    PubMed

    Romero-Guido, Cynthia; Belo, Isabel; Ta, Thi Minh Ngoc; Cao-Hoang, Lan; Alchihab, Mohamed; Gomes, Nelma; Thonart, Philippe; Teixeira, Jose A; Destain, Jacqueline; Waché, Yves

    2011-02-01

    The consumers' demand for natural flavour and fragrances rises. To be natural, compounds have to result from the extraction of natural materials and/or to be transformed by natural means such as the use of enzymes or whole cells. Fungi are able to transform some fatty acids into lactones that can thus be natural. Although some parts of this subject have been reviewed several times, the present article proposes to review the different pathways utilised, the metabolic engineering strategies and some current concerns on the reactor application of the transformation including scaling up data. The main enzymatic steps are hydroxylation and β-oxidation in the traditional way, and lactone desaturation or Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Although the pathway to produce γ-decalactone is rather well known, metabolic engineering strategies may result in significant improvements in the productivity. For the production of other lactones, a key step is the hydroxylation of fatty acids. Beside the biotransformation, increasing the production of the various lactones requires from biotechnologists to solve two main problems which are the toxicity of lactones toward the producing cell and the aeration of the emulsified reactor as the biochemical pathway is very sensitive to the level of available oxygen. The strategies employed to resolve these problems will be presented.

  18. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Monoterpene ɛ-Lactone Hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14

    PubMed Central

    van der Vlugt-Bergmans, Cécile J. B; van der Werf, Mariët J.

    2001-01-01

    A monoterpene ɛ-lactone hydrolase (MLH) from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14, catalyzing the ring opening of lactones which are formed during degradation of several monocyclic monoterpenes, including carvone and menthol, was purified to apparent homogeneity. It is a monomeric enzyme of 31 kDa that is active with (4R)-4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone and (6R)-6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone, lactones derived from (4R)-dihydrocarvone, and 7-isopropyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone, the lactone derived from menthone. Both enantiomers of 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone were converted at equal rates, suggesting that the enzyme is not stereoselective. Maximal enzyme activity was measured at pH 9.5 and 30°C. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified MLH enabled cloning of the corresponding gene by a combination of PCR and colony screening. The gene, designated mlhB (monoterpene lactone hydrolysis), showed up to 43% similarity to members of the GDXG family of lipolytic enzymes. Sequencing of the adjacent regions revealed two other open reading frames, one encoding a protein with similarity to the short-chain dehydrogenase reductase family and the second encoding a protein with similarity to acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases. Both enzymes are possibly also involved in the monoterpene degradation pathways of this microorganism. PMID:11157238

  19. Modulation in kinetics of lactone ring hydrolysis of camptothecins upon interaction with topoisomerase I cleavage sites on DNA.

    PubMed

    Chourpa, I; Riou, J F; Millot, J M; Pommier, Y; Manfait, M

    1998-05-19

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of the alpha-hydroxylactone ring of anticancer agents belonging to the camptothecin (CPT) series has been followed using their fluorescence emission. Data obtained for CPT, CPT-11, and SN-38, either in their free form or in the presence of DNA and/or topoisomerase I (top1), have been compared. DNA was modeled using three types of double-strand oligonucleotides corresponding to top1 cleavage site enhanced in the presence of the drug (olg1), top1 site independent of CPT (olg2), and nonspecific synthetic oligonucleotide containing only AT and no GC base pairs (olg3). Cleavage assays indicated the absence of top1-mediated cleavage on olg3, both in the presence and in the absence of CPT. The kinetics data also showed ratio-dependent stabilization of the lactone forms of CPTs when in the presence of an excess of olg1 or olg2, but not of olg3. These observations correlate with the previously reported preferential binding of CPTs to guanines. Although lactone hydrolysis was not perturbed by top1 alone, this enzyme hindered lactone stabilization by specific oligonucleotides. After addition of top1 to CPT-olg1 or CPT-olg2 complexes, the lactone ring of the drug was destabilized. No lactone stabilization was observed when olg1 was added to CPT-top1 complexes or when olg1-top1 complexes were added to CPT.

  20. The binding of D-gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone to glycogen phosphorylase. Kinetic, ultracentrifugation and crystallographic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, A C; Oikonomakos, N G; Leonidas, D D; Bernet, B; Beer, D; Vasella, A

    1991-01-01

    Combined kinetic, ultracentrifugation and X-ray-crystallographic studies have characterized the effect of the beta-glucosidase inhibitor gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase. In the direction of glycogen synthesis, gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone was found to competitively inhibit both the b (Ki 0.92 mM) and the alpha form of the enzyme (Ki 0.76 mM) with respect to glucose 1-phosphate in synergism with caffeine. In the direction of glycogen breakdown, gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone was found to inhibit phosphorylase b in a non-competitive mode with respect to phosphate, and no synergism with caffeine could be demonstrated. Ultracentrifugation and crystallization experiments demonstrated that gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone was able to induce dissociation of tetrameric phosphorylase alpha and stabilization of the dimeric T-state conformation. A crystallographic binding study with 100 mM-gluconohydroximo-1,5-lactone at 0.24 nm (2.4 A) resolution showed a major peak at the catalytic site, and no significant conformational changes were observed. Analysis of the electron-density map indicated that the ligand adopts a chair conformation. The results are discussed with reference to the ability of the catalytic site of the enzyme to distinguish between two or more conformations of the glucopyranose ring. PMID:1900987

  1. Quorum sensing inhibitory potential and molecular docking studies of sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia blumeoides.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Moodley, Brenda; Singh, Parvesh; Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf

    2016-06-01

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens has focused research on the suppression of bacterial virulence via quorum sensing inhibition strategies, rather than the conventional antimicrobial approach. The anti-virulence potential of eudesmanolide sesquiterpene lactones previously isolated from Vernonia blumeoides was assessed by inhibition of quorum sensing and in silico molecular docking. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum was quantified using violacein inhibition assays. Qualitative modulation of quorum sensing activity and signal synthesis was investigated using agar diffusion double ring assays and C. violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of violacein production was concentration-dependent, with ⩾90% inhibition being obtained with ⩾2.4 mg ml(-1) of crude extracts. Violacein inhibition was significant for the ethyl acetate extract with decreasing inhibition being observed with dichloromethane, hexane and methanol extracts. Violacein inhibition ⩾80% was obtained with 0.071 mg ml(-1) of blumeoidolide B in comparison with ⩾3.6 mg ml(-1) of blumeoidolide A. Agar diffusion double ring assays indicated that only the activity of the LuxI synthase homologue, CviI, was modulated by blumeoidolides A and B, and V. blumeoides crude extracts, suggesting that quorum sensing signal synthesis was down-regulated or competitively inhibited. Finally, molecular docking was conducted to explore the binding conformations of sesquiterpene lactones into the binding sites of quorum sensing regulator proteins, CviR and CviR'. The computed binding energy data suggested that the blumeoidolides have a tendency to inhibit both CviR and CviR' with varying binding affinities. Vernonia eudesmanolide sesquiterpene lactones have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria

  2. Lovastatin lactone elicits human lung cancer cell apoptosis via a COX-2/PPARγ-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ramer, Robert; Mittag, Nadine; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) are well-established agents to treat hyperlipidemic states. Experimental and epidemiological evidence further implies an anticancer effect of these substances. This study investigates the mechanism underlying human lung cancer cell death by lovastatin and the role of the prostaglandin (PG)-synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in this process. In A549 and H358 lung carcinoma cells the lipophilic prodrug lovastatin lactone led to a concentration-dependent decrease of viability and induction of DNA fragmentation, whereas its HMG-CoA-inhibitory, ring-open acid form was inactive in this respect. Apoptotic cell death by lovastatin was accompanied by high intracellular levels of the lactone form, by upregulation of COX-2 mRNA and protein, as well as by increased formation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-activating PGD2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2. Cells were significantly less sensitive to lovastatin-induced apoptotic cell death, when the expression or activity of COX-2 was suppressed by siRNA or by the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Apoptosis by lovastatin was likewise reversed by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed a lovastatin-induced cytosol-to-nucleus translocation of PPARγ that was inhibited by NS-398. Collectively, this study demonstrates COX-2 induction and subsequent COX-2-dependent activation of PPARγ as a hitherto unknown mechanism by which lovastatin lactone induces human lung cancer cell death. PMID:26863638

  3. A comparison of nitrophenyl esters and lactones as substrates of cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, T M; Kitson, K E

    1996-01-01

    1. p-Nitrophenyl (PNP) acetate and propionate show a burst of p-nitrophenoxide release when their hydrolysis is catalysed by sheep liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase. This is not seen in the presence of NAD+ or NADH, implying a change in ratedetermining step. 2. 6-Nitrodihydrocoumarin (6-NDC) shows no burst of absorbance in the visible region. We propose that the pKa of the transient "reporter group' produced during the hydrolysis of this lactone is high (approx. 10) and that the incipient covalently linked p-nitrophenoxide moiety is protonated immediately on formation. The small burst seen in the hydrolysis of 5-nitro-2-coumaranone (5-NC) suggests that the pKa of its reporter group is about 8.5. 3. NADH markedly enhances the steady-state rate with the lactones. 5-NC shows a large rapid burst of colour development in the presence of NADH; this implies that NADH decreases the pKa of the reporter group to 7-7.5. 4. In the presence of NAD+, 5-NC and 6-NDC give an unusual "negative burst' in the stopped-flow traces. We propose that, under these circumstances, acylation of the enzyme is extremely fast and that the first event seen in the stopped-flow traces is protonation of the reporter group. NAD+ also greatly increases the steady-state rate. 5. With the lactones in the presence of NADH, the kcat value (nearly 6 s-1), a measure of the deacylation rate, is compatible with the single-site model for dehydrogenase and esterase activities. PMID:8645209

  4. Lovastatin lactone elicits human lung cancer cell apoptosis via a COX-2/PPARγ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Walther, Udo; Emmrich, Kristin; Ramer, Robert; Mittag, Nadine; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-03-01

    Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) are well-established agents to treat hyperlipidemic states. Experimental and epidemiological evidence further implies an anticancer effect of these substances. This study investigates the mechanism underlying human lung cancer cell death by lovastatin and the role of the prostaglandin (PG)-synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in this process. In A549 and H358 lung carcinoma cells the lipophilic prodrug lovastatin lactone led to a concentration-dependent decrease of viability and induction of DNA fragmentation, whereas its HMG-CoA-inhibitory, ring-open acid form was inactive in this respect. Apoptotic cell death by lovastatin was accompanied by high intracellular levels of the lactone form, by upregulation of COX-2 mRNA and protein, as well as by increased formation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-activating PGD2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2. Cells were significantly less sensitive to lovastatin-induced apoptotic cell death, when the expression or activity of COX-2 was suppressed by siRNA or by the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Apoptosis by lovastatin was likewise reversed by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed a lovastatin-induced cytosol-to-nucleus translocation of PPARγ that was inhibited by NS-398. Collectively, this study demonstrates COX-2 induction and subsequent COX-2-dependent activation of PPARγ as a hitherto unknown mechanism by which lovastatin lactone induces human lung cancer cell death.

  5. Operon for Biosynthesis of Lipstatin, the Beta-Lactone Inhibitor of Human Pancreatic Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tingli; Zhang, Daozhong; Lin, Shuangjun; Long, Qingshan; Wang, Yemin; Ou, Hongyu; Kang, Qianjin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Lipstatin, isolated from Streptomyces toxytricini as a potent and selective inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase, is a precursor for tetrahydrolipstatin (also known as orlistat, Xenical, and Alli), the only FDA-approved antiobesity medication for long-term use. Lipstatin features a 2-hexyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7,10-hexadecadienoic-β-lactone structure with an N-formyl-l-leucine group attached as an ester to the 5-hydroxy group. It has been suggested that the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid β-lactone moiety of lipstatin in S. toxytricini is derived from Claisen condensation between two fatty acid substrates, which are derived from incomplete oxidative degradation of linoleic acid based on feeding experiments. In this study, we identified a six-gene operon (lst) that was essential for the biosynthesis of lipstatin by large-deletion, complementation, and single-gene knockout experiments. lstA, lstB, and lstC, which encode two β-ketoacyl–acyl carrier protein synthase III homologues and an acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase homologue, were indicated to be responsible for the generation of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid backbone. Subsequently, the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene lstE and the putative formyltransferase gene lstF were involved in decoration of the α-branched 3,5-dihydroxy fatty acid chain with an N-formylated leucine residue. Finally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-homologous gene lstD might be responsible for the reduction of the β-keto group of the biosynthetic intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of the unique β-lactone ring. PMID:25239907

  6. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of 3-Hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl Benzofuranones via Tandem Friedel-Crafts/Lactonization Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Wang, Pan; Wang, Lijia; Tang, Yong

    2015-10-02

    A highly enantioselective and regioselective chiral Lewis acid catalyzed tandem Friedel-Crafts/lactonization reaction is reported, providing direct access to plenty of 3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl benzofuran-2-ones in up to 94% yields with up to >99% ee. Mechanistic study reveals that the interactions between the phenolic hydroxyl group and trifluoropyruvate are the most likely contributing factor to the high enantio- and regioselectivity. Optically pure (-)-BHFF can be obtained in gram-scale with 0.05 mol % catalyst, demonstrating the potentially utility of this method in medicinal chemistry.

  7. Acylphloroglucinol, biyouyanagiol, biyouyanagin B, and related spiro-lactones from Hypericum chinense.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kim, Sang Yong; Hashida, Waka; Sekiya, Michiko; Ikeshiro, Yasumasa; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2009-08-01

    Biyouyanagiol (1), an acylphloroglucinol-related compound having a unique cyclopenta-1,3-dione moiety, was isolated from a Japanese traditional medicinal plant, Hypericum chinense, together with three new spiro-lactone-related derivatives, biyouyanagin B (2), 5,6-dihydrohyperolactone D (3), and 4-hydroxyhyperolactone D (4). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. In a cytotoxicity assay against human cancer cell lines including multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines, several compounds demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity against MDR KB cells in the presence of colchicine.

  8. Facilitating Cytokine-Mediated Cancer Cell Death by Proteobacterial N-Acylhomoserine Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Vladimir; Garner, Amanda L.; Mathison, John; Seit-Nebi, Alim; Yu, Jing; Gileva, Irina P.; Ulevitch, Richard; Janda, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells over normal cells; however, tumor cells may develop TRAIL resistance. Here we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome in the presence of bacterial acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) or AHL-producing bacteria through the combined effect of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and AHL-mediated inhibition of inflammation regulated by NF-κB signaling. This discovery unveils a previously unrecognized symbiotic link between bacteria and host immunosurveillance. PMID:23517377

  9. Lupane triterpenes with a δ-lactone at ring E, from Lippia mexicana.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Emma; Díaz-Arumir, Humberto; Toscano, R Alfredo; Martínez, Mahinda

    2010-11-29

    Three new lupane-type triterpenes, lippiolide (1), lippiolidolic acid (2), and lippiolic acid (3), were isolated from aerial parts of Lippia mexicana. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a δ-lactone at ring E. The known cycloartane triterpene 5 was also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical reactions, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1, 3, and 5 was evaluated in the TPA-induced ear mouse edema model. Lupanes 1 and 3 were more active than cycloartane 5.

  10. Recent studies on the zoopharmacognosy, pharmacology and neurotoxicology of sesquiterpene lactones.

    PubMed

    Robles, M; Aregullin, M; West, J; Rodriguez, E

    1995-06-01

    Aspects of recent research on the biological activities of sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) are presented. Several SQLs have been identified as important constituents of plants consumed by animals for presumed medicinal value and is a focus of research in zoopharmacognosy. Recent in vivo antitumor studies with parthenin and eupatoriopicrin are discussed as well as the reports of the antiulcer activity of dehydroleucodin. Helenalin has recently been reported to have cardiotonic activity. Research on the neurotoxicity of repin, a compound reported to cause a Parkinson's-like disease in horses, is also highlighted.

  11. Amphids: the neuronal ultrastructure of macrocyclic-lactone-resistant Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J; Freeman, A S

    2004-06-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance by nematode parasites is a growing problem for veterinarians and producers. The intensive use of the macrocyclic lactones for the treatment of a variety of parasitic diseases has hastened the development of resistance to this family of parasiticides among sheep, goats and cattle. As a result, resistance to ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin by Haemonchus contortus has been documented throughout the world. While the exact sites of action of the macrocyclic lactones remain incompletely known, a critical point of entry for these drugs may be the terminally exposed sensory major neurons located in the cephalic end of the worms. These neurons, called amphidial neurons, are located in a pair of channels, the amphids, on either side of the pharynx and are exposed to the external environment via pores at the anterior tip of the worm. Through these neurons, important chemical and thermal cues are gathered by the parasite. Examination of serial electron micrographs of ivermectin-susceptible and ivermectin-resistant H. contortus allows for comparison of neuronal structure, arrangement of neurons within the amphidial channel, and distance of the tip of the dendritic processes to the amphidial pore. The latter of these characteristics provides a useful means by which to compare the association between the neurons and the external environment of the worm. Comparison of parental laboratory strains of ivermectin-susceptible H. contortus with related selected, ivermectin-resistant strains and with a wild-type ivermectin-susceptible field strain of H. contortus from Louisiana reveals that the ivermectin-resistant worms examined have markedly shorter sensory cilia than their ivermectin-susceptible parental counterparts. Additionally, the amphidial neurons of ivermectin-resistant worms are characterized by generalized degeneration and loss of detail, whereas other neurons outside of the channels, such as the labial and cephalic neurons

  12. Regio- and Stereoselective Functionalization of 16-Membered Lactone Aglycone of Spiramycin via Cascade Strategy.

    PubMed

    Klich, Katarzyna; Pyta, Krystian; Przybylski, Piotr

    2015-07-17

    Functionalization of 16-membered aglycone of spiramycin with the use of intramolecular cascade strategy yielded access to novel types of diastereopure bicyclic spiramycin derivatives containing tetrahydrofuran ring. Experimental results shows that a specific sequence of regio- and stereoselective transformations, based on the intramolecular transesterification, E1cB tandem eliminations, 1,2-addition to carbonyl, and 1,6-conjugate addition at the spiramycin aglycone, proceeds with the inversion of absolute configuration at C(5) stereogenic center. Performed cascade and multistep transformations have opened new possibilities in divergent modifications, not only spiramycin but also the whole family of leucomycin type antibiotics having a similar structure of 16-membered aglycone lactone ring.

  13. Origin of Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxy Esters through Catalytic Enantioselective Lactonization by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    PubMed

    Changotra, Avtar; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2016-08-05

    Kinetic resolution is a widely used strategy for separation and enrichment of enantiomers. Using density functional theory computations, the origin of how a chiral BINOL-phosphoric acid catalyzes the selective lactonization of one of the enantiomers of α-methyl γ-hydroxy ester is identified. In a stepwise mechanism, the stereocontrolling transition state for the addition of the hydroxyl group to the si face of the ester carbonyl in the case of the S isomer exhibits a network of more effective noncovalent interactions between the substrate and the chiral catalyst.

  14. [Isolation and identification of Rhodosporidium toruloides R1 degrading N-acyl homoserine lactone].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian; Jia, Zhen-hua; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Xia; Song, Shui-shan

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, a AHL-utilizing strain RI was isolated and identified as the genus Rhodosporidium toruloides R1 by physi-biochemical approaches and 18S rDNA sequence analysis, and this strain was designated as R. toruloides R1. Results showed that R. toruloides R1 exhibited the ability to utilize and degrade the all N-acyl homoserine lactones tested in this study. Coculture of R. toruloides R1 with Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora effectively inhibit the soft rot disease of patato caused by E. carotovora. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on AHL-degradation of yeast cells.

  15. Estrogenic potencies of resorcylic acid lactones and 17 beta-estradiol in female rats.

    PubMed

    Everett, D J; Perry, C J; Scott, K A; Martin, B W; Terry, M K

    1987-01-01

    Uterotrophic response in sexually immature female rats has been used to rank the relative estrogenic potencies of six resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) and to compare their activities with that of 17 beta-estradiol. On oral administration, the estrogenic potency relative to 17 beta-estradiol is as follows: 7 alpha-zearalenol, 10 times less; zeranol, 150 times less; taleranol, 350 times less; zearalanone, 400 times less; zearalenone, 650 times less; 7 beta-zearalenol, 3500 times less. On subcutaneous administration, zeranol is 500 times less estrogenic than 17 beta-estradiol.

  16. Formation of macrocyclic lactones in the Paternò-Büchi dimerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Junya; Mizuta, Tsutomu; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Abe, Manabu

    2011-02-28

    Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (hν > 290 nm) was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with C(i) symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò-Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkoxyoxetane and 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives, were not detected in the photolysate.

  17. [Relationship between ion channel properties and the structure of the lactone ring of polyene antibiotic molecules].

    PubMed

    Borisova, M P; Ermishkin, L N; Sil'bershteĭn, A Ia; Kasumov, Kh M; Potseluev, V M

    1978-01-01

    Properties of ionic channels created by amphoterecin B, nystatine and mycoheptin in phospholipid--cholesterol bilayer have been compared. Ionic conductivity and selectivity of channels as well as the frequency of transitions between an open state and a closed one depend on lacton ring structure. Appearance of one more carbonyl group in mycoheptin molecule leads to a decrease of channel anion permeability. Any pair of these antibiotics being added into different aqueous solutions create combined channels. These data confirm hypothesis that polyene antibiotics create channels of two half-pores formed in different monolayers of the membrane.

  18. Two cytotoxic 6,7-seco-spiro-lacton-ent-kauranoids from Isodon rubescens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guo-Yong; Deng, Rui; Zhang, Jing-Jie; Ye, Jiang-Hai; Pan, Lu-Tai

    2017-04-24

    The present study was performed to investigate the chemical components of the branches and leaves of Isodon rubescens. Two 6,7-seco-spiro-lacton-ent-kauranoids were obtained. Based on the extensive spectroscopic analyses, their structures were elucidated as 6-epi-11-O-acetylangustifolin (1) and 11-O-acetylangustifolin (2), respectively. The structure of 2 was further comfirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. MTT method was employed to evaluate their cytotoxity against human lung cancer cell lines A549 and leukemia cell lines K562.

  19. Synergistic insecticidal mode of action between sesquiterpene lactones and a phototoxin, alpha-terthienyl.

    PubMed

    Guillet, G; Harmatha, J; Waddell, T G; Philogène, B J; Arnason, J T

    2000-02-01

    The synergistic insecticidal action of characteristic defensive substances produced by the plant family Asteraceae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Asteraceae that may form, through a Michael addition process, conjugates with glutathione were administered in a meridic diet to a herbivorous insect, Manduca sexta. By administering sesquiterpenes, variable in vivo reduced glutathione levels were observed in the insect larvae. When the Asteraceae-derived photooxidant alpha-terthienyl was co-administered, lipid peroxidation and larval mortality were significantly enhanced in the treated groups of insects with lowered in vivo glutathione levels.

  20. The impact of sesquiterpene lactones and phenolics on sensory attributes: An investigation of a curly endive and escarole germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Filippo D'Antuono, L; Ferioli, Federico; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, curly endive (Cichorium endivia L. var. crispum) and escarole (Cichorium endivia L. var. latifolium) accessions were investigated for their sensory characters (bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour) and acceptance in relation to sesquiterpene lactone and phenolic content. Different facets of the perception of these sensory traits in relation to lactones and phenolics were brought out. Lactucopicrin and kaempferol malonyl glucoside were consistently related to bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour perceptions. Overall acceptance was significantly and inversely related mainly to bitterness. The generic statement that sesquiterpene lactones and phenolic compounds are determinants of bitterness and other related sensory characters does not seem to be fully consistent with our data, that indicated how the balance of different compounds affects these traits individually, in a rather complex manner, with a prevailing negative impact of phenolics. Bitter, astringent, and herbaceous perceptions were significantly affected by variety, with curly endive showing on average higher scores in comparison to escarole, with particular respect to bitterness.

  1. A new method for the preparative isolation of chlorogenic acid lactones from coffee and model roasts of 5-caffeoylquinic acid.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Nils; Birkholz, David; Colomban, Silvia; Navarini, Luciano; Engelhardt, Ulrich H

    2013-07-17

    Chlorogenic acid lactones (CQL) are known to contribute to the bitter taste of roasted coffee. CQL might also have beneficial biological activities. Until now, there is a lack of pure standard compounds for quantification and biological testing. Using high-speed countercurrent chromatography, milligram amounts of lactones could be isolated. The structures of 3-O-caffeoyl-γ-quinide, 4-O-caffeoyl-muco-γ-quinide, and 5-O-caffeoyl-epi-δ-quinide were confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy including (13)C NMR data, which were previously not available from the literature. An UHPLC method was developed that enabled the separation of the lactones from roasted coffee in significantly shorter time than conventional HPLC.

  2. Acyl-homoserine lactones from Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T, a guava phytopathogen (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pomini, Armando M; Manfio, Gilson P; Araújo, Welington L; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2005-08-10

    The phytopathogen Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T causes rot in branches, flowers, and fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.), being responsible for crop losses, and has no effective control. It was demonstrated that this strain produces two compounds [S-(-)-N-hexanoyl and N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone], both belonging to the class of quorum-sensing signaling substances. A protocol using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection with chiral stationary phase is described for the absolute configuration determination of a natural acyl-homoserine lactone. Biological assays with specific reporter and synthesis of identified substances are also described. This is the first report on the N-heptanoyl-homoserine lactone occurrence in the Erwinia genus.

  3. Immunomodulation and the quorum sensing molecule 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone: The importance of chemical scaffolding for probe development†

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Amanda L.; Yu, Jing; Struss, Anjali K.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.

    2013-01-01

    As a guide for chemical probe design, focused analogue synthetic studies were undertaken upon the lactone ring of 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone. We have concluded that hydrolytic instability of the heterocyclic ring is pivotal for its ability to modulate immune signaling and probe preparation was aligned with these findings. PMID:23328974

  4. DDQ-promoted dehydrogenation from natural rigid polycyclic acids or flexible alkyl acids to generate lactones by a radical ion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ye; Huang, Zhangjian; Yin, Jian; Lai, Yisheng; Zhang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Fang, Lei; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-09-07

    A novel and facile DDQ-mediated dehydrogenation from natural rigid polycyclic acids or flexible alkyl acids to generate lactones is described. The formation of lactones proceeds by a radical ion mechanism, which has been established by DPPH˙-mediated chemical identification, ESR spectroscopy and an enol intermediate trapping.

  5. Lovastatin lactone may improve irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) by inhibiting enzymes in the archaeal methanogenesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Muskal, Steven M.; Sliman, Joe; Kokai-Kun, John; Pimentel, Mark; Wacher, Vince; Gottlieb, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Methane produced by the methanoarchaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii ( M. smithii) has been linked to constipation, irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), and obesity. Lovastatin, which demonstrates a cholesterol-lowering effect by the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, may also have an anti-methanogenesis effect through direct inhibition of enzymes in the archaeal methanogenesis pathway. We conducted protein-ligand docking experiments to evaluate this possibility. Results are consistent with recent clinical findings. METHODS: F420-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase ( mtd), a key methanogenesis enzyme was modeled for two different methanogenic archaea: M. smithii and Methanopyrus kandleri. Once protein models were developed, ligand-binding sites were identified. Multiple ligands and their respective protonation, isomeric and tautomeric representations were docked into each site, including F420-coenzyme (natural ligand), lactone and β-hydroxyacid forms of lovastatin and simvastatin, and other co-complexed ligands found in related crystal structures. RESULTS: 1) Generally, for each modeled site the lactone form of the statins had more favorable site interactions compared to F420; 2) The statin lactone forms generally had the most favorable docking scores, even relative to the native template PDB ligands; and 3) The statin β-hydroxyacid forms had less favorable docking scores, typically scoring in the middle with some of the F420 tautomeric forms. Consistent with these computational results were those from a recent phase II clinical trial ( NCT02495623) with a proprietary, modified-release lovastatin-lactone (SYN-010) in patients with IBS-C, which showed a reduction in symptoms and breath methane levels, compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: The lactone form of lovastatin exhibits preferential binding over the native-F420 coenzyme ligand in silico and thus could inhibit the activity of the key M. smithii methanogenesis enzyme mtd in vivo

  6. Involvement of Acylated Homoserine Lactones (AHLs) of Aeromonas sobria in Spoilage of Refrigerated Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Cui, Fangchao; Bai, Fengling; Zhao, Guohua; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    One quorum sensing strain was isolated from spoiled turbot. The species was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis and classical tests, named Aeromonas sobria AS7. Quorum-sensing (QS) signals (N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)) were detected by report strains and their structures were further determined by GC-MS. The activity changes of AHLs on strain growth stage as well as the influence of different culture conditions on secretion activity of AHLs were studied by the punch method. The result indicated that strain AS7 could induce report strains to produce typical phenotypic response. N-butanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C4–HSL), N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C6–HSL), N-octanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C8–HSL), N-decanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C10–HSL), N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12–HSL) could be detected. The activities of AHLs were density-dependent and the max secretion level was at pH 8, sucrose culture, 1% NaCl and 32 h, respectively. The production of siderophore in strain AS7 was regulated by exogenous C8–HSL, rather than C6–HSL. Exogenous C4–HSL and C8–HSL accelerated the growth rate and population density of AS7 in turbot samples under refrigerated storage. However, according to the total viable counts and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values of the fish samples, exogenous C6–HSL did not cause spoilage of the turbot fillets. In conclusion, our results suggested that QS was involved in the spoilage of refrigerated turbot. PMID:27420072

  7. A mechanistic and kinetic study of the E-ring hydrolysis and lactonization of a novel phosphoryloxymethyl prodrug of camptothecin.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Bradley A; Schowen, Richard L; Stella, Valentino J

    2003-07-01

    This study was done to determine the E-ring hydrolysis and lactonization mechanism of a water-soluble 20-phosphoryloxymethyl (POM) prodrug of camptothecin (P-CPT). Specifically, the role of the phosphate group in facilitating E-ring hydrolysis was examined. Resolution between the lactone and carboxylate forms of P-CPT and camptothecin (CPT) was achieved with a RPHPLC assay using UV-visible detection. E-ring P-CPT hydrolysis and lactonization kinetics were followed using 20 mM acetate or phosphate buffer (micro = 0.15 NaCl) over the pH range of 4 to 8 at 25.0 degrees C. A kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE) study was used to further probe the mechanism of E-ring hydrolysis. The hydrolysis and lactonization reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in the approach to equilibrium. The equilibrium ratio of the open and closed forms of P-CPT was dependent on pH, with the closed form dominant at low pH and the open form dominant at high pH. Buffer concentration changes had little to no effect on the rate of P-CPT E-ring hydrolysis. The KSIE study provided an overall isotope effect of 2.47 and a proton inventory KSIE consistent with an intramolecular general base catalysis. P-CPT has a pH-dependent equilibrium between the lactone and carboxylate forms similar but not identical to that of CPT. The results suggest a hydrolysis reaction mechanism that involves a single site hydrogen exchange facilitated intramolecularly by the dianionic phosphate moiety of P-CPT via either general base catalysis of the lactone ring attack by water or breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate.

  8. [Preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata and study on its in vitro release mechanism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Qing-Ming; Wang Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata were prepared and the in vitro release behavior were also evaluated. The optimal prescription was achieved by studying the main factor of the type and amount of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) using single factor test and evaluating through cumulative release of three lactones. No burst drug release from the obtained matrix tablets was observed. Drug release sustained to 14 h. The release mechanism of three lactones from A. paniculata was accessed by zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Peppas equation. The release behavior of total lactones from A. paniculata was better agreed with Higuchi model and the drug release from the tablets was controlled by degradation of the matrix. The preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from A. paniculata with good performance of drug release was simple.

  9. New macrocyclic lactones with acaricidal and nematocidal activities from a genetically engineered strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCJ60.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Song; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Shao-Yong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ji; Chen, An-Liang; Wang, Ji-Dong; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Two new macrocyclic lactones, 4,25-diethyl-4,25-demethyl-milbemycin β3 (1) and 27-formaldehyde-milbemycin β14 (2), were isolated from a genetically engineered strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCJ60. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques as well as ESI-MS and comparison with data from the literature. The acaricidal and nematocidal capacities of compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated against Tetranychus cinnabarinus and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, respectively. The results showed that the two new macrocyclic lactones 1 and 2 possessed potent acaricidal and nematocidal activities.

  10. Ostalactones A-C, β- and ε-Lactones with Lipase Inhibitory Activity from the Cultured Basidiomycete Stereum ostrea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hahk-Soo; Kim, Jong-Pyung

    2016-12-23

    Ostalactones A-C (1-3), three new β- and ε-lactone natural products, were isolated from the culture broth of the basidiomycete Stereum ostrea. The structures were elucidated by interpretation of HRFABMS and 1D and 2D NMR data. The structures of 1 and 2 are characterized by the presence of a β-lactone containing a fused 4/5 bicyclic core structure. Compound 3 possesses a 2-oxepinone ring system, which is likely to be a biosynthetic precursor of compounds 1 and 2. Ostalactones A (1) and B (2) displayed potent inhibitory activity against human pancreatic lipase.

  11. Utilization of a 1,2-dioxine for the synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers of oak lactone.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Taylor, Dennis K; Elsey, Gordon M

    2006-02-02

    [reaction: see text]. The natural products cis- and trans-oak lactone (1) have been prepared, along with their enantiomeric counterparts, from furanone 12, which was itself prepared from racemic 1,2-dioxine 9 and a chiral malonate diester. The key steps in the synthesis of 1 are the use of the malonate diester as a chromatographic resolving agent and the decarboxylation of 13, which can be directed to give either the cis- or trans-product. This leads to all four possible oak lactone stereoisomers from a common intermediate.

  12. Comparison between the modes of action of novel meta-diamide and macrocyclic lactone insecticides on the RDL GABA receptor.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Banba, Shinichi; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2015-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones, avermectins, and milbemycins are widely used to control arthropods, nematodes, and endo- and ectoparasites in livestock and pets. Their main targets are glutamate-gated chloride channels. Furthermore, macrocyclic lactones reportedly interact with insect RDL γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, but their modes of action on insect RDL GABA receptors remain unknown. In this study, we attempted to better understand the modes of action of macrocyclic lactones on RDL GABA receptors. We observed that ivermectin and milbemectin behaved as allosteric agonists of the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor. G336A, G336S, and G336T mutations had profound effects on the activities of ivermectin and milbemectin, and a G336M mutation abolished the allosteric agonist and antagonist activities of these macrocyclic lactones. These results suggest that G336 in TM3 of the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor is important for the binding of macrocyclic lactones. Recently, it has been suggested that a novel RDL GABA receptor antagonist, 3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-4-perfluoroisopropyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (meta-diamide 7), binds to the transmembrane intersubunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor. Thus, we compared the effects of mutations around G336 and A302 mutations in TM2 on the activities of macrocyclic lactone and meta-diamide 7. The effects of L281C, V340Q, V340N, A302S, and A302N mutations on the activity of meta-diamide 7 differed from those on ivermectin and milbemectin. Molecular modeling studies showed that macrocyclic lactones docked in the intersubunit pocket near G336 in the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor in the open state. In contrast, meta-diamide 7 docked into the Drosophila RDL GABA receptor in the closed state. This suggests that the modes of action of macrocyclic lactone binding to the wild-type Drosophila RDL GABA receptor differ from those of meta-diamide binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring O-stannyl ketyl and acyl radical cyclizations for the synthesis of γ-lactone-fused benzopyrans and benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Helen; Casana, Myriam I; Donner, Christopher D

    2014-01-07

    The synthesis of a series of γ-lactone-fused benzopyrans and benzofurans, analogues of the pyranonaphthoquinone antibiotics, is reported. Preparation of the heterocycles was achieved by either O-stannyl ketyl or acyl radical cyclization of benzaldehyde precursors followed by oxidation to give the pyrano- and furanobenzoquinone systems. The observed diastereoselectivity during O-stannyl ketyl radical cyclization is influenced by aromatic substitution ortho to the aldehyde, whilst acyl radical cyclization followed by stereoselective reduction of the resulting pyranones provides a complimentary approach to forming the required γ-lactone-fused benzopyran systems.

  14. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of some phenolic compounds from propolis and lactones from Fijian Kawa (Piper methysticum).

    PubMed

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tsukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-07-01

    During our search to discover new antitrypanosomal compounds, eight known plant compounds (three phenolic compounds and five kawa lactones) were evaluated for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, we found two phenolic compounds and three kawa lactones possessing an α-pyrone influenced antitrypanosomal property. In particular, β-phenethyl caffeate, farnesyl caffeate and dihydrokawain exhibited high or moderate selective and potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro. We detail here the antitrypanosomal activity and cytotoxicities of the compounds, in comparison with two commonly used antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). Our findings represent the first report of the promising trypanocidal activity of these compounds.

  15. Metal-Free Synthesis of N-Aryl Amides using Organocatalytic Ring-Opening Aminolysis of Lactones.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wusheng; Gómez, José Enrique; Martínez-Rodríguez, Luis; Bandeira, Nuno A G; Bo, Carles; Kleij, Arjan W

    2017-04-05

    Catalytic ring-opening of bio-sourced non-strained lactones with aromatic amines can offer a straightforward, 100 % atom-economical, and sustainable pathway towards relevant N-aryl amide scaffolds. Herein, the first general, metal-free, and highly efficient N-aryl amide formation is reported from poorly reactive aromatic amines and non-strained lactones under mild operating conditions using an organic bicyclic guanidine catalyst. This protocol has high application potential as exemplified by the formal syntheses of drug-relevant molecules.

  16. Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, A L; Val, D L; Hanzelka, B L; Cronan, J E; Greenberg, E P

    1996-09-03

    Many bacteria use acyl homoserine lactone signals to monitor cell density in a type of gene regulation termed quorum sensing and response. Synthesis of these signals is directed by homologs of the luxi gene of Vibrio fischeri. This communication resolves two critical issues concerning the synthesis of the V. fischeri signal. (i) The luxI product is directly involved in signal synthesis-the protein is an acyl homoserine lactone synthase; and (ii) the substrates for acyl homoserine lactone synthesis are not amino acids from biosynthetic pathways or fatty acid degradation products, but rather they are S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and an acylated acyl carrier protein (ACP) from the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. We purified a maltose binding protein-LuxI fusion polypeptide and showed that, when provided with the appropriate substrates, it catalyzes the synthesis of an acyl homoserine lactone. In V. fischeri, luxi directs the synthesis of N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone and hexanoyl homoserine lactone. The purified maltose binding protein-LuxI fusion protein catalyzes the synthesis of hexanoyl homoserine lactone from hexanoyl-ACP and SAM. There is a high level of specificity for hexanoyl-ACP over ACPs with differing acyl group lengths, and hexanoyl homoserine lactone was not synthesized when SAM was replaced with other amino acids, such as methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, homoserine, or homoserine lactone, or when hexanoyl-SAM was provided as the substrate. This provides direct evidence that the LuxI protein is an auto-inducer synthase that catalyzes the formation of an amide bond between SAM and a fatty acyl-ACP and then catalyzes the formation of the acyl homoserine lactone from the acyl-SAM intermediate.

  17. Metabolism of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signals by Variovorax paradoxus

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Jared R.; Greenberg, E. P.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) serve as dedicated cell-to-cell signaling molecules in many species of the class Proteobacteria. We have addressed the question of whether these compounds can be degraded biologically. A motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil based upon its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone as the sole source of energy and nitrogen. The bacterium was classified as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. The V. paradoxus isolate was capable of growth on all of the acyl-HSLs tested. The molar growth yields correlated with the length of the acyl group. HSL, a product of acyl-HSL metabolism, was used as a nitrogen source, but not as an energy source. Cleavage and partial mineralization of the HSL ring were demonstrated by using radiolabeled substrate. This study indicates that some strains of V. paradoxus degrade and grow on acyl-HSL signals as the sole energy and nitrogen sources. This study provides clues about the metabolic pathway of acyl-HSL degradation by V. paradoxus. PMID:11092851

  18. Pressure-Induced Polymerization of Carbon Monoxide: Disproportionation and Synthesis of an Energetic Lactonic Polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W.J.; Lipp, M.J.; Yoo, C.-S.; Cynn, H.; Herberg, J.L.; Maxwell, R.S.; Nicol, M.F.

    2008-10-02

    We have studied pressure-induced chemical reactions in carbon monoxide using both a diamond anvil cell and a modified large volume press. Our spectroscopic data reveal that carbon monoxide disproportionates into molecular CO{sub 2} and a solid lactone-type polymer; photochemically above 3.2 GPa, thermochemically above 5 GPa at 300 K, or at 3 GPa and {approx}2000 K as achieved by laser heating. The solid product can be recovered at ambient conditions with a high degree of conversion, measured to be up to 95% of the original CO. Its fundamental chemical structure includes {beta}-lactone and conjugated C=C, which can be considered a severely modified polymeric carbon suboxide with open ladders and smaller five-membered rings. The polymer is metastable at ambient conditions, spontaneously liberating CO{sub 2} gases exothermically. We find that the recovered polymer has a high energy density, 1-8 kJ/g, and is very combustible. We estimate the density of recovered CO polymer to be at least 1.65 g/cm{sup 3}.

  19. Synthesis and analysis of thio-, thiono-, and dithio-derivatives of whiskey lactone.

    PubMed

    Schmarr, H G; Eisenreich, W; Engel, K H

    2001-12-01

    Cis- and trans-3-methyl-4-octanolide (1, whiskey lactones) were converted into their thio- (2), thiono- (3), and dithio- (4) derivatives by reaction with phosphorus pentasulfide. The reaction products were characterized by GC-mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and GC-olfactometry. Two-dimensional NOESY spectra showed that sulfur is incorporated into the ring with reversal of the absolute configuration at C-4, whereas substitution of the keto-oxygen atom by sulfur occurs with retention of ring configuration. The cis- and trans-pairs of 2, 3, and 4 were separated into enantiomers by GC on heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phases. GC-olfactometry revealed a sweet coconut-like odor for the cis-thio- and pleasant mushroom-like flavors for the cis-thiono- and trans-dithio-derivatives of whiskey lactone.

  20. Effect of dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide from Saussurea root on the central nervous system in mice.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, H; Ueda, R; Matsumoto, K; Kawanishi, K; Kato, A

    1996-09-01

    Saussurea root (Mokko in Japanese; root of Saussurea lappa, Compositae) is an aromatic stomachic and sedative in Oriental medicine. Four extracts of saussurea root were obtained by successively extracting with benzene, chloroform, methanol and water. Each of these extracts was tested for effects on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice by intraperitoneal administration, i. e. potentiation of hexobarbital sleeping time, body temperature alterations, antinociceptive effects, and spontaneous locomotor activity changes. The benzene extract was the most active and was then separated further into five fractions, 1,2,3,4, and 5 by column chromatography. Fraction 2 was shown to be the most active in the aforementioned assays. From this fraction dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide were isolated as the CNS active constituents. They were both active by the intraperitoneal, intragastric and intracerebroventricular routes of administration. They decreased both methamphetamine- and apomorphine-induced spontaneous motility. The level of homovanillic acid in the brain was increased following their administration, while the levels of monoamines and other metabolites were unchanged. Similar results were seen in chlorpromazine-treated mice. These results show that dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide can be considered as neuroleptics by resemblance of their pharmacological activities to chlorpromazine.

  1. A sesquiterpene lactone from Siegesbeckia glabrescens suppresses Hedgehog/Gli-mediated transcription in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Jin; Wu, Qian; Li, Hua; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, An Keun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is aggressive and therefore difficult to treat; however, continued efforts have been made with the aim of developing an effective therapy against the disease. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is reportedly involved in the proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells. The transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) is a key component of the Hh signaling pathway and the primary effector of pancreatic cancer development. Inhibiting Gli is a proven therapeutic strategy for this disease. The present study examined the regulation of Gli and the expression of its target genes to identify an inhibitor of the Sonic Hh (Shh) pathway. A germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone (GSL) was isolated from Siegesbeckia glabrescens as an inhibitor of Gli-mediated transcription. The results demonstrated that GSL inhibited Shh-induced osteoblast differentiation and Gli homolog 1 (Gli1)-mediated transcriptional activity in mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 stem cells. Furthermore, GSL suppressed Gli-mediated transcriptional activity in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and AsPC-1 cells, which resulted in reduced cancer cell proliferation and downregulated expression of the Gli-target genes, Gli1 and cyclin D1. A sesquiterpene lactone from S. glabrescens may therefore serve as a candidate for the treatment of Hh/Gli-dependent pancreatic cancer. PMID:27698879

  2. Effects of lactone, ketone, and phenolic compounds on methane production and metabolic intermediates during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Sari, Noor Kartika; A'yun, Qurrotul; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-02-01

    Fruit waste is a potential feedstock for biogas production. However, the presence of fruit flavors that have antimicrobial activity is a challenge for biogas production. Lactones, ketones, and phenolic compounds are among the several groups of fruit flavors that are present in many fruits. This work aimed to investigate the effects of two lactones, i.e., γ-hexalactone and γ-decalactone; two ketones, i.e., furaneol and mesifurane; and two phenolic compounds, i.e., quercetin and epicatechin on anaerobic digestion with a focus on methane production, biogas composition, and metabolic intermediates. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a batch glass digester incubated at 55 °C for 30 days. The flavor compounds were added at concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g/L. The results show that the addition of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin in the range of 0.5-5 g/L reduced the methane production by 50 % (MIC50). Methane content was reduced by 90 % with the addition of 5 g/L of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin. Accumulation of acetic acid, together with an increase in carbon dioxide production, was observed. On the contrary, γ-hexalactone, furaneol, and mesifurane increased the methane production by 83-132 % at a concentration of 5 g/L.

  3. Urinary excretion of ginkgolide terpene lactones following acute consumption of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    PubMed

    Dew, Tristan P; Wang, Guan; Williamson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers of plant food supplement (PFS) exposure/intake represent an accurate, objective tool for determining PFS consumption in humans with applications ranging from epidemiology to subject compliance in clinical trials. Ginkgo biloba remains one of the worlds most popular PFS, yet few studies have investigated the uptake and metabolism of its primary unique bioactives: the terpene lactones. To this end, we conducted a dual-dose, acute crossover intervention using G. biloba supplements in healthy participants (n = 12). Pooled 24-H urine samples were analyzed by triple quadrupole LC-MS-MS. We observed that bilobalide and ginkgolides A and B were passed into urine intact and in a dose-dependent manner. Low levels of intact ginkgolides C and J were also excreted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report intact ginkgolide J in urine following oral consumption of ginkgo supplements and is also the first to account for excreted terpene lactones as a proportion of dose. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. New allo-cedrane type sesquiterpene hemiketals and further sesquiterpene lactones from fruits of Illicium floridanum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T J; Müller, E; Fronczek, F R

    2001-04-01

    Three new tetracyclic sesquiterpene hemiketals possessing the very rare allo-cedrane carbon skeleton, debenzoyl-7-deoxo-1 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxytashironin, debenzoyl-7-deoxo-7 alpha-hydroxytashironin, and debenzoyl-7-deoxo-7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxotashironin (1--3), were isolated from the fruits of Illicium floridanum ELLIS (American Star Anise, Star bush). Their structures were elucidated by mass and NMR spectroscopic analyses. The molecular structure of 1, including absolute stereochemistry, was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction of its monohydrate. Only one compound of this type, tashironin, has previously been isolated from Illicium tashiroi. Furthermore, a new sesquiterpene lactone of the seco-prezizaane type, 3,4-anhydro-13,14-dihydroxyfloridanolide (4), and the known anislactone B (5) were isolated. The occurrence of further allo-cedrane sesquiterpenes in another Illicium species confirms the hypothesis of previous authors that this type of compound is a biogenetic precursor of the typical seco-prezizaane sesquiterpene lactones found in this genus. Moreover, regarding their co-occurrence with anislactone B as reported here, they may also be considered precursors for the anislactone skeletal type.

  5. Pressure-induced polymerization of carbon monoxide: disproportionation and synthesis of an energetic lactonic polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Yoo, C; Herberg, J L; Maxwell, R S; Nicol, M F

    2005-10-04

    We have studied pressure-induced chemical reactions in carbon monoxide using both a diamond-anvil cell and a modified large volume press. Our spectroscopic data reveal that carbon monoxide disproportionates into molecular CO{sub 2} and a solid lactone-type polymer; photochemically above 3.2 GPa, thermochemically above 5 GPa at 300K, or at 3 GPa and {approx}2000K as achieved by laser heating. The solid product can be recovered at ambient conditions with a high degree of conversion, measured to be up to 95% of the original CO. Its fundamental chemical structure includes {beta}-lactone and conjugated C=C, which can be considered a severely modified polymeric carbon suboxide with open ladders and smaller five-membered rings. The polymer is metastable at ambient conditions, spontaneously liberating CO{sub 2} gases exothermically. We find that the recovered polymer has a high energy density, 1-8 KJ/g, and is very combustible. We estimate the density of recovered CO polymer to be at least 1.65 g/cm cm{sup 3}.

  6. Chemopreventive activity of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) from yacon against TPA-induced Raji cells deformation.

    PubMed

    Siriwan, D; Miyawaki, C; Miyamoto, T; Naruse, T; Okazaki, K; Tamura, H

    2011-05-15

    Yacon is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine by the natives in South America. In Japan, it becomes popular as a health food. Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs) from yacon leaves were investigated and the active SLs such as enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin, bearing alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone and epoxides as the active functional groups, were identified by 1H-6000 MHz-NMR. Chemopreventive and cytotoxic activities were determined using different primary screening methods. In this study, all tested SLs strongly inhibited TPA-induced deformed of Raji cells. The IC50 values of yacon SLs from anti-deforming assay were 0.04-0.4 microM. Interestingly, yacon SLs showed more potential of chemo preventive activity than both curcumin and parthenolide. However, the cytotoxicity on Raji cells was observed at high concentration of yacon SLs. The degree of anti-deformation was ranked in order: enhydrin >uvedalin >sonchifolin >parthenolide >curcumin. As according to structure-activity relationship, the high activities of enhydrin, uvedalin and sonchifolin may be due to the 2-methyl-2-butenoate and its epoxide moiety.

  7. Production of acylated homoserine lactone by gram-positive bacteria isolated from marine water.

    PubMed

    Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

    2013-06-01

    Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) has been reported to be present only in Gram-negative microorganisms. Isolation of a novel Gram-positive microorganism from sea water, capable of producing AHL, is reported here. The isolate (GenBank: JF915892, designated as MPO) belonging to the Exiguobacterium genera is capable of inducing the AHL bioreporters, namely Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, Agrobacterium tumefaceins A136, and E. coli JM 109(psb1075). This inducer is characterized as C3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone (OOHL), and its production reaches a maximum of 15.6 μg L(-1), during the stationary growth phase of the organism. MPO extract when exogenously added inhibits the formation of biofilm for the same organism and lowers the extracellular polymeric substances, indicating an AHL-associated phenotypic trait. The isolated sequence of a probable LuxR homolog from MPO (designated as ExgR) shows similar functional domains and contains conserved residues in LuxR from other known bacterial QS LuxR regulators. Also present immediately downstream to ExgR was found a sequence showing homology to known LuxI synthase of Pseudomonas putida. qPCR analysis suggests an increment in exgR mRNA on addition of AHL, further proving the role of ExgR as a QS regulator.

  8. Cleavage of beta-lactone ring by serine protease. Mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong H; Park, Jeong-il; Chung, Sang J; Park, Jung Dae; Park, No-Kyung; Han, Jong Hoon

    2002-08-01

    Both enantiomers of 3-benzyl-2-oxetanone (1) were found to be slowly hydrolyzed substrates of alpha-chymotrypsin having k(cat) values of 0.134+/-0.008 and 0.105+/-0.004 min(-1) for (R)-1 and (S)-1, respectively, revealing that alpha-CT is virtually unable to differentiate the enantiomers in the hydrolysis of 1. The initial step to form the acyl-enzyme intermediate by the attack of Ser-195 hydroxyl on the beta-lactone ring at the 2-position in the hydrolysis reaction may not be enzymatically driven, but the relief of high ring strain energy of beta-lactone may constitute a major driving force. The deacylation step is also attenuated, which is possibly due to the hydrogen bond that would be formed between the imidazole nitrogen of His-57 and the hydroxyl group generated during the acylation in the case of (R)-1, but in the alpha-CT catalyzed hydrolysis of (S)-1 the imidazole nitrogen may form a hydrogen bond with the ester carbonyl oxygen.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of novel quick-release propofol prodrug via lactonization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Yin, Wang; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Cheng; Kang, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2013-03-15

    The water-soluble derivatives of propofol have gained attention as a method to increase solubility of propofol. According to the principle of lactonization, the lead compound HX0969 was synthesized first and then the pharmacological features of HX0969 were evaluated in a comparison with those of propofol in the SD rats. Then, HX0969 disodium phosphate monoester (HX0969W) and glycine ester trifluoroacetic acid salt (HX101230) were synthesized, and their pharmacological features were compared with those of Lusedra®, which has been recognized and marketed as a water-soluble prodrug of propofol since 2008. The results showed that HX0969 could produce an anesthetic effect within a few seconds (3.6±3.0s) and its therapeutic index was 4.66 in the SD rat. The pharmacodynamic characteristics of HX0969W were similar to those of the Lusedra®. HX101230 could still produce an anesthetic effect within 60s in the rats though its therapeutic index was not so high (TI=2.96). Therefore, our study has indicated that HX0969 is a potentially useful lead compound of propofol derivative. Its rapid anesthetic effect is probably associated with lactonization.

  10. Metabolism of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals by Variovorax paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Leadbetter, J R; Greenberg, E P

    2000-12-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) serve as dedicated cell-to-cell signaling molecules in many species of the class Proteobacteria. We have addressed the question of whether these compounds can be degraded biologically. A motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil based upon its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone as the sole source of energy and nitrogen. The bacterium was classified as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. The V. paradoxus isolate was capable of growth on all of the acyl-HSLs tested. The molar growth yields correlated with the length of the acyl group. HSL, a product of acyl-HSL metabolism, was used as a nitrogen source, but not as an energy source. Cleavage and partial mineralization of the HSL ring were demonstrated by using radiolabeled substrate. This study indicates that some strains of V. paradoxus degrade and grow on acyl-HSL signals as the sole energy and nitrogen sources. This study provides clues about the metabolic pathway of acyl-HSL degradation by V. paradoxus.

  11. Microbial homoserine lactones (AHLs) are effectors of root morphological changes in barley.

    PubMed

    Rankl, Simone; Gunsé, Benet; Sieper, Tina; Schmid, Christoph; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Schröder, Peter

    2016-12-01

    While colonizing the rhizosphere, bacterial intra- and inter-specific communication is accomplished by N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) in a density-dependent manner. Moreover, plants are naturally exposed to AHLs and respond with tissue-specificity. In the present study, we investigated the influence of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-dodecanoyl-d/l-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) on growth and root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and identified initial reactions in root cells after AHL exposures using physiological, staining, and electrophysiological methods. Treatment with short- and long-chain AHLs modulated plant growth and branched root architecture and induced nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in the calyptra and root elongation zone of excised roots in an AHL derivative-independent way. Additionally, C6- and C8-HSL treatments stimulated K(+) uptake in root cells only at certain concentrations, whereas all tested concentrations of C12-HSL induced K(+) uptake. In further experiments, C8-HSL promoted membrane hyperpolarization in epidermal root cells. Thus, we conclude AHLs promote plant growth and lateral root formation, and cause NO accumulation as an early response to AHLs. Furthermore, the AHL-mediated membrane hyperpolarization is leading to increased K(+) uptake of the root tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Reporter for Identification of Interference with Acyl Homoserine Lactone and Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Pinnow, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Two reporter strains were established to identify novel biomolecules interfering with bacterial communication (quorum sensing [QS]). The basic design of these Escherichia coli-based systems comprises a gene encoding a lethal protein fused to promoters induced in the presence of QS signal molecules. Consequently, these E. coli strains are unable to grow in the presence of the respective QS signal molecules unless a nontoxic QS-interfering compound is present. The first reporter strain designed to detect autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-interfering activities (AI2-QQ.1) contained the E. coli ccdB lethal gene under the control of the E. coli lsrA promoter. The second reporter strain (AI1-QQ.1) contained the Vibrio fischeri luxI promoter fused to the ccdB gene to detect interference with acyl-homoserine lactones. Bacteria isolated from the surfaces of several marine eukarya were screened for quorum-quenching (QQ) activities using the established reporter systems AI1-QQ.1 and AI2-QQ.1. Out of 34 isolates, two interfered with acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling, five interfered with AI-2 QS signaling, and 10 were demonstrated to interfere with both signal molecules. Open reading frames (ORFs) conferring QQ activity were identified for three selected isolates (Photobacterium sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Evaluation of the respective heterologously expressed and purified QQ proteins confirmed their ability to interfere with the AHL and AI-2 signaling processes. PMID:25527543

  13. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Sesquiterpene lactone! a promising antioxidant, anticancer and moderate antinociceptive agent from Artemisia macrocephala jacquem.

    PubMed

    Shoaib, Mohammad; Shah, Ismail; Ali, Niaz; Adhikari, Achyut; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ishtiaq, Saiqa; Khan, Jahangir; Khan, Shahzeb; Umer, Mohammad Naveed

    2017-01-07

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) make a diverse and huge group of bio-active constituents that have been isolated from several plant families. However, the greatest numbers are present in Asteraceae family having more than 3000 different reported structures. Recently several researchers have reported that STLs have significant antioxidant and anticancer potentials. To investigate the antioxidant, anticancer and antinociceptive potentials of STLs, gravity column chromatography technique was used for isolation from the biologically rich chloroform fraction of Artemisia macrocephala Jacquem. The antioxidant activity of the isolated STLs was determined by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity, anticancer activity was determined on 3 T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells by MTT assay while the antinociceptive activity was determined through acetic acid induced writhings, tail immersion method and formalin induced nociception method. The results showed that the STLs of Artemisia macrocephala possesses promising antioxidant activity and also it decreased the viability of 3 T3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells and mild to moderate antinociceptive activity. Sesquiterpenes lactones (STLs) are widely present in numerous genera of the family Asteraceae (compositae). They are described as the active constituents used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study reveals the significant potentials of STL and may be used as an alternative for the management of cancer. Anyhow, the isolated compound is having no prominent antinociceptive potentials.

  15. An HPLC Assay for the Lipophilic Camptothecin Analog AR-67 Carboxylate and Lactone in Human Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Horn, Jamie; Leggas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, DB-67) is a camptothecin analog currently in early stage clinical trials. The lactone moiety of camptothecins hydrolyzes readily in blood to yield the pharmacologically inactive carboxylate form. However the lactone form of third generation lipophilic congeners, such as AR-67, is more stable possibly due to partitioning into red cell membranes. This prompted us to develop a reverse phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection (excitation 380 nm / emission 560 nm), which could quantitate the concentration of AR-67 lactone and carboxylate in whole blood. Samples were prepared by red cell lysis, protein precipitation with methanol and centrifugation to remove denatured materials. Recovery was estimated to be >85%. Analytes were eluted isocratically with 0.15 M ammonium acetate buffer containing 10 mM TBAP (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) on a Nova-Pak C18 column (4 μm; 3.9 mm × 150 mm). The assay was linear in the range of 0.5-300 ng/mL and 2.5-300 ng/mL for carboxylate and lactone, respectively. Accuracy and precision were acceptable. AR-67 forms were stable in whole blood and in methanolic supernatants. This assay has been successfully applied to measure AR-67 concentrations in whole blood of patients enrolled in a phase I study. PMID:20853460

  16. An HPLC assay for the lipophilic camptothecin analog AR-67 carboxylate and lactone in human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Tsakalozou, Eleftheria; Horn, Jamie; Leggas, Mark

    2010-10-01

    AR-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, DB-67) is a camptothecin analog currently in early stage clinical trials. The lactone moiety of camptothecins hydrolyzes readily in blood to yield the pharmacologically inactive carboxylate form. However the lactone form of third-generation lipophilic congeners, such as AR-67, is more stable, possibly due to partitioning into red cell membranes. This prompted us to develop a reverse-phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection (excitation 380 nm/emission 560 nm), which could quantitate the concentration of AR-67 lactone and carboxylate in whole blood. Samples were prepared by red cell lysis, protein precipitation with methanol and centrifugation to remove denatured materials. Recovery was estimated to be >85%. Analytes were eluted isocratically with 0.15 m ammonium acetate buffer containing 10 mm TBAP (pH 6.5) and acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) on a Nova-Pak C(18) column (4 µm; 3.9 × 150 mm). The assay was linear in the ranges 0.5-300 and 2.5-300 ng/mL for carboxylate and lactone, respectively. Accuracy and precision were acceptable. AR-67 forms were stable in whole blood and in methanolic supernatants. This assay has been successfully applied to measure AR-67 concentrations in whole blood of patients enrolled in a phase I study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate by a soil pseudomonad. Ring-fission, lactonizing and delactonizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, J K; Evans, W C

    1971-05-01

    1. A cell-free system, prepared from Pseudomonas N.C.I.B. 9340 grown on 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA) was shown to catalyse the reaction sequence: 5-chloro-3-methylcatechol --> cis-cis-gamma-chloro-alpha-methylmuconate --> gamma-carboxymethylene-alpha-methyl-Delta(alphabeta)-butenolide --> gamma-hydroxy-alpha-methylmuconate. 2. The activity of the three enzymes involved in these reactions was completely resolved and the lactonizing and delactonizing enzymes were separated. 3. This part of the metabolic pathway of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate is thus confirmed for this bacterium. 4. The ring-fission oxygenase required Fe(2+) or Fe(3+) and reduced glutathione for activity; the lactonizing enzyme is stimulated by Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+) and Fe(2+); no cofactor requirement could be demonstrated for the delactonizing enzyme. 5. cis-cis-gamma-Chloro-alpha-methylmuconic acid was isolated and found to be somewhat unstable, readily lactonizing to gamma-carboxymethylene-alpha-methyl-Delta(alphabeta)-butenolide. 6. Enzymically the lactonization appears to be a single-step dehydrochlorinase reaction.

  18. Draft Genome Perspective of Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain SU8, an N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Degrading Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Sulaiman, Joanita; Yong, Delicia Ann; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Priya, Kumutha

    2015-09-24

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain SU8 was isolated from a pristine water source in Malaysia and it exhibited degradation of N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone. Here we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus strain SU8 to further understand its quorum quenching abilities.

  19. Profile of Citrobacter freundii ST2, a Multi-acyl-homoserine Lactone Producer Associated with Marine Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinqi; Gao, Yan; Ma, Zhiping; Lin, Guanghui; Cai, Zhonghua; Zhou, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Marine algae provide a unique niche termed the phycosphere for microorganism inhabitation. The phycosphere environment is an important niche for mutualistic and competitive interactions between algae and bacteria. Quorum sensing (QS) serves as a gene regulatory system in the microbial biosphere that allows bacteria to sense the population density with signaling molecules, such as acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), and adapt their physiological activities to their surroundings. Understanding the QS system is important to elucidate the interactions between algal-associated microbial communities in the phycosphere condition. In this study, we isolated an epidermal bacterium (ST2) from the marine dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea and evaluated its AHL production profile. Strain ST2 was classified as a member of the genus Citrobacter closely related to Citrobacter freundii by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that C. freundii ST2 secreted three active AHL compounds into the culture supernatant. Specific compounds, such as N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-AHL), N-octanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C8-AHL), and N-decanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C10-AHL), were identified by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Carbon metabolic profiling with Biolog EcoPlate™ indicated that C. freundii ST2 was widely used as a carbon source and preferred carbohydrates, amino acids, and carboxylic acids as carbon substrates. Our results demonstrated that C. freundii ST2 is a multi-AHL producer that participates in the phycosphere carbon cycle.

  20. Study of the contribution of massoia lactone to the aroma of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts and wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Allamy, Lucile; Lavigne, Valérie; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Organic extracts of musts and red wines marked by dried fruit and cooked fruit aromas were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Thanks to this analytical approach we identified a fragrant lactone corresponding to an odorant zone reminiscent of coconut and dried figs as 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (C10 massoia lactone). Using chiral GC-GC-MS, we show that only the (R)-C10 massoia lactone is found in musts and wines. Its detection thresholds were 10µg/L and 11µg/L in must and wine model solution, respectively. In Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon musts marked by dried fruit flavors from overripe grapes, its concentration reached 68µg/L. In contrast, in wines marked by these flavors, it never exceeded 20µg/L. We show that (R)-C10 massoia lactone is reduced to (R)-δ-decalactone during alcoholic fermentation. In addition, we underline the contribution of temperature during the growing season on its level in old red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Tetrodotoxin via the Oxidative Amidation of a Phenol: On the Structure of the Sato Lactone.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sanjia; Ciufolini, Marco A

    2015-05-15

    A formal total synthesis of (±)-tetrodotoxin that relies on the bimolecular oxidative amidation of a phenol is described, and a structural correction of the Sato lactone, an important tetrodotoxin intermediate, is provided. This work lays the foundation for an ultimate enantioselective synthesis.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and inactivation mechanism of lactonic and free acid sophorolipids against Escherichia coli O157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we synthesized sophorolipids (SLs) from glucose and either palmitic, stearic or oleic acid via fermentation using the osmophilic yeast Starmerella bombicola, purified and separated the SLs into lactonic and free-acid forms and assessed their antimicrobial efficacy against 5 strains of...

  3. Detection of Diverse N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactones in Vibrio alginolyticus and Regulation of Biofilm Formation by N-(3-Oxodecanoyl) Homoserine Lactone In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfei; Fu, Kaifei; Wang, Yuxiao; Wu, Chenglin; Li, Fei; Shi, Lei; Ge, Yinlin; Zhou, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system based on the exchange of small intercellular signal molecules, such as N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which act as cell-density mediators of QS gene expression, and are highly variable both in types and amounts in most Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Understanding the regulation of AHLs may contribute to the elucidation of cell density-dependent phenomena, such as biofilm formation. Vibrio alginolyticus is among the most frequently observed marine opportunistic Vibrio pathogens. However, AHL production of this species and its effects on biofilm formation remain to be understood. Here, our study reported the diverse AHL profiles of 47 marine-isolated V. alginolyticus strains and the effects of exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL on biofilm formation under different temperature conditions (16°C and 28°C). A total of 11 detected AHLs were produced by the isolates, of which 3-OH-C4-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL and 3-oxo-C14-HSL comprised the largest proportions. We also observed that moderate levels of exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL (10 and 20 μM) could induce or enhance biofilm formation and alter its structure, while high levels (40 and 100 μM) did not significantly improve and even inhibited biofilm formation in V. alginolyticus. Further, regulation by exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL was both concentration- and temperature-dependent in V. alginolyticus. PMID:28670299

  4. Growth inhibition of Candida species by Wickerhamomyces anomalus mycocin and a lactone compound of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Tay, Sun-Tee; Lim, Su-Lin; Tan, Hui-Wee

    2014-11-08

    The increasing resistance of Candida yeasts towards antifungal compounds and the limited choice of therapeutic drugs have spurred great interest amongst the scientific community to search for alternative anti-Candida compounds. Mycocins and fungal metabolites have been reported to have the potential for treatment of fungal infections. In this study, the growth inhibition of Candida species by a mycocin produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactone compound from Aureobasidium pullulans were investigated. Mycocin was purified from the culture supernatant of an environmental isolate of W. anomalus using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration column chromatography. The mycocin preparation was subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis followed by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The thermal and temperature stability of the mycocin were determined. The glucanase activity of the mycocin was investigated by substrate staining of the mycocin with 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUG). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis was used to identify anti-Candida metabolite in the culture supernatant of an environmental isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans. The inhibitory effects of the anti-Candida compound against planktonic and biofilm cultures of various Candida species were determined using broth microdilution and biofilm quantitation methods. A mycocin active against Candida mesorugosa but not C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei was isolated from the culture supernatant of W. anomalus in this study. The mycocin, identified as exo-ß-1,3 glucanase by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, was stable at pH 3-6 and temperature ranging from 4-37°C. The glucanase activity of the mycocin was confirmed by substrate staining with MUG. 5-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid lactone (HDCL) was identified from the culture supernatant of A. pullulans. Using a commercial source of HDCL, the planktonic and biofilm MICs of HDCL against various Candida species were determined in this study

  5. Selective recovery of acidic and lactonic sophorolipids from culture broths towards the improvement of their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabel A C; Bronze, M Rosário; F Castro, Matilde; Ribeiro, Maria H L

    2016-12-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) were produced by Starmerella bombicola. The separation and purification of SLs are a complex process, since they are produced as a mixture of compounds with few structural differences. Solvent extraction is commonly used in downstream processing. In this work, an environmental friendly approach was developed for SLs recovery and purification, based on neutral polymeric sorbents, Amberlite XAD16N(TM), XAD18(TM), and XAD1600N(TM). In batch microassays, key parameters of sorption/desorption process (e.g., contact time, temperature, sorbents, and SLs concentrations) were optimized for separation of acidic and lactonic SLs. Sorption equilibrium was reached after 2-3 h, for all the sorbents tested. Among them XAD1600N(TM) showed a higher sorption capacity (q max 230 mg g(-1)), a higher removal (≈100 %) of acidic and lactonic SLs [1 and 2.5 % (w/v)], and the best selectivity. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were suitable for SLs elution. A selective desorption of SLs was attained with acetonitrile aqueous solutions (v/v): (1) 25 % led to 88.3 % of acidic SLs and (2) 55 % followed by methanol solution (100 %) led to 93.2 % of purified lactonic SLs. This achievement was particularly important regarding SLs potential therapeutic applications, since acidic and lactonic SLs show different biologic activities. In fact, acid SLs show higher virucidal and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity, while lactonic SLs show stronger spermicidal and anti-cancer activity.

  6. Use of cyclodextrins as solubilizing agents for simvastatin: effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on lactone/hydroxyacid aqueous equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Francesca; Giovino, Concetta; Catanzano, Ovidio; Miro, Agnese; Mele, Andrea; Quaglia, Fabiana; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata

    2011-02-14

    The chemical conversion of simvastatin from the lactone (SVL) to the hydroxyacid (SVA) form is becoming an intriguing issue associated with the pharmacological use of SVL. On this matter, recent findings suggest that SVL complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs) may be a useful strategy to affect its aqueous solubility and chemical stability. In this work, a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method able to selectively identify and quantify SVL and SVA has been set up, validated and applied to follow SVL hydrolysis in the presence of HPβCD. The combination of stability results with simvastatin/HPβCD stability constants achieved from UV-vis measurements and solubility/dissolution studies allowed to get an insight into SVL/HPβCD, SVA/HPβCD and SVL/SVA equilibria taking place in aqueous solution. Results show that in the presence of HPβCD the aqueous SVL/SVA equilibrium is shifted versus the hydroxyacid form. UV-vis results, showing that the lactone and the open-ring form of simvastatin interact with HPβCD in a similar extent, suggest that hydrolysis occurs also on SVL/HPβCD complex, thus supporting a mode of interaction that does not involve the lactone ring. This hypothesis is strengthened by NMR analysis performed on SVA, HPβCD and their inclusion complex, which indicates that the lactone ring is not included in HPβCD hydrophobic cavity. Finally, results suggest that particular attention must be paid to SVL lactonization in aqueous solution when using CD-based formulations and in demonstrating their effective benefit for a specific therapeutic use.

  7. Effect of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on cell cycle, apoptosis, and ABC transporter expression in human soft tissue sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Nadine; Rinner, Beate; Stuendl, Nicole; Kaltenegger, Heike; Wolf, Elisabeth; Kunert, Olaf; Boechzelt, Herbert; Leithner, Andreas; Bauer, Rudolf; Lohberger, Birgit

    2012-11-01

    Human soft tissue sarcomas represent a rare group of malignant tumours that frequently exhibit chemotherapeutic resistance and increased metastatic potential following unsuccessful treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone, which have been isolated from Saussurea lappa using activity-guided isolation, on three soft tissue sarcoma cell lines of various origins. The effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis induction, and ABC transporter expression were analysed. Both compounds inhibited cell viability dose- and time-dependently. IC50 values ranged from 6.2 µg/mL to 9.8 µg/mL. Cells treated with costunolide showed no changes in cell cycle, little in caspase 3/7 activity, and low levels of cleaved caspase-3 after 24 and 48 h. Dehydrocostus lactone caused a significant reduction of cells in the G1 phase and an increase of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Moreover, it led to enhanced caspase 3/7 activity, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP indicating apoptosis induction. In addition, the influence of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone on the expression of ATP binding cassette transporters related to multidrug resistance (ABCB1/MDR1, ABCC1/MRP1, and ABCG2/BCRP1) was examined using real-time RT-PCR. The expressions of ABCB1/MDR1 and ABCG2/BCRP1 in liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma cells were significantly downregulated by dehydrocostus lactone. Our data demonstrate for the first time that dehydrocostus lactone affects cell viability, cell cycle distribution and ABC transporter expression in soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, it led to caspase 3/7 activity as well as caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, which are indicators of apoptosis. Therefore, this compound may be a promising lead candidate for the development of therapeutic agents against drug-resistant tumours.

  8. Differential enhancement of leukaemia cell differentiation without elevation of intracellular calcium by plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S H; Danilenko, M; Kim, T S

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a majority of acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients, but resistance of leukaemic cells to ATRA and its toxicity, such as hypercalcaemia, lead to a limitation of treatment. Therefore, combination therapies with differentiation-enhancing agents at non-toxic concentrations of ATRA may overcome its side effects. Here, we investigated the effect of plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone compounds and their underlying mechanisms in ATRA-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Experimental approach: HL-60 cells were treated with four sesquiterpene lactones (helenalin, costunolide, parthenolide and sclareolide) and cell differentiation was determined by NBT reduction, Giemsa and cytofluorometric analyses. Signalling pathways were assessed by western blotting, gel-shift assay and kinase activity determinations and intracellular calcium levels were determined using a calcium-specific fluorescent probe. Key results: Helenalin, costunolide and parthenolide, but not sclareolide, increased ATRA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into a granulocytic lineage. Signalling kinases PKC and ERK were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by all of the effective sesquiterpene lactones, but JNK and PI3-K were involved in the ATRA-induced differentiation enhanced by costunolide and parthenolide. Enhancement of cell differentiation closely correlated with inhibition of NF-κB DNA-binding activity by all three effective compounds. Importantly, enhancement of differentiation induced by 50 nM ATRA by the sesquiterpene lactones was not accompanied by elevation of basal intracellular calcium concentrations. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones may enhance ATRA-mediated cell differentiation through distinct pathways. PMID:18724384

  9. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of trans-β-Aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones and Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of Their Racemic Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Skrobiszewski, Andrzej; Gładkowski, Witold; Maciejewska, Gabriela; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2016-11-23

    Two novel and convenient routes to obtain enantiomerically enriched trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d with potential antifeedant and anticancer activity were developed. In the first method starting from corresponding enantiomers of γ,δ-unsaturated esters 4a-d derived from enzymatically resolved allyl alcohols 1a-d, both enantiomers of hydroxylactones 5a-d were synthesized with high enantiomeric excesses (73%-97%). Configurations of the stereogenic centers of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on the mechanism of acidic lactonization of esters 4a-d in the presence of m-chloroperbenzoic acid (m-CPBA). An alternative method for the production of optically active trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d was lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of their racemic mixtures by transesterification with vinyl propionate as the acyl donor. The most efficient enzyme in the screening procedure was lipase B from Candida antarctica. Its application on a preparative scale after 6 h afforded unreacted (+)-(4S,5R,6S)-hydroxylactones 5a-d and (+)-(4R,5S,6R)-propionates 6a-d, most of them with high enantiomeric excesses (92%-98%). Resolution of lactone 5d with bulky 1,3-benzodioxol ring provided products with significantly lower optical purity (ee = 89% and 84% for hydroxylactone 5d and propionate 6d, respectively). The elaborated methods give access to both enantiomers of trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d with the defined absolute configurations of stereogenic centers, which is crucial requirement for the investigations of relationship: spatial structure-biological activity.

  10. Insights into the structure-activity relationship of the anticancer compound ZJ-101, a derivative of marine natural product superstolide A: A role played by the lactone moiety.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haibo; Qian, Shan; Head, Sarah A; Liu, Jun O; Jin, Zhendong

    2016-10-01

    Compound ZJ-101, a structurally simplified analog of the marine natural product superstolide A, was previously developed in our laboratory. In the subsequent structure-activity relationship study, a new analog ZJ-109 was designed and synthesized to probe the importance of the lactone moiety of the molecule by replacing the lactone in ZJ-101 with a lactam. The biological evaluation showed that ZJ-109 is about 8-12 times less active against cancer cells in vitro than ZJ-101, suggesting that the lactone moiety of the molecule is important for its anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of histidinoalanine: a comparison of β-lactone and sulfamidate electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Carol M; De Silva, Samanthi Thabrew

    2011-07-15

    Previous syntheses of histidinoalanine (HAL) have led to mixtures of regioisomers and/or stereoisomers. For example, opening of N-Cbz-D-serine-β-lactone (6) with Boc-L-His-OMe (5) gave a 2:1 mixture of τ- and π-regioisomers. The sulfamidate 10, derived from N-benzyl-D-serine methyl ester (11), was reacted with Boc-L-His-OMe (5) to give the τ-HAL derivative 17 as a single isomer in 57% yield. A similarly prepared τ-HAL 19, bearing protecting groups that were all hydrogenolytically labile, led to the free bis-amino acid, τ-L-histidinyl-D-alanine (τ-4), as a salt-free standard for amino acid analysis.

  12. Biosynthetic studies on the botcinolide skeleton: new hydroxylated lactones from Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Reino, José L; Durán-Patrón, Rosa M; Daoubi, Mourad; Collado, Isidro G; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] The biosynthetic origin of the botcinolide skeleton was investigated by means of feeding 13C- and 2H-labeled precursors to Botrytis cinerea. Three new compounds, two homobotcinolide derivatives, 3-O-acetylhomobotcinolide (5) and 8-methylhomobotcinolide (6), and a new 11-membered lactone (7), were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including one-bond and long-range 1H-13C correlations. The relative stereochemistries were determined by combined analyses of NOE data and 1H-1H coupling constants. According to the results of feeding experiments with 13C- and 2H-labeled acetate and l-S-methylmethionine, 5 is an acetate-derived polyketide whose methyl groups originate from l-S-methylmethionine. This is a rare example of the incorporation of a methyl from methionine into a supposed C3 starter unit of the polyketide synthesis.

  13. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens. PMID:25234390

  14. Pantoea sp. Isolated from Tropical Fresh Water Exhibiting N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wen-Si; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25197715

  15. Pantoea sp. isolated from tropical fresh water exhibiting N-acyl homoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Muhamad Yunos, Nina Yusrina; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) serves as signaling molecule for quorum sensing (QS) in Gram-negative bacteria to regulate various physiological activities including pathogenicity. With the aim of isolating freshwater-borne bacteria that can cause outbreak of disease in plants and portrayed QS properties, environmental water sampling was conducted. Here we report the preliminary screening of AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] as AHL biosensors. The 16S rDNA gene sequence of isolate M009 showed the highest sequence similarity to Pantoea stewartii S9-116, which is a plant pathogen. The isolated Pantoea sp. was confirmed to produce N-3-oxohexanoyl-L-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) through analysis of high resolution mass tandem mass spectrometry.

  16. N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria protect plants against plant and human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schenk, Sebastian T; Neumann, Christina; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of beneficial microorganisms for plant protection has a long history. Many rhizobia bacteria are able to influence the immune system of host plants by inducing resistance towards pathogenic microorganisms. In this report, we present a translational approach in which we demonstrate the resistance-inducing effect of Ensifer meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) on crop plants that have a significant impact on the worldwide economy and on human nutrition. Ensifer meliloti is usually associated with root nodulation in legumes and nitrogen fixation. Here, we suggest that the ability of S. meliloti to induce resistance depends on the production of the quorum-sensing molecule, oxo-C14-HSL. The capacity to enhanced resistance provides a possibility to the use these beneficial bacteria in agriculture. Using the Arabidopsis-Salmonella model, we also demonstrate that the application of N-acyl-homoserine lactones-producing bacteria could be a successful strategy to prevent plant-originated infections with human pathogens.

  17. Biofilm activity and sludge characteristics affected by exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactones in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huizhi; He, Junguo; Liu, Jian; Yu, Huarong; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    This study verified the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentrations on mature biofilm systems. Three concentrations of an AHL mixture were used in the batch test. Introducing of 5nM AHLs significantly increased biofilm activity and increased sludge characteristics, which resulted in better pollutant removal performance, whereas exogenous 50nM and 500nM AHLs limited pollutant removal, especially COD and nitrogen removal. To further identify how exogenous signal molecular affects biofilm system nitrogen removal, analyzing of nitrifying bacteria through real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that these additional signal molecules affect nitrifying to total bacteria ratio. In addition, the running state of the system was stable during 15days of operation without an AHL dose, which suggests that the changes in the system due to AHL are irreversible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A fused [3.3.0]-neoglycoside lactone derived from glucuronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Schombs, Matthew W.; Davis, Ryan A.; Fettinger, James C.; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2013-01-01

    The bridged next-generation aminoglycoside (neoglycoside), 1-deoxy-1-[(methoxy)methylamino)]-2,5-di-O-triethylsilyl-β-d-glucofuranurono-γ-lactone {systematic name: (3S,3aS,5R,6R,6aS)-5-[methoxy(methyl)amino]-3,6-bis[(triethylsilyl)oxy]-2,3,3a,5,6,6a-hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-2-one}, C20H41NO6Si2, was synthesized in a one-pot manner from commercially available d-glucuronic acid. This structure supports the properties associated with the anomeric effect for furanosides and can be employed to provide insight into the mechanisms by which alkoxyamine-appended natural products derive their enhanced biological activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published crystal structure of a bicyclic neoglycoside and is the first neoglycoside to be completely and unambiguously characterized. PMID:24005522

  19. Validation of a screening method for rapid control of macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples.

    PubMed

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Téllez, Helena; Sánchez, Alberto; Chicharro, Manuel; Ríos, Angel

    2008-05-01

    A procedure for the analytical validation of a rapid supercritical fluid extraction amperometric screening method for controlling macrocyclic lactone mycotoxins in maize flour samples has been developed. The limit established by European legislation (0.2 mg kg(-1)), in reference to zearalenone (ZON) mycotoxin, was taken as the reference threshold to validate the proposed method. Natural ZON metabolites were also included in this study to characterize the final screening method. The objective was the reliable classification of samples as positive or negative samples. The cut-off level was fixed at a global concentration of mycotoxins of 0.17 mg kg(-1). An expanded unreliability zone between 0.16 and 0.23 mg kg(-1) characterized the screening method for classifying the samples. A set of 30 samples was used for the final demonstration of the reliability and usefulness of the method.

  20. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from Saussurea lappa, inhibits the VEGFR KDR/Flk-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sei-Joon; Itokawa, Takashi; Shibuya, Masabumi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi; Higuchi, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2002-12-10

    Costunolide (CT), a sesquiterpene lactone constituent isolated from Saussurea lappa (Compositae), exerted an antiangiogenic effect. CT selectively inhibited the endothelial cell proliferation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Further, CT was also found to inhibit the VEGF-induced chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. From these results, we hypothesized that CT might inhibit angiogenesis by blocking the angiogenic factor signaling pathway. VEGF interacts with its cognate receptors, KDR/Flk-1 and Flt-1, and exerts its angiogenic effect. CT inhibited the autophosphorylation of KDR/Flk-1 without affecting that of Flt-1. Moreover, administration of CT reduced VEGF-induced neovascularization in a mouse corneal micropocket assay. These results suggest that CT may prove useful for the development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.

  1. Inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Dehydrocostus Lactone and Costunolide in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Shim, Ah-Ram; Hyeon, Jin Seong; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal activation of β-catenin has been reported in 90% in the sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer. The suppression of abnormally activated β-catenin is one of the good strategies for chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. In this study, we have isolated two main compounds from root of Saussurea lappa, dehydrocostus lactone (DCL) and costunolide (CL), and investigated their anti-colorectal cancer activities. DCL and CL suppressed cyclin D1 and survivin through inhibiting nuclear translocation of β-catenin. They also suppressed the nuclear translocation of galectin-3 that is one of the coactivators of β-catenin in SW-480 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, DCL and CL suppressed proliferation and survival of SW-480 colon cancer cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and cell death. Taken together, DCL and CL from root of S. lappa have anti-colorectal cancer activities through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  2. A new sesquiterpene lactone from the roots of Saussurea lappa: structure-anticancer activity study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Kumar, T Vijay; Sreedhar, E; Naidu, V G M; Krishna, Sistla Rama; Babu, K Suresh; Srinivas, P V; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2008-07-15

    The dried roots of Saussurea lappa, called costus roots, are used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of cancer. In our investigation for the anticancer constituents from the hexane extract of this plant, a new sesquiterpene (1) was isolated along with the known compounds costunolide (2), beta-cyclocostunolide (3), dihydro costunolide (4) and dehydro costuslactone (5). Their structures were established by the extensive spectroscopic analyses. In addition, costunolide and beta-cyclocostunolide derivatives were synthesized using Michael-type addition reaction of NaOMe to the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone moiety. All the compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity and other compounds displayed moderate activity.

  3. Staphylococcus intermedius Produces a Functional agr Autoinducing Peptide Containing a Cyclic Lactone

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guangyong; Pei, Wuhong; Zhang, Linsheng; Qiu, Rongde; Lin, Jianqun; Benito, Yvonne; Lina, Gerard; Novick, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    The agr system is a global regulator of accessory functions in staphylococci, including genes encoding exoproteins involved in virulence. The agr locus contains a two-component signal transduction module that is activated by an autoinducing peptide (AIP) encoded within the agr locus and is conserved throughout the genus. The AIP has an unusual partially cyclic structure that is essential for function and that, in all but one case, involves an internal thiolactone bond between a conserved cysteine and the C-terminal carboxyl group. The exceptional case is a strain of Staphylococcus intermedius that has a serine in place of the conserved cysteine. We demonstrate here that the S. intermedius AIP is processed by the S. intermedius AgrB protein to generate a cyclic lactone, that it is an autoinducer as well as a cross-inhibitor, and that all of five other S. intermedius strains examined also produce serine-containing AIPs. PMID:15838041

  4. The sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine (DhL) affects the growth of cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Brengio, S D; Belmonte, S A; Guerreiro, E; Giordano, O S; Pietrobon, E O; Sosa, M A

    2000-04-01

    Here, we report an inhibitory effect of a sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine (DhL) on the growth of Trypanosoma cruzi in culture. At concentrations of the drug between 5 and 10 microg/ml in the medium,the parasites remained alive for at least 4 days. Higher concentrations of DhL were lethal for the parasites within a few hours. The effect of DhL is irreversible. Morphological changes induced by DhL were also observed in the parasites. The effect of DhL was blocked by the presence of reducing substrates such as glutathione or dithiothreitol, but these agents were not able to reverse the effect of DhL if added 2 days after the start of drug exposure.

  5. Stereospecific Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryl-Substituted Tetrahydrofurans, Tetrahydropyrans, and Lactones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The stereospecific ring-opening of O-heterocycles to provide acyclic alcohols and carboxylic acids with controlled formation of a new C–C bond is reported. These reactions provide new methods for synthesis of acyclic polyketide analogs with complex stereochemical arrays. Stereoselective synthesis of the cyclic template is utilized to control relative configuration; subsequent stereospecific nickel-catalyzed ring-opening affords the acyclic product. Aryl-substituted tetrahydrofurans and tetrahydropyrans undergo nickel-catalyzed Kumada-type coupling with a range of Grignard reagents to furnish acyclic alcohols with high diastereoselectivity. Enantioenriched lactones undergo Negishi-type cross-coupling with dimethylzinc to afford enantioenriched carboxylic acids. Application in a two-step enantioselective synthesis of an anti-dyslipidemia agent is demonstrated. PMID:25308512

  6. [Anti-aging action of the total lactones of ginkgo on aging mice].

    PubMed

    Dong, Liu-yi; Fan, Li; Li, Gui-fang; Guo, Yan; Pan, Jian; Chen, Zhi-wu

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of total lactones of ginkgo on aging by using D-galactose induced aging mice and natural aging mice. By using D-galactose induced aging mice, to detect the LF content in heart and liver, the Hyp content in liver, the MAO, GSH-Px activities and the NO content in cerebrum. The apoptosis of cerebral cell was determined by terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transforase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling (Tunel) in natural aging mice. TLG was shown to increase the GSH-Px activities, reduce the NO content and decrease the MAO activity in cerebrum. Meanwhile, TLG was found to reduce the LF content in liver and heart and raise the Hyp content in liver. TLG was shown to inhibit apoptosis of cerebral cell and decrease the number of apoptotic cells in the brain. TLG possesses effect on antiaging via attenuating lipid peroxidation and NO and apoptosis of cerebral cells.

  7. Short Chain N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production in Tropical Marine Vibrio sinaloensis Strain T47

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Pui-Wan; Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), acts as one of the gene regulatory systems that allow bacteria to regulate their physiological activities by sensing the population density with synchronization of the signaling molecules that they produce. Here, we report a marine isolate, namely strain T47, and its unique AHL profile. Strain T47 was identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirming that it is a member of Vibrio closely clustered to Vibrio sinaloensis. The isolated V. sinaloensis strain T47 was confirmed to produce N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) by using high resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. V. sinaloensis strain T47 also formed biofilms and its biofilm formation could be affected by anti-QS compound (cathechin) suggesting this is a QS-regulated trait in V. sinaloensis strain T47. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of AHL and biofilm production in V. sinaloensis strain T47. PMID:25046018

  8. Inhibiting N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthesis and quenching Pseudomonas quinolone quorum sensing to attenuate virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Liu, Yi-Chia; Chang, Chien-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria sense their own population size, tune the expression of responding genes, and behave accordingly to environmental stimuli by secreting signaling molecules. This phenomenon is termed as quorum sensing (QS). By exogenously manipulating the signal transduction bacterial population behaviors could be controlled, which may be done through quorum quenching (QQ). QS related regulatory networks have been proven their involvement in regulating many virulence determinants in pathogenic bacteria in the course of infections. Interfering with QS signaling system could be a novel strategy against bacterial infections and therefore requires more understanding of their fundamental mechanisms. Here we review the development of studies specifically on the inhibition of production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), a common proteobacterial QS signal. The opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, equips the alkylquinolone (AQ)-mediated QS which also plays crucial roles in its pathogenicity. The studies in QQ targeting on AQ are also discussed. PMID:26539190

  9. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Several Bryostatin Analogues Bearing a Diacylglycerol Lactone C-Ring.

    PubMed

    Baumann, David O; McGowan, Kevin M; Kedei, Noemi; Peach, Megan L; Blumberg, Peter M; Keck, Gary E

    2016-09-02

    As an initial step in designing a simplified bryostatin hybrid molecule, three bryostatin analogues bearing a diacylglycerol lactone-based C-ring, which possessed the requisite pharmacophores for binding to protein kinase C (PKC) together with a modified bryostatin-like A- and B-ring region, were synthesized and evaluated. Merle 46 and Merle 47 exhibited binding affinity to PKC alpha with Ki values of 7000 ± 990 and 4940 ± 470 nM, respectively. Reinstallation of the trans-olefin and gem-dimethyl group present in bryostatin 1 in Merle 48 resulted in improved binding affinity, 363 ± 42 nM. While Merle 46 and 47 were only marginally active biologically, Merle 48 showed sufficient activity on the U937 cells to confirm that it was PMA-like for growth and attachment, as predicted by the substitution pattern of its A- and B-rings.

  10. Anti-cancer properties of a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction from Artemisia khorassanica.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Shahrzad Taghizadeh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Rastin, Maryam; Tabasi, Nafise; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia species are important medicinal plants throughout the world. The present in vitro study, using a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction prepared from Artemisia khorassanica (SLAK), sought to investigate anti-cancer properties of this plant and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms for the effects. Anti-cancer potential was evaluated by toxicity against human melanoma and fibroblast cell lines. To explore the involved pathways, pattern of any cell death was determined using annexin-V/PI staining and also the expression of Bax and cytochrome c was investigated by Western blotting. The results showed that SLAK selectively caused a concentration-related inhibition of proliferation of melanoma cells that was associated with remarkable increase in early events and over-expression of both Bax and cytochrome c. The current experiment indicates that Artemisia may have anti-cancer activity. We anticipate that the ingredients may be employed as therapeutic candidates for melanoma.

  11. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Brazilian Arnica).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Fernanda C; Ferreira, Leidiane C; Souza, Maíra R; Grabe-Guimarães, Andrea; Paula, Carmen A; Rezende, Simone A; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia A

    2013-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae) are used macerated in water or ethanol to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. In this study, anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract from aerial parts of L. trichocarpha and its ethyl acetate fraction was investigated. Sesquiterpene lactones, lychnopholide (Lyc) and eremantholide C (EreC), isolated of ethyl acetate fraction, were also assayed for in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Topical treatment with ointments containing ethanol extract, its ethyl acetate fraction and sesquiterpene lactones significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mice paw oedema. In vitro assays demonstrated that Lyc inhibited interferon -γ/lipopolysaccharide -stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in J774A.1 macrophages and increased production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. The reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by EreC was accompanied by an increased production of IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner in J774A.1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of Lyc seems to involve the inhibition of production of NO and increased production of IL-10. The mechanism of the effect of EreC on the reduction of carrageenan-induced paw oedema may be attributed to inhibition of production of TNF-α and stimulation of IL-10 production. The results corroborate the use of ethanol extract from Lychnophora trichocarpha in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory action and indicate that the topical route is suitable for use.

  12. Discovery of a series of aromatic lactones as ALDH1/2-directed inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Cameron D.; Mahalingan, Krishna K.; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily consists of 19 isoenzymes which mostly catalyze the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation of aldehydes. Many of these isoenzymes have overlapping substrate specificities and therefore their potential physiological functions may overlap. Thus the development of new isoenyzme-selective probes would be able to better delineate the function of a single isoenyzme and its individual contribution to the metabolism of a particular substrate. This specific study was designed to find a novel modulator of ALDH2, a mitochondrial ALDH isoenzyme most well-known for its role in acetaldehyde oxidation. 53 compounds were initially identified to modulate the activity of ALDH2 by a high-throughput esterase screen from a library of 63,000 compounds. Of these initial 53 compounds, 12 were found to also modulate the oxidation of propionaldehyde by ALDH2. Single concentration measurements at 10 μM compound were performed using ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH2, ALDH1B1, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, and/or ALDH5A1 to determine the selectivity of these 12 compounds towards ALDH2. Four of the twelve compounds shared an aromatic lactone structure and were found to be potent inhibitors of the ALDH1/2 isoenzymes, but have no inhibitory effect on ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1 or ALDH5A1. Two of the aromatic lactones show selectivity within the ALDH1/2 class, and one appears to be selective for ALDH2 compared to all other isoenzymes tested. PMID:25641190

  13. Insights into the Biosynthesis of 12-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones from Heterologous Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The phytotoxic fungal polyketides lasiodiplodin and resorcylide inhibit human blood coagulation factor XIIIa, mineralocorticoid receptors, and prostaglandin biosynthesis. These secondary metabolites belong to the 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone (RAL12) subclass of the benzenediol lactone (BDL) family. Identification of genomic loci for the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin from Lasiodiplodia theobromae and resorcylide from Acremonium zeae revealed collaborating iterative polyketide synthase (iPKS) pairs whose efficient heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a convenient access to the RAL12 scaffolds desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and trans-resorcylide, respectively. Lasiodiplodin production was reconstituted in the heterologous host by co-expressing an O-methyltransferase also encoded in the lasiodiplodin cluster, while a glutathione-S-transferase was found not to be necessary for heterologous production. Clarification of the biogenesis of known resorcylide congeners in the heterologous host helped to disentangle the roles that biosynthetic irregularities and chemical interconversions play in generating chemical diversity. Observation of 14-membered RAL homologues during in vivo heterologous biosynthesis of RAL12 metabolites revealed “stuttering” by fungal iPKSs. The close global and domain-level sequence similarities of the orthologous BDL synthases across different structural subclasses implicate repeated horizontal gene transfers and/or cluster losses in different fungal lineages. The absence of straightforward correlations between enzyme sequences and product structural features (the size of the macrocycle, the conformation of the exocyclic methyl group, or the extent of reduction by the hrPKS) suggest that BDL structural variety is the result of a select few mutations in key active site cavity positions. PMID:24597618

  14. Simultaneous determination of three sesquiterpene lactones in Aucklandia lappa Decne by high-performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aucklandia lappa Decne, a well-known traditional herbal medicine, is used for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, coughs, tuberculosis, and many other diseases. Objective: We performed simultaneous analysis of three sesquiterpene lactones, costunolide (1), dehydrocostus lactone (2), and alantolactone (3), obtained from a 70% methanol extract of A. lappa using high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array (HPLC–PDA) techniques. Materials and Methods: The compounds 1–3 were separated using a reversed-phase SunFire™ C18 analytical column kept at 35°C by the isocratic elution with distilled water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the injection volume was 10 μL. Results: The established analytical method showed high linearity, with a correlation coefficient ≥0.9999. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of compounds 1–3 were 0.06–0.13 μg/mL and 0.21–0.42 μg/mL, respectively. The recovery of the compounds 1–3 was 97.27–103.00%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were 0.09–0.97% and 0.09–1.06%, respectively. The amounts of the compounds 1–3 were 17.32, 28.26, and 0.01 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: The established and validated HPLC–PDA method may be help for the quality control of herbal medicine, A. lappa. PMID:26246732

  15. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Anesini, Claudia A; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Freixa, Blanca; Vila, Roser; Muschietti, Liliana V; Martino, Virginia S

    2008-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of two bioactive sesquiterpene lactones with significant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities. By spectroscopic methods ((1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, correlated spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, electron impact-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy), these compounds were identified as psilostachyin and peruvin. Both compounds showed a marked in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of less than 2 microg/ml. Psilostachyin exerted a significant in vitro activity against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC(50), 0.76 microg/ml) and was selected for in vivo testing. Psilostachyin-treated mice had a survival of 100% and lower parasitemia values than control mice. Both compounds were also tested on Leishmania sp. promastigotes: psilostachyin (IC(50), 0.12 microg/ml) and peruvin (IC(50), 0.39 microg/ml) exerted significant leishmanicidal activities. This is the first time that the trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of these compounds have been reported. The selectivity index (SI) was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of lactones on T lymphocytes. Although the SIs of both compounds were high for T. cruzi epimastigotes, psilostachyin was more selective against trypomastigotes (SI, 33.8) while peruvin showed no specificity for this parasite. Both compounds presented high selectivity for Leishmania spp. The results shown herein suggest that psilostachyin and peruvin could be considered potential candidates for the development of new antiprotozoal agents against Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis.

  16. Long-chain acylhomoserine lactones increase the anoxic ammonium oxidation rate in an OLAND biofilm.

    PubMed

    De Clippeleir, Haydée; Defoirdt, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2011-05-01

    The oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) process comprises one-stage partial nitritation and anammox, catalyzed by aerobic and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and AnAOB), respectively. The goal of this study was to investigate whether quorum sensing influences anoxic ammonium oxidation in an OLAND biofilm, with AnAOB colonizing 13% of the biofilm, as determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). At high biomass concentrations, the specific anoxic ammonium oxidation rate of the OLAND biofilm significantly increased with a factor of 1.5 ± 0.2 compared to low biomass concentrations. Supernatant obtained from the biofilm showed no ammonium-oxidizing activity on itself, but its addition to low OLAND biomass concentrations resulted in a significant activity increase of the biomass. In the biofilm supernatant, the presence of long-chain acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) was shown using the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and one specific AHL, N-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (C(12)-HSL), was identified via LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, C(12)-HSL was detected in an AnAOB-enriched community, but not in an AerAOB-enriched community. Addition of C(12)-HSL to low OLAND biomass concentrations resulted in a significantly higher ammonium oxidation rate (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that AHLs enhance the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. Future work should confirm which species are responsible for the in situ production of C(12)-HSL in AnAOB-based applications.

  17. Trypanocidal and Leishmanicidal Activities of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sülsen, Valeria P.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Cazorla, Silvia I.; Anesini, Claudia A.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Freixa, Blanca; Vila, Roser; Muschietti, Liliana V.; Martino, Virginia S.

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of Ambrosia tenuifolia Sprengel (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of two bioactive sesquiterpene lactones with significant trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities. By spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, correlated spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, electron impact-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy), these compounds were identified as psilostachyin and peruvin. Both compounds showed a marked in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of less than 2 μg/ml. Psilostachyin exerted a significant in vitro activity against the trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50, 0.76 μg/ml) and was selected for in vivo testing. Psilostachyin-treated mice had a survival of 100% and lower parasitemia values than control mice. Both compounds were also tested on Leishmania sp. promastigotes: psilostachyin (IC50, 0.12 μg/ml) and peruvin (IC50, 0.39 μg/ml) exerted significant leishmanicidal activities. This is the first time that the trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of these compounds have been reported. The selectivity index (SI) was employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of lactones on T lymphocytes. Although the SIs of both compounds were high for T. cruzi epimastigotes, psilostachyin was more selective against trypomastigotes (SI, 33.8) while peruvin showed no specificity for this parasite. Both compounds presented high selectivity for Leishmania spp. The results shown herein suggest that psilostachyin and peruvin could be considered potential candidates for the development of new antiprotozoal agents against Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. PMID:18443111

  18. 1,2-dioxines as masked cis gamma-hydroxy enones and their versatility in the synthesis of highly substituted gamma-lactones.

    PubMed

    Greatrex, Ben W; Kimber, Marc C; Taylor, Dennis K; Fallon, Gary; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2002-07-26

    Addition of highly stabilized ester nucleophiles to 1,2-dioxines affords good to high yields of gamma-lactones with high diastereoselectivity. Heterolytic or homolytic cleavage of the 1,2-dioxines under appropriate conditions generates the key reactive cis gamma-hydroxy enones, which ultimately afford the observed gamma-lactones. Diastereoselectivity is installed as a result of anti 1,4-addition by the ester enolate to the cis enones followed by intramolecular cyclization. The reaction is tolerant of a range of substitution patterns on the 1,2-dioxine while a broad range of esters are also accommodated. In addition to the synthesis of racemic gamma-lactones, highly enantioenriched gamma-lactones can also be synthesized when chiral cobalt(II) catalysts are employed for the initial homolytic ring-opening of the 1,2-dioxine.

  19. 1,5-asymmetric induction of chirality using pi-allyltricarbonyliron lactone complexes: highly diastereoselective synthesis of alpha-functionalised carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Hollowood, Christopher J; Ley, Steven V; Wright, Edward A

    2003-09-21

    Silyl enol ethers derived from ketone functionalised rho-allyltricarbonyliron lactone complexes undergo highly diastereoselective carbon-fluorine and carbon-oxygen bond formation reactions with excellent control at the alpha-stereogenic centre.

  20. Preparation of an eight-membered sesquiterpene lactone resulting from sequential Gif System GoAgg(III) and MCPBA oxidation of (+)-10beta,14-dihydroxy-allo-aromadendrane.

    PubMed

    de Bodas, Márcia M L; Marques, Maria Rita; Beatriz, Adilson; de Lima, Dênis P

    2005-08-31

    Studies aimed at a comparison of chemical, biomimetic (Gif system GoAgg(III))and enzymatic (CHMO) transformations of natural (+)-10beta,14-dihydroxy-allo-aromadendrane have led to preparation of an eight-member sesquiterpene lactone.

  1. Broad tuning of the human bitter taste receptor hTAS2R46 to various sesquiterpene lactones, clerodane and labdane diterpenoids, strychnine, and denatonium.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Anne; Behrens, Maik; Massarotti, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2007-07-25

    Sesquiterpene lactones are a major class of natural bitter compounds occurring in vegetables and culinary herbs as well as in aromatic and medicinal plants, where they often represent the main gustatory and pharmacologically active component. Investigations on sesquiterpene lactones have mainly focused on their bioactive potential rather than on their sensory properties. In the present study, we report about the stimulation of heterologously expressed human bitter taste receptors, hTAS2Rs, by the bitter sesquiterpene lactone herbolide D. A specific response to herbolide D was observed i.a. for hTAS2R46, a so far orphan bitter taste receptor without any known ligand. By further investigation of its agonist pattern, we characterized hTAS2R46 as a bitter receptor broadly tuned to sesquiterpene lactones and to clerodane and labdane diterpenoids as well as to the unrelated bitter substances strychnine and denatonium.

  2. The alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety in dehydrocostus lactone is responsible for cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 expression through activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kwon, Tae-Oh; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Nam-Song; Park, Seok Don; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2007-06-22

    Inducible heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts against oxidants that are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (CH2-BL) structural unit, which characterizes a group of naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactones, is known to possess numerous biological activities. In the present study, we evaluated dehydrocostus lactone possessing CH2-BL moiety, one of the bioactive constituents of the medicinal plant Saussurea lappa, as an inducer of cytoprotective HO-1. In HepG2 cells, treatment with dehydrocostus lactone induced HO-1 expression and increased HO activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar results were also observed when the cells were incubated with CH2-BL, a parent structure of dehydrocostus lactone. In contrast, mokko lactone, a reduced product of dehydrocostus lactone, and alpha-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (CH3-BL), a parent structure of mokko lactone, did not induce HO-1 expression. Pretreatment with either dehydrocostus lactone or CH2-BL for 6 h protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity, whereas mokko lactone or CH3-BL failed to exert a cytoprotective action. Inhibition of HO-1 expression by HO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated cellular protection afforded by dehydrocostus lactone or CH2-BL. In addition, dehydrocostus lactone caused the nuclear accumulation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increased the promoter activity of antioxidant response element (ARE). Using Nrf2 siRNA, Nrf2 activation was confirmed to contribute to cytoprotective HO-1 expression by dehydrocostus lactone or CH2-BL. Collectively, our findings suggest that CH2-BL moiety in dehydrocostus lactone increases cellular resistance to oxidant injury in HepG2 cells, presumably through Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 expression.

  3. Remote Stereoinduction in the Acylation of Fully-Substituted Enolates: Tandem Reformatsky/Quaternary Claisen Condensations of Silyl Glyoxylates and β-Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Greszler, Stephen N.; Malinowski, Justin T.

    2010-01-01

    Reformatsky reagents react sequentially with silyl glyoxylates and β-lactones to give highly functionalized Claisen condensation products. A heretofore undocumented instance of stereochemical 1,4-induction results in efficient transmission of β-lactone stereochemistry to the emerging fully-substituted stereocenter. Second-stage transformations reveal that the five heteroatom-containing functionalities embedded within the products are entirely chemo-differentiated, a circumstance that permits rapid assembly of the leustroducsin B core substructure. PMID:21087044

  4. Modular total syntheses of the marine-derived resorcylic Acid lactones cochliomycins a and B using a late-stage nozaki-hiyama-kishi macrocyclization reaction.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Benoit; Basutto, Jose A; Bryan, Christopher S; Garson, Mary J; Banwell, Martin G; Ward, Jas S

    2015-01-02

    The natural products cochliomycin A (1) and cochliomycin B (2), two resorcylic acid lactones obtained from marine sources, have been prepared in a concise and stereocontrolled manner from the readily accessible building blocks 4-6. Olefin cross-metathesis, trans-esterification and Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) macrocyclization reactions were employed in the key steps. Hydrolysis of the immediate precursor to cochliomycin B affords the resorcylic acid lactone zeaenol (24).

  5. Accurate mass analysis of N-acyl-homoserine-lactones and cognate lactone-opened compounds in bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by LC-ESI-LTQ-FTICR-MS.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore

    2009-02-01

    N-acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHSLs) are widely conserved signal molecules present in quorum sensing systems of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here the results obtained with a hybrid linear trap/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (LTQ-FTICR) mass spectrometer used to investigate the occurrence of AHSLs and cognate N-acyl-homoserines (AHSs) in bacterial isolates of P. aeruginosa (strain PAO1). Two hydrolysed AHSs were found in significant amounts, most likely formed through the lactone opening of N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine-lactone (3OC10-HSL) and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine-lactone (3OC12-HSL). Structure elucidation of these ring-opened molecules, i.e. N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine (3OC10-HS), and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine (3OC12-HS), which are not detected by bacterial biosensors, was performed by high-resolution and accurate mass measurements upon liquid chromatography (LC) and confirmed by tandem MS in the LTQ analyser. Assignment of chemical formula, with mass spectra in the form of [M+H]+, was significantly expedited by extracted ion chromatograms (XICs) because the number of potentially plausible formulae for each protonated signalling molecule was considerably reduced a priori by the LC behaviour, the high mass measurement accuracy available in FTICR mass spectra and the isotopic patterns. At least two concentration levels were observed in spent culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa: compounds at a relatively high content (5-15 microM) that is C4-HSL, 3OC10-HS, and 3OC12-HS and those occurring at a lower content (<0.2 microM) that is C6-HSL and C8-HSL. The implications of this work extend to a great variety of Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Role of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in the evolution of oak lactone in wine during oak maturation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Kerry L; Prida, Andrei; Hayasaka, Yoji

    2013-05-08

    Oak lactone is a natural component of oak wood, but it also exists in glycoconjugate precursor forms. This study concerned the role of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid, specifically a galloylglucoside, glucoside, and rutinoside, in the evolution of oak lactone during cooperage and maturation. The glycoconjugate profiles of 10 French oak samples were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using stable isotope dilution analysis. The galloylglucoside was found to be the predominant glycoconjugate precursor and ranged in concentration from 110 to 354 μg/g. Maturation trials indicated the galloylglucoside undergoes acid-catalyzed hydrolysis after extraction into wine; after 12 months of maturation, the glucoside was the most abundant precursor, present at between 2- and 11-fold higher concentrations than those observed for powdered oak. Thermal degradation of glycoconjugates was observed only when oak samples were heated at 200 °C for 30 min, demonstrating their thermal stability.

  7. Organocatalytic Friedel-Crafts Alkylation/Lactonization Reaction of Naphthols with 3-Trifluoroethylidene Oxindoles: The Asymmetric Synthesis of Dihydrocoumarins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Long; Lou, Qin-Xin; Wang, Long-Sheng; Hu, Wen-Hui; Zhao, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-02

    Naphthols and 3-trifluoroethylidene oxindoles were found to undergo an asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation/lactonization reaction, catalyzed by only 2.5 mol % of a quinine-derived squaramide catalyst, to afford the corresponding α-aryl-β-trifluoromethyl dihydrocoumarin derivatives in high yields (up to 99 %) with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities (up to 98 % ee, >20:1 d.r.). Importantly, the lactonization proceeded by nucleophilic attack of the naphthol hydroxy group at the amide motif of the oxindoles under mild reaction conditions. This protocol represents a new strategy for the formation of dihydrocoumarins by an efficient intramolecular amide C-N bond-cleavage and esterification process.

  8. Beckmann rearrangement within the ring C of oleanolic acid lactone: Synthesis, structural study and reaction mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelich, Anna; Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Zaprutko, Lucjusz; Gzella, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis, spectral and X-ray analysis of three compounds, i.e. 3β-acetoxy-12-hydroxyimino-18β-oleanan-28,13β-olide (substrate) and 3β-acetoxy-12-nitrile-12,13-seco-15(14 → 13)-abeoolean-14(27)-en-28,13β-olide and 3β-acetoxy-12-oxo-12a-aza-C-homoolean-13(18)-en-28-oic acid (Beckmann rearrangement reaction products) are described. Structural analysis revealed that the oxime group in the ring C in substrate molecule had an E-configuration. The nitrile product with retained lactone group was a result of major transformations within rings C and D of oleanane skeleton. In lactam product free carboxyl group and a double bond in ring D instead of lactone system were formed in Beckmann rearrangement reaction.

  9. Production of acylated homoserine lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

    2014-10-01

    A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter cultures was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL) and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production (5.675 µg l(-1)) at 24 h growth. The strain exhibited swarming, but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production and reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated protein during swarming, was considered as a possible target for these inhibitors, and docking of the two most active and two least active inhibitors to this protein suggested preferential binding of the former set of compounds. Apart from adding new evidence to AHL production in Proteus vulgaris, active inhibitors shortlisted from this study could help in identifying lead compounds to act against this opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract.

  10. N-acyl-homoserine lactones from Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) and their degradation by Bacillus cereus enzymes.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Esper, Luciana Maria Ramires; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne

    2012-01-18

    A chemical study of acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) produced by Enterobacter sakazakii resulted in the identification of three molecules: (S)-N-heptanoyl-HSL, (S)-N-dodecanoyl-HSL and (S)-N-tetradecanoyl-HSL. Mixed cultures of E. sakazakii and Bacillus cereus depleted E. sakazakii acyl-HSLs, suggesting acyl-HSL degradation by B. cereus hydrolases (hydrolysis of the lactone or amide moiety). The expression of B. cereus acyl-HSL lactonase and acyl-homoserine acylase was confirmed by monitoring the biotransformation of (S)-N-dodecanoyl-HSL into (S)-N-dodecanoyl-homoserine, dodecanoic acid and homoserine in the presence of B. cereus whole cells, using electrospray-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  11. Discovery of Pantoea rodasii Strain ND03 that Produces N-(3-Oxo-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine Lactone

    PubMed Central

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Proteobacteria use quorum sensing to regulate target gene expression in response to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via so-called signalling molecules and the best-studied QS signalling system uses N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). This study aimed to identify and characterize the production of AHLs by a bacterium ND03 isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. Molecular identification showed that ND03 is a Pantoea sp. closely related to Pantoea rodasii. We used Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, an AHL biosensor for preliminary AHL production screening and then used high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, to confirm that P. rodasii strain ND03 produced N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for such a discovery in P. rodasii strain ND03. PMID:24859023

  12. Discovery of Pantoea rodasii strain ND03 that produces N-(3-Oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-05-23

    Proteobacteria use quorum sensing to regulate target gene expression in response to population density. Quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via so-called signalling molecules and the best-studied QS signalling system uses N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). This study aimed to identify and characterize the production of AHLs by a bacterium ND03 isolated from a Malaysian tropical rainforest waterfall. Molecular identification showed that ND03 is a Pantoea sp. closely related to Pantoea rodasii. We used Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, an AHL biosensor for preliminary AHL production screening and then used high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, to confirm that P. rodasii strain ND03 produced N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for such a discovery in P. rodasii strain ND03.

  13. [The effect of sclareol lactone and sclareol glycol on artificially induced lung metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma (a preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Astardzhieva, Z; Stoichkov, I

    1990-01-01

    The prophylactic effect of tetralabdanes, obtained by chemical decomposition of the natural diterpene sclareol (Il. Ognianov and T. Somleva) on the growth of artificially induced lung metastases was studied. After intravenous administration of 25 mg/kg of sclareol-lacton 30 minutes before the transplantation of tumorous cells of Lewis [correction of Luis] lung carcinoma the number of metastases was reduced with 37.5% but in a dose of 50 mg/kg from--33 to 63%. In a dose of 100 mg/kg of sclareol-lacton metastases were increased with 2--7%. Sclareolglycol administered in a dose of 25 mg/kg under the same experimental conditions, reduced lung metastases with 38%, but in a dose of 50 mg/kg--from 26% to 61%. Its administration in a dose of 100 mg/kg stimulated their formation with 62%.

  14. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of a Dynamic Racemate: Highly Stereoselective β-Lactone Formation by N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Ryne C.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Eichman, Chad C.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the combined experimental and computational elucidation of the mechanism and origins of stereoselectivities in the NHC-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of α-substituted-β-ketoesters. Density functional theory computations reveal that the NHC-catalyzed DKR proceeds by two mechanisms, depending on the stereochemistry around the forming bond: 1) a concerted, asynchronous formal (2+2) aldol-lactonization process, or 2) a stepwise spiro-lactonization mechanism where the alkoxide is trapped by the NHC-catalyst. These mechanisms contrast significantly from mechanisms found and postulated in other related transformations. Conjugative stabilization of the electrophile and non-classical hydrogen bonds are key in controlling the stereoselectivity. This reaction constitutes an interesting class of DKRs in which the catalyst is responsible for the kinetic resolution to selectively and irreversibly capture an enantiomer of a substrate undergoing rapid racemization with the help of an exogenous base. PMID:25045464

  15. Experimental verification, and domain definition, of structural alerts for protein binding: epoxides, lactones, nitroso, nitros, aldehydes and ketones.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Cronin, M T D; Schultz, T W; Enoch, S J

    2013-01-01

    This study outlines how a combination of in chemico and Tetrahymena pyriformis data can be used to define the applicability domain of selected structural alerts within the profilers of the OECD QSAR Toolbox. Thirty-three chemicals were profiled using the OECD and OASIS profilers, enabling the applicability domain of six structural alerts to be defined, the alerts being: epoxides, lactones, nitrosos, nitros, aldehydes and ketones. Analysis of the experimental data showed the applicability domains for the epoxide, nitroso, aldehyde and ketone structural alerts to be well defined. In contrast, the data showed the applicability domains for the lactone and nitro structural alerts needed modifying. The accurate definition of the applicability domain for structural alerts within in silico profilers is important due to their use in the chemical category in predictive and regulatory toxicology. This study highlights the importance of utilizing multiple profilers in category formation.

  16. The effects of surface lactone hydrolysis and temperature on the specific and nonspecific interactions between phenobarbital and activated carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Dale Eric; Aburub, Aktham

    2006-07-01

    The effect of hydrolyzing lactone functional groups on the surfaces of different activated carbons upon the specific and nonspecific interactions between phenobarbital and activated carbon surfaces was studied. The effect of temperature on both specific and nonspecific interactions was also studied. The increase in OH groups on the surfaces of activated carbons, as a result of hydrolyzing surface lactone groups, caused an increase in the specific adsorption capacity (K(2)) for phenobarbital without having a significant effect on the hydrophobic bonding capacity (K(HB)). Increasing the temperature at which the adsorption experiment was carried out, on the other hand, resulted in a decrease in K(HB) without having a significant effect on K(2). The decrease in K(HB) per unit temperature increase was the same regardless of the activated carbon. These results are in very good agreement with the modified-Langmuir-like equation (M-LLE).

  17. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationships of α-Amino-γ-lactone Ketolides: A Novel Class of Macrolide Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of α-amino-γ-lactone ketolide (3) was developed, which provided a versatile intermediate for the incorporation of a variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups onto the C-21 position of clarithromycin via HBTU-mediated amidation. The biological data for this important new class of macrolides revealed significantly potent activity against erythromycin-susceptible strains as well as efflux-resistant and erythromycin MLSB-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes. In addition, ketolide 11o showed excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against H. influenzae strain as compared to telithromycin. These results indicate that C-21 substituted γ-lactone ketolides have potential as a next generation macrolide antibiotics. PMID:25313326

  18. Wedelolides A and B: novel sesquiterpene delta-lactones, (9R)-eudesman-9,12-olides, from Wedelia trilobata.

    PubMed

    That, Quang Ton; Jossang, Jean; Jossang, Akino; Kim, Phi Phung Nguyen; Jaureguiberry, Ginette

    2007-09-14

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones, wedelolides A (1) and B (2), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the leaves of Wedelia trilobata, together with known trilobolides 6-O-isobutyrate (3) and 6-O-methacrylate (4). The compounds 1 and 2 were the first examples of an unprecedented framework: a novel sesquiterpene delta-lactone, (9R)-eudesman-9,12-olide. The structures of the antimalarial wedelolides A (1) and B (2) were determined on the basis of MS and 2D NMR spectral analysis. The absolute configuration of eight carbon stereocenters of compounds 1 and 2 was determined to be 1S,4S,5S,6R,7S,8S,9R,10S by mean of auxiliary chiral MTPA derivatives.

  19. Glucuronic acid γ-lactone: an organic nonlinear optical crystal with high laser-induced damage threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Bhat, Handady L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-01-01

    Laser applications of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals are limited by their laser damage threshold. We report a detailed study of the laser damage threshold of an NLO crystal glucuronic acid γ-lactone. Second-harmonic generation efficiency of glucuronic acid γ-lactone was estimated to be 3.5 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Conic sections due to spontaneous noncollinear phase matching were observed. Surface laser damage studies carried out for 1064-nm radiation on a (010) plate of the crystal yielded high-threshold values of 77.72±0.27 and 32.72±0.41 GW/cm2 for single- and multiple-shot damages, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the laser-induced damage are discussed.

  20. Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A; De Vos, Ric C H; Todorović, Slađana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2012-11-01

    Tanacetum parthenium produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 SL from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All SL containing the α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE and cause cellular toxicity. The structure-activity relationship among the SL isolated indicates that the guaianolides were more active and when lacking the endoperoxide functionality less toxic then the germacranolides. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Biocatalytic Lactone Generation in Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli and Identification of Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Chad; Stewart, Jon; Potter, Robert

    2001-11-01

    Genetically altered Escherichia coli are used as biocatalysts to produce optically pure lactones from a variety of cyclic ketones as a biotechnology experiment for a biochemistry laboratory. The genetically engineered E. coli bacteria express large amounts of the enzyme cyclohexanone monooxygenase and are therefor capable of converting a variety of ketones into optically pure lactones. Separation by organic extraction and analysis by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy allows for the direct identification of products. Yield calculations and evaluation of the cost effectiveness of various substrates give students an opportunity to make recommendations and model industrial decision-making. Evaluation of the synthetic process for its environmental impact allows students to consider problems of cost versus environmental concerns. Use of bacterial biocatalysts offers chemistry students an opportunity to work with microorganisms and directly see the utility of genetically altered bacteria for synthetic chemistry.

  2. Ficusmicrochlorin A-C, two new methoxy lactone chlorins and an anhydride chlorin from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-You; Chiu, Hsi-Lin; Lu, Te-Ling; Tzeng, Chih-Ying; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chang, Chi-I; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    Two new methoxy lactone chlorins ficusmicrochlorin A (1) and ficusmicrochlorin B (2), and one new anhydride chlorin ficusmicrochlorin C (3), along with eight known pheophytins were isolated from the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. Their structures were determined by the extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. New pheophytin compound was rarely obtained from natural sources. In the past ten years, only three new natural pheophytins were characterized.

  3. Acyl-homoserine lactone production is more common among plant-associated Pseudomonas spp. than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    Elasri, M; Delorme, S; Lemanceau, P; Stewart, G; Laue, B; Glickmann, E; Oger, P M; Dessaux, Y

    2001-03-01

    A total of 137 soilborne and plant-associated bacterial strains belonging to different Pseudomonas species were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (NAHL). Fifty-four strains synthesized NAHL. Interestingly, NAHL production appears to be more common among plant-associated than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp. Indeed, 40% of the analyzed Pseudomonas syringae strains produced NAHL which were identified most often as the short-chain NAHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone, and N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (no absolute correlation between genomospecies of P. syringae and their ability to produce NAHL could be found). Six strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, belonging to the species P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida, isolated from the plant rhizosphere produced different types of NAHL. In contrast, none of the strains isolated from soil samples were shown to produce NAHL. The gene encoding the NAHL synthase in P. syringae pv. maculicola was isolated by complementation of an NAHL-deficient Chromobacterium mutant. Sequence analysis revealed the existence of a luxI homologue that we named psmI. This gene is sufficient to confer NAHL synthesis upon its bacterial host and has strong homology to psyI and ahlI, two genes involved in NAHL production in P. syringae pv. tabaci and P. syringae pv. syringae, respectively. We identified another open reading frame that we termed psmR, transcribed convergently in relation to psmI and partly overlapping psmI; this gene encodes a putative LuxR regulatory protein. This gene organization, with luxI and luxR homologues facing each other and overlapping, has been found so far only in the enteric bacteria Erwinia and Pantoea and in the related species P. syringae pv. tabaci.

  4. The highly lipophilic DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor DB-67 displays elevated lactone levels in human blood and potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Bom, D; Curran, D P; Zhang, J; Zimmer, S G; Bevins, R; Kruszewski, S; Howe, J N; Bingcang, A; Latus, L J; Burke, T G

    2001-07-06

    The novel silatecan 7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (DB-67) is 25- to 50-times more lipophilic than camptothecin and readily incorporates into lipid bilayers. Using the method of fluorescence anisotropy titration, we determined that DB-67 bound to small unilamellar vesicles composed of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) with an association constant (K value) of 5000 M(-1). This association constant is significantly higher than the K(DLPC) value observed for camptothecin (K(DLPC) value of 110 M(-1)). Using HPLC methods, we demonstrated that the presence of liposomal membranes readily stabilize the lactone form of DB-67. At drug and lipid concentrations of 10 microM and 0.3 mM, respectively, the lactone form of DB-67 persisted in liposome suspension after 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Thus an advantage of a liposomal formulation of DB-67 is that the presence of lipid bilayers assists with stabilizing the key pharmacophore of the agent. The highly lipophilic character of DB-67, in combination with its 10-hydroxy moiety (which functions to enhance lactone stability in the presence of human serum albumin), results in DB-67 having superior stability in human blood with a percent lactone at equilibrium value of 30 [Cancer Res. 59 (1999) 4898; J. Med. Chem. 43 (2000) 3970]. Potent cytotoxicities against a broad range of cancer cells were observed for DB-67, indicating that DB-67 is of comparable potency to camptothecin. The impressive human blood stability and cytotoxicity profiles for DB-67 indicate it is an excellent candidate for comprehensive in vivo pharmacological and efficacy studies. Based on these promising attributes, DB-67 is currently being developed under the NCI RAID program. Due to its potent anti-topoisomerase I activity and its intrinsic blood stability, DB-67 appears as an attractive novel camptothecin for clinical development.

  5. Control of Acetic Acid Fermentation by Quorum Sensing via N-Acylhomoserine Lactones in Gluconacetobacter intermedius▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Aya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner by quorum sensing via N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, produces three different AHLs, N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, and an N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone with a single unsaturated bond in its acyl chain, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Two genes encoding an AHL synthase and a cognate regulator were cloned from strain NCI1051 and designated ginI and ginR, respectively. Disruption of ginI or ginR abolished AHL production, indicating that NCI1051 contains a single set of quorum-sensing genes. Transcriptional analysis showed that ginI is activated by GinR, which is consistent with the finding that there is an inverted repeat whose nucleotide sequence is similar to the sequence bound by members of the LuxR family at position −45 with respect to the transcriptional start site of ginI. A single gene, designated ginA, located just downstream of ginI is transcribed by read-through from the GinR-inducible ginI promoter. A ginA mutant, as well as the ginI and ginR mutants, grew more rapidly in medium containing 2% (vol/vol) ethanol and accumulated acetic acid at a higher rate with a greater final yield than parental strain NCI1051. In addition, these mutants produced larger amounts of gluconic acid than the parental strain. These data demonstrate that the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system in G. intermedius controls the expression of ginA, which in turn represses oxidative fermentation, including acetic acid and gluconic acid fermentation. PMID:18245283

  6. A new sesquiterpene lactone glucoside with inhibitory effect on K562 cells from Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance.

    PubMed

    He, W-F; Xu, B-B; Pan, J-C; Lu, J-C; Song, S-J; Xu, S-X

    2006-09-01

    A new minor sesquiterpene lactone glucoside, ixerin ZA (1), together with 16 known compounds, were isolated from the whole plants of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 1(10),3,11(13)-guaiatriene-12,6-olide-2-one-3-O-[6'-(p-metheoxyphenylacetyl)]-beta-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on K562 cells.

  7. Binding modes of phosphotriesterase-like lactonase complexed with δ-nonanoic lactone and paraoxon using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhao, Li; Jin, Hanyong; Shan, Ning; Han, Weiwei; Wang, Song; Shan, Yaming

    2017-02-01

    Phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs) have received much attention because of their physical and chemical properties. They may have widespread applications in various fields. For example, they show potential for quorum-sensing signaling pathways and organophosphorus (OP) detoxification in agricultural science. However, the mechanism by which PLLs hydrolyze, which involves OP compounds and lactones and a variety of distinct catalytic efficiencies, has only rarely been explored. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of DrPLL, a member of the PLL superfamily in Deinococcus radiodurans, bound to two substrates, δ-nonanoic lactone and paraoxon. It has been observed that there is a 16-fold increase in the catalytic efficiency of the two mutant strains of DrPLL (F26G/C72I) vs. the wild-type enzyme toward the hydrolysis of paraoxon, but an explanation for this behavior is currently lacking. The analysis of the molecular trajectories of DrPLL bound to δ-nonanoic lactone indicated that lactone-induced conformational changes take place in loop 8, which is near the active site. Binding to paraoxon may lead to conformational displacement of loop 1 residues, which could lead to the deformation of the active site and so trigger the entry of the paraoxon into the active site. The efficiency of the F26G/C72I mutant was increased by decreasing the displacement of loop 1 residues and increasing the flexibility of loop 8 residues. These results provide a molecular-level explanation for the experimental behavior.

  8. Camptothecin and thiocamptothecin: the role of sulfur in shifting the hydrolysis equilibrium towards the closed lactone form.

    PubMed

    Pistolozzi, Marco; Varchi, Greta; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Guerrini, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanna; Ballestri, Marco; Ferroni, Claudia; Venturini, Alessandro; Bertucci, Carlo

    2011-09-05

    Adverse effects have limited the clinical potential of 20-(S)-camptothecin (CPT) and led to a growing interest in the development of CPT analogues that exhibit less severe drawbacks, while maintaining their therapeutic activity. Recently, a thiopyridone isostere of CPT, 20-(S)-thiocamptothecin (TCPT), was developed that resulted more potent than the parent compound in H460, HT29 and IGROV-1 cell lines. The improved activity of TCPT over CPT might be due to the greater stability of the lactone ring. Here, reversible hydrolysis to the ring-open carboxylate forms of CPT and TCPT was studied by HPLC, both in the presence and absence of human serum albumin (HSA). The amount of TCPT that exists in the lactone form at equilibrium in buffer solution (24 h) was found to be significantly higher than CPT, and the same trend was observed in the presence of HSA. Specifically, HSA caused a shift in the hydrolysis equilibrium of TCPT towards the carboxylate form, but the proportion of lactone form remained higher than that observed for CPT under the same conditions, and also in the presence of a higher excess of the protein. The role of the sulfur atom in the stability of the open and closed lactone derivatives was investigated by theoretical calculations using stabilization energies and comparison between experimental and calculated absorption spectra. Our results suggest that, in aqueous solution, more ionic species (anionic and enolic forms) are present for TCPT. This study provides further insights into the effects of oxygen/sulfur replacement in the CPT pyridone ring. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Analysis of 7-Membered Lactones by Computational NMR Methods. Proton NMR Chemical Shift Data are More Discriminating than Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Marell, Daniel J.; Emond, Susanna J.; Kulshrestha, Aman; Hoye, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    We report an NMR chemical shift study of conformationally challenging seven-membered lactones (1–11); computed and experimental data sets are compared. The computations involved full conformational analysis of each lactone, Boltzmann-weighted averaging of the chemical shifts across all conformers, and linear correction of the computed chemical shifts. DFT geometry optimizations [M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)] and GIAO NMR chemical shift calculations [B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p)] provide the computed chemical shifts. The corrected-mean absolute error (CMAE), the average of the differences between the computed and experimental chemical shifts for each of the eleven lactones, is encouragingly small (0.02–0.08 ppm for 1H or 0.8–2.2 ppm for 13C). Three pairs of cis vs. trans diastereomeric lactones were used to assess the ability of the method to distinguish between stereoisomers. The experimental shifts were compared with the computed shifts for each of the two possible isomers. We introduce the use of a “match ratio”—the ratio of the larger (worse fit) to the smaller (better fit) CMAE. A greater match ratio value indicates better distinguishing ability. The match ratios are larger for proton data [2.4–4.0 (ave = 3.2)] than for carbon [1.1–2.3 (ave = 1.6)], indicating that the former provide a better basis for discriminating these diastereomers. PMID:24354614

  10. The Plant Pathogen Pantoea ananatis Produces N-Acylhomoserine Lactone and Causes Center Rot Disease of Onion by Quorum Sensing▿

    PubMed Central

    Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Yuta; Yamazaki, Go; Ishida, Akio; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2007-01-01

    A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1. PMID:17827290

  11. Determination of lactones in wines by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olivero, S J; Pérez-Pont, M L; Conde, J E; Pérez-Trujillo, J P

    2014-01-01

    Application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with high-resolution gas chromatographic (HRGC) analysis was studied for determining lactones in wines. Six different SPME fibers were tested, and the influence of different factors such as temperature and time of desorption, ionic strength, time of extraction, content of sugar, ethanol, tannins and anthocyanins, and pH and influence of SO2 were studied. The proposed HS-SPME-GC method is an appropriate technique for the quantitative analysis of γ-butyrolactone, γ-hexalactone, trans-whiskey lactone, γ-octalactone, cis-whiskey lactone, γ-nonalactone, γ-decalactone, δ-decalactone, and γ-undecalactone in wines. Method reproducibility and repeatability ranged between 0.6 and 5.2% for all compounds. Detection limit for γ-butyrolactone was 0.17 mg/L and a few μg/L for the rest of the compounds. The optimized method has been applied to several wine samples.

  12. Penicimenolides A-F, Resorcylic Acid Lactones from Penicillium sp., isolated from the Rhizosphere Soil of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    An, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; Qian-Zhang; Deng, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Feng; Zhu, Ling-Juan; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Bo; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Five new 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives, penicimenolides A-E (1–5), one new ring-opened resorcylic acid lactone derivative penicimenolide F (6), and six known biogenetically related derivatives (7–12) were isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Penicillium sp. (NO. SYP-F-7919), a fungus obtained from the rhizosphere soil of Panax notoginseng collected from the Yunnan province of China. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses, a modified Mosher’s method, chemical derivatization and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2–4 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the U937 and MCF-7 tumour cell lines and showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the SH-SY5Y and SW480 tumour cell lines. The substitution of an acetyloxy or 2-hydroxypropionyloxy group at C-7 significantly increased the cytotoxic activity of the resorcylic acid lactone derivatives. Subsequently, the possible mechanism of compound 2 against MCF-7 cells was preliminarily investigated by in silico analysis and experimental validation, indicating compound 2 may act as a potential MEK/ERK inhibitor. Moreover, proteomics analysis was performed to explore compound 2-regulated concrete mechanism underlying MEK/ERK pathway, which is still need further study in the future. In addition, compounds 2–4 and 7 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on NO production induced by LPS. PMID:27271722

  13. Characterisation of a marine bacterium Vibrio brasiliensis T33 producing N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-07-08

    N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) plays roles as signal molecules in quorum sensing (QS) in most Gram-negative bacteria. QS regulates various physiological activities in relation with population density and concentration of signal molecules. With the aim of isolating marine water-borne bacteria that possess QS properties, we report here the preliminary screening of marine bacteria for AHL production using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the AHL biosensor. Strain T33 was isolated based on preliminary AHL screening and further identified by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as a member of the genus Vibrio closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis. The isolated Vibrio sp. strain T33 was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL) through high resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that this isolate formed biofilms which could be inhibited by catechin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that documents the production of these AHLs by Vibrio brasiliensis strain T33.

  14. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of leptocarpin, a plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bosio, Claudia; Tomasoni, Giacomo; Martínez, Rolando; Olea, Andrés F; Carrasco, Héctor; Villena, Joan

    2015-12-05

    Sesquiterpene lactones have attracted much attention in drug research because they present a series of biological activities such as anticancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant. Leptocarpin (LTC) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from a native Chilean plant, Leptocarpha rivularis, which has been widely used in traditional medicine by Mapuche people. Previous work has demonstrated that LTC decreases cell viability of cancer cell lines. In this contribution, we analyze the mechanism of LTC cytotoxicity on different cancer cell lines. The results show that in all cases LTC induces an apoptotic process and inhibition of NF-κB. Apoptosis has been confirmed by observing condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentation, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and increasing of caspase-3 activity. It has also been found that LTC is an effective inhibitor of NF-κB, which suggests that leptocarpin-induced cytotoxicity involves in some degree the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. The concentration at which LTC inhibits NF-κB activity to the control level is similar or even lower than that found for parthenolide and others sesquiterpene lactones. These results indicate that leptocarpine is a very interesting molecule that could be considered as therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  15. N-acyl Homoserine Lactone-Producing Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 from Human Tongue Surface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Woon; Chin, Shenyang; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Choo, Yeun Mun; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing) refers to the regulation of bacterial gene expression in response to changes in microbial population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce, release and respond to chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. Bacteria use two types of autoinducers, namely autoinducer-1 (AI-1) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) where the former are N-acylhomoserine lactones and the latter is a product of the luxS gene. Most of the reported literatures show that the majority of oral bacteria use AI-2 for quorum sensing but rarely the AI-1 system. Here we report the isolation of Pseudomonas putida strain T2-2 from the oral cavity. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, it is shown that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (C12-HSL) molecules. This is the first report of the finding of quorum sensing of P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from the human tongue surface and their quorum sensing molecules were identified. PMID:24084113

  16. Role of lactone ring in structural, electronic, and reactivity properties of aflatoxin B1: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Méndez-Albores, Abraham; Moreno-Martínez, Ernesto; Miranda, René; Castro, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    This study involved quantum mechanical calculations to explain the chemical behavior of the lactone ring of aflatoxin B1, which is a carcinogenic hazardous compound. The aflatoxin B1 compound, produced by the fungi Aspergillum flavus, was studied with the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) method; its reactivity properties were accounted for by means of the calculated geometrical and electronic parameters. The results obtained indicate that the fused A, B, C, and D rings of aflatoxin adopt a continuous planar conformation. The carbon atom of the lactone group presents a highly electrophilic character, since the population analysis yields a high positive charge for this atom, whereas high negative charges were recorded for both oxygen sites of that group. Thus, in an acidic aqueous medium, the oxygen atoms could be protonated and the carbon site may suffer a nucleophilic attack by water. Accordingly, the OC-O bond length has been lengthened substantially. So it was demonstrated that the lactonic ring of aflatoxin B1 is hydrolyzed under acidic conditions by an acid-acyl bimolecular mechanisms, A(AC)2, suggesting the deletion of its carcinogenic properties.

  17. The hydrolysis of unsubstituted N-acylhomoserine lactones to their homoserine metabolites. Analytical approaches using ultra performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Englmann, Matthias; Fekete, Agnes; Kuttler, Christina; Frommberger, Moritz; Li, Xiaojing; Gebefügi, Istvan; Fekete, Jenoe; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2007-08-10

    Derivatives of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSLs) with different alkanoyl side chains occur as quorum or diffusion sensing molecules in gram-negative bacteria and their quantitative chemical analysis became important as a possible way to follow regulation processes of their pathogenicity towards plants and animals. The lactone-ring of HSLs is chemically and biologically not stable: the corresponding serines can be formed in alkaline conditions and these may presumably behave inactive for the biological system. A fast and MS compatible liquid chromatographic method applying high pressure (ultra performance liquid chromatography) with diode array detection was optimized for the rapid quantitative determination of HSLs and their corresponding hydrolysis products. The technique was used to follow and model the hydrolysis reactions of HSLs as function of pH under controlled conditions. Moreover, the method could be triggered to allow a confirmation in the assignment of the potential HSLs in real samples by analysis of the real samples before and after hydrolysis. Quantitative performance characteristics and the character of the hydrolysis reaction were studied as well. The optimized method was successfully applied to a bacterial culture supernatant real sample containing HSLs.

  18. Effect of small chain N acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals on biofilms of food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    A, Jamuna Bai; V, Ravishankar Rai

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing or cell to cell communication which includes inter- and intra-cellular communication has been implicated in the production of virulence factor and formation of biofilm in food-borne pathogens. In the present study, the effect of quorum sensing signals on the biofilms of food-borne pathogens has been elucidated. N-butryl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone belonging to acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) family of signaling molecules were investigated for their effect on the biofilm formation (attachment and exopolymeric substance production) in the food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. The signaling molecules at a concentration of 1 µM were capable of increasing biofilm formation in all the tested pathogens. There was an increase in the attachment of the bacterial cells and biomass as observed by microtiter plate assay and exopolymeric substances production in the biofilms in presence of the AHLs. Further, it needs to be elucidated if the effect of AHLS on the biofilms of E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium is SdiA dependent.

  19. Determination of Lactones in Wines by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Olivero, S. J.; Pérez-Pont, M. L.; Conde, J. E.; Pérez-Trujillo, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Application of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with high-resolution gas chromatographic (HRGC) analysis was studied for determining lactones in wines. Six different SPME fibers were tested, and the influence of different factors such as temperature and time of desorption, ionic strength, time of extraction, content of sugar, ethanol, tannins and anthocyanins, and pH and influence of SO2 were studied. The proposed HS-SPME-GC method is an appropriate technique for the quantitative analysis of γ-butyrolactone, γ-hexalactone, trans-whiskey lactone, γ-octalactone, cis-whiskey lactone, γ-nonalactone, γ-decalactone, δ-decalactone, and γ-undecalactone in wines. Method reproducibility and repeatability ranged between 0.6 and 5.2% for all compounds. Detection limit for γ-butyrolactone was 0.17 mg/L and a few μg/L for the rest of the compounds. The optimized method has been applied to several wine samples. PMID:24782943

  20. Production of the quorum-sensing molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones by endobacteria associated with Mortierella alpina A-178.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kenji; Furuyabu, Kana; Tani, Ayaka; Hayashi, Hideo

    2012-08-13

    Gram-negative bacteria communicate with one another using N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules. This mechanism, known as quorum sensing (QS), is needed to develop pathogenicity, as well as symbiotic interactions with eukaryotic hosts, such as animals and plants. Increasing evidence indicates that certain bacteria, namely endobacteria, also inhabit fungal cells and establish symbiotic relationships with their hosts. However, it has not been clear whether bacterial QS acts in developing the relationships. Here we describe the isolation and identification of N-heptanoylhomoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone from the culture broth of the zygomycete fungus Mortierella alpina A-178. This suggested the presence of endobacteria in the fungus, as was confirmed by PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and transmission electron microscopy. Two major bands obtained by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed sequence identity to genes in the β-proteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans (100 %) and the Gram-positive bacterium Cryobacterium sp. (99.8 %). The production of AHLs depended on the presence of endobacteria and was induced in response to the increase in the concentration of AHLs, suggesting that the bacterium conducts AHL-mediated QS in the fungus. This paper is the first to report the production of AHLs by endofungal bacteria and raises the possibility that QS plays roles in the development of fungus-endobacterium symbiosis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Disruption of epithelial barrier by quorum-sensing N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; Bertrand, Luc; András, Ibolya E.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a selective barrier maintained by tight junctions (TJs) and separating the luminal environment from the submucosal tissues. N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules produced by gram-negative bacteria in the gut can influence homeostasis of the host intestinal epithelium. In the present study, we evaluated the regulatory mechanisms affecting the impact of two representative long- and short-chain AHLs, N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), on barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with C12-HSL, but not with C4-HSL, perturbed Caco-2 barrier function; the effect was associated with decreased levels of the TJ proteins occludin and tricellulin and their delocalization from the TJs. C12-HSL also induced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-3 activation via lipid raft- and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-dependent signaling. Pretreatment with lipid raft disruptors, PAR antagonists, or MMP inhibitors restored the C12-HSL-induced loss of the TJ proteins and increased permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results indicate that PAR/lipid raft-dependent MMP-2 and -3 activation followed by degradation of occludin and tricellulin are involved in C12-HSL-induced alterations of epithelial paracellular barrier functions. PMID:24742991

  2. N-acyl homoserine lactone-producing Pseudomonas putida strain T2-2 from human tongue surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Woon; Chin, Shenyang; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Choo, Yeun Mun; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-09-30

    Bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing) refers to the regulation of bacterial gene expression in response to changes in microbial population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce, release and respond to chemical signal molecules called autoinducers. Bacteria use two types of autoinducers, namely autoinducer-1 (AI-1) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) where the former are N-acylhomoserine lactones and the latter is a product of the luxS gene. Most of the reported literatures show that the majority of oral bacteria use AI-2 for quorum sensing but rarely the AI-1 system. Here we report the isolation of Pseudomonas putida strain T2-2 from the oral cavity. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, it is shown that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (C12-HSL) molecules. This is the first report of the finding of quorum sensing of P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from the human tongue surface and their quorum sensing molecules were identified.

  3. Enantiospecific effect of pulegone and pulegone-derived lactones on Myzus persicae (Sulz.) settling and feeding.

    PubMed

    Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Gabrys, Beata; Dams, Iwona; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2008-04-01

    The effect of pulegone chiral center configuration on its antifeedant activity to Myzus persicae was examined. Biological consequences of structural modifications of (R)-(+)- and (S)-(-)-pulegone, the lactonization, iodolactonization, and incorporation of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups were studied, as well. The most active compounds were (R)-(+)-pulegone (1a) and delta-hydroxy-gamma-spirolactones (5S,6R,8S)-(-)-6-hydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one (5b) and (5R,6S,8S)-6-hydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one (6b) derived from (S)-(-)-pulegone (1b). The compounds deterred aphid probing and feeding at preingestional, ingestional, and postingestional phases of feeding. The preingestional effect of (R)-(+)-pulegone (1a) was manifested as difficulty in finding and reaching the phloem (i.e., prolonged time preceding the first contact with phloem vessels), a high proportion of probes not reaching beyond the mesophyll layer before first phloem phase, and/or failure to find sieve elements by 20% of aphids during the 8-hr experiment. The ingestional activity of (R)-(+)-pulegone (1a) and hydroxylactones 5b and 6b resulted in a decrease in duration of phloem sap ingestion, a decrease in the proportion of aphids with sustained sap ingestion, and an increase in the proportion of aphid salivation in phloem. delta-Keto-gamma-spirolactone (5R,8S)-(-)-4,4,8-trimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-2,6-dione (8b) produced a weak ingestional effect (shortened phloem phase). The postingestional deterrence of (R)-(+)-pulegone (1a) and delta-hydroxy-gamma-spirolactones (5R,6S,8R)-(+)-6-hydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]-decan-2-one (5a), 5b, (5S,6R,8R)-6-hydroxy-4,4,8-trimethyl-1-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one (6a), 6b, and delta-keto-gamma-spirolactone 8b prevented aphids from settling on treated leaves. The trans position of methyl group CH3-8 and the bond C5-O1 in lactone 6b appeared to weaken the deterrent activity in relation to the cis diastereoisomer (5b).

  4. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid.

  5. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  6. Impact of phenolic compounds in the acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Akil; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Na-Hye; Mechesso, Abraham Fikru; Birhanu, Biruk Tesfaye; Kang, JeongWoo; Reza, Md Ahsanur; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2017-09-06

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent regulation of virulent bacterial gene expression by autoinducers that potentially pertains in the epidemic of bacterial virulence. This study was initially designed to evaluate the effect of 5 phenolic compounds in the modulation of QS and virulence factors of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to determine the mechanisms of their effects. Biosensor strains were used to assess antibacterial and anti-QS effect of these compounds. Only methyl gallate (MG) among these compounds demonstrated profound anti-QS effect in the preliminary study, and thus only MG was utilized further to evaluate the effects on the synthesis and activity of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) in C. violaceum and on the modulation of biofilm, motility, proteolytic, elastase, pyocyanin, and rhamnolipid activity in P. aeruginosa. Finally, the effect of MG on the expression of QS-regulated genes of P. aeruginosa was verified. MG suppressed both the synthesis and activity of AHL in C. violaceum. It also restricted the biofilm formation and other QS-associated virulence factor of P. aeruginosa. MG concentration-dependently suppressed the expression of lasI/R, rhlI/R, and pqsA of P. aeruginosa and was non-toxic in in vitro study. This is the first report of the anti-QS mechanism of MG.

  7. Effect of the sesquiterpene lactone incomptine A in the energy metabolism of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Domínguez, José; Marchat, Laurence A; López-Camarillo, Cesar; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Sánchez-Espíndola, Esther; Calzada, Fernando; Ortega-Hernández, Alfredo; Sánchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2013-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amoebiasis, which mainly affects developing countries. Although several drugs are effective against E. histolytica trophozoites, the control of amoebiasis requires the development of new and better alternative therapies. Medicinal plants have been the source of new molecules with remarkable antiprotozoal activity. Incomptine A isolated from Decachaeta incompta leaves, is a sesquiterpene lactone of the heliangolide type which has the major in vitro activity against E. histolytica trophozoites. However the molecular mechanisms involved in its antiprotozoal activity are still unknown. Using a proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analysis, we evidenced that 21 E. histolytica proteins were differentially expressed in response to incomptine A treatment. Notably, three glycolytic enzymes, namely enolase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, were down-regulated. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of trophozoites through electronic microscopy showed an increased number of glycogen granules. Taken together, our data suggested that incomptine A could affect E. histolytica growth through alteration of its energy metabolism.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine selectively induces transient arrest in G2 in Allium cepa root meristematic cells.

    PubMed

    López, M E; Giordano, O S; López, L A

    2002-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone recently isolated from aerial parts of a medicinal herb, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. We have previously shown that 25 and 100 microM dehydroleucodine slowed down onion root growth by 30 and 70%, respectively, affecting neither cell viability nor cell elongation. In the present study we analyze the effect of dehydroleucodine on cell cycle phases in onion (Allium cepa L.) root meristematic cells synchronized with caffeine or caffeine and hydroxyurea. Synchronized root cells treated with 100 and 200 microM dehydroleucodine present an interphase lengthening of 5.2 h and 8.2 h, respectively. The S-phase length, estimated by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay, was 6 h for both control roots and roots that had been immersed in dehydroleucodine. The peak of [3H]leucine incorporation was observed 6 h after release from synchronization in controls and in dehydroleucodine-treated roots, indicating that protein synthesis in G2 was not affected. Thus, these results show that dose-dependently dehydroleucodine selectively induces a transient arrest of meristematic cell in G2 and that dehydroleucodine can be used experimentally as a cell cycle suppressor.

  9. Acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent eavesdropping promotes competition in a laboratory co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Josephine R; Heilmann, Silja; Mittler, John E; Greenberg, E Peter

    2012-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria use acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing to activate the production of antibiotics at high cell density. Extracellular factors like antibiotics can be considered public goods shared by individuals within a group. Quorum-sensing control of antibiotic production may be important for protecting a niche or competing for limited resources in mixed bacterial communities. To begin to investigate the role of quorum sensing in interspecies competition, we developed a dual-species co-culture model using the soil saprophytes Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt) and Chromobacterium violaceum (Cv). These bacteria require quorum sensing to activate the production of antimicrobial factors that inhibit growth of the other species. We demonstrate that quorum-sensing-dependent antimicrobials can provide a competitive advantage to either Bt or Cv by inhibiting growth of the other species in co-culture. Although the quorum-sensing signals differ for each species, we show that the promiscuous signal receptor encoded by Cv can sense signals produced by Bt, and that this ability to eavesdrop on Bt can provide Cv an advantage in certain situations. We use an in silico approach to investigate the effect of eavesdropping in competition, and show conditions where early activation of antibiotic production resulting from eavesdropping can promote competitiveness. Our work supports the idea that quorum sensing is important for interspecies competition and that promiscuous signal receptors allow eavesdropping on competitors in mixed microbial habitats. PMID:22763647

  10. Involvement of N-acylhomoserine lactones throughout plant infection by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Pectobacterium atrosepticum).

    PubMed

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Faure, Denis; Chevalier, Sylvie; Dessaux, Yves; Orange, Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica is responsible for potato blackleg disease in the field and tuber soft rot during crop storage. The process leading to the disease occurs in two phases: a primary invasion step followed by a maceration step. Bacteria-to-bacteria communication is associated with a quorum-sensing (QS) process based on the production of N-acylhomoserine lactones (HSL). The role of HSL throughout plant infection was analyzed. To this purpose, HSL produced by a specific E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica wild-type strain, which was particularly virulent on potato, were identified. A derivative of this strain that expressed an HSL lactonase gene and produced low amounts of HSL was generated. The comparison of these strains allowed the evaluation of the role of HSL and QS in disease establishment and development. Bacterial growth and motility; activity of proteins secreted by type I, II, and III systems; and hypersensitive and maceration reactions were evaluated. Results indicated that HSL production and QS regulate only those traits involved in the second stage of the host plant infection (i.e., tissue maceration) and hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco plants. Therefore, the use of QS quenching strategies for biological control in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cannot prevent initial infection and multiplication of this pathogen.

  11. The in vitro assay profile of macrocyclic lactone resistance in three species of sheep trichostrongyloids☆

    PubMed Central

    Demeler, Janina; Gill, Jennifer H.; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Sangster, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has emerged as an important problem in animal industries. Understanding resistance mechanisms, especially against macrocyclic lactones (MLs), is the first step in developing better diagnostic tools. Effects of several MLs including ivermectins and milbemycins were tested using two well established in vitro assays: the larval development assay (LDA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). These were performed on free-living stages of susceptible and ML-resistant isolates of three trichostrongyloid nematode species of sheep. In general, dose response curves shifted to the right in the resistant isolates. Data showed that resistance was present to ivermectin and its two components suggesting that both components contribute to action and resistance. There were no consistent patterns of potency and resistance of the tested substances for the different isolates in the LDA except that moxidectin (MOX) tended to have lower resistance ratios than ivermectin (IVM). MOX was the most potent inhibitor in the LMIA in susceptible Haemonchus contortus while being less potent in Trichostrongylus colubriformis and particularly in Ostertagia circumcincta. MOX showed high resistance ratios in the LMIA in all three species. Based on these results, resistance to MOX has unique characteristics and the LMIA may perform better in detecting resistance to MOX in these parasite species. PMID:24533300

  12. Biofilm Formation and Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Barbara-Ann D.; Venu, Vicnays; Speert, David P.

    2002-01-01

    Acyl homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-mediated gene regulation has been shown to influence biofilm formation in one Burkholderia cepacia cystic fibrosis isolate, but it is not known whether this relationship is a consistent feature of the several genomic species that make up the B. cepacia complex (BCC). We screened strains belonging to genomovars I to V of the BCC for biofilm formation on an abiotic surface and for acyl-HSL synthesis. We determined that organisms from each of these genomovars were capable of biofilm formation. Similarly, acyl-HSL was synthesized by organisms from each of genomovars I to V, with most isolates producing octanoyl-HSL in greatest abundance. When biofilms were grown in Luria broth, acyl-HSL synthesis and biofilm formation appeared to be associated, but these phenotypes were independent when the biofilms were grown in basal salts containing citrate. Genomovar V strains synthesized the greatest quantities of acyl-HSL, and genomovar II and III-A strains elaborated the most abundant biofilms. Quorum sensing may play a role in BCC pathogenesis, but it may not regulate biofilm formation under all growth conditions. PMID:12270826

  13. Styryl-lactone goniothalamin inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Orlikova, Barbora; Schumacher, Marc; Juncker, Tom; Yan, Choo Chee; Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H; Hajjouli, Shéhérazade; Cerella, Claudia; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-09-01

    (R)-(+)-Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone isolated from the medicinal plant Goniothalamus macrophyllus, exhibits pharmacological activities including cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, GTN modulated TNF-α induced NF-κB activation. GTN concentrations up to 20 μM showed low cytotoxic effects in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia and in Jurkat T cells. Importantly, at these concentrations, no cytotoxicity was observed in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our results confirmed that GTN inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation in Jurkat and K562 leukemia cells at concentrations as low as 5 μM as shown by reporter gene assays and western blots. Moreover, GTN down-regulated translocation of the p50/p65 heterodimer to the nucleus, prevented binding of NF-κB to its DNA response element and reduced TNF-α-activated interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. In conclusion, GTN inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation at non-apoptogenic concentrations in different leukemia cell models without presenting toxicity towards healthy blood cells underlining the anti-leukemic potential of this natural compound.

  14. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, from Saussurea lappa.

    PubMed

    Cho, J Y; Baik, K U; Jung, J H; Park, M H

    2000-06-23

    We investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Saussurea lappa, on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) release, and lymphocyte proliferation. Cynaropicrin strongly inhibited TNF-alpha release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage, RAW264.7 cells, and differentiated human macrophage, U937 cells, proved to produce notable amount of TNF-alpha. It also potently attenuated the accumulation of NO released from lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-gamma-stimulated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the immunosuppressive effects of the compound on lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimuli were examined. Cynaropicrin also dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes from splenocytes and interleukin-2-sensitive cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTLL-2 cells, stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2. However, treatment with sulphydryl compound, L-cysteine, abrogated all these inhibitory effects. These results suggest that cynaropicrin may participate in the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators and the proliferation of lymphocytes and its inhibitory effect is mediated through conjugation with sulphydryl groups of target protein(s).

  15. Evolution of Acyl-Substrate Recognition by a Family of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Quin H.; Brecht, Ryan M.; Dudekula, Dastagiri; Greenberg, E. Peter; Nagarajan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Members of the LuxI protein family catalyze synthesis of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing signals from S-adenosyl-L-methionine and an acyl thioester. Some LuxI family members prefer acyl-CoA, and others prefer acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the acyl-thioester substrate. We sought to understand the evolutionary history and mechanisms mediating this substrate preference. Our phylogenetic and motif analysis of the LuxI acyl-HSL synthase family indicates that the acyl-CoA-utilizing enzymes evolved from an acyl-ACP-utilizing ancestor. To further understand how acyl-ACPs and acyl-CoAs are recognized by acyl-HSL synthases we studied BmaI1, an octanoyl-ACP-dependent LuxI family member from Burkholderia mallei, and BjaI, an isovaleryl-CoA-dependent LuxI family member from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. We synthesized thioether analogs of their thioester acyl-substrates to probe recognition of the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety common to both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA substrates. The kinetics of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes indicate that they recognize the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety and they recognize non-preferred substrates with this moiety. We find that CoA substrate utilization arose through exaptation of acyl-phosphopantetheine recognition in this enzyme family. PMID:25401334

  16. The sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine triggers senescence and apoptosis in association with accumulation of DNA damage markers.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Valeria V; Mansilla, Sabrina F; Speroni, Juliana; Amaya, Celina; Cuello-Carrión, Darío; Ciocca, Daniel R; Priestap, Horacio A; Barbieri, Manuel A; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Lopez, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are plant-derived compounds that display anti-cancer effects. Some SLs derivatives have a marked killing effect on cancer cells and have therefore reached clinical trials. Little is known regarding the mechanism of action of SLs. We studied the responses of human cancer cells exposed to various concentrations of dehydroleucodine (DhL), a SL of the guaianolide group isolated and purified from Artemisia douglasiana (Besser), a medicinal herb that is commonly used in Argentina. We demonstrate for the first time that treatment of cancer cells with DhL, promotes the accumulation of DNA damage markers such as phosphorylation of ATM and focal organization of γH2AX and 53BP1. This accumulation triggers cell senescence or apoptosis depending on the concentration of the DhL delivered to cells. Transient DhL treatment also induces marked accumulation of senescent cells. Our findings help elucidate the mechanism whereby DhL triggers cell cycle arrest and cell death and provide a basis for further exploration of the effects of DhL in in vivo cancer treatment models.

  17. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.

  18. A New Antimicrobial Prenylated Benzo-lactone from the Rhizome of Cissus cornifolia

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Aliyu M.; Tajuddeen, Nasir; Idris, Abdullahi Y.; Rafindadi, Abdurahman Y.; Abdullahi, Musa I.; Aliyu, Abubakar B.; Abdullahi, Mikhail S.; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants remain one of the largest reservoirs of new bioactive compounds. In this study, a new prenylated benzo-lactone (4, 6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one) was isolated from the acetone extracts of the rhizome of Cissus cornifolia. The antimicrobial activity of the compound was evaluated against some microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The acetone extracts of the rhizome of C. cornifolia was separated and purified by various chromatographic techniques. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by analysis of spectral data including one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: The isolated compound was characterized as (4, 6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one), it showed activity against 6 out of 10 tested clinical isolates of some microorganisms including S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans. The inhibition zones ranged between 17 mm and 25 mm. The inhibition zones observed compare favorably with the positive control used. Conclusion: The compound could serve as a lead for the development of more potent antimicrobial agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and characterization as well as antimicrobial screening of the compound. PMID:26692751

  19. D-glucaro 1,4-lactone and resveratrol as antioxidants in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The aim of our work was to study the anti-aggregatory and antioxidative effects of natural dietary products, D-glucaro 1,4-lactone (1,4-GL) in combination with phenolic compound resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Our results in vitro showed that 1,4-GL alone slightly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. The combination of resveratrol (0.1 microM) with 0.5 mM of 1,4-GL caused a significant decrease of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation; however separately, neither of studied compound at used concentrations was not effective. When platelets were treated with 1,4-GL (at the concentration of 0.1 mM and higher) and resveratrol (0.1 microM), similar synergistic action of both tested compound on markers of oxidative stress formation was observed. We measured the levels of different specific markers of oxidative stress, e.g., superoxide anion radicals O(2)(-)*, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl group formation. Both tested compounds inhibited also the generation of O(2)(-)* and malondialdehyde that represents enzymatical peroxidation of arachidonic acid leading to thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) formation in platelets after thrombin stimulation. The obtained in vitro results demonstrate that anti-platelet and antioxidative properties of resveratrol may be significantly augmented by another dietary agent such as 1,4-GL, but mechanism synergistic action of these compounds is not yet known.

  20. The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces selective apoptosis of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steele, A J; Jones, D T; Ganeshaguru, K; Duke, V M; Yogashangary, B C; North, J M; Lowdell, M W; Kottaridis, P D; Mehta, A B; Prentice, A G; Hoffbrand, A V; Wickremasinghe, R G

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the in vitro actions of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL) on cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Dye reduction viability assays showed that the median LD(50) for PTL was 6.2 muM (n=78). Fifteen of these isolates were relatively resistant to the conventional agent chlorambucil but retained sensitivity to PTL. Brief exposures to PTL (1-3 h) were sufficient to induce caspase activation and commitment to cell death. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were more sensitive towards PTL than were normal T lymphocytes or CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells. The mechanism of cell killing was via PTL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in turn in a proapoptotic Bax conformational change, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase activation. Parthenolide also decreased nuclear levels of the antiapoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and diminished phosphorylation of its negative regulator IkappaB. Killing of CLL cells by PTL was apparently independent of p53 induction. This is the first report showing the relative selectivity of PTL towards CLL cells. The data here warrant further investigation of this class of natural product as potential therapeutic agents for CLL.

  1. Bromoenol lactone enhances the permeabilization of rat submandibular acinar cells by P2X7 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Chaïb, N; Kabré, E; Alzola, E; Pochet, S; Dehaye, J P

    2000-01-01

    The permeabilizing effect of P2X7 agonists was tested in rat submandibular acinar cells using the uptake of ethidium bromide as an index. The uptake of ethidium bromide by acini incubated at 37°C in the presence of 1 mM ATP increased with time and reached after 5 min about 10% of maximal uptake measured in the presence of digitonin. The response to ATP was dose-dependent (half-maximal concentration around 40 μM) and it was decreased when the temperature was lowered to 25°C. Benzoyl-ATP reproduced the response to ATP (half-maximal concentration around 10 μM). UTP or 2-methylthioATP had no effect. The permeabilization in response to ATP was blocked by oxidized ATP and by magnesium and inhibited by Coomassie blue. ATP increased the activity of a calcium-insensitive phospholipase A2 (iPLA2). Bromoenol lactone (BEL) inhibited the iPLA2 stimulated by ATP but potentiated the uptake of ethidium bromide in response to the purinergic agonist. From these results it is concluded that the activation of P2X7 receptors permeabilizes rat submandibular acinar cells. The pore-forming activity of the receptor might be negatively regulated by the concomitant activation of the iPLA2 by the receptor. PMID:10683195

  2. Construction of a dual fluorescence whole-cell biosensor to detect N-acyl homoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuemei; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Ma, Anzhou; Yu, Qing; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2014-02-01

    Detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) is useful for understanding quorum sensing (QS) behaviors, including biofilm formation, virulence and metabolism. For detecting AHLs and indicating the host cells in situ, we constructed the plasmid pUCGMA2T(1-4) to make a dual fluorescent whole-cell biosensor based on the AhlIR AHL system of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a. The plasmid contains three components: constitutively expressed P(npatII::gfp) for indicating host cells, P(ahlI::mcherry) that produces red fluorescence in response to AHL, and the ahlR gene that encodes an AHL regulatory protein. Meanwhile, two copies of T(1-4) (four tandem copies of a transcriptional terminator) were added into the plasmid to reduce background. The results showed that when the plasmid was placed into Escherichia coli, the dual fluorescence whole-cell biosensor was able to respond with red fluorescence within 6 hr to 5 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-5) mol/L of 3OC6-HSL. Bright green fluorescence indicated the host cells. Furthermore, when the plasmid was transferred to wildtype Pseudomonas PhTA125 (an AHL-producing bacterium), it also showed both green and red fluorescence. This result demonstrates that this plasmid can be used to construct whole-cell indicators that can indicate the AHL response and spatial behaviors of microbes in a microenvironmental niche.

  3. Regulation of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) in beef by spice marination.

    PubMed

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a signaling mechanism used by bacteria to communicate each other through the release of auto-inducing signaling molecules. Despite the fact that bacteria regulate its phenotypes by QS mechanism, their potential role in meat spoilage is not yet elucidated. In the current study, beef samples were analyzed for its microbial association and for the presence of N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHLs) throughout the storage experiments. Isolates were screened for AHLs production and selected spices were screened for their quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity. In addition, effect of spices on AHLs production of Y. enterocolitica was quantified through high performance thin layer chromatography (HP-TLC). Outcome showed that microbial association of beef mainly consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae. Samples stored at both aerobic and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) exhibited higher counts whereas; marinated samples stored at MAP exhibited the lowest. It was found that out of 35 isolates Y. enterocolitica induced reporter strain CV026 and its cell-free supernatant contained 26.36 nM/100 ml of AHLs when compared to standard. Among the tested spices, C. cyminum exhibited pronounced results by significantly reducing the AHLs concentration up to 47.75 %. Findings revealed the presence of quorum molecules (AHLs) in beef meat throughout the spoilage process and spices can acts as quorum quenchers to influence the spoilage rate by reducing AHLs production.

  4. Discovery, Semisynthesis, Antiparasitic and Cytotoxic Evaluation of 14-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones and Their Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Qing; Spadafora, Carmenza; Pineda, Laura M; Ng, Michelle G; Sun, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chang-Yun; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Shao, Chang-Lun

    2017-09-18

    Ten antifouling 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones 1-10 were isolated previously with low or trace natural abundance from the zoanthid-derived Cochliobolus lunatus fungus. Further optimization of fermentation conditions led to the isolation of two major natural compounds 7 and 8 with multi-gram quantities. By one or two steps, we semisynthesized the six trace natural compounds 1-6 and a series of derivatives 11-27 of compounds 7 and 8 with high yields (65-95%). Compounds 11-13 showed strong antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 1.84, 8.36, and 6.95 μM, respectively. Very importantly, 11 and 12 were non-toxic with very safety and high therapeutic indices (CC50/IC50 > 180), and thus representing potential promising leads for antiplasmodial drug discovery. Furthermore, 11 was the only compound showed obvious antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani with an IC50 value of 9.22 μM. Compounds 11 and 12 showed the values of IC50 at 11.9 and 17.2 μM against neglected Chagas' disease causing Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively.

  5. Functional characterization of a soybean growth stimulator Bradyrhizobium sp. strain SR-6 showing acylhomoserine lactone production.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amanat; Ayesha; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Iqbal, Mazhar; Iqbal, Javed; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2016-09-01

    A soybean nodule endophytic bacterium Bradyrhizobium sp. strain SR-6 was characterized for production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing molecules. Mass spectrometry analysis of AHLs revealed the presence of C6-HSL, 3OH-C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL, 3oxoC10-HSL, 3oxo-C12-HSL and 3OH-C12-HSL which are significantly different from those reported earlier in soybean symbionts. Purified AHL extracts significantly improved wheat and soybean seedling growth and root hair development along with increased soybean nodulation under axenic conditions. A positive correlation was observed among in vivo nitrogenase and catalase enzyme activities of the strain SR-6. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showed the cytochemical localization of catalase activity within the bacteroids, specifically attached to the peribacteroidal membrane. Root and nodule colonization proved rhizosphere competence of SR-6. The inoculation of SR-6 resulted in increased shoot length (13%), plant dry matter (50%), grain weight (16%), seed yield (20%) and N-uptake (14%) as compared to non-inoculated soybean plants. The symbiotic bacterium SR-6 has potential to improve soybean growth and yield in sub-humid climate of Azad Jammu and Kashmir region of Pakistan. The production and mass spectrometric profiling of AHLs as well as in vivo cytochemical localization of catalase enzyme activity in soybean Bradyrhizobium sp. have never been reported earlier elsewhere before our these investigations.

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora pohlii: neutrophil chemiluminescence inhibition and free radical scavenger activity.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro, Alexandre; Kabeya, Luciana M; Grael, Cristiane F F; Jordão, Christiane O; Azzolini, Ana Elisa C S; Lopes, João Luis C; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2006-06-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) is thought to contribute to the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) seem to be important contributors to the anti-inflammatory activity of many species of Lychnophora (Asteraceae), which have been widely used in Brazilian folk medicine because of this pharmacological property. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three STLs isolated from Lychnophora pohlii (lychnopholide, centratherin and goyazensolide) on rabbit PMNL oxidative burst were evaluated by the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL-lum) assay. All STLs tested showed concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on CL-lum but were not cytotoxic to PMNLs (evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase release) under the assessed conditions. Moreover, goyazensolide, the most active STL, had no free radical scavenger property, as assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl radical assay, and had no inhibitory effect on the luminol-horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence. Taken together, the results of this investigation suggest that the concomitant presence of methacrylate ester and hydroxyl groups contributes to a high inhibitory effect on PMNL oxidative metabolism. This effect was not mediated by free radical scavenger or cytotoxic effects, but probably by inhibition of enzymes involved in the signal transduction pathways of the ROS generation process.

  7. BpiB05, a novel metagenome-derived hydrolase acting on N-acylhomoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    Bijtenhoorn, P; Schipper, C; Hornung, C; Quitschau, M; Grond, S; Weiland, N; Streit, W R

    2011-08-20

    The N-acyl-homoserine lactones (N-AHLs) play an important role in bacterial cell-cell signaling. Up to date, however, only a few different experimentally proven classes of N-AHL ring-cleaving enzymes are known. Here we report on the isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel hydrolase derived from the soil metagenome and acting on N-AHLs. The identified protein designated BpiB05 is weakly similar to hypothetical proteins from Bacteroides fragilis, the draft genomes of two Burkholderia species as well as a marine metagenomic ORF but is otherwise not similar to any known protein. BpiB05 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a 10× His-tagged fusion protein. The recombinant protein revealed a molecular weight of about 70kDa and was tested for its quorum quenching (QQ) activities using a lacZ-bioassay. Additional HPLC-MS analyses confirmed the lactonolytic activity of the purified protein in the presence of Ca²⁺. Further tests suggested that BpiB05 strongly reduces motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pyocyanin synthesis and biofilm formation in this microbe. Because BpiB05 is not distantly related to any of the currently known hydrolases it forms probably a novel group within the growing number of proteins acting on N-AHLs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Macrocyclic lactones: distribution in plasma lipoproteins of several animal species including humans.

    PubMed

    Bassissi, Mohamad Firas; Alvinerie, Michel; Lespine, Anne

    2004-08-01

    We studied the in vitro distribution of macrocyclic lactones (MLs), lipophilic anthelmintic drugs, in the plasma of several animal species including humans. First, in vitro spiking of goat plasma was performed with ivermectin, moxidectin, abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin. In parallel, goats were treated with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin. Then, cow, sheep, rabbit, pig, and human plasma were spiked with moxidectin. Four fractions were separated using KBr density gradient ultracentrifugation: very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein-deficient fraction. Cholesterol was analyzed by enzymatic assay and MLs by high-performance liquid chromatography. An average of 96% of MLs was associated with lipoproteins. The five MLs studied distributed similarly into goat plasma fractions with a preferential association with HDL (80-90%). Ivermectin partitioning in goat plasma was similar after in vitro spiking and in vivo treatment. In species displaying various lipoprotein profiles, moxidectin was also mainly associated with HDL. However, in human plasma, moxidectin was associated with a lesser extent to HDL (70%) and more to LDL (22%) when compared to other animal species. A relation between the plasma cholesterol content and pharmacokinetics of the drug is suggested. Our finding will allow further exploration of intestinal lymphatic absorption and milk elimination of these compounds-mechanisms in which lipoproteins are involved. In addition, possible improvements of new drug delivery systems are suggested.

  9. Topical Administration of Acylated Homoserine Lactone Improves Epithelialization of Cutaneous Wounds in Hyperglycaemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Aya; Quinetti, Paes C.; Nakagami, Gojiro; Mugita, Yuko; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians often experience delayed epithelialization in diabetic patients, for which a high glucose condition is one of the causes. However, the mechanisms underlying delayed wound closure have not been fully elucidated, and effective treatments to enhance epithelialization in patients with hyperglycaemia have not been established. Here we propose a new reagent, acylated homoserine lactone (AHL), to improve the delayed epithelialization due to the disordered formation of a basement membrane of epidermis in hyperglycaemic rats. Acute hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin injection in this experiment. Full thickness wounds were created on the flanks of hyperglycaemic or control rats. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to identify hyperglycaemia-specific abnormalities in epidermal regeneration by comparison between groups. We then examined the effects of AHL on delayed epithelialization in hyperglycaemic rats. Histological analysis showed the significantly shorter epithelializing tissue (P < 0.05), abnormal structure of basement membrane (fragmentation and immaturity), and hypo- and hyperproliferation of basal keratinocytes in hyperglycaemic rats. Treating the wound with AHL resulted in the decreased abnormalities of basement membrane, normal distribution of proliferating epidermal keratinocytes, and significantly promoted epithelialization (P < 0.05) in hyperglycemic rats, suggesting the improving effects of AHL on abnormal epithelialization due to hyperglycemia. PMID:27404587

  10. Effect of setting temperature on glucono-δ-lactone-induced gelation of silver carp surimi.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wuyin; Zheng, Wenxiang

    2015-05-01

    Setting temperature is important for heat-induced surimi gel formation. However, there is little information concerning setting temperature on the properties of glucono-δ-lactone (GDL)-induced surimi gel, which is considered a new preparation technique. The pH of surimi gel induced by 2% GDL was about 4.6, while the breaking force of GDL-induced surimi gel preheated at a temperature range of 35-50 °C was higher than that of heat-induced surimi gel. The breaking force, deformation and whiteness of GDL-induced surimi gel were increased with increasing setting temperature from 30 to 45 °C, but water-holding capacity was decreased. When setting temperature was further increased to 50 °C, the textural properties were decreased, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) was degraded slightly. The data of protein subunits solubilized in various solvents revealed that MHC participated in the formation of GDL-induced surimi gel mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, when GDL-induced surimi gel was preheated at 45 °C, a compact and fine fiber microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Setting treatment at the appropriate temperature could promote the formation of a fine, compact GDL-induced surimi gel network, resulting in improved textural properties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Proteomic assessment of the role of N-acyl homoserine lactone in Shewanella putrefaciens spoilage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caili; Zhu, Suqin; Jatt, Abdul-Nabi; Pan, Yurong; Zeng, Mingyong

    2017-08-21

    Shewanella spp. are the common spoilage organisms found in aquatic food products stored at low temperature and their spoilage mechanism has been reported to be mediated by quorum sensing (QS). However, the specifically expressed proteins responding to N-acyl homoserine-lactone (AHLs) were seldom reported. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of different AHL signal molecules on Shewanella putrefaciens Z4 isolated from refrigerated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) at the proteome level. The results revealed that exogenous AHLs were utilized as QS signal molecules by S. putrefaciens Z4, and AHLs were not degraded by intracellular or extracellular enzymes secreted by S. putrefaciens Z4. Twenty-three differently expressed spots upon the addition of AHLs were selected and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results indicated that proteins involving in growth and metabolism (i.e., citrate synthase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), environment adaptation and regulators (i.e., polysaccharide deacetylases, transaldolase) were down-regulated upon three kinds of AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL, and O-C6-HSL), whereas the abundance of stress response protein and DNA ligase were elevated by the addition of exogenous AHLs. Moreover, the effects of exogenous C6-HSL and O-C6-HSLwere prominent. These results provide evidence that AHL-based QS signal molecules affected some important metabolic properties of S. putrefaciens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. New steroidal lactones and homomonoterpenic glucoside from fruits of Malva sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Akhlaq; Ali, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of defatted fruits of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of six new steroidal lactones and a homomonoterpenic glucoside along with beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of new phytoconstituents have been elucidated as cholest-5-en-3a-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol A), cholest-9(11)-en-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol B), cholest-4,6,22-trien-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol C), 2-methyl-6-methylene-n-decan-2-olyl- 3beta-D-glucopyranoside (malvanoyl glucoside), cholest-7-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin A), cholest-9(11)-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin B) and cholest-5-en-8(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin C).The structures of all these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  13. Cytotoxic and ACAT-inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones from the root of Ixeris dentata forma albiflora.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun-Mi; Bang, Myun-Ho; Song, Myoung-Chong; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hwa-Young; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Baek, Nam-In

    2006-11-01

    Ixeris dentata forma albiflora was extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O. Eight sesquiterpenes were isolated through repeated silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (C18, ODS) column chromatography of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions. Physicochemical analysis using NMR, MS and IR revealed the chemical structures of the sesquiterpenes, which were zaluzanin (1), 9a-hydroxyguaian-4(15),10(14),11(13)-triene-6,12-olide (2), 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8beta-hydroxyguaian-4(15),10(14)-diene-6,12-olide (3), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8beta-hydroxyguauan-10(14)-ene-6,12-olide (4), ixerin M (5), glucozaluzanin C (6), crepiside I (7), and ixerin D (8). This is the first time that these sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from this plant. Compounds 1, 2 and 7 revealed relatively high cytotoxicities on human colon carcinoma cell and lung adenocarcinoma cell, while compounds 5 and 7 showed acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitory activity.

  14. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from the flower of Vernonia cinerea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Simmons, Charles J; Borris, Robert P; Tanamatayarat, Patcharawan; Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Toyama, Onoomar; Songsak, Thanapat; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2012-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane extract from the flowers of Vernonia cinerea (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpene lactone, 8α-hydroxyhirsutinolide (2), and a new naturally occurring derivative, 8α-hydroxyl-1-O-methylhirsutinolide (3), along with seven known compounds (1 and 4-9). The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by comparison with the structure of compound 1, whose relative stereochemistry was determined by X-ray analysis. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cancer chemopreventive potential based on their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activity. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity with IC(50) values of 3.1, 1.9, 0.6, 5.2, and 1.6 μM, respectively; compounds 4 and 6-9 exhibited significant NO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 2.0, 1.5, 1.2, 2.7, and 2.4 μM, respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Presence of acyl-homoserine lactones in 57 members of the Vibrionaceae family.

    PubMed

    Purohit, A A; Johansen, J A; Hansen, H; Leiros, H-K S; Kashulin, A; Karlsen, C; Smalås, A; Haugen, P; Willassen, N P

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use a sensitive method to screen and quantify 57 Vibrionaceae strains for the production of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and map the resulting AHL profiles onto a host phylogeny. We used a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) protocol to measure AHLs in spent media after bacterial growth. First, the presence/absence of AHLs (qualitative analysis) was measured to choose internal standard for subsequent quantitative AHL measurements. We screened 57 strains from three genera (Aliivibrio, Photobacterium and Vibrio) of the same family (i.e. Vibrionaceae). Our results show that about half of the isolates produced multiple AHLs, typically at 25-5000 nmol l(-1) . This work shows that production of AHL quorum sensing signals is found widespread among Vibrionaceae bacteria and that closely related strains typically produce similar AHL profiles. The AHL detection protocol presented in this study can be applied to a broad range of bacterial samples and may contribute to a wider mapping of AHL production in bacteria, for example, in clinically relevant strains. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Antileishmanial activity of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Tanacetum parthenium.

    PubMed

    Tiuman, Tatiana Shioji; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; de Souza, Wanderley; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of parthenolide against Leishmania amazonensis was investigated. Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone purified from the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium. This isolated compound was identified through spectral analyses by UV, infrared, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, DEPT (distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer), COSY (correlated spectroscopy), HMQC (heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence), and electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. Parthenolide showed significant activity against the promastigote form of L. amazonensis, with 50% inhibition of cell growth at a concentration of 0.37 microg/ml. For the intracellular amastigote form, parthenolide reduced by 50% the survival index of parasites in macrophages when it was used at 0.81 microg/ml. The purified compound showed no cytotoxic effects against J774G8 macrophages in culture and did not cause lysis in sheep blood when it was used at higher concentrations that inhibited promastigote forms. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with gelatin as the substrate showed that the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cysteine protease increased following treatment of the promastigotes with the isolated compound. This finding was correlated with marked morphological changes induced by parthenolide, such as the appearance of structures similar to large lysosomes and intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket, as seen by electron microscopy. These results provide new perspectives on the development of novel drugs with leishmanicidal activities obtained from natural products.

  17. Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, expresses multiple anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Mathema, Vivek Bhakta; Koh, Young-Sang; Thakuri, Balkrishna Chand; Sillanpää, Mika

    2012-04-01

    Parthenolide, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone derived from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), exhibits exceptional anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, making it a prominent candidate for further studies and drug development. In this review, we briefly investigate molecular events and cell-specific activities of this chemical in relation to cytochrome c, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), signal transduction and activation of transcription (STAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), TCP, HDACs, microtubules, and inflammasomes. This paper reports that parthenolide shows strong NF-κB- and STAT-inhibition-mediated transcriptional suppression of pro-apoptotic genes. This compound acts both at the transcriptional level and by direct inhibition of associated kinases (IKK-β). Similarly, this review discusses parthenolide-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells via the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. The unique ability of this compound to not harm normal cells but at the same time induce sensitization to extrinsic as well as intrinsic apoptosis signaling in cancer cells provides an important, novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer and inflammation-related disorders.

  18. Antileishmanial Activity of Parthenolide, a Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from Tanacetum parthenium

    PubMed Central

    Tiuman, Tatiana Shioji; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; de Souza, Wanderley; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of parthenolide against Leishmania amazonensis was investigated. Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone purified from the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium. This isolated compound was identified through spectral analyses by UV, infrared, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, DEPT (distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer), COSY (correlated spectroscopy), HMQC (heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence), and electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. Parthenolide showed significant activity against the promastigote form of L. amazonensis, with 50% inhibition of cell growth at a concentration of 0.37 μg/ml. For the intracellular amastigote form, parthenolide reduced by 50% the survival index of parasites in macrophages when it was used at 0.81 μg/ml. The purified compound showed no cytotoxic effects against J774G8 macrophages in culture and did not cause lysis in sheep blood when it was used at higher concentrations that inhibited promastigote forms. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with gelatin as the substrate showed that the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cysteine protease increased following treatment of the promastigotes with the isolated compound. This finding was correlated with marked morphological changes induced by parthenolide, such as the appearance of structures similar to large lysosomes and intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket, as seen by electron microscopy. These results provide new perspectives on the development of novel drugs with leishmanicidal activities obtained from natural products. PMID:15616293

  19. Roasted coffees high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones are more neuroprotective than green coffees.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Brown, Peter H; Lyle, Barbara J; Chen, Yumin; Black, Richard M; Williams, Claire E; Lin, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Cheng, Irene H

    2009-10-28

    Oxidative stress is involved in many neurodegenerative processes leading to age-related cognitive decline. Coffee, a widely consumed beverage, is rich in many bioactive components, including polyphenols with antioxidant potential. In this study, regular and decaffeinated samples of both roasted and green coffee all showed high hydrophilic antioxidant activity in vitro, whereas lipophilic antioxidant activities were on average 30-fold higher in roasted than in green coffee samples. In primary neuronal cell culture, pretreatment with green and roasted coffees (regular and decaffeinated) protected against subsequent H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and improved neuronal cell survival (green coffees increased neuron survival by 78%, compared to 203% by roasted coffees). All coffee extracts inhibited ERK1/2 activation, indicating a potential attenuating effect in stress-induced neuronal cell death. Interestingly, only roasted coffee extracts inhibited JNK activation, evidencing a distinctive neuroprotective benefit. Analysis of coffee phenolic compounds revealed that roasted coffees contained high levels of chlorogenic acid lactones (CGLs); a significant correlation between CGLs and neuroprotective efficacy was observed (R(2) = 0.98). In conclusion, this study showed that roasted coffees are high in lipophilic antioxidants and CGLs, can protect neuronal cells against oxidative stress, and may do so by modulation of the ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways.

  20. Targeted yeast vacuole disruption by polyene antibiotics with a macrocyclic lactone ring.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Akira; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Tanaka, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the polyene macrolide antibiotics amphotericin B (AmB), nystatin and filipin III were evaluated for their fungicidal activity and their ability to produce vacuole disruption as well as enhancement of these activities by allicin using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nystatin has a macrocyclic lactone ring analogous to AmB and their fungicidal activities were both increased by allicin, an allyl-sulfur compound, whereas filipin III, a pentaene macrolide, did not show an increase in fungicidal activity in the presence of allicin. Vacuole staining with the fluorescent probe FM4-64 showed that both AmB and nystatin induced vacuole membrane disintegration at their lethal concentrations; in addition, the vacuole disruptive effect was also enhanced by allicin. In contrast, filipin III did not affect vacuole morphology and addition of allicin had no effect despite filipin III localising to the cell cytoplasm. Isolated S. cerevisiae vacuoles were disrupted following treatment both with nystatin and AmB, though this activity was not potentiated in the presence of allicin. In contrast, filipin III had little effect on the vacuole architecture. This study reveals differential effects of polyene antibiotics on vacuoles in S. cerevisiae, which may be due to differences in the structure of the macrocyclic ring.

  1. Effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics on feeding and pharyngeal pumping in Trichostrongylus colubriformis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, J C; Kotze, A C; Sangster, N C; Martin, R J

    2002-11-01

    The effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics (MLs) on feeding by Trichostrongylus colubriformis nematodes in vitro were examined using inulin uptake as a measure of ingestion and electropharyngeograms as a record of the electrical events associated with pharyngeal pumping. Inulin uptake was inhibited by the 4 MLs tested (EC50s 0.045-4.57 nM), with an order of potency of eprinomectin (most potent), ivermectin, ivermectin monosaccharide, and ivermectin aglycone. The MLs caused both the frequency and amplitude of pharyngeal electrical events to decrease. In individual worms the inhibition of pump frequency preceded the inhibition of pump amplitude. The order of potency of the MLs as inhibitors of frequency was ivermectin aglycone, ivermectin, ivermectin monosaccharide and eprinomectin. The difference compared with the inulin assay results are probably due to the dynamics of drug uptake in the two systems. It was possible that the nematodes in the electrophysiology experiments were effectively orally ligated by enclosure of the worm's head in the recording pipette which contained no drug. Despite this difference in relative potencies, both the ingestion assays and the electrical events indicate that MLs are potent inhibitors of the pharynx in T. colubriformis in vitro. The sequence of effects on pharyngeal electrical activity suggests that ML action involves an initial inhibitory effect on the rate of pharyngeal contractions, followed by a decrease in the amplitude of the potentials associated with pharyngeal pumping events.

  2. The Sesquiterpene Lactone Dehydroleucodine Triggers Senescence and Apoptosis in Association with Accumulation of DNA Damage Markers

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Valeria V.; Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Speroni, Juliana; Amaya, Celina; Cuello-Carrión, Darío; Ciocca, Daniel R.; Priestap, Horacio A.; Barbieri, Manuel A.; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Lopez, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are plant-derived compounds that display anti-cancer effects. Some SLs derivatives have a marked killing effect on cancer cells and have therefore reached clinical trials. Little is known regarding the mechanism of action of SLs. We studied the responses of human cancer cells exposed to various concentrations of dehydroleucodine (DhL), a SL of the guaianolide group isolated and purified from Artemisia douglasiana (Besser), a medicinal herb that is commonly used in Argentina. We demonstrate for the first time that treatment of cancer cells with DhL, promotes the accumulation of DNA damage markers such as phosphorylation of ATM and focal organization of γH2AX and 53BP1. This accumulation triggers cell senescence or apoptosis depending on the concentration of the DhL delivered to cells. Transient DhL treatment also induces marked accumulation of senescent cells. Our findings help elucidate the mechanism whereby DhL triggers cell cycle arrest and cell death and provide a basis for further exploration of the effects of DhL in in vivo cancer treatment models. PMID:23341930

  3. In vitro immunomodulatory properties of a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction from Artemisia khorassanica.

    PubMed

    Zamanai Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Rastin, Maryam; Tabasi, Nafise; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia species are important medicinal plants throughout the world. The present in vitro study, using a sesquiterpene lactone-bearing fraction prepared from Artemisia khorassanica (SLAK), sought to investigate immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory properties of this plant and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms for the actions. Effects of the SLAK on mitogen-induced murine splenocyte proliferation and interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion were evaluated. To assess anti-inflammatory activities, levels of inducible of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in peritoneal macrophages was examined. The results showed that SLAK noticeably was capable of suppressing PHA/LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and of up-regulating production of the T-helper (TH)-2 cell cytokine IL-4 while down-regulating formation of TH1 IFNγ. In addition, while SLAK caused negligible proliferation inhibition, peritoneal macrophages displayed considerable decrease in NO and PGE2 production along with iNOS and COX-2 expression. The current experiment shows Artemisia khorasanica - a traditionally used herb - may have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. It is anticipated that the ingredients may be employed as therapeutic candidates in the regulation of some immune responses implicated in various conditions and ailments.

  4. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  5. Lettuce Costunolide Synthase (CYP71BL2) and Its Homolog (CYP71BL1) from Sunflower Catalyze Distinct Regio- and Stereoselective Hydroxylations in Sesquiterpene Lactone Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Nguyen, Don Trinh; Kim, Soo-Un; O'Maille, Paul E.; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are terpenoid natural products possessing the γ-lactone, well known for their diverse biological and medicinal activities. The occurrence of STLs is sporadic in nature, but most STLs have been isolated from plants in the Asteraceae family. Despite the implication of the γ-lactone group in many reported bioactivities of STLs, the biosynthetic origins of the γ-lactone ring remains elusive. Germacrene A acid (GAA) has been suggested as a central precursor of diverse STLs. The regioselective (C6 or C8) and stereoselective (α or β) hydroxylation on a carbon of GAA adjacent to its carboxylic acid at C12 is responsible for the γ-lactone formation. Here, we report two cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) capable of catalyzing 6α- and 8β-hydroxylation of GAA from lettuce and sunflower, respectively. To identify these P450s, sunflower trichomes were isolated to generate a trichome-specific transcript library, from which 10 P450 clones were retrieved. Expression of these clones in a yeast strain metabolically engineered to synthesize substrate GAA identified a P450 catalyzing 8β-hydroxylation of GAA, but the STL was not formed by spontaneous lactonization. Subsequently, we identified the closest homolog of the GAA 8β-hydroxylase from lettuce and discovered 6α-hydroxylation of GAA by the recombinant enzyme. The resulting 6α-hydroxy-GAA spontaneously undergoes a lactonization to yield the simplest form of STL, costunolide. Furthermore, we demonstrate the milligram per liter scale de novo synthesis of costunolide using the lettuce P450 in an engineered yeast strain, an important advance that will enable exploitation of STLs. Evolution and homology models of these two P450s are discussed. PMID:21515683

  6. Synthesis of a novel ether-bridged GM3-lactone analogue as a target for an antibody-based cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, L F; Keim, H; Janssen, C O; Tappertzhofen, C; Olschimke, J

    2000-08-04

    We describe herein the synthesis of a new analogue of the GM3-lactone containing a cyclic ether moiety. The ether moiety was chosen as a replacement for the regular lactone group since it shows high resemblance with the lactone and is completely stable under biological conditions. The cyclic ether moiety was formed by reduction of the corresponding lactone to give the lactol followed by formation of the S,O-hemiacetal and hydrogenation. In addition, we have prepared haptens with a hexanoic acid moiety, which can be used for the preparation of poly- and monoclonal antibodies after binding to BSA or KLH. This is the first example of an analogue of the GM3-lactone which is stable under hydrolytic conditions in vitro and probably also in vivo. Reaction of lactone 18 with a Red/Al derivative led to the lactol 19 which was transformed into the S,O-hemiacetal 20 using 2,2'-bis(pyridinium) disulfide in quantitative yield. Hydrogenation with Raney Nickel gave 21 from which after removal of the protecting group at C-1a the trichloroacetimidate 25 was prepared. Reaction with azidosphingosine to give 26 followed by reduction of the azido group with NHEt3+[(PhS)3Sn], acylation with stearic acid using EDC and removal of the protecting groups led to the desired ether analogue of GM3 lactone 4. In addition the trichloroacetimidate 25 was glycosidated with 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid methyl ester, which was deprotected to give 29. The compound will be used for the preparation of poly- and monoclonal antibodies after coupling with BSA and KLH.

  7. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h. PMID:26904539

  8. The Significance of Different Diacylgycerol Synthesis Pathways on Plant Oil Composition and Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Philip D.; Browse, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of triacylglycerol (TAG). Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG), the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: (1) De novo DAG synthesis, and (2) conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g., desaturation, hydroxylation, etc.), such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions. PMID:22783267

  9. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  10. Estimation of Costunolide and Dehydrocostus Lactone in Saussurea lappa and its Polyherbal Formulations followed by their Stability Studies Using HPLC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Rao Vadaparthi, P.R.; Kumar, K.; Sarma, Vanka Uma Maheswara; Hussain, Qazi Altaf; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saussurea lappa is one of the popular Ayurvedic herb; costunolide and dehydrocostus lactones are well-known sesquiterpene lactones contained in many plants used as popular herbs, such as S. lappa, and have been considered as potential candidates for the treatment of various types of tumor. Objective: The present study was used for the quantification of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone in S. lappa and its polyherbal formulations, stability studies of markers and characterization of their degradants. Materials and Methods: HPLC analysis was performed on Waters NOVAPAK HR C18 column (300 mm × 3.9 mm i.d., 6 μm) using isocratic elution with acetonitrile and water (60:40% v/v). Results: The calibration curves of both analytes showed good linearity within the established range 5-100 μg/ml. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.5 and 4.6 μg/ml for costunolide and 1.3 and 4.0 μg/ml for dehydrocostus lactone, respectively. Good results were achieved with respect to repeatability (%RSD < 2.0) and recovery (99.3-101.8%). Conclusion: The method was found to be precise, accurate, specific, and was successfully used for analyzing costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone in S. lappa and its polyherbal formulations. The developed method was found to be suitable for stability studies of markers and characterization of their degradation products. PMID:25709231

  11. Isolation and characterization of 9-lipoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase 2 genes: Insight into lactone biosynthesis in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashish B; Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2017-06-01

    Uniqueness and diversity of mango flavour across various cultivars are well known. Among various flavour metabolites lactones form an important class of aroma volatiles in certain mango varieties due to their ripening specific appearance and lower odour detection threshold. In spite of their biological and biochemical importance, lactone biosynthetic pathway in plants remains elusive. Present study encompasses quantitative real-time analysis of 9-lipoxygenase (Mi9LOX), epoxide hydrolase 2 (MiEH2), peroxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase and acyl-CoA-oxidase genes during various developmental and ripening stages in fruit of Alphonso, Pairi and Kent cultivars with high, low and no lactone content and explains their variable lactone content. Study also covers isolation, recombinant protein characterization and transient over-expression of Mi9LOX and MiEH2 genes in mango fruits. Recombinant Mi9LOX utilized linoleic and linolenic acids, while MiEH2 utilized aromatic and fatty acid epoxides as their respective substrates depicting their role in fatty acid metabolism. Significant increase in concentration of δ-valerolactone and δ-decalactone upon Mi9LOX over-expression and that of δ-valerolactone, γ-hexalactone and δ-hexalactone upon MiEH2 over-expression further suggested probable involvement of these genes in lactone biosynthesis in mango.

  12. Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Zhu, Lingqing; Xue, Chaoyou; Chen, Yu; Qu, Liang; Lu, Wenyu

    2012-12-10

    Numerous studies have focused on how to obtain high yield of sophorolipids using low-cost materials as substrates, and there has been various work on the experimental methods for purifying lactonic sophorolipids. These studies have not yet obtained satisfied results in combining a low-cost fermentation process and the purification of lactonic sophorolipids. This study establishes a fed-batch fermentation process of purifying sophorolipids from Candida albicans O-13-1 using low-cost sugarcane molasses as the substrate. In the optimized conditions of this research, using sugarcane molasses as a substrate and product synthesis based on the temperature stage-controlled fermentation, our result indicates that sophorolipids production could reach 108.7 g/L. More importantly, lactonic sophorolipids can crystallize and precipitate during our established fermentation process. The structures and content of sophorolipids separated from the fermentation broth and sophorolipids crystallized in the fermentation broth were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The fermentation process produced 90.5 g/L crystallized lactonic sophorolipids with 90.51% purity. This is an energy-saving and low-cost method to obtain such pure lactonic sophorolipids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In Planta Biocontrol of Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Rhodococcus erythropolis Involves Silencing of Pathogen Communication by the Rhodococcal Gamma-Lactone Catabolic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Corinne; Crépin, Alexandre; Bergeau, Dorian; Ouchiha, Asma; Mijouin, Lily; Taupin, Laure; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Dufour, Alain; Burini, Jean-François; Latour, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The virulence of numerous Gram-negative bacteria is under the control of a quorum sensing process based on synthesis and perception of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Rhodococcus erythropolis, a Gram-positive bacterium, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent for plant protection against soft-rot bacteria, including Pectobacterium. Here, we show that the γ-lactone catabolic pathway of R. erythropolis disrupts Pectobacterium communication and prevents plant soft-rot. We report the first characterization and demonstration of N-acyl homoserine lactone quenching in planta. In particular, we describe the transcription of the R. erythropolis lactonase gene, encoding the key enzyme of this pathway, and the subsequent lactone breakdown. The role of this catabolic pathway in biocontrol activity was confirmed by deletion of the lactonase gene from R. erythropolis and also its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The γ-lactone catabolic pathway is induced by pathogen communication rather than by pathogen invasion. This is thus a novel and unusual biocontrol pathway, differing from those previously described as protecting plants from phytopathogens. These findings also suggest the existence of an additional pathway contributing to plant protection.

  14. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.): new and old sensitizers in a shrub-turned-a-pot plant.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Hyldgaard, Mette G; Andersen, Klaus E; Andersen, Flemming; Christensen, Lars P

    2017-05-01

    The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush. Eleven Compositae-sensitive patients were patch tested with seven sesquiterpene lactones isolated from cushion bush. Six of seven sesquiterpene lactones elicited positive reactions in 4 of 11 patients. The well-known sesquiterpene lactone pseudoivalin and its derivative pseudoivalin acetate, as well as calocephalin and tomentosin, were confirmed to be sensitizers, whereas leucophytalin A and 4α-hydroxy-5αH,10αH-1,11(13)-guaidien-8β,12-olide were shown to be allergenic for the first time. The patch test reaction patterns seem to follow the chemical patterns, which may eventually make it possible to trace primary sensitizers and advise patients more precisely. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing stimulates biofilm formation by Salmonella Enteritidis in anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe Alves de; Pimentel-Filho, Natan de Jesus; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Oliveira, Leandro Licursi de; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2017-04-01

    Quorum sensing regulates a variety of phenotypes in bacteria including the production of virulence factors. Salmonella spp. have quorum sensing systems mediated by three autoinducers (AI-1, AI-2, and AI-3). The AI-1-mediated system is incomplete in that the bacterium relies on the synthesis of signaling molecules by other microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the AI-1 N-dodecanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) on the growth, motility, adhesion, and biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 578 on a polystyrene surface. Experiments were conducted at 37 °C in anaerobic tryptone soy broth supplemented with C12-HSL and/or a mixture of four synthetic furanones, at the concentration of 50 nM each. The planktonic growth, adhesion, swarming, and twitching motility were not altered in the presence of C12-HSL and/or furanones under anaerobic conditions. However, C12-HSL induced biofilm formation after 36 h of cultivation as determined by quantification of biofilm formation, by enumeration of adhered cells to polystyrene coupons, and finally by imaging the presence of multilayered cells on an epifluorescence microscope. When furanones were present in the medium, an antagonistic effect against C12-HSL on the biofilm development was observed. The results demonstrate an induction of biofilm formation in Salmonella Enteritidis by AI-1 under anaerobic conditions. Considering that Salmonella does not produce AI-1 but respond to it, C12-HSL synthesized by other bacterial species could trigger biofilm formation by this pathogen in conditions that are relevant for its pathogenesis.

  16. Evaluation of the larval migration inhibition assay for detecting macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher C; Moorhead, Andrew R; Storey, Bobby E; Blagburn, Byron L; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-11-15

    Anthelmintics of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) drug class are widely used as preventives against the canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Over the past several years, however, reports of ML lack of efficacy (LOE) have emerged, in which dogs develop mature heartworm infection despite the administration of monthly prophylactics. More recently, isolates from LOE cases have been used to infect laboratory dogs and the resistant phenotype has been confirmed by the establishment of adult worms in the face of ML treatment at normally preventive dosages. Testing for and monitoring resistance in D. immitis requires a validated biological or molecular diagnostic assay. In this study, we assessed a larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) that we previously optimized for use with D. immitis third-stage larvae (L3). We used this assay to measure the in vitro ML susceptibilities of a known-susceptible laboratory strain of D. immitis and three highly suspected ML-resistant isolates originating from three separate LOE cases; progeny from two of these isolates have been confirmed ML-resistant by treatment of an infected dog in a controlled setting. A nonlinear regression model was fit to the dose-response data, from which IC50 values were calculated. The D. immitis LMIA yielded consistent and reproducible dose-response data; however, no statistically significant differences in drug susceptibility were observed between control and LOE parasites. Additionally, the drug concentrations needed to paralyze the L3 were much higher than those third- and fourth-stage larvae would experience in vivo. IC50 values ranged from 1.57 to 5.56μM (p≥0.19). These data could suggest that ML resistance in this parasite is not mediated through a reduced susceptibility of L3 to the paralytic effects of ML drugs, and therefore motility-based assays are likely not appropriate for measuring the effects of MLs against D. immitis in this target stage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Reactions of lactones with tropospheric oxidants: A kinetics and products study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walavalkar, M. P.; Sharma, A.; Dhanya, S.; Naik, P. D.

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric lifetimes of two lactones, gamma-valerolactone (GVL) and alpha-methyl gamma-butyrolactone (AMGBL) in terms of their reactions with two important tropospheric oxidants- OH and Cl - are estimated, after determining the respective rate coefficients of their reactions in the gas phase using relative rate method. Values of the rate coefficients of the reactions of GVL (kOH = (1.95 ± 0.58) x 10-12; kCl = 2.26 ± 0.53 × 10-11 cm3molecule-1s-1) and AMGBL (kOH = 1.81 ± 0.43 × 10-12; kCl = 3.42 ± 0.63 × 10-11 cm3molecule-1s-1) at 298 K imply that reaction with OH is the dominant reaction in the ambient conditions, and that reaction with Cl atom becomes relevant under marine boundary layer (MBL) conditions, reducing the tropospheric lifetimes to almost half. The tropospheric life times of GVL and AMGBL based on their reaction with OH under ambient conditions are comparable, 71.2 and 76.7 h respectively. However, the products of the reactions are found to be different. In GVL, a promising second generation biofuel component, only ring opening reactions are important, acetic acid and CO2 being the only observed volatile products. In AMGBL, additional ring oxidized products are also formed, of which 3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-2,5-furandione is the most dominant one. The absence of such ring oxidized products in GVL is assigned to the difference in the preferred position of H atom abstraction, based on the computed rate coefficients of individual channels reported in the literature. This suggests that the impact in terms of aerosol generation in the troposphere may also be different for GVL and AMGBL, which differ only in the position of methyl substitution.

  18. Small-molecule inhibitor binding to an N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthase.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jiwoung; Goo, Eunhye; Yu, Sangheon; Choi, Okhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Hongsup; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2011-07-19

    Quorum sensing (QS) controls certain behaviors of bacteria in response to population density. In gram-negative bacteria, QS is often mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). Because QS influences the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, synthetic inhibitors of acyl-HSL synthases might be useful therapeutically for controlling pathogens. However, rational design of a potent QS antagonist has been thwarted by the lack of information concerning the binding interactions between acyl-HSL synthases and their ligands. In the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia glumae, QS controls virulence, motility, and protein secretion and is mediated by the binding of N-octanoyl-L-HSL (C8-HSL) to its cognate receptor, TofR. C8-HSL is synthesized by the acyl-HSL synthase TofI. In this study, we characterized two previously unknown QS inhibitors identified in a focused library of acyl-HSL analogs. Our functional and X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the first inhibitor, J8-C8, binds to TofI, occupying the binding site for the acyl chain of the TofI cognate substrate, acylated acyl-carrier protein. Moreover, the reaction byproduct, 5'-methylthioadenosine, independently binds to the binding site for a second substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Closer inspection of the mode of J8-C8 binding to TofI provides a likely molecular basis for the various substrate specificities of acyl-HSL synthases. The second inhibitor, E9C-3oxoC6, competitively inhibits C8-HSL binding to TofR. Our analysis of the binding of an inhibitor and a reaction byproduct to an acyl-HSL synthase may facilitate the design of a new class of QS-inhibiting therapeutic agents.

  19. Fenugreek lactone attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Hui; Jiang, Shu-Jun; Wang, Ding-Kun; Fang, Ke; Yang, De-Sen; Zou, Xin; Xu, Li-Jun; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of fenugreek lactone (FL) on palmitate (PA)-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in insulin secretion in pancreatic NIT-1 β-cells. METHODS: Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of FL and PA (0.25 mmol/L) for 48 h. Then, lipid droplets in NIT-1 cells were observed by oil red O staining, and the intracellular triglyceride content was measured by colorimetric assay. The insulin content in the supernatant was determined using an insulin radio-immunoassay. Oxidative stress-associated parameters, including total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the suspensions were also examined. The expression of upstream regulators of oxidative stress, such as protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), phospho-PKC-α and P47phox, were determined by Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. In addition, apoptosis was evaluated in NIT-1 cells by flow cytometry assays and caspase-3 viability assays. RESULTS: Our results indicated that compared to the control group, PA induced an increase in lipid accumulation and apoptosis and a decrease in insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. Oxidative stress in NIT-1 cells was activated after 48 h of exposure to PA. However, FL reversed the above changes. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of PKC-α, phospho-PKC-α and P47phox expression and the activation of caspase-3. CONCLUSION: FL attenuates PA-induced apoptosis and insulin secretion dysfunction in NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells. The mechanism for this action may be associated with improvements in levels of oxidative stress. PMID:26730156

  20. Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones.

    PubMed

    Kearn, James; Ludlow, Elizabeth; Dillon, James; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy

    2014-02-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes infest crops and present a threat to food security worldwide. Currently available chemical controls e.g. methyl bromide, organophosphates and carbamates have an unacceptable level of toxicity to non-target organisms and are being withdrawn from use. Fluensulfone is a new nematicide of the fluoroalkenyl thioether group that has significantly reduced environmental impact with low toxicity to non-target insects and mammals. Here, we show that the model genetic organism Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to the irreversible nematicidal effects of fluensulfone. Whilst the dose required is higher than that which has nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne spp. the profile of effects on motility, egg-hatching and survival is similar to that reported for plant parasitic nematodes. C. elegans thus provides a tractable experimental paradigm to analyse the effects of fluensulfone on nematode behaviour. We find that fluensulfone has pleiotropic actions and inhibits development, egg-laying, egg-hatching, feeding and locomotion. In the case of feeding and locomotion, an early excitation precedes the gross inhibition. The profile of these effects is notably distinct from other classes of anthelmintic and nematicide: the inhibition of motility caused by fluensulfone is not accompanied by the hypercontraction which is characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates and C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the carbamate aldicarb and the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin retain susceptibility to fluensulfone. These data indicate fluensulfone's mode of action is distinct from currently available nematicides and it therefore presents a promising new chemical entity for crop protection. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated homoserine lactone C12 rapidly activates apoptosis in airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fu, Zhu; Patanwala, Maria; Hum, Lauren; Lopez-Guzman, Mirielle; Illek, Beate; Kong, Weidong; Lynch, Susan V; Machen, Terry E

    2012-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) forms biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, a process regulated by quorum-sensing molecules including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C12). C12 (10-100 µM) rapidly triggered events commonly associated with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in JME (CF ΔF508CFTR, nasal surface) epithelial cells: depolarization of mitochondrial (mito) membrane potential (Δψ(mito)) and release of cytochrome C (cytoC) from mitos into cytosol and activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9. C12 also had novel effects on the endoplasmic reticulum (release of both Ca(2+) and ER-targeted GFP and oxidized contents into the cytosol). Effects began within 5 min and were complete in 1-2 h. C12 caused similar activation of caspases and release of cytoC from mitos in Calu-3 (wtCFTR, bronchial gland) cells, showing that C12-triggered responses occurred similarly in different airway epithelial types. C12 had nearly identical effects on three key aspects of the apoptosis response (caspase 3/7, depolarization of Δψ(mito) and reduction of redox potential in the ER) in JME and CFTR-corrected JME cells (adenoviral expression), showing that CFTR was likely not an important regulator of C12-triggered apoptosis in airway epithelia. Exposure of airway cultures to biofilms from PAO1wt caused depolarization of Δψ(mito) and increases in Ca(cyto) like 10-50 µM C12. In contrast, biofilms from PAO1ΔlasI (C12 deficient) had no effect, suggesting that C12 from P. aeruginosa biofilms may contribute to accumulation of apoptotic cells that cannot be cleared from CF lungs. A model to explain the effects of C12 is proposed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated homoserine lactone C12 rapidly activates apoptosis in airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Christian; Fu, Zhu; Patanwala, Maria; Hum, Lauren; Lopez-Guzman, Mirielle; Illek, Beate; Kong, Weidong; Lynch, Susan V.; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) forms biofilms in lungs of cystic fibrosis CF) patients, a process regulated by quorum sensing molecules including N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, C12. C12 (10–100 μM) rapidly triggered events commonly associated with the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in JME (CFΔF508CFTR, nasal surface) epithelial cells: depolarization of mitochondrial (mito) membrane potential (Δψmito) and release of cytochrome C (cytoC) from mitos into cytosol and activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9. C12 also had novel effects on the endoplasmic reticulum (release of both Ca2+ and ER-targeted GFP and oxidized contents into the cytosol). Effects began within 5 minutes and were complete in 1–2 hrs. C12 caused similar activation of caspases and release of cytoC from mitos in Calu-3 (wtCFTR, bronchial gland) cells, showing that C12-triggered responses occurred similarly in different airway epithelial types. C12 had nearly identical effects on three key aspects of the apoptosis response (caspase 3/7, depolarization of Δψmito and reduction of redox potential in the ER) in JME and CFTR-corrected JME cells (adenoviral expression), showing that CFTR was likely not an important regulator of C12-triggered apoptosis in airway epithelia. Exposure of airway cultures to biofilms from PAO1wt caused depolarization of Δψmito and increases in Cacyto like 10–50 μM C12. In contrast, biofilms from PAO1ΔlasI (C12 deficient) had no effect, suggesting that C12 from P. aeruginosa biofilms may contribute to accumulation of apoptotic cells that cannot be cleared from CF lungs. A model to explain the effects of C12 is proposed. PMID:22233488

  3. Bromoenol Lactone Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Lindsay E.; Liu, Shu; Arnold, Nova; Breakall, Bethany; Rollins, Joseph; Ndinguri, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2β mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined. Method and Results We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2β dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2β plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis. Conclusion The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2β dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis. PMID:26588686

  4. The Nonartemisinin Sesquiterpene Lactones Parthenin and Parthenolide Block Plasmodium falciparum Sexual Stage Transmission.

    PubMed

    Balaich, Jared N; Mathias, Derrick K; Torto, Baldwyn; Jackson, Bryan T; Tao, Dingyin; Ebrahimi, Babak; Tarimo, Brian B; Cheseto, Xavier; Foster, Woodbridge A; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2016-04-01

    Parthenin and parthenolide are natural products that are closely related in structure to artemisinin, which is also a sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) and one of the most important antimalarial drugs available. Parthenin, like artemisinin, has an effect onPlasmodiumblood stage development. We extended the evaluation of parthenin as a potential therapeutic for the transmissible stages ofPlasmodium falciparumas it transitions between human and mosquito, with the aim of gaining potential mechanistic insight into the inhibitory activity of this compound. We posited that if parthenin targets different biological pathways in the parasite, this in turn could pave the way for the development of druggable compounds that could prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. We examined parthenin's effect on male gamete activation and the ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the mosquito as well as on stage V gametocytes that are present in peripheral blood. Parthenin arrested parasite development for each of the stages tested. The broad inhibitory properties of parthenin on the evaluated parasite stages may suggest different mechanisms of action between parthenin and artemisinin. Parthenin's cytotoxicity notwithstanding, its demonstrated activity in this study suggests that structurally related SQLs with a better safety profile deserve further exploration. We used our battery of assays to test parthenolide, which has a more compelling safety profile. Parthenolide demonstrated activity nearly identical to that of parthenin againstP. falciparum, highlighting its potential as a possible transmission-blocking drug scaffold. We discuss the context of the evidence with respect to the next steps toward expanding the current antimalarial arsenal.

  5. Aryl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing in stem-nodulating photosynthetic bradyrhizobia.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Nathan A; Harwood, Caroline S; Schaefer, Amy L; Giraud, Eric; Greenberg, E Peter

    2011-04-26

    Many Proteobacteria possess LuxI-LuxR-type quorum-sensing systems that produce and detect fatty acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) signals. The photoheterotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris is unusual in that it produces and detects an aryl-HSL, p-coumaroyl-HSL, and signal production requires an exogenous source of p-coumarate. A photosynthetic stem-nodulating member of the genus Bradyrhizobium produces a small molecule signal that elicits an R. palustris quorum-sensing response. Here, we show that this signal is cinnamoyl-HSL and that cinnamoyl-HSL is produced by the LuxI homolog BraI and detected by BraR. Cinnamoyl-HSL reaches concentrations on the order of 50 nM in cultures of stem-nodulating bradyrhizobia grown in the presence or absence of cinnamate. Acyl-HSLs often reach concentrations of 0.1-30 μM in bacterial cultures, and generally, LuxR-type receptors respond to signals in a concentration range from 5 to a few hundred nanomolar. Our stem-nodulating Bradyrhizobium strain responds to picomolar concentrations of cinnamoyl-HSL and thus, produces cinnamoyl-HSL in excess of the levels required for a signal response without an exogenous source of cinnamate. The ability of Bradyrhizobium to produce and respond to cinnamoyl-HSL shows that aryl-HSL production is not unique to R. palustris, that the aromatic acid substrate for aryl-HSL synthesis does not have to be supplied exogenously, and that some acyl-HSL quorum-sensing systems may function at very low signal production and response levels.

  6. Aryl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing in stem-nodulating photosynthetic bradyrhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Schaefer, Amy L.; Giraud, Eric; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess LuxI-LuxR–type quorum-sensing systems that produce and detect fatty acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) signals. The photoheterotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris is unusual in that it produces and detects an aryl-HSL, p-coumaroyl-HSL, and signal production requires an exogenous source of p-coumarate. A photosynthetic stem-nodulating member of the genus Bradyrhizobium produces a small molecule signal that elicits an R. palustris quorum-sensing response. Here, we show that this signal is cinnamoyl-HSL and that cinnamoyl-HSL is produced by the LuxI homolog BraI and detected by BraR. Cinnamoyl-HSL reaches concentrations on the order of 50 nM in cultures of stem-nodulating bradyrhizobia grown in the presence or absence of cinnamate. Acyl-HSLs often reach concentrations of 0.1–30 μM in bacterial cultures, and generally, LuxR-type receptors respond to signals in a concentration range from 5 to a few hundred nanomolar. Our stem-nodulating Bradyrhizobium strain responds to picomolar concentrations of cinnamoyl-HSL and thus, produces cinnamoyl-HSL in excess of the levels required for a signal response without an exogenous source of cinnamate. The ability of Bradyrhizobium to produce and respond to cinnamoyl-HSL shows that aryl-HSL production is not unique to R. palustris, that the aromatic acid substrate for aryl-HSL synthesis does not have to be supplied exogenously, and that some acyl-HSL quorum-sensing systems may function at very low signal production and response levels. PMID:21471459

  7. Diverse profiles of N-acyl-homoserine lactone molecules found in cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Ransome, Emma; Munn, Colin B; Halliday, Nigel; Cámara, Miguel; Tait, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Many marine habitats, such as the surface and tissues of marine invertebrates, including corals, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms, which are thought to play a role in the health of their hosts and influence mutualistic and competitive interactions. Investigating the presence and stability of quorum sensing (QS) in these ecosystems may shed light on the roles and control of these bacterial communities. Samples of 13 cnidarian species were screened for the presence and diversity of N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs; a prevalent type of QS molecule) using thin-layer chromatography and an Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 biosensor. Ten of 13 were found to harbour species-specific, conserved AHL profiles. AHLs were confirmed in Anemonia viridis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To assess temporal role and stability, AHLs were investigated in A. viridis from intertidal pools over 16 h. Patterns of AHLs showed conserved profiles except for two mid-chain length AHLs, which increased significantly over the day, peaking at 20:00, but had no correlation with pool chemistry. Denaturing gel electrophoresis of RT-PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA showed the presence of an active bacterial community that changed in composition alongside AHL profiles and contained a number of bands that affiliate with known AHL-producing bacteria. Investigations into the quorum sensing-controlled, species-specific roles of these bacterial communities and how these regulatory circuits are influenced by the coral host and members of the bacterial community are imperative to expand our knowledge of these interactions with respect to the maintenance of coral health. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of food system conditions on N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones production by Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Medina-Martínez, M S; Uyttendaele, M; Demolder, V; Debevere, J

    2006-12-01

    Eleven of 13 Aeromonas strains were shown to produce AHLs. Results of TLC showed that N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) was the main AHL produced in LB medium at 30 degrees C. The influence of different carbon sources, temperature, pH values and salt concentrations on AHL production was determined in eight A. hydrophila and one A. caviae strain. Additionally a quantitative study of C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila strain 519 under different conditions was performed. Positive results were found in the AHL induction assay for some Aeromonas strains in cultures in LB agar incubated at 12 degrees C after 72-96 h. The induction of the sensor strains by Aeromonas spp. occurred in LB medium supplemented with all carbon sources in a concentration of 0.5%. The production of C4-HSL by A. hydrophila 519 was found until 3.5% (w/v) of NaCl. For pHs close to the neutrality the C4-HSL production by A. hydrophila was evident after 24-48 h of incubation. A. hydrophila 519 produced C4-HSL under anaerobic conditions. Also, the AHL production by Aeromonas strains was studied in simulate agar of shrimp, fish and some vegetables. The production of AHLs was evident by almost all the test strains in shrimp simulated agar. In fish agar only for one of three fish species tested, positive results were found. Induction assay in vegetables simulated agar showed principally negative results, probably because of the presence of inhibitory compounds in these vegetables.

  9. Macrocyclic lactones in the treatment and control of parasitism in small companion animals.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B

    2012-05-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have many anti-parasitic applications in small companion animal medicine. They were first developed as chemoprophylactics against heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection to be applied monthly for retroactive killing of third- and fourth-stage larvae. ML-containing products formulated for oral (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime), topical (selamectin, moxidectin) or injectable sustained release (moxidectin, ivermectin) are approved for heartworm prevention in dogs or cats. Clearance of microfilariae and gradual or "soft" killing of adult heartworms constitute increasingly prevalent extra-label uses of MLs against D. immitis. Some commercial ML formulations contain sufficient levels of active ingredient (milbemycin oxime, selamectin, moxidectin) to support additional label claims against gastrointestinal nematode parasites such as hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) and ascarid round worms (Toxocara spp. and Toxascaris leonina). Beyond these approved applications, safe, extra-label uses of MLs against nematodes parasitizing the urinary tract, such as Capillaria spp., and parasites of the tissues, such as Dipetalonema reconditum, Dirofilaria repens, Thelazia spp. and Spirocerca lupi, in dogs and cats as well as exotic pets have been reported. MLs as a group have intrinsic insecticidal and acaricidal activity, and topical or otic formulations of certain compounds (selamectin, moxidectin, milbemycin oxime or ivermectin) are approved for treatment and control of fleas, certain ixodid ticks, sarcoptiform and demodectic mange mites and psoroptiform ear mites. Extra-label applications of MLs against ectoparasites include notoedric mange mites, dermanyssids such as Ornythonussus bacoti, numerous species of fur mite (e.g. Cheyletiella spp. and Lynxacarus) and trombiculids ("chiggers") in cats, dogs and nontraditional or exotic pets.

  10. Development of an in vitro bioassay for measuring susceptibility to macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in Dirofilaria immitis☆

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher C.; Moorhead, Andrew R.; Storey, Bobby E.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Kaplan, Ray M.

    2013-01-01

    For more than 20 years, anthelmintics of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) drug class have been widely and effectively used as preventives against the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis. However, in recent years an increased number of lack of efficacy (LOE) cases are being reported, in which dogs develop mature heartworm infections despite receiving monthly prophylactic doses of ML drugs. While this situation is raising concerns that heartworms may be developing resistance to MLs, compelling evidence for this is still lacking. Resolution of this dilemma requires validated biological or molecular diagnostic assays, but, unfortunately, no such tests currently exist. To address this need, we developed and optimized a larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) for use with D. immitis third-stage larvae. The LMIA was used to measure the in vitro dose–response of two ML drugs (ivermectin and eprinomectin) on a known ML-susceptible laboratory strain of D. immitis. A nonlinear regression model was fit to the dose–response data, from which IC50 values were calculated; the mean IC50 and 95% confidence interval for IVM was 4.56 μM (1.26–16.4 μM), greater than that for EPR at 2.02 μM (1.68–2.42 μM), and this difference was significant (p = 0.0428). The R2 value for EPR assays (0.90) was also greater than that for IVM treatment (0.71). The consistency and reproducibility of the dose–response data obtained with this assay suggests that it may be a useful technique for investigating the relative susceptibilities to ML drugs in other D. immitis populations. PMID:24533299

  11. Trypanocidal Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius: Identification of Active Sesquiterpene Lactones by Bioassay-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, F. M.; Ulloa, J.; Cazorla, S. I.; Maravilla, G.; Malchiodi, E. L.; Grau, A.; Martino, V.; Catalán, C.; Muschietti, L. V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to find novel plant-derived biologically active compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, we isolated, from the organic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius, the sesquiterpene lactones enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2), and polymatin B (3) by bioassay-guided fractionation technique. These compounds showed a significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 0.84 μM (1), 1.09 μM (2), and 4.90 μM (3). After a 24 h treatment with 10 μg/mL of enhydrin or uvedalin, parasites were not able to recover their replication rate. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 33.4 μM and 25.0 μM against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, while polymatin B was not active. When the three compounds were tested against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi, they were able to inhibit the amastigote replication with IC50 of 5.17 μM, 3.34 μM, and 9.02 μM for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in Vero cells obtaining CC50 values of 46.5 μM (1), 46.8 μM (2), and 147.3 μM (3) and the selectivity index calculated. According to these results, enhydrin and uvedalin might have potentials as agents against Chagas disease and could serve as lead molecules to develop new drugs. PMID:23840260

  12. Bromoenol Lactone Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Liu, Shu; Arnold, Nova; Breakall, Bethany; Rollins, Joseph; Ndinguri, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2β mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined. We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2β dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2β plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis. The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2β dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis.

  13. LuxR homolog-independent gene regulation by acyl-homoserine lactones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chugani, Sudha; Greenberg, Everett Peter

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum control of gene expression involves three LuxR-type signal receptors LasR, RhlR, and QscR that respond to the LasI- and RhlI-generated acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signals 3OC12-HSL and C4-HSL. We found that a LasR-RhlR-QscR triple mutant responds to acyl-HSLs by regulating at least 37 genes. LuxR homolog-independent activation of the representative genes antA and catB also occurs in the wild type. Expression of antA was influenced the most by C10-HSL and to a lesser extent by other acyl-HSLs, including the P. aeruginosa 3OC12-HSL and C4-HSL signals. The ant and cat operons encode enzymes for the degradation of anthranilate to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Our results indicate that LuxR homolog-independent acyl-HSL control of the ant and cat operons occurs via regulation of antR, which codes for the transcriptional activator of the ant operon. Although P. aeruginosa has multiple pathways for anthranilate synthesis, one pathway—the kynurenine pathway for tryptophan degradation—is required for acyl-HSL activation of the ant operon. The kynurenine pathway is also the critical source of anthranilate for energy metabolism via the antABC gene products, as well as the source of anthranilate for synthesis of the P. aeruginosa quinolone signal. Our discovery of LuxR homolog-independent responses to acyl-HSLs provides insight into acyl-HSL signaling. PMID:20498077

  14. High-Sensitivity Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Homoserine Lactones Protect Mice from Lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections

    PubMed Central

    Downham, Christina; Broadbent, Ian; Charlton, Keith; Porter, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of bacteria, including pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, utilize homoserine lactones (HSLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signaling compounds and engage in cell-to-cell communication to coordinate their behavior. Blocking this bacterial communication may be an attractive strategy for infection control as QS takes a central role in P. aeruginosa biology. In this study, immunomodulation of HSL molecules by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used as a novel approach to prevent P. aeruginosa infections and as tools to detect HSLs in bodily fluids as a possible first clue to an undiagnosed Gram-negative infection. Using sheep immunization and recombinant antibody technology, a panel of sheep-mouse chimeric MAbs were generated which recognized HSL compounds with high sensitivity (nanomolar range) and cross-reactivity. These MAbs retained their nanomolar sensitivity in complex matrices and were able to recognize HSLs in P. aeruginosa cultures grown in the presence of urine. In a nematode slow-killing assay, HSL MAbs significantly increased the survival of worms fed on the antibiotic-resistant strain PA058. The therapeutic benefit of these MAbs was further studied using a mouse model of Pseudomonas infection in which groups of mice treated with HSL-2 and HSL-4 MAbs survived, 7 days after pathogen challenge, in significantly greater numbers (83 and 67%, respectively) compared with the control groups. This body of work has provided early proof-of-concept data to demonstrate the potential of HSL-specific, monoclonal antibodies as theranostic clinical leads suitable for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of life-threatening bacterial infections. PMID:24185854

  15. Isolation and structure determination of a sesquiterpene lactone (vernodalinol) from Vernonia amygdalina extracts

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuan; Jiang, Yan; Fronczek, Frank R.; Lin, Cuiwu; Izevbigie, Ernest B.; Lee, Ken S.

    2011-01-01

    Context Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA; Asteraceae or Compositae) is a small tree growing throughout tropical Africa. It is widely used for food and medicinal purposes by local people. It was reported that it had several qualities, including anticancer activity. Objective A sesquiterpene lactone, vernodalinol, was isolated from VA leaves. The first reported source of vernodalinol was in 2009 from a different plant, only 1H NMR spectrum and no detailed structural analysis was carried out. No whole spectroscopic data were provided. Materials and methods VA dried leaves were extracted with 85% ethanol followed by further separation into four fractions by liquid–liquid extraction technique using various solvents: hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol. Vernodalinol was separated from the n-butanol fraction by column chromatography. The biological activity of vernodalinol was evaluated in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7) in vitro. Results Results indicated that vernodalinol (25 and 50 μg/mL) inhibited breast cancerous cell growth (DNA synthesis) by 34% (P < 0.025) and 40% (P < 0.025), respectively. It is reasonable to expect an LC50 of 70–75 μg/mL for vernodalinol in MCF-7 cells. Discussion and conclusion Vernodalinol structure was confirmed using a battery of spectroscopic methods, 1D and 2D NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), UV, IR, and X-ray. These results suggest that vernodalinol, although it has some biological activity, is likely to work in concert with other ingredients responsible for the anticancer activity exhibited of VA. PMID:21281250

  16. The Nonartemisinin Sesquiterpene Lactones Parthenin and Parthenolide Block Plasmodium falciparum Sexual Stage Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Balaich, Jared N.; Mathias, Derrick K.; Torto, Baldwyn; Jackson, Bryan T.; Tao, Dingyin; Ebrahimi, Babak; Tarimo, Brian B.; Cheseto, Xavier; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2016-01-01

    Parthenin and parthenolide are natural products that are closely related in structure to artemisinin, which is also a sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) and one of the most important antimalarial drugs available. Parthenin, like artemisinin, has an effect on Plasmodium blood stage development. We extended the evaluation of parthenin as a potential therapeutic for the transmissible stages of Plasmodium falciparum as it transitions between human and mosquito, with the aim of gaining potential mechanistic insight into the inhibitory activity of this compound. We posited that if parthenin targets different biological pathways in the parasite, this in turn could pave the way for the development of druggable compounds that could prevent the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. We examined parthenin's effect on male gamete activation and the ookinete-to-oocyst transition in the mosquito as well as on stage V gametocytes that are present in peripheral blood. Parthenin arrested parasite development for each of the stages tested. The broad inhibitory properties of parthenin on the evaluated parasite stages may suggest different mechanisms of action between parthenin and artemisinin. Parthenin's cytotoxicity notwithstanding, its demonstrated activity in this study suggests that structurally related SQLs with a better safety profile deserve further exploration. We used our battery of assays to test parthenolide, which has a more compelling safety profile. Parthenolide demonstrated activity nearly identical to that of parthenin against P. falciparum, highlighting its potential as a possible transmission-blocking drug scaffold. We discuss the context of the evidence with respect to the next steps toward expanding the current antimalarial arsenal. PMID:26787692

  17. Pretreatment with intravenous levetiracetam in the rhesus monkey Coriaria lactone-induced status epilepticus model.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lan; Lei, Song; Chen, Si-Han; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Tian-Hua; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Li, Hong-Xia; Zhou, Dong; Li, Jin-Mei

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the antiepileptic and protective effects of intravenous levetiracetam (iv LEV) in the rhesus monkey model of acute status epilepticus (SE). Thirty minutes before intraperitoneal induction of SE by Coriaria lactone (CL), rhesus monkeys were treated with LEV (15 or 150 mg/kg) delivered intravenously as a single bolus. CL dose and epileptic behavior were recorded. Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed before and during the experiment. All rhesus monkeys were killed after 1-month video monitoring and processed for pathological investigation of neuronal injury, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining. No animal exhibited spontaneous seizures during 1-month video monitoring. Development of acute SE was significantly inhibited in the group given 150 mg/kg LEV, compared with controls and the 15 mg/kg LEV group. Delayed latency, reduction of SE duration, decreased cumulative time of tonic convulsions, slight severity of SE, and a high CL induction dose were observed in the high LEV dose group (p<0.05). The EEG showed less frequent epileptic discharges in the group administered with 150 mg/kg LEV. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, ultrastructural examination, TUNEL and GFAP staining revealed serious damage, including neuron loss, swollen mitochondrion, and strong positivity for TUNEL in the hippocampus and thalamus of controls, whereas moderate damage in the group administered with 15 mg/kg LEV, and very mild damage in the 150 mg/kg LEV group. Gliosis was found in the hippocampus of controls, not in the LEV groups and normal rhesus monkey. The study supports the antiepileptic and protective effect of pretreatment with intravenous LEV in rhesus monkey model with SE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fenugreek lactone attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Hui; Jiang, Shu-Jun; Wang, Ding-Kun; Fang, Ke; Yang, De-Sen; Zou, Xin; Xu, Li-Jun; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the effect of fenugreek lactone (FL) on palmitate (PA)-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in insulin secretion in pancreatic NIT-1 β-cells. Cells were cultured in the presence or absence of FL and PA (0.25 mmol/L) for 48 h. Then, lipid droplets in NIT-1 cells were observed by oil red O staining, and the intracellular triglyceride content was measured by colorimetric assay. The insulin content in the supernatant was determined using an insulin radio-immunoassay. Oxidative stress-associated parameters, including total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the suspensions were also examined. The expression of upstream regulators of oxidative stress, such as protein kinase C-α (PKC-α), phospho-PKC-α and P47phox, were determined by Western blot analysis and real-time PCR. In addition, apoptosis was evaluated in NIT-1 cells by flow cytometry assays and caspase-3 viability assays. Our results indicated that compared to the control group, PA induced an increase in lipid accumulation and apoptosis and a decrease in insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. Oxidative stress in NIT-1 cells was activated after 48 h of exposure to PA. However, FL reversed the above changes. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of PKC-α, phospho-PKC-α and P47phox expression and the activation of caspase-3. FL attenuates PA-induced apoptosis and insulin secretion dysfunction in NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells. The mechanism for this action may be associated with improvements in levels of oxidative stress.

  19. Antineoplastic effects of deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farha A; Sreedevi, Geetha B; Nair, Mangalam S; Rajalekshmi, Dhanya S; Gopalakrishnan, Latha P; Kunjuraman, Sujathan; Prathapan, Remani

    2013-07-01

    Deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, showed inhibition of the growth of various tumor cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing capacity of deoxyelephantopin on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. The cytotoxic effect of deoxyelephantopin on A549 cells and normal lymphocytes was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined. The self-renewal and proliferating potential of A549 cells after treatment with deoxyelephantopin were examined by colony formation assay. Cellular morphology of deoxyelephantopin-treated cells was observed using phase-contrast microscopy. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining by flow cytometry. Activation of caspases was detected using fluorogenic substrate specific to caspases 2, 3, 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analysis. The total cellular DNA content and expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was also analyzed. Deoxyelephantopin exhibited cytotoxicity to A549 cells (IC50 = 12.287 μg/mL), however, there was no toxicity towards normal human lymphocytes. Deoxyelephantopin suppressed the colony-forming ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33342 staining showed cell shrinkage, chromosomal condensation and nuclear fragmentation, indicating induction of apoptosis. Deoxyelephantopin increased apoptosis of A549 cells, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive cells. DNA fragmentation and Annexin V staining revealed late-stage apoptotic cell population. Deoxyelephantopin inhibited A549 cell growth by cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis through

  20. Weak and Saturable Protein–Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kell K.; Vad, Brian S.; Roelants, Sophie; van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However, knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here, we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-aLA) and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL) produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL) is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) than the acidic form [non-acetylated acidic sophorolipid (acidSL)]. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL), with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0–1 mM SL), it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and non-ionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of diacetylated lactonic sophorolipid (lactSL) as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27877155

  1. Assessment of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Mikania plants species for their potential efficacy against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania sp.

    PubMed

    Laurella, Laura C; Cerny, Natacha; Bivona, Augusto E; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Giberti, Gustavo; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Martino, Virginia S; Catalan, Cesar A; Alonso, María Rosario; Cazorla, Silvia I; Sülsen, Valeria P

    2017-09-01

    Four sesquiterpene lactones, mikanolide, deoxymikanolide, dihydromikanolide and scandenolide, were isolated by a bioassay-guided fractionation of Mikania variifolia and Mikania micrantha dichloromethane extracts. Mikanolide and deoxymikanolide were the major compounds in both extracts (2.2% and 0.4% for Mikania variifolia and 21.0% and 6.4% for Mikania micrantha respectively, calculated on extract dry weight). Mikanolide, deoxymikanolide and dihydromikanolide were active against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes (50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7, 0.08 and 2.5 μg/mL, for each compound respectively). These sesquiterpene lactones were also active against the bloodstream trypomastigotes (50% inhibitory concentrations for each compound were 2.1, 1.5 and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively) and against amastigotes (50% inhibitory concentrations for each compound were 4.5, 6.3 and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively). By contrast, scandenolide was not active on Trypanosoma cruzi. Besides, mikanolide and deoxymikanolide were also active on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentrations of 5.1 and 11.5 μg/mL, respectively). The four sesquiterpene lactones were tested for their cytotoxicity on THP 1 cells. Deoxymikanolide presented the highest selectivity index for trypomastigotes (SI = 54) and amastigotes (SI = 12.5). In an in vivo model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, deoxymikanolide was able to decrease the parasitemia and the weight loss associated to the acute phase of the parasite infection. More importantly, while 100% of control mice died by day 22 after receiving a lethal T. cruzi infection, 70% of deoxymikanolide-treated mice survived. We also observed that this compound increased TNF-α and IL-12 production by macrophages, which could contribute to control T. cruzi infection.

  2. Odor detection thresholds and enantiomeric distributions of several 4-alkyl substituted gamma-lactones in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Cooke Née Brown, Rachel C; van Leeuwen, Katryna A; Capone, Dimitra L; Gawel, Richard; Elsey, Gordon M; Sefton, Mark A

    2009-03-25

    The individual enantiomers of gamma-octalactone (1), gamma-nonalactone (2), gamma-decalactone (3) and gamma-dodecalactone (4) have been synthesized. The (R) series of enantiomers was prepared from L-glutamic acid by a strategy involving deamination and reduction to (S)-5-oxo-2-tetrahydrofurancarboxaldehyde (S)-7. The different length side chains were introduced by a series of Wittig reactions, varying in the choice of phosphorane used. Hydrogenation then gave the final gamma-lactones 1-4. The (S) series of enantiomers was prepared in an analogous fashion beginning with d-glutamic acid. Aroma detection thresholds for all eight enantiomers were determined in a "bag in a box" dry red wine by the application of ASTM method E 679, employing a panel of 25 members. The lowest threshold determined was 8 microg/L for (R)-dodecalactone (4) while the highest threshold was 285 microg/L for (R)-nonalactone (2). With the exception of gamma-decalactone (3) there were statistically significant differences (at the 5% level) in aroma detection thresholds between the two enantiomers of the same lactone. A stable isotope method developed for quantification of the lactones 1-4 has been extended for use with chiral phase GC (Rt-betaDEXcst capillary column) allowing quantification of the individual enantiomers. The enantiomeric distribution of gamma-octalactone (1) and gamma-nonalactone (2) in seven botrytized wines and of 2 in a total of 34 red wines were thus determined; with few exceptions, the (R) enantiomer of gamma-nonalactone (2) was found to be more prevalent than its (S) counterpart in the dry red and botrytized white wines analyzed. The same was true for gamma-octalactone (1) in the botrytized white wines.

  3. Synthesis, molecular structure and optical spectral studies of syn-dithia benzothiazolophane and anti-bis-lactone benzothiazolophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashraqui, Sabir H.; Kumar, Sukeerthi; Huu Dâu, Elise Trân

    2004-07-01

    Synthesis of syn-dithia-benzothiazolophane 1 and anti-bis-lactone benzothiazolophane 2 has been carried out by well established protocols as outlined in Schemes 1 and 2, respectively. The 1H NMR spectra of heterophanes 1 and 2 were found to be temperature independent in the range of -55 to +120 °C which indicates conformationally mobile nature of these molecules. In comparison to plain CHCl 3, the UV-visible spectra of 1 and 2 measured in CHCl 3 containing trifluoroacetic acid (TFAA) exhibited bathochromic shifts by 25 and 19 nm, respectively. The red shifts are attributed to the increased charge transfer interaction arising from the donor phenyl ring to the acceptor benzothiazolium ring. The emission spectra of thia-bridged 1, both in the neutral as well as the protonated forms are accompanied by large Stokes shifts (Δ ν=127-156 nm) with the emissions most likely originating from the locally excited states. The bis-lactone 2 in neutral CHCl 3 solvent also exhibited a single locally excited emission, but with a relatively lower Stokes shift (Δ ν=69 nm). Interestingly, unlike 1, bis-lactone 2 in the protonated form displayed both local as well as what appears to be an intramolecular charge transfer emission. The emission behavior of 1 and 2 has been tentatively rationalized on the basis of HOMO-LUMO interaction. Molecular modelling of 1 and 2 generated five reasonable conformations within 5 kcal/mol depending upon the orientation of the benzothiazole rings and the heteroatoms in the connecting bridges. The transannular distances in 1 and 2 were found to be ca. 2.8 and 3.6 Å, respectively. While the rings in 2 are nearly planar, however, in the case of 1 the stacks are slightly curved signifying molecular strain in the letter system. Based on dynamic 1H NMR spectral analysis and molecular modelling, we propose that these molecules exist as a rapidly equilibrating mixtures of conformers.

  4. Molecular identification of tuliposide B-converting enzyme: a lactone-forming carboxylesterase from the pollen of tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Murase, Tatsunori; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    6-Tuliposides A (PosA) and B (PosB), which are the major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), are enzymatically converted to the antimicrobial lactonized aglycons, tulipalins A (PaA) and B (PaB), respectively. We recently identified a PosA-converting enzyme (TCEA) as the first reported member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases. Herein, we describe the identification of another lactone-forming carboxylesterase, PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB), which preferentially reacts with PosB to give PaB. This enzyme was isolated from tulip pollen, which showed high PosB-converting activity. Purified TCEB exhibited greater activity towards PosB than PosA, which was contrary to that of the TCEA. Novel cDNA (TgTCEB1) encoding the TCEB was isolated from tulip pollen. TgTCEB1 belonged to the carboxylesterase family and was approximately 50% identical to the TgTCEA polypeptides. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEB1 catalyzed the conversion of PosB to PaB with an activity comparable with the native TCEB. RT-qPCR analysis of each part of plant revealed that TgTCEB1 transcripts were limited almost exclusively to the pollen. Furthermore, the immunostaining of the anther cross-section using anti-TgTCEB1 polyclonal antibody verified that TgTCEB1 was specifically expressed in the pollen grains, but not in the anther cells. N-terminal transit peptide of TgTCEB1 was shown to function as plastid-targeted signal. Taken together, these results indicate that mature TgTCEB1 is specifically localized in plastids of pollen grains. Interestingly, PosB, the substrate of TgTCEB1, accumulated on the pollen surface, but not in the intracellular spaces of pollen grains. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Weak and Saturable Protein-Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kell K; Vad, Brian S; Roelants, Sophie; van Bogaert, Inge N A; Otzen, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However, knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here, we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-aLA) and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL) produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL) is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) than the acidic form [non-acetylated acidic sophorolipid (acidSL)]. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL), with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL), it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and non-ionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of diacetylated lactonic sophorolipid (lactSL) as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent and pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Structural Basis of the γ-Lactone-Ring Formation in Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis by the Senescence Marker Protein-30/Gluconolactonase

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Shingo; Senda, Miki; Harada, Ayaka; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishida, Tetsuo; Aigaki, Toshiro; Ishigami, Akihito; Senda, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), which is also called regucalcin, exhibits gluconolactonase (GNL) activity. Biochemical and biological analyses revealed that SMP30/GNL catalyzes formation of the γ-lactone-ring of l-gulonate in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis pathway. The molecular basis of the γ-lactone formation, however, remains elusive due to the lack of structural information on SMP30/GNL in complex with its substrate. Here, we report the crystal structures of mouse SMP30/GNL and its complex with xylitol, a substrate analogue, and those with 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol and d-glucose, product analogues. Comparison of the crystal structure of mouse SMP30/GNL with other related enzymes has revealed unique characteristics of mouse SMP30/GNL. First, the substrate-binding pocket of mouse SMP30/GNL is designed to specifically recognize monosaccharide molecules. The divalent metal ion in the active site and polar residues lining the substrate-binding cavity interact with hydroxyl groups of substrate/product analogues. Second, in mouse SMP30/GNL, a lid loop covering the substrate-binding cavity seems to hamper the binding of l-gulonate in an extended (or all-trans) conformation; l-gulonate seems to bind to the active site in a folded conformation. In contrast, the substrate-binding cavities of the other related enzymes are open to the solvent and do not have a cover. This structural feature of mouse SMP30/GNL seems to facilitate the γ-lactone-ring formation. PMID:23349732

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted β-lactones through oxidative carbene catalysis with LiCl as cooperative Lewis acid.

    PubMed

    Bera, Srikrishna; Samanta, Ramesh C; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Studer, Armido

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of enals with β-diketones, β-ketoesters, and malonates bearing a β-oxyalkyl substituent at the α-position by oxidative NHC catalysis to provide highly substituted β-lactones is described. Reactions occur with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The organo cascade comprises two CC bond formations and one CO bond formation. Up to four contiguous stereogenic centers including two fully substituted stereocenters are formed in the cascade. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Terpenylic and Related Lactone-Containing Acids: Novel Monoterpene Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers with Dimer-Forming Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, M.; Iinuma, Y.; Szmigielski, R.; Farhat, Y.; Surratt, J. D.; Blockhuys, F.; van Alsenoy, C.; Böge, O.; Sierau, B.; Gómez-González, Y.; Vermeylen, R.; van der Veken, P.; Shahgholi, M.; Chan, A. W.; Herrmann, H.; Seinfeld, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    2009-12-01

    Blue haze is a natural phenomenon that is observed in forested regions worldwide and is due to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. While evidence exists for organic molecular clusters in the size range of < 2 nm, the chemical structures of the nucleating particles have remained unresolved. In the present study, novel SOA products from the monoterpene α-pinene with unique dimer-forming properties have been identified as lactone-containing terpenoic acids, i.e., terpenylic (molecular weight (MW) 172), terebic (MW 158) and 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid (MW 188), and diaterpenylic acid acetate (MW 232). The structural characterizations were based on synthesis of reference compounds and detailed interpretation of negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectral [(-)ESI-MS] data, including accurate mass and MSn ion trap measurements. Terpenylic acid and diaterpenylic acid acetate are early oxidation products formed upon both photooxidation and ozonolysis, and are abundant SOA tracers in ambient fine aerosol from coniferous forest sites (e.g., K-puszta, Hungary). Terebic and 2-hydroxyterpenylic acid can be explained by further oxidation of terpenylic acid, and are also prominent tracers in ambient fine aerosol. Quantum chemical calculations support that non-covalent dimer formation involving double hydrogen bonding interactions between carboxyl groups of the monomers is energetically favorable. Lactone-containing terpenoic acids also form through photooxidation from monoterpenes other than α-pinene, i.e., terebic acid from Δ3-carene, and terpenylic, homoterpenylic (MW 186), and terebic acid from β-pinene. A distinct feature of terpenylic acid and related lactone-containing acids is that they can be selectively detected in positive ion (+)ESI-MS, unlike isobaric dicarboxylic terpenoic acids such as norpinic (MW 172) and pinic acid (MW 186). Interestingly, terpenylic, terebic and homoterpenylic acid were already reported in the early German

  9. Evidence for the possible existence of a remnant L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) gene in a teleost genome.

    PubMed

    Ocalewicz, Konrad; Dabrowski, Konrad; Mambrini, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    DNA fragments related to the cloudy catshark Scyliorhinus torazame L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) cDNA were detected in a distant fish species. Although the Southern hybridization pattern was more distinct in species with active GULO, DNA fragments related to the GULO gene were also discovered in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Additionally, in the common carp, inter-individual variation of the hybridization pattern was observed. Regular screening of available teleost fish gene libraries did not reveal GULO related DNA sequences.

  10. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Man; Zhu, Yao-Lei; Wang, Jia-Ying; Jiang, Feng; Qu, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Gong-Liang; Hao, Hong-Shun

    2017-04-05

    This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS) activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL), and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h) and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL) to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05) by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05) by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM) and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4.

  11. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  12. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-09-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning.

  13. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-09-28

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning.

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-sulfonyl homoserine lactone derivatives as inhibitors of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingming; Yu, Yingying; Hua, Yuhui; Feng, Fan; Tong, Yigang; Yang, Xiaohong; Xiao, Junhai; Song, Hongrui

    2013-03-13

    A novel series of N-sulfonyl homoserine lactone derivatives 5a-l has been designed, synthesized and evaluated for quorum sensing inhibitory activities towards violacein production. Of the compounds synthesized, compound 5h was found to possess an excellent level of enantiopurity (99.2% e.e.). The results indicated that compounds bearing an ortho substituent on their phenyl ring exhibited excellent levels of inhibitory activity against violacein production. Compounds 5h and 5k in particular, with IC₅₀ values of 1.64 and 1.66 µM, respectively, were identified as promising lead compounds for further structural modification.

  15. (1)H, (13)C NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of highly polyhalogenated derivatives of costunolide lactone.

    PubMed

    Corona, D; Díaz, E; Nava, J L; Guzmán, A; Barrios, H; Fuentes, A; Hernandez-Plata, S A; Allard, J; Jankowski, C K

    2005-11-01

    The costunolide lactone, a sesquiterpene compound isolated from Zaluzania triiloba species, reacted with several dihalocarbene sources produced by trihaloform-NaOH under successive phase transfer reactions yielding mono-, bis- and tris-dihalocyclopropane adducts. The structures, as well as the configurational assignments of the different derivatives, were established by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and assisted by X-ray crystallographic and molecular modelling studies. The specific shielding of protons in the neighbourhood of different halogens on the cyclopropane moieties was correlated to the pseudocontact interactions.

  16. Vlasouliolides A-D, four rare C17/C15 sesquiterpene lactone dimers with potential anti-inflammatory activity from Vladimiria souliei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Ping; Wu, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ye, Ji; Liu, Qing-Xin; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-03-01

    Vlasouliolides A-D (1–4), four rare sesquiterpene lactone dimers, were isolated from Vladimiria souliei. The common structural characteristic of 1–4 is the C32 skeleton comprising two sesquiterpene lactone units linked by a C11-C13‧ single bond with one acetyl connected to the C-13 position of one of the two sesquiterpene lactone units. The stereochemistries of 1–4 were assigned by a combination of NOESY correlations and Cu-Κα X-ray crystallographic analyses. Compounds 1–4 strongly inhibited the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, 1 and 2 inhibited the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced 293T cells.

  17. Vlasouliolides A-D, four rare C17/C15 sesquiterpene lactone dimers with potential anti-inflammatory activity from Vladimiria souliei

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Ping; Wu, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ye, Ji; Liu, Qing-Xin; Shen, Yun-Heng; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Vlasouliolides A-D (1–4), four rare sesquiterpene lactone dimers, were isolated from Vladimiria souliei. The common structural characteristic of 1–4 is the C32 skeleton comprising two sesquiterpene lactone units linked by a C11-C13′ single bond with one acetyl connected to the C-13 position of one of the two sesquiterpene lactone units. The stereochemistries of 1–4 were assigned by a combination of NOESY correlations and Cu-Κα X-ray crystallographic analyses. Compounds 1–4 strongly inhibited the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, 1 and 2 inhibited the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced 293T cells. PMID:28256560

  18. Crystal structure of 5-O-benzoyl-2,3-O-iso­propyl­idene-d-ribono-1,4-lactone

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Silveira, Gustavo P.; Sá, Marcus M.

    2017-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H16O6, obtained from the acyl­ation reaction between 2,3-O-iso­propyl­idene-d-ribono-1,4-lactone and benzoyl chloride, the known absolute configuration for the lactone moiety of the ester substituent has been confirmed. The five-membered rings of the bicyclic lactone–dioxolane moiety both show envelope conformations and form a dihedral angle of 19.82 (7)° between the lactone ring and the benzene ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules of the acyl­ated sugar are linked by very weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:28316820

  19. Diverse Profiles of N-acyl Homoserine L-Lactones, Biofilm, Virulence Genes and Integrons in Food-Borne Aeromonas Isolates.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Vandan; Sinha, Vibha; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas are regarded as opportunistic as well as primary pathogens of humans and fish, and are associated with gastroenteritis and septicemia in humans. Production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules and biofilm was determined in 22 Aeromonas isolates, from different food products in India, using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis and microtiter-plate assay, respectively. Overall, highly heterogeneous patterns of AHL production were observed, with the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) by the majority (81.8%) of Aeromonas food isolates. Moreover, putative N-pentanoyl homoserine lactone (C5-HSL), N-heptanoyl homoserine lactone (C7-HSL), and N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) were produced by 72.7%, 27.3%, and 9.1% of isolates, respectively. This is the 1st report of production of C7-HSL by Aeromonas species. Aeromonas food isolates were highly variable in their biofilm forming abilities with majority of them as weak biofilm producers in 2 different media, TSB and M9 minimal medium supplemented with 0.4% glucose. The genes encoding for putative virulence factors, glycerophospholipid cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), serine protease (ser), polar flagella (fla), and lateral flagella (lafA) were present in 95.5%, 59.1%, 22.7%, 81.8%, 77.3%, and 22.7% of the strains, respectively. Class 1 integrons (100 to 3000 bp) were found in 68.2% of food isolates; whereas, 50% isolates contained class 2 integrons (150 to 1600 bp). This study provides a baseline data on the diversity of AHLs, biofilm forming ability and presence of virulence genes and integrons in Aeromonas food isolates from India.

  20. Functional annotation and structural characterization of a novel lactonase hydrolyzing D-xylono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate and L-arabino-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Korczynska, Magdalena; Xiang, Dao Feng; Zhang, Zhening; Xu, Chengfu; Narindoshvili, Tamari; Kamat, Siddhesh S; Williams, Howard J; Chang, Shawn S; Kolb, Peter; Hillerich, Brandan; Sauder, J Michael; Burley, Stephen K; Almo, Steven C; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Shoichet, Brian K; Raushel, Frank M

    2014-07-22

    A novel lactonase from Mycoplasma synoviae 53 (MS53_0025) and Mycoplasma agalactiae PG2 (MAG_6390) was characterized by protein structure determination, molecular docking, gene context analysis, and library screening. The crystal structure of MS53_0025 was determined to a resolution of 2.06 Å. This protein adopts a typical amidohydrolase (β/α)8-fold and contains a binuclear zinc center located at the C-terminal end of the β-barrel. A phosphate molecule was bound in the active site and hydrogen bonds to Lys217, Lys244, Tyr245, Arg275, and Tyr278. Both docking and gene context analysis were used to narrow the theoretical substrate profile of the enzyme, thus directing empirical screening to identify that MS53_0025 and MAG_6390 catalyze the hydrolysis of d-xylono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate (2) with kcat/Km values of 4.7 × 10(4) and 5.7 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and l-arabino-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate (7) with kcat/Km values of 1.3 × 10(4) and 2.2 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The identification of the substrate profile of these two phospho-furanose lactonases emerged only when all methods were integrated and therefore provides a blueprint for future substrate identification of highly related amidohydrolase superfamily members.