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Sample records for diagnosed essential hypertension

  1. Reduced parasympathetic tone in newly diagnosed essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Goit, Rajesh Kumar; Ansari, Abdul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) of newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects with controls. Methods The study was conducted on 120 hypertensive subjects and 120 controls. Results The time-domain measures, standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), and percentage of consecutive RR intervals that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) which reflect parasympathetic activity were significantly less in hypertensive subjects. In frequency-domain measures, high frequency [HF (ms2)] and [HF (nu)], which reflects parasympathetic activity, was significantly less in hypertensive subjects while LF (nu) and LF/HF (%), which reflect sympathetic activity, were comparable between the groups. Conclusion These findings suggest that HRV is reduced in subjects with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the parasympathetic dysregulation is present in the early stage of essential hypertension. PMID:27133323

  2. Untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a population of a hypertensive center

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Spyros; Chouzouri, Vasiliki I; Manios, Efstathios D; Grapsa, Eirini; Antoniou, Zoi; Papadimitriou, Christos A; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Athanasios-Meletios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have demonstrated that hypertension (HTN) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in treated hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between newly diagnosed essential HTN and NAFLD in untreated hypertensive patients. Patients and methods A consecutive series of 240 subjects (143 hypertensives and 97 normotensives), aged 30–80 years, without diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Subjects with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP values ≥80 mmHg were defined as hypertensives. NAFLD was defined as the presence of liver hyperechogenicity on ultrasound. Results Body mass index (P=0.002) and essential HTN (P=0.016) were independently associated with NAFLD in the multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that morning SBP (P=0.044) was independently associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Untreated, newly diagnosed essential HTN is independently associated with NAFLD. Ambulatory BP monitoring could be used for the diagnosis of essential HTN in patients with NAFLD. PMID:26834493

  3. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) based on your medical and family histories, a ... exam, and the results from tests and procedures. PH can develop slowly. In fact, you may have ...

  4. The incremental effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on right and left ventricular myocardial performance in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Hua, Qi; Li, Jing; Wang, Cai-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may predispose patients to congestive heart failure, suggesting a deleterious effect of OSAS on myocardial contractility. We investigated whether essential hypertensive individuals with OSAS are characterized by decreased right and left ventricular myocardial performance. Our study population consisted of 45 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed untreated stage I-II essential hypertension suffering from OSAS (35 men, aged 49+/-8 years) and 48 hypertensives without OSAS, matched for age, sex, level of blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and smoking status. All subjects underwent polysomnography and echocardiography. Right and left ventricular functions were evaluated using the myocardial performance index (MPI). Right and left ventricular functions were altered in hypertensives with OSAS. The mean right MPI was 0.26+/-0.11 in hypertensives without OSAS and 0.51+/-0.16 in hypertensives with OSAS (P<0.01). The mean left MPI values were 0.29+/-0.07 and 0.44+/-0.13, respectively (P<0.01). Right and left MPI correlated positively and significantly with apnea-hypopnea index (rho=0.40, P=0.002).OSAS is associated with impaired right and left ventricular function. These phenomena were independent of hypertension.

  5. Essential hypertension vs. secondary hypertension among children.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E; Barratt, Michelle S; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Milewicz, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents") from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3-17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08-19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P < 0.0001), and lower prevalence of preterm birth (20% vs. 46%; P < 0.001). There was a bimodal distribution of age of diagnosis in those with secondary hypertension. The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Essential Hypertension vs. Secondary Hypertension Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E.; Barratt, Michelle S.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Milewicz, Diane M.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. METHODS We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. RESULTS We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the “Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents”) from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3–17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08–19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P < 0.0001), and lower prevalence of preterm birth (20% vs. 46%; P < 0.001). There was a bimodal distribution of age of diagnosis in those with secondary hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. PMID:24842390

  7. [Does essential hypertension exist in childhood?].

    PubMed

    Stickler, G B

    1983-12-01

    Essential hypertension in children is difficult to define and is probably very rare. Of 44 children and adolescents diagnosed between 1966 and 1980 to have essential hypertension, we found that only 8 patients continued to be hypertensive, 3 patients turned out to have secondary hypertension and only 5 patients continued to have elevated blood pressures. The incidence of obesity was high in our patients initially diagnosed to have hypertension, but had normalized their weight at the time of reevaluation. The patients with sustained hypertension had initial diastolic blood pressures over 90 mm of mercury at an age of under 12 years and over 100 mm of mercury when older than 12 years of age.

  8. WNK kinases and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chou-Long; Kuo, Elizabeth; Toto, Robert D

    2008-03-01

    The present review summarizes recent literature and discusses the potential roles of WNKs in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a recently discovered family of serine-threonine protein kinases with unusual protein kinase domains. The role of WNK kinases in the control of blood pressure was first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause Gordon's syndrome. Laboratory studies have revealed that WNK kinases play important roles in the regulation of sodium and potassium transport. Animal models have been created to unravel the pathophysiology of sodium transport disorders caused by mutations of the WNK4 gene. Potassium deficiency causes sodium retention and increases hypertension prevalence. The expression of WNK1 is upregulated by potassium deficiency, raising the possibility that WNK1 may contribute to salt-sensitive essential hypertension associated with potassium deficiency. Associations of polymorphisms of WNK genes with essential hypertension in the general population have been reported. Mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 cause hypertension at least partly by increasing renal sodium retention. The role of WNK kinases in salt-sensitive hypertension within general hypertension is suggested, but future work is required to firmly establish the connection.

  9. Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wise, Ingrid A; Charchar, Fadi J

    2016-03-25

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world's leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual's risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development.

  10. Peripheral vasculature in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mulvany, M J

    1996-08-01

    1. Haemodynamic evidence shows that in essential hypertension minimum vascular resistance and vascular pressor response are increased and that the vascular reserve is decreased. 2. The haemodynamic changes are most easily explained in terms of a generalized narrowing of the vasculature and an increase in the ratio between the thickness of the tunica media and the lumen diameter (media: lumen ratio), with no change in the functional properties of the smooth muscle itself. 3. Histological and in vitro studies of resistance vessels confirm these predictions. Moreover, the evidence indicates that these changes are associated mainly with remodelling (rearrangement of the same amount of material) of the vessels, rather than growth. 4. Although the alteration in small artery structure is usually appropriate to the actual blood pressure, the structure appears not only to be a secondary adaptation, but is also dependent on other factors, including neurohumoral factors. 5. The available evidence shows that normalization of the resistance vessel structure (by increasing lumen diameter and decreasing the media:lumen ratio) should be achieved not by inhibition of growth but by (reverse) remodelling. Recent evidence from clinical investigations shows that this can be achieved in essential hypertensive patients treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril. 6. The role of the resistance vasculature as a primary determinant of blood pressure remains unclear. It is suggested that the requirement for normalization of resistance vascular structure is due to a need to increase the vascular reserve.

  11. Inflammation in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Pende, Aldo; Quercioli, Alessandra; Mach, François

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the huge amount of research recently performed in this area, the pathogenesis of human hypertension remains elusive. Thus, hypertension has to be defined as "essential" for the majority of patients with high blood pressure. Given the lack of animal models useful to investigate essential hypertension, we analyze and discuss both clinical and basic research studies indicating that essential hypertension should be considered as a potential multifactorial inflammatory disease. The pathophysiology of essential hypertension might result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Morphological abnormalities in the renal parenchyma and arteries have also been shown to determine hypertension. Inflammatory processes might induce renal vasoconstriction, ischemia and injury that can sustain systemic hypertension. Arterial and tubulointerstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells in response to renal damage might further increase renal and vascular alterations through the production of oxidants and other soluble inflammatory mediators. The present review gives an update regarding the latest research on the possible direct role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension.

  12. [Mitochondrial genetics and human essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Guan, Min-xin

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exhibits matrilineal inherence. Familial mitochondrial diseases caused by mtDNA mutations are generally involved in organs featuring high energy consumption, which include heart, brain and skeletal muscle. Recently, it has been found that some essential hypertension patients featured classical maternal inheritance, which has confirmed and enriched mtDNA mutations as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying maternally inherited hypertension. Nevertheless, more general as well as radical questions are still to be answered. This article reviews recent advance in mitochondrial genome evolution, mtDNA genetics and the role of mtDNA mutations in maternally inherited hypertension.

  13. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Chahoud, Jad; Mrad, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Asmar, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with arterial hypertension, and indirectly, the crucial impact of adopting screening for diabetes as a standard procedure for all patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension. This cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of hypertensive patients recruited from three different university hospitals in Lebanon. Blood pressure and glycemic blood measurements were determined in all subjects. In addition, a complete clinical history and physical exam were performed. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Frequencies for the different variables were calculated, and the chi-square and independent sample t-tests were conducted. This study included 294 patients. Prevalence of diabetes was 27%, and 23% of diabetic patients were newly diagnosed. More than half of the subjects suffering from DM had uncontrolled blood pressure, contrasted with only one third of the non-diabetic subjects with uncontrolled hypertension. The prevalence of DM in patients with essential hypertension was more than double that of the general population. Therefore, major recommendations would be to adopt strictly the diabetes screening requirements and aggressive management among hypertensive patients to minimize both the health and cost burdens associated with undetected DM.

  14. Fish oil, essential fatty acids, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, R M

    1994-08-01

    A proper balance between the n-3 and n-6 series of essential fatty acids (EFAs) is essential for homeostasis and normal growth in humans. Dietary supplement with fish oil and related n-3 EFAs has been used to study their antihypertensive property in animals and humans with borderline and essential hypertension. In the animal models, chronic treatment of young animals generally only attenuated the development of hypertension. In animals with hypercholesterolemia, n-3 EFA supplement increased the incidence of atherosclerosis. In humans, chronic treatment with fish oil only produced a small reduction in blood pressure. The concerns are that the high dose of fish oil may interfere with the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients, and may cause prolonged bleeding in surgical patients. Studies on the animal models of hypertension showed that n-6 EFAs are more effective than n-3 EFAs in lowering and normalizing the blood pressure of these animals, probably through the production of tissue prostaglandins, which favour vasodilation. The antihypertensive effect of the n-6 EFAs in humans is not well known, because there are only a few studies, usually involving a very small number of patients. A possible side effects of n-6 EFAs for concern is that they might stimulate tumour development. A careful examination of these risk factors is needed before any recommendation can be made concerning the use of EFAs for the control of hypertension for humans.

  15. Uric acid in childhood essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Prebis, J W; Gruskin, A B; Polinsky, M S; Baluarte, H J

    1981-05-01

    Serum uric acid concentrations and the fractional excretion of uric acid were determined in 31 children from 3 1/2 to 18 years of age with essential hypertension. While on an unrestricted sodium intake, elevated serum values of uric acid were found in 13 of 31 (42%) of the children. After ingesting a low-sodium diet (200 mg/day) for three days, mean serum uric acid values increased by 0.7 mg/dl (P less than 0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum uric acid concentrations and fractional excretion of uric acid during the normal and low-sodium diet. This study indicates that the major factor leading to hyperuricemia in our hypertensive patients was a decrease in urate clearance. Insofar as hyperuricemia may represent a cardiovascular risk factor, this abnormality already exists in a significant fraction of hypertensive children and adolescents.

  16. Serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, G; Angelova, M; Christova, I; Nikolov, A; Alexiev, A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the cardiovascular system is one of many aspects of cobalt metabolism in humans. Elastin and collagen are the main proteins of the vascular wall. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine serum cobalt concentrations in children with hypertension; and 2) to study the correlation between serum cobalt and some biological markers of the extracellular matrix of the vascular wall, i.e., anti-elastin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Patients showed statistically significant higher levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and significantly lower serum cobalt concentrations, than controls. Children with hypertension showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.0003) and collagen type IV IgM (P = 0.04). Collagen type IV IgG levels (P = 0.027) were lower than in controls. Serum cobalt in patients showed a correlation with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.44, P = 0.05), elastin IgM (r = 0.60, P = 0.007), and collagen type IV IgG (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). Our data suggest the existence of a correlation between changes in levels of serum cobalt, total cholesterol, anti-collagen type IV antibodies, and essential hypertension in children. This is the first study of serum cobalt in children with essential hypertension.

  17. Gravitation in pathogeny of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dorogovtsev, V N

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this research is the study of changes of a systemic hemodynamics under passive orthostatic test for a healthy persons and an ill with Essential Hypertension (EH) and analysis of a possible role of the gravitational factor in a Pathogeny of this disease. For an ill with EH reduction of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output were reliably lower in an orthostatic position. Increasing of a Total peripheral vascular resistance was twice less for ill. Considerable differences in reaction of cardiovascular system to gravitational influence for an ill with Essential Hypertension are stipulated by changes in central regulation of circulation and in the structure of a vascular wall. It allows to assume influence of gravitation at early stages of a Pathogeny of the given disease. The detection of hyper reactivity of a cardiovascular system to influence of gravitation can indicate the first stage of the disease.

  18. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  19. Yoga for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). Strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. Conclusions There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here. PMID:24124549

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in essential hypertension: data evaluation by a mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Arvigo, F.; Marenco, S.; Nobili, F.; Romano, P.; Sandini, G.; Rosadini, G.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied by means of the 133Xe inhalation method in 26 untreated and 10 treated patients with essential hypertension. The untreated subjects were divided into newly and previously diagnosed groups to assess the relation between regional cerebral blood flow and the duration of hypertension. The overall flow reduction was more marked in the frontal and temporal regions in the previously diagnosed group, and this was attributed to pathological changes in the district served by the middle cerebral artery. Regional temporal lobe impairment was also noted in the newly diagnosed and treated subjects. A significant correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow and mean arterial blood pressure.

  1. Insulin resistance in young, lean male subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Belan, V; Blazicek, P; Imrich, R; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M; Selko, D; Koska, J; Radikova, Z

    2011-06-01

    Impaired insulin action, frequently found in essential hypertension (HT), is modified by other factors, such as higher age, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, antihypertensive and insulin-sensitizing medication itself may significantly affect cardiovascular and metabolic milieu. The aim of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, lipidaemic status and the adipokines' concentrations with regard to abdominal fat distribution in young, lean male subjects with treatment-naïve essential HT and in matched healthy normotensive (NT) subjects. We studied 27 HT patients (age: 19.9±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI): 22.9±0.5 kg m(-2)) and 15 NT controls (age: 22.3±1.0 years; BMI: 23.7±0.6 kg m(-2)). The subjects underwent an oral and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT, IVGTT) on separate days in random order. Higher fasting insulin (P<0.001), non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor factor 1 concentrations (P<0.05) were found in HT patients when compared with NT patients. Despite comparable anthropometric parameters and body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in both groups, newly diagnosed untreated young hypertensive male subjects showed decreased insulin sensitivity, augmented insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose load (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) and 'higher still normal' 2-h plasma glucose levels during OGTT. Untreated, young, lean hypertensive male subjects, with distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile comparable with their healthy NT matched counterparts, showed considerable signs of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. We hypothesize that insulin resistance is the initial feature, which is influenced by several environmental factors, and HT is one of their common consequences.

  2. Nicardipine and verapamil in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khawaja, I. M.; Caruana, M. P.; Lahiri, A.; Whittington, J. R.; Lewis, J. G.; Raftery, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    1 Nicardipine 30 mg three times daily and verapamil 160 mg twice daily have been compared in 30 patients with essential hypertension using a two-period crossover clinical trial with 6 week treatment periods. 2 Blood pressure, heart rate and radionuclide left ventricular function were measured before and after exercise on both treatments. In addition to ejection fraction and ejection time, the left ventricular pressure volume ratio (P/V ratio) and left ventricular circumferential fibre shortening (VcF) were determined from the radionuclide scans. 3 Two patients were withdrawn from the trial during each of the treatment periods because of possible side-effects of therapy. Three patients were not analysed because of early crossover due to side-effects, leaving 23 completed studies. 4 Both treatments resulted in similar reductions in blood pressure, which were statistically significant with respect to the placebo-treated baseline. There was a significant difference between the effect of the two treatments on heart rate; both at rest and peak exercise, verapamil produced significant falls in heart rate but nicardipine produced little change. Neither treatment altered exercise capacity. 5 Both treatments produced similar increases in resting ejection fraction. Nicardipine resulted in a small decrease in ejection time and verapamil in a small increase (P < 0.001 between treatments). 6 Neither treatment produced significant change in resting P/V ratio. However, VcF improved significantly with nicradipine but was virtually unchanged with verapamil. 7 Nicardipine has a similar hypotensive efficacy to that of verapamil, but may be safer in the treatment of patients with depressed or compromised cardiac function.

  3. Myocardial Performance Index in Childhood Onset Essential Hypertension and White Coat Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hamzeh, Rabih K.; Poffenbarger, Tim; McNiece-Redwine, Karen; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a global measure of ventricular systolic and diastolic function, the myocardial performance index (MPI) can be an early indicator of hypertensive cardiomyopathy in children with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS Children with untreated newly diagnosed EH and white coat hypertension (WCH) by a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), both groups without any identifiable etiology for the hypertension, were enrolled for the study. Echocardiograms and vascular ultrasounds for carotid artery intimal medial thickness were performed on all children prior to therapy. Diastolic function (peak E and A velocities, E/A ratio, isovolumic relaxation time, and deceleration times) and MPI were evaluated by simultaneous transmitral and transaortic spectral Doppler flow velocities. Systolic function was evaluated by shortening fraction and ejection fraction. RESULTS A cohort of 66 children (24 with EH, 42 with WCH, males 61%, median age of 13 years, range 10–17 years) were enrolled in the study. The demographic, anthropometric, laboratory tests, vascular ultrasound, and conventional echocardiographic parameters were similar between the 2 groups. There was a very small difference in MPI between the EH and WCH children (0.28 SD: 0.07 vs. 0.31 SD: 0.08, P = 0.045). However, in EH children, MPI increased by 0.14 units for every 10 unit increase in mean ABPM systolic BP (95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.25). CONCLUSIONS We found the increasing MPI was associated with increasing 24-hour mean systolic BP in children with EH. Therefore, MPI may have utility as a single, quick, noninvasive method of detection and tracking of subclinical hypertensive heart disease. PMID:26271107

  4. Essential hypertension and risk of nephropathy: a reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Murea, Mariana; Freedman, Barry I.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the controversial relationship between hypertension and initiation of kidney disease. We focus on ethnic differences in renal histopathology and associated gene variants comprising the spectrum of MYH9-nephropathy. Purpose of review Treating mild to moderate essential hypertension in non-diabetic African Americans fails to halt nephropathy progression; while hypertension control slows nephropathy progression in European Americans. The pathogenesis of these disparate renal syndromes is reviewed. Recent findings The non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) is associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in African Americans, including idiopathic focal global glomerulosclerosis historically attributed to hypertension, idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (HIV-associated nephropathy). Risk variants in MYH9 likely contribute to the failure of hypertension control to slow progressive kidney disease in non-diabetic African Americans. Summary Early and intensive hypertension control fails to halt progression of “hypertensive nephropathy” in African Americans. Genetic analyses in patients with essential hypertension and nephropathy attributed to hypertension, FSGS and HIVAN reveal that MYH9 gene polymorphisms are associated with a spectrum of kidney diseases in this ethnic group. Mild to moderate hypertension may cause nephropathy in European Americans with intra-renal vascular disease improved by the treatment of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. PMID:20051853

  5. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  6. Baroreflex sensitivity and essential hypertension in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Honzíková, N; Fiser, B

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for many years that baroreflex sensitivity is lowered in hypertensive patients. There are several known factors implicating this association, e.g. high blood pressure leads to remodeling of the carotid arterial wall, to its stiffness and to a diminished activation of baroreceptors; leptin released from a fatty tissue activates the sympathetic nervous system etc. On the other hand, low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, usually quantified in ms/mmHg) can be inborn. Studies on primary hypertension in children and adolescents have brought new information about the role of baroreflex in the development of an early stage of primary hypertension. BRS lower than 3.9 ms/mmHg was found in 5 % of healthy subjects. This value approaches the critical value for the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients after myocardial infarction and corresponds to the value present in hypertensive patients. A decreased BRS and BRSf (baroreflex sensitivity expressed in mHz/mmHg, index independent of the mean cardiac interval), was found not only in children with hypertension, but also in those with white-coat hypertension. This is in accordance with a single interpretation. The decrease of BRS/BRSf precedes a pathological blood pressure increase. The contribution of obesity and BRS/BRSf to the development of hypertension in adolescents was also compared. Both factors reach a sensitivity and a specificity between 60 % and 65 %, but there is no correlation between the values of the body mass index and BRS either in the group of hypertensive patients or in healthy controls. If a receiver operating curve (sensitivity versus specificity) is plotted for both values together using logistic regression analysis, a sensitivity higher than 70 % and a specificity over 80 % are reached. This means that low baroreflex sensitivity is an independent risk factor for the development of primary hypertension. Studies demonstrate that adolescents with increased blood pressure and with BRS under 7 ms

  7. Contemporary practice patterns in the management of newly diagnosed hypertension

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, F A; Teo, K K; Lewanczuk, R Z; Wells, G; Montague, T J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine what proportion of patients with hypertension are managed in accordance with guidelines established by the Canadian Hypertension Society. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Outpatients seen in primary care offices and internal medicine referral clinics in Edmonton. PATIENTS: All 969 adults who presented with a new diagnosis of essential hypertension from Sept. 1, 1993, to Dec. 31, 1995. OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial laboratory tests performed, advice concerning nonpharmacologic treatment given, antihypertensive drugs prescribed and any contraindications to thiazide diuretics or beta-adrenergic blocking agents documented. RESULTS: The mean age of the 969 patients in the sample was 52.5 years; 129 (13%) of the patients were older than 70 years of age; and 500 (52%) were women. Most of the patients (704, 73%) had mild or moderate diastolic hypertension. In the 617 patients who underwent laboratory tests related to hypertension, the creatinine level was determined in 466 (76%), the cholesterol level in 372 (60%), a urinalysis was conducted in 378 (61%), the serum potassium level was checked in 343 (56%), the sodium level in 323 (52%) and an electrocardiogram was performed in 303 (49%). Liver function tests, which are not recommended in the guidelines, were performed in 338 patients (55%). Although there were differences in prescribing among physicians in the 711 patients given first-line therapy, most (238, 34%) were prescribed angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Lifestyle modification, without drug therapy, was suggested for 180 (25%) of the patients. Although the guidelines recommend their use for first-line drug therapy, only 82 patients (12%) were given beta-adrenergic blocking agents and only 75 (11%) were given thiazide diuretics. Of the patients who were prescribed an antihypertensive other than a thiazide or beta-adrenergic blocking agent as first-line drug therapy, only 161 (43%) had a documented

  8. Strong association of a renin intronic dimorphism with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Usman; Saleheen, Danish; Bokhari, Awais; Frossard, Philippe M

    2005-04-01

    The objectives of this project were two-fold: to identify the genetic mutation that has been detected as an MboI dimorphism in intron 9 of the human renin (REN) gene and to confirm a previously reported, putative association between the REN MboI dimorphism and clinical diagnosis of essential hypertension (EHT) in a population of Gulf Arabs from the United Arab Emirates. Sequencing of the MboI dimorphic site was carried out on DNA of randomly chosen cases and controls. A retrospective case-control study was carried out in 689 unrelated subjects (326 first-time, clinically diagnosed hypertensives and 363 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects), selected from the resident population of the Abu Dhabi Emirate. A polymerase chain reaction/MboI-RFLP based method was employed to compare genotype and allele distributions. Nucleotide sequences at the MboI site of the cut and uncut alleles were determined to be GATC and GGTC, respectively. This A>G mutation is located 10,631 base pairs (bp) 3' to the start of the REN gene, and 79 bp 3' to the end of exon 9. The genotype distributions of the REN 10631A>G dimorphism were found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive subjects (x2= 42.29, df=2, p<0.001). Frequencies of A alleles were 0.54 in EHT vs. 0.37 in normotensive subjects, which is even more demarcated than what was found previously. The frequency of AA genotypes was higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group (34.7% vs. 14.0%). The quantification of the association of A alleles with increased risk of EHT was assessed with corresponding odds ratios (OR), which gave the following values: OR of GG vs. AG genotypes, 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-1.88); OR of GG vs. AA, 3.75 (95% CI: 2.41-5.86). In conclusion, REN 10631A alleles are significantly associated with EHT in the Emirati population. This has now been found in two different and therefore independent sample populations from the Abu Dhabi Emirate. Moreover

  9. [Experiences with running therapy in essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Winterfeld, H J; Siewert, H; Strangfeld, D

    1995-03-21

    The authors report about a long-term study (three months) on blood pressure and heart rate at rest and during exercise (50 W) in hypertensive patients (WHO stadium I and I, n = 24) running twice a week. The control group were 15 healthy people who were running as well. In addition, the peripheral microcirculation (musculus tibialis anterior) was recorded by the Xenon-133 muscle clearance method and the cardiac output by means of radiocardiography (Indium 113m) as parameter of central hemodynamics. A positive influence of running on hypertension and hemodynamics, resulting in a significant decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant improvement of the peripheral microcirculation was registered. The measured values of blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output show that there was no cardial risk caused by running at a velocity of 2 to 2.5 m/s.

  10. Renal haemodynamics and plasma renin in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Kornerup, H J

    1976-05-01

    1. Blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in twenty-three patients with essential hypertension and in twenty-one control subjects. Plasma renin concentration was measured in all the hypertensive patients and in fifteen control subjects. 2. GFR and RPF were similar in the hypertensive group and in the control group, whereas the renal vascular resistance was significantly higher in the hypertensive patients. GFR and RPF decreased with increasing blood pressure in both groups. Increasing age induced a further reduction in GFR and RPF in the control subjects but not in the hypertensive patients. 3. Plasma renin concentration in the hypertensive group did not differ from that in the control subjects. The concentration was not correlated to age in either the hypertensive or normal group. 4. Plasma renin index was positively correlated to GFR and RPF and inversely correlated to filtration fraction and renal vascular resistance. 5. It is concluded that GFR and RPF depend on blood pressure in both hypertensive patients and normotensive control subjects. In contrast to the control group, the age effect was negligible in the hypertensive group. It is suggested that renin release depends on changes in renal vascular resistance in the arterioles at the glomerulus and the results support the baroreceptor theory of renin release.

  11. [Chinese classical formulas for treatment of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Essential hypertension is one of the most prevalent and important public health concerns in both westernized and developing countries. Recent studies have demonstrated that successful long-term treatment of hypertension has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke. Chinese classical formulas, which are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have been increasingly accepted by patients with CVDs worldwide. According to TCM theory and syndrome differentiation, hypertension could be categorized into 3 patterns including fire syndrome, fluid retention syndrome, and deficiency syndrome. Chinese classical formulas, including Chaihu Jia Longgu Muli tang, Tianma Gouteng yin, Zhen Gan Xifeng tang, Banxia Baizhu Tianma tang, Liu Wei Dihuang wan, etc, play an important role in the treatment of essential hypertension, which could be further research priorities.

  12. Genetic Risk Score for Essential Hypertension and Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive complication of pregnancy characterized by novel onset of hypertension after 20 weeks gestation, accompanied by proteinuria. Epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic susceptibility exists for preeclampsia; however, whether preeclampsia is the result of underlying genetic risk for essential hypertension has yet to be investigated. Based on the hypertensive state that is characteristic of preeclampsia, we aimed to determine if established genetic risk scores (GRSs) for hypertension and blood pressure are associated with preeclampsia. Subjects consisted of 162 preeclamptic cases and 108 normotensive pregnant controls, all of Iowa residence. Subjects' DNA was extracted from buccal swab samples and genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Missing genotypes were imputed using MaCH and Minimac software. GRSs were calculated for hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using established genetic risk loci for each outcome. Regression analyses were performed to determine the association between GRS and risk of preeclampsia. These analyses were replicated in an independent US population of 516 cases and 1,097 controls of European ancestry. GRSs for hypertension, SBP, DBP, and MAP were not significantly associated with risk for preeclampsia (P > 0.189). The results of the replication analysis also yielded nonsignificant associations. GRSs for hypertension and blood pressure are not associated with preeclampsia, suggesting that an underlying predisposition to essential hypertension is not on the causal pathway of preeclampsia. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Use of Bayesian statistical approach in diagnosing secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Lukasz Jerzy

    2008-03-01

    Bayes's theorem is predominantly used in diagnosing based on the results of various diagnostic tests. This statistical approach is intuitive in differential diagnosis as it explicitly takes into consideration data from medical history, physical examination, laboratory findings and imaging. Bayes's theorem states that the probability of disease occurrence (or occurrence of other outcome) after new information is obtained, called a posteriori probability, depends directly on an a priori probability and the value of likelihood ratio associated with a given test result. This paper describes basic Bayesian analysis in relation to the diagnosis of two types of secondary hypertension; primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma. This choice is based on two facts; primary aldosteronism is believed to be the most common and the most commonly detected cause of symptomatic hypertension and pheochromocytoma is thought to have rapid progress and stormy clinical course. This article aims to draw physicians' attention to and increase the knowledge of Bayesian analysis, and to describe its use in everyday clinical decision making. On the basis of this theorem's foundations, the discussion in relation to the issue of differential diagnosis between physicians, their patients, and medical students should also improve. When used in practice, one should be aware, however, of Bayesian analysis limitations concerning the diagnostic test application and limited knowledge of diagnostic test accuracy, and insecure or faulty a priori probability estimates.

  14. Physiologic rationale for calcium antagonist therapy in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L M

    1998-01-01

    Two basic concepts that are relevant to hypertensive cardiovascular disease are often ignored despite being central to a proper understanding and clinical approach to our patients. First, high blood pressure is an abnormal physical sign; a 'vital' sign, as are temperature, pulse, and respiration. Although people often consider hypertension as a disease, it is itself not a disease, but rather one sign of a disease: a warning manifestation of a disease. Approximately 90% of the time, the underlying cause(s) of this sign are unknown and, thus, the condition itself is named according to its sign, as essential hypertension. Commonly, physicians are told that by eliminating the messenger bearing the bad news--i.e., by merely suppressing the blood pressure, the excess morbidity and mortality associated with the underlying disease process will be reversed. Unfortunately, the cumulative experience of over two decades of world-wide clinical trials indicates that getting rid of only one aspect of hypertensive disease, the elevated blood pressure, gets rid of only part of the excess cardiovascular risk associated with hypertension. By contrast, we now appreciate that what we call hypertension carries with it other peripheral manifestations present in other body systems, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, that may exist prior to and progress independently of the hypertension itself; and insulin resistance, reflecting the same underlying pathophysiology in skeletal muscle, fat, and other tissues. Thus, the disease we call hypertension is not just a 'numbers' game. As such, a reasonable goal not yet attained would be to identify common factors underlying not only the elevations of blood pressure, but the other multisystemic aspects of hypertensive cardiovascular disease as well. Focusing on such underlying factors would allow treatment of the disease process itself, rather than just the level of blood pressure. A second concept, also often overlooked but quite obvious, is the

  15. Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Hypertension: The Essential Role of Tissue Transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-03-13

    Inflammatory cytokines cause hypertension when introduced into animals. Additional evidence indicates that cytokines induce the production of autoantibodies that activate the AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R). Extensive evidence shows that these autoantibodies, termed AT1-AA, contribute to hypertension. We review here recent studies showing that cytokine-induced hypertension and AT1-AA production require the ubiquitous enzyme, tissue transglutaminase (TG2). We consider 3 mechanisms by which TG2 may contribute to hypertension. (i) One involves the posttranslational modification (PTM) of AT1Rs at a glutamine residue that is present in the epitope sequence (AFHYESQ) recognized by AT1-AA. (ii) Another mechanism by which TG2 may contribute to hypertension is by PTM of AT1Rs at glutamine 315. Modification at this glutamine prevents ubiquitination-dependent proteasome degradation and allows AT1Rs to accumulate. Increased AT1R abundance is likely to account for increased sensitivity to Ang II activation and in this way contribute to hypertension. (iii) The increased TG2 produced as a result of elevated inflammatory cytokines is likely to contribute to vascular stiffness by modification of intracellular contractile proteins or by crosslinking vascular proteins in the extracellular matrix. This process, termed inward remodeling, results in reduced vascular lumen, vascular stiffness, and increased blood pressure. Based on the literature reviewed here, we hypothesize that TG2 is an essential participant in cytokine-induced hypertension. From this perspective, selective TG2 inhibitors have the potential to be pharmacologic weapons in the fight against hypertension.

  16. Essential Hypertension: An Approach to Its Etiology and Neurogenic Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Essential hypertension, a rise in blood pressure of undetermined cause, includes 90% of all hypertensive cases and is a highly important public health challenge that remains, however, a major modifiable cause of morbidity and mortality. This review emphasizes that, from an evolutionary point of view, we are adapted to ingest and excrete <1 g of sodium (2.5 g of salt) per day and that essential hypertension develops when the kidneys become unable to excrete the amount of sodium ingested, unless blood pressure is increased. The renal-mean arterial pressure set-point model is briefly described to explain that a shift of the pressure natriuresis relationship toward abnormally high pressure levels is a pathophysiological characteristic of essential hypertension. Evidence indicating that this anomaly in the pressure natriuresis relationship arises from a sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is briefly formulated, and the most widely accepted pathophysiologic proposal to explain the development of this sympathetic dysfunction is described, with commentaries about novel action mechanisms of some drugs currently used in essential hypertension treatment. PMID:24386559

  17. Structural abnormalities of small resistance arteries in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the increase in blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. In essential hypertension, the small arteries smooth muscle cells are restructured around a smaller lumen, and there is no net growth of the vascular wall, while in some secondary forms of hypertension, a hypertrophic remodeling may be detected. Also, in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a hypertrophic remodeling of subcutaneous small arteries is present. The results from our own group have suggested that indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the tunica media to internal lumen ratio, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the regression of vascular alterations is an appealing goal of antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs seem to have different effect on vascular structure, both in human and in animal models of genetic and experimental hypertension. A complete normalization of small resistance artery structure is demonstrated in hypertensive patients, after long-term and effective therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium antagonists. Few data are available in diabetic hypertensive patients; however, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system seems to be effective in this regard. In conclusion, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that small resistance artery structure may be considered an intermediate endpoint in the evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive therapy; however, there are presently no data available about the prognostic impact of the regression of vascular structural alterations in hypertension and diabetes.

  18. Decreased pituitary response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in young lean male patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Huckova, M; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Koska, J

    2006-07-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with changes in central catecholaminergic pathways which might also be reflected in the pituitary response to stress stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine whether the response of pituitary hormones, cortisol, plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamines to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia is changed in hypertension. We studied 22 young lean male patients with newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertension and 19 healthy normotensive, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. All subjects underwent an insulin tolerance test (0.1 IU insulin/kg body weight intravenously) with blood sampling before and 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min after insulin administration. Increased baseline levels of norepinephrine (P<0.05), increased response of norepinephrine (P<0.001) and decreased response of growth hormone (P<0.001), prolactin (P<0.001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (P<0.05) and cortisol (P<0.001) were found in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive controls. Increased norepinephrine levels and a decreased pituitary response to metabolic stress stimuli may represent another manifestation of chronically increased sympathetic tone in early hypertension.

  19. Pathogenesis of essential hypertension: historical paradigms and modern insights

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J.; Feig, Dan I.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L. Gabriela; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Since its first identification in the late 1800s, a variety of etiologies for essential hypertension have been proposed. In this paper we review the primary proposed hypotheses in the context of both the time in which they were proposed as well as the subsequent studies performed over the years. From these various insights, we propose a current paradigm to explain the renal mechanisms underlying the hypertension epidemic today. Specifically, we propose that hypertension is initiated by agents that cause systemic and intrarenal vasoconstriction. Over time intrarenal injury develops with microvascular disease, interstitial T cell and macrophage recruitment with the induction of an autoimmune response, with local angiotensin II formation and oxidant generation. These changes maintain intrarenal vasoconstriction and hypoxia with a change in local vasoconstrictor-vasodilator balance favoring sodium retention. Both genetic and congenital (nephron number) mechanisms have profound influence on this pathway. As blood pressure rises, renal ischemia is ameliorated and sodium balance restored completely (in salt-resistant) or partially (in salt-sensitive) hypertension, but at the expense of a rightward shift in the pressure natriuresis curve and persistent hypertension. PMID:18300843

  20. [Concentration of elements in plasma of patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Goch, Aleksander

    2005-10-01

    Disturbances in macro- and microelements composition may play a significant role in the development of essential hypertension. The aim of the study was to estimate main and trace elements concentration in plasma of hypertensive patients. The study involved 150 subjects, aged 33-60 years, who were allotted into 2 groups: I--50 clinically healthy subjects (controls), II--100 patients with arterial hypertension. Age and sex ratio were similar in the examined groups. Those subjected to the study were not administered any drugs at least 3 months prior to the determination of macro- and microelements. Determinations of trace elements Ca, F, Na, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mo, Al, Cd, Fb, Mu, Se, Cr, Co, Li, V, B, Ba, were performed with atomic emission spectrometer with plasmic excitation (ICP MS Philips PU). In group II in comparison to group I (controls) higher values of Fe, Pb, Al, Cd, Co, B i Ba were observed, as well as higher Zn/Cu ratio; but lower values of Cu and lower Ca/Pb, Ca/Al, Zn/Fe, Se/Fe, Zn/Al, Zn/Cd, Se/Pb, Se/Al, Se/Cd ratio. Increase of prooxidative and decrease,of antioxidative elements in plasma may significantly contribute to the essential hypertension pathogenesis probably through oxidative stress development.

  1. Detection of essential hypertension with physiological signals from wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arindam; Torres, Juan Manuel Mayor; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of essential hypertension can support the prevention of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death. The traditional method of identification of hypertension involves periodic blood pressure measurement using brachial cuff-based measurement devices. While these devices are non-invasive, they require manual setup for each measurement and they are not suitable for continuous monitoring. Research has shown that physiological signals such as Heart Rate Variability, which is a measure of the cardiac autonomic activity, is correlated with blood pressure. Wearable devices capable of measuring physiological signals such as Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response, Skin Temperature have recently become ubiquitous. However, these signals are not accurate and are prone to noise due to different artifacts. In this paper a) we present a data collection protocol for continuous non-invasive monitoring of physiological signals from wearable devices; b) we implement signal processing techniques for signal estimation; c) we explore how the continuous monitoring of these physiological signals can be used to identify hypertensive patients; d) We conduct a pilot study with a group of normotensive and hypertensive patients to test our techniques. We show that physiological signals extracted from wearable devices can distinguish between these two groups with high accuracy.

  2. [Metabolic abnormalities in young offsprings of parents with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Vicco, Miguel H; Rodeles, Luz; César, Lucía I; Ferini, Franco; Dorigo, Catalina; Musacchio, Héctor M

    2013-01-01

    The familiar history of hypertension in healthy young offsprings is associated with hyperinsulinemia, which could lead to increased serum cortisol, resulting in renal endothelial damage and the presence of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in healthy young offsprings of hypertensive parents, association between insulin levels, serum cortisol and microalbuminuria attending to its relationship with increased cardiovascular risk. We performed a cross-sectional correlational study in Santa Fe, Argentina, including 145 healthy individuals aged over 18 years, allocated to two groups: those with a history of essential hypertensive parents (study group) and those without such history (control group). We evaluated fasting serum insulin, cortisol, and microalbuminuria levels in the first morning urine. The mean age was 20 ± 2.9 years, and 58% were women. The study group included 48% (n = 69) of the sample. 4.8% had insulin resistance, microalbuminuria 13.8% and 52% hipercortisolinemia, with no significant differences in serum insulin, cortisol, or microalbuminuria between groups. No correlation was found between these variables. In this study there was no association between a history of first degree hypertension and impaired insulin or cortisol homoeostasis.

  3. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, N; Moreira, E; Cubeddu, L X

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between salt sensitivity and insulin resistance was investigated in nondiabetic, nonobese (body mass index < or = 28) untreated patients with uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Alterations in insulin-mediated glucose disposal were assessed by means of the insulin suppression test. Subjects were classified as salt sensitive and salt resistant according to their blood pressure response to low and high salt intake. Fasting serum glucose levels were within normal limits and did not differ between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives, irrespectively of the level of salt intake. Fasting serum insulin levels increased in salt sensitive patients when on a high intake of salt. The insulin suppression test revealed the existence of marked differences in insulin-mediated glucose uptake between salt sensitive and salt resistant hypertensives. Much higher steady-state glucose values (nanomoles of glucose/ liter) were obtained during the insulin suppression test in salt sensitive than in salt-resistant hypertensives (7.4+/-1.6 v 3.5+/-0.1 under low salt; and 12.5+/-1.1 v 4.3+/-0.1 under high salt intake). The product of glucose times insulin obtained at steady state during low and high salt intakes were 2.5 and 5 times greater, respectively, in salt sensitive than in salt resistant hypertensives. Therefore, the impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal observed in salt sensitive hypertensives was present both under low salt (60 to 70 mEq/day) and high salt intake (300 mEq/day). However, it was exacerbated under high salt intake. These results suggest that untreated salt sensitive hypertensives have a considerable impairment in insulin-mediated glucose disposal because of a state of insulin resistance. High salt intake increased BP, induced hyperinsulinemia, and worsened insulin-mediated glucose disposal only in salt sensitive patients. We propose that salt sensitivity contributes, separately from hypertension, to insulin

  4. Clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Yamashiro, M.; Sumitomo, M.; Furuya, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hemodynamic changes were evaluated in patients with essential hypertension when felypressin of various concentrations was administered. The parameters studied were systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic phase, and endocardial viability ratio. Results showed that blood pressure tended to increase, and the value of 1/pre-ejection period2 (PEP2) tended to decrease, upon administration of 3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.06 international units/ml (IU/ml) of felypressin. Significant increase of blood pressure and decrease in 1/PEP2 was noted upon administration of 3 ml of anesthetic solution containing 0.13 IU/ml of felypressin. No ischemic change of the myocardium was detected even with the highest felypressin concentration (3 ml of 2% propitocaine containing 0.25 IU/ml of felypressin). These results suggest that the clinically safe dosage of felypressin for patients with essential hypertension is approximately 0.18 IU. This amount is equivalent to 6 ml of 3% propitocaine with 0.03 IU/ml of felypressin, which is a commercially available local anesthetic for dental use. It seems that the decrease in 1/PEP2 that occurred during blood pressure increase was due to the increase in afterload caused by contraction of the arterioles. Although in the present study no ischemic change was noted, special care should be taken to prevent myocardial ischemia in patients with severe hypertension. PMID:10323116

  5. Hypertensive nephropathy in children - do we diagnose early enough?

    PubMed

    Blumczynski, Andrzej; Sołtysiak, Jolanta; Lipkowska, Katarzyna; Silska, Magdalena; Poprawska, Anna; Musielak, Anna; Zaniew, Marcin; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 18 (IL-18) and retinol binding protein (RBP) in children with primary hypertension and no features of hypertensive nephropathy. The study group consisted of 19 children (15 males) aged 14.8 ± 2.18 years with primary hypertension. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were within the normal range. Mean blood pressure (BP) was 141/79 mmHg (mean systolic BP percentile was 98, mean diastolic BP percentile was 80). Ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM), blood and urine biochemical measurements and features of end organ damage were assessed. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children. Hypertensive children showed significantly increased serum and urine NGAL concentration vs controls. Urine RBP was significantly higher in the study group vs controls. A positive correlation was found between urine NGAL and the index of mean systolic BP measured in ABPM, between urine IL-18 and the index of office diastolic BP, between serum NGAL and ACR, and between urine NGAL concentration and serum HDL. In children with primary hypertension, increased serum and urine NGAL may reflect kidney injury earlier than typical markers of hypertensive nephropathy.

  6. Serum Triglyceride Lowering Effect of Cilnidipine in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash; Das, Arijit; Chandra, Satish; Gari, Manju; Keshri, U. S. P.; Kumari, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies have established the relationship between hypertension and dyslipidemia. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are one of the first-line drugs for newly diagnosed patients with essential hypertension. Cilnidipine as a newer CCB acting by blocking both L- and N-type calcium channels possesses additional beneficial effects apart from lowering blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cilnidipine in patients with essential hypertension with borderline dyslipidemia and its effects on lipid profile. Methods Out of 45 enrolled patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, only 37 completed the study. Cilnidipine was started at 10 mg/day, and then adjusted to 5 - 20 mg/day to achieve the target blood pressure. Results After 12 weeks of study, patients showed significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean BP, heart rate and serum triglyceride level from baseline values (P < 0.00). Conclusion In clinical setting where both hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia exist, cilnidipine can be a promising drug of choice. PMID:28197288

  7. Effects of Cilnidipine on Heart Rate and Uric Acid Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arijit; Kumar, Prakash; Kumari, Abha; Chandra, Satish; Gari, Manju; Singh, Nidhi; Dey, Debleena

    2016-01-01

    Background The relation between hypertension and hyperuricemia has been established by epidemiological studies. Calcium channel blockers are one of the first-line drugs for newly diagnosed patients with essential hypertension. Cilnidipine is a new calcium channel blocker acting by blocking both L- and N-type calcium channels. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of amlodipine and cilnidipine in patients with essential hypertension and their effects on heart rate and serum uric acid levels. Methods Out of 100 enrolled patients, 92 completed the study. They were randomly assigned to amlodipine (N = 47) and cilnidipine (N = 45) groups. Cilnidipine was started at 10 mg/day and then adjusted to 5 - 20 mg/day, and amlodipine was started at 5 mg/day and then adjusted to 2.5 - 10 mg/day. Results After 24 weeks of study, patients in cilnidipine groups showed significant reduction in heart rate and serum uric acid levels from baseline (P = 0.00). Conclusion In clinical setting where both hypertension and hyperuricemia exist, cilnidipine can be a promising drug of choice. PMID:28197287

  8. Evaluation of biofeedback in the treatment of borderline essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, E B; Miller, S T; Abel, G G; Haynes, M R; Wicker, R

    1979-01-01

    Direct biofeedback of blood pressure was compared with frontal EMG biofeedback and with self-instructed relaxation for the treatment of essential hypertension in a controlled group outcome study. Patients were followed up for four months after the end of treatment. Generalization of treatment effects was assessed through pre- and posttreatment measurements of blood pressure under clinical conditions in a physician's office. There were no significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the patients receiving blood pressure biofeedback decreased 8.1 mm mercury (p = 0.07) and the SBP of the patients in the relaxation condition decreased 9.5 mm mercury (p = 0.05). In the generalization measures, there were significant reductions in SBP for the relaxation group. The results are discussed in terms of the general lack of replicability within the area of biofeedback treatment of hypertension. PMID:468751

  9. Assessment of atrial conduction time in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Mehmet Yunus; Bulut, Mustafa; Sahin, Müslim; Acar, Gurkan; Akcakoyun, Mustafa; Kargin, Ramazan; Kayancicek, Hidayet; Karapinar, Hekim; Aung, Soe Moe

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to assess atrial conduction time in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 80 patients with hypertension (51 males/29 females, 53 ± 12.5 years) and 80 controls (50 males/30 females, 50 ± 12 years) were included. Atrial electromechanical coupling (time interval from the onset of P wave on surface electrocardiogram [ECG] to the beginning of A wave interval with tissue Doppler echocardiography [PA]), intraatrial and interatrial electromechanical delay (intra and inter atrial electromechanical delay [AEMD]), and P-wave dispersion (Pd) were measured (Appelton, C.P., Hatle, L., Popp, R.L., Relation of transmitral flow velocity patterns to left ventricular diastolic function: new insights from combined hemodynamic and Doppler echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988; 12: 426-440). Atrial electromechanical coupling at the left lateral mitral annulus (PA lateral) and septal mitral annulus were longer in patients with hypertension (63.0 ± 8.0 vs 50.2 ± 4.3, P < .001, and 53.3 ± 6.2 vs 40.1 ± 5.5, P < .001). Interatrial (PA lateral-PA tricuspid) and intraatrial electromechanical delay (PA septum-PA tricuspid) were longer in patients with hypertension (24.8 ± 7.2 vs 12.4 ± 4.3, P < .001, and 14.1 ± 4.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.6, P < .001, respectively). Maximum P-wave duration and Pd were higher in patients with hypertension compared with controls (95.6 ± 8.0 vs 90.1 ± 9.5, P = .01, and 41.3 ± 7.1 vs 33.5 ± 6.1 P < .001, respectively). In correlation analysis, a positive correlation was detected between interatrial electromechanical delay and Pd (r = 0.72, P < .001). There was a moderate correlation between left ventricular mass index and PA lateral (r = 0.48, P < .001). Our results revealed that interatrial electromechanical delay and Pd were prolonged in patients with hypertension. Our results also showed a correlation between interatrial electromechanical delay and Pd. Prolonged electromechanical delay and Pd found in hypertensive patients could

  10. [Ketanserin and metoprolol in the treatment of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Cerasola, G; Contorno, A; D'Ignoto, G; Talamo, A R; Vallone, A; Zilietti, T

    In a controlled clinical study, 30 adult patients (16 females, 14 males, mean age 46.0 +/- 7.6, mean body weight 69.4 +/- 10.2 kg) with mild-moderate essential hypertension were treated with ketanserin (20 mg twice daily) or metoprolol (100 mg daily) for the first month and 40 mg twice daily or 100 mg twice daily during the second month. Results showed antihypertensive efficacy and systemic tolerability of ketanserin to be equal to that of metoprolol and better cardiac tolerance for ketanserin.

  11. Variation at the M235T locus of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension: a population-based case-control study from Rochester, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Fornage, M; Turner, S T; Sing, C F; Boerwinkle, E

    1995-09-01

    A variant of the angiotensinogen gene, M235T, has been associated with essential hypertension in selected subjects from Paris, France and Salt Lake City, Utah. In the present report, we studied a population-based sample consisting of 104 subjects diagnosed with hypertension before age 60 and 195 matched normotensive individuals from Rochester, Minnesota. We determined whether there was a relationship between the M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene and the occurrence of essential hypertension using two methods. First, a contingency chi-square analysis was carried out to test for an association between the M235T polymorphism and hypertension status. Second, multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether variation at the M235T polymorphism was a significant predictor of the probability of having essential hypertension. We detected no statistically significant association between the M235T polymorphism and the occurrence of essential hypertension. In particular, the association was not significant in either gender or in a subset of severely hypertensive subjects requiring two or more anti-hypertensive medications. Furthermore, variation in the number of M235T alleles did not make a significant contribution to predicting the probability of having essential hypertension, either alone or in conjunction with other predictor variables. These results suggest that the contribution of variation in the angiotensinogen gene to the occurrence of essential hypertension is less than initially suspected, or may not be constant across populations.

  12. Spontaneous respiratory modulation improves cardiovascular control in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano da Justa; Medeiros, Renato Antônio Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Denise Gonçalves Moura; Marinho, Maria de Jesus Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Recent studies show that controlled breathing improves baroreflex and heart rate variability and lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. To evaluate the effects of slow breathing training on cardiorespiratory system modulation of patients (n=10, men and women, ages ranging from 45 to 60) with essential hypertension seen in an outpatient setting. According to the study design, each patient was used as his/her own control, and data were collected before and after the intervention. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate variability (HRV), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respirometry, chest expansion measurement, and statistical data analysis. Respiratory training was performed in 30-minute sessions held twice a week over one month using slow breathing exercises. Our results were as follows: a reduction in SBP, DPB, and MAP (p < 0.05 vs control); an increase in heart rate variability, as evidenced by greater RR interval variation and SDNN index; a decline in respiratory rate (p < 0.01 vs control); and an increase in tidal volume (p < 0.01 vs control) and thoracic expansibility (p < 0.01 vs control). Respiratory retraining using the slow breathing technique appears to be a useful adjunctive for cardiorespiratory control in hypertensive patients.

  13. Diuretics: still essential drugs for the management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Flávio Danni

    2009-06-01

    According to most current international guidelines for hypertension, diuretics are indicated for elderly and black patients, unless they have any of a long list of other preferential indications. These recommendations are mostly based on the results of corporate-sponsored and biased trials, which have unsuccessfully tried to demonstrate the existence of pleiotropic effects of newer agents. Metaregression analyses have shown that the benefits of treatments are directly proportional to the difference in blood pressure between trial arms. New analyses of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack (ALLHAT) trial demonstrated the superiority of chlorthalidone over other agents in the prevention of end-stage renal disease in diabetics and of cardiovascular events in newer cases of diabetes. Despite this evidence, patients continue to withdraw from effective therapies in recent trials. The use of diuretics has also been challenged by the results of the Avoiding Cardiovascular Events in Combination Therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) trial, which employed hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic with lower potency and duration of action than chlorthalidone. Diuretics are still essential drugs for hypertension management, but diuretics with higher potency and duration of action, such as chlorthalidone, should be preferred.

  14. Plasma noradrenaline concentration and blood pressure in essential hypertension, phaeochromocytoma and depression.

    PubMed

    Louis, W J; Doyle, A E; Anavekar, S N

    1975-06-01

    1. Mean plasma noradrenaline concentration was elevated in forty-four patients with established essential hypertension. Eighteen of the hypertensive patients had resting plasma noradrenaline concentrations in the normal range. 2. Patients with endogenous depression had higher mean plasma noradrenaline concentrations but significantly lower blood pressure than patients with essential hypertension. 3. Patients with phaeochromocytoma had plasma noradrenaline concentrations twenty-eight times greater than those found in essential hypertension, but blood pressures were less than 20% higher. 4. It is concluded that excess of sympathetic drive only partly explains the level of the blood pressure in essential hypertension.

  15. Serum lipids and apolipoproteins in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Catalano, M; Aronica, A; Carzaniga, G; Seregni, R; Libretti, A

    1991-03-01

    Fifty hypertensive untreated outpatients (34 women, 16 men), with stage I and II essential hypertension, were studied in comparison to 50 age- and sex-matched controls with similar life-styles. Total cholesterol triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were measured by enzymatic methods, and apolipoproteins AI, AII, B, CII, CIII and E by RID. The results showed significant differences between hypertensives and controls respectively in triglycerides (135.2 +/- 73.9 versus 90.2 +/- 33.8, P less than 0.01) and VLDL cholesterol (26.7 +/- 14.8 versus 17.7 +/- 6.6, P less than 0.01) while no significant differences were observed in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol. Significant differences between the two groups were also observed in apolipoproteins, particularly in apo AI (130.0 +/- 28.2 versus 144.9 +/- 27.9, P less than 0.05), apo AII (32.9 +/- 10.2 versus 39.6 +/- 11.4, P less than 0.01), apo CII (4.0 +/- 2.6 versus 5.4 +/- 2.9, P less than 0.05) and apo E (5.0 +/- 1.8 versus 4.3 +/- 1.8, P less than 0.05), while no significant differences were observed in apo B and CIII values. The results suggest that in untreated hypertensive patients alterations in the apolipoproteins profile are present which, in part, may be responsible for the elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease, independently from the blood pressure values.

  16. Impaired renal functional reserve and albuminuria in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Losito, Attilio; Fortunati, Federico; Zampi, Ivano; Del Favero, Albano

    1988-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of an infusion of amino acids on glomerular filtration rate has previously been used to measure renal functional reserve and detect glomerular hyperfiltration. Thirty four patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and seemingly normal renal function and 22 healthy controls were given infusions of amino acids to investigate whether renal functional reserve is reduced in essential hypertension and to detect patients at risk of renal damage. Although basal creatinine clearance increased after the infusion of amino acids in the controls (mean 27·9 ml/min; 95% confidence interval 18·2 to 37·6), the overall change was lower in the patients (mean 13·4 ml/min; 8·3 to 18·5), 11 of the 34 showing no increase at all. In these 11 non-responders the mean systolic blood pressure was higher than that in the 23 others (178·5 mm Hg v 157 mm Hg, respectively). Mean urinary albumin excretion was abnormal in the patients (93·3 mg/24 h; 44·2 to 142·4); eight of the 11 non-responders had an albumin excretion above the normal range (>20 mg/24 h). In the 11 patients without renal functional reserve a positive correlation was found between basal creatinine clearance and albumin excretion (r=0·695). As consumed renal reserve and albuminuria are markers of glomerular hyperfiltration studying renal function before and after infusion of amino acids can detect hypertensive patients at risk of progressive renal damage. PMID:3135009

  17. Chronic effect of ketanserin in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Woittiez, A J; Wenting, G J; van den Meiracker, A H; Ritsema van Eck, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Zantvoort, F A; Schalekamp, M A

    1986-02-01

    Ketanserin, an antagonist highly selective for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) type 2 (S2) receptors, was given as monotherapy in a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. to 24 subjects with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its effects were evaluated in a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. The effect on blood pressure in 18 subjects was monitored by 24-hour ambulatory intra-arterial measurements. Systolic and diastolic intra-arterial pressures were significantly lowered by ketanserin both during the day and at night, whereas heart rate was unchanged. Cuff pressure readings (triplicate measurements) with the London School of Hygiene sphygmomanometer and an automatic device (12 measurements in 1 hour) in the outpatient clinic also showed a significant effect on both supine and standing pressures. No postural hypotension was noted. Ketanserin had no effect on endogenous creatinine clearance, serum cholesterol levels, and the plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone. The only side effect that was significantly more common with ketanserin than with placebo treatment was an increase in body weight. Ketanserin may have a place in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

  18. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal in black south Africans with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wing, J R; van der Merwe, M T; Joffe, B I; Panz, V R; Seftel, H C

    1994-07-01

    We used the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp method to assess insulin-mediated glucose disposal in ten black South African patients with newly-diagnosed essential hypertension, compared to ten normotensive controls. The patients were all nonobese with normal glucose tolerance. Comparisons were made before and 12 weeks after treatment with a long-acting ACE inhibitor. The mean glucose disposal (M) and disposal expressed as glucose sensitivity index (M/I) were significantly reduced in the hypertensives vs. controls (M: 6.8 +/- 0.9 vs. 9.7 +/- 0.8 mg/kg/min; MI: 7.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 12.5 +/- 1.7 mg/kg/min/mU/l x 100) (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Following therapy, M/I increased in the patients to values not significantly different to those of the controls. Insulin resistance is an independent feature of essential hypertension in black South African patients, and is partially corrected by treatment with a long-acting ACE inhibitor.

  19. Impact of nocturnal fall in blood pressure on early cardiovascular changes in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cuspidi, C; Lonati, L; Sampieri, L; Macca, G; Valagussa, L; Zaro, T; Michev, I; Fusi, V; Leonetti, G; Zanchetti, A

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate in a selected population of subjects with a recent diagnosis of hypertension whether a blunted nocturnal fall in blood pressure is associated with more advanced cardiac and vascular damage. One hundred and eleven recently diagnosed and never-treated patients with mild essential hypertension underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography. The 78 patients with normal (> 10%) night-time fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (dippers) were similar to the 33 patients with a small (< or = 10 %) fall (non-dippers) for age, sex, body surface area, smoking habit, clinic and 24-h blood pressure. There were no differences between dippers and non-dippers in left ventricular mass index (104 versus 105 g/m2), common carotid internal diameter (5.8 versus 5.9 mm), intima-media thickness (0.66 versus 0.64 mm) and carotid plaques prevalence (25 versus 29%). Furthermore, no differences were found in the correlation of daytime and night-time SBP and DBP with left ventricular mass and carotid wall thickness. When the 77 men and 34 women were analysed separately, similar results were obtained. These results suggest that a blunted reduction in night-time blood pressure does not play a major role in the development of cardiovascular changes during the early phase of essential hypertension.

  20. Increased circulating inflammatory endothelial cells in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Woollard, John R; Herrmann, Sandra M; Gloviczki, Monika L; Saad, Ahmed; Juncos, Luis A; Calhoun, David A; Rule, Andrew D; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2013-09-01

    Morbidity and mortality attributable to hypertension are higher in black essential hypertensive (EH) compared with white EH patients, possibly related to differential effects on vascular injury and repair. Although circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) preserve endothelial integrity, inflammatory endothelial cells (IECs) detach from sites of injury and represent markers of vascular damage. We hypothesized that blood levels of IECs and inflammatory markers would be higher in black EH compared with white EH patients. Inferior vena cava and renal vein levels of CD34+/KDR+ (EPC) and VAP-1+ (IEC) cells were measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting in white EH and black EH patients under fixed sodium intake and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system, and compared with systemic levels in normotensive control subjects (n=19 each). Renal vein and inferior vena cava levels of inflammatory cytokines and EPC homing factors were measured by Luminex. Blood pressure, serum creatinine, lipids, and antihypertensive medications did not differ between white and black EH patients, and EPC levels were decreased in both. Circulating IEC levels were elevated in black EH patients, and inversely correlated with EPC levels (R(2)=0.58; P=0.0001). Systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines and EPC homing factors were higher in black EH compared with white EH patients, and correlated directly with IECs. Renal vein inflammatory cytokines, EPCs, and IECs did not differ from their circulating levels. Most IECs expressed endothelial markers, fewer expressed progenitor cell markers, but none showed lymphocyte or phagocytic cell markers. Thus, increased release of cytokines and IECs in black EH patients may impair EPC reparative capacity and aggravate vascular damage, and accelerate hypertension-related complications.

  1. Massage therapy for essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X J; Li, S J; Zhang, Y Q

    2015-03-01

    Massage, an ancient Chinese healing art, is widely practiced for symptom relief in hypertensive patients with anxiety, depression, headache, vertigo, chronic pain in neck, shoulder and back. A large number of case series and clinical trials have been published. However, it is still unclear whether massage can be recommended as an effective therapy for essential hypertension (EH). We estimated the current clinical evidence of massage for EH. Articles published before 10 December 2013 were searched using Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang data and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials comparing massage with any type of control intervention were included. Trials testing massage combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included as well. Meta-analysis was performed on the effects on blood pressure (BP). Twenty-four articles involving 1962 patients with EH were selected. Methodological quality of most trials was evaluated as generally low. Meta-analyses demonstrated that massage combined with antihypertensive drugs may be more effective than antihypertensive drugs alone in lowering both systolic BP (SBP; mean difference (MD): -6.92 (-10.05, -3.80); P<0.0001) and diastolic BP (MD: -3.63 (-6.18, -1.09); P=0.005); massage appears beneficial for reducing SBP (MD: -3.47 (-5.39, -1.56); P=0.0004) for hypertensive patients as compared with antihypertensive drugs. Safety of massage is still unclear. There is some encouraging evidence of massage for EH. However, because of poor methodological quality, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to validate the use of massage in future.

  2. Childhood-Onset Essential Hypertension and the Family Structure.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH.

  3. Essential Hypertension: Cardiovascular Response to Breath Hold Combined with Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, U; Urban, P; Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Pfister, R; Michels, G

    2015-07-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a widespread disease and might be prevalent in apnea divers and master athletes. Little is known about the influence of EH and the antihypertensive drugs (AHD) on cardiovascular reactions to combined breath hold (BH) and exercise. In this pilot study, healthy divers (HCON) were compared with treated hypertensive divers with regard to heart rate (HR) and mean blood-pressure (MAP) responses to BH, exercise and the combination of both. Ten subjects with EH and ten healthy divers were tested. 3 different 20 s stimuli were applied: BH combined with 30 W or 150 W and 150 W without BH. The time-charts during the stress intervals and during recovery were compared. Subjects treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor showed higher changes for MAP values if breath hold was performed. HR responses were obviously changed if a β-blocker was part of the medication. One subject showed extreme MAP responses to all stimuli and conspicuous HR if BH was involved. The modulation of HR-/MAP-response in EH subjects depends on the mechanisms of antihypertensive agents. The combination of an ACE inhibitor and a β-blocker may give the best protection. It is recommended to include short apnea tests in the fitness-to-dive examination to individually predict potential endangerment.

  4. [Haplotypes extending across AGT are associated essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Dong; Yang, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Si-Zhong

    2004-11-01

    Present studies examined the DNA polymorphisms in the AGT genes in a Chinese population in Henan province of central China. By using PCR-RFLP and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we estimated the pattern of intragenic linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype structure and explored the possible association between the polymorphisms of AGT gene and essential hypertension in a case-control study. Seven polymorphic sites (SNPs) and seven major haplotypes of AGT gene were analyzed. Among the individual SNP pairs examined, the A-6G, C+31T and M235T are nearly completely disequilibrium. All those single polymorphism loci were individually not associated with hypertension. But we found the frequency of haplotype H2 (-217: G, -152: G, -20: A, -6: G, +31: T, 174: T, 235: M) was significantly higher in controls than patients (P=0.010). Our study suggested that few haplotypes derived seven polymorphism loci could account for the most of the variation in AGT gene in Chinese Hans. The haplotype H2 of AGT gene might represent or be in disequilibrium with a genetic protective factor against EH.

  5. Renal blood flow in man with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    London, G M; Safar, M E; Marchais, S

    1986-01-01

    Abnormalities in renal blood flow in man with sustained essential hypertension are reviewed with emphasis on four points: renal blood flow is decreased not only per unit square meter but also as a fraction of cardiac output, a result which is not observed in other organs, the relationship between cardiac output and renal blood flow is reset, so that restriction of arteriolar renal vessels is dominantly preglomerular in origin, the renal abnormalities may be reversed by alpha-blockade, suggesting an important contribution of the autonomic nervous system, and, finally, the normal sodium balance in steady-state conditions is achieved through adaptive mechanisms involving the venous system and resulting in decreased venous compliance and increased postglomerular and venous hydrostatic pressures.

  6. Lisinopril dose-response relationship in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, H. J.; Cirillo, V. J.; Sromovsky, J. A.; Otterbein, E. S.; Shaw, W. C.; Rush, J. E.; Chrysant, S. G.; Gradman, A. H.; Leon, A. S.; MacCarthy, E. P.; Nelson, E. B.; Pool, J.; Vedin, A.

    1989-01-01

    1 This was a multicentre, double-blind, parallel study in 216 patients with mild to moderate (supine diastolic blood pressure = 95-115 mm Hg) essential hypertension. 2 After a 4-week placebo washout, patients were randomized to placebo or lisinopril 1.25, 5, 20 or 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive weeks. Supine and erect blood pressure was measured 24 h postdose at the end of weeks -2, 0, 2, 4, and 6. 3 There was a linear dose-response relationship for both supine and erect blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure reductions in the lisinopril 20 and 80 mg day-1 groups were significantly greater than in the placebo or lisinopril 1.25 and 5 mg day-1 groups. 4 Lisinopril, at doses up to 80 mg day-1, was well tolerated. PMID:2556172

  7. Risk perception of future cardiovascular disease in women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Traylor, Jessica; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Limaye, Meghana; Srinivas, Sindhu; Durnwald, Celeste P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a woman's risk perception for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) after being diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. A prospective cohort of women diagnosed with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) was studied. Each woman completed two surveys, one prior to hospital discharge and one 2 weeks later, designed to assess knowledge of and risk perception for future CVD based on their recent diagnosis of a HDP. Rates of postpartum depression were also assessed. Of the 146 subjects included, 28% were diagnosed with preeclampsia with severe features, 52.1% with preeclampsia with mild features, and 19.9% had chronic hypertension. Women with severe features and those delivering preterm were more likely to report a perception of increased risk of both recurrent HDP in a future pregnancy (p = 0.004 and 0.005, respectively) and hypertension later in life (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Women delivering preterm were more likely to report an accurate perception of increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to those delivering at term (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). Disease severity and preterm delivery were associated with a higher likelihood of the perception of an increased risk for both recurrent HDP and hypertension in the future. Only preterm delivery was associated with a higher risk perception for stroke and myocardial infarction. Interventions targeted at improved health awareness in women diagnosed with HDP are warranted.

  8. New Standards for Diagnosing Hypertension Are Met with Skepticism | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Members of the Eighth Joint National Committee recently released new standards for treating hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure (BP). The new standards do not recommend treatment changes for individuals under 60 years of age. However, treatment changes were recommended for people over the age of 60 who do not have conditions such as diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whose BP numbers are 150/90 or higher. This BP threshold is up from the previously recommended threshold of 140/90. The panel also recommended that for people over 60 years of age who have diabetes or CKD, treatment should begin when BP is 140/90, which is an increase from 130/80. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes and/or medication to bring the BP numbers into a healthy range.

  9. New Standards for Diagnosing Hypertension Are Met with Skepticism | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Members of the Eighth Joint National Committee recently released new standards for treating hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure (BP). The new standards do not recommend treatment changes for individuals under 60 years of age. However, treatment changes were recommended for people over the age of 60 who do not have conditions such as diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whose BP numbers are 150/90 or higher. This BP threshold is up from the previously recommended threshold of 140/90. The panel also recommended that for people over 60 years of age who have diabetes or CKD, treatment should begin when BP is 140/90, which is an increase from 130/80. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes and/or medication to bring the BP numbers into a healthy range.

  10. Use of thermodilution cardiac output overestimates diagnoses of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Steven; Brusca, Samuel B.; Rhodes, Parker S.; Kolb, Todd M.; Mathai, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Two new definitions of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) have emerged. Both rely on measuring cardiac output (CO), yet this remains unstandardized. In our cohort of patients undergoing invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we found that using thermodilution CO rather than direct Fick CO led to a significant excess of EIPH diagnoses. PMID:28680584

  11. Use of thermodilution cardiac output overestimates diagnoses of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Steven; Brusca, Samuel B; Rhodes, Parker S; Kolb, Todd M; Mathai, Stephen C; Tedford, Ryan J

    2017-03-01

    Two new definitions of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) have emerged. Both rely on measuring cardiac output (CO), yet this remains unstandardized. In our cohort of patients undergoing invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we found that using thermodilution CO rather than direct Fick CO led to a significant excess of EIPH diagnoses.

  12. The relationship between obesity and transforming growth factor beta on renal damage in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Torun, Dilek; Ozelsancak, Ruya; Turan, Inci; Micozkadioglu, Hasan; Sezer, Siren; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity on renal functions and the possible relationship between TGF-beta1 and obesity in hypertensive patients. Seventy newly diagnosed, hypertensive patients (male/female 36/34, aged 45.0 +/- 8.0 years) and 30 (male/female 17/13, aged 41.8 +/- 7.7 years) normotensive controls were included. Patients in both groups were analyzed for serum levels of glucose, creatinine, uric acid, lipids, and TGF-beta1. A 24-hour urine sample was also obtained; creatinine clearance rate and urinary albumin excretion (UEA) were investigated. TGF-beta1 levels were significantly higher (40.7 +/- 13.6 versus 34.2 +/- 12.1 pg/mL, P = 0.02), and creatinine clearance was significantly lower in patients compared with controls (98.9 +/- 25.5 versus 124.5 +/- 23.1 mL/min. per. 1.73 m(2), P = 0.001). Serum TGF-beta1 levels (45.2 +/- 14 versis 38.0 +/- 12.8 pg/mL, P = 0.03), creatinine clearance rates (109.8 29.9 versus 93.0 +/- 20.8 mL/min. per. 1.73 m(2), P = 0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (55.7 +/- 62.0 versus 12.7 +/- 12.6 mg/24 h, P = 0.002) were higher in obese hypertensive patients than in nonobese patients. In hypertensive patients, TGF-beta1 levels correlated with body mass index (r = 0.296, P = 0.01) and creatinine clearance (r = 0.238, P = 0.04). The results suggest that increased body mass index is associated with increased creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion, and TGF-beta1 levels in essential hypertension. In addition, TGF-beta1 is positively correlated with body mass index and creatinine clearance in patients with essential hypertension.

  13. Association between albumin:creatinine ratio and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Boulatov, V A; Stenehjem, A; Os, I

    2001-04-01

    Microalbuminuria (MAU) is often found in essential hypertension (EH) and represents a sign of renal and cardiovascular damage. In the present study, we aimed to look at the association between ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). We studied 140 patients aged 50.1 +/- 11.6 years referred for 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and, separately, 46 untreated subjects with newly diagnosed EH. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by determination of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in the first voided morning urine sample taken the same day as the ABPM was started. According to the ACR, patients were categorized as having normoalbuminuria (ACR < 1.5 mg/mmol), borderline MAU (1.5 < or = ACR < 3.0 mg/mmol), and overt MAU (ACR > or = 3.0 mg/mmol). Mean ACR was significantly higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals (2.17 +/- 2.67 mg/mmol and 1.72 +/- 2.97 mg/mmol, respectively, P = .012). Average 24-h, daytime and nighttime systolic BP and diastolic BP were lower in patients with normoalbuminuria than in the other two groups and did not differ among the two microalbuminuric groups. Univariate regression analysis showed a close relationship between ACR and ambulatory BP. Strong correlation between BP and ACR in the normoalbuminuric and borderline microalbuminuric range was also obtained in the group of 46 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. In conclusion, the threshold level of ACR > or = 3.0 mg/mmol currently used to define microalbuminuria may be not applicable to EH. Instead, a threshold level of ACR > or = 1. 5 mg/mmol may be more appropriate.

  14. Assessing personality factors in essential hypertension with a brief self-report instrument.

    PubMed

    Baer, P E; Collins, F H; Bourianoff, G G; Ketchel, M F

    1979-06-01

    A 16-item self-report instrument was designed and cross-validated, comparing essential hypertensives with normotensives. After item selection using two sets of standardization groups, scores obtained from three additional sets of hypertensive and normotensive groups were significantly different. The scores were not significantly related to variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, hypochondriasis, social desirability or target organ involvement. The instrument's factorial structure for hypertensives consisted of factors labeled anger arousal, resentment, anxiety, and attention seeking. Hypertensives reported higher levels of hostility and anxiety than normotensives. High and low scoring subgroups on the instrument were examined on the 16 PF, with hypertensive high scorers demonstrating a different profile than low scoring hypertensives. The existence of two psychological types of essential hypertensives was suggested.

  15. Effects of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine on Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized

  16. Threshold for diagnosing hypertension by automated office blood pressure using random sample population data.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Peter; Cífková, Renata; Movsisyan, Narine; Kunzová, Šárka; Lešovský, Jiří; Homolka, Martin; Soška, Vladimír; Bauerová, Hana; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Sochor, Ondřej

    2016-11-01

    Manual office blood pressure (BP) is still recommended for diagnosing hypertension. However, its predictive value is decreased by errors in measurement technique and the white-coat effect. The errors can be eliminated by automated office BP (AOBP) measurement taking multiple readings with the participant resting quietly alone. Therefore, use of AOBP in clinical practice requires a threshold value for hypertension diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine an AOBP threshold corresponding to the 140/90 mmHg manual office BP using data from a large random population sample. In 2145 participants (mean age 47.3 ± 11.3 years) randomly selected from a Brno population aged 25-64 years, BP was measured using manual mercury and automated office sphygmomanometers. Manual SBP (mean difference 6.39 ± 9.76 mmHg) and DBP (mean difference 2.50 ± 6.54 mmHg) were higher than the automated BP. According to polynomial regression, automated systole of 131.06 (95% confidence interval 130.43-131.70) and diastole of 85.43 (95% confidence interval 85.03-85.82) corresponded to the manual BP of 140/90 mmHg. Using this cut-off, the white-coat hypertension was present in 24% of participants with elevated manual BP, whereas 10% had masked hypertension and 11% masked uncontrolled hypertension. In individuals with masked uncontrolled hypertension, only AOBP was associated with the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, whereas there was no association with manual BP. AOBP of 131/85 mmHg corresponds to the manual BP of 140/90 mmHg. This value may be used as a threshold for diagnosing hypertension using AOBP. However, outcome-driven studies are required to confirm this threshold.

  17. Evaluation and Treatment of Essential Hypertension During Short Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossum, Alfred C.; Baisden, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    During the last four decades of manned space flight, two individuals have successfully flown in space with the preflight diagnosis of essential hypertension (HTN). Treatment of this disease process in the astronaut population warrants special consideration particularly when selecting medication for a mission. A retrospective review of data offers two different clinical scenarios involving the treatment, or lack thereof, for essential hypertension during space flight. Case I; A Caucasian quinquagenerian diagnosed with HTN one year prior to the mission obtained flight certification after a negative diagnostic workup. The patient was placed on a diuretic. Preflight isolated blood pressure (BP) measurements averaged 138/102. Inflight, the patient electively declined medication. A 36-hour BP monitor revealed an average value of 124/87. Postflight, BP measurements returned to preflight BP values. Case II: A Caucasian quatrogenerian diagnosed with HTN 6 months prior to launch completed flight training after a negative diagnostic workup. The patient was placed on an ACE inhibiter. Preflight BP measurements averaged 130/80. Inflight, isolated BP measurements were considerably less. Normotensive values were obtained postflight. In both cases, BP values inflight were lower than pre or postflight values. Yelle et al has confirmed similar findings in the normotensive astronaut population. Spaceflight may result in fluid shifting, mild dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, orthostatic hypotension, and increased heart rates. Based on these factors, certain classes of antihypertensive agents such as vasodilators, beta-blockers, and diuretics are excluded from consideration as a primary therapeutic modality. To date, Ace Inhibitors are viewed as the more acceptable drug of choice during spaceflight. Newer classes of drugs may also provide additional choices. Presently, astronauts developing uncomplicated HTN may continue their careers when treated with the appropriate class of

  18. Evaluation and Treatment of Essential Hypertension During Short Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossum, Alfred C.; Baisden, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    During the last four decades of manned space flight, two individuals have successfully flown in space with the preflight diagnosis of essential hypertension (HTN). Treatment of this disease process in the astronaut population warrants special consideration particularly when selecting medication for a mission. A retrospective review of data offers two different clinical scenarios involving the treatment, or lack thereof, for essential hypertension during space flight. Case I; A Caucasian quinquagenerian diagnosed with HTN one year prior to the mission obtained flight certification after a negative diagnostic workup. The patient was placed on a diuretic. Preflight isolated blood pressure (BP) measurements averaged 138/102. Inflight, the patient electively declined medication. A 36-hour BP monitor revealed an average value of 124/87. Postflight, BP measurements returned to preflight BP values. Case II: A Caucasian quatrogenerian diagnosed with HTN 6 months prior to launch completed flight training after a negative diagnostic workup. The patient was placed on an ACE inhibiter. Preflight BP measurements averaged 130/80. Inflight, isolated BP measurements were considerably less. Normotensive values were obtained postflight. In both cases, BP values inflight were lower than pre or postflight values. Yelle et al has confirmed similar findings in the normotensive astronaut population. Spaceflight may result in fluid shifting, mild dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, orthostatic hypotension, and increased heart rates. Based on these factors, certain classes of antihypertensive agents such as vasodilators, beta-blockers, and diuretics are excluded from consideration as a primary therapeutic modality. To date, Ace Inhibitors are viewed as the more acceptable drug of choice during spaceflight. Newer classes of drugs may also provide additional choices. Presently, astronauts developing uncomplicated HTN may continue their careers when treated with the appropriate class of

  19. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide in Asian patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wen-Ter; Park, Jeong-Euy; Dongre, Neelesh; Wang, Jackson

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that hypertensive patients need concomitant therapy with one or more drugs from different classes of antihypertensive agents to achieve their blood pressure control targets. We performed the first multinational observational study of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) single pill combination in Asia to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability in hypertensive patients. The objective of this multinational, multicenter, 24-week follow-up observational study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide single pill combination in the treatment of essential hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region. A total of 7567 Asian patients who were diagnosed with stage 1 or stage 2 essential hypertension and who took at least one dose of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide single pill combination were included in the statistical analyses. A total of 59% were taking antihypertensive medication at the time of the study. Eligible patients received valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide single pill combination 80/12.5 mg tablets orally once daily at visit 1. The investigator could decide the subsequent dose of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide single pill combination for their patients, and efficacy, safety, and tolerability data were collected at week 4, 12, and 24. Basal blood pressure was 155.9±13.3 mmHg (systolic) and 96.3±10.1 mmHg (diastolic). Response rates and control rates increased continuously from baseline to the study endpoint at week 24, when they reached 94.6% and 73.2%, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure reductions were -25.4±15.2 mmHg and -14.9±13.5 mmHg, respectively (P<0.001). Using a four-point global assessment scale, 96.8% of the patients and physicians reported good, very good, or excellent for both their subjective efficacy and tolerability assessments. In this multicenter, multicountry study including 7567 Asian patients with hypertension, valsartan

  20. Abnormal cation exchange in insulin-resistant patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D R; Wing, J R; Sonnekus, M I; Toman, M; Milne, F J

    2008-01-01

    To identify important factors that may contribute to abnormal glucose tolerance in elderly patients with treated hypertension with primary reference to changes in the following parameters: calculated insulin resistance, endogenous insulin processing and secretion; platelet cation concentration and membrane ATPase activity. Thirty-nine patients receiving antihypertensive therapy (including low-dose thiazide treatment) were compared to 13 normotensive, normoglycaemic control subjects. Total platelet cation concentration and membrane ATPase activity were measured and, following a 75-g oral glucose test, serum insulin, proinsulin and 31-32 des-proinsulin responses were measured in prospectively defined hypertensive patients with normal glucose tolerance (NG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Of the total patient cohort, seven patients manifested newly diagnosed DM, 18 had IGT and 14 NG. Among the three groups, no difference in duration of drug use (thiazides and beta-blockers) was noted; BMI and waist-to-hip ratio increased progressively from NG to IGT to overt DM. Compared to NG patients, serum insulin responses were significantly greater in the IGT (all time points) and DM (two-hour measurements) subjects. Proinsulin and 31-32 des-proinsulin serum responses were likewise significantly higher in the IGT and DM groups. The derived measure of insulin resistance in the hypertensive patients showed a significant increase in the progression from NG to IGT and DM. Mean total platelet potassium concentration was reduced in the DM compared to the IGT and the control groups, while platelet sodium, calcium and magnesium concentrations showed no significant differences. Platelet membrane magnesium ATPase activity was significantly higher in the normotensive control versus the hypertensive group. Sodium, potassium and calcium ATPase activity showed no significant differences among the subgroups. Our findings support the strong link between essential

  1. Mechanism of increased alpha adrenergic vasoconstriction in human essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, B; Panis, R; Hinderliter, A; Schork, N; Julius, S

    1987-01-01

    Multiple components of vascular alpha adrenergic responsiveness were investigated in twenty-four men with mild hypertension and eighteen age- and weight-matched normotensive controls. Arterial plasma norepinephrine (paNE), an index of sympathetic drive, was increased in hypertensives compared to normotensives (mean +/- SE), 199 +/- 24 vs. 134 +/- 11 pg/ml, P less than 0.02. The effective concentration of intra-arterial (iaNE) increasing forearm vascular resistance (FAVR) 30% (NE-EC30, an index of vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity) was similar in normotensives and hypertensives, 9 +/- 1 vs. 13 +/- 3 ng/100 ml per min, respectively, P greater than 0.3. The phentolamine induced reduction in FAVR, an index of vascular alpha-tone, was greater in hypertensives, -21.3 +/- 1.8 vs. normotensives, -14.9 +/- 1.2 U, P less than 0.02. We interpret these data as evidence for normal vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to norepinephrine in mild hypertensives. Consequently, the increased sympathetic drive in mild hypertensives explains the elevated vascular alpha-tone. Although vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to iaNE was normal, the FAVR responses at high doses (reactivity) were greater in hypertensives to regional infusion of both NE and angiotensin II. This "nonspecific" enhancement of vascular reactivity is probably explained by structural vascular changes in hypertensives. PMID:3040806

  2. Role of Social Competence in Borderline Essential Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Randall L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated social competence of 22 male borderline hypertensives in relation to cardiovascular responsivity to Behavioral Role-Play Test of assertiveness and in comparison with normotensives. Identified two distinct groups of hypertensives based on pulse pressure changes (high/low) in response to social challenge. Both groups showed deficits in…

  3. [Essential hypertension in young people--ambulatory versus hospital care].

    PubMed

    Mitu, F; Leon, Maria-Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in our country. The number of young people with hypertension grow up quickly, so a good control of dyslipidemia and blood pressure (BP) is essential in prevention of cardiovascular disease. To investigate the prevalence of HTA at young people and established the corelation with another risk factors like smoke, colesterol, obesity and heredity, few data are available on the blood pressure characteristics of young patients. It has been investigate 366 young people between 19-25 years old, in ambulatory system and 350 younger with the same age, in hospital. Blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures, and was considered well-controlled if it was < 140/90 mm Hg. From our ambulatory patients were 198 women (54.1%), 168 men (45.9%) and from hospital were 178 women (50.9%) and 172 men (41.9%). HTA was present at 37 patients (10.1%) in ambulatory system and 50 patients (14.3%) in hospital. Between the intensity of smoke, the number of cigarette and the prevalence of HTA is a direct relation. The heredity factor is very important, too. The prevalence grow more than 2.5 at this patients. The incidence of HTA is 1.9 bigger at women with big values of colesterol and 2.1 at men with big colesterol. The relation between HTA--obesity is proven in our study, the incidence of HTA is 2.6 bigger at the obeses patients. These arguments should also promote further research in primary care on the control and the therapeutic behavior of the physicians.

  4. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  5. Diagnostic biomarkers of essential arterial hypertension: the value of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, oxidized-LDL, and peroxide measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuklinska, Agnieszka M; Mroczko, Barbara; Musial, Wlodzimierz J; Usowicz-Szarynska, Monika; Sawicki, Robert; Borowska, Halina; Knapp, Malgorzata; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2009-05-01

    Endothelial function is impaired in hypertensive patients. Decreased nitric oxide and prostacyclin production as well as increased oxidative stress are involved in this abnormality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress have diagnostic value in patients with essential hypertension. We measured nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and oxidized-LDL levels and assessed oxidative status in 62 patients with diagnosed essential arterial hypertension and 45 healthy controls. In the hypertensive group, among measured parameters, the median prostacyclin level was significantly lower, when compared to healthy controls (125.57 pg/mL, 25%; 75% quartile range: 84.99; 275.93 and 462.9 pg/mL, 25%; 75% quartile range: 107.69; 849.3, respectively, P = 0.009). The largest area under the ROC curve was found for prostacyclin; 0.647 (95% C.I. 0.549 to 0.737). In the analysis of logistic regression, the prostacyclin and oxidized-LDL cut-off values were associated with a 4.9 higher significant risk of hypertension (O.R. 4.91 and 4.99, respectively; P = 0.0008 and P = 0.00065, respectively). Oxidized-LDL, a biomarker of endothelial damage, was the only one that had a significant negative correlation with protective prostacyclin in hypertensive patients (r = -0.29, P = 0.02). Of all the biomarkers prostacyclin and oxidized-LDL had the best diagnostic value for patients with hypertension.

  6. Associations between PPARG polymorphisms and the risk of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Weijin; Shi, Ganwei; Xue, Sheliang; Zhang, Bifeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of essential hypertension (EH). It has been suggested that polymorphisms of PPARG are associated with the risk of EH. However, findings to date remain controversial. To elucidate the associations between the PPARG Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms and EH risk, a meta-analysis was carried out. Methods A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP and Wanfang databases was conducted. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the size of the effect using the random-effects model. At the same time, the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI was used for the meta-analysis of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism and blood pressure. Results Finally, Fifteen papers (seventeen studies) including 4,151 cases and 4,997 controls to evaluate the association of the PPARGPro12Ala polymorphism and EH risk, were included in this study. Overall, the results suggested that Ala allele was associated with the decreased EH risk (for allelic model, OR = 0.757, 95%CI: 0.624–0.918, P = 0.005; for dominant model, OR = 0.771, 95%CI: 0.627–0.946, P = 0.013). The subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity showed that the significant association between the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism and EH was only detected in the Asian subgroup. There was no difference in blood pressure values between Ala carriers and non-carriers. For the C161T polymorphism, only 5 studies comprising 1,118 cases and 1,357 controls met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that the PPARG C161T polymorphism was not associated with the risk of EH. But in the subgroup analysis, we found that the PPARG C161T polymorphism significantly associated with the risk of EH in the Asian subgroup (for allelic model, OR = 0.719, 95% CI: 0.537–0.963, P = 0.027; for dominant model

  7. Two anomalous cardiovascular responses to active standing in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, M Joaquina; Pinto, Basílio Gomes; de Oliveira, E Infante; Silva-Carvalho, L

    2008-05-01

    In a previous work we studied, non-invasively, autonomic nervous system control of circulation in healthy subjects, observing the hemodynamic reaction to active standing. We now propose to extend this analysis to essential hypertension (EH), investigating possible autonomic dysfunction. The cardiovascular response to postural change from the supine position to active standing of 48 EH patients, of both sexes, with and without medication, was compared with that obtained for healthy subjects. We evaluated arterial systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, stroke volume (SV), inotropic index (INOI), total vascular resistance (TVR), cardiac work (W), stroke work (SW), arterial compliance (AC) and heart rate (HR), using the entirely non-invasive BoMed NCCOM3 thoracic electrical bioimpedance monitor and sphygmomanometry. We found two patient groups characterized by different linear relationships between values of cardiovascular variables in active standing and in supine positions. Except for HR, in both groups these regression lines differed from normal. Compared to the supine position, in active standing, one group (EH-I) presented increased TVR, diminished SV, INOI, W, SW, and AC, and normal HR; the other group (EH-II) presented diminished TVR and HR and increased SV, INOI, W, SW and AC. The two patient groups could be separated on the basis of their age, but not on the basis of their systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures, gender or medication. The younger patient group (EH-I) included 28 subjects aged 24 to 69 years (50+/-10), of whom 11 were unmedicated, and the older patient group (EH-II) included 20 subjects aged 35 to 75 years (62+/-11), of whom 7 were unmedicated. Our results show a depressed response in postural change for older patients, which in the autonomic control of circulation expresses carotid baroreflex impairment, and conversely an enhanced response for younger patients, which can be caused by a maladjustment of the influence

  8. Dopamine D5 receptor expression is unchanged in peripheral blood lymphocytes in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Chiandussi, L; Schena, M; Schiavone, D; Veglio, F; Amenta, F

    1995-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate possible changes in the expression of lymphocyte dopamine receptor in essential hypertension. The expression of dopamine D5 receptor was evaluated by radioligand binding techniques using [3H]-SCH 23390 as ligand. Plasma catecholamines, aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity were also measured. Eleven borderline hypertensive patients, 15 patient with the mild essential hypertension, 7 patients with moderate essential hypertension and 5 patients with severe essential hypertension were examined. Plasma catecholamine levels were assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Dopamine D5 receptor was measured by radioligand binding techniques. Plasma aldosterone levels and renin activity were determined by radio immunoassay. [3H]-SCH 23390 was specifically bound to human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The binding was time-, temperature- and concentration-dependent with a dissociation constant (Kd) value of 0.59 nM and a maximum density of binding sites (Bmax) of 223 pmol/10(6) cells. Dopamine competed with [3H]-SCH 23390 binding in the submicromolar range suggesting the labelling of a dopamine D5 receptor. No changes in the density of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites were observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes between essential hypertensive patients and normotensive subjects. Also catecholamines, plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were unchanged. In spite of the availability of a sensitive technique for measuring dopamine receptors in human peripheral lymphocytes, no change in their expression was noticeable in essential hypertension. This suggests that dopamine receptor analysis in essential hypertension is not a useful marker for investigating hypertension-dependent changes of the peripheral dopaminergic system.

  9. Polymorphisms of APLN-APLNR system are associated with essential hypertension in Mexican-Mestizo individuals.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Martínez, Rosa Lilia; Pérez-Razo, Juan Carlos; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Cano-Martínez, Luis Javier; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Rojano-Mejía, David; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if polymorphisms of APLN and APLNR genes may play a role as susceptibility markers for hypertension in a group of Mexican-Mestizo patients. A case-control study was carried out including normotensive and hypertensive individuals. For these, two polymorphisms of APLN (rs3761581 and rs56204867) and two of APLNR () genes were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assay in 400 normotensive individuals and 383 patients. The results showed that, under an additive model adjusted by BMI, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and family history of essential hypertension, the rs7119375 and rs10501367 polymorphisms of APLNR gene were associated significantly with a decreased risk of essential hypertension (P=0.039 and P=0.029, respectively). Besides, the haplotypes analysis of these polymorphisms showed that H1 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of essential hypertension (P=0.026), while the H2 haplotype was associated with a decreased risk (P=0.032). Contrary, the rs3761581 and rs56204867 polymorphisms of APLN gene were not associated with essential hypertension (P=0.1707 and P=0.0769, respectively). The data suggest that APLNR rs7119375 and rs10501367 are associated with a decreased risk of essential hypertension in our Mexican-Mestizo studied group, but further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rarefaction of skin capillaries in normotensive offspring of individuals with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, T F T; Rattray, F M; Singer, D R J; Markandu, N D; Mortimer, P S; MacGregor, G A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Rarefaction of skin capillaries in people with intermittent borderline essential hypertension suggests a primary or an early abnormality that may antedate the onset of sustained hypertension. Objective: To compare skin capillary density in subjects with and without a family history of essential hypertension. Subjects: 21 normotensive individuals, one or both of whose parents had essential hypertension (mean age 39.3 years; blood pressure 124/79 mm Hg); 21 normotensive controls with no family history of hypertension (age 46.3 years; blood pressure 124/78 mm Hg). Methods: The skin of the dorsum of the fingers was examined by intravital capillary microscopy before and after venous congestion at 60 mm Hg for two minutes. Results: By analysis of variance, both baseline and maximum skin capillary density were lower in subjects with a family history of essential hypertension than in those with no family history (baseline: 67 v 79 capillaries per field, p = 0.008; maximum: 74 v 93 capillaries per field, p < 0.0005). Conclusions: Capillary rarefaction in essential hypertension may occur before the increase in blood pressure and could, at least in part, reflect a primary rather than a secondary abnormality. PMID:12527671

  11. Predisposition to essential hypertension and renal hemodynamics in recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hannedouche, T P; Marques, L P; Guicheney, P; Lacour, B; Boitard, C; Grünfeld, J P

    1992-10-01

    The offspring of essential hypertensive parents have been found to exhibit abnormalities in renal hemodynamics and sodium handling before the eventual occurrence of hypertension. The reported abnormalities represent a wide spectrum of changes including increased GFR, normal or decreased RPF, slight increase in blood pressure (although within the normal range), and an exaggerated natriuresis response to a sodium load. The heterogeneity of these abnormalities may reflect the specific conditions of the studies, the lability of the changes, or different subgroups of subjects with genetic predisposition to essential hypertension. Several lines of evidence have suggested a relationship between hypertension and the development of diabetic nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetics. This laboratory has found that recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetics can exhibit renal hemodynamics abnormalities very early in the course of diabetes according to a positive or negative family history of essential hypertension. These changes include increased GFR and mean arterial pressure, but no differences in renal sodium and lithium handling in diabetics with a genetic predisposition to essential hypertension. In addition, diabetics with a positive family history of essential hypertension exhibited a more-marked vasodilative response to an acute interruption of the renin-angiotensin system, further suggesting inadequate angiotensin modulation of renal vascular tone. The significance of these abnormalities in relation to the development of diabetic nephropathy requires further investigation.

  12. Programming of Essential Hypertension: What Pediatric Cardiologists Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Joana; Sanches, Bruno; Anjos, Rui; Coelho, Constança

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension is recognized as one of the major contributing factors to cardiovascular disease, but its etiology remains incompletely understood. Known genetic and environmental influences can only explain a small part of the variability in cardiovascular disease risk. The missing heritability is currently one of the most important challenges in blood pressure and hypertension genetics. Recently, some promising approaches have emerged that move beyond the DNA sequence and focus on identification of blood pressure genes regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNAs. This review summarizes information on gene-environmental interactions that lead toward the developmental programming of hypertension with specific reference to epigenetics and provides pediatricians and pediatric cardiologists with a more complete understanding of its pathogenesis.

  13. microRNAs in Essential Hypertension and Blood Pressure Regulation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-01-01

    Unravelling the complete genetic predisposition to high blood pressure (BP) has proven to be challenging. This puzzle and the fact that coding regions of the genome account for less than 2 % of the entire human DNA support the hypothesis that mechanisms besides coding genes are likely to contribute to BP regulation. Non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs, are emerging as key players of transcription regulation in both health and disease states. They control basic functions in virtually all cell types relevant to the cardiovascular system and, thus, a direct involvement with BP regulation is highly probable. Here we review the literature about microRNAs associated with regulation of BP and hypertension, highlighting investigations, methodology and difficulties arising in the field. These molecules are being studied for exploitation in diagnostics, prognostics and therapeutics in many diseases. There have been some studies that examined biological fluid microRNAs as biomarkers for hypertension, but most remain inconclusive due to the small sample sizes and differences in methodological standardisation. Fewer studies have analysed tissue microRNA levels in vascular smooth muscle cells and the kidney. Others focused on the interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and microRNA binding sites. Studies in animals have shown that angiotensin II, high-salt diet and exercise change microRNA levels in hypertension. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with a miR-22 inhibitor and treatment of hypertensive Schlager BPH/2J mice with a miR-181a mimic decreased their BP. This supports the use of microRNAs as therapeutic targets in hypertension, and future studies should test the use of other microRNAs found in human association studies. In conclusion, there is a clear need of increased pace of human, animal and functional studies to help us understand the multifaceted roles of microRNAs as critical regulators of the development and physiology of BP.

  14. Plasma Metanephrines Are Associated With Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqing; Mu, Liangshan; Su, Tingwei; Ye, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    There is a high incidence of glucose intolerance in essential hypertension. Overactivation of the sympathetic system is one of important causes of essential hypertension. Whether sympathetic system affects glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension has never been reported previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the sympathetic system activity and glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 202 essential hypertension inpatients without diabetes were recruited from Shanghai Ruijin Hospital between February 2006 and August 2013. Activity of sympathetic system was quantified by plasma metanephrines (MNs) levels. All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose increased significantly across the quartiles of plasma MNs. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that plasma MNs were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose. The area under curve of plasma glucose increased significantly from the lowest plasma MNs quartile across to the highest quartile. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of plasma MNs was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-13.86). Plasma MNs levels are positively associated with plasma glucose in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with high plasma MNs levels had an increased risk of prediabetes.

  15. Plasma Metanephrines Are Associated With Glucose Metabolism in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqing; Mu, Liangshan; Su, Tingwei; Ye, Lei; Jiang, Yiran; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a high incidence of glucose intolerance in essential hypertension. Overactivation of the sympathetic system is one of important causes of essential hypertension. Whether sympathetic system affects glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension has never been reported previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the sympathetic system activity and glucose metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 202 essential hypertension inpatients without diabetes were recruited from Shanghai Ruijin Hospital between February 2006 and August 2013. Activity of sympathetic system was quantified by plasma metanephrines (MNs) levels. All subjects received an oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose increased significantly across the quartiles of plasma MNs. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that plasma MNs were significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose. The area under curve of plasma glucose increased significantly from the lowest plasma MNs quartile across to the highest quartile. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of plasma MNs was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 1.16–13.86). Plasma MNs levels are positively associated with plasma glucose in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with high plasma MNs levels had an increased risk of prediabetes. PMID:26376391

  16. A randomised controlled trial for the evaluation of risk for type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics: Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shinichiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ando, Shin-Ichi; Takishita, Shu-Ichi; Kawano, Yuhei; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao

    2014-07-16

    Thiazide diuretics are one of the first choice antihypertensives but not optimally utilised because of concerns regarding their adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study was designed, for the first time, to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with essential hypertension during antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics compared to those not treated with diuretics. Multicentre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessment of end points and intention-to-treat analysis that was started in 2004 and finished in 2012. Hypertension clinics at 106 sites in Japan, including general practitioners' offices and teaching hospitals. Non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics at 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide or equivalent (Diuretics group) or that without thiazide diuretics (No-diuretics group). The primary outcome was new onset of type 2 diabetes diagnosed according to WHO criteria and the criteria of Japanese Society of Diabetes. 1130 patients were allocated to Diuretics (n=544) or No-diuretics group (n=586). Complete end point information was collected for 1049 participants after a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Diabetes developed in 25 (4.6%) participants in the Diuretics group, as compared with 29 (4.9%) in the No-diuretics group (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.58; p=0.800). Antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics at low doses may not be associated with an increased risk for new onset of type 2 diabetes. This result might suggest safety of use of low doses of thiazide diuretics. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131846. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. A randomised controlled trial for the evaluation of risk for type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics: Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shinichiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ando, Shin-ichi; Takishita, Shu-ichi; Kawano, Yuhei; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Ogihara, Toshio; Saruta, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thiazide diuretics are one of the first choice antihypertensives but not optimally utilised because of concerns regarding their adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study was designed, for the first time, to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with essential hypertension during antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics compared to those not treated with diuretics. Design Multicentre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessment of end points and intention-to-treat analysis that was started in 2004 and finished in 2012. Setting Hypertension clinics at 106 sites in Japan, including general practitioners’ offices and teaching hospitals. Participants Non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Interventions Antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics at 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide or equivalent (Diuretics group) or that without thiazide diuretics (No-diuretics group). Main outcome The primary outcome was new onset of type 2 diabetes diagnosed according to WHO criteria and the criteria of Japanese Society of Diabetes. Results 1130 patients were allocated to Diuretics (n=544) or No-diuretics group (n=586). Complete end point information was collected for 1049 participants after a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Diabetes developed in 25 (4.6%) participants in the Diuretics group, as compared with 29 (4.9%) in the No-diuretics group (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.58; p=0.800). Conclusions Antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics at low doses may not be associated with an increased risk for new onset of type 2 diabetes. This result might suggest safety of use of low doses of thiazide diuretics. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131846. PMID:25031188

  18. Lower body nerve stretch: a role in essential hypertension or pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed

    Milne, B

    1996-10-01

    Despite the relatively high incidence of essential hypertension and pregnancy-induced hypertension, the etiologies of these disorders remain enigmatic. A link between stretching of neural structures in the lower body and the induction of hypertension in these disorders is hypothesized. Hypertension has been documented in patients undergoing femoral and tibial lengthening procedures; in experimental models the stretching of lower extremity nerves appeared to be responsible for the increase in blood pressure with bone lengthening. The upright posture of humans puts an added strain on nerves and an increased pressure on lumbar disks may put increasing tension on the nerve roots. The resultant nerve stretch in pregnant women may be exacerbated by the hormone relaxin. A possible link between the stretching of neural structures and the genesis of essential hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is hypothesized.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Studies: Contribution of Genomics to Understanding Blood Pressure and Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary genomic tools now allow the fast and reliable genotyping of hundreds of thousands of variants and permit an unbiased interrogation of the common variability across the human genome. These technical advances have been the basis of numerous recent investigations of genes underlying complex genetic traits, and the results for blood pressure and hypertension have been of particular interest. The pathophysiology of the complex genetic trait blood pressure and hypertension is unclear. The heritability of essential hypertension is high and insights can be gained by finding associated genes. Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 10 to 20 loci in or near genes that generally were not expected to be associated with blood pressure or essential hypertension; more significant variants will be discovered when even larger and more refined studies become available. This article gives a short introduction to GWAS and summarizes the current findings for blood pressure and hypertension. PMID:20425154

  20. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  1. Blood Pressure Variability and Stress Management Training for Essential Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Vera, Maria Paz; Sanz, Jesus; Labrador, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress management training reduces blood pressure (BP) variability in hypertensive patients. Previous literature suggests that cardiovascular risk is not only a function of BP levels, but also of BP variability, and this partially depends on changes induced by the stress of everyday life. The…

  2. Quantitative and functional characteristics of endothelial progenitor cells in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Skrzypkowska, M; Myśliwska, J; Słomiński, B; Siebert, J; Gutknecht, P; Ryba-Stanisławowska, M

    2015-05-01

    Populations of peripheral blood CD34(+) cells comprise precursors of endothelial cells. These precursors are crucial to cardiovascular homeostasis. Hypertension, as one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is associated with the loss of endothelium structural integrity and its functional impairment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the subsets of endothelial precursor cells in patients with newly diagnosed arterial hypertension. Twenty-four newly diagnosed, previously untreated hypertensive patients aged 59.5 ± 12.5 years, were enrolled into the study group, whereas the control group comprised 45 healthy subjects, 55.5±10.0 years old. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were analysed by flow cytometry. The results showed that hypertensive patients were characterized by a significantly higher percentage and number of the CD34(+) cells and simultaneously less differentiated CD34(+)CD45(dim/neg)CD133(+) progenitors. The percentage and number of CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+) and CD34(+)CD45(neg)CD133(+)VEGFR2(+) cells were not different from the control group. Moreover, patients had a significantly lower percentage and number of the CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+)CXCR4(+) and CD34(+)CD45(neg)VEGFR2(+)ICAM-1(+) cells than healthy individuals. These changes were paralleled by early symptoms of nephropathy, that is, lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) values and borderline micro albuminuria. Our results indicate that an elevation in the number of less differentiated progenitors may be a mechanism compensating for defects of migration and adhesion, present in a more differentiated subset.

  3. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation in Essential Hypertension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-20

    SI n.c... ~ y aid ld.ruity by Mock numb.,) Biofeedback Operant condition ing Behav i oral factors in hypertension Re l axa ti on Meditation • 20...preliminary findings of a clini- cal study in which two types of biofeedback training were compared to a form of meditation in the treatment of borderline...studies did not include controls for nonspecific effects. Benson , Rosner , Marzetta, and Klemchuk ( 1974a,b), using proce- dures based on meditation

  4. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  5. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in San Luis.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Alicia Viviana; Arce, Maria Elena; Lopez, José Raul; Ciuffo, Gladys María

    2006-12-01

    Essential hypertension is considered a multifactorial trait resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates the vasoconstrictor and growth-promoting effects of Ang II. The A1166C polymorphism of the AT1 receptor gene may be associated with cardiovascular phenotypes, such as high arterial blood pressure, aortic stiffness, and increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the association between this A1166C polymorphism and hypertension in hypertense and normotense subjects from San Luis (Argentina) by mismatch PCR-RFLP analysis. Hypertense patients exhibited significant increases in lipid related values and body mass index. The frequency of occurrence of the C1166 allele was higher among patients with hypertension (0.19) than in the control group (0.06). No significant association was found between this polymorphism and essential hypertension in the study population, although the AC genotype prevalence was higher in patients with hypertension and positive family history of hypertension (32%) than in control subjects (12%). Patients with the A1166C polymorphism exhibited higher levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and BMI than in control subjects. Taken together the genotype and biochemical parameters and considering the restrictive selection criteria used, the present results suggest a correlation between AT1 A1166C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Association of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms and concentration with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Turgut Cosan, Didem; Colak, E; Saydam, F; Yazıcı, H U; Degirmenci, I; Birdane, A; Colak, E; Gunes, H V

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is carried by high-density lipoprotein in blood circulation and is shown to be effective in preventing oxidized phospholipids carried by low-density lipoprotein particles, thus it acts as an antioxidant. Polymorphism in this gene has been investigated for many metabolic diseases, but it is not thought to be a genetic risk factor for essential hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an association between PON1 gene polymorphisms and concentration with essential hypertension. The study population was comprised of 100 patients with essential hypertension and 100 healthy controls. One promoter region [C(-108)T] and two coding region (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms in the PON1 gene were genotyped in individuals by using the TaqMan assay. Plasma PON1 concentration in all volunteers was also measured spectrophotometrically by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The genotype and allele frequencies of the PON1 C(-108)T polymorphism showed significant differences between the essential hypertensive and control groups (CT vs. CC: p<0.001; T allele vs. C allele: p<0.001). There was no significant difference for the PON1 L55M polymorphism between the groups, while the heterozygote genotype of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism showed significant difference (p = 0.03). The PON1 concentration was also found to be significantly lower in hypertensive patients (p < 0.001). Decline in the level of PON1 gene may be one of the main factors in the development of essential hypertension, and the PON1 C(-108)T polymorphism may have a prognostic value in the patients with essential hypertension.

  7. [Serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in patients with untreated essential arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Huskić, J; Kulenović, H

    1996-01-01

    The serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 30 patients with untreated essential arterial hypertension, 30 patients with chronic renal failure accompanied with arterial hypertension and 30 healthy individuals was measured. The subjects of both sexes have been old 35-60 years. The serum ACE activity was determined by the spectrophotometric method, using Hip-Gly-Gly as a substrate. The serum ACE activity significantly increased in patients with arterial hypertension (32.48 +/- 2.02; X +/- SEM) and patients with chronical renal failure accompanied with arterial hypertension (37.10 +/- 1.45) when compared to the healthy individuals (20.83 +/- 1.33). Possible mechanisms of increasing ACE activity with the patients suffering of arterial hypertension are discussed.

  8. Association of T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene with essential hypertension: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyang; Yang, Zhiyi; Peng, Daqing; Dai, Hua; Lei, Yi; Zhao, Qian; Han, Yanbing; Wang, Weiwen

    2014-09-01

    The association between T174M polymorphism of angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension risk remains controversial. We herein performed a meta-analysis to achieve a reliable estimation of their relationship. All the studies published up to May 2013 on the association between T174M polymorphism and essential hypertension risk were identified by searching the electronic repositories PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Ultimately, nine eligible studies, including 2188 essential hypertension cases and 2459 controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. No significant associations were found under the overall ORs for M-allele comparison (M vs. T, pooled OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.37), MM vs. TT (pooled OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.29-2.51), TM vs. TT n (pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.32), recessive model (MM vs. TT+TM, pooled OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35-2.30), dominant model (MM+TM vs. TT, pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60-1.38) between T174M polymorphism and risk for essential hypertension. This meta-analysis suggested that the T174M polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene might not be associated with the susceptibility of essential hypertension in Asian or European populations.

  9. Evaluation of diet and nutritional status in patients aged 45+ with diagnosed, pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Śmidowicz, Angelika; Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diet plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension. Appropriate diet makes it possible to maintain adequate body weight and improve biochemical blood parameters. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status of arterial hypertension patients in terms of their diet. Material and methods The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension aged 45-70 years. Diet was evaluated using a 24-hour 7-day diet recall interview. In the course of the diet recall interview arterial pressure was measured three times at regular times, after a 15-minute rest period, and the recorded values were averaged. Nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference) and the resulting nutrition status indexes, i.e. BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-hip ratio) as well as values of biochemical blood parameters. Conclusions It was found that a considerable proportion of patients are overweight or obese, have an inappropriate lipid profile and elevated blood glucose levels. Daily food rations (DFR) were inappropriately balanced. Daily food rations were deficient in energy, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, PUFA and folates. It was found that inadequate diet was correlated with nutritional status, lipid profile parameters and arterial blood pressure. PMID:26327839

  10. Evaluation of diet and nutritional status in patients aged 45+ with diagnosed, pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Reguła, Julita; Śmidowicz, Angelika; Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Diet plays a significant role in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension. Appropriate diet makes it possible to maintain adequate body weight and improve biochemical blood parameters. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status of arterial hypertension patients in terms of their diet. The study involved 55 patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension aged 45-70 years. Diet was evaluated using a 24-hour 7-day diet recall interview. In the course of the diet recall interview arterial pressure was measured three times at regular times, after a 15-minute rest period, and the recorded values were averaged. Nutritional status was assessed based on anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference) and the resulting nutrition status indexes, i.e. BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist-hip ratio) as well as values of biochemical blood parameters. It was found that a considerable proportion of patients are overweight or obese, have an inappropriate lipid profile and elevated blood glucose levels. Daily food rations (DFR) were inappropriately balanced. Daily food rations were deficient in energy, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, PUFA and folates. It was found that inadequate diet was correlated with nutritional status, lipid profile parameters and arterial blood pressure.

  11. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p < 0.001, for all) and hs-CRP (p = 0.005) were higher in morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05, for all). Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p < 0.001), aortic distensibility (β= -0.384, p < 0.001) and day-night SBP difference (β = 0.229, p < 0.001) in multivariate linear regression analysis. We found independent relationship between morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  12. [The association between socioeconomic status and blood pressure control in diagnosed hypertension patients].

    PubMed

    Su, Danting; Hu, Ruying; Fang, Le; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hao; He, Qingfang; Wang, Lixin; Zhao, Ming; Yu, Min

    2015-05-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure control in diagnosed hypertension patients. The database of Zhejiang provincial survey on metabolic syndrome which implemented in 2010 in which prior hypoertensive patients were brought into this sutdy. Descriptive statistics were applied to test the distributive differences of relevant factors (age, sex, marital status, hypertension duration, BMI, education level, per capita household yearly income, smoking, alcohol drinking, fruit and vegetable intake) between patients with optimally-controlled blood pressure and those without. The SES of diagnosed hypertension patients was measured separately by two common indicators: education level and the per capita household yearly income. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to differentiate the association between those two SES indicators and blood pressure control, and the trend of the association was also tested. Totally, 2 394 hypertension patients were diagnosed and identified. Of the patients analysed, the overall mean was (61.53 ± 10.64) years, and 55.7% (1 334 cases) had ≤ 5 years' disease duration. 1 090 achieved optimal blood pressure control, which accounted for a proportion of 45.5%. 1 676 had elementary school education and below, accounting for 70.1%. The patients with per capita household yearly income of < 5 000 Yuan and 5 000-14 999 Yuan groups were 401 (29.4%) and 690 (50.5%) respectively. 416 (17.4%) were smokers and 541 (22.6%) were alcohol drinkers. Based on the statistical tests, we found that the distributions of age, marital status, hypertension duration, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking were different between two groups (t or χ² values were 4.57, 5.44, 6.40, 6.21, 5.99, 3.98, respectively, all P values were < 0.05). Optical blood pressure control in higer education level group was significantly better than that of in lower education level (χ² = 12.65, P < 0.001), and there

  13. HyperCare: a prototype of an active database for compliance with essential hypertension therapy guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Caironi, P. V.; Portoni, L.; Combi, C.; Pinciroli, F.; Ceri, S.

    1997-01-01

    HyperCare is a prototype of a decision support system for essential hypertension care management. The medical knowledge implemented in HyperCare derives from the guidelines for the management of mild hypertension of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension, and from the recommendations of the United States Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. HyperCare has been implemented using Chimera, an active database language developed at the Politecnico di Milano. HyperCare proves the possibility to use active database systems in developing a medical data-intensive application where inferential elaboration of moderate complexity is required. PMID:9357634

  14. Prognostic value of microalbuminuria during antihypertensive treatment in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Escrich, Miguel; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2014-12-01

    Whether changes over time of urinary albumin excretion have prognostic value is a matter of discussion. The objective was to assess the prognostic value of changes in urinary albumin excretion over time in cardiovascular risk during antihypertensive treatment. Follow-up study of 2835 hypertensives in the absence of previous cardiovascular disease (mean age 55 years, 47% men, BP 138/80 mm Hg, 19.1% diabetics, and calibrated systemic coronary risk estimation 5 or >10.6%). Usual-care of antihypertensive treatment was implemented to maintain blood pressure<140/90 mm Hg. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed yearly, and the values were expressed as the creatinine ratio. Incidence of cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal, was recorded during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years (17 028 patients-year), 294 fatal and first nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded (1.73 CVD per 100 patients/year). Independently of blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, level of cardiovascular risk, and antihypertensive treatment, microalbuminuria at baseline and at any time during the follow-up resulted in higher risk for events, hazard ratio (HR) 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79) and HR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.14-1.94), respectively. Likewise, development of microalbuminuria (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.46) or persistence from the beginning (1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.06) had a significantly higher rate of events than if remained normoalbuminuric (HR 1) or regress to normoalbuminuria (HR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.92-2.06) with an 18%, 18%, 8%, and 11% events, respectively, P<0.001. The study supports the value of urinary albumin excretion assessment as a prognostic factor for cardiovascular risk, but also opens the way to consider it as an intermediate objective in hypertension.

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes for Essential Hypertension: A Literature Analysis of 13,272 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. To simplify traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation and allow researchers to master syndrome differentiation for hypertension, this paper retrospectively studied the literature and analyzed syndrome elements corresponding to hypertension syndromes. Methods. Six databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Bio-Medical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Wan-fang Data were searched from 1/January/2003 to 30/October/2013. We included all clinical literature testing hypertension syndromes and retrospectively studied the hypertension literature published from 2003 to 2013. Descriptive statistics calculated frequencies and percentages. Results. 13,272 patients with essential hypertension were included. Clinical features of hypertension could be attributed to 11 kinds of syndrome factors. Among them, seven syndrome factors were excess, while four syndrome factors were deficient. Syndrome targets were mainly in the liver and related to the kidney and spleen. There were 33 combination syndromes. Frequency of single-factor syndromes was 31.77% and frequency of two-factor syndromes was 62.26%. Conclusions. Excess syndrome factors of hypertension patients include yang hyperactivity, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, internal dampness, and internal fire. Deficient syndrome factors of hypertension patients are yin deficiency and yang deficiency. Yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity, phlegm-dampness retention, and deficiency of both yin and yang were the three most common syndromes in clinical combination. PMID:24660016

  16. Spectral analysis of laser Doppler skin blood flow oscillations in human essential arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Marco; Carpi, Angelo; Di Maria, Cinzia; Galetta, Fabio; Santoro, Gino

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether human essential arterial hypertension (EHT) is associated with modification of the skin blood flowmotion (SBF), which could be a sign of skin microcirculatory impairment. Forearm skin perfusion was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in conventional perfusion units (PU) before and after ischemia in 20 middle-age newly diagnosed EHT untreated patients, in 20 middle-age long standing EHT treated patients and in 30 age and sex matched healthy normotensive subjects (NS). Power spectral density (PSD) of SBF total spectrum (0.009-1.6 Hz), as well of five different frequency intervals (FI), each of them related to endothelial (0.009-0.02 Hz), sympathetic (0.02-0.06 Hz), myogenic (0.06-0.2 Hz), respiratory (0.2-0.6) or cardiac (0.6-1.6) activity, was also measured in PU(2)/Hz before and after ishemia, using Fourier analysis of LDF signal. The three studied groups did not differ in basal and post-ischemic skin perfusion or in basal SBF parameters considered. However, while a significant post-ischemic increase in PSD of total spectrum SBF (P < 0.001) and of its different FI, with the only exception of respiratory FI, was observed in NS, a significsnt post-ischemic increase in PSD was observed only for total spectrum (P < 0.01) and for endothelial FI (P < 0.001) in newly diagnosed EHT patients and only for myogenic FI (P < 0.05) in long standing EHT patients. These findings suggest that the mechanisms which mediate the post-ischemic increment of SBF are perturbed earlier in human EHT than the mechanisms which mediate the skin post-ischemic hyperaemia. The same findings also suggest that the impairment of the endothelial mechanism involved in SBF control occurs by the time in the course of EHT.

  17. Vagal cardiac activity in essential hypertension: the effects of metoprolol and ramipril.

    PubMed

    Vesalainen, R K; Kantola, I M; Airaksinen, K E; Tahvanainen, K U; Kaila, T J

    1998-06-01

    Cardiovascular parasympathetic activity is attenuated in essential hypertension. Both beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been reported to increase vagal modulation of heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity, but the relations between the antihypertensive and vagal cardiac effects of these drugs have remained unclear in essential hypertension. In the present study we evaluated the effects of a 4-week crossover monotherapy with metoprolol and ramipril on spectrum analysis indices of heart rate variability in the supine rest and head-up tilted positions, baroreflex sensitivity (phenylephrine method), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in 12 formerly untreated stage 1-2 essential hypertensive patients. Compared to the pretreatment values, both drugs decreased BP similarly and significantly. However, the drugs showed different effects on cardiac vagal activity: metoprolol increased significantly mean R-R interval, R-R interval total, and high-frequency variability at supine rest and baroreflex sensitivity, but ramipril did not significantly affect these variables. The metoprolol-induced decrease in ambulatory BP correlated with the prolongation of the R-R interval and the increase of high-frequency variability at supine rest. The present data show that 4-week treatment with metoprolol increases tonic and reflex vagal cardiac activity, whereas ramipril does not affect vagal cardiac control in essential hypertension. Increase in vagal activity may contribute to the BP-lowering effect of metoprolol in hypertensive patients.

  18. Hypercontrols in Genotype-Phenotype Analysis Reveal Ancestral Haplotypes Associated With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Balam-Ortiz, Eros; Esquivel-Villarreal, Adolfo; Huerta-Hernandez, David; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Muñoz-Monroy, Omar; Gutierrez, Ruth; Figueroa-Genis, Enrique; Carrillo, Karol; Elizalde, Adela; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Mauricio; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The angiotensinogen gene locus has been associated with essential hypertension in most populations analyzed to date. Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels have been proposed as an underlying cause of essential hypertension in whites; however, differences in the genetic regulation of plasma angiotensinogen levels have also been reported for other populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with plasma angiotensinogen levels and the risk of essential hypertension in the Mexican population. We genotyped 9 angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in 706 individuals. Four polymorphisms, A-6, C4072, C6309, and G12775, were associated with increased risk, and the strongest association was found for the C6309 allele (χ2 = 23.9; P = 0.0000009), which resulted in an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8–4.9; P = 0.000006) in the recessive model. Two polymorphisms, A-20C (P = 0.003) and C3389T (P = 0.0001), were associated with increased plasma angiotensinogen levels but did not show association with essential hypertension. The haplotypes H1 (χ2 = 8.1; P = 0.004) and H5 (χ2 = 5.1; P = 0.02) were associated with essential hypertension. Using phylogenetic analysis, we found that haplotypes 1 and 5 are the human ancestral haplotypes. Our results suggest that the positive association between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with essential hypertension is not simply explained by an increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration. Complex interactions between risk alleles suggest that these haplotypes act as “superalleles.” PMID:22371359

  19. Hypercontrols in genotype-phenotype analysis reveal ancestral haplotypes associated with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balam-Ortiz, Eros; Esquivel-Villarreal, Adolfo; Huerta-Hernandez, David; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Alfaro-Ruiz, Luis; Muñoz-Monroy, Omar; Gutierrez, Ruth; Figueroa-Genis, Enrique; Carrillo, Karol; Elizalde, Adela; Hidalgo, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Mauricio; Urushihara, Maki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    The angiotensinogen gene locus has been associated with essential hypertension in most populations analyzed to date. Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels have been proposed as an underlying cause of essential hypertension in whites; however, differences in the genetic regulation of plasma angiotensinogen levels have also been reported for other populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with plasma angiotensinogen levels and the risk of essential hypertension in the Mexican population. We genotyped 9 angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms in 706 individuals. Four polymorphisms, A-6, C4072, C6309, and G12775, were associated with increased risk, and the strongest association was found for the C6309 allele (χ(2)=23.9; P=0.0000009), which resulted in an odds ratio of 3.0 (95% CI: 1.8-4.9; P=0.000006) in the recessive model. Two polymorphisms, A-20C (P=0.003) and C3389T (P=0.0001), were associated with increased plasma angiotensinogen levels but did not show association with essential hypertension. The haplotypes H1 (χ(2)=8.1; P=0.004) and H5 (χ(2)=5.1; P=0.02) were associated with essential hypertension. Using phylogenetic analysis, we found that haplotypes 1 and 5 are the human ancestral haplotypes. Our results suggest that the positive association between angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with essential hypertension is not simply explained by an increase in plasma angiotensinogen concentration. Complex interactions between risk alleles suggest that these haplotypes act as "superalleles."

  20. Role of tagged SNPs of the AGT gene in causing susceptibility to essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Padma; Nagalingam, Swapna; Tirunilai, Padma

    Angiotensinogen (AGT) is one of the candidate genes that has been extensively investigated for association of its variants with essential hypertension. Studies focusing on the contribution of tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AGT gene are limited and lacking from Indian population. Hence, the present study was carried out to examine the role of five tagged SNPs viz., g.6147G>A (rs7539020), g.5978A>G (rs2493134); g.6241T>C (rs1078499), g.7781G>T (rs11122577), and g.5855G>A (rs3789678) in the development of hypertension. 202 hypertensives and 222 normotensives were screened for five tagged SNPs using the method of polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The present study revealed significant association of g.5855G>A polymorphism with essential hypertension in different logistic regression models wherein protection was conferred by g.5855G>A against developing the condition. The polymorphism led to the creation of new exonic splicing enhancer and destruction of exonic splicing silencer site thereby enhancing the process of mRNA splicing. The haplotypes AGTG and GACG were found to have a significant protective effect. Other polymorphisms did not show any significant association with hypertension. The present study is the first one to report the protective role of g.5855G>A polymorphism in the development of essential hypertension. The results reflect possibility of ethnic variation in the contribution of g.5855G>A polymorphism of the AGT gene to essential hypertension.

  1. Amlodipine, enalapril, and dependent leg edema in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedrinelli, R; Dell'Omo, G; Melillo, E; Mariani, M

    2000-02-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) blunt postural skin vasoconstriction, an autoregulatory mechanism that minimizes gravitational increases in capillary pressure and avoids fluid extravasation when standing. To evaluate the dose-response relation between this pharmacological interference and dependent edema, a frequent side effect of CCBs during antihypertensive treatment, skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry) at the dorsum of the foot, both supine and with the limb passively placed 50 cm below the heart level, and leg weight (Archimedes principle) were measured at baseline, during increasing doses of the dihydropyridine amlodipine (5 and 10 mg UID each for 2 weeks), and after drug withdrawal in 10 hypertensive men. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may attenuate ankle swelling by CCBs, those parameters were evaluated according to a similar design during amlodipine (10 mg UID) and enalapril (20 mg UID) combined (n=10). As a control, the effect of enalapril monotherapy (10 and 20 mg UID for 2 weeks each) was evaluated in a third series of patients (n=8). Amlodipine (5 mg UID) increased leg weight without modifying postural vasoconstriction (the percent skin blood flow decrease from horizontal to dependent position), which indicates that extravascular fluid shift was independent of postural skin vasoconstriction. At 10 mg UID, however, amlodipine blunted postural vasoconstriction and increased leg weight further, which suggests that skin blood flow autoregulation limited additional fluid transfer. Both parameters normalized after drug withdrawal. Enalapril per se did not affect cutaneous vasomotion or leg weight but reduced the amount of dependent fluid extravasation by the CCB despite a persistent antagonism for postural vasoconstrictor responses.

  2. Strong independent association between obesity and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Movahed, M R; Lee, J Z; Lim, W Y; Hashemzadeh, M; Hashemzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and hypertension (HTN) are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Association between obesity and HTN has not been studied in a large populations following adjustment for comorbidities. The goal of this study was to evaluate any association between obesity and HTN after adjusting for baseline characteristics. We used ICD-9 codes for obesity and HTN from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) databases. Two randomly selected years, 1992 and 2002, were chosen from the databases as two independent samples. We used uni- and multivariable analysis to study any correlation between obesity and HTN. The 1992 database contained a total of 6,195,744 patients. HTN was present in 37.2 % of patients with obesity versus 12% of the control group (OR: 4.36, CI 4.30-4.42, P < 0.001). The 2002 database contained a total of 7,153,982 patients. HTN was present in 50.7% of patients with obesity versus 25.6% of the control group (OR: 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). Using multivariable analysis adjusting for gender, hyperlipidaemia, age, smoking, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, obesity remained correlated with HTN in both years (1992: OR 2.69, CI 2.67-2.72, P < 0.001; 2002: OR 2.98, CI 2.96-3.00, P < 0.001). The presence of obesity was found to be strongly and independently associated with HTN. The cause of this correlation is not known warranting further investigation.

  3. Abnormal sympathetic overactivity evoked by insulin in the skeletal muscle of patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, G; Napoli, R; Capaldo, B; Rendina, V; Iaccarino, G; Volpe, M; Trimarco, B; Saccà, L

    1992-01-01

    The reason why hyperinsulinemia is associated with essential hypertension is not known. To test the hypothesis of a pathophysiologic link mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, we measured the changes in forearm norepinephrine release, by using the forearm perfusion technique in conjunction with the infusion of tritiated NE, in patients with essential hypertension and in normal subjects receiving insulin intravenously (1 mU/kg per min) while maintaining euglycemia. Hyperinsulinemia (50-60 microU/ml in the deep forearm vein) evoked a significant increase in forearm NE release in both groups of subjects. However, the response of hypertensives was threefold greater compared to that of normotensives (2.28 +/- 45 ng.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and 0.80 +/- 0.27 ng.liter-1 in normals; P less than 0.01). Forearm glucose uptake rose to 5.1 +/- .7 mg.liter-1.min-1 in response to insulin in hypertensives and to 7.9 +/- 1.3 mg.liter-1.min-1 in normotensives (P less than 0.05). To clarify whether insulin action was due to a direct effect on muscle NE metabolism, in another set of experiments insulin was infused locally into the brachial artery to expose only the forearm tissues to the same insulin levels as in the systemic studies. During local hyperinsulinemia, forearm NE release remained virtually unchanged both in hypertensive and in normal subjects. Furthermore, forearm glucose disposal was activated to a similar extent in both groups (5.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.2 +/- 1.1 mg.liter-1.min-1 in hypertensives and in normals, respectively). These data demonstrate that: (a) insulin evokes an abnormal muscle sympathetic overactivity in essential hypertension which is mediated by mechanisms involving the central nervous system; and (b) insulin resistance associated with hypertension is demonstrable in the skeletal muscle tissue only with systemic insulin administration which produces muscle sympathetic overactivity. The data fit the hypothesis that the sympathetic system mediates

  4. Beneficial effects of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakis, Anastasios; Triantafyllou, Areti; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Essential hypertension is a major health problem causing excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Management of essential hypertension consists of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. In order to prevent and/or treat hypertension, parameters like nutrition, body weight, and physical exercise should be evaluated and taken under consideration for improvement. A large body of evidence clearly support that the role of salt, alcohol, fruits, and vegetables is important for high blood pressure. Furthermore, maintaining a normal body weight should be succeeded along with physical activity few times per week if not daily. Nonpharmacological intervention is rather a dynamic procedure that takes a multilevel approach with repeated training of the hypertensives by a team of expert physicians, rather than a single based guidance. Additionally, it should be based on a profile customization and personalized approach. Intensive interventions aiming at lifestyle changes through educational meetings are considered more effective in lowering high blood pressure. This consists of a lifestyle modification with a permanent basis for patient’s daily schedule and eventually should become a philosophy for a better quality of life through improvement of nutritional and exercise behavior. Further studies are needed so intervention guideline models can be even more effective for patients with essential hypertension. PMID:28228940

  5. Newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism in the 25th gestational week of pregnancy presenting with systolic arterial hypertension only.

    PubMed

    Zaveljcina, Janez; Legan, Mateja; Gaberšček, Simona

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with arterial hypertension in the 25th week of pregnancy. Our search for secondary causes of arterial hypertension revealed hyperthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), which was treated with propilthiouracil. Three weeks after delivery, she was normotensive without medication. In the next four months, she developed hypothyroidism and treatment with L-thyroxine was started. In conclusion, in the second half of pregnancy, a hyperthyroid HT can occur - in spite of the well-known amelioration of autoimmune thyroid disorders in that period, and can be the only cause of arterial hypertension.

  6. Thresholds for Diagnosing Hypertension Based on Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Genotype – phenotype analysis of angiotensinogen polymorphisms and essential hypertension: the importance of haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, W. Scott; Hunt, Steven C.; Williams, Gordon H.; Tolpinrud, Whitney; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Lalouel, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the relationship between angiotensinogen (AGT) genetic variation and essential hypertension, AGT genotypes and haplotypes were tested for association with hypertensive endophenotypes and essential hypertension. Methods 256 HyperPATH/SCOR cases and 126 controls were genotyped for 24 SNPs in the AGT gene. SNPs and AGT haplotypes were tested for association with plasma AGT, renal plasma flow, and essential hypertension. Results New associations between essential hypertension, plasma AGT, and renal plasma flow (RPF) are reported for alleles −1178G, 6066A, 6152A, 6233C, and 12822C. The maximum odds ratio for association of hypertension and AGT genetic variation was 2.3 (95% CI 1.5 – 3.8; p < 0.0003) for allele 6233C. Previous associations for −1074T, −532T, −217A, −6A, and 4072C are confirmed (p < 0.05). Sodium depletion enhances associations between AGT SNPs and plasma AGT. Most individually associated SNPs, including −6A and 4072C, are found on a common complete AGT haplotype, H4 (frequency = 0.09). Individuals with haplotype H4 have significantly higher plasma AGT and reduced renal plasma flow (p < 0.003 and p < 0.0002, respectively). Other common haplotypes are not associated with plasma AGT levels in this data set despite the presence of the −6A and 4072C alleles, suggesting that AGT haplotype H4 is more predictive of elevated plasma AGT than is −6A or 4072C. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of analyzing haplotypes in addition to single genotypes in association studies. By demonstrating the dependence of AGT associations on sodium depletion status, it helps to explain previous conflicting association results. PMID:19770777

  8. Association of polymorphisms in the AGT gene with essential hypertension in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bo; Shen, Yue; Yan, Yinkun; Mi, Jie

    2012-06-01

    Although the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association of A-6G, A-20C and G-217A polymorphisms in the AGT gene with essential hypertension in the Chinese population. Published literature from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang Data was retrieved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects models. Sixteen studies (4223 cases and 3743 controls) for A-6G polymorphism, ten studies (3116 cases and 2678 controls) for A-20C polymorphism and five studies (1268 cases and 1081 controls) for G-217A polymorphism were identified. The results from the meta-analyses indicated significant association of all three polymorphism with the risk of essential hypertension in the Chinese population (A-6G polymorphism: GG vs AA: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.17-1.81; A-20C polymorphism: CC vs AA: OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.10-2.08; G-217A polymorphism: AA vs GG: OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.44-3.89). Our study indicated that three polymorphisms (A-6G, A-20C and G-217A) in the AGT gene are associated with essential hypertension in the Chinese population.

  9. Impaired neuronal nitric oxide synthase-mediated vasodilator responses to mental stress in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sitara G; Geer, Amber; Fok, Henry W; Shabeeh, Husain; Brett, Sally E; Shah, Ajay M; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) regulates blood flow in resistance vasculature at rest and during mental stress. To investigate whether nNOS signaling is dysfunctional in essential hypertension, forearm blood flow responses to mental stress were examined in 88 subjects: 48 with essential hypertension (42±14 years; blood pressure, 141±17/85±15 mm Hg; mean±SD) and 40 normotensive controls (38±14 years; 117±13/74±9 mm Hg). A subsample of 34 subjects (17 hypertensive) participated in a single blind 2-phase crossover study, in which placebo or sildenafil 50 mg PO was administered before an intrabrachial artery infusion of the selective nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μmol/min) at rest and during mental stress. In a further subsample (n=21) with an impaired blood flow response to mental stress, responses were measured in the presence and absence of the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The blood flow response to mental stress was impaired in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (37±7% versus 70±8% increase over baseline; P<0.001). SMTC blunted responses to mental stress in normotensive but not in hypertensive subjects (reduction of 40±11% versus 3.0±14%, respectively, P=0.01, between groups). Sildenafil reduced the blood flow response to stress in normotensive subjects from 89±14% to 43±14% (P<0.03) but had no significant effect in hypertensive subjects. Phentolamine augmented impaired blood flow responses to mental stress from 39±8% to 67±13% (P<0.02). Essential hypertension is associated with impaired mental stress-induced nNOS-mediated vasodilator responses; this may relate to increased sympathetic outflow in hypertension. nNOS dysfunction may impair vascular homeostasis in essential hypertension and contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular events. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Human sympathetic nerve biology: parallel influences of stress and epigenetics in essential hypertension and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray; Eikelis, Nina; Schlaich, Markus; Lambert, Gavin; Alvarenga, Marlies; Kaye, David; El-Osta, Assam; Guo, Ling; Barton, David; Pier, Ciaran; Brenchley, Celia; Dawood, Tye; Jennings, Garry; Lambert, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    Patients with panic disorder provide a clinical model of stress. On a "good day," free from a panic attack, they show persistent stress-related changes in sympathetic nerve biology, including abnormal sympathetic nerve single-fiber firing ("salvos" of multiple firing within a cardiac cycle) and release of epinephrine as a cotransmitter. The coreleased epinephrine perhaps originates from in situ synthesis by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). In searching for biological evidence that essential hypertension is caused by mental stress--a disputed proposition--we note parallels with panic disorder, which provides an explicit clinical model of stress: (1) There is clinical comorbidity; panic disorder prevalence is increased threefold in essential hypertension. (2) For both, epinephrine cotransmission is present in sympathetic nerves. (3) In panic disorder and essential hypertension, but not in health, single-fiber sympathetic nerve firing salvos occur. (4) Tissue nerve growth factor is increased in both conditions (nerve growth factor is a stress reactant). (5) There is induction of PNMT in sympathetic nerves. Essential hypertension exhibits a further manifestation of mental stress: there is activation of noradrenergic brain stem neurons projecting to the hypothalamus and amygdala. These pathophysiological findings strongly support the view that chronic mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. A hypothesis now under test is whether in both disorders, under prevailing conditions of ongoing stress, PNMT induced in sympathetic nerves acts as a DNA methylase, causing the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene silencing that is present in both conditions. PNMT can have an intranuclear distribution, binding to DNA. We have demonstrated that the reduced neuronal noradrenaline reuptake present in both disorders does have an epigenetic mechanism, with demonstrable reduction in the abundance of the transporter protein, the NET gene

  11. Prenatal Exposure to the Pesticide DDT and Hypertension Diagnosed in Women before Age 50: A Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Piera M.; Terry, Mary Beth; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Flom, Julie D.; Cohn, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elevated levels of the pesticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) have been positively associated with blood pressure and hypertension in studies among adults. Accumulating epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence suggests that hypertension during adulthood may also be affected by earlier life and possibly the prenatal environment. Objectives: We assessed whether prenatal exposure to the pesticide DDT increases risk of adult hypertension. Methods: We examined concentrations of DDT (p,p´- and o,p´-) and its metabolite p,p´-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) in prenatal serum samples from a subset of women (n = 527) who had participated in the prospective Child Health and Development Studies birth cohort in the San Francisco Bay area while they were pregnant between 1959 and 1967. We surveyed daughters 39–47 years of age by telephone interview from 2005 to 2008 to obtain information on self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension and use of hypertensive medication. We used multivariable regression analysis of time to hypertension based on the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate relative rates for the association between prenatal DDT exposures and hypertension treated with medication in adulthood, with adjustment for potential confounding by maternal, early-life, and adult exposures. Results: Prenatal p,p´-DDT exposure was associated with hypertension [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.8, 7.2 and aHR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3 for middle and high tertiles of p,p´-DDT relative to the lowest tertile, respectively]. These associations between p,p´-DDT and hypertension were robust to adjustment for independent hypertension risk factors as well as sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the association between DDT exposure and hypertension may have its origins early in development. PMID:23591545

  12. Responsiveness of the renin-aldosterone system during exercise in young patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Kornerup, H J; Larsen, J S

    1981-10-01

    The effect of exercise of gradually increased intensity, i.e. 75 W for 20 min followed by 100 W for 20 min, on plasma renin concentration (PRC) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was studied in young patients with essential hypertension and normotensive control subjects. During exercise without previous sodium loading PRC and PAC increased to the same degree in both hypertensives and normotensives during light exercise; PRC increased further significantly in the normotensives (63 to 72 microIU/ml (medians), P less than 0.01) but not in the hypertensives (46 to 51 microIU/ml) during heavy exercise. PRC and PAC were significantly correlated during both 75 W (rho = 0.633, P less than 0.05) and 100 W (rho = 0.635, P less than 0.05) exercise in the normotensives, but not in the hypertensives. During exercise after loading with 500 ml sodium chloride (0.85 mol/l) PRC and PAC increased in both hypertensives (28 to 42 microIU/ml, P less than 0.01; 0.11 to 0.53 nmol/l, P less than 0.01) and normotensives (22 to 33 microIU/ml, P less than 0.02; 0.12 to 0.34 nmol/l, P less than 0.01), although to a considerably lower degree than without previous loading. PRC and PAC were, however, significantly higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive group after exercise. It is suggested that the responsiveness of the renin-aldosterone system is abnormal during exercise in young patients with mild essential hypertension, both without and with previous intravenous sodium loading.

  13. Elderly patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the COMPERA registry.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Huscher, Doerte; Ghofrani, H Ardeschir; Delcroix, Marion; Distler, Oliver; Schweiger, Christian; Grunig, Ekkehard; Staehler, Gerd; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Halank, Michael; Held, Matthias; Grohé, Christian; Lange, Tobias J; Behr, Juergen; Klose, Hans; Wilkens, Heinrike; Filusch, Arthur; Germann, Martin; Ewert, Ralf; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Olsson, Karen M; Opitz, Christian F; Gaine, Sean P; Vizza, C Dario; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Kaemmerer, Harald; Gibbs, J Simon R; Pittrow, David

    2013-09-30

    Originally reported to occur predominantly in younger women, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is increasingly diagnosed in elderly patients. We aimed to describe the characteristics of such patients and their survival under clinical practice conditions. Prospective registry in 28 centers in 6 European countries. Demographics, clinical characteristics, hemodynamics, treatment patterns and outcomes of younger (18-65 years) and elderly (>65 years) patients with newly diagnosed IPAH (incident cases only) were compared. A total of 587 patients were eligible for analysis. The median (interquartile, [IQR]) age at diagnosis was 71 (16) years. Younger patients (n=209; median age, 54 [16] years) showed a female-to-male ratio of 2.3:1 whereas the gender ratio in elderly patients (n=378; median age, 75 [8] years) was almost even (1.2:1). Combinations of PAH drugs were widely used in both populations, albeit less frequently in older patients. Elderly patients were less likely to reach current treatment targets (6 min walking distance>400 m, functional class I or II). The survival rates 1, 2, and 3 years after the diagnosis of IPAH were lower in elderly patients, even when adjusted for age- and gender-matched survival tables of the general population (p=0.006 by log-rank analysis). In countries with an aging population, IPAH is now frequently diagnosed in elderly patients. Compared to younger patients, elderly patients present with a balanced gender ratio and different clinical features, respond less well to medical therapy and have a higher age-adjusted mortality. Further characterization of these patients is required. NCT01347216. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Analysis on essential hypertension risk factors of the high incidence in traffic officers].

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoying; Chen, Zhuyun; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Quan

    2008-11-01

    To study on essential hypertension risk factors of the high incidence in traffic officers. In order to provide evidence for prevention and control of hypertension. 139 out of all male marshals who had been serving more than 3 years in a certain railway were studied as occupational crowds of high prevalence rate in essential hypertension (Prevalence rate was 41.7%); 306 male train crew who had similar conditions in seniority and age with the marshals from two sections of this railway were studied by cluster random sampling as occupational crowds of low prevalence rate (Prevalence rate was 21.9%). They were surveyed the common risk factors for hypertension, occupational factors, occupational stress and type A behavior by the health questionnaire designed uniformly. Their lipids and blood glucose were detected. The cause for hypertension were compared in the differences and characteristics. (1) The risk factors and exposure of essential hypertension in the high incidence in the marshals were more higher than those in the low incidence in crew, and the exposure rate of the risk factors grew faster in the marshals than in the crew with working age. (2) By the same exposure rate of the risk factors in the marshal were more higher risk than those of the crew. (3) The risk factors and the danger lever were different in these two groups. The occupational stress, BMI, drinking habits and working age were the main risky factors, their ROR followed by 3.65, 3.33, 2.56 and 2.64, in the marshals. Hyperlipemia, elevated triglyceride, elevated cholesterol, ages and family history of hypertension were the main risk factors, their RR followed by 4.59, 3.38, 3.33, 2.96 and 2.25, in the crew. The essential hypertension among people worked on the train mainly result from the change and increase of professional social psychic factors and behavial factors as well as the increased sensitivity and responsibility of blood vessel formed in a long-time high exposure to the risk factors.

  15. Microalbuminuria is associated with abnormal thoracic aortic mechanics in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tsioufis, C P; Lambrou, S G; Stefanadis, C I; Antoniadis, D I; Kallikazaros, I E; Pitsavos, C E; Toutouzas, P K

    2000-10-01

    In a population of 162 patients with currently untreated essential hypertension, those with microalbuminuria (n = 75) had significantly impaired elastic properties of the proximal ascending thoracic aorta compared with their normoalbuminuric counterparts (n = 87), whereas urinary albumin excretion was a significant predictor of aortic mechanics in the entire population. Impaired aortic mechanics in microalbuminuric hypertensives were not fully accounted for by clustering of classic risk factors for atherosclerosis, and constitute a finding that may entail additional long-term cardiovascular risk in this subgroup of patients.

  16. [Essential hypertension and stress. When do yoga, psychotherapy and autogenic training help?].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, J M

    2002-05-09

    Psychosocial factors play an important role in the development and course of essential hypertension, although "stress" can account for only 10% of blood pressure variance. A variety of psychotherapeutic interventions, such as relaxation techniques (autogenic training or progressive muscular relaxation), behavioral therapy or biofeedback techniques, can lower elevated blood pressure by an average of 10 mmHg (systolic) and 5 mmHg (diastolic). As a "secondary effect", such measures may also prompt the hypertensive to adopt a more health-conscious lifestyle.

  17. Non invasive Measurements of Myocardial Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension Treated with Eprosartan: Contribution of the Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera Sole, Ricardo

    2007-04-28

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the treatment with eprosartan on cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive patients using the echocardiogram to measure the hypertrophy of left ventricle. We studied 60 untreated patients diagnosed of mild to moderate hypertension which received after the diagnosis 600 mg/day of eprosartan, a novel direct angiotensin inhibitor recently introduced to treat hypertension. All patients were submitted to a standard echocardiographic study before the treatment and after 6 months of it We evaluated by echocardiogram the following parameters: left ventricular septum and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, E/A index of mitral flow considering abnormal when this index was less than 1, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results: at the beginning we found a systolic/diastolic pressures of 165{+-}9/ 96{+-}4 mmHg compared with the end of study of 124{+-}2/79{+-}3 mmHg (p<0.05). Septum and posterior wall thickness were respectively at baseline 13.2{+-}2 and 12.1{+-}1.1 mmHg and at the end 11.5{+-}1.2 and 10.5{+-}1.3 mmHg (p<0.05 for both of them). The E/A mitral flow index was less than 1 at baseline in 45 patients compared with 19 patients after treatment (p<0.05). Respect to left ventricular mass we found at the beginning 232{+-}7.5 gr., compared to 194{+-}9 gr., at the end of this study (p<0.05). We did not find any significant differences regarding left ventricular ejection fraction between both groups. Conclusions: we can remark that eprosartan is a very useful drug to reduce not only blood pressure but also left ventricular hypertrophy and improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension according with parameters measured with non invasive methods.

  18. Non invasive Measurements of Myocardial Hypertrophy in Patients with Essential Hypertension Treated with Eprosartan: Contribution of the Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera Solé, Ricardo

    2007-04-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the treatment with eprosartan on cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive patients using the echocardiogram to measure the hypertrophy of left ventricle. We studied 60 untreated patients diagnosed of mild to moderate hypertension which received after the diagnosis 600 mg/day of eprosartan, a novel direct angiotensin inhibitor recently introduced to treat hypertension. All patients were submitted to a standard echocardiographic study before the treatment and after 6 months of it We evaluated by echocardiogram the following parameters: left ventricular septum and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass, E/A index of mitral flow considering abnormal when this index was less than 1, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Results: at the beginning we found a systolic/diastolic pressures of 165±9/ 96±4 mmHg compared with the end of study of 124±2/79±3 mmHg (p<0.05). Septum and posterior wall thickness were respectively at baseline 13.2±2 and 12.1±1.1 mmHg and at the end 11.5±1.2 and 10.5±1.3 mmHg (p<0.05 for both of them). The E/A mitral flow index was less than 1 at baseline in 45 patients compared with 19 patients after treatment (p<0.05). Respect to left ventricular mass we found at the beginning 232±7.5 gr., compared to 194±9 gr., at the end of this study (p<0.05). We did not find any significant differences regarding left ventricular ejection fraction between both groups. Conclusions: we can remark that eprosartan is a very useful drug to reduce not only blood pressure but also left ventricular hypertrophy and improve left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension according with parameters measured with non invasive methods.

  19. Elevated Urinary T Helper 1 Chemokine Levels in Newly Diagnosed Hypertensive Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Zeybek, Cengiz; Gök, Faysal; Pekel, Aysel; Muşabak, Uğur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that T helper (Th) cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and anti-hypertensive treatment on urinary Th1 chemokines. Methods: The study groups consisted of three types of patients: hypertensive obese, healthy, and non-hypertensive obese. Pre-treatment and post-treatment samples of the hypertensive obese group and one sample from the other two groups were evaluated for urinary chemokine: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP10), and monokine induced by interferon-gamma (MIG). In the hypertensive obese group, urine microalbumin: creatinine ratio was examined before and after treatment. We recommended lifestyle changes to all patients. Captopril was started in those who could not be controlled with lifestyle changes and those who had stage 2 hypertension. Results: Twenty-four hypertensive obese (mean age 13.1), 27 healthy (mean age 11.2) and 22 non-hypertensive obese (mean age 11.5) children were investigated. The pre-treatment urine albumin: creatinine ratio was positively correlated with pre-treatment MIG levels (r=0.41, p<0.05). RANTES was significantly higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive and non-hypertensive obese group than in the controls. The urinary IP10 and MIG levels were higher in the pre-treatment hypertensive obese group than in the non-hypertensive obese. Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values indicated significant decreases in RANTES, IP10, and MIG levels in the hypertensive obese group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Th1 cells could be activated in obese hypertensive children before the onset of clinical indicators of target organ damage. Urinary RANTES seemed to be affected by both hypertension and obesity, and urinary IP10 and MIG seemed to be affected predominantly by hypertension. PMID:26831550

  20. Determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with recent diagnosis of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Buono, Francesco; Crispo, Salvatore; Pagano, Gennaro; Rengo, Giuseppe; Petitto, Marta; Grieco, Fabrizia; Trimarco, Bruno; Morisco, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a multifactorial phenomenon. We retrospectively assessed the risk factors for LVH in patients with recent diagnosis of essential hypertension. We analysed 1518 participants with recent diagnosis of essential hypertension (≤2 years). The duration of hypertension was established after cross-checking the patients' history and the records of the general practitioners'. The following cardiovascular (CV) risk factors were considered: age (men >55 years, women >65 years), SBP >140  mmHg, DBP >90  mmHg, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, low or high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (men <40  m/dl, women <50  mg/dl), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Age, prevalence of metabolic diseases, CKD, and the severity of hypertension were higher in patients with LVH. One hundred twenty-two (8%) patients did not have CV risk factors, whereas 288 (19%), 472 (31.1%), 351 (23.1%) and 285 (18.8%) patients had one, two, three and more than three CV risk factors, respectively. At univariate analysis, CV risk factors for LVH where found to be sex, age, SBP, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, CKD, and metabolic syndrome. In the multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of LVH were found to be sex, age, SBP, obesity and diabetes. A significant correlation was found between indexed left ventricular mass and body mass index (r(2) = 0.167), age (r(2) = 0.077) and SBP (r (2)= 0.055). This study reveals that, in patients with recent diagnosis of essential hypertension obesity represents the most important modifiable CV risk factor for LVH.

  1. The role of mitochondrial genome in essential hypertension in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shi-Wen; Martin, Lisa J; Liu, Li; Li, Yan-Hua; Chen, Rui; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Min-Lu; Benson, D Woodrow

    2009-11-01

    Earlier genetic studies of essential hypertension have focused on nuclear genes or family-based mitochondrial screening in Caucasian and African-American pedigrees. The role of mitochondria in sporadic Chinese hypertensives is unknown. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes in 306 age- and gender-balanced Chinese Han hypertensives and controls. In 153 hypertensives, putative functional changes included 4 changes in rRNA genes, 11 changes in tRNA genes and 25 amino-acid substitutions. The remaining variants were synonymous changes or non-coding regions. In the 153 controls, 2 base changes in the tRNA genes and 13 amino-acid substitutions were found. A8701G in ATP6 gene (belongs to haplogroup M; P=0.0001) and C8414T in ATP8 gene (belongs to haplogroup D; P=0.01) were detected significantly different in the cases and controls. Interestingly, the cases were more likely to have two or more amino-acid changes and RNA variants compared with the controls (57.43 versus 23.81%, P=0.0001). In addition, several variants we found were highly conserved and/or specifically located at the 3' end adjacent to the anticodon, which may contribute to the stabilization of structure, and thus lead to the decrease of tRNA metabolism. In conclusion, mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs) may affect the course of hypertension in sporadic Chinese hypertensives. Some specific mtSNP within mitochondria may have potential role in the Chinese hypertensives due to their function. Synergetic interaction between mitochondrial mtSNPs and/or haplogroups is needed to be investigated in the future.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa in DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, S; Carneiro-Leão, R Ferreira Lima; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of chronic treatment with deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt on cardiovascular responses to intravenous (i.v.) injection of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa (EOMV) in conscious rats. In both DOCA-salt-hypertensive and uninephrectomized control, conscious rats, i.v. bolus injections of EOMV (1 to 20 mg/kg body wt.) decreased mean aortic pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with DOCA-salt significantly enhanced EOMV-induced decreases in MAP, without affecting bradycardia. Likewise, both maximal percent and absolute decreases in MAP elicited by i.v. injection of the ganglion blocker, hexamethonium (30 mg/kg body wt.), were significantly greater in DOCA-salt-hypertensive than in control rats. In DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats, i.v. pretreatment with hexamethonium (30 mg/kg body wt.) reduced the bradycardia elicited by EOMV (1 to 20 mg/kg body wt.) without affecting the enhancement of EOMV-induced hypotension. These results show that i.v. treatment with EOMV decreases blood pressure in conscious DOCA-salt-hypertensive rats dose-dependently, and that this action is enhanced when compared with uninephrectomized controls. This enhancement could be related mainly to an increase in EOMV-induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation, rather than to enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity in this hypertensive model.

  3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not associated with vitamin D deficiency in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Catena, Cristiana; Cosma, Chiara; Camozzi, Valentina; Plebani, Mario; Ermani, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo A; Fallo, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    An independent association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition characterized by insulin-resistance, and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels has been reported. 25(OH)D concentrations are directly related with insulin sensitivity, whereas low [25(OH)D] predicts development of hypertension independent of glucose homeostasis alterations. We hypothesized that hypertensive patients with NAFLD have lower 25(OH)D than those without. Forty-four essential hypertensive (EH) patients with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) NAFLD were studied. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia. The two hypertensive groups were compared with 24 healthy normotensive sex-, age-, body mass index (BMI)-matched subject, as controls. The two hypertensive groups had comparable age, sex, and blood pressure. BMI, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and alanine aminotransferase were higher (P < 0.001 to <0.05) and plasma adiponectin was lower (P < 0.05) in EH patients with NAFLD than in those without NAFLD. Vitamin D deficiency, as defined by 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L, was similarly frequent in EH patients and controls (47.7 % vs. 45.8%, P NS). Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was not different in EH patients with and without NAFLD (37.5% vs. 38.8%, P NS). In patients with EH and no additional cardiometabolic risk factors NAFLD is not associated with vitamin D deficiency.

  4. Clustering of cardiovascular behavioral risk factors and blood pressure among people diagnosed with hypertension: a nationally representative survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yichong; Feng, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Ning; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine association between the number of behavioral risk factors and blood pressure (BP) level among a nationally representative sample of Chinese people diagnosed with hypertension. A total of 31,694 respondents aged 18+ years with diagnosed hypertension were extracted from the 2013–2014 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance. BP of each respondent was classified into six levels according to criteria in 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension. Information for smoking, alcohol drinking, fruit and vegetables consumption, physical inactivity, and overweight and obesity were obtained. The average number of risk factors was determined by BP level to explore potential risk factor clustering. Ten generalized proportional odds models were used to examine association between clustering of behavioral risk factors and BP level. A clear gradient between the number of behavioral risk factors and BP level was observed for men and women (P < 0.05 for both genders). BP level for men and women was much likely to upgrade as number of risk factors accumulated (P < 0.01 for 10 models). Behavioral modifications may decrease BP, and combinations of two or more behavioral interventions could potentially result in even better BP management among people diagnosed with hypertension. PMID:27279273

  5. Microvascular resistance in essential hypertension and flowmetry as a diagnostic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2001-08-01

    New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillar and postcapillar resistance. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. Patients of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry (540 nm). Precapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency (10-16 per/min) and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with low frequency (4-8 per/min) and high amplitude, paradoxical hyperemia in arterial compression, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select patogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  6. [The smoothness index of betaxolol hydrochloride in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rihácek, I; Soucek, M; Frána, P

    2007-01-01

    24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has a higher predictive value for cardiovascular diseases than occasional blood pressure (BP) measurement with sphygmomanometer. ABPM allows for the assessment of 24-hour effect of drugs administered once a day using the smoothness index (SI) method. OBJECTIVE OF WORK: Find out the 24-hour effect of betaxolol hydrochloride administered once a day by determining the smoothness index. Cohort and methodology: Examination of 30 newly diagnosed hypertonics prior to and after 3-month treatment with betaxolol hydrochloride at an average dose of 15 mg once a day. BP measurement using sphygmomanometer and ABPM (SpaceLabs 90207) according to European Society for Hypertension criteria. Determining the smoothness index from individual average hourly changes in BP after treatment by dividing the hourly values average by standard deviation. Calculation of average SI from individual patient data with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The calculated SI value of betaxolol hydrochloride was 1.03 +/- 0.65 (95% CI, 0.80 to 1.26) and 1.27 +/- 0.89 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.59) for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Average SI of betaxolol hydrochloride is higher than 1 when both systolic and diastolic BP is measured. Based on the above parameter, the monitored drug has a sufficient 24-hour effect and can be administered once a day.

  7. Diagnose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Wolfgang

    Die Zunahme der Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, die Nutzung von Software zur Steuerung des Fahrzeugs und die erhöhte Komplexität moderner Einspritzsysteme stellen hohe Anforderungen an das Diagnosekonzept, die Überwachung im Fahrbetrieb (On-Board-Diagnose) und die Werkstattdiagnose (Bild 1). Basis der Werkstattdiagnose ist die geführte Fehlersuche, die verschiedene Möglichkeiten von Onboard- und Offboard-Prüfmethoden und Prüfgeräten verknüpft. Im Zuge der Verschärfung der Abgasgesetzgebung und der Forderung nach laufender Überwachung hat auch der Gesetzgeber die On-Board-Diagnose als Hilfsmittel zur Abgasüberwachung erkannt und eine herstellerunabhängige Standardisierung geschaffen. Dieses zusätzlich installierte System wird OBD-System (On Board Diagnostic System) genannt.

  8. Association of angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphism with resistant essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Szombathy, T; Szalai, C; Katalin, B; Palicz, T; Romics, L; Császár, A

    1998-01-12

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) mediates the vasoconstrictive and growth-promoting effect of angiotensin II in humans. It has been reported that a polymorphism of the AT1 gene (an A/C transversion at position 1166: A-C1166) occurs more frequently in resistant hypertensives taking two or more antihypertensive drugs. On the contrary, a recent study of the influence of the A-C1166 polymorphism on aortic stiffness demonstrated that the distribution of the genotypes did not differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In addition, a recent population-based survey of Caucasian hypertensives reported lower blood pressure values in CC homozygotes than in heterozygotes and AA homozygotes. Because of these controversial results and the lack of a sufficient amount of data the present study was designed to assess the contribution of the AT, gene A-C1166 polymorphism to resistant essential hypertension. Forty-eight subjects with resistant essential hypertension (HT) and 48 normotensive (NT), age and sex-adjusted controls (from a population of 300 healthy blood donors) were selected. All subjects were genotyped for the A-C1166 polymorphism in the 3'-UTR of the AT1 gene using PCR-based techniques. The influence of genotype on blood pressure (BP) was investigated using ANOVA Randomized Complete Block (ANOVA RCB) design according to sex, age and BMI. There were no significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between HT and NT subjects (X2 = 0.61; P = NS). In HT subjects higher values of systolic blood pressure were associated with the C allele of the AT1 gene only in older and overweight patients (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Also in HT patients an association between the presence of the C allele of the AT1 gene and higher values of diastolic blood pressure was present in overweight patients (P = 0.001). These results suggest that in resistant hypertensive subjects the AT1 A-C1166 polymorphism is potentially involved in the regulation of blood

  9. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2017-07-01

    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). The tested group was subjected to computed tomography angiography of carotid arteries. Evaluation of the carotid arteries calcification indexes was conducted. The average value of the total calcification index of the carotid arteries (CAci) amounted to 368.28 ± 384.21. In subgroup A and B in relation to subgroup C, CAci was significantly higher. In summary, active and passive smoking in patients with essential hypertension may be associated with a higher calcification index of carotid arteries.

  10. Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Action of Amlodipine and Vitamin C in Patients of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Aarti S.; Babbar, Rashmi; Kansal, Nisheeth; Agarwal, Satish K.; Ray, Prakash C.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of essential hypertension includes increased oxidative stress. The role of antihypertensive drug amlodipine as an antioxidant and the benefit of addition of vitamin C, an antioxidant to antihypertensive therapy were studied. Forty male patients of essential hypertension were randomly divided into two groups and treated with 5 mg amlodipine. In addition one group also received 1000 mg vitamin C (as two 500 mg tablets) once daily for three months. Although blood pressure decreased in both groups, the systolic blood pressure in patients given vitamin C was less (126.4 ± 7.47) compared to the other group (130.9 ± 7.27). A decrease in malondialdehyde, an increase in erythrocyte sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ K+ ATPase) and an increase in the superoxide dismutase levels were observed in both groups. The increase in SOD was statistically more in the patients given vitamin C in addition to amlodipine (0.1717 ± 0.0150 compared to 0.152 ± 0.0219 units/100 ml assay). In spite of the known antihypertensive, antioxidant activity, similarity in correcting endothelial dysfunction independently, giving the two drugs together and early introduction of vitamin C perhaps decreases oxidative stress and augments the antioxidant status. This may prevent further vascular damage due to oxidative stress, leading to a better prognosis in essential hypertension patients. PMID:18188416

  11. Cardiovascular-sleep interaction in drug-naïve patients with essential grade I hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Provini, Federica; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Annagrazia; Pierangeli, Giulia; Cortelli, Pietro

    2013-03-01

    Lack of nighttime blood pressure (BP) reduction by 10-20% from the mean daytime values (dipping) has been described as a distinguishing feature of essential hypertension and associated, also in normotensive subjects, with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Mechanisms involved in the loss of the nocturnal dip are still unclear, but involvement of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity probably plays a crucial role. Sleep is fundamental in modulating ANS activity to maintain the physiological BP circadian rhythm, and for this reason its integrity has been widely investigated in hypertension. We investigated, under controlled conditions, the autonomic control of the CV system through an autonomic reflex screen in the awake condition and by assessment of circadian rhythm-, day-night-, time-, and state-dependent changes of BP and heart rate (HR) and associated sleep parameters in patients with a recent (≤1 yr) diagnosis of essential grade I hypertension naïve of therapy. Fourteen hypertensive patients (6 males, age: 43 ± 11 yrs; body mass index [BMI]: 24 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were compared with 28 healthy controls matched for sex, age, BMI (2 controls/patient) for cardiovascular reflex and to 8 different subjects from previous controls (6 males), comparable for age and BMI, for the day-night and nighttime CV profiles during two consecutive nights. The cardiovascular reflex screen data showed increased sympathetic effect in hypertensive patients, represented by higher overshoot of BP after Valsalva maneuver. Nighttime sleep architecture during the dark period in terms of duration, representation of sleep stages, sleep fragmentation, and incidence of arousals-periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and PLMS arousals-was similar in patients and controls. Hypertensive patients displayed higher 24-h BP and HR values, but their sleep-related BP decrease was significantly reduced compared with controls. The circadian rhythms of BP and HR were intact and similar in

  12. Effects of catgut-embedding acupuncture technique on nitric oxide levels and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhana; Srilestari, A.; Marbun, M. B. H.; Mihardja, H.

    2017-08-01

    Hypertension is common a health problem and its prevalence in Indonesia is quite high (31.7%). Catgut embedding—an acupuncture technique—is known to reduce blood pressure; however, no study has confirmed the underlying mechanism. This study examines the effect of catgut embedding on serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Forty hypertension patients were randomly assigned to two groups: the control group received anti-hypertensive drugs whereas the case group received anti-hypertensive drugs and catgut embedding. Results showed a statistically significant mean difference in NO concentration (p < 0.05) and statistically and clinically significant mean difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups (p < 0.05). The results confirm that catgut embedding can influence serum NO concentration and blood pressure in essential hypertension patients.

  13. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Adropin and ET-1 Levels in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xinyi; Gu, Haibo; Chen, Jianchang; Wang, Luchen; Harding, Pamela; Xu, Weiting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adropin is a recently identified bioactive protein that promotes energy homeostasis by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, adropin has also been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Also, ET-1, as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction, is a key regulator in hypertension. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the relationship between plasma adropin and ET-1 levels in hypertension. A total of 123 participants, diagnosed with primary hypertension on the basis of World Health Organization criteria (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg), and 58 normotensive subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study from October 2011 to December 2013. All study participants were older than 18 years of age. Adropin and ET-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that plasma adropin levels were significantly lower in hypertensives compared with controls (3.18 ± 1.00 vs 4.21 ± 1.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma ET-1 levels were higher in hypertensives than controls (2.60 ± 1.14 vs 1.54 ± 0.66 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Adropin had a negative correlation with DBP (r = −0.40, P < 0.001), SBP (r = −0.49, P < 0.001), and adjusted for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and Cr, there was a negative correlation between ET-1 and adropin (r = −0.20, P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis of the variables, ET-1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% CI, 2.16–6.81; P < 0.001) and adropin (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99 −1.0; P < 0.001) were found to be independent predictors for hypertension. In conclusion, decreased plasma adropin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in hypertension. Adropin is an independent predictor for hypertension, and may influence blood pressure by protecting endothelial function. PMID:26448026

  14. Gender Specific Association of RAS Gene Polymorphism with Essential Hypertension: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Dhanachandra Singh, Kh.; Jajodia, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) polymorphisms have been studied as candidate risk factors for hypertension with inconsistent results, possibly due to heterogeneity among various genetic and environmental factors. A case-control association study was conducted to investigate a possible involvement of polymorphisms of three RAS genes: AGT M235T (rs699), ACE I/D (rs4340) and G2350A (rs4343), and AGTR1 A1166C (rs5186) in essential hypertensive patients. A total of 211 cases and 211 controls were recruited for this study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (OR-CI = 2.62 (1.24–5.76), P = 0.006; OR-CI = 0.699 (0.518–0.943), P = 0.018), respectively. When the samples were segregated based on sex, the 235TT genotype and T allele were predominant in the female patients (OR-CI = 5.68 (1.60-25.10), P = 0.002; OR-CI = 0.522 (0.330–0.826), P = 0.005) as compare to the male patients (OR-CI = 1.54 (1.24–5.76), P = 0.34; OR-CI = 0.874 (0.330–0.826), P = 0.506), respectively. For ACE DD variant, we found overrepresentation of “I”-allele (homozygous II and heterozygous ID) in unaffected males which suggest its protective role in studied population (OR-CI = 0.401 (0.224–0.718); P = 0.0009). The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with female hypertensives and ACE DD variant could be a risk allele for essential hypertension in south India. PMID:24860821

  15. Adherence to antihypertensive medications and cardiovascular morbidity among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Alacqua, Marianna; Filippi, Alessandro; Sessa, Emiliano; Immordino, Vincenzo; Borghi, Claudio; Brignoli, Ovidio; Caputi, Achille P; Cricelli, Claudio; Mantovani, Lorenzo G

    2009-10-20

    Nonadherence to antihypertensive treatment is a common problem in cardiovascular prevention and may influence prognosis. We explored predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment and the association of adherence with acute cardiovascular events. Using data obtained from 400 Italian primary care physicians providing information to the Health Search/Thales Database, we selected 18,806 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients >or=35 years of age during the years 2000 to 2001. Subjects included were newly treated for hypertension and initially free of cardiovascular diseases. Patient adherence was subdivided a priori into 3 categories-high (proportion of days covered, >or=80%), intermediate (proportion of days covered, 40% to 79%), and low (proportion of days covered,

  16. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC). The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90) with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, barium enema (BE) and chest radiography (CR) were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%): biliary tract stones (n = 11) and other malignant tumors (n = 2). Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor) but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%). BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%). Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%): pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1) and cardiomegaly (n = 2). Seventy-nine patients (56%) were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information. PMID:20534137

  17. AVAPROMISE: A randomized clinical trial for increasing adherence through behavioural modification in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hamet, Pavel; Campbell, Norman; Curnew, Greg; Eastwood, Clive; Pradhan, Ashish

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertension often do not adhere to their medications. OBJECTIVE: To improve medication adherence in patients with essential hypertension by modifying their behaviours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From general practice settings, 4864 patients with essential hypertension were recruited and randomly assigned to receive the angiotensin receptor blocker irbesartan (Avapro) with (intervention group) or without (nonintervention group) a behavioural modification program (Avapromise) based on a model of change. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Patients were subgrouped based on their stage of change in the behavioural change continuum, and the intervention was tailored to address the needs of the particular subgroup. The primary efficacy measure was rate and time to discontinuation with irbesartan. RESULTS: At the end of the study, there was no significant difference in the discontinuation rates between the intervention (25.4%, 95% CI 23.7 to 27.2) and nonintervention (25.5%, 95% CI 23.8 to 27.3) groups (P=0.94). The time to discontinuation (P=0.87) and the extrapolated rate of discontinuation estimated from the Kaplan-Meir curve (intervention 23.1%, 95% CI 21.3 to 24.8; nonintervention 23.5%, 95% CI 21.8 to 25.3) were not different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: This behavioural modification intervention based on a model of change was not efficacious at increasing rates of adherence in patients with essential hypertension in this setting. More individualized interventions may be required to increase adherence in this population. PMID:19644587

  18. Prostate-specific antigen levels are associated with arterial stiffness in essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Vyssoulis, Gregory; Karpanou, Eva; Kyvelou, Stella-Maria; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Tzamou, Vanessa; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been recently related to cardiovascular system in a multifactorial way. Arterial stiffness is a independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSA values, are associated with arterial stiffness indices in patients with essential arterial hypertension. The study comprised 150 consecutive male patients (mean age 60 years) with uncomplicated never-treated essential hypertension. All patients underwent a complete clinical and laboratory evaluation, including measurement of PSA levels. Aortic stiffness and arterial wave reflection assessment was made by using carotid-femoral (PWVc-f) pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate (AIx75). Patients with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia (PSA > 4 ng/mL) were excluded from the study. PSA was positively associated with waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.235, P = 0.04), PWVc-f (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), AIx75 (r = 0.264, P = 0.001), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; r = 0.376, P < 0.001). In categorization to PSA quartiles, patients in the higher quartile presented with higher waist-to hip ratio (P = 0.009), PWVc-f (P < 0.00001), AIx75 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.001) values. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for various confounders PSA remained a significant determinant of PWVc-f values (beta [SE] = 0.477 [0.13], R(2) = 0.405, P < 0.001). The present study points towards an association between PSA levels and aortic stiffness in untreated essential hypertensive males. Potential causal relationships between PSA and arterial stiffness remain to be further explored. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Plasma aldosterone is increased in class 2 and 3 obese essential hypertensive patients despite drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarzani, Riccardo; Guerra, Federico; Mancinelli, Lucia; Buglioni, Alessia; Franchi, Eliana; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) is independently correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) in treated essential hypertensive patients, and whether the relationship between BMI and high blood pressure (BP) can be partially mediated by PAC despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. This study used a cross-sectional design and included 295 consecutive essential hypertensive patients referred to our centre for uncontrolled BP despite stable antihypertensive treatment for at least 6 months. The main exclusion criteria were age >65 years; glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min; and therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, direct renin inhibitors, amiloride or oral contraceptives. Higher levels of obesity showed a significantly higher mean PAC with a steep nonlinear increase in patients with BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Class 2 and 3 obese patients had a higher mean PAC than nonobese and class 1 obese patients, even in patients under stable treatment with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). In a stepwise multiple linear regression model, only log of plasma renin activity (PRA), mean blood pressure (MBP), and class 2 and 3 obesity showed an independent correlation with PAC. In the same model applied to patients treated with ACEIs or ARBs, only logPRA and class 2 and 3 obesity showed a direct correlation with PAC. In treated essential hypertensive patients, a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) is independently, albeit modestly, correlated with PAC. The correlation between BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) and PAC holds true even in ACEI/ARB-treated patients. Further study is required to determine whether the association of obesity with BP is mediated by PAC in hypertensive patients on stable therapy with ACEIs or ARBs.

  20. Renal protection in essential hypertension: how do angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors compare with calcium antagonists?

    PubMed

    Bauer, J H; Reams, G P

    1990-11-01

    By interrupting the integrity of the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown, experimentally, to preferentially reduce postglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance, to reduce glomerular capillary pressure, and to increase the ultrafiltration coefficient. Under normal physiological conditions, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have little effect on glomerular filtration rate; however, they increase effective renal plasma flow at renal perfusion pressures within the normal autoregulatory range and renal vascular resistance is decreased. In contrast, calcium antagonists have been shown, experimentally, to preferentially reduce preglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance. Their effects on angiotensin II and postglomerular capillary arteriolar resistance (hence, glomerular capillary pressure and the ultrafiltration coefficient) are controversial. Under normal physiological conditions, calcium antagonists increase both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow at renal perfusion pressures within the normal autoregulatory range and renal vascular resistance is decreased. In patients with essential hypertension, studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (as predicted) sustain glomerular filtration rate, increase effective renal plasma flow, and decrease renal vascular resistance. However, essential hypertensive patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate may demonstrate marked improvement in both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. Calcium antagonists (as predicted) may increase both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow (at high renal perfusion pressures) and may decrease renal vascular resistance. Calcium antagonists may also improve both glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow in patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate. Long-term clinical trials comparing the renal effects

  1. Investigation of the relationship between arterial stiffness and sleep architecture in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hang; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    A change in sleep architecture might increase the risk of hypertension and worsen target organs. This study thus aimed to study the features of sleep architecture and examine its relationship with pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, in patients with essential hypertension and healthy people aged 45-65 years (n = 106). We collected data on demographics, the serum index, overnight polysomnography, vascular testing and ambulatory blood pressure in addition to measuring arterial stiffness and monitoring sleep respiration. We found that patients with hypertension had longer sleep latency and shorter duration. Their sleep efficiency and the ratio of N3 in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement were lower, while the micro-arousal index (MI), N1 and N2 in NREM, and the apnea-hypopnea index were higher than normal people in controls. PWV raised with a decrease in N3 and an increase in the MI. In summary, there were notable changes in sleep architecture and with a decrease in N3 and increase in MI can accelerate arterial stiffness and then worsen target organ damage in patients with hypertension.

  2. Anxiety-induced plasma norepinephrine augmentation increases reactive oxygen species formation by monocytes in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Matsui, Tokuzo; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Kiriike, Nobuo

    2006-06-01

    An association between anxiety and depression and increased blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease risk has not been firmly established. We examined the hypothesis that anxiety and depression lead to increased plasma catecholamines and to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mononuclear cells (MNC) in hypertensive individuals. We also studied the role of BP in this effect. In Protocol 1, a cross-sectional study was performed in 146 hypertensive patients to evaluate whether anxiety and depression affect BP and ROS formation by MNC through increasing plasma catecholamines. In Protocol 2, a 6-month randomized controlled trial using a subtherapeutic dose of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin (1 mg/day) versus placebo in 86 patients with essential hypertension was performed to determine whether the increase in ROS formation by MNC was independent of BP. In Protocol 1, a significant relationship was observed between the following: trait anxiety and plasma norepinephrine (r = 0.32, P < .01); plasma norepinephrine and ROS formation by MNC (r = 0.36, P < .01); and plasma norepinephrine and systolic, diastolic, and mean BP (r = 0.17, P = .04; r = 0.26, P = .02; r = 0.23, P < .01, respectively). In Protocol 2, subtherapeutic doxazosin treatment (1 mg/day) had no significant effect on BP. However doxazosin significantly decreased ROS formation by MNC compared with placebo (P < .01). Trait anxiety may increase plasma norepinephrine and increase ROS formation by MNC independent of BP in hypertensive patients.

  3. Metabolic Cycles Are Linked to the Cardiovascular Diurnal Rhythm in Rats with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Hidefumi; Bhuiyan, Mohammad E. R.; Gouraud, Sabine S.; Maeda, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Background The loss of diurnal rhythm in blood pressure (BP) is an important predictor of end-organ damage in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Recent evidence has suggested that two major physiological circadian rhythms, the metabolic and cardiovascular rhythms, are subject to regulation by overlapping molecular pathways, indicating that dysregulation of metabolic cycles could desynchronize the normal diurnal rhythm of BP with the daily light/dark cycle. However, little is known about the impact of changes in metabolic cycles on BP diurnal rhythm. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that feeding-fasting cycles could affect the diurnal pattern of BP, we used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) which develop essential hypertension with disrupted diurnal BP rhythms and examined whether abnormal BP rhythms in SHR were caused by alteration in the daily feeding rhythm. We found that SHR exhibit attenuated feeding rhythm which accompanies disrupted rhythms in metabolic gene expression not only in metabolic tissues but also in cardiovascular tissues. More importantly, the correction of abnormal feeding rhythms in SHR restored the daily BP rhythm and was accompanied by changes in the timing of expression of key circadian and metabolic genes in cardiovascular tissues. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the metabolic cycle is an important determinant of the cardiovascular diurnal rhythm and that disrupted BP rhythms in hypertensive patients can be normalized by manipulating feeding cycles. PMID:21364960

  4. Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Miguel; Garay, Ricardo P; Escanero, Jesús F; Cia, Pedro; Cia, Pedro; Alda, José O

    2002-07-01

    Soy-based diets reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, but apparently not in hypertensive humans. In the present study, the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Before initiation of the study, urinary isoflavonoids (measured by HPLC) were undetectable in most cases (for genistein, they were always <100 micromol/L). After 3 mo of soy milk consumption, systolic blood pressure decreased by 18.4 +/- 10.7 mmHg compared with 1.4 +/- 7.2 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure decreased by 15.9 +/- 9.8 mmHg vs. 3.7 +/- 5.0 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure decreased by 16.7 +/- 9.0 mmHg compared with 3.0 +/- 4.6 mmHg in the cow's milk group (P < 0.0001). Urinary genistein was strongly (r = -0.588) and significantly (P = 0.002) correlated with the decrease in blood pressure, particularly for diastolic values. In conclusion, chronic soy milk consumption had modest, but significant hypotensive action in essential hypertensive subjects. This hypotensive action was correlated with the urinary excretion of the isoflavonoid genistein.

  5. [Pulse pressure as a prognostic indicator of organ damage in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Jołda-Mydłowska, Beata; Kobusiak-Prokopowicz, Małgorzata; Sławuta, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Pulse pressure (PP), defined as systolic blood pressure minus diastolic blood pressure, plays an important role as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Pulse pressure is pulsatile component of blood pressure. A widened pulse pressure reflects increased stiffness of the large arteries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between pulse pressure and organ damage in essential hypertension. We examined 60 subjects, 34 women aged 59 +/- 13 years and 26 men aged 48 +/- 17 years with primary hypertension. In every subject we performed 24-hour automatic blood pressure measurement and echocardiography, abdominal ultrasonography, funduscopy, chest x-ray. We measured sodium potassium, creatinine level in serum and in urine, creatinine clearance and microalbuminuria. Pulse pressure is proportional to the stage of hypertension. A dimension of the aorta parallels with measures of blood pressure. The strong correlation between pulse pressure and damage in funduscopy can indicate, that complication in fundus of the eye are dependent more than the level of a pressure. The significantly higher sodium level in serum and the positive correlation between natremia, natriuresis and pulse pressure proves the role of natrium in pathophysiology of hypertension.

  6. Left ventricular morphology and function in mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Niederle, P; Rakická, E; Koudelková, E; Hejl, Z; Gebauerová, M; Widimský, J

    1984-01-01

    150 males with mild to moderate essential hypertension [EH] were examined echocardiographically and the findings in the left ventricle [LV] were compared with those in 20 normotensive men. Increased LV wall thickness and LV mass was found in 81% and 67% of hypertensives respectively in contrast with a complete absence of LV hypertrophy in normotensives. The former showed also a tendency to the concentric type hypertrophy, which can be considered a characteristic feature of the 2nd stage [WHO] EH. There was an almost uniform incidence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy in the two groups [12 vs. 10%]. Decreased LV end-systolic wall stress in EH was a sign of compensatory myocardial hypertrophy without LV dilatation. The hypertensives exhibited a normal or slightly elevated systolic LV function. On the other hand, some indirect indices of LV properties [peak rate of LV relaxation and left atrial dimension] were indicative of diastolic function impairment. A slight but significant correlation between the degree of LV hypertrophy and systemic blood pressure at rest was found in a part of hypertensive patients. The study indicates that mild to moderate EH leads to some changes in LV morphology and function, which can be easily recognized by echocardiography.

  7. Effects of Eprosartan on Serum Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rizos, Evangelos C; Spyrou, Athanasia; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Papavasiliou, Eleni C; Saougos, Vasilis; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the anti-hypertensive drug eprosartan on metabolic parameters is currently not extensively documented. We evaluated the effect of eprosartan on parameters involved in atherogenesis, oxidative stress and clotting activity. This open-label unblinded intervention study included 40 adult patients with essential hypertension taking eprosartan. Eprosartan significantly reduced by 8% (p<0.001) the systolic and by 13% (p<.001) the diastolic blood pressure, and in-creased by 24% the time needed to produce oxidative by-products (p=0.001), a marker of oxidative stress. In contrast, ep-rosartan did not alter 8-isoprostane (8-epiPGF2a) levels, another marker of oxidative stress. Additionally, eprosartan re-duced by 14% aspartate aminotransferase and by 21% then alanine aminotransferase activity, while it had a neutral effect on the lipid profile and apolipoprotein levels and did not influence glucose homeostasis, creatinine and uric acid levels. Eprosartan did not affect the clotting/fibrinolytic status (estimated by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, tissue plasmino-gen activator and a2 antiplasmin levels), or the enzymatic activity of the lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). In conclusion, eprosartan should be mainly considered as an anti-hypertensive agent with neutral effects on most of the metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients. PMID:18949087

  8. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    de Ciuceis, Carolina; Pilu, Annamaria; Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Paini, Anna; Belotti, Eugenia; Zani, Francesca; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2011-04-01

    It has been reported that the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflects the endogenous vascular repair ability, with the EPCs pool declining in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, their relationship with hypertension and the effects of anti-hypertensive treatment remain unclear. We randomized 29 patients with mild essential hypertension to receive barnidipine up to 20 mg or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) up to 25 mg. Circulating EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Mononuclear cells were cultured with endothelial basal medium supplemented with EGM SingleQuots. EPCs were identified by positive double staining for both FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin I and Dil-labeled acethylated low-density lipoprotein. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly reduced. No difference was observed between drugs. An increase in the number of EPCs was observed after 3 and 6 months of anti-hypertensive treatment (p < 0.05). Barnidipine significantly increased EPCs after 3 and 6 months of treatment, whereas no effect was observed with HCT. No statistically significant correlation was observed between EPCs and clinical BP values. Our data suggest that antihypertensive treatment may increase the number of EPCs. However, we observed a different effect of barnidipine and HCT on EPCs, suggesting that, beyond its BP lowering effect, barnidipine may elicit additional beneficial properties, related to a healthier vasculature.

  9. Redevelopment of essential hypertension after cessation of long term therapy; preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jennings, G; Korner, P; Esler, M; Restall, R

    1984-01-01

    We have previously found that the vascular hypertrophy that accounts for the maintenance of a substantial fraction of the elevation of the total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) in essential hypertension can be almost completely reversed by one years antihypertensive treatment (1). On ceasing treatment, blood pressure returns rapidly to pretreatment values suggesting that the original cause of the hypertension is still present. In the present study, 7 patients stopped a standard regimen for 10 weeks after at least 2 years of normotension. In the first week, standing and lying blood pressure increased related to rise in supine cardiac index and TPRI. Thereafter standing pressures, supine systolic blood pressure and cardiac index (CI) increased further, but supine diastolic blood pressure and TPRI did not alter. Changes in measurements of resting sympathetic activity, plasma volume or renin-angiotensin did not account for these observations. The return of hypertension after stopping effective therapy has some features previously described in borderline hypertension, particularly increasing systolic blood pressure, CI and postural blood pressure responses. Some of the changes may reflect the relative preponderance of cardiac and vascular amplifiers.

  10. Invasive and noninvasive methods to diagnose portal hypertension and esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    de Franchis, Roberto; Dell'Era, Alessandra

    2014-05-01

    Assessing the presence of clinically significant portal hypertension and esophageal varices is clinically important in cirrhosis. The reference standard techniques to assess the presence of portal hypertension and varices are the measurement of the hepatic vein pressure gradient and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, respectively. Some newer methods have shown a good performance, but none has been proven precise enough to replace hepatic vein pressure gradient measurement or esophagogastroduodenoscopy for the diagnosis of portal hypertension or the presence and grade of esophageal varices.

  11. Impact of obesity and nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism on essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, M; Sokal, M; Sawicka, A; Wlodarczyk, M; Glowala, M; Wrzosek, M; Kosior, M; Talalaj, M; Biecek, P; Nowicka, G

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by environmental, metabolic and genetic factors, but little is currently known on the complex interplay between these factors and blood pressure. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential impact of obesity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) 4a/4b, G894T and -T786C variants on the essential hypertension. The study group consisted of 1,027 Caucasian adults of Polish nationality (45.5 ± 13.6 years old), of which 401 met the criteria for hypertension. Body weight, height and blood pressure were measured and data on self-reported smoking status were collected. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides were determined by standard procedures. The ACE I/D polymorphism and three polymorphisms in NOS3 gene (4a/4b, G894T, -T786C) were detected by the PCR method. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that age above 45 years, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and male sex are important risk factors for hypertension and no significant influence of variants in ACE and NOS3 genes on this risk was recognized. Obese subjects had a 3.27-times higher risk (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.37 - 4.52) of hypertension than non-obese, and in obese the NOS3 894T allele was associated with 1.37 fold higher risk of hypertension (P = 0.031). The distribution of NOS3 G894T genotypes supported the co-dominant (OR = 1.35, P = 0.034, Pfit = 0.435) or recessive (OR = 2.00, P = 0.046, Pfit = 0.286), but not dominant model of inheritance (P = 0.100). The study indicates that in obese NOS3 G894T polymorphism may enhance hypertension risk. However, in the presence of such strong risk factors as age, diabetes and smoking, the impact of this genetic variant seems to be attenuated. Further studies are needed to reveal the usefulness of G894T polymorphism in hypertension risk assessment in obese.

  12. Perceptions about high blood pressure among mexican american adults diagnosed with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Sara E; Zarate-Abbott, Perla R; Gillespie, Maria; Deliganis, Jean; Norgan, Gary H

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects approximately 73 million Americans. Clients and providers working together to control the disease can help prevent life-threatening illnesses. Patient perceptions about their illness can influence health behaviors, but little is known about the perceptions of Mexican American adults in relation to hypertension. This descriptive study used semistructured interviews to elicit Patient Explanatory Models of hypertension among 15 hypertensive Mexican American adults. Findings revealed that personal models of cause, treatment, and outcomes were often vague. This information can be useful for planning individual education and treatment that provides meaningful care.

  13. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on nocturnal blood pressure variation in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Igeta, Masataka; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal variations in night-time hypertension such as "non-dipping" type (< 10% decrease in nocturnal systolic blood pressure [SBP] from daytime SBP) are a risk factor for cardiovascular events independent of 24-h BP. As part of a randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was performed using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at baseline and Week 14. Effects of study drugs on nocturnal BP variations according to patients' nocturnal SBP dipping status were evaluated. ABPM data were available for 273 patients treated with azilsartan and 275 with candesartan. In the dipping group (≥ 10% decrease from daytime SBP), azilsartan produced a greater reduction from baseline in daytime than in night-time SBP (- 14.1 and - 10.9 mmHg, respectively), and the change in daytime SBP was significantly greater with azilsartan than with candesartan (p = 0.0077). In the non-dipping group, azilsartan produced a greater reduction from baseline in night-time than in daytime SBP (- 20.2 and - 9.9 mmHg, respectively), and reductions in both night-time SBP (p = 0.02) and daytime SBP (p = 0.0042) were significantly greater with azilsartan than with candesartan. Once-daily azilsartan improved non-dipping night-time SBP to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  14. Comparative study of barnidipine and felodipine in Chinese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Li, T; Ni, C; Liu, H; Fang, L; Shang, M; Kikkawa, T; Katoh, H; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of barnidipine for the treatment of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension in Chinese patients. A total of 131 patients were randomized to receive either barnidipine (10 -15 mg) or felodipine (5 - 10 mg) once daily for 4 weeks. Both drugs reduced blood pressure significantly, with > or = 87% of patients obtaining a marked or moderate effect. The mean +/- SD reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 19.2 +/- 13.6 and 14.4 +/- 7.0 mmHg, respectively, for barnidipine treatment, and 20.3 +/- 11.3 and 14.7 +/- 7.7 mmHg, respectively, for felodipine treatment. There were no significant differences between the two drugs in terms of anti-hypertensive effect, heart rate, laboratory test results or incidence of adverse events. More patients taking felodipine experienced palpitations, but this difference was not statistically significant. Barnidipine is as efficacious and safe as felodipine in the treatment of essential hypertension in Chinese patients.

  15. Replication of the Wellcome Trust genome-wide association study of essential hypertension: the Family Blood Pressure Program.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Georg B; Morrison, Alanna C; O'Connor, Ashley A; Grove, Megan L; Baird, Lisa; Schwander, Karen; Weder, Alan; Cooper, Richard S; Rao, D C; Hunt, Steven C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2008-12-01

    Essential hypertension is a principal cardiovascular risk factor whose origin remains unknown. Classical genetic studies have shown that blood pressure is at least partially heritable, opening a window to understanding the pathophysiology of essential hypertension in the human using modern genetic tools. The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium has recently published the results of screening the genomes of 2000 essential hypertension cases and 3000 controls using 500 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). None of the variants proved to be genome-wide significant after correction for multiple tests but the most significantly associated SNPs (P<10(-5)) constitute a priority list that warrant follow-up in other studies. We describe here replication studies of the top six SNPs in subjects from the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute funded Family Blood Pressure Program comprising 11 433 individuals recruited by hypertensive families. The results suggest that only one of the six SNPs might be associated with essential hypertension in Americans of European origin. This SNP shows a significant but opposite effect in Americans of Hispanic origin and no association in African Americans. The significance of the opposing effect estimates is unclear. No replication could be shown for hypertension status, but there are differences in study design. This attempted replication highlights that essential hypertension studies will require more comprehensive and larger genetic screens.

  16. Influence of hypertension, obesity and nicotine abuse on quantitative and qualitative changes in acute-phase proteins in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cymerys, Maciej; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Jabłecka, Anna; Łącki, Jan; Korczowska, Izabela; Dytfeld, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hypertension is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease and frequently occurs in conjunction with obesity. Accumulative evidence suggests a link between inflammation and hypertension. The aim of study was to evaluate whether blood pressure, obesity and smoking may influence acute-phase response. Material/Methods Ninety-two patients with essential hypertension and 75 healthy volunteers as a control group were studied. In all subjects assessment of hsCRP, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), α1-antichymotrypsin, transferrin, α1-antitrypsin, and C3 and C4 complement were performed. Evaluation of glycosylation profile and reactivity coefficient (RC) for AGP was done by means of affinity immunoelectrophoresis with concanavalin A as a ligand. Results When compared to the controls, hypertensive subjects presented significantly higher hsCRP concentrations and lower transferrin level. Hypertensive patients had elevated AGP-AC. The intensification of the inflammatory reaction was greater in the subgroup of hypertensive patients smoking cigarettes. In obese hypertensives, elevated serum C3 complement level was found. Conclusions We conclude that arterial hypertension may evoke the acute-phase response in humans. Markers of acute-phase response are particularly strongly expressed in smokers. Serum C 3 complement, but not other APPs, is elevated in hypertension coexisting with obesity. PMID:22534714

  17. Congenital solitary kidney with renovascular hypertension diagnosed by means of captopril-enhanced renography and magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Mie; Watanabe, Noboru; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kumazaki, Setsuo; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Wataru; Uchikawa, Shin-Ichiro; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kubo, Keishi

    2005-03-01

    A 24 year-old woman had a congenital solitary kidney with renovascular hypertension due to fibromuscular dysplasia. She had been treated as having essential hypertension until she developed preeclampsia and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome at 28 weeks of gestation. Plasma renin activity and captopril test results did not indicate any abnormalities. However, renography revealed captopril-induced deterioration. Magnetic resonance angiography was also useful to detect renal artery stenosis. These findings were confirmed by renal angiography. After successful percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, her blood pressure and the pattern of captopril renography normalized.

  18. Renal resistive index and cardiovascular and renal outcomes in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yohei; Iwashima, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Kamide, Kei; Hayashi, Shin-ichirou; Kubota, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Satoko; Horio, Takeshi; Kawano, Yuhei

    2012-09-01

    Increased renal restive index (RI) measured using Doppler ultrasonography has been shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients. We investigated the prognostic role of RI in cardiovascular and renal outcomes. A total of 426 essential hypertensive subjects (mean age, 63 years; 50% female) with no previous cardiovascular disease were included in this study. Renal segmental arterial RI was measured by duplex Doppler ultrasonography. During follow-up (mean, 3.1 years), 57 participants developed the primary composite end points including cardiovascular and renal outcomes. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, RI was an independent predictor of worse outcome in total subjects (hazard ratio, 1.71 for 1 SD increase), as well as in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio, 2.11 for 1 SD increase; P<0.01, respectively). When divided into 4 groups based on the respective sex-specific median levels of RI in the eGFR ≥60 and eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) groups, the group with eGFR <60 and high RI (male ≥0.73, female ≥0.72) had a significantly poorer event-free survival rate (χ(2)=126.4; P<0.01), and the adjusted hazard ratio by multivariate Cox regression analysis was 9.58 (95% CI, 3.26-32.89; P<0.01). In conclusion, impairment of renal hemodynamics evaluated by increased RI is associated with an increased risk of primary composite end points, and the combination of high RI and low eGFR is a powerful predictor of these diseases in essential hypertension. In hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease, RI evaluation may complement predictors of cardiovascular and renal outcomes.

  19. "Non-dipping" related to cardiovascular events in essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Zweiker, R; Eber, B; Schumacher, M; Toplak, H; Klein, W

    1994-01-01

    About 1 third of all patients with essential hypertension reveal an impaired circadian pattern of blood pressure. This phenomenon called "non-dipping" (i.e. a lack of the normal nocturnal fall in blood pressure) is related to a higher incidence of end-organ damage such as left ventricular hypertrophy. It is the purpose of this study to evaluate, whether or not non-dipping of blood pressure may worsen the prognosis of hypertensive subjects. 116 consecutive hypertensives underwent an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) using the Spacelabs 2000 device. 2 groups were established: Group I (n = 87) were "dippers", group II (n = 29) "non-dippers" showing a diminished or even lack of nocturnal fall in blood pressure. No difference was seen concerning sex, mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure, systolic and diastolic causal blood pressure and heart rate. However, a significant difference in age and mean 24-hour diastolic blood pressure could be observed. In a follow-up investigation after approximately 31 months all patients and/or their physicians were contacted concerning cardiovascular events during the time since the ABPM was performed. In Group I only 1 transient ischemic attack occurred, but in group II 4 patients showed major cardiovascular events: 3 deaths occurred (2 of which caused by myocardial infarction, 1 by apoplexy), while 1 suffered from a transient ischemic attack (p < 0.001). Thus, in essential hypertension non-dipping of blood pressure is associated with an increased occurrence of cardiovascular events, and, therefore, the circadian blood pressure profile should be carefully monitored.

  20. Epicardial Adiposity is Associated with Microalbuminuria in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Mujgan Tek; Ebinç, Fatma Ayerden; Okyay, Gülay Ulusal; Kutlugün, Aysun Akbal

    2017-01-01

    Background Measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is suggested as a novel cardiometabolic risk factor. Microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients. Methods 75 essential hypertensive patients were included into the study. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography to measure EAT thickness. Spot urine sample was collected for the assessment of microalbuminuria. Patients were divided into two groups according to their spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR); Group 1 included normoalbuminuria (0-30 μg/mg); and Group 2: included microalbuminuria (30-300 μg/mg). Thereafter, we evaluated patient characteristics including smoking status, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), antihypertensive treatment, statin therapy and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglicerides, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine and hemoglobin. Results There was no difference in baseline characteristics between Group 1 and Group 2. Patients with microalbuminuria had significantly higher mean EAT thickness values compared to the normoalbuminuria group (7.1 ± 0.9 vs. 6.6 ± 0.9, p = 0.01). There were positive significant correlations between EAT and age (r = 0.267, p = 0.020), serum creatinine (r = 0.292, p = 0.01), UACR (r = 0.251, p = 0.03), left ventricular mass (r = 0.257, p = 0.03) and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.242, p = 0.04). UACR was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.01) after adjustments were made for age and BMI. Conclusions Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) thickness could be associated with microalbuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. This association could support the recognition of EAT as a credible

  1. [Association analysis of the essential hypertension susceptibility genes in adolescents: Kangwha study].

    PubMed

    Suh, Il; Nam, Chung Mo; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Hur, Nam Wook; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2006-03-01

    In this study we examined the association between the genetic markers ACE (A-240T, C-93T, I/D, A2350G), AGT (M235T), AT1R (A1166C), CYP11B2 (T-344C, V386A), REN (G2646A), ADRB2 (G46A, C79G, T-47C, T164I), GNB3 (C825T) and ADD1 (G460W) and the presence of essential hypertension in adolescents. The Kangwha Study is an 18-year prospective study that is aimed at elucidating the determinants of the blood pressure level from childhood to early adulthood. For this study, we constructed a case-control dataset of size of 277 and 40 family trios data from the Kangwha Study. For this purpose, we perform a single locus-based case-control association study and a single locus-based TDT (transmission/disequilibrium test) study. In the case-control study, the single locus-based association study indicated that the ADD1 (G460W) (p = 0.0403), AGT (M235T) (p = 0.0002), and REN (G2646A) (p = 0.0101) markers were significantly associated with the risk of hypertension. These results were not confirmed on the TDT study. This study showed that genetic polymorphisms of the ADD1, AGT and REN genes might be related to the hypertension in Korean adolescents. This study provided useful information on genetics markers related to blood pressure. Further study will be needed to confirm the effect of the alpha adducin gene, the angiotensinogen gene and the renin gene on essential hypertension.

  2. Diagnosing and Managing Primary Aldosteronism in Hypertensive Patients: a Case-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Primary aldosteronism with a prevalence of 8 % of hypertension and 20 % of pharmacologically resistant hypertension is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. Yet, the diagnosis is missed in the vast majority of patients. Current clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for primary aldosteronism in patients with sustained elevation of blood pressure (BP) ≥150/100 mmHg if possible prior to initiation of antihypertensive therapy, and in patients with resistant hypertension, spontaneous or diuretic-induced hypokalemia, adrenal incidentaloma, obstructive sleep apnea, a family history of early onset of hypertension or cerebrovascular accident

  3. The impact of depression and cardiophobia on quality of life in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tsartsalis, D; Dragioti, E; Kontoangelos, K; Pitsavos, Chr; Sakkas, P; Papadimitriou, G N; Stefanadis, Chr; Kallikazaros, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which endorse the development of anxiety and depression symptomatology, thus they increase their risk for poor quality of life. Several studies have shown an association between symptoms of psychological distress and hypertension. In this study we aimed to quantify the link between depression, cardiophobia and quality of life in hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional design was employed. A sample of 197 hypertensive patients (89 men-108 women, mean age 53 years, SD=12 ranged 25-78) from a university outpatient hypertension clinic in Greece participated. Ninety-four (47.7%) of the participants suffered from essential grade I hypertension; 68 (34.5%) were grade II; 16 (8.1%) were categorized as grade III, while only 11 (5.6%) patients were recorded as normotensives with high normal values. The questionnaires included: (a) question for the recording of social-demographic characteristics and clinical features, (b) The Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey, (c) The Beck Depression Inventory -I, and (d) The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire. There were no significant differences between the two genders with exception of marital status (p=0.010), dyslipidemia (p=0.050), grade of hypertension (p=0.014), cardiac left ventricular hypertrophy (p=0.004), renal failure (p=0.043) and stroke (p=0.024). Lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of depression and cardiophobia were observed compared to the general population. There were no significant differences on psychological measures between the two sexes (p>0.05). Cardiophobia was positively related to depressive symptomatology (r=0.533, p=0.000) while negatively to both physical and mental health summary measures of SF-36 health survey (r=-0.467, p=0.000 r=-0.537, p=0.000 respectively). Multiple linear regression models found that for psychical health depression and cardiac anxiety, avoidance activities had an influence on levels of

  4. Cluster analysis: a new approach for identification of underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Lu, Xiaoni; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Bin; Su, Dan; Song, Anqi; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Gang

    2017-03-07

    Grading of essential hypertension according to blood pressure (BP) level may not adequately reflect clinical heterogeneity of hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to explore clinical phenotypes in essential hypertensive patients using cluster analysis. This study recruited 513 hypertensive patients and evaluated BP variations with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Four distinct hypertension groups were identified using cluster analysis: (1) younger male smokers with relatively high BP had the most severe carotid plaque thickness but no coronary artery disease (CAD); (2) older women with relatively low diastolic BP had more diabetes; (3) non-smokers with a low systolic BP level had neither diabetes nor CAD; (4) hypertensive patients with BP reverse dipping were most likely to have CAD but had least severe carotid plaque thickness. In binary logistic analysis, reverse dipping was significantly associated with prevalence of CAD. Cluster analysis was shown to be a feasible approach for investigating the heterogeneity of essential hypertension in clinical studies. BP reverse dipping might be valuable for prediction of CAD in hypertensive patients when compared with carotid plaque thickness. However, large-scale prospective trials with more information of plaque morphology are necessary to further compare the predicative power between BP dipping pattern and carotid plaque.

  5. Cluster analysis: a new approach for identification of underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Lu, Xiaoni; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Bin; Su, Dan; Song, Anqi; Zhao, Xi; Wang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Grading of essential hypertension according to blood pressure (BP) level may not adequately reflect clinical heterogeneity of hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to explore clinical phenotypes in essential hypertensive patients using cluster analysis. This study recruited 513 hypertensive patients and evaluated BP variations with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Four distinct hypertension groups were identified using cluster analysis: (1) younger male smokers with relatively high BP had the most severe carotid plaque thickness but no coronary artery disease (CAD); (2) older women with relatively low diastolic BP had more diabetes; (3) non-smokers with a low systolic BP level had neither diabetes nor CAD; (4) hypertensive patients with BP reverse dipping were most likely to have CAD but had least severe carotid plaque thickness. In binary logistic analysis, reverse dipping was significantly associated with prevalence of CAD. Cluster analysis was shown to be a feasible approach for investigating the heterogeneity of essential hypertension in clinical studies. BP reverse dipping might be valuable for prediction of CAD in hypertensive patients when compared with carotid plaque thickness. However, large-scale prospective trials with more information of plaque morphology are necessary to further compare the predicative power between BP dipping pattern and carotid plaque. PMID:28266630

  6. Mineral factors controlling essential hypertension--a study in the Chandigarh, India population.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Satish Kumar; Mandal, Reshu

    2007-01-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a major public health problem world over and in India. Recent data on EH in the population of Chandigarh (Union Territory and capital of Punjab and Haryana States of India) revealed that the prevalence of EH has become double in the last 30 years in the residents of Chandigarh (26.9 to 45.80% in the year 1968 and 2002). Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) in the serum are considered important in maintaining the human hypertension. The high Zn intake was considered to increase the blood pressure (BP) and to affect the other mineral status in the body. Recent survey on the trace metal status of different vegetables in the State of Punjab around Chandigarh (India) revealed that Zn level is significantly higher (40 mg/kg or more in above ground vegetables and 120 mg/kg or above in underground vegetables) in underground water-irrigated vegetables, but the levels of Cu and Mg are within prescribed limit. The present study was conducted on Chandigarh population to evaluate the levels of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Mn in the blood and urine of normotensive (NT) control and hypertensive (HT) subjects matched with number, age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer studies reevaluated that the levels of serum Zn, Mg, and Mn were significantly higher (p < 0.001), but the level of Cu was low in the HT subjects (BP = 160/93) compared to NT control (BP = 140/83). Higher levels of urinary Zn, Cu, Mg, and Mn were observed in the HT subject vs NT control (p < 0.001). Positive correlations were evaluated between the levels of serum Zn, Mg, and Mn vs systolic and diastolic pressures (DP and SP), respectively (r = 0.928, 0.863, 0.876, 0.808, 0.404, 0.326, p < 0.01), but negative and positive nonsignificant correlations between the serum Cu with SP and DP were recorded (r = -0.032, r = 0.024). Positive correlations were also evaluated between urinary levels of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Mn vs SP and DP (r = 0.718, 0.657, 0.750, 0.681, 0.630, 0.578, 0

  7. Impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter during essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bellien, Jeremy; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Iacob, Michele; Blot, Etienne; Mercier, Alain; Lucas, Daniele; Dreano, Yvonne; Gutierrez, Laurence; Donnadieu, Nathalie; Thuillez, Christian; Joannides, Robinson

    2012-12-01

    In young healthy subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesized by endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenases maintain basal conduit artery diameter during altered NO availability. Whether this compensatory mechanism is effective during essential hypertension is unknown. Radial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean wall shear stress were determined in 14 nontreated essential hypertensive patients and 14 normotensive control subjects during 8 minutes of brachial infusion for inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole, 0.4 µmol/min) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, 8 µmol/min) alone and in combination. In controls, the radial artery diameter was reduced by fluconazole (-0.034 ± 0.012 mm) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.037 ± 0.010 mm) and to a larger extent by their combination (-0.137 ± 0.011 mm), demonstrating a synergic effect. In contrast, the radial diameter in hypertensive patients was not affected by fluconazole (0.010 ± 0.014 mm) but was reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.091 ± 0.008 mm) to a larger extent than in controls. In parallel, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine decreased local plasma nitrite to a lesser extent in hypertensive patients (-14 ± 5 nmol/L) than in controls (-50 ± 10 nmol/L). Moreover, the addition of fluconazole to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine did not further decrease radial diameter in patients (-0.086 ± 0.011 mm). Accordingly, fluconazole significantly decreased local epoxyeicosatrienoic acid plasma level in controls (-2.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL) but not in patients (-0.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL). Inhibitors effects on blood flow and endothelium-independent dilatation to sodium nitroprusside were similar between groups. These results show that, in contrast to normotensive subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids did not contribute to the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter and did not compensate for altered NO availability to maintain this diameter in essential hypertensive patients.

  8. The aortic mechanical properties in patients with the essential hypertension environmentally exposed to cigaret smoke.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Poręba, Małgorzata; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The impairment of the aortic mechanical features constitutes the independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The purpose of the present research has been the determination of the influence of the environmental exposure to cigaret smoke on the aortic mechanical properties, namely, the stiffness and elasticity of aorta, in patients with essential hypertension. The research has covered 128 people with essential hypertension: 64 nonsmokers, declaring the environmental exposure to cigaret smoke (group A) and 64 nonsmokers declaring the lack of environmental exposure to cigaret smoke selected on the case to case basis (group B). Aortic mechanical properties have been evaluated on the basis of the parameters: aortic stiffness index (AoSI), aortic strain (AoS) and aortic distensibility (AoD). In group A, the average values of AoSI were significantly higher, and the average values of AoS and AoD significantly lower than in group B. It has been documented that the older age and environmental exposure to cigaret smoke form independent risk factors of increasing the aortic stiffness expressed by higher values of AoSI, whereas the older age, higher pulse pressure (PP) values and environmental exposure to cigaret smoke - independent risk factors of aortic elasticity reduction expressed for the age and "passive smoking" by lower values of AoS and AoD and for PP - lower values of AoD. In patients with essential hypertension, the environmental exposure to cigaret smoke seems to result in impairment of the aortic mechanical properties.

  9. Platelet calcium and quenched-flow aggregation kinetics in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Ayers, C R; Gear, A R

    1989-06-01

    Abnormal platelet function may contribute to the complications of essential hypertension. We have studied the kinetics of platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or epinephrine, plasma beta-thromboglobulin, and basal, cytosolic, and free calcium, as correlates of platelet function. Fifteen untreated patients with essential hypertension and without detectable atherosclerosis, 18-40 years old, were compared with 30 matched normotensive control subjects. Maximal rates of platelet aggregation (Vmax) with ADP and epinephrine were significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (p less than 0.03), as assessed by quenched-flow aggregometry. However, significance was lost when Vmax was corrected for the platelet count. Paradoxically, the activation constants (Ka) for ADP were higher in patients than in control subjects (p less than 0.03). With ADP as the inducing agent, onset time (t) or lag period before aggregation begins was longer in patients than in control subjects (p less than 0.02). beta-thromboglobulin levels, an index of in vivo platelet activation, were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.13). The mean platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration was higher in patients (213 +/- 19 nM) than in control subjects (172 +/- 14 nM), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). However, there was a close correlation between the free calcium level and systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (p less than 0.003, p less than 0.04, p less than 0.004, respectively). No difference in platelet volume between the two groups was found. Our data suggest that platelets in the early stages of essential hypertension display an overall increased aggregation potential but a diminished sensitivity to ADP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Intracellular sodium concentration and transport in red cells in essential hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy and hypokalemia.

    PubMed

    Gless, K H; Sütterlin, U; Schaz, K; Schütz, V; Hunstein, W

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular sodium content ([Nai]), ouabain-sensitive ('Na-K ATPase') and ouabain-insensitive ('passive permeability') sodium efflux, Na-K cotransport and Na-Li ('Na-Na') countertransport were estimated in erythrocytes in 39 control subjects, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 14 patients with hypokalemia of renal or unknown etiology, 13 hyperthyroid patients and 19 pregnant women. In normokalemic essential hypertension there was only a moderate, but significant elevation of the activity of the Na-Li countertransport system. In the group of patients with hypokalemia, there was a significant increase of [Nai], ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux and Na-Li countertransport. In hyperthyroidism, a marked decrease of Na-Li countertransport was associated with a marked elevation of [Nai], in pregnancy an elevation of the Na-Li countertransport with a [Nai] 43% lower than the control values. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux was elevated in hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia, in which [Nai] was increased. In the control subjects there was a positive linear correlation between ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and [Nai]. The sodium component of the Na-K cotransport was decreased to about one third of the unchanged furosemide-sensitive potassium component during pregnancy. The changes of cellular sodium metabolism in essential hypertension are of minor degree as compared to those in the other conditions studied. Cellular sodium metabolism in blood cells is influenced by thyroid hormones and metabolic disorders. Na-Li countertransport, i.e. Na-Na countertransport, seems to be involved in the regulation of [Nai]: an increase of its activity diminishes [Nai] (pregnancy); a decrease elevates [Nai] (hyperthyroidism). Ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, i.e. 'Na-K ATPase', is mainly regulated by its substrate, [Nai].

  11. Action of the. beta. /sub 2/-blocker propranolol on lymphocyte adrenergic receptors in essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, T.L.; Radyukhin, V.A.; Parfenova, E.V.; Suvorov, Yu.I.; Ustinova, S.E.; Shkhvatsabaya, I.K.

    1986-12-01

    The characteristics of lymphocyte ..beta../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors in patients with essential hypertension were studied in this paper after a short course of propranolol monotherapy. The density of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors on intact lymphocytes was determined in three patients with the use of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol, in the rest with /sup 125/I-cyanopindolol. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-CIP with intact cells, like that of /sup 3/H-DHA, was characterized by high affinity and saturation.

  12. Neutron spectrometry--an essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility (invited).

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R; Ashabranner, R; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Carpenter, A; Cerjan, C J; Clancy, T J; Doeppner, T; Eckart, M J; Edwards, M J; Friedrich, S; Glenzer, S H; Haan, S W; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hatchett, S P; Jones, O S; Kyrala, G; Le Pape, S; Lerche, R A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; McKernan, M A; Moran, M J; Moses, E; Munro, D H; McNaney, J; Park, H S; Ralph, J; Remington, B; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S M; Smalyuk, V; Spears, B; Springer, P T; Yeamans, C B; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Paguio, R; Knauer, J P; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Betti, R; Stoeckl, C; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Grim, G P; Kline, J; Morgan, G L; Murphy, T J; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J

    2012-10-01

    DT neutron yield (Y(n)), ion temperature (T(i)), and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the complementarity required for reliable measurements of Y(n), T(i), and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density (ρR) is determined through the relationship ρR(tot) (g∕cm(2)) = (20.4 ± 0.6) × dsr(10-12 MeV). The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation, and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration of the as-built spectrometers, which are now performing to the required accuracy. Recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFx), which is a function of dsr (or fuel ρR) and Y(n), has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.

  13. Neutron spectrometry - An essential tool for diagnosing implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A J; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Casey, D T; Li, C K; Seguin, F H; Petrasso, R; Ashabranner, R; Cerjan, C; Clancy, T J; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Capenter, A; Eckart, M J; Edwards, M J; Friedrich, S; Glenzer, S H; Haan, S W; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Hachett, S P; McKernan, M; Jones, O; Lepape, S; Lerche, R A; Landen, O L; Moran, M; Moses, E; Munro, D; McNaney, J; Rygg, J R; Sepke, S; Spears, B; Springer, P; Yeamans, C; Farrell, M; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A; Paguio, R; Knauer, J; Glebov, V; Sangster, T; Betti, R; Stoeckl, C; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Grim, G P; Moran, G L; Murphy, T J; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C

    2012-05-02

    DT neutron yield (Y{sub n}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) and down-scatter ratio (dsr) determined from measured neutron spectra are essential metrics for diagnosing the performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A suite of neutron-Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) spectrometers and a Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) have been implemented in different locations around the NIF target chamber, providing good implosion coverage and the redundancy required for reliable measurements of Yn, Ti and dsr. From the measured dsr value, an areal density ({rho}R) is determined from the relationship {rho}R{sub tot} (g/cm{sup 2}) = (20.4 {+-} 0.6) x dsr{sub 10-12 MeV}. The proportionality constant is determined considering implosion geometry, neutron attenuation and energy range used for the dsr measurement. To ensure high accuracy in the measurements, a series of commissioning experiments using exploding pushers have been used for in situ calibration. The spectrometers are now performing to the required accuracy, as indicated by the good agreement between the different measurements over several commissioning shots. In addition, recent data obtained with the MRS and nTOFs indicate that the implosion performance of cryogenically layered DT implosions, characterized by the experimental Ignition Threshold Factor (ITFx) which is a function of dsr (or fuel {rho}R) and Y{sub n}, has improved almost two orders of magnitude since the first shot in September, 2010.

  14. The CXCR2 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Stroke in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Timasheva, Yanina R.; Nasibullin, Timur R.; Mustafina, Olga E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke, and genetic factors contribute to its development. Inflammation has been hypothesized to be the key link between blood pressure elevation and stroke. We performed an analysis of the association between inflammatory mediator gene polymorphisms and the incidence of stroke in patients with essential hypertension (EH). The study group consisted of 625 individuals (296 patients with noncomplicated EH, 71 hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke, and 258 control subjects). Both patients and controls were ethnic Tatars originating from the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian Federation). The analysis has shown that the risk of ischemic stroke was associated with the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism. Our results indicate that among patients with EH, the heterozygous genotype carriers had a higher risk of stroke (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.01-2.92), whereas the CXCR2*C/C genotype was protective against stroke (OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.83). As shown by the gene-gene interaction analysis, the CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphism was also present in all genotype/allele combinations associated with the risk of stroke. Genetic patterns associated with stroke also included polymorphisms in the CCL2, CCL18, CX3CR1, CCR5, and CXCL8 (IL8) genes, although no association between these loci and stroke was detected by individual analysis. PMID:26648969

  15. Cardiovascular and autonomic responses to whole-body cryostimulation in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Pawel; Buszko, Katarzyna; Zawadka-Kunikowska, Monika; Słomko, Joanna; Szrajda, Justyna; Klawe, Jacek J; Tafil-Klawe, Malgorzata; Sinski, Maciej; Newton, Julia

    2014-10-01

    Over recent years, a considerable increase in the popularity of cryostimulation and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures has occurred both among healthy individuals and in various groups of patients, including those with primary untreated hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of WBC on the functional parameters of cardiovascular system in normotensive and primarily hypertensive individuals. The study included 26 young male volunteers with normal blood pressure range (NormoBP) and 13 with essential arterial hypertension (HyperBP). Each subject was exposed to cryotherapeutic factor (whole-body cryotherapy/cryostimulation, WBC) at a temperature of approximately -115°C to -125°C for a period of 3 min. The cardiovascular and autonomic parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force® Monitor. Measurements in a supine position and tilt test were performed "before WBC" and "after WBC". Our study revealed that cryogenic temperatures exert strong modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. Both groups showed adaptive changes of myocardial and vascular parameters in response to rapid cooling of virtually the whole body surface. While the profiles of some of these changes were similar in both the groups, also several considerable intergroup differences were documented. Consequently, the cryostimulation and cryotherapy treatment should be prescribed carefully to individuals who present with cardiovascular failure of any degree.

  16. Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B M Y; Lo, J L F; Fong, D Y T; Chan, M Y; Wong, S H T; Wong, V C W; Lam, K S L; Lau, C P; Karlberg, J P E

    2005-09-01

    Exercise and relaxation decrease blood pressure. Qigong is a traditional Chinese exercise consisting of breathing and gentle movements. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to study the effect of Guolin qigong on blood pressure. In all, 88 patients with mild essential hypertension were recruited from the community and randomised to Goulin qigong or conventional exercise for 16 weeks. The main outcome measurements were blood pressure, health status (SF-36 scores), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventory scores. In the qigong group, blood pressure decreased significantly from 146.3+/-7.8/93.0+/-4.1 mmHg at baseline to 135.5+/-10.0/87.1+/-7.7 mmHg at week 16. In the exercise group, blood pressure also decreased significantly from 140.9+/-10.9/93.1+/-3.5 mmHg to 129.7+/-11.1/86.0+/-7.0 mmHg. Heart rate, weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, renin and 24 h urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased in both groups after 16 weeks. General health, bodily pain, social functioning and depression also improved in both groups. No significant differences between qigong and conventional exercise were found. In conclusion, Guolin qigong and conventional exercise have similar effects on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. While no additional benefits were identified, it is nevertheless an alternative to conventional exercise in the nondrug treatment of hypertension.

  17. A calcium-channel blocker, benidipine, improves forearm reactive hyperemia in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Makino, Hirofumi; Aoki, Motokuni; Hashiya, Naotaka; Yamasaki, Keita; Shimizu, Hideo; Miwa, Ken; Ogihara, Toshio; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2005-07-01

    The pathophysiological role of endothelial cells is important in the mechanism of progression of atherosclerosis and improvement of endothelial function may be important for cardiovascular morbidity. Calcium antagonists are reported to have protective effects on the endothelium in vitro and in vivo. In this clinical study, we investigated the effect of calcium antagonist, benidipine, on endothelial function in the patients with essential hypertension, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-five patients with hypertension without other risk factors for atherosclerosis were treated with monotherapy (8 mg benidipine, n=25) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure was reduced significantly. Endothelial function was evaluated using forearm blood flow by strain-gauge plethysmography after 8 weeks of treatment. Changes in vasodilator response to reactive hyperemia were significantly improved (p<0.01), while the response to nitroglycerin was not changed, suggesting the improvement of endothelial function. Moreover, we focused on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a novel angiogenic growth factor with an anti-apoptotic action on endothelial cells, and evaluated involvement of HGF in improvement of endothelial function. Serum HGF concentration in subjects treated with benidipine was significantly elevated at 8 weeks (p<0.05). Overall, these results demonstrated that benidipine improved endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension. Interestingly, an increase in serum HGF concentration by benidipine might contribute to the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sex-Specific Effects of NLRP6/AVR and ADM Loci on Susceptibility to Essential Hypertension in a Sardinian Population

    PubMed Central

    Glorioso, Nicola; Herrera, Victoria L.; Didishvili, Tamara; Ortu, Maria F.; Zaninello, Roberta; Fresu, Giovanni; Argiolas, Guiseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, heart failure, fatal arrhythmias, stroke, and renal disease are the most common causes of mortality for humans, and essential hypertension remains a major risk factor. Elucidation of susceptibility loci for essential hypertension has been difficult because of its complex, multifactorial nature involving genetic, environmental, and sex- and age-dependent nature. We investigated whether the 11p15.5 region syntenic to rat chromosome 1 region containing multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in Dahl rat intercrosses harbors polymorphisms that contribute to susceptibility/resistance to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population. Initial testing performed using microsatellite markers spanning 18 Mb of 11p15.5 detected a strong association between D11S1318 (at 2.1 Mb, P = 0.004) and D11S1346 (at 10.6 Mb, P = 0.00000004), suggesting that loci in close proximity to these markers may contribute to susceptibility in our Sardinian cohort. NLR family, pyrin domain containing 6/angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (NLRP6/AVR), and adrenomedullin (ADM) are in close proximity to D11S1318 and D11S1346, respectively; thus we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within NLRP6/AVR and ADM for their association with hypertension in our Sardinian cohort. Upon sex stratification, we detected one NLRP6/AVR SNP associated with decreased susceptibility to hypertension in males (rs7948797G, P = 0.029; OR = 0.73 [0.57–0.94]). For ADM, sex-specific analysis showed a significant association between rs4444073C, with increased susceptibility to essential hypertension only in the male population (P = 0.006; OR = 1.44 [1.13–1.84]). Our results revealed an association between NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci with male essential hypertension, suggesting the existence of sex-specific NLRP6/AVR and ADM variants affecting male susceptibility to essential hypertension. PMID:24147025

  20. Sex-specific effects of NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci on susceptibility to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population.

    PubMed

    Glorioso, Nicola; Herrera, Victoria L; Didishvili, Tamara; Ortu, Maria F; Zaninello, Roberta; Fresu, Giovanni; Argiolas, Guiseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, heart failure, fatal arrhythmias, stroke, and renal disease are the most common causes of mortality for humans, and essential hypertension remains a major risk factor. Elucidation of susceptibility loci for essential hypertension has been difficult because of its complex, multifactorial nature involving genetic, environmental, and sex- and age-dependent nature. We investigated whether the 11p15.5 region syntenic to rat chromosome 1 region containing multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in Dahl rat intercrosses harbors polymorphisms that contribute to susceptibility/resistance to essential hypertension in a Sardinian population. Initial testing performed using microsatellite markers spanning 18 Mb of 11p15.5 detected a strong association between D11S1318 (at 2.1 Mb, P = 0.004) and D11S1346 (at 10.6 Mb, P = 0.00000004), suggesting that loci in close proximity to these markers may contribute to susceptibility in our Sardinian cohort. NLR family, pyrin domain containing 6/angiotensin-vasopressin receptor (NLRP6/AVR), and adrenomedullin (ADM) are in close proximity to D11S1318 and D11S1346, respectively; thus we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within NLRP6/AVR and ADM for their association with hypertension in our Sardinian cohort. Upon sex stratification, we detected one NLRP6/AVR SNP associated with decreased susceptibility to hypertension in males (rs7948797G, P = 0.029; OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.94]). For ADM, sex-specific analysis showed a significant association between rs4444073C, with increased susceptibility to essential hypertension only in the male population (P = 0.006; OR = 1.44 [1.13-1.84]). Our results revealed an association between NLRP6/AVR and ADM loci with male essential hypertension, suggesting the existence of sex-specific NLRP6/AVR and ADM variants affecting male susceptibility to essential hypertension.

  1. Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension is lower in postmenopausal women than men.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, A J; Burns, J; Mackintosh, A F; Mary, D A S G

    2008-08-01

    Sympathetic activation has been associated with the development and complications of hypertension. While the prevalence of hypertension and its cardiovascular risks in women are found to be less than in men and tend to become similar to men after the menopause, there have been no data on the level of sympathetic activation in postmenopausal women relative to men. Therefore, we planned to find out whether muscle sympathetic nerve hyperactivity of essential hypertension (EHT) in postmenopausal women is different from that in matched men. We quantified muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) as mean frequency of single units (s-MSNA) and multiunit bursts (b-MSNA) in 21 postmenopausal women with EHT (W-EHT) relative to 21 matched men with EHT (M-EHT), in comparison to two control groups of 21 normal women (W-NC) and 21 men (M-NC), respectively. The EHT groups had greater MSNA indices than NC groups. W-EHT had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (63+/-22.7 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-EHT (78+/-11.2 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). W-NC had lower (P<0.05) s-MSNA (53+/-12.4 impulses per 100 cardiac beats) than M-NC (65+/-16.3 impulses per 100 cardiac beats). Similar results were obtained for b-MSNA. Postmenopausal women with EHT had lower level of central sympathetic hyperactivity than men. Similarly, normal postmenopausal women had lower MSNA than men. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women continue to have a lower sympathetic nerve activity than men even after the development of EHT, and that this could have implications for gender-specific management of hypertension.

  2. Novel variants detected in AGT gene among patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Padma, G; Charita, Bh; Swapna, N; Mamata, M; Padma, T

    2015-09-01

    AGT is the first gene to be linked to essential hypertension (EHT). It harbors several variants of which only few polymorphisms are found to exhibit positive and negative associations with hypertension. In the present study, the AGT gene was screened to detect already reported and novel variations contributing to the development of hypertension. In total, 215 hypertensives and 230 normotensives were screened for variations in all the five exons and a part of promoter of AGT gene using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by sequencing of samples showing mobility shifts on polyacrylamide gels. Five novel variants, namely c.-61G>A in promoter, c.-4+17C>T in intron1, c.24T>C and c.28A>T in Exon2, and c.*90 T>C in 3' untranslated region were detected in the AGT gene. c.-61G>A lies in the promoter region that plays a critical role in its expression. Variation c.-4+17C>T created a new enhancer site. c.24T>C (TCT-TCC) is a silent mutation while c.28A>T (p. M10L) has a possible damaging effect on the AGT protein. c.*90T>C, detected in the 3' untranslated region is thought to play an important role in the translation and stability of the mRNA. Studies on the functional role of these novel variants are warranted to understand the mechanism underlying the development of EHT. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (76-85) mm Hg vs. 84 (75-90) mm Hg (ns); home BP systolic 133 (130-140) mm Hg vs. 142 (132-150) mm Hg (P < 0.01); diastolic 80 (75-85) mm Hg vs. 80 (76-89) mm Hg (ns)). At T-12, when all patients had undergone the educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Lack of association of A-6G polymorphism of AGT gene with essential hypertension in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-yan

    2012-08-01

    The angiotensinogen (AGT) A-6G gene polymorphism has been indicated to be related to the susceptibility of essential hypertension. However, the results are still unclear. To survey the relationship between AGT A-6G gene polymorphism and essential hypertension, 18 separate studies with 9306 patients were analyzed through meta-analysis. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). In this AGT A-6G gene polymorphism and essential hypertension meta-analysis of the Chinese population, the distribution of the G-allele frequency was 0.23 for the essential hypertension group and 0.21 for the control group. The association between the AGT A-6G gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in the entire sample population was not significant. The pooled OR for the frequency of the G allele was 1.10 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.27, Pheterogeneity < 0.00001, P = 0.17). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant association in Li and Mongolian ethnicities (P ≤ 0.05) was achieved. However, no significant association was found in other ethnicities such as Han, Tibetan, Kazakh, Bai and Yi (P > 0.05). The current meta-analysis suggested that AGT A-6G gene polymorphism might not be related to the increased risk of essential hypertension in the entire Chinese population. However, the G-allele of AGT A-6G might predispose to essential hypertension in the Li and Mongolian ethnicities.

  5. Evaluation of amlodipine, lisinopril, and a combination in the treatment of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, M; Usha, P; Rao, T; Shobha, J

    2000-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists are well established and widely used as monotherapy in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Earlier studies combining short acting drugs from these classes require multiple dosing and were associated with poor compliance. Availability of longer acting compounds allows once daily administration to avoid the inconvenience of a multiple daily dose. It was decided to perform a randomised double blind, crossover study with the long acting calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the long acting ACE inhibitor lisinopril, given either alone or in combination in essential hypertension. Twenty four patients with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 95 and 104 mm Hg received amlodipine 2.5 mg and 5 mg, lisinopril 5 mg and 10 mg, and their combination as per a prior randomisation schedule. Supine and standing blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at weekly intervals. Higher doses of both the drugs individually or in combination were used if the target supine DBP below 90 mm Hg was not achieved. There was a significant additional blood pressure lowering effect with the combination when compared either with amlodipine or lisinopril alone. Five mg amlodipine and 10 mg lisinopril monotherapy achieved the target blood pressure in 71% and 72% patients respectively. The combination of 2.5 mg amlodipine with 5 mg lisinopril produced a much more significant lowering of blood pressure in a higher percentage of patients than that with an individual low dose.


Keywords: amlodipine; lisinopril; hypertension; combination therapy PMID:10824049

  6. [Endothelial and metabolic effects of perindopril in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Semenkin, A A; Novikov, A I; Nechaeva, G I; Zhivilova, L A; Fisun, N I; Pritykina, T V; Nazarov, A G

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate endothelial and metabolic effects of perindopril and their interaction in patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension. The study involved 30 patients treated with perindopril (5-10 mg/day) for 3 months. The following parameters were registered at baseline and at the end of the study: body mass index, waist circumference, blood lipids and glucose, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMVD) of brachial artery assessed by ultrasound. Treatment with perindopril was associated with significant improvement of FMVD (6.7 ± 4.1% versus 8.7 ± 5.4% at the end of the study, p<0.05) as well as decrease of blood triglycerides (-18%, p<0.05) and glucose (-9%, p<0.01) with no significant changes of other metabolic parameters. Correlation analysis showed no relationship between changes of FMVD and blood pressure during the study (r= -0.14, p=0.42 r= -0.13, p=0.46 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) whereas inverse association was observed with changes of blood glucose (r= -0.50, p<0.01). Thus our data confirm the ability of perindopril to restore impaired endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension independently of blood pressure reduction and make possible to propose its positive metabolic effect relative to changes associated with insulin resistance. It seems that endothelial effect of perindopril may in part be related to diminished adverse influence of metabolic changes on vascular wall.

  7. Studies with fenoldopam, a dopamine receptor DA1 agonist, in essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J N; Worth, D P; Brown, J; Lee, M R

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies were undertaken to assess the effect of oral fenoldopam, a specific DA1 dopamine receptor agonist on blood pressure and renal function in patients with mild essential hypertension. Six patients with essential hypertension were entered into a dose-ranging study and received either placebo, 25, 50 or 100 mg fenoldopam. A significant, dose-related reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and increase in heart rate was demonstrated (both P less than 0.05), maximal at 45 min to 1 h. Fenoldopam increased plasma renin activity. In a double-blind study, seven patients received a single dose of fenoldopam 100 mg or placebo. Fenoldopam produced a significant fall in systolic (P less than 0.05) and diastolic (P less than 0.01) blood pressure and renal vascular resistance (P less than 0.01). Urine flow rate (P less than 0.05), sodium excretion (P less than 0.01), plasma renin activity (P less than 0.05) and plasma aldosterone (P less than 0.05) increased. Five patients underwent measurement of the above parameters following a single dose of fenoldopam 100 mg with a repeat of these measurements after they had taken fenoldopam 100 mg four times daily for 1 month. The acute response of blood pressure to the single dose appeared unchanged but tachyphylaxis was evident in the responses of heart rate, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone. PMID:2868748

  8. A decreased metabolic clearance rate of aldosterone in benign essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nowaczynski, W.; Kuchel, O.; Genest, J.

    1971-01-01

    Aldosterone secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate, and/or plasma concentration were determined in 16 patients with benign, uncomplicated essential hypertension and compared with those of control subjects. The mean metabolic clearance rate of aldosterone in 10 patients was significantly (P < 0.001) lower (mean 867 liters of plasma/day per m2 ±270 SD) than in a group of 7 healthy subjects (mean 1480 liters/day per m2 ±265 SD). Secretion rates in 13 patients (including the 10 already mentioned) tended to be low (83 ±43 vs. 109 ±54 μg/day) and plasma concentrations tended to be high (13.6 ±4.6 vs. 7.5 ±4.8 ng/100 ml), but neither of these differences was statistically significant. The lower metabolic clearance rate could account for elevated plasma concentrations of aldosterone even when the secretion rate is normal or low. Measurement of secretion rate or urinary excretion only is therefore insufficient to establish the presence and/or mode of evolution of hyperaldosteronism. Failure of the aldosterone secretion to adapt fully to a decreased aldosterone metabolic clearance rate (MCR) could explain the state of relative hyperaldosteronism in patients with benign essential hypertension, even when the secretion rate and the urinary excretion rate are in the normal range. PMID:5116208

  9. The effectiveness of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) counselling on estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk among patients with newly diagnosed grade 1 hypertension: A randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Wang, Harry H X; Kwan, Mandy W M; Li, Shannon T S; Liang, Miaoyin; Fung, Franklin D H; Yeung, Ming Sze; Fong, Brian C Y; Zhang, De Xing; Chan, David K L; Yan, Bryan P; Coats, Andrew J S; Griffiths, Sian M

    2016-12-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) has been shown to lower blood pressure in the West. However, the real-life impact of DASH on reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk in routine clinical setting has not been studied. A parallel-group, open-labelled, physician-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in January-June 2013 and followed up for 6- and 12-months in primary care settings in Hong Kong. Patients newly diagnosed with grade 1 hypertension (aged 40-70years) who had no concomitant medical conditions requiring dietary modifications were consecutively recruited. Subjects were randomised to standard education (usual care) (n=275), or usual care plus dietitian-delivered DASH-based dietary counselling in a single one-to-one session (intervention) (n=281). Primary outcomes were the changes in estimated 10-year CV risk. Outcome data were available for 504 (90.6%) and 485 (87.2%) patients at 6 and 12months, respectively. There was no difference in the reduction of 10-year CV risk between the two groups at 6months (-0.13%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.50% to 0.23%, p=0.477) and 12months (-0.08%, 95% CI -0.33% to 0.18%, p=0.568). Multivariate regression analyses showed that male subjects, younger patients, current smokers, subjects with lower educational level, and those who dined out for main meals for ≥4 times in a typical week were significantly associated with no improvements in CV risk. The findings may not support automatic referral of newly diagnosed grade 1 hypertensive patients for further one-to-one dietitian counselling on top of primary care physician's usual care. Patients with those risk factors identified should receive more clinical attention to reduce their CV risk. ChiCTR-TRC-13003014 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/enindex.aspx). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A factorial randomised controlled trial of decision analysis and an information video plus leaflet for newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Alan A; Fahey, Tom; Peters, Tim J

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence regarding the value of tools designed to aid decision making in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. AIM: To evaluate two interventions for assisting newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in the decision whether to start drug therapy for reducing blood pressure. DESIGN OF STUDY: Factorial randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-one general practices in south-west England, UK. METHOD: Adults aged 32 to 80 years with newly diagnosed hypertension were randomised to receive either: (a) computerised utility assessment interview with individualized risk assessment and decision analysis; or (b) information video and leaflet about high blood pressure; or (c) both interventions; or (d) neither intervention. Outcome measures were decisional conflict, knowledge, state anxiety, intentions regarding starting treatment, and actual treatment decision. RESULTS: Of 217 patients randomised, 212 (98%) were analysed at the primary follow-up (mean age = 59 years, 49% female). Decision analysis patients had lower decisional conflict than those who did not receive this intervention (27.6 versus 38.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] for adjusted difference = -13.0 to -5.8, P < 0.001), greater knowledge about hypertension (73% versus 67%, adjusted 95% CI = 2% to 9%, P = 0.003) and no evidence of increased state anxiety (34.8 versus 36.8, adjusted 95% CI = -5.6 to 0.1, P = 0.055). Video/leaflet patients had lower decisional conflict than corresponding controls (30.3 versus 36.8, adjusted 95% CI = -7.4 to -0.6, P = 0.021), greater knowledge (75% versus 65%, adjusted 95% CI = 6% to 13%, P < 0.001) and no evidence of increased state anxiety (35.7 versus 36.1, adjusted 95% CI = -3.9 to 1.7, P = 0.46). There were no differences between either of the interventions and their respective controls in the proportion of patients prescribed antihypertensive medication (67%). CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrates that, among patients facing a real treatment

  11. A paradoxical fall in urine dopamine output when patients with essential hypertension are given added dietary salt.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J N; Casson, I F; Clayden, A D; Cope, G F; Perkins, C M; Lee, M R

    1984-07-01

    The effect of dietary sodium on the urine dopamine excretion of eight hypertensive patients and six matched controls was studied under metabolic balance conditions over a 2 week period during which dietary sodium intake was increased from 20 to 220 mmol/day. The control group showed the expected increase in dopamine excretion in response to sodium but the hypertensive patients showed an initial fall followed by a return to baseline values. Neither group showed a rise in blood pressure but the hypertensive patients showed a greater weight gain on salt loading, although this change was not significant. The cumulative sodium balance was greater and more prolonged in the hypertensive patients, although this difference also did not attain statistical significance. This defect in dopamine mobilization may be important in relation to renal sodium handling by patients with essential hypertension.

  12. Association between G-217A polymorphism in the AGT gene and essential hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yao, R; Du, Y Y; Zhang, Y Z; Chen, Q H; Zhao, L S; Li, L

    2015-05-25

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the angiotensinogen (AGT) G-217A gene polymorphism and essential hypertension risk. However, the results have been inconsistent. We examined whether the AGT G-217A gene polymorphism confers essential hypertension risk by conducting a meta-analysis. We conducted a literature search of the Google Scholar, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for relevant studies that examined the G-217A polymorphism and risk of essential hypertension. Statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 12.0 to combine all relevant studies. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of this association. A total of 2017 patients with psoriasis and 1708 controls from 7 comparative studies were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant association between the AGT G-217A gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension (AA vs GG: OR = 2.52, 95%CI = 1.68-3.78; AA vs GA: OR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.48-3.45; dominant model: OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.26-0.57; recessive model: OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.03-1.39). Further stratified analyses were conducted by ethnicity and sample size and produced similar results. No evidence of publication bias was found. This meta-analysis confirms that the AGT G-217A gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension susceptibility.

  13. The phenotypic patterns of essential hypertension are the key to identifying "high blood pressure" genes.

    PubMed

    Korner, P I

    2010-01-01

    The genes that cause or increase susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH) and related animal models remain unknown. Their identification is unlikely to be realized with current genetic approaches, because of ambiguities in the genotype-phenotype relationships in these polygenic disorders. In turn, the phenotype is not just an aggregate of traits, but needs to be related to specific components of the circulatory control system at different stages of EH. Hence, clues about important genes must come through the phenotype, reversing the order of current approaches. A recent systems analysis has highlighted major differences in circulatory control in the two main syndromes of EH: (1) stress-and-salt-related EH (SSR-EH)--a constrictor hypertension with low blood volume; (2) hypertensive obesity--SSR-EH plus obesity. Each is initiated through sensitization of central synapses linking the cerebral cortex to the hypothalamic defense area. Several mechanisms are probably involved, including cerebellar effects on baroreflexes. The result is a sustained increase in sympathetic neural activity at stimulus levels that have no effect in normal subjects. Subsequent progression of EH is largely through interactions with non-neural mechanisms, including changes in concentration of vascular autacoids (e.g., nitric oxide) and the amplifying effect of structural changes in large resistance vessels. The rising vasoconstriction increases heterogeneity of blood flow, causing rarefaction (decreased microvascular density) and deterioration of vital organs. SSR-EH also increases food intake in response to stress, but only 40% of these individuals develop hypertensive obesity. Their brain ignores the adiposity signals that normally reduce eating. Hyperinsulinemia masks the sympathetic vasoconstriction through its dilator action, raises blood volume, whilst renal nephropathy and other diabetic complications are common. In each syndrome the neural and non-neural determinants of

  14. Characteristics of Systemic Hypertension in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankur B.; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Sahulee, Raj; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of essential hypertension (EH) among the preterm children is unknown. We evaluated consecutive children with the diagnosis of hypertension and prematurity (gestational age <37 weeks) in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic and identified 36 preterm hypertensive children. Among these preterm children, 23 were diagnosed in NICU (infantile) and 13 were diagnosed at an older age (childhood). When compared to childhood diagnosis, those with infantile diagnosis had a significantly lower gestational age, longer duration of hospitalization in the NICU, a higher incidence of perinatal risk factors for hypertension. None with infantile diagnosis had EH, whereas 46% with childhood diagnosis had EH. In conclusion among premature children, systemic hypertension was either diagnosed in infancy or in childhood, each age at diagnosis with unique risk factors and clinical course. Although 83% of preterm children had secondary hypertension, EH was diagnosed in 17% and was only seen in those diagnosed beyond infancy. PMID:25775924

  15. Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Cells of Patients with Human Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Korkor, Melvin T.; Meng, Fan Bo; Xing, Shen Yang; Zhang, Mu Chun; Guo, Jin Rui; Zhu, Xiao Xue; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The polygenic nature of essential hypertension and its dependence on environmental factors pose a challenge for biomedical research. We hypothesized that the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood cells would distinguish patients with hypertension from normotensives. In order to test this, total RNA from peripheral blood cells was isolated. RNA was reversed-transcribed and labeled and gene expression analyzed using significance Analysis Microarrays (Stanford University, CA, USA). Briefly, Significance Analysis Microarrays (SAM) thresholding identified 31 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated genes with fold changes of ≥2 or≤0.5 and q-value ≤5 % in expression. Statistically significantly gene ontology (GO) function and biological process differentially expressed in essential hypertension were MHC class II receptor activity and immune response respectively. Biological pathway analysis identified several related pathways which are associated with immune/inflammatory responses. Quantitative Real- Time RT-PCR results were consistent with the microarray results. The levels of C - reactive protein were higher in hypertensive patients than normotensives and inflammation-related genes were increased as well. In conclusion, genes enriched for “immune/inflammatory responses” may be associated with essential hypertension. In addition, there is a correlation between systemic inflammation and hypertension. It is anticipated that these findings may provide accurate and efficient strategies for prevention, diagnosis and control of this disorder. PMID:21369372

  16. TET2 and CSMD1genes affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide in never-treated essential hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Chittani, Martina; Zaninello, Roberta; Lanzani, Chiara; Frau, Francesca; Ortu, Maria F.; Salvi, Erika; Fresu, Giovanni; Citterio, Lorena; Braga, Daniele; Piras, Daniela A.; Carpini, Simona Delli; Velayutham, Dinesh; Simonini, Marco; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Pozzoli, Simona; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Donner, Kati M.; Turner, Stephen T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chapman, Arlene B.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Melander, Olle; Johnson, Julie A.; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Gong, Yan; Rivera, Natalia V.; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Trimarco, Bruno; Manunta, Paolo; Cusi, Daniele; Glorioso, Nicola; Barlassina, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Thiazide diuretics have been recommended as a first-line antihypertensive treatment, although the choice of ‘the right drug in the individual essential hypertensive patient’ remains still empirical. Essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic disease derived from the interaction of patient’s genetic background with the environment. Pharmacogenomics could be a useful tool to pinpoint gene variants involved in antihypertensive drug response, thus optimizing therapeutic advantages and minimizing side effects. Methods and results We looked for variants associated with blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide over an 8-week follow-up by means of a genome-wide association analysis in two Italian cohorts of never-treated essential hypertensive patients: 343 samples from Sardinia and 142 from Milan. TET2 and CSMD1 as plausible candidate genes to affect SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide were identified. The specificity of our findings for hydrochlorothiazide was confirmed in an independent cohort of essential hypertensive patients treated with losartan. Our best findings were also tested for replication in four independent hypertensive samples of European Ancestry, such as GENetics of drug RESponsiveness in essential hypertension, Genetic Epidemiology of Responses to Antihypertensives, NORdic DILtiazem intervention, Pharmacogenomics Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses, and Campania Salute Network-StayOnDiur. We validated a polymorphism in CSMD1 and UGGT2. Conclusion This exploratory study reports two plausible loci associated with SBP response to hydrochlorothiazide: TET2, an aldosterone-responsive mediator of αENaC gene transcription; and CSMD1, previously described as associated with hypertension in a case–control study. PMID:25695618

  17. Oral potassium supplementation for management of essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Zeraati, Fatemeh; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Sheikh, Vida; Hooshmand, Elham; Maleki, Akram

    2017-01-01

    Increased dietary potassium intake is thought to be associated with low blood pressure (BP). Whether potassium supplementation may be used as an antihypertensive agent is a question that should be answered. To assess the effect of oral potassium supplementation on blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension. We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until October 2016. We also screened reference lists of articles and previous reviews. We applied no language restrictions. We included randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials addressing the effect of potassium supplementation on primary hypertension for a minimum of 4 weeks. We extracted data on systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) at the final follow-up. We explored the heterogeneity across studies using Cochran's test and I2 statistic and assessed the probability of publication bias using Begg's and Egger's tests. We reported the mean difference (MD) of SBP and DBP in a random-effects model. We found a total of 9059 articles and included 23 trials with 1213 participants. Compared to placebo, potassium supplementation resulted in modest but significant reductions in both SBP (MD -4.25 mmHg; 95% CI: -5.96 to -2.53; I2 = 41%) and DBP (MD -2.53 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.05 to -1.02; I2 = 65%). According to the change-score analysis, based on 8 out of 23 trials, compared to baseline, the mean changes in SBP (MD -8.89 mmHg; 95% CI: -13.67 to -4.11) and DBP (MD -6.42 mmHg; 95% CI: -10.99 to -1.84) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Our findings indicated that potassium supplementation is a safe medication with no important adverse effects that has a modest but significant impact BP and may be recommended as an adjuvant antihypertensive agent for patients with essential hypertension.

  18. Cardiac Organ Damage and Arterial Stiffness in Autonomic Failure: Comparison With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Valeria; Maule, Simona; Di Stefano, Cristina; Tosello, Francesco; Totaro, Silvia; Veglio, Franco; Milan, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic failure (AF) is characterized by orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension, and increased blood pressure (BP) variability. AF patients develop cardiac organ damage, similarly to essential hypertension (EH), and have higher arterial stiffness than healthy controls. Determinants of cardiovascular organ damage in AF are not well known: both BP variability and mean BP values may be involved. The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac organ damage, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics in AF, compared with EH subjects with similar 24-hour BP and a group of healthy controls, and to evaluate determinants of target organ damage in patients with AF. Twenty-seven patients with primary AF were studied (mean age, 65.7±11.2 years) using transthoracic echocardiography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, central hemodynamics, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. They were compared with 27 EH subjects matched for age, sex, and 24-hour mean BP and with 27 healthy controls. AF and EH had similar left ventricular mass (101.6±33.3 versus 97.7±28.1 g/m(2), P=0.59) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (9.3±1.8 versus 9.2±3.0 m/s, P=0.93); both parameters were significantly lower in healthy controls (P<0.01). Compared with EH, AF patients had higher augmentation index (31.0±7.6% versus 26.1±9.2%, P=0.04) and central BP values. Nighttime systolic BP and 24-hour systolic BP predicted organ damage, independent of BP variability. AF patients develop hypertensive heart disease and increased arterial stiffness, similar to EH with comparable mean BP values. Twenty-four-hour and nighttime systolic BP were determinants of cardiovascular damage, independent of BP variability.

  19. Chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in dogs with inherited essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Bovee, K C; Skelton, M M; Cowley, A W

    1993-11-01

    A genetic model of essential hypertension in the dog was studied to describe the phenotypic expression of the arterial pressure, as well as to determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), hormone, and renal excretory responses to four different levels of sodium intake (5, 40, 120, 240 mEq/day) delivered intravenously and isotonically. This model was developed at the University of Pennsylvania (U/Penn) and termed Pennsylvania hypertensive dogs (PHD). The MAP was recorded beat-by-beat, 24 h/day, in 16 dogs. Water and sodium balances were determined daily for 4 days at each level of intake and blood samples were collected on the last day of each salt step for analysis of plasma renin activity (PRA), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALDO), and vasopressin (AVP). After the study, the dogs were designated as hypertensive (PHD-HT) when the 24-h average MAP was greater than 110 mm Hg and systolic pressure was greater than 160 mm Hg. Dogs that failed to meet both criteria were designated as normotensive genetic controls (PHD-NT). Although sodium was retained during the first day of each increase of salt intake in both groups, a return to balance was observed within the 4 days. There was no apparent change in the slope of the chronic renal function curve in either group of PHD studied, although the PHD-HT exhibit a curve shifted to a higher level of MAP. Plasma hormone levels in both groups of PHD studied responded in a manner similar to normal mongrel dogs with reductions of PRA, ALDO, elevations of ANP, and no change in AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effect of Olmesartan on serum cystatin C levels in the patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Koc, Y; Mazi, E; Sakaci, T; Basturk, T; Damar, A Batuhan; Ahbap, E; Unsal, A; Borlu, F

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether Olmesartan had an effect on cystatin C levels in hypertensive patients, and evaluate its correlation with blood pressure (BP). Seventy-two patients essential hypertension patients with a known for, at most, the last 3 years were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided in three groups (group 1; receives 20 mg/day olmesartan; group 2, receives 40 mg/day olmesartan; group 3, receives Olmesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide), according to their BP measurements. Blood samples (serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and cystatin C) were collected initially and at the end of the study from all patients and the correlation of these parameters with BP and drug use was investigated. There were no significantly difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, serum urea, creatinine, cystatin C and diastolic BP levels (p > 0.05); while, systolic BP was significantly higher in group 3 at baseline (p = 0.001). After 3 months of olmesartan treatment, the mean serum cystatin C (p: 0.001, 0.023 and 0.018 respectively), systolic (p: 0.001, 0.001 and 0.001 respectively) and diastolic BP levels (p: 0.001, 0.001 and 0.001 respectively) decreased in all groups. However, there was no significant difference in serum creatinine levels (p > 0.05). There were not found correlation between the changes of systolic and diastolic BP and cystatin C levels. Cystatin C is a more sensitive marker to detect of early kidney dysfunction compared to serum creatinine level. Olmesartan treatment led to a decrease of cystatin C level. Therefore, olmesartan can be used to prevent the renal damage in patients with hypertensive and it is independent of drop in blood pressure.

  1. [Plasma and red blood cell superoxide dismutase activity in patients with different stages of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Simić, Dragan; Perunicić, Jovan; Lasica, Ratko; Ivanović, Branislava; Matić, Danica; Kalimanovska-Ostrić, Dimitra; Vranić, Ivana; Medenica, Miroslav; Mimić-Oka, Jasmina; Simić, Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension (EH), by competing with nitric oxide for superoxide, thus influencing nitric oxide bioavailability. To answer the question of whether endothelial dysfunction is consequence of altered SOD expression we determined SOD activity in patients with different stages of EH. In this study 45 EH patients and 25 normotensive subjects were included. EH patients were divided into the three groups according to the guidelines of European Society of Hypertension. SOD activity was determined spectrophotometrically in RBC and plasma of EH patients and controls. The results obtained have shown that all groups of EH patients exhibit lower SOD activity than control normotensive subjects. Significant correlation between SOD activity and both diastolic (p<0.05, r=-0.394) and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05, r=-0.356) was found. Lowering of SOD activity in patients with different stages of EH leads to inefficient detoxification of superoxide in EH. An excess of superoxide of both cellular and extracellular origin takes part in enhanced degradation of nitric oxide and altered vasodilation, and consequent endothelial dysfunction.

  2. VEGF-A gene promoter polymorphisms and microvascular complications in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Ferroni, Patrizia; Ludovici, Giorgia; Martini, Francesca; Savonarola, Annalisa; D'Alessandro, Roberta; Raparelli, Valeria; Proietti, Marco; Scarno, Antongiulio; Riondino, Silvia; Basili, Stefania; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the possible involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) gene promoter polymorphisms in essential hypertension (EH). 1225bp of the VEGF-A gene promoter were screened for polymorphisms using PCR amplification and direct DNA sequence analysis in 62 EH and 62 normotensive (HS) individuals. Circulating VEGF-A levels were determined by immunoassay. -152G/A (p=0.009) and -116G/A (p=0.016) polymorphisms were correlated to hypertension (p<0.05). Median platelet VEGF-A load in EH was 2.10fg/plt. Patients with microvascular complications (MC) had higher platelet VEGF-A load than those without (p=0.005). Multivariate analyses showed that -116 A allele was an independent predictor of microalbuminuria (p=0.014) and increased platelet VEGF-A load (p=0.009) in EH. Platelet VEGF-A load independently predicted MC (p=0.049) in addition to -116G/A polymorphism (p=0.035). Abnormal regulation of VEGF-A due to polymorphism at position -116 might represent a genetic factor for increased VEGF-A production and MC in EH. Copyright (c) 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathophysiologic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain in asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, S.D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; McKillop, J.H.; Lorimer, A.R.; Dunn, F.G.

    1989-05-01

    To investigate the significance of the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain, two groups of asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension were compared. The patients were similar in terms of age, smoking habit, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but differed in the presence (Group I, n = 23) or absence (Group II, n = 23) of the ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain. Group I patients had significantly more episodes of exercise-induced ST segment depression (14 versus 4, p less than 0.05) and reversible thallium perfusion abnormalities (11 of 23 versus 3 of 23, p less than 0.05) despite similar exercise capacity and absence of chest pain. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was detected on 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring in two patients in Group I, but no patient in Group II. Coronary arteriography performed in 20 Group I patients demonstrated significant coronary artery disease in 8 patients. This study has shown that there is a subgroup of hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy and strain who have covert coronary artery disease. This can be detected by thallium perfusion scintigraphy, and may contribute to the increased risk known to be associated with this ECG abnormality.

  4. Effect of dietary sodium on the Na-K ATPase inhibitor in patients with essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ashida, T.; Kuramochi, M.; Kojima, S.; Yoshimi, H.; Kawano, Y.; Kimura, G.; Abe, H.; Imanishi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Kawamura, M. )

    1989-07-01

    To study the circulating humoral factor modifying transmembrane sodium transport, plasma was obtained from 12 patients with essential hypertension (EH) fed a high sodium diet (NaCl 15 to 17 g/d) for seven days and thereafter a low sodium diet (NaCl 2 to 3 g/d) for seven days. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb+ influx into the red blood cells (RBC) obtained from a healthy subject, and incubated with the plasma obtained during the high sodium diet was significantly lower than that incubated with the plasma obtained during the low sodium diet (3.74 +/- 0.26 v 3.97 +/- 0.30 nmol/10(8) cells, P less than .05). The changes in mean blood pressure from the high to low sodium diet showed a significant positive correlation with the changes in the ouabain-sensitive Rb influx into RBC in the plasma from the high to low sodium diet. These results suggest that a humoral factor modifying the sodium pump might be altered by sodium balance in EH, especially in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  5. Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Letícia A F; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson; Yamada, Sergio S; Gazola, Sebastião; Batista, Marcia R; Bazotte, Roberto B

    2006-09-01

    The antihypertensive effect of crude stevioside obtained from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Compositae) on previously untreated mild hypertensive patients was examined. Patients with essential hypertension were submitted to a placebo phase for 4 weeks. The volunteers selected in this phase were randomly assigned to receive either capsules containing placebo during 24 weeks or crude stevioside 3.75 mg/kg/day (7 weeks), 7.5 mg/kg/day (11 weeks) and 15.0 mg/kg/day (6 weeks). All capsules were prescribed twice a daily (b.i.d.), i.e. before lunch and before dinner. After the placebo phase and after each dose of crude stevioside, body mass index, electrocardiogram and laboratory tests were performed. During the investigation blood pressure (BP) was measured biweekly and the remaining data were collected at the end of each stevioside dose step. All adverse events were prospectively recorded but no major adverse clinical effects were observed during the trial. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased (p < 0.05) during the treatment with crude stevioside, but a similar effect was observed in the placebo group. Therefore, crude stevioside up to 15.0 mg/kg/day did not show an antihypertensive effect. Moreover, the results suggest that oral crude stevioside is safe and supports the well-established tolerability during long term use as a sweetener in Brazil. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sanjad, Sami A

    2010-01-01

    While most hypertension in children has been previously considered secondary to renal, cardiovascular or endocrine etiology, a substantial number of children aged 6 to 20 years are now diagnosed with primary or essential hypertension. Hypertension in children and adolescents seems to be increasing over the past two decades. This is attributed at least in part to an increased prevalence of overweight in this population. Essential hypertension in childhood is a diagnosis arrived at by excluding the known causes of secondary hypertension. This paper will discuss the etiology of hypertension in children and adolescents.

  7. Scintigraphic assessment of cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Y.; Hamada, M.; Shigematsu, Y.; Sumimoto, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Hiwada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the regional cardiac adrenergic innervation in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), simultaneous iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123I)MIBG) and thallium-201 (201Tl) myocardial imagings were performed in five patients with EHT, seven patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and seven normal subjects. Short axial images at rest were divided into five segments: anterior, septal, posterior, lateral, and apical segments. Percent regional uptake (%RU) of 201Tl except the septal segment in patients with EHT showed no significant difference. However, the %RU of (123I)MIBG at posterior, lateral, and apical segments was significantly lower than that at anterior and septal segments in EHT. This intraimage heterogeneity of (123I)MIBG was also observed in HCM. These results suggest that there is a difference in regional adrenergic innervation of the left ventricle with myocardial hypertrophy.

  8. Ketanserin in essential hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, H. A.; Ramsay, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of the selective serotonin antagonist ketanserin was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in 20 patients with essential hypertension. After 7 weeks treatment with ketanserin (mean dose 71 mg/d) there was a significant fall of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as compared to placebo, with a peak effect of 19.1/9.1 mmHg lying (P less than 0.01/P less than 0.01), and 16.5/11.3 mmHg standing (P less than 0.01/P less than 0.01); twice daily dosage appeared satisfactory. Subjective side effects were similar in the ketanserin and placebo groups. Ketanserin is an effective antihypertensive drug of moderate potency when given twice daily, with no orthostatic effect. PMID:3161013

  9. Psychological treatment of essential hypertension: a controlled comparison of meditation and meditation plus biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Hafner, R J

    1982-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with essential hypertension were randomly allocated to eight 1-hour sessions of meditation training, meditation plus biofeedback-aided relaxation, or a no-treatment control group. Statistically significant falls in systolic and diastolic blood pressure occurred after both training programs, although overall reductions in blood pressure were not significantly greater in either program than in the control group. Meditation plus biofeedback-aided relaxation produced falls in diastolic blood pressure earlier in the training program than did meditation alone. All patients practiced mediation regularly between training sessions: The amount of practice did not correlate with the amount of blood pressure reduction after training. On questionnaire measures of psychological symptoms and personality, sex differences emerged, with females showing significant abnormalities in hostility scores and males showing significantly raised levels of somatopsychic symptoms. In females, outward-directed hostility fell significantly and assertiveness increased after training, but in males, somatopsychic symptoms were unchanged.

  10. Comparative pharmacodynamics of eight calcium channel blocking agents in Japanese essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Shimada, S; Nakajima, Y; Yamamoto, K; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1996-03-01

    The relationships between plasma drug concentration and antihypertensive effect of eight calcium channel antagonists (nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, benidipine, manidipine, barnidipine, nitrendipine and efonidipine) in Japanese essential hypertensive patients were analyzed. Based on the effect compartment model, we could explain the long duration of the pharmacological effect, and there was significant correlation (r = 0.876, p < 0.05) between estimated EC50 values and the dissociation constants (Kd) obtained from in vitro binding studies. We also developed the ion-channel binding model to understand the pharmacodynamics of long acting calcium antagonists. The model was also well fitted to antihypertensive effect data. A significant correlation between the apparent in vivo dissociation constants and in vitro Kd values was observed with a slope of 1.45 (r = 0.913), suggesting that the mechanism of long-lasting antihypertensive effect of newer developed calcium antagonists is due to their high binding affinity at ion-channel sites.

  11. Association between urine aldosterone and diastolic function in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Yao; Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Wu, Xue-Ming; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Liao, Min-Tsun; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Yen-Hung

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between aldosterone and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and 22 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, and 24-h urine aldosterone level were measured. Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler image recordings, was performed. PA patients had a significantly higher left ventricular (LV) mass index and worse LV diastolic function than those in EH patients. Among various measures of aldosterone, log-transformed 24-h urine aldosterone level had the most consistent correlation with diastolic function. Aldosterone is strongly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Twenty-four hour urine aldosterone is a good indicator to evaluate the impact of aldosterone on LV diastolic function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Platelet and erythrocyte Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase activity in essential hypertension in blacks.

    PubMed

    Touyz, R M; Milne, F J; Reinach, S G

    1992-06-01

    To assess the relationship between intracellular Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+ and cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in normotensive and hypertensive blacks. Intracellular cations and cell membrane ATPase activity were studied in black patients with untreated essential hypertension and age-, weight- and height-matched normotensive controls. Platelet, erythrocyte and serum Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+ levels as well as platelet and erythrocyte membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities were measured in all subjects. Intracellular Na+ and K+ were measured by flame photometry and Mg+ and Ca+ by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cell membrane ATPase activity was determined by a colorimetric method. The hypertensive group consistently demonstrated depressed activity of each ATPase studied, with significantly lower serum Mg2+, serum K+, erythrocyte Mg2+ and platelet Mg2+ levels compared with the normotensive group. Platelet Na+ and Ca2+ and erythrocyte Ca2+ were significantly elevated in the hypertensive group. In the hypertensive group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was inversely correlated with platelet and erythrocyte membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase. Serum Mg2+, serum Ca2+ and platelet Mg2+ were negatively correlated with MAP in the hypertensive group whilst erythrocyte and platelet Ca2+ were positively correlated. In the normotensive group, platelet Mg2+ and MAP were negatively, and erythrocyte Ca2+ and MAP, positively correlated. Black patients with essential hypertension have widespread depression of cell membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities with serum and intracellular Mg2+ depletion and cytosolic Na+ and Ca2+ overload, which may reflect an underlying membrane abnormality in essential hypertension. These cellular abnormalities may be related to the defective transport mechanisms that in turn may be aggravated by Mg2+ depletion.

  13. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system increases adiponectin concentrations in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Ura, Nobuyuki; Higashiura, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Marenao; Moniwa, Norihito; Yoshida, Daisuke; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2003-07-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, has been suggested to play an important role in insulin sensitivity. We examined the association between insulin sensitivity (M value) evaluated by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp and adiponectin concentrations in 30 essential hypertensives (EHT) and 20 normotensives (NT) and investigated the effect of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on adiponectin concentrations. EHT were divided into 12 insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) and 18 non-insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-N) using mean-1 SD of the M value in NT. There were no intergroup differences in age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). EHT-R had significantly higher levels of insulin and triglyceride and lower levels of adiponectin than did NT and EHT-N. EHT-R had higher levels of free fatty acid and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than did EHT-N. Adiponectin concentrations were positively correlated with M value and HDL cholesterol and negatively correlated with BMI, insulin, free fatty acid, and triglyceride but not with blood pressure. M value, BMI, and HDL cholesterol were independent determinants of adiponectin concentrations in multiple and stepwise regression analyses. Sixteen EHT were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (temocapril, 4 mg/d; n=9) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (candesartan, 8 mg/d; n=7) for 2 weeks. Treatment with temocapril or candesartan significantly decreased blood pressure and increased M value and adiponectin concentrations but did not affect BMI and HDL cholesterol. These results suggest that hypoadiponectinemia is related to insulin resistance in essential hypertension and that RAS blockade increases adiponectin concentrations with improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  14. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the 'surge group'). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences -5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and -5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  15. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20–40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8–12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the ‘surge group’). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences −5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and −5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I–II essential hypertension. PMID:24710336

  16. Metabolism of D, L-/sup 3/H-norepinephrine in essential hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Gitlow, S.; Dziedzic, S.; Dziedzic, L.; Roubein, I.

    1981-01-01

    Defective control of the cardiovascular system by the sympathetic nerves continues to be incriminated as the potential primary physiologic defect in essential hypertension (EH). The need to measure sympathetic tone has progressed from physiologic mensuration by assessment of reflex and pharmacological responses to the recent assay of norepinephrine (NE) and its congeners in both urine and plasma. The way in which the body handles D,L-B-/sup 3/H-NE represents yet another technique by which to evaluate sympathetic function. Previous studies of EH by this method demonstrated more rapid plasma disappearance of /sup 3/H-NE as well as elevated 24 hour tritium accumulation in the urine following D,L-B-/sup 3/H-NE injection. The present study of 7 normotensive subjects and 7 patients with EH was designed to depict more precisely these abnormalities in /sup 3/H-NE-metabolism. Following a one minute injection of 8 micrograms D,L-B-/sup 3/H-NE, (200 microCi) intravenously, the excretion of unlabeled endogenous metabolites and their labeled congeners was assayed. By these means one could estimate catecholamine synthesis, turnover of the labeled pools, and by comparison of relative specific activities of the metabolites, gain some insight into the distribution of the injected material. Alternative catabolic pathways were evaluated by measurement of the excretion of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O. Patients with EH excreted more label per 24 hours, revealed a more rapid decline of /sup 3/H2O excretion and lower specific activity of normetanephrine (NM). These findings are compatible with changes in pool dynamics and distribution of administered label which gave additional support to the concept of adrenergic dysfunction in association with essential hypertension.

  17. Night Blood Pressure Responses to Atenolol and Hydrochlorothiazide in Black and White Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Night blood pressure (BP) predicts patient outcomes. Variables associated with night BP response to antihypertensive agents have not been fully evaluated in essential hypertension. METHODS We sought to measure night BP responses to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), atenolol (ATEN), and combined therapy using ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in 204 black and 281 white essential hypertensive patients. Initial therapy was randomized; HCTZ and ATEN once daily doses were doubled after 3 weeks and continued for 6 more weeks with the alternate medication added for combined therapy arms. ABP was measured at baseline and after completion of each drug. Night, day, and night/day BP ratio responses (treatment − baseline) were compared in race/sex subgroups. RESULTS Baseline night systolic BP and diastolic BP, and night/day ratios were greater in blacks than whites (P < 0.01, all comparisons). Night BP responses to ATEN were absent and night/day ratios increased significantly in blacks (P < 0.05). At the end of combined therapy, women, blacks, and those starting with HCTZ as opposed to ATEN had significantly greater night BP responses (P < 0.01). Variables that significantly associated with ATEN response differed from those that associated with HCTZ response and those that associated with night BP response differed from those that associated with day BP response. CONCLUSIONS In summary, after completion of HCTZ and ATEN therapy, women, blacks, and those who started with HCTZ had greater night BP responses. Reduced night BP response and increased night/day BP ratios occured with ATEN in blacks. Given the prognostic significance of night BP, strategies for optimizing night BP antihypertensive therapy should be considered. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00246519 PMID:23886594

  18. Functional analysis of UMOD gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Jian, Liguo; Fa, Xian'en; Zhou, Zheng; Liu, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the function of uromodulin (UMOD) gene and its effect on inflammatory cytokines in serum of essential hypertension patients. The online database and software of computer were used for bioinformatics analysis on UMOD gene as well as the structure and function of its encoding proteins. Moreover, radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was adopted to validate the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients and their serum inflammatory cytokines. As an alkaline and hydrophilic protein, UMOD has no transmembrane region, but it does have a signal peptide sequence. It is mainly located extracellularly, belonging to a secreted protein, whose secondary structure was based mainly on Random coil which account for 58.44%. According to function prediction, it is found that the UMOD protein has stress response which may be participate in the inflammatory reaction. It has been observed from the experiment which was designed on the basis of the correlation between inflammation reaction and essential hypertension that the content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients who is in stage I was (28.71 ± 10.53) mg/24 h and when compared with the control group's content (30.15 ± 14.10 mg/24 h), the difference was not obviously; The content of urine UMOD protein of essential hypertension patients who's in stage II and III was (18.24 ± 6.12) mg/24 h and (9.43 ± 3.16) mg/24 h, respectively, which were obviously lower than that of the control group (P<0.01). Additionally, the serum inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL1-α content of essential hypertension patients were all markedly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). For essential hypertension patients, there's a close relationship between the expression level of UMOD gene and inflammatory cytokines, which were manifested as the negative correlation between the level of the gene's expression and inflammatory cytokines. That has

  19. Doppler laser flowmetry test of the functional condition of precapillar and postcapillar resistance in essential hypertensive patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukjanov, Valdimir F.

    2000-04-01

    243 patient of essential hypertension were examined with the help of Doppler-Laser Flowmetry, optical photometry. Flowmetry was used to measure vasomotion and blood flow after arterial compression, decompression and venous hyperemia were held. New Doppler-Laser flowmetry diagnostic test of functional condition of microcirculation was worked out of find precapillary and postcapillar resistance. Precapillary resistance included next basis parameters: vasomotion with high frequency and low amplitude, latent time after decompression, large postocclusive reactive hyperemia, absent venous hyperemia. Postcapillar amplitude, little or absent postocclusive reactive hyperemia, large venous hyperemia. This test-method was applied to select pathogenetic treatment of essential hypertension.

  20. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Lee, H-S; Lee, S-S; Hwang, I-Y; Park, Y-J; Yoon, S-H; Han, K; Son, J-W; Ko, S-H; Park, Y G; Yim, H W; Lee, W-C; Park, Y-M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Korean adults with diagnosed diabetes using nationally representative data. Among subjects aged ≥30 years who participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007 and 2008, a total of 745 subjects (336 men and 409 women) with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was 55.5%. The rates of awareness, treatment and control were 88.0, 94.2, and 30.8%, respectively. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was higher in all age groups in both genders. Factors independently associated with a high prevalence of hypertension included being male, increasing age, single, <9 years of education, the presence of chronic kidney disease risk, hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg dl(-1)) and high body mass index (≥25 kg m(-2)). Regular medical screening was positively associated with hypertension control, whereas a high triglyceride level (≥150 mg dl(-1)) was inversely associated. A high prevalence and a low control rate of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control blood pressure in diabetic patients.

  2. [The link between trace elements and metabolic syndrome/oxidative stress in essential hypertension with or without type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Gouaref, Ines; Bellahsene, Zina; Zekri, Samia; Alamir, Barkahoum; Koceir, Elhadj-Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between trace elements (TE) and essential hypertension (EH) is subtle and complex. This relationship is mediated by endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, oxidative stress (OS) and athero-inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to examine the TE impact; particularly selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) as predictive type 2 diabetes biomarkers in a hypertensive subject. The study was undertaken on 400 adult patients (40-60 years), who were divided in 4 groups: hypertensive (H), type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertensive-diabetic (HD) and healthy group. Patients were phenotyped regarding their metabolic syndrome profile using the NCEP/ATPIII criteria. Hypertension was defined as systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, respectively. The SBP and DBP measurements by electronic blood pressure using Omron 705 CP(®) type. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homa-IR model. Metabolic and inflammatory parameters were determined by Cobas Integra(®); the TE investigated by mass spectrometric atomic absorption; the OS markers evaluated by Randox kits. Serum Se concentrations are reduced in all groups, concomitantly with a marked depletion GPx activity in the HD group. However, Zn levels were decreased than in H and HD groups, but unchanged in T2D group. In contrast, Mn levels are increased in all groups; whereas the Cu levels increased only in H and HD groups, concomitantly with cytosolic SOD-Cu/Zn and mitochondrial SOD-Mn depletion. The Zn/Cu ratio decreases significantly in hypertensive group but not in diabetics groups. It appears that Zn/Cu ratio reflects the transition from hypertension phase to hypertension associated with T2D. Ultimately, TE plays an important role in the hypertension pathophysiology and can be considered as predictive T2D biomarkers in hypertensive patients.

  3. Does a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy help predict future essential hypertension? Findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callaway, L K; Mamun, A; McIntyre, H D; Williams, G M; Najman, J M; Nitert, M D; Lawlor, D A

    2013-05-01

    Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is considered an important determinant in the prediction of future hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine whether HDP improves prediction of future hypertension, over prediction based on established risk factors measured during pregnancy. We used a community based cohort study of 2117 women who received antenatal care at a major hospital in Brisbane between 1981 and 1983 and had blood pressure assessed 21 years after the index pregnancy. Of these 2117 women, 193 (9.0%) experienced HDP and 345 (16.3%) had hypertension at 21 years postpartum. For women with HDP, the odds of being hypertensive at 21 years postpartum were 2.46 (95% CI 1.70, 3.56), adjusted for established risk factors including age, education, race, alcohol, cigarettes, exercise and body mass index. Addition of HDP did not improve the prediction model that included these established risk factors, with the area under the curve of receiver operator (AUROC) increasing from 0.710 to 0.716 (P-value for difference in AUROC=0.185). Our findings suggest that HDP is strongly and independently associated with future hypertension, and women who experience this condition should be counselled regarding lifestyle modification and careful ongoing blood pressure monitoring. However, the development of HDP during pregnancy does not improve our capacity to predict future hypertension, over risk factors identifiable at the time of pregnancy. This suggests that counseling regarding lifestyle modification and ongoing blood pressure monitoring might reasonably be provided to all pregnant and postpartum women with identifiable risk factors for future hypertension.

  4. Increased Migration of Monocytes in Essential Hypertension Is Associated with Increased Transient Receptor Potential Channel Canonical Type 3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zhong, Jian; Yu, Hao; Xu, Xingsen; He, Hongbo; Yan, Zhencheng; Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performed in a microchemotaxis chamber using chemoattractants formylated peptide Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Proteins were identified by immunoblotting and quantitative in-cell Western assay. The effects of TRP channel-inhibitor 2–aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) and small interfering RNA knockdown of TRPC3 were investigated. We observed an increased fMLP-induced migration of monocytes from hypertensive patients compared with normotensive control subjects (246±14% vs 151±10%). The TNF-α-induced migration of monocytes in patients with essential hypertension was also significantly increased compared to normotensive control subjects (221±20% vs 138±18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients compared to normotensive control subjects. The fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly reduced in the presence of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We conclude that increased monocyte migration in patients with essential hypertension is associated with increased TRPC3 channels. PMID:22438881

  5. Secondary Hypertension in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Malha, Line; August, Phyllis

    2015-07-01

    Hypertension is a common medical complication of pregnancy. Although 75-80 % of women with preexisting essential hypertension will have uncomplicated pregnancies, the presence of secondary forms of hypertension adds considerably to both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Renovascular hypertension, pheochromocytoma, and Cushing's syndrome in particular are associated with accelerating hypertension, superimposed preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and fetal loss. Primary aldosteronism is a more heterogeneous disorder; there are well-documented cases where blood pressure and hypokalemia are improved during pregnancy due to elevated levels of progesterone. However, superimposed preeclampsia, worsening hypertension, and early delivery are also reported. When possible, secondary forms of hypertension should be diagnosed and treated prior to conception in order to avoid these complications.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of left atrial enlargement in essential hypertension: role of ventricular geometry and the metabolic syndrome: the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension study.

    PubMed

    Cuspidi, Cesare; Meani, Stefano; Fusi, Veronica; Valerio, Cristiana; Catini, Eleonora; Sala, Carla; Sampieri, Lorena; Magrini, Fabio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2005-04-01

    The cardiac effects of hypertension include a variety of structural changes such as increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and left atrium (LA) size. Although data on hypertension-induced left ventricular changes are extensive, relatively little information is available on LA size from large-scale studies. We sought to assess the prevalence of LA enlargement in a large selected hypertensive population and to determine the relations of LA size to several biologic variables including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and metabolic disturbances. A total of 2500 untreated and treated uncomplicated essential hypertensives consecutively attending, for the first time, our hospital out-patient hypertension clinic and included in the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension, an observational ongoing registry of hypertension-related target organ damage (TOD), were considered for this analysis. All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic investigations searching for cardiac (and extracardiac) TOD. The LA was considered enlarged when its anteroposterior diameter exceeded 3.7 cm in women and 4.1 cm in men. LVH was defined according to two different criteria: >/= 125 g/m in men and >/= 110 g/m in women; or >/= 51 g/m in men and >/=47 g/m in women. Enlarged LA diameter was present in 24.5% of women and in 21.5% of men. Compared with 1925 patients with normal LA size, the 575 patients with enlarged LA were older, more frequently overweight, had higher systolic blood pressure and included a greater proportion of subjects under antihypertensive treatment, with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both LA size and prevalence of LA enlargement differed significantly in relation to left ventricular geometry and LVM, being greater in patients with concentric or eccentric LVH than in those with left ventricular concentric remodeling or normal geometry. The prevalence of LA enlargement was similar in patients with concentric and eccentric LVH

  7. Hemodynamics Should Be the Primary Approach to Diagnosing, Following, and Managing Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a highly morbid cardiopulmonary disease characterized by plexogenic pulmonary arteriole remodeling. Importantly, PAH severity correlates inversely with cardiac output and directly with pulmonary vascular resistance and right atrial pressure, illustrating the importance of accurately measured hemodynamics to defining the clinical profile of patients. Currently available non-invasive technology offers only hemodynamic estimates. By contrast, right heart catheterization is the principle diagnostic procedure in PAH and is required to i) definitively exclude alternative pulmonary vascular diseases, and ii) quantify hemodynamics at baseline, following vasoreactivity testing, or in response to therapy in order to prognosticate outcome and guide therapeutic escalation. PMID:25742869

  8. Right ventricular reverse remodelling in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension diagnosed during pregnancy: Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Paciocco, Giuseppe; Lombi, Andrea; Vincenzi, Antonella; Pesci, Alberto; Achilli, Felice

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 36-year-old woman who developed a severe form of Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH) during pregnancy and after emergency delivery. The management of IPAH during or after pregnancy is complex. Due to the severity of her IPAH, an upfront triple combination therapy, including i.v. epoprostenol, was started. The rapid institution of this treatment regimen allowed a complete right ventricular reverse remodelling after 1 year of therapy, leading to a down-titration until complete suspension of epoprostenol from the treatment regimen.

  9. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Daniel Chukwu; Aneke, Eddy Ikemefuna; Obika, Leonard Fidelis; Nwachukwu, Nkiru Zuada

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract.

  10. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Daniel Chukwu; Aneke, Eddy Ikemefuna; Obika, Leonard Fidelis; Nwachukwu, Nkiru Zuada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. Results: HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. Conclusion: HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract. PMID:26600645

  11. Reducing effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hongwei; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The comprehensive meta-analysis aimed to explore the reductive effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Methods: The related researches were selected from PubMed and Embase databases up to June 2016. Based on specific inclusive criteria, the eligible studies were selected, and the heterogeneities in their results were estimated by χ2-based Q-test and I2 statistics. Quantitative meta-analysis was assessed by R 3.12 software, and results were presented by standardized mean difference (SMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome indicators were systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The publication biases were estimated by Egger test. Besides, the “leave one out” method was used for sensitivity evaluations. Results: As a result, a total of 13 papers with 802 samples were included. Based on the meta-analysis results, there were no significant differences in SBP and DBP between aerobic and control groups before exercise (SMD = 0.15, 95%CI: −0.16–0.46; SMD = 0.16, 95% CI: −0.23–0.55). However, significant reductions were obviously in aerobic group after aerobics, compared with control (SMD = −0.79, 95% CI: −1.29 to −0.28; SMD = −0.63, 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.12). A significant publication bias was detected in SBP (t = −2.2314, P = 0.04549) but not in DBP (t = −1.4962, P = 0.1604). Additionally, the DBP result would be altered after the exclusion of 2 individual papers. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise may be a potential nonpharmacological treatment for blood pressure improvement in essential hypertensive patients. PMID:28296729

  12. Risk conferred by tagged SNPs of AGT gene in causing susceptibility to essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Padma, G; Swapna, N; Mamata, M; Charita, Bh; Padma, T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: AGT gene harbors several variants of which 21 are found to be in high linkage disequilibrium as per Hapmap database. Studies delineating the importance of these tagged SNPs are very limited and lacking from Indian population. In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of four tagged SNPs namely, g.6635G > A, g.6506G > A, g.12840G > A, and g.13828T > C at AGT locus along with the analyses of haplotype and epistatic interactions in causing susceptibility to essential hypertension (EHT). About 215 hypertensives and 230 normotensives were genotyped for selected tagged SNPs using PCR-RFLP method. Significant association was obtained for g.6635G > A and g.6506G > A polymorphisms wherein GG homozygotes for both the markers were at risk for developing the condition. g.13828T > C polymorphism specially, female heterozygotes (TC) were found to be at increased risk for EHT. Haplotype GGGC was found to have a significant protective effect (p = 0.0059). Markers g.6506G > A and g.12840G > A resulted in the creation of new enhancer sites thereby affecting splicing process. The present report is the first one in the literature showing general- and gender-specific association of g.6506G > A and g.13828T > C polymorphisms, respectively, with EHT. However, further studies for replication of present observations are warranted from other populations and other parts of India.

  13. Association of connexin gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jie; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Wen-Yan; Wang, Ying-Zi; Ma, Ke-Tao; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes is found associated with the development of hypertension. However, the association of the polymorphism of Cxs with EH has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association of the polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 with EH in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were used to analyze the polymorphism of Cx genes in Kazak and Han EH patients as well as their normotensive controls. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the frequencies of different three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) and A and G alleles of Cx40 rs35594137 and rs11552588 between EH patients and normotensive controls. However, in Kazak EH patients, the frequencies of three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) of Cx37 rs1630310 were 24.8%, 47.2% and 28.0%, respectively, which were significantly different from those in Han EH patients. In Han EH patients, the frequencies of the three genotypes (C/C, C/G and G/G) of Cx43 rs1925223 were 6.4%, 35.6% and 58.0%, respectively. Frequencies of the other four genotypes had no statistical differences among Kazak and Han EH patients and their normotensive controls. These results suggest polymorphisms of Cx37 rs1630310 and Cx43 rs1925223 genes may be associated with the pathogenesis of EH. Carrying Cx37 rs1630310-A or Cx43 rs1925223-G genotypes may protect against the development of EH.

  14. Safety and efficacy of fimasartan in Mexican patients with grade 1-2 essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto G; López-Alvarado, Agustín; Conde-Carmona, Ignacio; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gerardo; Pascoe-González, Sara; Banda-Elizondo, Ramiro G; García-Castillo, Armando; González-Gálvez, Guillermo; Velasco-Sánchez, Raúl G; Vidrio-Velázquez, Maricela; Leiva-Pons, José L; Villeda-Espinosa, Efraín; Guerra-López, Arturo; Esturau-Santalo, Ramón M

    2017-02-10

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of 60mg and 120mg Fimasartan (FMS) alone or combined with 12.5mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in Mexican population. Six month, treat-to-target, open study in subjects with grade 1-2 hypertension. Subjects were initially treated with 60mg FMS once daily; on week 8, those with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) <90mmHg continued on the same FMS dose during the rest of the study while those with DBP ≥90mmHg were randomized to either 120mg FMS or 60mg FMS+12.5mg HCTZ once daily. On week 12, randomized subjects with DBP ≥90mmHg received 120mg FMS+12.5mg HCTZ while those achieving target continued with their assigned treatment until the end of the study. FMS 60mg (n=272) decreased both DBP and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) by 11.3±8.9 (p<0.0001) and 16.0±14.1 (p<0.0001)mmHg, respectively, with 75.4% of subjects reaching the treatment target. Subjects assigned to FMS 120mg, to FMS 60mg+HCTZ 12.5mg and to FMS 120mg+HCTZ 12.5mg once daily showed significant DBP and SBP reductions with their assigned treatment; At study end, 237/272 subjects (87.1%) achieved DBP<90mmHg and SBP <140mmHg. Most frequently reported adverse reactions included headache (3.7%), dry mouth (1.1%), transient liver enzyme increase (1.1%) and dizziness (0.7%). Fimasartan is safe and efficacious in Mexican subjects with grade 1-2 essential hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral potassium supplementation for management of essential hypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zeraati, Fatemeh; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Sheikh, Vida; Hooshmand, Elham; Maleki, Akram

    2017-01-01

    Importance Increased dietary potassium intake is thought to be associated with low blood pressure (BP). Whether potassium supplementation may be used as an antihypertensive agent is a question that should be answered. Objective To assess the effect of oral potassium supplementation on blood pressure in patients with primary hypertension. Search methods We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until October 2016. We also screened reference lists of articles and previous reviews. We applied no language restrictions. Selection criteria We included randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials addressing the effect of potassium supplementation on primary hypertension for a minimum of 4 weeks. Data collection and analysis We extracted data on systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) at the final follow-up. We explored the heterogeneity across studies using Cochran's test and I2 statistic and assessed the probability of publication bias using Begg's and Egger's tests. We reported the mean difference (MD) of SBP and DBP in a random-effects model. Results We found a total of 9059 articles and included 23 trials with 1213 participants. Compared to placebo, potassium supplementation resulted in modest but significant reductions in both SBP (MD -4.25 mmHg; 95% CI: -5.96 to -2.53; I2 = 41%) and DBP (MD -2.53 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.05 to -1.02; I2 = 65%). According to the change-score analysis, based on 8 out of 23 trials, compared to baseline, the mean changes in SBP (MD -8.89 mmHg; 95% CI: -13.67 to -4.11) and DBP (MD -6.42 mmHg; 95% CI: -10.99 to -1.84) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group. Conclusions Our findings indicated that potassium supplementation is a safe medication with no important adverse effects that has a modest but significant impact BP and may be recommended as an adjuvant antihypertensive agent for patients with essential hypertension. PMID:28419159

  16. Cardiovascular risk of essential hypertension: influence of class, number, and treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2013-03-01

    A number of observational studies have found that treated hypertensive patients, even those with controlled clinic blood pressure (BP), might have poorer prognosis than untreated hypertensives. Different trials have also shown that relatively low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk cannot be achieved in high-risk hypertensive patients, leading to the belief they have a "residual CVD risk" that cannot be attenuated by conventional treatment. All these conclusions disregard the facts that the correlation between BP level and CVD risk is stronger for ambulatory than clinic BP and that the BP-lowering efficacy and effects on the 24-h BP pattern of different classes of hypertension medications exhibit statistically and clinically significant treatment-time (morning versus evening) differences. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential differential administration-time-dependent effects on CVD risk of the various classes of hypertension medications and the number of them used for therapy in the MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares, i.e., Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for Prediction of Cardiovascular Events) study, a prospective, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial on 2156 hypertensive patients (1044 men/1112 women), 55.6 ± 13.6 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, randomized to ingest all prescribed once-a-day hypertension medications upon awakening or the entire daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime. Ambulatory BP was measured for 48 h at baseline, and again annually or more frequently (quarterly) when adjustment of treatment was necessary to achieve ambulatory, i.e., awake and asleep, BP control. CVD risk according to the number and classes of medications used at the final evaluation was calculated by comparison with that of 734 normotensive subjects who were identically followed and remained untreated. After a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs, CVD risk of hypertensive patients randomized to ingest all medications upon awakening

  17. Type D Personality and Essential Hypertension in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study Within a Cohort of Patients Visiting General Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Versino, Elisabetta; Gammino, Lorenzo; Colombi, Nicoletta; Ostacoli, Luca; Carletto, Sara; Furlan, Pier Maria; Picci, Rocco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the relationship between type D personality and essential hypertension among patients visiting their GPs for any health problem, 101 hypertensive and 138 nonhypertensive patients were consecutively recruited and assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). The predictive value of type D personality was determined using a logistic regression model, taking into account the differences in recognized confounders between groups. Type D personality in the hypertension group was twice as frequent as in the no hypertension group and hypertension was more frequent among type D than non-type D patients. Logistic regression showed a significant predictive value of type D personality for hypertension, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, family history of hypertension, living condition, education, and employment. Therefore, type D personality was strongly related to hypertension and it was a noteworthy predictor of hypertension in a real-world cohort of primary care patients.

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome – Intra-abdominal hypertension: Defining, diagnosing, and managing

    PubMed Central

    Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Marinis, Athanasios D; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidou, Nicki

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) are increasingly recognized as potential complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ACS and IAH affect all body systems, most notably the cardiac, respiratory, renal, and neurologic systems. ACS/IAH affects blood flow to various organs and plays a significant role in the prognosis of the patients. Recognition of ACS/IAH, its risk factors and clinical signs can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated. Moreover, knowledge of the pathophysiology may help rationalize the therapeutic approach. We start this article with a brief historic review on ACS/IAH. Then, we present the definitions concerning parameters necessary in understanding ACS/IAH. Finally, pathophysiology aspects of both phenomena are presented, prior to exploring the various facets of ACS/IAH management. PMID:21769216

  19. Central hemodynamic changes of calcium antagonists at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lund-Johansen, P; Omvik, P

    1987-01-01

    Since the cardinal hemodynamic disorder in essential hypertension is an increased total peripheral resistance, drugs that can lower resistance without reducing blood flow would be particularly useful. The calcium antagonists seem to fulfill this criterion. The purpose of this work was to study the hemodynamic effects at rest and during exercise of three calcium channel blockers, verapamil, nifedipine, and nisoldipine, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Fifty-four patients aged 20-64 years with pretreatment diastolic blood pressures of between 95 and 120 mm Hg were studied at rest and during exercise on an ergometer bicycle. Blood pressure was recorded intraarterially and cardiac output was measured by Cardiogreen. After the initial study, 10 patients were treated with verapamil (40-80 mg three times daily), 15 with nifedipine (long-acting form, 20-80 mg daily), and 19 with nisoldipine (10-40 mg daily). After 1 year the hemodynamic study was repeated. The immediate response to the first dose was studied in the patients taking nisoldipine and in 10 patients after taking placebo tablets. Placebo induced no significant changes in central hemodynamics during the first 3 h after tablet intake. The calcium antagonists induced a reduction in blood pressure and in total peripheral resistance (in the order of 10-18%) without any reduction in cardiac index. Reflex tachycardia and an increase in cardiac output were seen in the first 2 h after the first dose of nisoldipine, but after 1 year the heart rate was unchanged compared with the pretreatment rate at rest and during exercise. In contrast, heart rate was reduced on verapamil treatment, particularly during exercise (about 10% of patients), but this was compensated for by an increase in the stroke volume. The hemodynamic profiles of the three calcium channel blockers were slightly different, especially with respect to the heart rate response. Total peripheral resistance was reduced, acutely as well as

  20. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is required to properly diagnose resistant hypertension and assess associated vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Ríos, María T; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Smolensky, Michael H

    2014-07-01

    Diagnosis of resistant hypertension (RH) is currently based upon awake-time office blood pressure (BP). An increasing number of studies have documented abnormally elevated sleep-time BP in most RH patients, indicating that diagnosis of true RH cannot be determined solely by comparison of office BP with either patient awake-time BP self-measurements or awake-BP mean from ambulatory monitoring (ABPM), as is customary in the published literature. Moreover, the ABPM-determined sleep-time BP mean is an independent and stronger predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk than either daytime office/ABPM-derived awake or 24-hour means. Results of the recently completed MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares) prospective outcomes study, which included a large cohort of RH patients, established that time of treatment relative to circadian rhythms constituted a critically important yet often neglected variable with respect to BP control. The study found that bedtime versus morning ingestion of the full dose of ≥1 BP-lowering medications resulted in both better therapeutic normalization of sleep-time BP and reduced CVD morbidity and mortality, including in RH patients. Accordingly, ABPM is highly recommended to properly diagnose and manage true RH, with a bedtime hypertension medication regimen as the therapeutic scheme of choice.

  1. Haplotype-based case-control study of the human AGTR1 gene and essential hypertension in Han Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Nie, Sheng-jie; Wen-ru, Tang; Bi-feng, Chen; Jin, Li; Wen, Zhang; Sheng-jun, Luo; Wei-wei, Li; Hai-jing, Yu; Chun-jie, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial trait resulting from the combined influence of environmental and genetic determinants. The aim of the study is to assess the association between the human AGTR1 gene and essential hypertension (EH) using a haplotype-based case-control study in Han Chinese subjects. Seven tag SNPs and the A1166C polymorphism of the AGTR1 gene were genotyped in 510 hypertension subjects and 510 normotensive subjects using PCR-RFLP method. Single SNP analyses indicated that the rs12695895 was significantly associated with hypertension, adjusted for covariates. Compared with the other haplotypes, Hap4 (AGGACTT) which carry the susceptible rs12695895 A allele was found to significantly increase the risk of EH with odds ratios equal to 1.84 (p=0.0002). The present results indicate that rs12695895 might be a genetic marker for EH and Hap4 (AGGACTT) was associated with hypertension in Han Chinese population. (c) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise performance in patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension. Effects of nifedipine-induced acute blood pressure reduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, P; Doria, E; Berti, M; Alimento, M; Tamborini, G; Fiorentini, C

    1992-06-01

    In untreated patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension, exercise induces an abnormal increase in blood pressure; the influences of this increase on exercise were evaluated by a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) performed in control conditions (step 1) and during acute blood pressure reduction (step 2). Patients were classified as (1) normotensive (resting diastolic blood pressure [BPd] less than 90 mm Hg; n = 14), (2) mildly hypertensive (BPd of 90 to 104 mm Hg; n = 9), and (3) moderately to severely hypertensive (BPd greater than or equal to 105 mm Hg; n = 16). For the three groups, peak mean blood pressure during exercise was 125 +/- 5 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM), 144 +/- 3 mm Hg (p less than 0.01 vs normotensive), and 161 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.01 vs normotensive and p less than 0.01 vs mild hypertension), respectively. Oxygen consumption (VO2) at peak exercise and at ventilatory anaerobic threshold was 26.1 +/- 1.1 and 17.2 +/- 0.5 ml/min/kg, 25.4 +/- 1.1 and 16.9 +/- 0.8 ml/min/kg, and 26.4 +/- 1.3 and 17.5 +/- 1.2 ml/min/kg in normotensive subjects, those with mild hypertension, and those with moderate to severe hypertension, respectively. Fourteen normotensive subjects, six with mild hypertension, and nine with moderate to severe hypertension participated to step 2 (nifedipine vs placebo, double-blind crossover). Nifedipine reduced blood pressure at rest and at peak exercise in those with hypertension. Peak exercise VO2 was unaffected by nifedipine in both normotensive subjects and those with hypertension. With nifedipine, ventilatory anaerobic threshold occurred earlier and at a lower VO2 in mild and in moderate to severe hypertension (delta VO2 = -1.9 and -2.4 ml/min/kg, respectively). These findings might be due to nifedipine-induced redistribution of blood flow during exercise and might be the reason for the complaint of weakness after blood pressure reduction in hypertensive subjects.

  3. Prostacyclin: its pathogenic role in essential hypertension and the class effect of ACE inhibitors on prostaglandin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, J L; Villa, E; Serrano, M; Gallardo, J; García-Robles, R

    1999-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) block degradation of bradykinin, and bradykinin stimulates prostacyclin synthesis. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the effects of ACE inhibitors on prostaglandin production in essential hypertensive patients are class effects or are dependent on ACE inhibitor structure. In addition, we studied whether hypertensives show an impaired capacity to synthesize vasodilator prostaglandins. To address these questions, we compared the effects of captopril (sulfhydryl-containing inhibitor), enalapril and ramipril (carboxyl-containing inhibitors) and fosinopril (phosphoryl-containing inhibitor) on blood pressure and urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1-alpha (the breakdown product of prostacyclin) in 44 mild-to-moderate essential hypertensive subjects before and 8 weeks after administration of an ACEI. We also studied prostacyclin excretion in 15 normotensive healthy controls. Levels of urinary 6-keto-PGF1-alpha (pg/ml) were measured by specific radioimmunoassay. Hypertensive subjects showed a lower excretion of 6-keto-PGF1-alpha than normotensive controls (212+/-147 vs 353+/-98 pg/ml, p < 0.001). All ACEI induced a significant decrease in MAP and increased the rate of excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite: C, 211+/-200 to 338+/-250 pg/ml, p < 0.05; E, 202+/-133 to 296+/-207 pg/ml, p < 0.05; R, 205+/-127 to 342+/-211 pg/ml, p < 0.05; F, 235+/-128 to 347+/-241 pg/ml, p < 0.05. In hypertensives (n = 44) the decrease in blood pressure correlated negatively with the rise in 6-keto-PGF1-alpha excretion (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). These data suggest that impaired prostacyclin biosynthesis in hypertensive patients could account for haemodynamic changes leading to the hypertensive state. Moreover, the hypotensive mechanisms of ACEI may be mediated by an increase in prostacyclin production; this effect seems to be class-dependent.

  4. Association between Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Genes and Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Fei, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Su, Jia; Lazar, Lissy; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Background Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the most important endocrine blood pressure control mechanism in our body, genes encoding components of this system have been strong candidates for the investigation of the genetic basis of hypertension. However, previous studies mainly focused on limited polymorphisms, thus we carried out a case-control study in the Han Chinese population to systemically investigate the association between polymorphisms in the RAAS genes and essential hypertension. Methods 905 essential hypertensive cases and 905 normotensive controls were recruited based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. All 41 tagSNPs within RAAS genes were retrieved from HapMap, and the genotyping was performed using the GenomeLab SNPstream Genotyping System. Logistic regression analysis, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), stratified analysis and crossover analysis were used to identify and characterize interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and body mass index (BMI) were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Of 41 SNPs genotyped, rs3789678 and rs2493132 within AGT, rs4305 within ACE, rs275645 within AGTR1, rs3802230 and rs10086846 within CYP11B2 were shown to associate with hypertension. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction between BMI and rs4305 increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis further indicated that BMI has a major effect, and rs4305 has a minor effect. Conclusion These novel findings indicated that together with non-genetic factors, these genetic variants in the RAAS may play an important role in determining an individual’s susceptibility to hypertension in the Han Chinese. PMID:24015270

  5. Functional Polymorphism rs13306560 of the MTHFR Gene Is Associated With Essential Hypertension in a Mexican-Mestizo Population.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Razo, Juan Carlos; Cano-Martínez, Luis Javier; Vargas Alarcón, Gilberto; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Canto, Patricia; Roque-Ramírez, Bladimir; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Esteban-Martínez, Rosa; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2015-08-01

    Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been associated with diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases; however, results of these studies are still controversial. In this study, we sought to determine whether 2 functional variants (rs1801133 and rs13306560) within the MTHFR are associated with hypertension in Mexican-Mestizos. We performed a case-control study with 1214 subjects including adults and children to test for the association of both single nucleotide polymorphisms with essential hypertension. The adult group included 764 participants (372 patients and 391 controls) and the group of children included 418 participants (209 patients and 209 controls). rs13306560 was associated with essential hypertension in adults (odds ratio, 4.281; 95% confidence interval, 1.841-9.955; P=0.0003) with a statistical power >0.8. In children, none of the polymorphisms was associated with essential hypertension. In addition, we assessed the effect of the rs13306560 polymorphism on the MTHFR promoter region by means of luciferase reporter gene assays using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Cells transfected with the pMTHFRaLUC construct showed an ≈25% reduction in luciferase activity (P=0.003). Furthermore, the promoter activity was reduced considerably by in vitro methylation of CpG sequences. Our data suggest that the rs13306560 polymorphism of the MTHFR may be part of the observed hypertension process in Mexican-Mestizo populations, but further studies are warranted. In addition, the allele A of the rs13306560 polymorphism as well as the in vitro methylation of CpGs reduced the promoter activity of the MTHFR regulatory region. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The Role of Plasma Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Predict New Cardiovascular Events in Essential Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Turak, Osman; Afşar, Barış; Ozcan, Fırat; Öksüz, Fatih; Mendi, Mehmet Ali; Yayla, Çagrı; Covic, Adrian; Bertelsen, Nathan; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-08-01

    Triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (TG/HDL-C) has been suggested as a simple method to identify unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in the general population. The effect of the TG/HDL-C ratio on essential hypertensive patients is unclear. About 900 consecutive essential hypertensive patients (mean age 52.9±12.6 years, 54.2% male) who visited our outpatient hypertension clinic were analyzed. Participants were divided into quartiles based on baseline TG/HDL-C ratio and medical records were obtained periodically for the occurrence of fatal events and composite major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) including transient ischemic attack, stroke, aortic dissection, acute coronary syndrome, and death. Participants were followed for a median of 40 months (interquartile range, 35-44 months). Overall, a higher quartile of TG/HDL-C ratio at baseline was significantly linked with higher incidence of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, plasma TG/HDL-C ratio was independently associated with increased risk of fatal events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.37; P≤.001] and MACEs (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21; P≤.001). Increased plasma TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with more fatal events and MACEs in essential hypertensive patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Usefulness of the renal resistive index to predict an increase in urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, K; Okura, T; Tanino, A; Kukida, M; Nagao, T; Higaki, J

    2017-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients. Patients who are expected to increase albuminuria need strict blood pressure control. In the present study, we assessed the association between the renal resistive index (RI) and future increases in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-six patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors, including renal RI, that were significant independent determinants of increased in urinary albumin excretion (UAE), defined as an increase of >50% in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio over 2 years. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis was used to select the optimal cut-off point that predicted an increase in UAE. RI was the only significant variable that predicted the increase in UAE, with the optimal cut-off value of renal RI that predicted this increase being 0.71 (sensitivity 52.4% and specificity 84.4%). Renal RI is associated with the future increase in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension.

  8. Parachute mitral valve incidentally diagnosed in an adult patient with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Motoda, Hiroyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Iwanaga, Shiro; Matsushita, Kenichi; Nakamizo, Hikaru; Wakino, Shu; Murata, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    We describe a 52-year-old woman incidentally diagnosed as having parachute mitral valve (PMV). Echocardiography displayed a parachute-like deformity of the mitral valve characterized by a unifocal attachment of mitral valve chordae. PMV is a congenital cardiac malformation that causes stenosis of the mitral valve and is often found in combination with left-heart obstruction in the pediatric population. The incidence of PMV in adults is extremely low. This patient had no related cardiac complications, which accounts for the long asymptomatic period. Thus, rare forms of congenital heart disease in late adulthood need attention in echocardiographic study.

  9. Evaluation of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers and alcohol user hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brabazon, Dermot; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Naher, Sumsun

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hypertension has been associated to cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol. In the present study, trace and toxic elements were determined in scalp hair of patients diagnosed with hypertension who are smokers and habitual alcohol drinkers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmokers, nondrinking controls. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.5%-99.7% in certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel and lead were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients than referents (P < 0.001); whereas, the concentration of zinc was lower in the scalp hair samples of hypertensive patients of both genders. The deficiency of zinc and the high exposure of trace and toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.

  10. Enalapril and atenolol in essential hypertension: attenuation of hypotensive effects in combination.

    PubMed

    Wing, L M; Chalmers, J P; West, M J; Russell, A E; Morris, M J; Cain, M D; Bune, A J; Southgate, D O

    1988-01-01

    In 16 patients with essential hypertension the effects of enalapril 20 mg once daily were compared with those of atenolol 50 mg once daily, with the two drugs in combination and with placebo using a double-blind cross-over design with allocation of treatment order by randomised Latin squares. For each patient there were four treatment phases, each of four weeks duration, which together comprised a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. All blood pressure parameters were reduced in the three active treatment phases compared to placebo (p less than 0.001). Supine blood pressures (group means) were 171/97 (placebo), 147/85 (enalapril), 154/84 (atenolol) and 144/78 (enalapril plus atenolol) (S.E.M. +/- 2/+/- 1-ANOVA), and standing blood pressures were 170/105 (placebo), 146/92 (enalapril), 154/92 (atenolol) and 147/86 (enalapril plus atenolol) (S.E.M. +/- 3/+/- 1). In the combination phase there was an additional hypotensive response but the potential fully additive effects of the two agents were attenuated by 30-50%. The mechanism of the attenuated hypotensive effect of the combined agents has not been determined. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentration was doubled in the presence of atenolol (P less than 0.01) suggesting that ANP may contribute to the hypotensive effect of the beta-blocker.

  11. ``Smart'' baroreception along the aortic arch, with reference to essential hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kember, G. C.; Zamir, M.; Armour, J. A.

    2004-11-01

    Beat-to-beat regulation of heart rate is dependent upon sensing of local stretching or local “disortion” by aortic baroreceptors. Distortions of the aortic wall are due mainly to left ventricular output and to reflected waves arising from the arterial tree. Distortions are generally believed to be useful in cardiac control since stretch receptors or aortic baroreceptors embedded in the adventitia of the aortic wall, transduce the distortions to cardiovascular neural reflex pathways responsible for beat-to-beat regulation of heart rate. Aortic neuroanatomy studies have also found a continuous strip of mechanosensory neurites spread along the aortic inner arch. Although their purpose is now unknown, such a combined sensing capacity would allow measurement of the space and time dependence of inner arch wall distortions due, among other things, to traveling waves associated with pulsatile flow in an elastic tube. We call this sensing capability-“smart baroreception.” In this paper we use an arterial tree model to show that the cumulative effects of wave reflections, from many sites far downstream, have a surprisingly pronounced effect on the pressure distribution in the root segment of the tree. By this mechanism global hemodynamics can be focused by wave reflections back to the aortic arch, where they can rapidly impact cardiac control via smart baroreception. Such sensing is likely important to maintain efficient heart function. However, alterations in the arterial tree due to aging and other natural processes can lead in such a system to altered cardiac control and essential hypertension.

  12. [Disability caused by essential hypertension complications in Sarajevo Canton in the period 1998-1999].

    PubMed

    Pozderac-Memija, Meliha; Kulenović, Indira; Dizdarević, Jadranka

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess working ability of persons suffering from some of essential hypertension (EH) complications in Canton Sarajevo in the period of two years (01.01.1998-31.12.1999). Recorded complications included: congestive heart failure (CHF), heart attack (HA), angina pectoris (AP) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The study included 606 persons with EH with clinically verified complications, out of whom there were 416 males of average age of 53.4 (+/- 14.7) years, and 190 females of average age of 50.3 (+/- 12.8) years. There were 377 (62.2%) persons assessed with complete loss of working capability, 126 (20.8%) with limited working capability and only 103 (16.9%) were found without disability in regard to the tasks required in their job description. It was confirmed that EH complications have significant impact to disability among insurants in their most productive working age. CHF is the leading cause of complete loss of working capability, particularly in the group of labour workers with low qualification structure, followed by CVD, HA and AP. Disability-loss and limited working capability was dependant on sex, age, type of complication, qualification structure and the type of occupation. The results of this study indicate urgent need for establishing a more efficient concept of primary prevention as well as better and comprehensive treatment of the EH in order to reduce morbidity and disability among the working age population.

  13. Construction and analysis of the protein-protein interaction network related to essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex disease as a consequence of interaction between environmental factors and genetic background, but the pathogenesis of EH remains elusive. The emerging tools of network medicine offer a platform to explore a complex disease at system level. In this study, we aimed to identify the key proteins and the biological regulatory pathways involving in EH and further to explore the molecular connectivities between these pathways by the topological analysis of the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Result The extended network including one giant network consisted of 535 nodes connected via 2572 edges and two separated small networks. 27 proteins with high BC and 28 proteins with large degree have been identified. NOS3 with highest BC and Closeness centrality located in the centre of the network. The backbone network derived from high BC proteins presents a clear and visual overview which shows all important regulatory pathways for blood pressure (BP) and the crosstalk between them. Finally, the robustness of NOS3 as central protein and accuracy of backbone were validated by 287 test networks. Conclusion Our finding suggests that blood pressure variation is orchestrated by an integrated PPI network centered on NOS3. PMID:23587307

  14. Biochemical and genetic role of apelin in essential hypertension and acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit D; Girish, M P; Shah, Dhaval; Rain, Manjari; Mehta, Vimal; Tyagi, Sanjay; Trehan, Vijay; Pasha, Qadar

    2016-11-15

    Apelin-APJ pathway has emerged as a potent regulator of blood pressure (BP) and blood flow in vasculature and heart. Variants in apelin gene may affect the vascular tone in peripheral circulation or heart, thereby predisposing to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of two apelin gene polymorphisms rs3761581 and rs2235312, and apelin levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The study comprised of three groups namely, (1) 118 healthy control subjects, (2) 92 EH patients, and (3) 60 ACS patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping was performed by SNaPshot method. Plasma apelin 13 levels were estimated using ELISA. EH and ACS patients had a significantly lower level of apelin 13, regardless of gender (p=0.003, p=0.017, respectively). Interestingly, the female EH and ACS patients had lower levels of apelin 13 than their male counterparts. The G allele of rs3761581 was more apparent in patients especially in ACS than the controls. Reduced apelin levels may enhance vasoconstriction to influence high BP and heart's workload in EH and ACS. Genetic involvement of apelin needs to be established in well-defined larger sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diurnal variations of cardiac rhythm, arterial pressure, and urinary catecholamines in borderline and established essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Messerli, F H; Glade, L B; Ventura, H O; Dreslinski, G R; Suarez, D H; MacPhee, A A; Aristimuno, G G; Cole, F E; Frohlich, E D

    1982-07-01

    Ambulatory continuous ECG and arterial pressure (BP) were recorded simultaneously (Delmar Avionics Pressurometer II) for 24 hours in 13 age-matched normotensive subjects, 11 patients with borderline hypertension (HBP), and in 10 patients with uncomplicated established essential HBP. Urinary concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were simultaneously collected over four successive 4-hour periods and one 8-hour period. Prevalence and total number of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats was low and not affected by arterial BP. Twenty-four-hour rate (HR) and 4-hourly excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were comparable between normotensive and HBP persons and no correlation between urinary catecholamines and arterial BP (systolic, diastolic, or mean), HR, or prevalence of ectopic beats was found in any of the three groups or in the total study population. We conclude that HBP patients without ECG evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy do not have a higher prevalence of supraventricular or ventricular ectopic beats. Urinary catecholamines are not related to circadian fluctuations or variability in arterial BP, HR, or prevalence of ectopic beats.

  16. Acute and chronic ketanserin in essential hypertension: antihypertensive mechanisms and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, R; Elliott, H L; Meredith, P A; Reid, J L

    1987-01-01

    1. In nine patients with essential hypertension, following single and multiple doses of ketanserin, assessments were made of blood pressure and heart rate, QT interval, and pressor responses to phenylephrine and angiotensin II. 2. Significant reductions in blood pressure occurred for 6 h after the first dose, on average 23/14 mm Hg supine, and there was a comparable antihypertensive effect after 1 month's treatment. 3. There were small but significant rightward shifts (1.5 to 2-fold) in the phenylephrine pressor-response curves but no changes in the responsiveness to angiotensin II. 4. The QT interval (QTc) was significantly increased after 1 month's treatment: at 1 h after dosing 334 +/- 32 ms after 1 month of ketanserin compared with 302 +/- 31 ms after placebo. 5. The elimination half-life and AUC for ketanserin were both significantly increased at steady state compared with the first dose: respectively 13.4 vs 4.3 h for half-life and 830 vs 437 ng ml-1 h for AUC. 6. Ketanserin had no significant effects on baroreflex function, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, catecholamines and 24 h urinary excretion. PMID:3325090

  17. Tianma Gouteng Yin as Adjunctive Treatment for Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Feng, Bo; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Gui; Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background. Tianma Gouteng Yin (TGY) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) as adjunctive treatment. Many randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of TGY for EH have been published. However, it has not been evaluated to justify their clinical use and recommendation based on TCM zheng classification. Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of TGY as adjunctive treatment for EH with liver yang hyperactivity syndrome (LYHS) and liver-kidney yin deficiency syndrome (LKYDS). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until November 20, 2012. Inclusion Criteria. RCTs testing TGY combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 22 RCTs were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Except diuretics treatment group, blood pressure was improved in the other 5 subgroups; zheng was improved in angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and “CCB + ACEI” treatment groups. The safety of TGY is still uncertain. Conclusions. No confirmed conclusion about the effectiveness and safety of TGY as adjunctive treatment for EH with LYHS and LKYDS could be made. More rigorous trials are needed to confirm the results. PMID:23710230

  18. Effect of long-term diltiazem treatment on central haemodynamics and exercise endurance in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lund-Johansen, P; Omvik, P

    1990-06-01

    The effects of long-term treatment with diltiazem on blood pressure, central haemodynamics and exercise endurance were studied in 16 men (mean age 52 years) with essential hypertension. Intra-arterial pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously. Cardiac output (CO) was measured by Cardiogreen at rest (supine and sitting) and during 50 W, 100 W and 150 W bicycle exercise. Haemodynamic measurements were repeated after continuous bicycling at 150 W for 20 min or until exhaustion. After 1 year on diltiazem (mean daily dose 278 mg) intra-arterial pressure was reduced (P less than 0.001) in all situations (at rest sitting from 183/108 mmHg to 157/92 mmHg (14%] due to reduction in total peripheral resistance. HR was reduced at rest (7%) and during exercise (10%). Stroke volume tended to increase while CO was unchanged. Exercise time at constant workload increased by 25%. After a peak level, intra-arterial pressure fell by 3% to 5% (P less than 0.05) due to a decrease in total peripheral resistance both before and during diltiazem treatment. Stroke volume and CO remained unchanged during endurance exercise while HR showed a small increase. Thus, there was no reduction in the overall cardiac pump function after long-term diltiazem treatment, and blood flow during exercise was maintained.

  19. Barnidipine monotherapy and combination therapy in older patients with essential hypertension: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Naber, F B; Häge, R; Mortelmans, J

    2000-11-01

    The long-term (2 year) safety and efficacy of barnidipine was assessed in an open-label, dose-titration, multicentre study of 236 patients aged > or = 75 years with a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 95 mmHg. All eligible patients started treatment with barnidipine 10 mg once daily. After at least 4 weeks treatment, the dose of barnidipine was titrated upwards to 20 mg daily in patients who did not achieve normalisation of blood pressure (sitting DBP < 90 mmHg). After at least another 4 weeks of treatment an ACE inhibitor or diuretic was added if necessary. Barnidipine monotherapy was the final treatment in 74% of patients in the ITT population (50% barnidipine 10 mg, 24% barnidipine 20 mg). The overall response rate was 84.1% at endpoint. Overall mean sitting DBP decreased by 18.4 mmHg from 102.1 mmHg at baseline to 83.7 mmHg at endpoint. Although a total of 82.2% of patients reported at least one adverse event, only 37.4% of patients experienced an adverse event that was possibly or probably related to the study medication. Many patients experienced adverse events associated with co-existing diseases common in older people. It can be concluded that barnidipine as monotherapy or in combination with ACE inhibitors or diuretics is safe and effective in older patients with essential hypertension.

  20. [PECULIARITIES OF ERYTHROPOIETIN SYNTHESIS CIRCADIAN RHYTHM IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Radaeva, O A; Simbirtsev, A S

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (ERO) is known to be the main regulator of proliferation and terminal dissociation of erythroid cells. Its receptors are expressed not only in hematopoietic cells but also in the tissues of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this work was to study specific features of circadian rhythm in erythropoietin synthesis and estimate the predictive informative value of serum ERO level variations as regards the risk of developing cardiovascular complications in patients with stage II essential arterial hypertension (EAH). ERO, neopterin, and interleukin-1 levels were measured in 200 such patients. It was shown that ERO levels increased (p < 0.001) compared with normal values (12.6 pg/ml, 95% CI 11.8-13.4 and 68 pg/ml, 95% CI 6.4-7.2 respectively). Analysis of circadian rhythm demonstrated that enhanced probability of complications in the absence of reduction of the ERO level at night time correlated with the decreased number of CD34 cells (p < 0.001) and the increased neopterin level (p < 0.001). It is concluded that these dependences suggest the necessity of further studies of yet unknown effects of ERO and ways of their application for the treatment of EAH.

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Low-Cost Essential Antihypertensive Medicines for Hypertension Control in China: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Coxson, Pamela G.; Rasmussen, Petra W.; Huang, Chen; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Tzong, Keane Y.; Xiong, Juyang; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Dong; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is China’s leading cardiovascular disease risk factor. Improved hypertension control in China would result in result in enormous health gains in the world’s largest population. A computer simulation model projected the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in Chinese adults, assuming a range of essential medicines list drug costs. Methods and Findings The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model, simulated hypertension screening, essential medicines program implementation, hypertension control program administration, drug treatment and monitoring costs, disease-related costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained by preventing cardiovascular disease or lost because of drug side effects in untreated hypertensive adults aged 35–84 y over 2015–2025. Cost-effectiveness was assessed in cardiovascular disease patients (secondary prevention) and for two blood pressure ranges in primary prevention (stage one, 140–159/90–99 mm Hg; stage two, ≥160/≥100 mm Hg). Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension were modeled as a reduction in systolic blood pressure; treatment of isolated diastolic hypertension was modeled as a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses explored ranges of antihypertensive drug effectiveness and costs, monitoring frequency, medication adherence, side effect severity, background hypertension prevalence, antihypertensive medication treatment, case fatality, incidence and prevalence, and cardiovascular disease treatment costs. Median antihypertensive costs from Shanghai and Yunnan province were entered into the model in order to estimate the effects of very low and high drug prices. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than the per capita gross domestic product of China (11,900 international dollars [Int$] in 2015) were considered cost-effective. Treating

  2. High anti-human cytomegalovirus antibody levels are associated with the progression of essential hypertension and target organ damage in Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Na; Feng, Qian; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Yong-min; Wang, La-mei

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with hypertension and has been linked with the pathogenesis of increased arterial blood pressure (BP). Currently, whether CMV infection is associated with the progression of hypertension and hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) remains to be identified. We aimed to examine the relationship between CMV infection and the progression of hypertension and hypertensive TOD, which could provide clues on the possible mediating mechanisms, in the Han Chinese population. A total of 372 patients with hypertension and 191 healthy controls (Han participants from Xinjiang, China) were included in the study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and qPCR were used to detect CMV infection. C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) titers were also analyzed using an ELISA kit. Moreover, cardiovascular disease markers were evaluated by echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and tomographic scans. Essential hypertension (EH) patients exhibited a marked increase in CMV IgG antibody, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels. Higher grade of hypertension and hypertensive TOD had higher CMV IgG antibody and CRP levels. The CMV IgG antibody titers were positively correlated with arterial BP, greater grade of hypertension and hypertensive TOD, and CRP and IL-6 levels. The higher quartile of CMV IgG titer and CRP level were associated with the incidence of hypertension and the progression of hypertension and hypertensive TOD. In the Han Chinese population, high CMV IgG titers are associated with the progression of hypertension and hypertensive TOD. CMV IgG titer >4.25 U could be an independent predictor of hypertension and progression of hypertension, while that >4.85 U could be an independent risk factor for hypertensive TOD. The underlying mechanism may be largely mediated by chronic inflammation. PMID:28837559

  3. Antioxidative properties and inhibition of key enzymes relevant to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from black pepper.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe(2+)-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe(2+). α -Pinene, β -pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α -glucosidase than α -amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α -amylase, α -glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  4. Increasing trend in admissions for malignant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Suneja, Manish; Tang, Fan; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    Malignant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy are life-threating manifestations of hypertension. These syndromes primarily occur in patients with a history of poorly controlled hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate national trends in hospital admissions for malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, and essential hypertension. This was a retrospective cohort study that used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We identified all hospitalizations between 2000 and 2011, during which a primary diagnosis of malignant hypertension (ICD 9 code: 401.0), hypertensive encephalopathy (ICD 9 code: 437.2), or essential hypertension (ICD 9 code: 401.9) was recorded. Time series models were estimated for malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, essential hypertension and also for the combined series. A piecewise linear regression analyses was performed to investigate whether there were changes in the trends of these series. In addition, we also compared the characteristics of patients with these diagnoses. The estimated number of admissions for both malignant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy increased dramatically after 2007, whereas discharges for essential hypertension fell, and there was no change in trend for the combined series. Costs rose substantially for patients with these diagnoses after 2007, but mortality significantly fell for malignant hypertension and mortality for hypertensive encephalopathy did not change. The dramatic increase in the number of hospital admissions for hypertensive encephalopathy and malignant hypertension should have resulted in dramatic increases in morbidity, but it did not. The change is most likely related to changes in coding related to diagnostic-related groups that occurred in 2007. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 in a homogenous Gulf Arab population with untreated essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Obineche, Enyioma; Abdulle, Abdishakur M; Bokhari, Awais M; Yasin, Javed Y; Gillett, Michael P T

    2006-01-01

    Racial variations are reported in the natural history of hypertension. For example, hypertension is significantly more prevalent in blacks than whites. Endothelial cells are important regulators of vascular tone and homeostasis, in part through secretions of vasoactive substances including endothelin-1 (ET-1), a small peptide with potent vasopressor actions. In black hypertensives, ET-1 levels are higher than in normotensive blacks and in both hypertensive and normotensive whites. Since ET-1 might play a significant role in the development and severity of hypertension in the indigenous Arab population of the United Arab Emirates, we investigated the circulating levels of ET-1 in this homogenous population. ET-1 levels were measured in plasma samples from 60 untreated hypertensive Arabs and compared with 60 age- and sex-matched normotensive controls. ET-1 levels were significantly higher in hypertensives (mean 10.1 +/- 1 pmol/L) than normotensives (mean 2.2 +/- 0.5 pmol/L). Body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher among the hypertensives. For all subjects these levels significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with systolic blood pressure and less significantly (P < 0.05) with diastolic blood pressure and body weight. The correlation between ET-1 and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was persistently significant after adjusting for BMI. Plasma concentrations of ET-1 are significantly higher in hypertensive Gulf Arabs as compared with reported levels in white hypertensives and ET-1 could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in this population. The endothelial system might be particularly important with respect to hypertension in this racial group and merits further study.

  6. [Association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphism and essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Gu, Shu-jun; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Li-jun; Luo, Wen-shu; Guo, Zhi-rong

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/δ/γ and essential hypertension (EH). Participants were recruited within the framework of a cohort populations survey from the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province) which was conducted in the urban community of Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2007. Eight hundred and twenty subjects (551 non-hypertensive subjects, 269 hypertensive subjects) were randomly selected but were not related to each other. Ten SNP (rs135539, rs1800206, rs4253778 of PPARα; rs2016520, rs9794 of PPARδ; rs10865710, rs1805192, rs4684847, rs709158 and rs3856806 of PPARγ) were selected from the HapMap database. χ(2) test was used to determine whether the whole population was in H-W genetic equilibrium. SHEsis software was used to examine the relations of SNP and linkage equilibrium. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ten SNP in the PPAR and EH. Difference on the distribution of four SNP genotypes including rs1800206, rs9794, rs10865710 and rs4684847 between high blood pressure and non-high blood pressure group, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and normal SBP group, high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and normal DBP group was significant (P < 0.05). After adjusting factors as age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, high-fat diet and compared with wild-type gene carriers, the OR (95%CI) of objects with rs1800206 V allele appeared in high blood pressure, high SBP and high DBP were 0.60 (0.41 - 0.89), 0.57 (0.37 - 0.88) and 0.61 (0.39 - 0.96), respectively. The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs9794 were 0.63 (0.46 - 0.87), 0.51 (0.36 - 0.73) and 0.68 (0.47 - 1.01). The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs10865710 were 1.62 (1.19 - 2.20), 1.59 (1.14 - 2.22) and 1.53 (1.07 - 2.18), respectively. While the OR (95%CI) of

  7. Relationship Among 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations, Insulin Action, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, David; Caulfield, Michael P.; Hantash, Feras M.; Reaven, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been shown to predict risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD), vitamin D repletion has not consistently lowered blood pressure or decreased CVD. One possibility for this discrepancy is the presence of considerable metabolic heterogeneity in patients with hypertension. To evaluate this possibility, we quantified relationships among insulin resistance, 25(OH)D concentration, and CVD risk factor profile in patients with essential hypertension. METHODS Measurements were made of 25(OH)D concentrations, multiple CVD risk factors, and insulin resistance by the steady-state plasma glucose concentration during the insulin suppression test in 140 otherwise healthy patients with essential hypertension. RESULTS As a group, the patients were overweight/obese and insulin resistant and had low 25(OH)D concentrations. The more insulin resistant the patients were, the worse the CVD risk profile was. In addition, the most insulin-resistant quartile had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than the most insulin-sensitive quartile (20.3±1.4 vs. 25.8±1.4ng/ml; P = 0.005). In the entire group, 25(OH)D concentration significantly correlated with magnitude of insulin resistance (steady-state plasma glucose concentration; r = −0.20; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS There was considerable metabolic heterogeneity and substantial difference in magnitude of conventional CVD risk factors in patients with similar degrees of blood pressure elevation. The most insulin-resistant quartile of subjects had the lowest 25(OH)D concentration and the most adverse CVD risk profile, and they may be the subset of patients with essential hypertension most likely to benefit from vitamin D repletion. PMID:25138785

  8. [Essential hypertension in the child and the adolescent. Epidemiological study in schools (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aullen, J P

    1978-04-08

    Amongst a group of 819 children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years and attending a public school, the distribution of blood pressure was determined in relation to age, sex, height-weight ratio and family history. Mean blood pressure values increased with age both sexes for both systolic and diastolic levels. Children outside the norms, blood pressure 2SD, should be considered to be hypertensive and be followed up. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 3.95 per cent amongst the boys and 3,83 per cent amongst girls. That for diastolic hypertension was 7.33 per cent for boys and 6.97 per cent for girls. Obesity appeared to be the major factor associated with hypertension since half of the hypertensive individuals were overweight. Individual prevention is thus possible. The existence of a family history of hypertension and of obesity more particularly in obese hypertensive children should lead to steps aimed at the familial prevention of hypertension.

  9. Association of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS5) gene variants and essential hypertension in Mongolian and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Chang, P Y; Qin, L; Zhao, P; Liu, Z Y

    2015-12-21

    Genetic variants of the RGS5 gene are believed to be risk factors for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between RGS5 gene variants and hypertension in the Mongolian and Han populations. Peripheral blood was obtained from 429 unrelated Mongolian herdsmen and 416 Han farmers [including essential hypertension (EH) patients and controls]. Nine tagSNPs within the RGS5 genes were retrieved from HapMap, and the samples were individually genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction assay. The distribution of the allele frequency of rs12035879 differed significantly between hypertensive subjects and controls in the Han population, while the distribution of the allele and genotype frequencies of rs16849802 differed significantly between hypertensive subjects and controls in the Mongolian population. We observed an association between rs16849802 and EH in the Mongolian population. The frequency of haplotype GAA was significantly higher in the EH group than in controls in the Mongolian population. However, the EH group and controls did not differ significantly in all 6 haplotypes in the Han population. The rs16849802 and haplotype GAA independently increased the risk of EH in Mongolian patients, and may be used as a risk factor for the prediction of high blood pressure.

  10. Gender-Specific Association of ATP2B1 Variants with Susceptibility to Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Qian, Hai-xia; Hu, Su-pei; Liu, Li-ya; Zhou, Mi; Feng, Mei; Su, Jia; Ji, Lin-dan

    2016-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) found that several ATP2B1 variants are associated with essential hypertension (EHT). But the "genome-wide significant" ATP2B1 SNPs (rs2681472, rs2681492, rs17249754, and rs1105378) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and are located in the same LD block in Chinese populations. We asked whether there are other SNPs within the ATP2B1 gene associated with susceptibility to EHT in the Han Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene and EHT in the Han Chinese population, and we then analyzed the interaction among different SNPs and nongenetic risk factors for EHT. A total of 902 essential hypertensive cases and 902 normotensive controls were involved in the study. All 7 tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene were retrieved from HapMap, and genotyping was performed using the Tm-shift genotyping method. Chi-squared test, logistic regression, and propensity score analysis showed that rs17249754 was associated with EHT, particularly in females. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction of rs2070759, rs17249754, TC, TG, and BMI increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis indicated that BMI has a major effect on the development of hypertension, while ATP2B1 variants have a minor effect.

  11. [Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is well known to one of the risk factors to reduce cognitive function, however, it is still unclear whether anti-hypertensive therapy is effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies suggested antihypertensive therapy from the middle-age could reduce risk of dementia. The meta-analysis including HYVET also suggested blood pressure lowering from the elderly might be also effective to prevent development of dementia. The network meta-analysis and the cohort study using mega-data bank suggested ARB might be effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease compared to administration with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Although the further major clinical investigation is required, anti-hypertensive treatment might be useful to manage hypertensive patients with dementia.

  12. [Effects related to gene-gene interactions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor on essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Qiu; Yang, Jie; Hu, Xiao-shu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Guo, Zhi-rong; Wu, Ming

    2013-04-01

    To explore the impact of the gene-gene interaction among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/δ/γ on essential hypertension (EH). Participants were recruited based on the previous work of the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and Metabolic Syndrome in Jiangsu Province) cohort study in Jiangsu province of China. A total number of 820 subjects were randomly selected from the cohort and received gene polymorphism detection covered ten SNPs:PPARα/δ/γ (PPARα: rs135539, rs1800206 and rs4253778; PPARδ: rs2016520 and rs9794; PPARγ: rs10865710, rs1805192, rs4684847, rs709158 and rs3856806). Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) model was used to evaluate the association between gene-gene interaction among the ten SNPs and EH. After adjusting factors as gender, age, BMI, FPG, TG, HDL-C, high fat diet, low fiber diet and physical activity, results from the GMDR analysis showed that the best qualitative trait models were 7/9-dimensional model (EH: cross-validation consistency were 9/10 and 10/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5862 and 0.5885), 5/9-dimensional model (SBP:cross-validation consistency were 10/10 and 8/10, prediction accuracy were 0.6055 and 0.6011), and 8/9-dimensional model (DBP: cross-validation consistency both were 10/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5926 and 0.5972), while the best quantitative trait models were 4/5-dimensional model (SBP: cross-validation consistency were 10/10 and 8/10, prediction accuracy were 0.6111 and 0.6072), and 5-dimensional model (DBP: cross-validation consistency were 9/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5753). Interactions among ten SNPs of PPARs seemed to have existed and with significant impact on the levels of blood pressure.

  13. Interactions between CYP11B2 Promoter Methylation and Smoking Increase Risk of Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tianlun; Mao, Shuqi; Fan, Rui; Zhong, Fade; Zhu, Fubao; Hao, Lingmei; Zhang, Lina; Yin, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is closely linked to essential hypertension (EH). However, it remains unclear whether the methylation of the CYP11B2 promoter is involved in the development of EH in humans. Our study is aimed at evaluating the contribution of CYP11B2 promoter methylation to the risk of EH. Methylation levels were measured using pyrosequencing technology in 192 participants in a hospital-based case-control study. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to adjust for confounding factors and the GMDR method was applied to investigate high-order gene-environment interactions. Although no significant result was observed linking the four analyzed CpG sites to EH, GMDR detected significant interactions among CpG1, CpG3, CpG4, and smoking correlated with an increased risk of EH (OR = 4.62, adjusted P = 0.011). In addition, CpG2 (adjusted P = 0.013) and CpG3 (adjusted P = 0.039) methylation was significantly lower in healthy males than in healthy females. Likewise, after adjusting for confounding factors, CpG2 methylation (adjusted P = 0.007) still showed significant gender-specific differences among the participants of the study. CpG1 (P = 0.009) site was significantly positively correlated with age, and CpG3 (P = 0.007) and CpG4 (P = 0.006) were both inversely linked to smoking. Our findings suggest that gene-environment interactions are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of EH.

  14. Haemodynamic effects and plasma concentrations of labetalol during long-term treatment of essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lund-Johansen, P.; Bakke, O. M.

    1979-01-01

    1 Fifteen men with untreated essential hypertension in WHO stage 1 were studied on an outpatient basis to evaluate the haemodynamic long-term effect of a new α- and β-adrenergic receptor blocker, labetalol. 2 Oxygen consumption, heart rate, cardiac output (Cardiogreen) and intraarterial brachial pressure were recorded at rest in a supine and sitting position, and during steady state work at 300, 600 and 900 kpm/min. 3 The subjects were treated with labetalol (dose 200-800 mg/day) as the sole drug for 1 year. The haemodynamic study was then repeated and the concentration of labetalol in plasma 2-2.5 h after the morning dose was measured. 4 Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced approximately 23% at rest and 21% during exercise. The heart rate was decreased 15% at rest and 16% during exercise. There was a compensatory increase in the stroke volume and consequently the cardiac index was reduced less than the heart rate, 7% at rest supine and 10% during exercise. There was a significant decrease in total peripheral resistance at rest supine (16%) and during exercise (12%). 5 No serious side-effects were seen, but two subjects almost syncopated in the sitting position after the 900 kpm/min work load at the restudy. 6 There was no correlation between the plasma concentration and the effect of labetalol. 7 The haemodynamic changes differ from those seen after long-term therapy with drugs possessing only β-adrenoceptor blocking properties, and agree well with what should be expected with a drug which possesses both α- and β-adrenoceptor blocking properties. PMID:760749

  15. Fractal scaling of laser Doppler flowmetry time series in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Esen, Ferhan; Cağlar, Sayin; Ata, Necmi; Ulus, Taner; Birdane, Alpaslan; Esen, Hamza

    2011-11-01

    The full diagnostic potential of the fractal complexity measure, α, of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has not been realized yet. To reveal the impaired mechanisms in the blood flow regulation in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), we studied the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) time series by applying DFA. Forearm microvascular blood flow was measured by LDF during supine rest. After a 15 min baseline recording, microvascular response to thermal hyperemia was measured over 30 min. We found three distinct scaling regions; corresponding to the integration of local mechanisms, cardiac effect on local blood flow, and the coupling of extrinsic factors (cardiac and respiratory) to local blood flow by myogenic mechanism. In the control group, local scaling exponent, α(L)=0.96 ± 0.08, did not change but cardiac scaling exponent, α(C)=1.53 ± 0.05, for baseline signal was increased to α(CT)=1.73 ± 0.10 and cardio-respiratory scaling exponent, α(CR)=0.73 ± 0.19, was decreased to α(CRT)=0.24 ± 0.06 during vasodilatation in response to local heating. However, we found significantly different scaling exponents, α(LT)<1, α(CT) ≥ α(C)<1.5 and α(CR) ≈ α(CRT)>0.5 in patients with EHT. Our findings suggest that the local regulatory and the cushioning peripheral vascular functions are impaired in patients with EHT, and vascular/microvascular pathology can be evaluated by applying DFA to LDF signal.

  16. The effect of acute and chronic nicardipine therapy on forearm arterial haemodynamics in essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, J.; Simon, A. Ch.; Bouthier, J.; Maarek, B. C.; Safar, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    1 By using simultaneous recording curves obtained with pulsed Doppler velocimetry and strain gauge mechanography, forearm arterial haemodynamics were studied in 26 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Fifteen patients received a single oral dose of nicardipine 40 mg, and 11 patients were treated with nicardipine 30 mg three times daily for 3 months. 2 In both groups of patients there was a similar and significant (P < 0.001) reduction in mean, systolic, and diastolic pressures. There was a slight increase in heart rate (P < 0.05) after the single dose, but no change after 3 months of treatment. 3 The diameter, blood velocity, and blood flow of the brachial artery increased significantly in both treatment groups. The decrease in forearm vascular resistance was significant for both treatment groups. 4 Brachial artery compliance increased (P < 0.01) and characteristic impedance decreased (P < 0.01) after both single-dose and long-term therapy with nicardipine. 5 In patients who received nicardipine for 3 months, there were close correlations between the baseline serum calcium level and the percent change in vascular resistance (r = -0.73, P < 0.01), blood flow (r = 0.89, P < 0.001), and blood velocity (r = 0.91. P < 0.001) of the forearm. No correlation was found between the baseline serum calcium and the change in arterial pressure. 6 This study provided evidence that the blood-pressure-lowering effect of nicardipine was accompanied by a direct vasodilatory action in the small and large arteries of the forearm. An increase in peripheral blood flow with concomitant improvement of arterial compliance are the consequences of these arterial actions. PMID:4027144

  17. Risk factors for silent myocardial ischemia in patients with well-controlled essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rendina, Domenico; Ippolito, Renato; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; Muscariello, Riccardo; De Palma, Daniela; De Bonis, Silvana; Schiano di Cola, Michele; Benvenuto, Domenico; Galderisi, Maurizio; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Galletti, Ferruccio

    2017-03-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is frequently observed in patients with essential hypertension (EH). The major risk factor for SMI is uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), but SMI is also observed in patients with well-controlled BP. To evaluate the prevalence of SMI and the factors associated with SMI in EH patients with well-controlled BP. The medical records of 859 EH patients who underwent simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram recording (AECG) were retrospectively evaluated. Each SMI episode was characterized by: (a) ST segment depression ≥0.5 mm; (b) duration of ST segment depression >60 s; and (c) reversibility of the ST segment depression. Overall 126 EH patients (14.7 %) had at least one episode of SMI. The SMI events were more frequent among patients with poorly controlled compared to those with well-controlled BP [86/479 (17.95 %) vs. 40/380 (10.52 %), p < 0.01]. Among EH patients with well-controlled BP, current and past smoking as well as the presence of an additional metabolic syndrome (MetS) constitutive element (obesity, impaired fasting glucose level or dyslipidemia) were significantly associated with the occurrence of SMI. In all EH patients with well-controlled BP and AECG evidence of SMI, there were one or more coronary artery stenotic lesions greater than 50 % found at coronary angiography. In EH patients who are current smokers, or have one or more additional components of a MetS there is markedly reduced benefit associated with good BP control with regard to the occurrence of myocardial ischemia: in this patient category, an AECG may help detect this condition.

  18. Interactions between CYP11B2 Promoter Methylation and Smoking Increase Risk of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuqi; Fan, Rui; Zhong, Fade; Zhu, Fubao; Hao, Lingmei

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is closely linked to essential hypertension (EH). However, it remains unclear whether the methylation of the CYP11B2 promoter is involved in the development of EH in humans. Our study is aimed at evaluating the contribution of CYP11B2 promoter methylation to the risk of EH. Methylation levels were measured using pyrosequencing technology in 192 participants in a hospital-based case-control study. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to adjust for confounding factors and the GMDR method was applied to investigate high-order gene-environment interactions. Although no significant result was observed linking the four analyzed CpG sites to EH, GMDR detected significant interactions among CpG1, CpG3, CpG4, and smoking correlated with an increased risk of EH (OR = 4.62, adjusted P = 0.011). In addition, CpG2 (adjusted P = 0.013) and CpG3 (adjusted P = 0.039) methylation was significantly lower in healthy males than in healthy females. Likewise, after adjusting for confounding factors, CpG2 methylation (adjusted P = 0.007) still showed significant gender-specific differences among the participants of the study. CpG1 (P = 0.009) site was significantly positively correlated with age, and CpG3 (P = 0.007) and CpG4 (P = 0.006) were both inversely linked to smoking. Our findings suggest that gene-environment interactions are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of EH. PMID:28078278

  19. Long-term haemodynamic effects of amlodipine at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lund-Johansen, P; Omvik, P; White, W; Digranes, O; Helland, B; Jordal, O; Stray, T

    1990-12-01

    The long-term haemodynamic responses to amlodipine, a new long-acting calcium antagonist, were studied both at rest and during exercise in 18 patients (mean age 43 years) with essential hypertension. Blood pressure was measured intra-arterially, cardiac output by dye dilution and heart rate by electrocardiogram. After 11 months of treatment with 5-10 mg amlodipine once daily (mean dose 9 mg/day), mean arterial pressure was reduced by 14% sitting at rest. The reduction in blood pressure was associated with a marked reduction in the total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) of 19% (P less than 0.001). Similar responses were seen supine at rest and during 50W, 100W and 150W bicycle exercise. No significant changes were seen in heart rate. There was a slight increase in stroke index, and cardiac index was preserved at rest and during exercise with a slight trend towards an increase. In 10 of the patients, blood pressure was monitored by a portable blood pressure recorder (Accutracker II, Suntech Medical instruments, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). Blood pressure was well controlled throughout the full 24 h period after one daily dose. In conclusion, amlodipine exerts a clear antihypertensive effect, both at rest and during exercise, through reduction in the TPRI and without a fall in cardiac pump function. No changes in heart rate were seen and there was no tendency for a reduction in the stroke index during 8 min of exercise at 150 W; on the contrary there was a trend towards an increase. The incidence of side-effects was low (ankle oedema in two patients).

  20. Risk-Factor Profile and Comorbidities in 2398 Patients With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension From the Abuja Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ojji, Dike B.; Libhaber, Elena; Atherton, John J.; Abdullahi, Bolaji; Nwankwo, Ada; Sliwa, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Risk factors, comorbidities, and end-organ damage in newly diagnosed hypertension (HT) are poorly described in larger cohorts of urban African patients undergoing epidemiological transition. We therefore decided to characterize a large cohort of hypertensive subjects presenting to a tertiary health center in sub-Saharan Africa. It is an observational cross-sectional study. We prospectively collected detailed clinical, biochemical, electrocardiography, and echocardiography data of all subjects with HT as the primary diagnosis in patients presenting at the Cardiology Unit of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital over an 8-year period. Of 2398 subjects, 1187 patients (49.4%) were female with a mean age of 51 ± 12.8 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were most commonly palpitation in 691 (28.8%) followed by dyspnoea on exertion in 541 (22.6%), orthopnea in 532 (22.2%), pedal oedema in 468 (19.5%), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea in 332 (13.8%), whereas only 31 (1.3%) presented with chest pain. Risk factors were obesity in 671 (28%); 523 (21.8%) had total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/L, diabetes mellitus was present in 201 (8.4%) and 187 (7.8%) were smokers. End-organ damage was present in form of echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in 1336 (55.7%) followed by heart failure in 542 (22.6%). Arrhythmias occurred in 110 (4.6%) of cases, cerebrovascular accident in 103 (4.3%), chronic kidney disease in 26 (1.1%), hypertensive encephalopathy in 10 (0.4%), and coronary artery disease in 6 (0.26%). There were marked differences in sex as women were more obese and men presented with more advanced disease. The burden of HT and its complications in this carefully characterized African cohort is quite enormous with more than three-fourth having one form of complication. The need of effective primary and secondary preventive measures to be mapped out to tackle this problem cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26426662

  1. Association of ACE, FABP2 and GST genes polymorphism with essential hypertension risk among a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Rizvi, Saliha; Ahmed, Faisal; Eba, Ale; Mahdi, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension has a multi-factorial background based on genetic and environmental interactive factors. ACE, FABP2 and GST genes have been suggested to be involved in the development of hypertension. However, the results have been inconsistent. The present study was carried out to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism with essential HTN cases and controls. This study includes 138 essential hypertension (HTN) patients and 116 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched control subjects. GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphisms were evaluated by multiplex PCR, ACE (rs4646994) gene polymorphisms by PCR and FABP2 (rs1799883) gene polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP method. Significant differences were obtained in the frequencies of ACE DD, II genotype (p = 0.006, 0.003), GSTT1 null, GSTM1 positive genotype (p = 0.048, 0.010) and FABP2 Ala54/Ala54 genotype (p = 0.049) between essential HTN cases and controls. It is concluded that ACE (rs 4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883) and GST (GSTM1 null or positive genotype and GSTT1 null or positive genotype) genes polymorphism are associated with HTN. Further investigation with a larger sample size may be required to validate this study.

  2. Efficacy of Virechana and Basti Karma with Shamana therapy in the management of essential hypertension: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Gyanendra; Bhatted, Santosh K; Dave, Alankruta R; Shukla, Vageesha Datta

    2013-01-01

    Considering high prevalence and the need to look for alternative medicine, essential hypertension was screened in light of Vata-Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara as mentioned by Acharya Charaka. Comparing the etiological factors, symptomatology, and complications with Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara with that of essential hypertension, a striking similarity was revealed. To prove the practical approach of management of Vata-Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara, a randomized open clinical trial on 33 uncomplicated subjects of essential hypertension was conducted. The subjects were allotted in two groups, viz. (Group A) Virechana group having 16 cases who underwent Virechana Karma by Trivrita, Aragvadha, Eranda Taila, and Draksha Kwatha as Sahapana; and (Group B) Basti group consisting of 17 cases who were administered Dashmoola Kala Basti in which Niruha with Dashmoola Kwatha and Anuvasana with Dashmoola Taila was done. Patients of both the groups were followed by Shamana Chikitsa (Arjunadi Ghanavati). The overall effect of the therapies on systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed that Virechana proved better relief (43.75%) as compared to Basti (29.41%). The response was encouraging and has created scope for further studies.

  3. Efficacy of Virechana and Basti Karma with Shamana therapy in the management of essential hypertension: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Gyanendra; Bhatted, Santosh K.; Dave, Alankruta R.; Shukla, Vageesha Datta

    2013-01-01

    Considering high prevalence and the need to look for alternative medicine, essential hypertension was screened in light of Vata–Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara as mentioned by Acharya Charaka. Comparing the etiological factors, symptomatology, and complications with Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara with that of essential hypertension, a striking similarity was revealed. To prove the practical approach of management of Vata–Pitta Pradhana Rakta Pradoshaja Vikara, a randomized open clinical trial on 33 uncomplicated subjects of essential hypertension was conducted. The subjects were allotted in two groups, viz. (Group A) Virechana group having 16 cases who underwent Virechana Karma by Trivrita, Aragvadha, Eranda Taila, and Draksha Kwatha as Sahapana; and (Group B) Basti group consisting of 17 cases who were administered Dashmoola Kala Basti in which Niruha with Dashmoola Kwatha and Anuvasana with Dashmoola Taila was done. Patients of both the groups were followed by Shamana Chikitsa (Arjunadi Ghanavati). The overall effect of the therapies on systolic and diastolic blood pressure showed that Virechana proved better relief (43.75%) as compared to Basti (29.41%). The response was encouraging and has created scope for further studies. PMID:24049408

  4. [Results of the Federal (National) Project for prevention and treatment essential hypertension patients in Russia from 2002-2012 years].

    PubMed

    Chizova, I E; Oshchepkova, E V

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of measures efficiency for prevention by essential hypertension (EH) in Russian Federation within the space of 2002-2012 years was realized. Those measures were carrying out Federal (National) Project and primary activity of the medical and scientific institutions under the leadership Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex. The basic result was decrease in cardiovascular disease death rate starting with 2004 year The most pronounced significant changes were found in death rate from the cerebrovascular diseases. From 2003 to 2012, the annual cerebrovascular disease death rate decreased in 1,5 times (in 2003 - 339,9 by 100 thousands, to compare with 2012 - 224,1 by 100 thousands). Moreover, in 2012 thefatal stroke death rate was decreased on 114,8 thousands (to compare with 2004). Decrease of cardiovascular disease death rate is achieved from: early revealing of essential hypertension pts; development and introduction in practical public health of new methods of prevention ("Schools of Health"), adequate diagnostic and treatment of essential hypertension patients; increase of an educational level by cardiology in polyclinics, also use by the government of special purposes for Cardiovascular disease death rate decrease.

  5. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Adropin and ET-1 Levels in Essential Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xinyi; Gu, Haibo; Chen, Jianchang; Wang, Luchen; Harding, Pamela; Xu, Weiting

    2015-10-01

    Adropin is a recently identified bioactive protein that promotes energy homeostasis by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, adropin has also been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Also, ET-1, as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction, is a key regulator in hypertension. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the relationship between plasma adropin and ET-1 levels in hypertension. A total of 123 participants, diagnosed with primary hypertension on the basis of World Health Organization criteria (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg), and 58 normotensive subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study from October 2011 to December 2013. All study participants were older than 18 years of age. Adropin and ET-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that plasma adropin levels were significantly lower in hypertensives compared with controls (3.18 ± 1.00 vs 4.21 ± 1.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma ET-1 levels were higher in hypertensives than controls (2.60 ± 1.14 vs 1.54 ± 0.66 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Adropin had a negative correlation with DBP (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), SBP (r = -0.49, P < 0.001), and adjusted for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and Cr, there was a negative correlation between ET-1 and adropin (r = -0.20, P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis of the variables, ET-1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% CI, 2.16-6.81; P < 0.001) and adropin (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99 -1.0; P <  .001) were found to be independent predictors for hypertension.In conclusion, decreased plasma adropin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in hypertension. Adropin is an independent predictor for hypertension, and may influence blood pressure by protecting endothelial function.

  6. [Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of endothelin-1 and receptor A associated to cardiovascular in essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Tamiozzo, S R; Lassen, O C; Herrera, J; Igarzabal, P; Tabares, S; Sembaj, A

    The endothelin system, for its vasoconstrictor action, is related to the development of essential hypertension (HTAe). The polymorphism analysis of their genes represents a new approach to the study of this disease. We propose to analyze the interaction between stages of essential hypertension (HTAe) and risk factors with polymorphisms 138ex1 ins/del A gene endothelin-1 (ET-1) and H323H receptor gene A ET-1 (ETRA). We included 300 patients of both sexes, unrelated, who consecutively attended the clinic hypertension medical service. Each one underwent a complete physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Rx thorax. The degree of severity of hypertension was determined in stages. The determination of polymorphisms was performed by amplification followed by cutting by specific restriction enzyme from DNA obtained from peripheral blood. The 46% of patients had HTAe controlled, 17.6% had organ damage or cardiovascular, brain or kidney disease. It was observed that the 4A/4A carriers showed lower frequency of cardiovascular disease, kidney and brain (P<.032; 95% CI: 11.1-21.4). For H323H polymorphism, the evaluation by images showed a higher frequency of the dilations of left auricular (P=.02) and auricular fibrillation (P=.03) between the T/T carrier, a higher frequency of cardiomegaly was detected in C/C patients (P=.04). The genotypes, 4A/4A of the ET-1 gene and the T/T from ETRA gene might be involved in worse outcome of cardiovascular damage. Their identification could help recognize subgroups of the hypertensive patients with different risk. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Buys, Yvonne M.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Gaspo, Rania; Kwok, Kenneth; Hutnik, Cindy M. L.; Blondeau, Pierre; Birt, Catherine M.; Piemontesi, Robert L. G.; Gould, Lisa F.; Lesk, Mark R.; Ahmed, Iqbal K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1%) with OAG and 113 (27.9%) with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P < 0.0001) for disc notch, 5.36 (P < 0.0001) for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P = 0.001) for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P < 0.0001) for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P = 0.030), and 0.36 (P = 0.010) for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis. PMID:21869921

  8. The HYPERFlax trial for determining the anti-HYPERtensive effects of dietary flaxseed in newly diagnosed stage 1 hypertensive patients: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Penner, Brian; Pierce, Grant N

    2014-06-18

    In 2013 the World Health Organization deemed hypertension as a global crisis as it is the leading risk factor attributed to global mortality. Therefore, there is a great need for effective alternative treatment strategies to combat a condition that affects 40% of adults worldwide. Recently, the FlaxPAD Trial observed a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with peripheral arterial disease that consumed 30 g of milled flaxseed per day for one year. However, these patients were already on anti-hypertensive medication. Therefore, there is a need to assess if dietary flaxseed can effectively reduce blood pressure in the absence of peripheral arterial disease and anti-hypertensive medication in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. The HYPERFlax Trial is a parallel, superiority, phase II/III, randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial. St. Boniface Hospital and the Health Sciences Centre of Winnipeg, Canada, will recruit 100 participants newly diagnosed with stage 1 hypertension who have yet to be administered anti-hypertensive medication. Participants will be randomly allocated with a 1:1 ratio into a flaxseed or control group and provided food products to consume daily for six months. At baseline, two, four, and six months, participant assessments will include the primary outcome measure, averaged automated blood pressure, and secondary measures: 24-hour food recall, international physical activity questionnaire, anthropometrics, and blood and urine sampling for biochemical analysis. Plasma will be assessed for lipids, metabolomics profiling, and molecules that regulate vascular tone. Urine will be collected for metabolomics profiling. With an estimated dropout rate of 20%, the trial will have a power of 0.80 to detect differences between groups and across time, out of an effect size of 0.7 (SD) at an α level of 0.05. This trial will determine if dietary flaxseed is efficacious over six months as an anti-hypertensive

  9. Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR gamma 2 associated with essential hypertension in Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenchan; Dong, Birong; Mo, Xianming; Chen, Tie; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanling; Xiao, Hengyi

    2008-12-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR gamma 2 has been shown to influence hypertension and the benefit of longevity in previous studies. We examined whether the polymorphism was related to essential hypertension among long-lived subjects (is greater than 90 years). The Pro12Ala variant was examined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism in a population-based sample of 839 long-lived subjects (mean 94 years SD 4 years, aged 90-108 years). The genotype frequencies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism were 0.2% Ala12Ala, 9.4% Pro12Ala and 90.4% Pro12Pro in all participants. The frequency of the Ala12 allele was 3.45% in the hypertension group and 6.92% among the normotension group (P=0.001). Moreover, in the total study population, Ala12 allele carriers had lower levels of triglycerides (1.03+/-0.5 mmol/L (means+/-SD) vs. 1.25+/-0.61 mmol/L; P<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR gamma 2 gene is associated with hypertension and triglycerides levels in Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

  10. Novel Association of WNK4 Gene, Ala589Ser Polymorphism in Essential Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ghodsian, Nooshin; Ismail, Patimah; Ahmadloo, Salma; Heidari, Farzad; Haghvirdizadeh, Polin; Ataollahi Eshkoor, Sima; Etemad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    With-no-lysine (K) Kinase-4 (WNK4) consisted of unique serine and threonine protein kinases, genetically associated with an autosomal dominant form of hypertension. Argumentative consequences have lately arisen on the association of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of WNK4 gene and essential hypertension (EHT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of Ala589Ser polymorphism of WNK4 gene with essential hypertensive patients in Malaysia. WNK4 gene polymorphism was specified utilizing mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 320 subjects including 163 cases and 157 controls. Close relation between Ala589Ser polymorphism and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was recognized. Sociodemographic factors including body mass index (BMI), age, the level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG) in the cases and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (p < 0.05). The distribution of allele frequency and genotype of WNK4 gene Ala589Ser polymorphism showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between EHT subjects with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normotensive subjects, statistically. The WNK4 gene variation influences significantly blood pressure increase. Ala589Ser probably has effects on the enzymic activity leading to enhanced predisposition to the disorder.

  11. Novel Association of WNK4 Gene, Ala589Ser Polymorphism in Essential Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsian, Nooshin; Ismail, Patimah; Ahmadloo, Salma; Heidari, Farzad; Haghvirdizadeh, Polin; Ataollahi Eshkoor, Sima; Etemad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    With-no-lysine (K) Kinase-4 (WNK4) consisted of unique serine and threonine protein kinases, genetically associated with an autosomal dominant form of hypertension. Argumentative consequences have lately arisen on the association of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of WNK4 gene and essential hypertension (EHT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of Ala589Ser polymorphism of WNK4 gene with essential hypertensive patients in Malaysia. WNK4 gene polymorphism was specified utilizing mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 320 subjects including 163 cases and 157 controls. Close relation between Ala589Ser polymorphism and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was recognized. Sociodemographic factors including body mass index (BMI), age, the level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG) in the cases and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (p < 0.05). The distribution of allele frequency and genotype of WNK4 gene Ala589Ser polymorphism showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between EHT subjects with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normotensive subjects, statistically. The WNK4 gene variation influences significantly blood pressure increase. Ala589Ser probably has effects on the enzymic activity leading to enhanced predisposition to the disorder. PMID:27314050

  12. Left ventricular function, haemodynamics and certain indicators of neurohumoral control during submaximal exercise in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shkhvatsabaya, I K; Yurenev, A P; Parfenova, E V; Erina, E V; Kiseleva, Z M; Ustinova, S E; Speranskaya, N V

    1983-01-01

    The study was carried out in 22 men with essential hypertension, stage I B-II B, aged 25 to 46 years, and in 10 healthy volunteers of the same age. The authors investigated indicators of systemic and intracardiac haemodynamics by echocardiography, determined the blood plasma catecholamine concentration, catecholamine excretion, renin and cyclic nucleotides activity in plasma, both at rest and during continuous submaximal graded exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The haemodynamic response to exercise differed in patients with stable HPT from healthy subjects and patients with labile HPT by an increase in diastolic blood pressure, a lesser drop in end-systolic volume and in total peripheral vascular resistance, a lesser rise in cardiac output, and by a substantially higher left ventricular mass. The left ventricular ejection fraction did not rise in patients with stable hypertension. In these patients, no statistically significant concentration of urine catecholamines and their urine excretion was observed, in contrast to the other two groups where these indicators were increased. A negative correlation was found between the left ventricular mass and the ejection fraction during exercise, which attests to a negative influence of left ventricular hypertrophy on the pump function of the heart during exercise in patients with essential hypertension.

  13. Altered structure of small cerebral arteries in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Paiardi, Silvia; Boari, Gianluca E M; Mortini, Pietro; Cornali, Claudio; Cenzato, Marco; Rodella, Luigi F; Borsani, Elisa; Rizzardi, Nicola; Platto, Caterina; Rezzani, Rita; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2009-04-01

    Structural alterations in the microcirculation may be considered an important mechanism of organ damage. An increased media-to-lumen ratio of subcutaneous small resistance arteries has been demonstrated to predict the development of cardiocerebrovascular events in hypertensive patients. Alterations in the structure of small cerebral arteries have been demonstrated in animal models of experimental or genetic hypertension. However, no evaluation with reliable techniques has ever been performed in humans. Twenty-eight participants were included in the present study: they were 13 hypertensive patients and 15 normotensive individuals. All participants underwent a neurosurgical intervention for benign or malign tumors. A small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue was excised from surgical samples and examined. Cerebral small resistance arteries (relaxed diameter around 200 mum) were dissected and mounted on an isometric and isobaric myograph, and the tunica media to internal lumen ratio was measured. In addition, cerebral cortical microvessel density (MVD) was also evaluated. The tissue was sectioned and stained for CD31, and MVD was measured with an automated image analyzer (percentage of area stained). Blood pressure values were evaluated, before surgical intervention, by standard sphygmomanometry. M/L was significantly greater and MVD significantly lower in hypertensive patients than that in normotensive individuals. No difference between groups in collagen content or mechanical properties of cerebral small arteries was observed. Our results indicate that structural alterations of small cerebral vessels are present in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive individuals, similar to those previously observed in subcutaneous small arteries.

  14. Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Lepine, Todd

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.(1) Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.(2,3) In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.(4) The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.(5) Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.(1,6) Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.(6) The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed.

  15. Hypomethylation of the Angiotensin II Type I Receptor (AGTR1) Gene Along with Environmental Factors Increases the Risk for Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiabing; Lin, Shaowei; Wu, Yihai; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Siying; Li, Huangyuan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the hypertension status of community residents, analyze environmental and epigenetic factors, and propose prevention measures for hypertension. In our study, different methylation levels were distinguished utilizing melting temperature (Tm) values in both the case and the control group. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of having essential hypertension (EH) between hypertensive and nonhypertensive participants. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to analyze Tm cutoff levels of methylation. The average DNA Tm was 71.784 with a standard deviation of 0.210. The Tm value of community residents (Fujian, China) was inversely correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Student t test analysis showed a clear separation in Tm expression levels between the hypertensive and the control group (p < 0.05). The Tm value was lower in the hypertension group than in the normotensive group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that high levels of DNA methylation were a protective factor in hypertension with adjustment of demographic and environmental factors, whereas when the Tm value increased by 0.1 units, the risk of hypertension was reduced by 0.652 times. Patients that smoked and consumed an irregular diet demonstrated a lower degree of methylation in the presence of hypertension. DNA methylation affects the risk for the development of hypertension; therefore, epigenetic markers could be used to measure hypertension levels to help elucidate the pathogenesis of EH. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Changes in serum immunoglobulins in subjects with acute myocardial infarct and essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Campisi, D; Paterna, S; Bivona, A; Cricchio, I; Cilluffo, P; Cannistraro, F; Furitano, G

    1983-12-30

    20 (12 men and 8 women) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and 17 (14 men and 3 women) patients with arterial hypertension (II degrees stage according to OMS) in comparison to controls age and sex matched, were studied, serum IgA, IgG, IgM were evaluated with radial immunodiffusion and serum IgE with RIA. Ho significant changes ef immunoglobulins were observed between hypertensive patients and controls; whereas a significant increase of IgM, IgG and IgE, with out changes of IgA, were shown in AMI patients. Serum Ig and IgM were significantly augmented in AMI patients in comparison to hypertensive patients.

  17. Effects of Eurythmy Therapy in the Treatment of Essential Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutnæs-Mast, Froeydis; Mast, Heiner; Girke, Matthias; Kröz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Although eurythmy therapy (ET) has been used in the context of anthroposophic medicine (AM) for the treatment of, among other conditions, arterial hypertension (AH) for more than 80 years, there are as yet no studies on its effectiveness on disease entity. However, it has been shown that ET can increase heart rate variability comparably to ergometer training. Objective: To determine whether a 10-week course of ET has an impact on AH and if so, to determine the strength of the effect. The impact of ET on state-autonomic regulation, self-regulation, internal coherence, and quality of life is also explored. Methods: Consecutive inclusion of 9 subjects (6 female, 3 male, mean age of 64 years, SD 8.26) with AH diagnosed by their general practitioners. Inclusion criteria: no or unchanged antihypertensive medication from 4 weeks prior to the start of the study until the end of the study. ET was carried out with weekly instruction along with a daily, home-based program for 10 weeks with specific exercises. Twenty-four–hour blood pressure (BP) measuring was carried out, and the questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. In addition, after a further 6 months during which 8 of the 9 patients carried on with the exercises of their own accord, the aforementioned parameters were assessed for a third time. Results: Parameters of the 24-hour BP measurements show a moderate, but not significant, improvement immediately after the intervention and 6 months after the intervention. After the 10-week intervention, we saw an improvement of the State-autonomic Regulation questionnaire, the subscale on “Rest/Activity regulation,” of the Self-regulation questionnaire, and the subscale “Initiative and Interest” of the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) (all P < .045). After the 6-month post-study observation period, the aforementioned parameters improved further still, and an additional, significant improvement was seen for the Trait

  18. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new essential hypertension susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p24-p25, detected by genomewide search.

    PubMed

    Angius, Andrea; Petretto, Enrico; Maestrale, Giovanni Battista; Forabosco, Paola; Casu, Giuseppina; Piras, Daniela; Fanciulli, Manuela; Falchi, Mario; Melis, Paola Maria; Palermo, Mario; Pirastu, Mario

    2002-10-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex disorder that results from the interaction of a number of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. We studied an isolated Sardinian village (Talana) in which the prevalence of hypertension is comparable to that in most Western populations. Talana exhibits features, such as slow demographic growth, high inbreeding, a low number of founders, stable lifestyle and culture, and accurate genealogical records, that make it suitable for the study of complex disorders. Clinical assessment of the entire adult population (N= approximately 1,000) identified approximately 100 hypertensive subjects. For our study, we selected the individuals with the most-severe EH (i.e., diastolic blood pressure >100 mm Hg), belonging to a single deep-rooted pedigree (12 generations), whose common ancestors lived in the 17th century. We performed a three-stage genomewide search using 36 affected individuals, by means of parametric linkage and allele-sharing approaches. LOD scores >1 were observed on chromosomes 1, 2, 13, 15, 17, and 19 (stage I). The most striking result was found in a 7.57-cM region on chromosome 2p24-p25. All five nonparametric linkage statistics estimated by the SimWalk2 program lie above the significance threshold of P<.008 for the whole region. Similar significance was obtained for 2p24-25 when parametric linkage (LOD score 1.99) and linkage disequilibrium mapping (P=.00006) were used, suggesting that a hypertension-susceptibility locus is located between D2S2278 and D2S168. This finding is strengthened by a recent report of linkage with marker D2S168 in a hypertensive sib-pair sample from China.

  20. Effect of antihypertensive treatments on insulin signalling in lympho-monocytes of essential hypertensive patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Flati, Vincenzo; Rossini, Claudia; Rufo, Anna; Porteri, Enzo; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Petroboni, Beatrice; La Boria, Elisa; Donini, Carlotta; Pasini, Evasio; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2014-12-01

    It was previously demonstrated that metabolic syndrome in humans is associated with an impairment of insulin signalling in circulating mononuclear cells. At least in animal models of hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may correct alterations of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle. In the first study, we investigated the effects of a 3-month treatment with an ARB with additional PPARγ agonist activity, telmisartan, or with a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, on insulin signalling in patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Insulin signalling was evaluated in mononuclear cells by isolating them through Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and protein analysis by Western Blot. An increased expression of mTOR and of phosphorylated (active) mTOR (p-mTOR) was observed in patients treated with telmisartan, but not in those treated with nifedipine, while both treatments increased the cellular expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). We also investigated the effects of antihypertensive treatment with two drug combinations on insulin signalling and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. An increased expression of insulin receptor, GLUT-4 and an increased activation of p70S6K1 were observed during treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril but not with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. In conclusion, telmisartan and nifedipine are both effective in improving insulin signalling in human hypertension; however, telmisartan seems to have broader effects. The combination treatment lercanidipine + enalapril seems to be more effective than lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide in activating insulin signalling in human lympho-monocytes.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ruilope, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease that contributes to the premature death of millions of people each year, and identification and treatment of hypertension continues to be a challenge. Guidelines recommend that many patients will require two or more antihypertensive agents from different classes. Combining an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) has been shown in clinical studies to increase the antihypertensive efficacy of both agents compared with either agent alone. This review covers several clinical trials and aims to examine several aspects of the efficacy of the combination of olmesartan and HCTZ, including dose-responsiveness, long-term efficacy, goal rate achievement, and efficacy in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. The results presented here demonstrate that olmesartan is effective when added to HCTZ monotherapy or when HCTZ is added to olmesartan monotherapy, both over the short and long term. Moderate to severe hypertension responds well to olmesartan/HCTZ combination therapy, and the great majority of patients are able to achieve recommended blood pressure targets. Thus olmesartan/HCTZ is a well-tolerated option for patients who fail to respond to monotherapy and as initial therapy in those who require large reductions in diastolic blood pressure or systolic blood pressure to achieve goal blood pressure. PMID:19337537

  2. Evaluation of Erythrocyte Sodium-22 Influx as a Laboratory Test for the Diagnosis of Essential Hypertension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    LITERATURE REVIEW......................3 * A. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL.........3 1. NEURAL......................3 2. HUMORAL.....................3...7 3 II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Physiology of Blood Pressure Control 1. Neural *Arterial blood pressure is a function of cardiac output and...Less than 5% of hypertension 4 cases are surgically curable. These include renovascular hy- ~6 pertension, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma . S

  3. Racial differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fredrikson, M

    1986-06-01

    Racial differences in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity were studied at rest and during an aversive reaction-time task in established hypertensives, borderline hypertensives and normotensive controls. White and black subjects of each group were subjected to 16 signalled reaction time tasks where a 110 decibel (dB) white noise was delivered contingent upon poor performance. During 16 signalled foreperiods (35 s) the following measurements were taken: systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, respiration-rate and muscle and skin blood flow. Muscle and skin vascular resistances were calculated. Skin conductance activity was recorded as an index of non-cardiovascular SNS-activation. Resting cardiovascular activity was similar in black and white hypertensives and controls, whereas skin conductance activity was greater in white compared to black hypertensives and controls. During the reaction-time task both quantitative and qualitative differences between the races tended to emerge. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased less in black patients and controls than in whites. Muscle and skin vascular resistance increased in blacks but was unaffected by behavioural demands in whites. Skin conductance reactivity was attenuated in black patients and controls. Thus, blacks compared to whites show lesser cardiac sympathomimetic responses but enhanced vascular responses to mental stress.

  4. Risk factors for the development of essential hypertension: long-term follow-up study in junior high school students in Niigata, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M

    1994-05-01

    We measured the BP in junior high school students (12-15 years of age) during 1960-65. In 1991 we sent questionnaires by post and received 110 replies for previously normotensive subjects (NT group) and 91 for previously hypertensive subjects (HT group). The frequency of current hypertension was 5.5% (6 of 110) in the NT group and 20.9% (19 of 91) in the HT group (P < 0.001). Development of hypertension was related to obesity in the NT group and to a family history of hypertension and to drinking and smoking habits in both groups. These findings suggest that it may be better to measure BP in junior high school students to identify hypertensives and that we need social education of the young to stress the importance of BP measurement and the influences of obesity, smoking and overdrinking on the development of essential hypertension.

  5. Patients With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension Treated With the Renin Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Azilsartan Medoxomil vs Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: The Prospective EARLY Registry.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Potthoff, Sebastian A; Bramlage, Peter; Baumgart, Peter; Mahfoud, Felix; Buhck, Hartmut; Ouarrak, Taoufik; Ehmen, Martina; Senges, Jochen; Gitt, Anselm K

    2015-12-01

    For patients with newly diagnosed hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are usually the first-line therapies. There is, however, no real-life data regarding the relative clinical effectiveness and tolerability of either drug class. The prospective registry, Treatment With Azilsartan Compared to ACE Inhibitors in Antihypertensive Therapy (EARLY), was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the ARB azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M) vs ACE inhibitors in real-world patients. Of the 1153 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension who were included in the registry, 789 were prescribed AZL-M and 364 were prescribed an ACE inhibitor. After multivariate adjustment, AZL-M was found to provide superior blood pressure reduction and better target blood pressure (<140/90 mm Hg) achievement. The proportion of patients with adverse events was not statistically different between groups. The authors conclude that in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients, AZL-M provides superior blood pressure control with a similar safety profile compared with ACE inhibitors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Central alpha-activation by clonidine reduces plasma level of beta-endorphin in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kanayama, Y; Kohno, M; Murakawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T; Takeda, T; Kotsugai, N; Sato, K

    1985-10-21

    Whether peripheral beta-endorphin contributes to the antihypertensive action of clonidine was examined by measuring plasma levels of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta EpLI) after acute administration of clonidine in patients with essential hypertension. Administration of clonidine (0.225 mg) in one dose significantly lowered blood pressure, decreased heart rate and reduced the plasma level of beta EpLI and ACTH, while the placebo had no effect on blood pressure, heart rate or plasma level of beta EpLI suggesting that peripheral beta-endorphin does not play a major role in the antihypertensive action of acute clonidine administration.

  7. The concept of crosstalk-directed embryological target mining and its application to essential hypertension treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Sal, Oguzhan; Kilic, Yagmur; Onal, Emine Meltem; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2017-05-01

    This review aims to introduce the novel concept of embryological target mining applied to interorgan crosstalk network genesis, and applies embryological target mining to multidrug-resistant essential hypertension (a prototype, complex, undertreated, multiorgan systemic syndrome) to uncover new treatment targets and critique why existing strategies fail. Briefly, interorgan crosstalk pathways represent the next frontier for target mining in molecular medicine. This is because stereotyped stepwise organogenesis presents a unique opportunity to infer interorgan crosstalk pathways that may be crucial to discovering novel treatment targets. Insights gained from this review will be applied to patient management in a clinician-directed fashion. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chinese Herbal Medicine Qi Ju Di Huang Wan for the Treatment of Essential Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Guoyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chinese herbs are potentially effective for hypertension. Qi Ju Di Huang Wan (QJDHW) is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine as a monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents for the treatment of essential hypertension (EH). However, there is no critically appraised evidence such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the effectiveness and safety of QJDHW for EH. Methods and Findings. CENTRAL, PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and online clinical trial registry websites were searched for published and unpublished randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of QJDHW for essential hypertension up to January 2013 with no language restrictions. A total of 10 randomized trials involving 1024 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs was more effective in lowering blood pressure and improving TCM syndrome for the treatment of essential hypertension than antihypertensive drugs used alone. No trials reported severe adverse events related to QJDHW. Conclusions. Our review suggests that QJDHW combined with antihypertensive drugs might be an effective treatment for lowering blood pressure and improving symptoms in patients with essential hypertension. However, the finding should be interpreted with caution because of the poor methodological quality of included trials. There is an urgent need for well-designed, long-term studies to assess the effectiveness of QJDHW in the treatment of essential hypertension. PMID:23878593

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigation on modulatory effect of benidipine on membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kazushi

    2008-03-01

    It has been shown that benidipine, a long-lasting calcium (Ca) channel blocker, may exert its protective effect against vascular disorders by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether orally administered benidipine might influence the membrane function in patients with essential hypertension. We measured the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes by using an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-labeling method. In the preliminary study using erythrocytes obtained from healthy volunteers, benidipine decreased the order parameter (S) for 5-nitroxide stearate (5-NS) and the peak height ratio (ho/h-1) for 16-NS in the EPR spectra in vitro. The finding indicated that benidipine increased the membrane fluidity and improved the microviscosity of erythrocytes. In addition, it was demonstrated that the effect of benidipine on membrane fluidity of erythrocytes was significantly potentiated by the NO-substrate, L-arginine. In the separate series of the study, we observed that orally administered benidipine for 4 weeks significantly increased the membrane fluidity of erythrocytes with a concomitant increase in plasma NO metabolite levels in hypertensive subjects. The results of the present study demonstrated that benidipine might increase the membrane fluidity and improve the microviscosity of erythrocytes both in vitro and in vivo, to some extent, by the NO-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, it is strongly suggested that orally administered benidipine might have a beneficial effect on the rheologic behavior of erythrocytes and the improvement of the microcirculation in hypertensive subjects.

  10. Effects of carvedilol on oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Asada, Akira

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of carvedilol and propranolol on oxidative stress in leukocytes and C-reactive protein levels in patients with hypertension. Sixty hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to carvedilol (20 mg; n = 30) or propranolol (60 mg; n = 30) for 6 months. Thirty normotensive subjects who were given placebo served as controls. Oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured by gated flow cytometry. C-reactive protein levels were measured by immunonephelometric assay. Oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells was increased significantly in hypertensive patients compared with in normotensive controls. After 6 months of treatment, carvedilol decreased oxidative stress significantly in polymorphonuclear cells by a mean of 45 arbitrary units (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32 to 59 arbitrary units; P <0.001) and propranolol decreased oxidative stress significantly by 20 arbitrary units (95% CI: 7 to 33 arbitrary units; P <0.003; P = 0.001 for difference between treatments). Carvedilol also decreased oxidative stress significantly in mononuclear cells by 23 arbitrary units (95% CI: 15 to 31 arbitrary units; P <0.001), whereas propranolol decreased oxidative stress by 2 arbitrary units (95% CI: 7 to 12 arbitrary units; P = 0.62; P = 0.002 for difference between treatments). Carvedilol decreased C-reactive protein levels significantly by a median of 0.073 mg/dL (interquartile range, 0.034 to 0.112 mg/dL; P <0.001), whereas propranolol decreased levels by 0.012 mg/dL (interquartile range, 0.009 to 0.032 mg/dL; P = 0.26; P = 0.003 for difference between treatments). These findings suggest that carvedilol inhibits oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, as well as lowers C-reactive protein levels, to a greater extent than does propranolol in hypertensive patients.

  11. Types of aggressiveness and catecholamine response in essential hypertensives and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Netter, P; Neuhäuser-Metternich, S

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between plasma catecholamine responses, and levels and types of aggression in hyper- and normotensives were investigated by analyses of data obtained in a large psychophysiological experiment on 97 hypertensives (EH) and 98 normotensives (CO) each. Subjects were divided according to levels (high vs low) and types (repressed vs manifest) of aggressiveness according to self rating questionnaire scores. Their plasma catecholamine responses to defined stressors indicating sympathetic arousability were compared by four factor analyses of covariance adjusting for age. Repressed aggression was significantly more frequent among male EH, whereas manifest aggression was significantly more frequent among the male COs. High as compared to low hostility was associated with significantly elevated values of plasma epinephrine in EH but not in CO. The immediate norepinephrine stress response was blunted but showed a delayed increase during the subsequent period of rest in high aggressives of both the EH and CO group, a pattern particularly pronounced in repressed aggressive hypertensives. Neither cardiovascular reactions nor speed of performance were observed to be substantially different in subjects of repressed and of manifest hostility. It was concluded that aggression in general is characterized by a delayed norepinephrine stress response and that an association with high epinephrine is typical for aggressiveness in hypertensives. Repressed hostility, however, does not produce a sympathomedullary pattern substantially different from that of manifest aggression thus casting doubt on the physiological significance of repression claimed by Alexander.

  12. Arterial stiffness evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in adolescent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mestanik, Michal; Jurko, Alexander; Mestanikova, Andrea; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. As the studies concerning vascular alterations in pediatric patients are rare, we aimed to study the relationship between hypertension and arterial stiffness in adolescence by novel method independent from BP during examination. Twenty nonobese adolescent boys (16.5 ± 0.4 years) with newly diagnosed essential hypertension, 20 adolescent boys (16.7 ± 0.4 years) with newly diagnosed white-coat hypertension, and 20 healthy controls matched to age and body mass index were examined. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and ejection time (ET) were evaluated. CAVI was significantly increased in essential hypertension patients compared with controls (p < 0.05) with no significant difference in white-coat hypertension patients. Significantly higher baPWV was found in essential and white-coat hypertension patients compared with controls (both p < 0.001). White-coat hypertension patients showed significantly shortened PEP and ET compared with controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) and essential hypertension patients (both p < 0.05). For the first time, the arterial stiffness in adolescents with newly diagnosed essential and white-coat hypertension was studied using BP-independent index CAVI combined with conventional baPWV. Our study revealed significantly increased CAVI in adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension compared with controls. Our findings could help to understand hypertension-atherosclerosis interaction.

  13. Microcirculatory efficacy of topical treatment with aescin + essential phospholipids gel in venous insufficiency and hypertension: new clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    Aescin + essential phospholipids (AEPL) topical gels are used for local treatment of venous and microcirculatory alterations (varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency). Bruises, swelling, thrombophlebitis, and contusions are effectively treated with AEPL. Active ingredients are escinate and essential phospholipids (EPL). The aim of this new study was the evaluation of the efficacy of the effects of AEPL gel on the microcirculation in subjects with chronic venous insufficiency, venous hypertension (CVH), and venous microangiopathy. Patients were assessed measuring skin flux with laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). After 2 weeks of local treatment, all individual values (100%) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), indicating an improvement in the microcirculation. In all treated patients, flux decreased at least 30% (indicating a decrease in the level of venous microangiopathy) (p < 0.05). Considering these observations, topical treatment with AEPL in areas of venous microangiopathy is beneficial, can prevent ulceration, and improves the skin healing processes.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  15. Dominance of the forward compression wave in determining pulsatile components of blood pressure: similarities between inotropic stimulation and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fok, Henry; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Jiang, Benyu; Li, Ye; Epstein, Sally; Alastruey, Jordi; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile components of blood pressure may arise from forward (ventricular generated) or backward wave travel in the arterial tree. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of forward and backward waves to pulsatility. We used wave intensity and wave separation analysis to determine pulsatile components of blood pressure during inotropic and vasopressor stimulation by dobutamine and norepinephrine in normotensive subjects and compared pulse pressure components in hypertensive (mean±SD, 48.8±11.3 years; 165±26.6/99±14.2 mm Hg) and normotensive subjects (52.2±12.6 years; 120±14.2/71±8.2 mm Hg). Dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg per minute) increased the forward compression wave generated by the ventricle and increased pulse pressure from 36.8±3.7 to 59.0±3.4 mm Hg (mean±SE) but had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or the midsystolic backward compression wave. By contrast, norepinephrine (50 ng/kg per minute) had no significant effect on the forward compression wave but increased the midsystolic backward compression wave. Despite this increase in the backward compression wave, and an increase in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine increased central pulse pressure less than dobutamine (increases of 22.1±3.8 and 7.2±2.8 mm Hg for dobutamine and norepinephrine, respectively; P<0.02). An elevated forward wave component (mean±SE, 50.4±3.4 versus 35.2±1.8 mm Hg, in hypertensive and normotensive subjects, respectively; P<0.001) accounted for approximately two thirds of the total difference in central pulse pressures between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Increased central pulse pressure during inotropic stimulation and in essential hypertension results primarily from the forward compression wave. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, AGT T174M and Angiotensin-1-Converting Enzyme (ACE) I/D Gene Polymorphisms in Essential Hypertension: Effects on Ramipril Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kolovou, Vana; Lagou, Evangelia; Mihas, Constantinos; Vasiliki, Giannakopoulou; Katsiki, Niki; Kollia, Aikaterini; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Degiannis, Dimitris; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, one of the most important risk factors for premature cardiovascular disease, is a major worldwide public health problem. Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms are thought to be associated with primary hypertension. In the present study, we examined the frequency of these gene polymorphisms in an adult population with and without essential hypertension. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms on ramipril treatment efficacy in the hypertensive patients. A total of 166 adults (83 hypertensives and 83 normotensives) were involved in the study and genotyped for AGTM235T (rs699), AGTT174M (rs4762) and ACEI/D (rs1799752) gene polymorphisms. The genotype and allele distribution of the AGTM235T variant significantly differed between hypertensives and normotensives [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57% (T vs M allele), 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.01 - 2.44; p=0.045 for hypertensives]. However, none of the 3 studied Simple Nucleotide Polymorphisms were associated with the blood pressure-lowering response to ramipril. These results suggest that AGTM235T gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension. However, none of the AGTM235T, AGTT174M and ACEI/D gene polymorphisms influenced ramipril effectiveness.

  17. Intracellular ionic consequences of dietary salt loading in essential hypertension. Relation to blood pressure and effects of calcium channel blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, L M; Gupta, R K; DiFabio, B; Barbagallo, M; Mann, S; Marion, R; Laragh, J H

    1994-01-01

    To study the ionic basis of salt sensitivity in hypertension, 19F-, 13P-, and 23Na-nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to measure cytosolic free calcium (Cai), pH (pHi), free magnesium (Mgi), and sodium (Nai) in erythrocytes of essential hypertensive subjects (n = 19). Individuals were studied for 2 mo each on low- (UNaV < 50 meq/d) and high- (UNaV > 200 meq/d) salt diets, with the concomitant administration of nifedipine (10 mg t.i.d.) or placebo tablets for 1 mo of each diet. Salt loading elevated Cai and Nai while suppressing Mgi and pHi; these changes occurred predominantly in salt-sensitive subjects (n = 9). Nifedipine blunted the pressor response to salt loading > 50% (delta diastolic BP [high-low salt vs placebo] = 5 +/- 2 vs 14 +/- 2 mmHg, P < 0.05) and reversed salt-induced ionic changes, lowering Cai and elevating Mgi and pHi. Regardless of the definition of salt sensitivity, continuous relationships were observed between the pressure response to salt loading, the levels of Cai (r = 0.726, P < 0.001), Nai (r = 0.747, P < 0.001), and pHi (r = -0.754, P < 0.001), and the salt-induced change in Mgi (r = -0.757, P < 0.001). Altogether, these results emphasize the reciprocal and coordinate nature of intracellular ionic changes in response to dietary salt loading and calcium channel blockade in essential hypertension. They suggest that salt sensitivity is mediated by cellular calcium accumulation from the extracellular space, in association with magnesium depletion and acidification. Lastly, interpretation of intracellular ion measurements in the future will require concurrent assessment of dietary salt intake. Images PMID:8083368

  18. Effects of Emotional Stimuli on Cardiovascular Responses in Patients with Essential Hypertension Based on Brain/Behavioral Systems

    PubMed Central

    Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Namdar, Hossein; Vahedi, Shahram; Aslanabadi, Naser; Ezzati, Davoud; Sadeghi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Effects of emotional stimuli on hemodynamics in patients with essential hypertension based on brain/behavioral systems have not been studied broadly. Methods: Eighty five essential hypertensive male patients who had completed Carver-White BIS/BAS scale were enrolled to the study. Later, 25 BIS and 25 BAS patients were selected and their blood pressure and heart rate were recorded prior to stimuli induction. Participants were then exposed to stressor pictures. After that, 15 minutes of relaxation and cognitive tasks were performed. Finally, the participants were exposed to pleasant pictures. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded after presenting of 2 stimuli. Results: Our study showed that BIS patients achieved higher scores in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in comparison with BAS patients after presenting stressful stimuli. Also, BAS patients achieved lower scores in systolic blood pressure and heart rate in comparison with BIS patients after presenting pleasant stimuli. Conclusion: In summary, BIS patients experience negative emotions more than BAS patients. Therefore, the role of induced mood states is important in relation to physical health. PMID:24404349

  19. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  20. [Evaluation of salt consumption, physical activity, stress, tobacco and oral contraceptives in the epidemiology of essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Ortiz, A; Jiménez Romano, R; Ferrer Aguareles, J L; Fernández Simón, C

    1990-01-01

    In the cross section study of a sample of 1,915 newly diagnosed cases of hypertension and 8,043 healthy individuals, a comparative analysis is made of different risk factors which can influence blood pressure counts. An association among the statistics for an excessive salt intake, stress, when the analysis is made according to age, in those over 45 years of age and regular physical exercise is shown. To the contrary, this association is not found with the use of oral contraceptives nor among the smoking population, even among those smoking over 20 cigarettes a day. For each one of these variables, the relative inequalities and their respective reliability intervals are studied. In the population studied, the factor of greatest importance is an excessive salt intake, revealing a risk twice that of diets in which no salt is added.

  1. Differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in blacks with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Ayodele, Olugbenga E.; Alebiosu, C. Olutayo; Salako, Babatunde L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases has been shown to be higher for systolic blood pressure than diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the differential control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians with primary hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a prospective observational study carried out at the Medical Outpatient Department of the State Hospital, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of 185 consecutive patients (65 males, 120 females), aged 35-85 years with primary hypertension who had been on drugs one- to 25 years prior to the onset of the study. Clinic blood pressure control was assessed during a year period. Six consecutive clinic blood pressure readings were recorded for each patient and the average calculated (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure separately). Patients were classified into subgroups based on the pattern of blood pressure control. RESULTS: Clinic systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was controlled in 58 patients (31.4%). Systolic blood pressure control was less frequent than diastolic blood pressure control (35.7% versus 51.4%, p<0.05). Patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure were significantly older than patients with only uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (66.7+/-7.4 versus 52.9+/-8.7 years, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Systolic blood pressure is less frequently controlled than diastolic blood pressure in Nigerians treated for primary hypertension. This may increase the patient's risk of developing stroke, and cardiovascular and renal complications. PMID:15040512

  2. [Adaptive bioregulation in the treatment of essential hypertension with cerebrovascular disorders].

    PubMed

    Voloshin, P V; Mertsalov, V S; Lapshina, L A; Kirzhner, V M

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed a system of adaptive bioregulation based on the principle of biological feedback. Sixty hypertensive patients with the initial forms of cerebrovascular disturbances and 30 clinically healthy subjects were examined. Adaptive bioregulation is successfully realized in the technical system with a visual control of changes in the REG area. The treatment is associated with normalization of the tonus, vessel blood filling, arterial pressure and clinical status of patients. Adaptive bioregulation may be one of the methods of treatment of patients with cerebrovascular pathology. The effect of its use is determined by the duration and nature of the disease.

  3. Can aerobic exercise complement antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure control in individuals with essential hypertension?

    PubMed

    Maruf, Fatai A; Salako, Babatunde L; Akinpelu, Aderonke O

    2014-06-01

    Achieving adequate blood pressure (BP) control with antihypertensive medication remains an elusive goal for many patients. The advances in knowledge of hypertension and the increasingly improved upon therapeutic strategies seem not to guarantee even sustainable control rates at the population level. In addition, patients who either discontinue their medications or are non-adherent to drug therapy run the risk of developing uncontrolled BP. Number of daily tablets more than two and number of daily drug administration at least three have been associated with poor adherence with drug therapy. However, BP control seems to go beyond adherence with drug therapy as there are other associated factors. Studies have demonstrated beneficial effect of aerobic exercise in the prevention and management of hypertension. It appears, however, that the majority of these studies failed to explore the possible additive or synergistic effect of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drugs such that fewer drugs would be required to achieve BP control or that the BP control rate would be increased with the same number of drugs. This review presents the evidence for poor BP control in the general population, and the possible means and process of aerobic exercise complementing antihypertensive drug therapy in order to achieve higher BP control rates.

  4. HIF2α–arginase axis is essential for the development of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cowburn, Andrew S.; Crosby, Alexi; Macias, David; Branco, Cristina; Colaço, Renato D. D. R.; Southwood, Mark; Toshner, Mark; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Johnson, Randall S.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is correlated with pulmonary vascular remodeling. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) HIF-1α and HIF-2α are known to contribute to the process of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling; however, the specific role of pulmonary endothelial HIF expression in this process, and in the physiological process of vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia, remains unclear. Here we show that pulmonary endothelial HIF-2α is a critical regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The rise in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) normally observed following chronic hypoxic exposure was absent in mice with pulmonary endothelial HIF-2α deletion. The RVSP of mice lacking HIF-2α in pulmonary endothelium after exposure to hypoxia was not significantly different from normoxic WT mice and much lower than the RVSP values seen in WT littermate controls and mice with pulmonary endothelial deletion of HIF-1α exposed to hypoxia. Endothelial HIF-2α deletion also protected mice from hypoxia remodeling. Pulmonary endothelial deletion of arginase-1, a downstream target of HIF-2α, likewise attenuated many of the pathophysiological symptoms associated with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We propose a mechanism whereby chronic hypoxia enhances HIF-2α stability, which causes increased arginase expression and dysregulates normal vascular NO homeostasis. These data offer new insight into the role of pulmonary endothelial HIF-2α in regulating the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia. PMID:27432976

  5. Control of blood pressure and cardiovascular risk in Moroccan patients with newly diagnosed hypertension: a 3-month observational study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Alami, Mohamed; El Hattaoui, Mustapha; Seqat, Mehdi; Sadik, Jamaa; Aouad, Aicha; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohammed

    2017-02-01

    Control of blood pressure and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors are mandatory in patients with hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with controlled hypertension and to describe the cardiovascular risk profile in hypertensive patients followed by general practitioners (GPs) in Morocco. This national, observational, multicentre, prospective, longitudinal study of patients with newly diagnosed hypertension was carried out between September 2011 and December 2011. The use of antihypertensive drugs was evaluated at inclusion and after 3 months of follow up. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ⩾ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ⩾ 90 mmHg at 3 months of follow up. The SCORE scale issued by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was used to assess overall cardiovascular risk and probability of experiencing a cardiovascular event within 10 years. A total of 909 hypertensive patients were recruited (62.4% female). Mean age was 56.8 ± 10.6 years. More than half of the patients (53.0%) were between 40-60 years and more than one-third (34.1%) were obese [body mass index (BMI) ⩾ 30 kg/m(2)]. There were significantly more obese females than males ( p < 0.001). Over half of the patients (52.5%) had a high or extremely high cardiovascular risk. Abdominal obesity (measured as waist circumference) was the most common cardiovascular risk factor (61.7%) followed by age (40.5%), dyslipidaemia (36.3%) and diabetes (34.3%). Mean SBP decreased from 168.1 ± 14.8 to 138.3 ± 13.2 mmHg ( p < 0.001) and mean DBP decreased from 93.0 ± 10.5 to 81.0 ± 8.6 mmHg ( p < 0.001) after 3 months of treatment. Control of blood pressure was achieved in only 46.8% of patients. Poor compliance (17.1%) and a lack of treatment efficacy (16.9%) were the two main reasons for not achieving the blood pressure target. More than half (53.2%) of the hypertensive patients in our study did not achieve adequate

  6. micro-RNA screening and prediction model construction for diagnosis of salt-sensitive essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Qi, Han; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Bin; Cao, Han; Sun, Weiping; Yan, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Commonly used tests for diagnosis of salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) are complex and time-consuming, so new methods are required. Many studies have demonstrated roles for miRNAs in hypertension; however, the diagnostic value of miRNAs has yet to be determined for human SSH. In this study, we examined miRNA expression profiles by initial high-throughput miRNA sequencing of samples from patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertension (SSH and SRH, respectively; n = 6, both groups), followed by validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a larger cohort (n = 91). We also evaluated differences in baseline characteristics (e.g., age, sex, body mass index, consumption of specific foods) between the SSH and SRH groups. Of 36 miRNAs identified as differentially expressed between SSH and SRH groups by RNA-Seq, 8 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. There were significant differences in the expression levels of hsa-miR-361-5p and hsa-miR-362-5p between the 2 groups (P = .023 and.049, respectively). In addition, there were significant differences in sauce and poultry consumption between the 2 groups (P = .004 and.001, respectively). The areas under the curve (AUC) determined by receptor operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for hsa-miR-361-5p and all 8 miRNAs were 0.793 (95% CI, 0.698-0.888; sensitivity = 73.9%, specificity = 74.4%; P < .001) and 0.836 (95% CI, 0.749-0.922; sensitivity = 80.4%, specificity = 81.4%; P < .001), respectively, when sauce and poultry consumption were included in the models. Assay feasibility and economic considerations make hsa-miR-361-5p combined with the dietary factors the preferred markers for diagnosis of SSH.

  7. Safety and usefulness of Laghu shankha prakshalana in patients with essential hypertension: A self controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mashyal, Prakash; Bhargav, Hemant; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yoga and Ayurveda texts emphasize the role of cleansing the bowel as an important component of management of hypertension (HTN). Observations during our clinical experience and pilot studies on Laghu shankha prakshalana kriya (LSP), a yogic bowel cleansing technique, appeared to be safe and complimentary. Objective: To test the safety and effectiveness of LSP in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: This self control study recruited 32 patients with mild to moderate essential HTN admitted for a week long residential integrated yoga therapy program at the integrative health home in Bengaluru. Patients had a daily routine of 6 hours of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) module for HTN that included physical postures, relaxation sessions, pranayama and meditations. LSP, an additional practice, that involved drinking of luke-warm water (with or without a herbal combination, triphala) followed by a set of specific yoga postures that activates defecation reflex, was administered on 2nd (LSP without triphala) and 5th day (LSP with triphala). Assessments (sitting blood pressure and pulse rate) were done just before and after both the sessions of LSP. Secondary outcome measures such as body mass index (BMI), symptom scores, medication scores, fatigue, state and trait anxiety, general health and quality of life were assessed on 1st and 6th day of IAYT intervention. Results: There was significant (P < 0.001, paired t test) reduction in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and pulse rate immediately after both the sessions (LSP with and without triphala). There were no adverse effects reported during or after LSP. There was no significant difference between the two techniques (P < 0.505, independent samples t test), although the percentage change appeared to be higher after triphala LSP session. The number of visits to clear the bowel during the procedure was significantly (P < 0.001, independent samples t test) higher after LSP

  8. Metabolic consequences of atenolol and propranolol in treatment of essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J L; Simpson, N; Metcalfe, J; Page, R L

    1979-01-01

    A six-month study of triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and glucagon concentrations was carried out in asymptomatic hypertensive normal-weight men randomly allocated to treatment with atenolol or propranolol. A highly significant increase in the basal plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in propranolol-treated patients after three and six months' treatment, with a smaller but significant increase in atenolol-treated subjects after six months' treatment. The changes in triglyceride concentration could not be ascribed to variations in plasma insulin, growth hormone, or glucagon concentrations. Basal FFA concentrations were reduced during the first three months of treatment in both groups but returned to pretreatment levels after six months. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were unchanged by either agent. PMID:761001

  9. [Radionuclide evaluation of renal function in essential hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Musina, N S; Semenova, R I

    2012-01-01

    To carry out radionuclide evaluation of renal function in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thirty-one AH patients with CKD were examined using dynamic nephroscintigraphy. A control group consisted of 8 CKD patients without AH. The scintigraphic findings reflected statistically significant differences in renal secretory and excretory functions depending on the level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease in AH patients with CKD. If GFR was 30-59 ml/min, there was a deceleration in the secretory phase in the histogram; but when it was lower than 30 ml/min, the secretory function tended to accelerate, which appeared as a 3-fold reduction in achieving the peak radio tracer concentration (p < 0.001). Dynamic nephroscintigraphy can detect early renal secretory and excretory dysfunctions and it is of prognostic value in assessing renal dysfunction, which necessitates early drug correction of revealed disorders.

  10. Hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Price, Raymond S; Kasner, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    The definition of hypertension has continuously evolved over the last 50 years. Hypertension is currently defined as a blood pressure greater than 140/90mmHg. One in every four people in the US has been diagnosed with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases further with age, affecting 75% of people over the age of 70. Hypertension is by far the most common risk factor identified in stroke patients. Hypertension causes pathologic changes in the walls of small (diameter<300 microns) arteries and arterioles usually at short branches of major arteries, which may result in either ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Reduction of blood pressure with diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have all been shown to markedly reduce the incidence of stroke. Hypertensive emergency is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120mmHg with end organ dysfunction, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, encephalopathy, or focal neurologic deficits. Hypertensive encephalopathy is believed to be caused by acute failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Hypertensive emergency is treated with intravenous antihypertensive agents to reduce blood pressure by 25% within the first hour. Selective inhibition of cerebrovascular blood vessel permeability for the treatment of hypertensive emergency is beginning early clinical trials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of cognitive function in patients with essential hypertension treated with lercanidipine

    PubMed Central

    Tisaire-Sánchez, J; Roma, J; CamachoAzcargorta, Ignacio; Bueno-Gómez, J; Mora-Maciá, J; Navarro, Angel

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this longitudinal, open-label, comparative, multicenter study was to assess cognitive function in hypertensive patients receiving mid-term treatment with lercanidipine. Methods Hypertensive patients aged 40 years or older were treated with lercanidipine (10mg daily) after 7–10 days washout period. The duration of the study was 6 months. Blood pressure (BP) was measured every 4 weeks (JNC 6th report). In patients with inadequate BP control, doxazosin was added and up-titrated. At baseline and after 6 months of treatment, cognitive function was evaluated using the Spanish validated version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Results In the study population of 467 patients, BP decreased from 154.4/95.3 mmHg at baseline to 134.8/80.7 mmHg at 6 months. At the end of the study, 98% of patients were receiving lercanidipine, 20% an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and 6% doxazosin. Adequate BP control was obtained in 68% of patients. The mean (standard deviation) MMSE scores improved from 32.35 (2.59) to 33.25 (2.36) (p<0.0001). Patients with good BP control scored significantly better than those with inadequate BP control (p<0.05), which was already observed at the first month. Conclusions The third-generation calcium channel antagonist, lercanidipine, improved cognitive function after 6 months of treatment especially in patients with good BP control, suggesting that improvements in cognitive function may be associated with a decrease in BP. PMID:17323604

  12. Antihypertensive drug classes have different effects on short-term blood pressure variability in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Levi-Marpillat, Natacha; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle; Tropeano, Anne-Isabelle; Parati, Gianfranco; Maison, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Increased blood pressure variability (BPV) contributes to end-organ damage, cardiovascular events and mortality associated with hypertension. In a cohort of 2780 hypertensive patients treated by either calcium channel blockers (CCBs), diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or β-blockers alone or in combination, we compared indices of short-term BPV according to the different treatments. Short-term BPV was calculated as the standard deviation (s.d.) of 24 h, daytime or nighttime systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Short-term BPV was compared between patients treated with a given antihypertensive class of interest (alone or in combination) and those not treated with this class, after controlling for ambulatory average blood pressure, heart rate, age, gender, propensity scores and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Patients treated with CCBs (n=1247) or diuretics (n=1486) alone, or in addition to other drugs had significant lower s.d. of 24-h SBP compared with those not treated with these classes (mean differences in s.d. -0.50±0.50 mm Hg, P=0.001 and -0.17±0.15 mm Hg, P=0.05, respectively). There was no significant difference regarding treatment with or without ARBs, ACEIs and β-blockers. The combinations of CCBs with diuretics or ARBs on top of other treatments resulted in a lower 24-h SBP variability (mean differences in s.d. -0.43±0.17 mm Hg, P=0.02 and -0.44±0.19 mm Hg, P=0.005 vs. other combination uses, respectively). Antihypertensive drug classes have differential effects on short-term BPV with a greater reduction in patients treated with CCBs and diuretics. The combinations of CCBs with diuretics may be the most efficient treatments in lowering BPV.

  13. Long-term impact of systolic blood pressure and glycemia on the development of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Gonzalez, Carmen; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Redon, Josep

    2005-06-01

    The objective was to assess the temporal impact of factors related to the development of microalbuminuria during the follow-up of young adult normoalbuminurics with high-normal blood pressure or at stage 1 of essential hypertension. Prospective follow-up was conducted on 245 normoalbuminuric hypertensive subjects (mean age 40.9 years; 134 men; blood pressure 139.7/88.6 mm Hg; body mass index 28.5 kg/m2) never treated previously with antihypertensive drugs, with yearly urinary albumin excretion measurements, until the development of microalbuminuria. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment or with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve a blood pressure of <135/85 mm Hg. Thirty subjects (12.2%) developed microalbuminuria after a mean follow-up of 29.9 months (range 12 to 144 months), 2.5 per 100 patients per year. Baseline urinary albumin excretion (hazard ratio, 1.07; P=0.006) and systolic blood pressure during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.03; P=0.008) were independent factors related to the follow-up urinary albumin excretion in a Cox proportional hazard model. A significant increase in the risk of developing microalbuminuria for urinary albumin excretion at baseline >15 mg per 24-hour systolic blood pressure >139 mm Hg and a positive trend in fasting glucose were observed in the univariate analyses. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline urinary albumin excretion and the trend of fasting glucose were independently related to the risk of developing microalbuminuria. In mild hypertensives, the development of microalbuminuria was linked to insufficient blood pressure control and to a progressive increment of glucose values.

  14. Relationship Between Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (Aasi) And Night/Day Blood Pressure Ratio In Essential hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Di Raimondo, Domenico; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Liberti, Rosangela; Musiari, Gaia; Zappulla, Valentina; D'angelo, Alessandra; Pinto, Antonio

    2017-06-21

    Ambulatory Arterial Stiffness Index (AASI) has been proposed as an indirect and simpler method to estimate the Arterial Stiffness (AS). AASI, calculated from a set of data collected during a 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), is defined as 1 minus the regression slope of diastolic on systolic blood pressure (BP) values. For a given increase in diastolic BP, the increase in systolic BP is smaller in a compliant compared to a stiff artery; the stiffer the arterial tree, the closer AASI is to 1. AASI demonstrated to predict cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular events and to be associated with target organ damage. Taking into account the almost completely absence of data regarding the ability of AASI to predict the different degree of AS when hypertensives are divided into four class of dipping in relation to the extent of the nocturnal reduction of BP (extreme dippers, dippers, mild dippers and reverse dippers) aim of the study was to clarify the ability of AASI to estimate the different degree of AS of hypertensive subjects with different nocturnal BP profile and resulting different extent of organ damage. We enrolled 816 subjects (403 men and 413 women) with essential hypertension, referred to the U.O.C of Medicina Interna e Cardioangiologia of the University of Palermo; 173 subjects (71 men and 102 women, mean age 44.4 ± 14.6 years) without a history of hypertension were enrolled as controls. The analysis of data was performed by dividing the populating into four categories in relation to the extent of the nocturnal decline of BP: 124 extreme dipper (mean age 54,8 ± 12,4 years, men 46.8 %); 287 dipper (mean age 55,9 ± 14,2 years, men 54,0 %); 271 mild dipper (mean age 61,5 ± 14,7 years, men 52,0 %); 134 reverse dipper (mean age 61,5 ± 14,7 years, men 33.6 %). The mean value of AASI was significantly higher for mild and reverse dippers versus control patients and versus the other categories of dipping. The multiple regression analysis

  15. Variations in plasma free radicals with topical aescin + essential phospholipids gel in venous hypertension: new clinical data.

    PubMed

    Ricci, A; Ruffini, I; Cesarone, M R; Cornelli, U; Corsi, M; Belcaro, G; Ippolito, E; Dugall, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of Aescin + essential phospholipids (AEPL) gel on plasma free radicals (PFRs). In this study, ten patients with venous hypertension, no ulcerations or infections, venous microangiopathy, and varicose veins were treated with topical AEPL applied in a standard protocol. AEPL was applied for 2 weeks, three times daily at the same skin region (perimalleolar internal region at defined distance from the medial malleolus and from the anterior edge of the tibia). In subjects with venous hypertension, PFR values were higher than 420 Carr units. After treatment, the values of PRF decreased to almost normal as an effect of the massage with AEPL gel. The decrease in value was observed in all treatment subjects. A ranking system indicates that the AEPL preparation is active in all subjects who have venous microangiopathy. The decrease in PFR value was greater than 30% in all treatment subjects (p < 0.05). The decrease in PFR can be considered an important indication of an improvement in skin perfusion, which protects the skin from deterioration and eventually from venous ulcerations. The evaluation of PFR is an important new physiologic parameter that can be associated with other noninvasive tests to study the microcirculation and its evolution and improvement with systemic or topical medical treatment.

  16. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine Jian Ling Decoction for the treatment of essential hypertension: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Jian Ling Decoction (JLD) is often prescribed to improve hypertension-related symptoms in China. However, this treatment has not been systematically reviewed for its efficacy against essential hypertension (EH). This review aims to assess the current clinical evidence of JLD in the treatment of EH. Design Seven electronic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and the Wanfang Database, were searched up to March 2014. Randomised control trials (RCTs) comparing JLD or combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were included. We assessed the methodological quality, extracted the valid data and conducted the meta-analysis according to criteria from the Cochrane group. The primary outcome was categorical or continuous blood pressure (BP), and the secondary outcome was quality of life (QOL). Results Ten trials (655 patients) with unclear-to-high risk of bias were identified. Meta-analysis showed that JLD used alone showed no BP reduction effect; however, improvement on QOL was found in the JLD group compared to antihypertensive drugs. A significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP was observed for JLD plus antihypertensive drugs when compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions Owing to insufficient clinical data, it is difficult to draw a definite conclusion regarding the effectiveness and safety of JLD for EH, and better trials are needed. PMID:25652798

  17. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Ruíz, Luis Antonio; Ibarra-Quevedo, David; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Maldonado, Perla D.; Sarabia-Ortega, Benito; Hernández-Martínez, José Gustavo; Espinosa-Caleti, Beda; Mendoza-Pérez, Beatriz; Rivas-Arancibia, Selva

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were studied. All of the participants were subjected to echocardiography and biochemical determination of oxidative stress markers. The hypertensive patients, compared with control subjects, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of oxidized proteins (5.03 ± 1.05 versus 4.06 ± 0.63 nmol/mg), lower levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) activity (0.045 ± 0.02 versus 0.082 ± 0.02 U/mg), higher LVEDP (16.2 ± 4.5 versus 11.3 ± 1.6 mm Hg), and lower GLS (−12% versus −16%). Both groups had preserved ejection fraction and the results showed a positive correlation of oxidized proteins with GLS (r = 0.386, p = 0.006) and LVEDP (r = 0.389, p = 0.005); we also found a negative correlation of EC-SOD activity with GLS (r = −0.404, p = 0.004) and LVEDP (r = −0.347, p = 0.014). PMID:26504504

  18. The Association of Elevated HDL Levels With Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-Aged Women With Untreated Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Trivilou, Paraskevi; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Tzortzis, Stavros; Xenogiannis, Iosif; Schoinas, Antonios; Lekakis, John

    2015-11-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), a negative risk factor, is positively associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease. We investigated the association between high HDL-C levels and target organ damage (TOD) in never treated women with hypertension. We measured HDL-C levels in 117 women followed by estimation of TODs, that is, pulse wave velocity, microalbuminuria, left ventricular mass index, coronary flow reserve, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Women were divided into 2 groups (HDLH and HDLL), regarding HDL-C quartiles (upper quartile vs the first 3 lower quartiles). In HDLH group : HDL ≥70 mg/dL), cIMT was nonindependently, negatively related to HDL-C (ρ = -.42, P < .05). Using receiver -operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis in the HDLH group, we concluded that the cutoff value of HDL ≥76.5 mg/dL moderately predicted the absence of carotid atherosclerosis (area under the curve: 0.77, P = .02; confidence interval: 0.57-0.97; sensitivity 73% and specificity 67%). Increased HDL-C may predict the absence of carotid atherosclerosis in middle-age women with untreated essential hypertension and consequently contribute to total cardiovascular risk estimation and treatment planning.

  19. Effect of barnidipine on blood pressure and serum metabolic parameters in patients with essential hypertension: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spirou, Athanasia; Rizos, Evangelos; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Kolaitis, Nikolaos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Elisaf, Moses

    2006-12-01

    The effect of barnidipine, a calcium channel blocker, on metabolic parameters is not well known. The authors conducted the present pilot study to evaluate the possible effects of barnidipine on parameters involved in atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and clotting activity. This open-label intervention study included 40 adult patients with essential hypertension who received barnidipine 10 mg once daily. Barnidipine significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as isoprostane levels, which represent a reliable marker of oxidative stress. In contrast, barnidipine had a neutral effect on lipid profile and apolipoprotein levels, did not influence glucose homeostasis, had no effect on renal function, and did not cause any changes in electrolyte levels. Moreover, barnidipine did not affect either the clotting/fibrinolytic status (evaluated by measurement of fibrinogen, total plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue plasminogen activator, and a2 antiplasmin) or the enzymatic activity of the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mediators lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and paraoxonase 1, respectively. Barnidipine should be mainly considered as an antihypertensive agent with neutral effects on most of the studied metabolic parameters in hypertensive patients. Any antioxidant effect of barnidipine needs further investigation.

  20. Effect of Brahmyadi Churna (Brahmi, Shankhapushpi, Jatamansi, Jyotishmati, Vacha, Ashwagandha) and tablet Shilajatu in essential hypertension: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Arshiya; Umar, Dilshad; Farhan, Mohammed; Basheer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is one among the fiery health problems of the present era. Since it does not cause symptoms usually for many years until a vital organ is damaged. The present study was carried out on 40 patients of essential HTN with Brahmyadi Churna and tablet Shilajatu for a period of 1 month with milk as Anupana. Observation was done before the treatment, 3 mid test assessments on 7th, 14th, and 21st day, posttest assessment was done on 30th day. Intervention revealed that 19 had marked improvement, 14 had moderate improvement, 5 had mild improvement, and no improvement was noticed in 2 individuals. Reduction in blood pressure was observed markedly with P < 0.000. PMID:26605154

  1. A study of the effects of atenolol and propranolol on renal function in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, R; Stevens, I M; Pickering, M; Robson, V; Hawkins, T; Kerr, D N; Harry, J D

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects of propranolol and atenolol given in random order in a cross-over study to fifteen patients with essential hypertension have been studied. 2 Both drugs were effective in lowering blood pressure and side effects were not markedly different. 3 There was no change in exchangeable sodium or potassium or in total body potassium during treatment with either drug. 4 Ambulant plasma renin activity was reduced by both drugs but the fall in blood pressure was not related to initial plasma renin. 5 Despite equal mean reduction in blood pressure with the two drugs, creatinine clearance fell significantly only during treatment with propranolol. 6 These observations suggest that intra-renal beta 2-adrenoceptors may be of importance in the regulation of renal function. PMID:6994760

  2. Maternally inherited essential hypertension is associated with the novel 4263A>G mutation in the mitochondrial tRNAIle gene in a large Han Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwen; Li, Ronghua; Fettermann, Andrea; Li, Zongbin; Qian, Yaping; Liu, Yuqi; Wang, Xinjian; Zhou, Anna; Mo, Jun Qin; Yang, Li; Jiang, Pingping; Taschner, Andreas; Rossmanith, Walter; Guan, Min-Xin

    2011-04-01

    Despite maternal transmission of hypertension in some pedigrees, pathophysiology of maternally inherited hypertension remains poorly understood. To establish a causative link between mitochondrial dysfunction and essential hypertension. A total of 106 subjects from a large Chinese family underwent clinical, genetic, molecular, and biochemical evaluations. Fifteen of 24 adult matrilineal relatives exhibited a wide range of severity in essential hypertension, whereas none of the offspring of affected fathers had hypertension. The age at onset of hypertension in the maternal kindred varied from 20 years to 69 years, with an average of 44 years. Mutational analysis of their mitochondrial genomes identified a novel homoplasmic 4263A>G mutation located at the processing site for the tRNA(Ile) 5'-end precursor. An in vitro processing analysis showed that the 4263A>G mutation reduced the efficiency of the tRNA(Ile) precursor 5'-end cleavage catalyzed by RNase P. tRNA Northern analysis revealed that the 4263A>G mutation caused ≈46% reduction in the steady-state level of tRNA(Ile). An in vivo protein-labeling analysis showed ≈32% reduction in the rate of mitochondrial translation in cells carrying the 4263A>G mutation. Impaired mitochondrial translation is apparently a primary contributor to the reductions in the rate of overall respiratory capacity, malate/glutamate-promoted respiration, succinate/glycerol-3-phosphate-promoted respiration, or N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine/ascorbate-promoted respiration and the increasing level of reactive oxygen species in cells carrying the 4263A>G mutation. These data provide direct evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial tRNA(Ile) 4263A>G mutation is involved in essential hypertension. Our findings may provide new insights into pathophysiology of maternally transmitted hypertension.

  3. Zofenopril plus hydrochlorothiazide and irbesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide in previously treated and uncontrolled diabetic and non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Manolis, Athanasios; Zava, Dario; Omboni, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In most treated patients with hypertension, a two or more drug combination is required to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. In our study we assessed whether the combination of zofenopril + hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was at least as effective as irbesartan + HCTZ in essential hypertensives with at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor, uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy. After a 2-week placebo washout, 361 treated hypertensive patients [office sitting diastolic BP (DBP), ≥90 mmHg], aged 18-75 years, were randomized double blind to 18-week treatment with zofenopril 30 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg or irbesartan 150 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg once daily, in an international, multicenter study. After the first 6 and 12 weeks, zofenopril and irbesartan doses could be doubled in non-normalized subjects. The primary study end point was the office sitting DBP reduction after 18 weeks of treatment. Secondary end points included office systolic BP (SBP), ambulatory BP and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The between-treatment difference for office DBP averaged to +1.0 (95% CI -0.4, +0.8) mmHg (P = 0.150), the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval being inferior to the protocol-defined non-inferiority limit (3 mmHg). In the subset of patients with valid ambulatory BP, no difference in 24-h average DBP [n = 181; 6.7 (8.7, 4.6) zofenopril + HCTZ vs. 6.3 (8.8, 3.7) mmHg irbesartan + HCTZ, P = 0.810] and SBP reductions [11.7 (15.4, 8.0) vs. 12.6 (17.2, 8.0) mmHg, P = 0.758] were observed between the two treatment groups. hs-CRP was reduced by zofenopril + HCTZ [-0.52 (-1.05, 0.01) mg/L], while it was increased by irbesartan plus HCTZ [0.97 (0.29, 1.65) mg/L, P = 0.001 between treatments]. In previously monotherapy-treated, uncontrolled patients with hypertension, zofenopril 30-60 mg + HCTZ 12.5 mg is as effective as irbesartan 150-300 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg, with the added value of a potential protective effect

  4. Trandolapril, but not verapamil nor their association, restores the physiological renal hemodynamic response to adrenergic activation in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lambertucci, Lorella; Di Serio, Claudia; Castellani, Sergio; Torrini, Monica; Lotti, Elena; Cristofari, Claudia; Masotti, Giulio; Marchionni, Niccolò; Ungar, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive drugs on renal hemodynamics in hypertensive patients during an adrenergic activation by mental stress (MS), which induces renal vasoconstriction in healthy subjects. Renal hemodynamics was assessed twice in 30 middle-aged essential hypertensive patients (57±6 years)-after 15 days of pharmacological wash-out and after 15 days of treatment with Trandolapril (T, 4 mg, n=10), Verapamil (V, 240 mg, n=10), or both (T 2 mg+V 180 mg, n=10). Each experiment consisted of 4 30-min periods (baseline, MS, recovery I and II). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated with effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasminogen activator inhibitor and inulin clearance, respectively. MS increased blood pressure (BP) to a similar extent before and after each treatment. Before treatment, the increasing BP was not associated with any modification of ERPF in the 3 groups. Renal vascular resistances (RVR) markedly increased during MS (+23% in the T group, +21.6% in the V group, and +32.9% in the T+V group); GFR remained constant during the whole experiment. After treatment, ERPF decreased significantly during MS in the T group (-15%, P<0.05) and in the V group (-11.7%, p<0.01); in the T+V group, ERPF modifications were not statistically significant (P=0.07). In the T group, ERPF reverted to baseline values at the end of the stimulus, whereas in the V group, renal vasoconstriction was more prolonged. Only in hypertensive patients treated with 4 mg of T, RVR reverted to baseline during the recovery I, whereas in the V group, RVR remained elevated for the whole experiment. No modifications of GFR were observed in all groups. The kidney of hypertensive patients cannot react to a sympathetic stimulus with the physiological vasoconstriction. A short-term antihypertensive treatment with 4 mg of T restores the physiological renal response to adrenergic activation.

  5. A comparison of valsartan and perindopril in the treatment of essential hypertension in the malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Bavanandan, S; Morad, Z; Ismail, O; Chandran, A; Thayaparan, T; Singaraveloo, M

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the tolerability and efficacy of valsartan (DIOVAN) compared to perindopril (COVERSYL) in Malaysian patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Two hundred and fifty adult Malaysian patients with a mean sitting diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mmHg and less than 115 mmHg after a 14 day washout period were randomized to receive either valsartan 80 mg once daily (n=125) or perindopril 4 mg daily (n=125) for eight weeks. The primary end point for efficacy was the change in mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SiSBP and SiDBP). The primary criteria for evaluation of tolerability was the incidence of adverse events. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, age, weight, baseline sitting and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure. At 0, 4 and 8 weeks the mean SiDBP in the valsartan group were 101.4, 92.8 and 91.0 mmHg respectively. The corresponding BP for the perindopril treated group was 102.6, 93.8 and 93.2 mmHg. (95% CI -1.39 to +3.27). There were no significant differences in the mean BP measurements between the valsartan and perindopril group at 0, 4 and 8 weeks. In each group there were significant differences between the BP at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline. A similar pattern was seen with SiSBP. At 4 weeks 28.7% of the valsartan and 25% of the perindopril group had their BP normalized (SiDBP <90 mmHg) The percentages of patients who responded (SiDBP reduction >10 mmHg but SiDBP >90 mmHg) were 21.3 in the valsartan group and 20.8 in the perindopril group. At 8 weeks, 31.1% of the valsartan group and 30.8% of the perindopril group had their BP normalized. The response rate was 27% and 22.5% for valsartan and perindopril respectively. The major adverse event was cough which occurred in 18 patients (14.4%) in the perindopril and 1 (0.8%) in the valsartan group at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks the figures were 24 (19.2%) and 2 (1.6%) respectively. The results

  6. Genetic Analysis of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene Polymorphisms among Essential Hypertensive Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsian, Nooshin; Ismail, Patimah; Ahmadloo, Salma; Eskandarian, Narges; Etemad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) considerably influences blood pressure regulation through water and sodium homoeostasis. Several of the studies have utilized anonymous genetic polymorphic markers and made inconsequent claims about the ANP relevant disorders. Thus, we screened Insertion/Deletion (ID) and G191A polymorphisms of ANP to discover sequence variations with potential functional significance and to specify the linkage disequilibrium pattern between polymorphisms. The relationships of detected polymorphisms with EH with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) status were tested subsequently. Method. ANP gene polymorphisms (I/D and A191G) were specified utilizing mutagenically separated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 320 subjects including 163 EH case subjects and 157 controls. Result. This case-control study discovered a significant association between I/D polymorphisms of ANP gene in EH patient without T2DM. However, the study determined no association between G191A polymorphisms of ANP in EH with or without T2DM. In addition, sociodemographic factors in the case and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (P < 0.05). Conclusion. As a risk factor, ANP gene polymorphisms may affect hypertension. Despite the small sample size in this study, it is the first research assessing the ANP gene polymorphisms in both EH and T2DM patients among Malaysian population. PMID:27413750

  7. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Azilsartan and Olmesartan in Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yuhei; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Motozato, Kota; Norimatsu, Kenji; Yano, Masaya; Hitaka, Yuka; Adachi, Sen; Kuwano, Takashi; Inoue, Ken; Inoue, Asao; Fujisawa, Kazuaki; Shirotani, Tetsuro; Kusumoto, Takaaki; Ideishi, Munehito; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-05-31

    Many patients still have high blood pressure (BP) after treatment with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs). We compared the efficacy and safety of azilsartan to those of olmesartan in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Sixty-four hypertensive patients who were treated with ARBs other than azilsartan and olmesartan were enrolled in this study. We randomly assigned patients to changeover from their prior ARBs to either azilsartan or olmesartan, and followed the patients for 3 months. Systolic BP (SBP) in the azilsartan group was significantly decreased at 3 months, and diastolic BP (DBP) and pulse rate (PR) in the olmesartan group showed significant reductions after 3 months. There were no significant differences in ΔSBP, ΔDBP, or ΔPR (Δ = the value at 3 months minus the value at 0 months) between the groups. Serum levels of creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), and potassium (K) in the azilsartan group significantly increased after 3 months. While the changes in Cr, UA, and K were within the respective normal ranges, ΔSBP was positively associated with ΔCr in the azilsartan group. In conclusion, there was no difference in the depressor effects of azilsartan and olmesartan, and there were no serious changes in biochemical parameters with azilsartan and olmesartan.

  8. Comparison of auscultatory and oscillometric BP readings in children with obesity and the effect on diagnosing arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Reyes, Salvador; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Torres-Gudiño, Edith; Illescas-Zarate, Daniel; Forsyth-MacQuarrie, Avril M

    2017-02-23

    The level of agreement between two blood pressure (BP) reading methods, auscultatory vs oscillometric, was examined using a mercury sphygmomanometer and an electronic device in children and adolescents with different levels of obesity. The readings were compared to see their impact on the diagnosis of pre-hypertension/hypertension. Blood pressure readings were taken in children with obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity (≥120% 95th percentile). We used the Bland-Altman analysis and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient to determine the agreement between measurements. The mercury sphygmomanometer readings were lower than those obtained with the electronic device for both systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). The average systolic and diastolic BP differences between the oscillometric vs first mercury reading were 4.2/10.2mm Hg, respectively. A large difference was observed between the BP measurement methods. The ICC showed regular to moderate reliability for the systolic BP (.595) but poor for the diastolic BP (.330). Screening using the first of three mercury measurements showed that 10.4% of the children and adolescents had BPs within the pre-hypertension/hypertension range. This was reduced to 5.2% when the three mercury readings were averaged. Large discrepancies were observed in both the systolic and diastolic BP. These differences are not clinically acceptable to consider the two instrument interchangeable. The electronic device readings were higher and they overestimated the diagnosis of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Eligibility for Renal Denervation: Anatomical Classification and Results in Essential Resistant Hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takuya Pellerin, Olivier; Savard, Sébastien; Curis, Emmanuel; Monge, Matthieu; Frank, Michael; Bobrie, Guillaume; Yamaguchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Koji; Plouin, Pierre-François; Azizi, Michel; Sapoval, Marc

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo classify the renal artery (RA) anatomy based on specific requirements for endovascular renal artery denervation (RDN) in patients with drug-resistant hypertension (RH).Materials and MethodsThe RA anatomy of 122 consecutive RH patients was evaluated by computed tomography angiography and classified as two types: A (main RA ≥20 mm in length and ≥4.0 mm in diameter) or B (main RA <20 mm in length or main RA <4.0 mm in diameter). The A type included three subtypes: A1 (without accessory RAs), A2 (with accessory RAs <3.0 mm in diameter), and A3 (with accessory RAs ≥3.0 mm in diameter]. A1 and A2 types were eligible for RDN with the Simplicity Flex catheter. Type B included twi subtypes based on the main RA length and diameter. Patients were accordingly classified into three eligibility categories: complete (CE; both RAs were eligible), partial (PE; one eligible RA), and noneligibility (NE; no eligible RA).ResultsBilateral A1 type was the most prevalent and was observed in 48.4 % of the patients followed by the A1/A2 type (18 %). CE, PE, and NE were observed in 69.7, 22.9, and 7.4 % of patients, respectively. The prevalence of accessory RAs was 41 %.ConclusionsOf RH patients, 30.3 % were not eligible for bilateral RDN with the current Simplicity Flex catheter. This classification provides the basis for standardized reporting to allow for pooling of results of larger patient cohorts in the future.

  10. Effects of ketanserin on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Strano, A; Novo, S; Raineri, A; Alaimo, G; Abrignani, M G; Cutietta, A

    1986-04-01

    Ketanserin is a new potent antiserotonergic drug which, unlike previous ones, is selective for S2-serotoninergic receptors and does not have an agonist action. A trial was carried out on medium-term treatment with ketanserin or propranolol in subjects suffering from mild to moderate hypertension. The trial was designed as a double-blind crossover randomized study comparing either ketanserin or propranolol with placebo. Thirteen patients completed the study, which was divided into two groups (A and B). Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) blood pressures were measured by non-invasive, intermittent ambulatory monitoring performed using a Pressurometer II, from Del Mar Avionics. Heart rate was measured using a continuous electrocardiogram monitoring. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced both after ketanserin (A:11.1%; B:10.8%) and propranolol (A:11.7%; B:11.8%) but in group A its decrease was more pronounced after propranolol (P less than 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced both after ketanserin (A:11.5%; B:11.1%) and propranolol (A:11.4%; B:11.9%), as was MBP (A:11.9%; B:11.8% for ketanserin and A:11.9%; B:11.9% for propranolol). The heart rate diminished significantly only after propranolol administration (P less than 0.01). Ambulatory monitoring showed a significant 24-h reduction of SBP after administration of propranolol (P less than 0.0025) and ketanserin (A:P less than 0.0025, B: P less than 0.005). Diastolic blood pressure was also significantly reduced after ketanserin (P less than 0.0005) and propranolol (A: P less than 0.0025, B: P less than 0.0005). The heart rate obtained by continuous electrocardiogram monitoring diminished significantly only after propranolol administration (P less than 0.0005). No significant changes of circadian behaviour of blood pressure were observed.

  11. Angiotensinogen M235T gene variants and its association with essential hypertension and plasma renin activity in Malaysian subjects: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Say, Yee-How; Ling, King-Hwa; Duraisamy, Gnanasothie; Isaac, Suzanne; Rosli, Rozita

    2005-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension is a major public health concern worldwide where its prevalence accounts for various cerebrovascular diseases. A common molecular variant of angiotensinogen (AGT), the precursor of potent vasoactive hormone angiotensin II, has been incriminated as a marker for genetic predisposition to essential hypertension in some ethnics. This case-control study was designed not only to determine the association of the AGT M235T gene variants with essential hypertension, but also its relationship to Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in subjects attending the Health Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods The study involved 188 subjects, 101 hypertensives and 87 normotensives. Consents were obtained from all the participated subjects. M235T gene variants were investigated using allele specific polymerase chain reaction and PRA was determined by radioimmunoassay. Hypertensinogenic factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits were assessed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results The genotype and allele distribution of the M235T variant differed significantly in hypertensives and normotensives (χ2 = 23.184, P < 0.001 and χ2 = 21.482, P < 0.001, respectively). The odds ratio for hypertension was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.80) for subjects with homozygous mutated allele TT of the M235T variant compared with other genotypes or 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.46–2.67) for those carrying T allele compared to those carrying M allele. Plasma Renin Activity is also significantly higher in hypertensive subjects (PRA = 3.8 ± 2.5 ngAI/ml/hr for hypertensives, PRA = 2.6 ± 1.3 ngAI/ml/hr for normotensives, P < 0.001), but was not significantly different between groups of genotypes (P = 0.118). Conclusion The M235T variant of the AGT is significantly associated with essential hypertension whereas the genotype TT or allele T is a possible genetic marker or risk factor for hypertension in Malaysian subjects. PMID

  12. Home Blood Pressure Monitoring as an Alternative to Confirm Diagnoses of Hypertension in Adolescents with Elevated Office Blood Pressure from a Brazilian State Capital.

    PubMed

    Póvoa, Thaís Inacio Rolim; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Ferreira, Vanessa Roriz; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Morais, Polyana Resende Silva de; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2017-09-01

    Regional differences of using home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) as an alternative to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in hypertensive adolescents are unknown. Define if HBPM is an option to confirm diagnoses of hypertension in adolescents from a Brazilian capital with elevated office blood pressure (BP). Adolescents (12-18years) from public and private schools with BP > 90th percentile were studied to compare and evaluate the agreement among office BP measurements, HBPM and ambulatory BP monitoring. Office BP measurements, HBPM and ABPM were performed according to guidelines recommendations. Semi-automatic devices were used for BP measurements. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. We included 133 predominantly males (63.2%) adolescents with a mean age of 15±1.6 years. HBPM systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure mean values were similar to the daytime ABPM values (120.3 ± 12.6 mmHg x 121.5 ± 9.8 mmHg - p = 0.111 and 69.4 ± 7.7 mmHg x 70.2 ± 6.6 mmHg - p = 0.139) and lower than the office measurement values (127.3 ± 13.8 mmHg over 74.4 ± 9.5 mmHg - p < 0,001). The Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between HBPM and ABPM. HBPM is an option to confirm diagnoses of hypertension in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital with elevated office BP and can be used as an alternative to ABPM.

  13. Circulating progenitor cells are increased in newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive patients with arterial stiffening but normal carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Sardo, Maria A; Riggio, Stefania; Loddo, Saverio; Imbalzano, Egidio; Alibrandi, Angela; Saitta, Carlo; Cinquegrani, Maurizio; Mormina, Enrico M; Saitta, Antonino

    2011-07-01

    Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs), including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have a key role in endothelium repair. Cellular NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, including Nox-containing gp91phox, represent a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS); ROS trigger protective signals but may also have detrimental effects. Cellular defenses against ROS include the enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase type-1 (GPx-1). We investigated the relationships of CPCs with cellular gp91phox, MnSOD, CAT, GPx-1 and ROS levels and with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in hypertensives without additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. CPCs from 53 newly diagnosed, untreated hypertensives and from 29 controls were isolated and identified by flow cytometry. gp91phox, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx-1 mRNA and protein expression and ROS generation were evaluated in enriched samples of CD34(+) cells; cIMT and stiffness were assessed. Hypertensives showed higher arterial stiffness (P < 0.001) but no difference in cIMT with respect to controls. ROS generation was slightly increased (P=0.04), whereas gp91phox, MnSOD, CAT and GPx-1 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) with respect to controls, as was CPC number (P < 0.001), but EPCs were no different. CPC and EPC numbers correlated with gp91phox, ROS and fibrinogen (P < 0.001); moreover, gp91phox, MnSOD, CAT and GPx-1 were correlated with CPC number. In early phases of arterial hypertension, before the development of wall thickening and even in the presence of arterial mechanical impairment, CPC number may be increased to maintain an adequate number of EPCs in peripheral blood.

  14. Blood pressure in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome during oedema and after steroid therapy: the influence of familial essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kontchou, Laure Monthe; Liccioli, Giulia; Pela, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    To verify the variations of blood pressure in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and to correlate the blood pressure with familial history of essential hypertension. We measured blood pressure in 49 prepubertal nephrotic children, 17 females and 32 males, in the first week of oedema, and after 4 weeks of ISKDC (International Study of Kidney Disease in Children) standard steroid therapy. The children were divided into two groups: one with and the other without familial history of essential hypertension. Among all the patients, 65% showed systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure higher than the 90th percentile at the first assessment. Among the children with a familial history of essential hypertension, in the oedematous phase of the nephrotic syndrome, 88% showed blood pressure higher than the 90th percentile and no children showed blood pressure lower than the 75th percentile. After therapy, the percentage of children with blood pressure higher than the 90th percentile was 52%. In the group with a negative familial history, at the onset 53% showed blood pressure over the 90th percentile. After 4 weeks of therapy, the percentage of children with blood pressure higher than the 90th percentile was 34%. Our study reveals the influence of familial essential hypertension in the oedematous phase of the nephrotic syndrome in children. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects. PMID:25320667

  16. Abnormal thiol reactivity of tropomyosin in essential hypertension and its association with abnormal sodium-lithium countertransport kinetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, S L; West, I C; Wilkinson, R; Thomas, T H

    2001-03-01

    To identify a thiol protein that is abnormal in a subgroup of essential hypertensive (EHT) patients who have a strong family history of hypertension and cardiovascular disease and have a low Km of erythrocyte Na/Li countertransport (CT). To detect biotin maleimide labelling of a key thiol protein to investigate its reaction with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) in normal and EHT erythrocytes. The thiol protein of 33 kDa apparent molecular weight (p33) identified by the loss of labelling with biotin maleimide was identified as tropomyosin due to its retarded running in 6 mol/l urea gels and immunoblotting. The NEM reaction with p33 detected by loss of subsequent biotin maleimide labelling is biphasic in normal control erythrocytes with the rate in the first 30 s double that after 30 s. In EHT erythrocytes NEM reaction (1) after 30 s is faster than normal and (2) in the first 30 s causes a paradoxical increase in apparent biotin maleimide labelling. In normal control erythrocytes, the loss of biotin maleimide labelling with NEM reaction or the faster phenylmaleimide reaction follows the same time course as the decrease in Km of Na/Li CT. NEM reaction with p33 requires two thiols. Only the cytoskeletal form of tropomyosin from the TM3 gene has more than one thiol group and agrees with SDS-PAGE mobility. Tropomyosin is a strong candidate to explain the familial abnormality in EHT with abnormal Na/ Li CT and it could explain many of the characteristics of this disease.

  17. Effect of aliskiren on arterial stiffness, compared with ramipril in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Yi; Sun, Ning-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Aliskiren is a novel blood pressure-lowering agent acting as an oral direct renin inhibitor. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of aliskiren on arterial stiffness, compared with that of ramipril in mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients. Following a two week placebo run-in period, patients with a mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (ms-DBP) ≥ 95 and < 110 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), and a mean sitting systolic blood pressure (ms-SBP) < 180 mmHg were randomly allocated to treatment with aliskiren (150 mg/d, n = 20) or ramipril (5 mg/d, n = 20) for eight weeks. Blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) were measured before and after eight weeks of treatment. Eight weeks of treatment significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in both the aliskiren group and ramipril group. The hypotensive effect did not differ between the two groups. Plasma renin activity decreased after aliskiren treatment and increased after ramipril treatment. There was no significant difference in baseline ba-PWV between the aliskiren and ramipril groups (P = 0.892). The ba-PWV was significantly reduced in both the aliskiren group (1535 (1405 - 1666) vs. 1464 (1360 - 1506) cm/s) (P < 0.01) and the ramipril group (1544 (1433 - 1673) vs. 1447 (1327 - 1549) cm/s) (P < 0.01). No statistically significant difference was found in the decline of ba-PWV between the two groups (P = 0.766). The current study revealed that aliskiren (150 mg/d) could ameliorate arterial stiffness and its effect was similar to ramipril (5 mg/d) in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, indicating that in addition to lowering blood pressure, aliskiren had beneficial effect on vascular protection.

  18. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  19. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on microvascular structure, central blood pressure and oxidative stress in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Salvetti, Massimo; Rossini, Claudia; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Paini, Anna; Duse, Sarah; La Boria, Elisa; Semeraro, Francesco; Cancarini, Anna; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Sarkar, Annamaria; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Caimi, Luigi; Ricotta, Doris; Rizzoni, Damiano; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2014-03-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers may possess antioxidant properties and might improve vascular structure. Combination treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may have additional advantages, compared with a thiazide diuretic, in this regard. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of a short-term treatment with lercanidipine, and to compare two combination treatments: lercanidipine + enalapril vs. lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide on structural alterations in retinal arterioles, on skin capillary density and on large artery distensibility. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine 20 mg per day orally. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril (n=10) or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide (n=10) combinations. Investigations were performed in basal condition, after appropriate washout of previous treatments, after 4 weeks of lercanidipine monotherapy treatment, and at the end of the combination treatment. Non-invasive measurements of wall-to-lumen ratio (W/L) and other morphological parameters of retinal arterioles using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry were performed (Heidelberg Retina Flowmeter, Heidelberg Engineering). Capillary density was evaluated by capillaroscopy, whereas pulse wave velocity and central blood pressure were assessed by the Sphygmo-Cor device (AtCor Medical West Ryde, Australia). A significant improvement of W/L and of other indices of retinal artery structure was observed after treatment with lercanidipine alone, with a further improvement after treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril, whereas after treatment with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide the improvement was no longer observed. A similar behaviour was observed for central SBP and DBP. Capillary density was increased only after treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril. Lercanidipine both in

  20. A genome-wide association study of essential hypertension in an Australian population using a DNA pooling approach.

    PubMed

    Fowdar, Javed Y; Grealy, Rebecca; Lu, Yi; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-04-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting genetic loci involved in complex traits, few susceptibility genes have been detected for essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to use pooled DNA GWAS approach to identify and validate novel genomic loci underlying EH susceptibility in an Australian case-control population. Blood samples and questionnaires detailing medical history, blood pressure, and prescribed medications were collected for 409 hypertensives and 409 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched normotensive controls. Case and control DNA were pooled in quadruplicate and hybridized to Illumina 1 M-Duo arrays. Allele frequencies agreed with those reported in reference data and known EH association signals were represented in the top-ranked SNPs more frequently than expected by chance. Validation showed that pooled DNA GWAS gave reliable estimates of case and control allele frequencies. Although no markers reached Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significance levels (5.0 × 10(-8)), the top marker rs34870220 near ASGR1 approached significance (p = 4.32 × 10(-7)), as did several candidate loci (p < 1 × 10(-6)) on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 17. Four markers (located in or near genes NHSL1, NKFB1, GLI2, and LRRC10) from the top ten ranked SNPs were individually genotyped in pool samples and were tested for association between cases and controls using the χ (2) test. Of these, rs1599961 (NFKB1) and rs12711538 (GLI2) showed significant difference between cases and controls (p < 0.01). Additionally, four top-ranking markers within NFKB1 were found to be in LD, suggesting a single strong association signal for this gene.

  1. Circulating intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, endothelin-1 and von Willebrand factor-markers of endothelial dysfunction in uncomplicated essential hypertension: the effect of treatment with ACE inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hlubocká, Z; Umnerová, V; Heller, S; Peleska, J; Jindra, A; Jáchymová, M; Kvasnicka, J; Horký, K; Aschermann, M

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether the circulating cell adhesion molecules, von Willebrand factor (vWf) and endothelin-1, are elevated in patients with essential hypertension with no other risk factors for atherosclerosis and thus may serve as a markers of endothelial dysfunction in uncomplicated hypertension. Furthermore, the effect of treatment with the ACE inhibitor, quinapril, on levels of endothelial dysfunction markers were studied. The levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], E-selectin, P-selectin), von Willebrand factor (vWf) and endothelin-1 were measured in patients with hypertension without any other risk factors of atherosclerosis before and after treatment with quinapril (n = 22) and in normotensive controls (n = 22). Compared with normotensive subjects, the hypertensive patients had significantly higher levels of ICAM-1 (238 vs 208 ng/ml, P = 0.02), vWf (119 vs 105 IU/dl, P < 0.05) and endothelin-1 (5.76 vs 5.14 fmol/ml, P < 0.05). Three-month treatment of hypertensive patients with quinapril led to a significant decrease in the levels of endothelin-1 (5.76 vs 5.28 fmol/ml, P < 0.01). We did not observe significant changes in the levels of adhesion molecules and vWf after ACE inhibitor treatment, although a trend toward a decrease was apparent with all these parameters. Patients with uncomplicated hypertension with no other risk factors of atherosclerosis had significantly elevated levels of ICAM-1, vWf, and endothelin-1. Our data suggest that these factors may serve as markers of endothelial damage even in uncomplicated hypertension. In hypertensive patients, treatment with the ACE inhibitor quinapril resulted in a significant decrease in endothelin-1 levels. These findings indicate a beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors on endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

  2. Functional promoter polymorphisms direct the expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase gene in mouse models of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinayak; Kapopara, Piyushkumar R; Khan, Abrar A; Arige, Vikas; Subramanian, Lakshmi; Sonawane, Parshuram J; Sasi, Binu K; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-known role of cystathionine γ-lyase (Cth) in cardiovascular pathophysiology, transcriptional regulation of Cth remains incompletely understood. Sequencing of the Cth promoter region in mouse models of genetic/essential hypertension (viz. Blood Pressure High [BPH], Blood Pressure Low [BPL] and Blood Pressure Normal [BPN] mice) identified several genetic variations. Transient transfections of BPH/BPL-Cth promoter-reporter plasmids into various cell types revealed higher promoter activity of BPL-Cth than that of BPH-Cth. Corroboratively, endogenous Cth mRNA levels in kidney and liver tissues were also elevated in BPL mice. Computational analysis of the polymorphic Cth promoter region predicted differential binding affinity of c-Rel, HOXA3 and IRF1 with BPL/BPH-Cth promoter domains. Over-expression of c-Rel/HOXA3/IRF1 modulated BPL/BPH-Cth promoter activities in a consistent manner. Gel shift assays using BPH/BPL-Cth-promoter oligonucleotides with/without binding sites for c-Rel/HOXA3/IRF1 displayed formation of specific complexes with c-Rel/HOXA3/IRF1; addition of antibodies to reaction mixtures resulted in supershifts/inhibition of Cth promoter-transcription factor complexes. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays proved differential binding of c-Rel, HOXA3 and IRF1 with the polymorphic promoter region of BPL/BPH-Cth. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) reduced the activities of BPL/BPH-Cth promoters to different extents that were further declined by ectopic expression of IRF1; on the other hand, siRNA-mediated down-regulation of IRF1 rescued the TNF-α-mediated suppression of the BPL/BPH-Cth promoter activities. In corroboration, ChIP analysis revealed enhanced binding of IRF1 with BPH/BPL-Cth promoter following TNF-α treatment. BPL/BPH-Cth promoter activity was diminished upon exposure of hepatocytes and cardiomyoblasts to ischemia-like pathological condition due to reduced binding of c-Rel with BPL/BPH-Cth-promoter. Taken

  3. Correlation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) candidate gene polymorphisms with response to Ramipril in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chattopadhyaya, I; Agrawal, B K; Sehajpal, P K; Goel, R K

    2015-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important facet of blood pressure regulation physiology. Treatment of essential hypertension targets the RAS using Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs are not uniformly effective and show inter-individual pharmacodynamic variations. To assess the correlation between genetic polymorphisms in the genes coding for RAS components (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE I/D), α-adducin (ADD1) and β1 -adrenoreceptor (β1-ADR)) and response to Ramipril. We recruited 120 patients with essential hypertension who were administered Ramipril monotherapy initially, followed by combination therapy, if needed, based on their responses. Relationship between genotypes of the three candidate genes and decrease in the blood pressure (BP) was analyzed. One hundred and six patients were evaluable at the end of the study period and 21 different genotypes were observed among them. Seven of them were classified as responders after 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks, an additional 77 (72.64%) were deemed responders. 19/22 non-responders were treated with combination therapy and 7/19 (36.84%) showed a response to the same. There was a significant difference between the proportions of responders and non-responders among the genotypes of the ADD1 and β1-ADR genes (P=0.005 and 0.003, respectively). The best predictors of response to Ramipril 5 mg daily were the II/GG/SS, II/TG/SS, II/GG/SG, ID/GG/SS, ID/GG/SG and ID/TT/SS and DD/GG/SS; II/GG/GG, II/TT/SG, ID/TG/SG, ID/TT/SG, DD/GG/SG and DD/GG/GG were moderately predictive and II/TT/SS, II/TG/GG, ID/TG/GG, DD/TG/SG and DD/TG/GG were poorly predictive of response. Variable responses to Ramipril may be the result of genetic factors. Pre-prescription genotyping may help individualize treatment.

  4. Correlation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) candidate gene polymorphisms with response to Ramipril in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Chattopadhyaya, I; Agrawal, BK; Sehajpal, PK; Goel, RK

    2015-01-01

    Background: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important facet of blood pressure regulation physiology. Treatment of essential hypertension targets the RAS using Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs are not uniformly effective and show inter-individual pharmacodynamic variations. Aim: To assess the correlation between genetic polymorphisms in the genes coding for RAS components (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE I/D), α-adducin (ADD1) and β1-adrenoreceptor (β1-ADR)) and response to Ramipril. Materials and Methods: We recruited 120 patients with essential hypertension who were administered Ramipril monotherapy initially, followed by combination therapy, if needed, based on their responses. Relationship between genotypes of the three candidate genes and decrease in the blood pressure (BP) was analyzed. Results: One hundred and six patients were evaluable at the end of the study period and 21 different genotypes were observed among them. Seven of them were classified as responders after 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks, an additional 77 (72.64%) were deemed responders. 19/22 non-responders were treated with combination therapy and 7/19 (36.84%) showed a response to the same. There was a significant difference between the proportions of responders and non-responders among the genotypes of the ADD1 and β1-ADR genes (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). The best predictors of response to Ramipril 5 mg daily were the II/GG/SS, II/TG/SS, II/GG/SG, ID/GG/SS, ID/GG/SG and ID/TT/SS and DD/GG/SS; II/GG/GG, II/TT/SG, ID/TG/SG, ID/TT/SG, DD/GG/SG and DD/GG/GG were moderately predictive and II/TT/SS, II/TG/GG, ID/TG/GG, DD/TG/SG and DD/TG/GG were poorly predictive of response. Discussion: Variable responses to Ramipril may be the result of genetic factors. Conclusion: Pre-prescription genotyping may help individualize treatment. PMID:25511213

  5. Effects of eurythmy therapy in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zerm, Roland; Zerm, Ronald; Lutnæs-Mast, Froeydis; Mast, Heiner; Girke, Matthias; Kröz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    简介: 尽管在长逾 80 年的时间 里,曾在人智学医学 (anthroposophic medicine, AM) 中使用过 身心疗法 (eurythmy therapy, ET) 来治疗动脉性高血压 (arterial hypertension, AH) 等疾 病,但尚未就其在疾病实体方面 的疗效进行过任何研究。然而, 现在已经表明,ET 能够像测功仪 (ergometer training) 一样增加 心率变异性。目标: 判断为期 10 周的 ET 疗 程是否会对动脉性高血压产生影 响,如果会,确定影响的强度。 此外,还要探索 ET 对状态自主调 节、自我调节、内部一致性和生 活质量的影响。方法: 连续纳入 9 名被全科医生 诊断患有 AH 的受试者(6 女,3 男,平均年龄 64 岁,SD 为 8.26 )。纳入标准:从研究开始前 4 周至研究结束,未服用抗高血压 药物, 或抗高血压药物无变 化。ET 随每周一次的说明一起进 行,外加每天一次的家庭程序和 指定锻炼,共持续 10 周。患者需 接受二十四小时血压 (blood pressure, BP) 测量,并在干预前 后,填写调查问卷。此外,在此 后 6 个月时间里,9 名患者中有 8 名自行进行锻炼,并接受前述 参数的第三次评估。结果: 24 小时 BP 测量参数表 明,在干预后以及干预后 6 个 月,患者出现适度(但不明显)的 改善。在为期 10 周的干预后,我 们发现状态自主调节调查问卷、自 我调节调查问卷的“作/息调节” 分量表以及赫尔德克生活质量调查 问卷 (Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire, HLQ) 的“主动性 和兴趣”分量表(所有 P < .045) 出现改善。在为期 6 个月的研究 后观察期后,前述参数进一步改 善,特质自主调节“作/息调节” 分量表、HLQ-Sum 分数和 HLQ“社 会互动”分量表、“心理平衡”分 量表和“体能”分量表均出现其他 明显改善。结论: 为期 10 周的 ET 疗程并 未使得 BP

  6. Essential Points of a Support Network Approach for School Counselors Working with Children Diagnosed with Asperger's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Corbin-Burdick, Marilyn F.; Statz, Shelly R.

    2013-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) presents unique challenges to both families and schools. Children diagnosed with Asperger's possess unparalleled characteristics in cognitive functioning and behavioral pattern. These children need extra attention and assistance in schools. School counselors require a strategy to successfully engage and support these…

  7. Essential Points of a Support Network Approach for School Counselors Working with Children Diagnosed with Asperger's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Corbin-Burdick, Marilyn F.; Statz, Shelly R.

    2013-01-01

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) presents unique challenges to both families and schools. Children diagnosed with Asperger's possess unparalleled characteristics in cognitive functioning and behavioral pattern. These children need extra attention and assistance in schools. School counselors require a strategy to successfully engage and support these…

  8. β-T594M epithelial sodium channel gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in individuals of Indo-Aryan ancestry in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mohit D.; Girish, M.P.; Sikdar, Sunandan; Ahuja, Ramandeep; Shah, Dhaval; Kumar, Rahul; Rain, Manjari; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Tyagi, Sanjay; Pasha, Qadar

    2014-01-01

    Background The T594M variant of the β-subunit of the sodium epithelial channel (ENaC) gene may contribute to hypertension in individuals of Indo-Aryan origin. Methods Present study was performed to assess the role of the ENaC gene variant as an independent risk factor for hypertension in subjects of Indo-Aryan ancestry. A total of 150 patients of recently detected essential hypertension and 150 matched controls were genotyped for the T594M polymorphism of the ENaC gene by PCR–RFLP method. Results β-T594M mutation was found to be non-polymorphic. There was major genotype call in both the groups i.e. cases and controls. Other phenotypic parameters like age, sex and body mass index were also similar among hypertensive patients and controls (P > 0.05). Hypertensive patients had significantly higher total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion These results do not suggest an important role for the T594M variant of the ENaC gene contributing to either the development or severity of hypertension in subjects of Indo-Aryan ancestry. PMID:25173196

  9. Association of serum resistin with cystatin C and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in elderly Chinese men with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Cui, Hua; Zhu, Bing-Po; Fu, Shu-Hong

    2015-03-01

    Resistin, a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine, has been strongly linked to kidney dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum resistin with serum cystatin C (sCysC) and albuminuria, two sensitive endogenous markers of renal function, in elderly male patients with essential hypertension (EH). This was a cross-sectional study enrolling 296 Chinese men (age ≥60 years, mean age 81.42 years) diagnosed with EH between January 2008 and May 2011. Renal function was assessed by measurement of sCysC levels and albuminuria (calculated as the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR)). Serum resistin and selected metabolic and cardiovascular markers were determined by serological testing. Relationships between serum resistin levels and sCysC levels and uACR were analysed using multiple regression analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the serum resistin level was positively associated with the sCysC level and uACR (β(uACR)=0.132, p(uACR)=0.002; β(sCysC)=0.015, p(sCysC)=0.008). Our findings demonstrated that a raised serum resistin level is a potential indicator of renal dysfunction in elderly patients with EH. Resistin may be explored as a potential biomarker in addition to sCysC and uACR to provide a more accurate diagnosis of renal damage in elderly men with EH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Gene and Essential Hypertension: The Joint Effect of Polymorphism E158K and Cigarette Smoking on Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Bushueva, Olga; Solodilova, Maria; Churnosov, Mikhail; Ivanov, Vladimir; Polonikov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Gene encoding flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), a microsomal antioxidant defense enzyme, has been suggested to contribute to essential hypertension (EH). The present study was designed to investigate whether common functional polymorphism E158K (rs2266782) of the FMO3 gene is associated with EH susceptibility in a Russian population. A total of 2 995 unrelated subjects from Kursk (1 362 EH patients and 843 healthy controls) and Belgorod (357 EH patients and 422 population controls) regions of Central Russia were recruited for this study. DNA samples from all study participants were genotyped for the FMO3 gene polymorphism through PCR followed by RFLP analysis. We found that the polymorphism E158K is associated with increased risk of essential hypertension in both discovery population from Kursk region (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.09–1.69, P = 0.01) and replication population from Belgorod region (OR 1.54 95% CI 1.07–1.89, P = 0.02) after adjustment for gender and age using logistic regression analysis. Further analysis showed that the increased hypertension risk in carriers of genotype 158KK gene occurred in cigarette smokers, whereas nonsmoker carriers of this genotype did not show the disease risk. This is the first study reporting the association of the FMO3 gene polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension. PMID:25243081

  11. Chronotherapy with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in essential hypertension: improved sleep-time blood pressure control with bedtime dosing.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fontao, María J; Fernández, José R

    2011-08-01

    Administration of angiotensin receptor blockers at bedtime results in greater reduction of nighttime blood pressure than dosing upon awakening, independent of the terminal half-life of each individual medication. To obtain blood pressure (BP) target goals most patients require treatment with more than one hypertension medication. However, the potential differing effects on BP regulation of combination therapy depending on the time-of-day of administration have scarcely been investigated. Accordingly, the authors prospectively evaluated the administration-time-dependent BP-lowering efficacy of valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination therapy. The authors conducted a randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial on 204 subjects with essential hypertension (95 men/109 women), 49.7 ± 11.1 (mean ± SD) yrs of age. The BP of participants in this trial was not properly controlled with respect to published ambulatory BP criteria after initially randomized to valsartan monotherapy (160 mg/day), whether routinely ingested upon awakening by one group or at bedtime by another group for 12 wks. Thus, HCTZ (12.5 mg/day) was added to valsartan as a single-pill formulation, maintaining the original treatment-time, i.e., upon awakening or at bedtime, of participants of the two groups, for another 12 wks. BP was measured by ambulatory monitoring for 48 h at inclusion and after each 12-wk span of therapy. Physical activity was simultaneously monitored every minute by wrist actigraphy to accurately define the beginning and end of daytime activity and nocturnal sleep so that the respective BP means for every participant at each evaluation could be precisely determined. Combination therapy resulted in a similar statistically significant reduction of the 48-h BP mean from baseline for both treatment-time groups (17.0/11.5 mm Hg in systolic/diastolic BP after combination therapy on awakening; 17.9/12.1 mm Hg reduction after combination treatment at bedtime; p

  12. Association of TNF-α G308A gene polymorphism in essential hypertensive patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ghodsian, N; Akhlaghi, M; Ramachandran, V; Heidari, F; Haghvirdizadeh, P; Eshkoor, S A; Etemad, A; Jamaluddin, J A; Ismail, P

    2015-12-29

    This study aims to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) G308A gene polymorphism on essential hypertension (EHT) with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The project was conducted on buccal epithelial and blood cells for case and control patients, respectively. Epithelial cells were obtained from the inner part of the cheeks. Techniques including DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were utilized to assess biomarkers of DNA damage. Our results demonstrated significant differences between wild and mutated genotypes among EHT patients without T2DM. We also found a significant association between wild and mutated allele frequencies in EHT patients (P < 0.05). Clinical characteristics between the groups (EHT with or without T2DM and controls) showed statistically significant association (P < 0.05). Overall, we show that G308A polymorphism of the TNF-αgene may be a significant genetic risk factor for EHT without T2DM patients in Malaysia.

  13. [Sympathetic responsiveness and antihypertensive effect of beta-receptor blockade in essential hypertension: the effect of atenolol (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Philipp, T; Cordes, U; Distler, A

    1977-04-15

    Plasmin noradrenaline concentration after bicycle exercise (200 W for 2 min), compared with base line concentration, was used as an index of sympathetic responsiveness in patients with essential hypertension. Atenolol (JCI 66082, a "cardioselective" beta-blocker) was given in a daily dose of 200 mg to 16 patients for five weeks. This caused a decrease in supine blood pressure of 37/23 and, on standing, of 36/25 mm Hg compared with the placebo period. There was a significant correlation between the ratio of the increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration on exercise over its base line concentration and the subsequent fall in mean arterial pressure (r=0.840; P less than 0.001). There was a less significant correlation between plasma renin concentration and subsequent decrease in mean arterial pressure (r=0.542; P less than 0.05). Administrations of atenolol caused a rise in plasma noradrenaline both on lying and after exercise (P less than 0.0125), and a fall in plasma renin concentration (P less than 0.01). The results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of atenolol is related to the responsiveness of the sympathetic nervous sytem. Adrenergic activity is apparently an important determinant of blood pressure response to beta-blockade.

  14. Acute and long-term hemodynamic effects of tiapamil at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Omvik, P; Lund-Johansen, P

    1989-08-01

    The first dose and long-term hemodynamic responses to tiapamil--an aralkylamine calcium-channel blocker--were studied both at rest and during exercise in 18 male patients (mean age, 45 years) with essential hypertension (EH). Blood pressure (BP) was measured intra-arterially, cardiac output (CO) was measured by dye dilution and heart rate (HR) was measured by electrocardiogram. One hour after the first oral dose of 600 mg tiapamil, mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell 14%. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) fell 21%, while HR and CO increased 7% and 11%, respectively. Thereafter the effects leveled off. After 11 months of chronic tiapamil therapy (mean dose 980 mg per day), MAP was reduced 11% at rest sitting. The reduction in BP was associated with a modest reduction in TPR. Similar responses were seen at rest supine and during 100-W bicycle exercise. A small reduction was seen in HR while CO was preserved. In conclusion, tiapamil exerts a moderate antihypertensive effect, both at rest and during exercise, through reduction of TPR without a fall in heart pump function. The long-term hemodynamic changes are rather similar to those of verapamil.

  15. Quality of life, side effects and efficacy of lisinopril compared with metoprolol in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Moeller, J; Poulsen, D L; Kornerup, H J; Bech, P

    1991-06-01

    In a double-blind, parallel-group multicentre study in general practice, lisinopril (10-20 mg once daily) was compared with metoprolol (100-200 mg once daily) in 360 patients whose diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was in the range 91-115 mmHg despite diuretic treatment. Following a three week run-in period during which the diuretic was withdrawn, monotherapy with either lisinopril or metoprolol was given for two months with dose doubled after one month if DBP remained greater than 90 mmHg. Quality of life was assessed using established and validated questionnaires at the time of cessation of diuretic treatment and again after two months's active treatment. Both metoprolol and lisinopril achieved statistically significant BP reduction relative to baseline (P less than 0.001). Significantly fewer adverse events were experienced on lisinopril and metoprolol than on diuretic treatment. Frequency of withdrawals due to adverse events were statistically significantly lower on lisinopril than metoprolol P = 0.01. Before treatment approximately 35% of the patients had quality of life problems measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), which was reduced to 17% on lisinopril and 23% on metoprolol. Thus both metoprolol and lisinopril were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension with lisinopril being better tolerated. From patients' self-assessments of quality of life, lisinopril was found to be superior to metoprolol in some aspects of emotional, cognitive and social functioning.

  16. An assessment of the relationship between excess fluoride intake from drinking water and essential hypertension in adults residing in fluoride endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Li, Bingyun; Li, Mang; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-01-15

    In this study, the relationships between high water fluoride exposure and essential hypertension as well as plasma ET-1 levels were investigated. A total of 487 residents aged 40 to 75 were randomly recruited from eight villages in Zhaozhou County from Heilongjiang Province in China and were divided into 4 groups according to the concentrations of fluoride in their water. Consumption levels of drinking water fluoride for normal, mild, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.84±0.26 mg/L, 1.55±0.22 mg/L, 2.49±0.30 mg/L, and 4.06±1.15 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension in each group was 20.16%, 24.54%, 32.30%, and 49.23%, respectively. There were significant differences between all the groups; namely, with the increase in water fluoride concentrations, the risk of essential hypertension in adults grows in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant differences were observed in the plasma ET-1 levels between the different groups (P<0.0001). In the multivariable logistic regression model, high water fluoride concentrations (F(-)≥3.01 mg/L, OR(4/1)=2.84), age (OR(3/1)=2.63), and BMI (OR(2/1)=2.40, OR(3/1)=6.03) were closely associated with essential hypertension. In other words, the study not only confirmed the relationship between excess fluoride intake and essential hypertension in adults, but it also demonstrated that high levels of fluoride exposure in drinking water could increase plasma ET-1 levels in subjects living in fluoride endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on heart rate response in patients with hypertension and newly diagnosed untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jacek; Drozdowski, Jacek; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Winklewski, Paweł J; Jassem, Ewa; Kara, Tomas; Somers, Virend K; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Beta1-receptor antagonists (BBs) are commonly administered in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The reported benefits of BB use in CVD patients with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be limited by their impact on apnea-induced bradycardias. Therefore the aim of the study was to test the influence of BBs on periapneic heart rate (HR) fluctuations in hypertensive patients with newly-detected and untreated OSA. We studied 88 hypertensive patients (56 on BBs and 32 BB naive) with newly-diagnosed moderate-to-severe OSA who were free of major pulmonary comorbidities and did not require antiarrhythmic therapy. ECGs recorded during sleep were investigated for heart rate (HR) responses to apneas allowing to compare extreme HR accelerations and decelerations between the groups. Average sleep-time HR was comparable in BB-naive (BB-) and BB-treated (BB+) patients. Direct comparisons showed that HR decelerations were also similar in the two subgroups (53.8±9.6 vs. 54.4±7.8 bpm; P=0.78, for BB- and BB+, respectively) however, BBs blunted the OSA-induced HR accelerations (82.3±12.2 vs. 74.3±10.0; P=0.003). After adjusting for baseline HR and magnitude of desaturations, HR decelerations were more evident in BB-naive group whereas tachycardic responses remained blunted in the BB+ group. The incidence of ectopies and conduction abnormalities were comparable across two groups. Beta-blockers do not potentiate apnea-induced HR decelerations, attenuate apnea-induced increases in heart rate and do not influence incidence of ectopies and conduction abnormalities in patients with hypertension and moderate-to-severe, untreated OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by electrocardiogram and magnetic resonance imaging in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, Joris W P; Cramer, Maarten J M; Visseren, Frank L J; Korndewal, Marjolein J; Bots, Michiel L; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Spiering, Wilko

    2012-07-15

    Obesity is related to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Whether LVH on electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) is a result of increased cardiac electrical activity or due to increased left ventricular mass (LVM) remains to be determined. The aims of the present study were to investigate the relation between obesity and ECG-LVH and LVM by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-LVM) in patients with hypertension and to investigate the relation of insulin resistance (IR) and LVH. Patients with hypertension (n = 421) were evaluated using Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Cornell voltage, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Waist circumference was used as a measure of abdominal obesity. Linear regression analysis revealed an inverse relation (adjusted β = -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.02 to -0.01) between waist circumference and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, indicating a decrease of 0.02 mV per 1-cm increase in waist circumference. There was a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.67). Patients in the highest quartile of LVM had a worse metabolic profile than patients with the Sokolow-Lyon voltage criterion. The relations of IR with ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM were similar to those of waist circumference in relation to ECG-LVH and MRI-LVM. In conclusion, there is an inverse relation between waist circumference and ECG-LVH and a positive relation between waist circumference and MRI-LVM. This study indicates that obesity has a different relation to voltage criteria for LVH compared to anatomic criteria for LVH, supporting the hypothesis that IR decreases electrocardiographic voltages, despite an increase in MRI-LVM. The clinical implication is that especially in patients with IR, Sokolow-Lyon voltage is low in contrast to high MRI-LVM.

  19. Impact of β-thalassemia trait carrier state on cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic profile in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, A I; Vyssoulis, G P; Karpanou, E A; Karkalousos, P L; Triantafyllou, E A; Aessopos, A; Farmakis, D T

    2014-05-01

    Thalassemia minor (Tm), the β-thalassemia carrier state, is followed by favorable lipidemic profile and seems to protect against myocardial infarction mainly in men. However, the cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) and metabolic profile of these subjects has not been thoroughly addressed, although it is not known whether gender differences are involved. We evaluated CRFs, metabolic parameters and risk-prediction equations along with renal function and selected echocardiographic indices in 23,680 consecutive subjects, that is, 11,192 women and 12,488 men, with newly diagnosed hypertension according to the presence or absence of Tm. Of 23,680 patients, 548 (2.3%) had Tm. Compared with patients without Tm, Tm cases had similar gender distribution, age, body mass index and blood pressure. Besides having a better lipidemic profile, Tm patients were less frequently smokers (25% vs. 32%, P<0.001), had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26% vs. 39%, P<0.001) and lower HeartSCORE and INTERHEART scores (P<0.001). Tm patients also had lower levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P<0.001), lower serum creatinine and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<0.001), lower prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (35% vs. 48%, P<0.001) and higher total and mid-wall fractional shortening (P=0.03 and <0.001, respectively). Most of these differences were consistent in both genders, whereas the HeartSCORE and the echo indices were significantly better in Tm only in women. Among patients with newly diagnosed hypertension, those with Tm have a better overall CRF and metabolic profile, beyond the well-known differences in serum lipids. Compared with men, women seem to be at least equally protected.

  20. Hypertension of neurogenic origin: effect of microvascular decompression of the CN IX-X root entry/exit zone and ventrolateral medulla on blood pressure in a prospective series of 48 patients with hemifacial spasm associated with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sindou, Marc; Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Brînzeu, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    In spite of solid anatomical and physiological arguments and the promising results of Jannetta in the 1970s, treating essential hypertension by microvascular decompression (MVD) of the brainstem has not gained acceptance as a mainstream technique. The main reason has been a lack of established selection criteria. Because of this, the authors' attempts have been limited to patients referred for MVD for hemifacial spasm (HFS) who also had hypertension likely to be related to neurovascular compression (NVC). Of 201 patients referred for HFS, 48 (23.8%) had associated hypertension. All had high-resolution MR images that demonstrated NVC. All underwent MVD of the root exit/entry zone (REZ) of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves (CN IX-X) and adjacent ventrolateral medulla in addition to the CN VII REZ. Effects on hypertension, graded using the WHO classification, were studied up to the latest follow-up, which was 2-16 years from the time of surgery, 7 years on average. Also, effects of MVD on blood pressure (BP) according to the side of vascular compression were evaluated. Preoperatively, hypertension was severe in all but 1 of the patients; in spite of medical treatment, 47 patients still had WHO Grade 1 or 2 hypertension, and 18 still had unstable BP. After MVD, at latest follow-up, BP had returned to normal (i.e., systolic pressure < 140 mm Hg) in 28 patients; 14 of these patients (29.10% of the whole series) were able to maintain normal BP without any antihypertensive treatment; the other 14 still required some medication to maintain their BP below 140 mm Hg (p < 0.0001). Also, at latest follow-up, BP remained unstable in only 8 of the 18 patients with instability prior to MVD (p < 0.02). Analysis according to side of compression showed that of the 30 patients with left-sided compression, 17 had their BP normalized (without medication in 11 cases), and of the 18 patients with right-sided compression, 11 had their BP normalized (without medication in 3 cases). The

  1. Serene threonine kinase 39 gene single nucleotide A-G polymorphism rs35929607 is weakly associated with essential hypertension in population of Tharparkar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Umedani, Loung Vasandas; Chaudhry, Bushra; Mehraj, Vikram; Ishaq, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    To study the prevalence of Serine Threonine Kinase-39 A-G polymorphism rs3592960 in rural population. The random, cross-sectional study was carried out from 2009 to 2010 on 528 subjects in Tharparkar, Pakistan. Data was recorded excluding cases of secondary hypertension. Normotensives were used as the controls and hypertensives as the cases. Genotyping was carried out by tetra-primer amplification refraction mutation system-polymerase chain reaction method and the data was analysed statistically with SPSS-14. The association of Serine Threonine Kinase-39 rs35929607 with essential hypertension was as 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.10-4.49) units/mmHg per G allele (p = 0.001). Raised systolic BP > 140mmHg showed 0.76 (95% CI, 0.47-1.23) (p = 0.235) and raised diastolic BP > 90mmHg showed 0.93 (95% CI, 0.61-1.44) units/mmHg per G allele (p = 0.735). Frequency of the risk allele G was less (33.3%) than that of allele-A (66.7%), (p = 0.0001). The effect size of genetic factors was non-significant, beta = 0.062 (p = 0.153) for GG homozygotes and beta = -0.013 (p = 0.772) for AG heterozygotes. Effect size of risk factors (age > 50 years, diabetes and body mass index > 23) was found significantly associated with essential hypertension, beta = 0.747 (p = 0.000).The risk factors increased the effect by 12.04 fold in GG genotype and further 3 fold influence of risk factors is required with single allele-G in case of AG heterozygotes. Essential hypertension risk conferred by this polymorphism in the study population is different from the previously reported European population, suggesting that the variant G allele remains less associated in the absence of environmental risk factors.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of anti-hypertensive agents: influence on interleukin-1β secretion by peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Farkhondeh; Rahbar-Roshandel, Nahid; Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mahmoudian, Massoud; Shafiei, Massoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of clinically relevant concentrations of anti-hypertensive agents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) secretion by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were investigated in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of IL-1β by PMNs from 15 hypertensive and 15 normotensive subjects after incubation with losartan, captopril, amlodipine, atenolol, and hydrochlorothiazide were assessed. IL-1β secretion by PMNs markedly increased in hypertensive patients versus normotensive subjects. Losartan, captopril, and amlodipine caused a concentration-dependent attenuation of IL-1β levels in both groups. Losartan, captopril, and amlodipine demonstrated marked in vitro anti-inflammatory effects at clinically relevant serum concentrations but atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide did not.

  3. Gender-related association of AGT gene variants (M235T and T174M) with essential hypertension--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mohana, Vamsi U; Swapna, N; Surender, Reddy S; Vishnupriya, S; Padma, Tirunilai

    2012-01-01

    The human angiotensinogen (AGT) is a promising candidate gene for evaluating susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to assess the association of the variants of AGT gene and the extent of risk involved in developing EH. A case-control study was designed to compare 279 hypertensive patients with 200 normotensive subjects. The frequency distribution of M235T and T174M polymorphisms of AGT gene was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. A haplotype analysis was done to determine the risk conferred by the combination of alleles of the two polymorphisms for EH. The genotype distribution of the T174M variant differed significantly between hypertensives and normotensives, whereas genotypes of M235T variant did not show such difference. For M235T, MM genotype conferred an increase in risk for hypertension in women (odds ratios (OR) = 2.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-6.49). For the variant T174M, the TM genotype frequency was elevated in hypertensive females (36.5%) as compared to controls (18.8 %; P = .034). The 174M allele was more prevalent among female hypertensives than among female controls (0.20 vs. 0.12; P = .059). The haplotype analysis showed a significant association for the haplotypes of paired markers (M235 and 174M) with a χ(2) value of 8.037 (P = .045). Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variants of AGT gene-M235T and T174M-show association with hypertension.

  4. Changes in serum lipids and antioxidant status in west Algerian patients with essential hypertension treated with acebutolol compared to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krouf, Djamil; Bouchenak, Malika; Mohammedi, Bachir; Cherrad, Allaoua; Belleville, Jacques L; Prost, Josiane L

    2003-08-01

    Hypertension is a major health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is hypothesized that high blood pressure is associated with loss of balance between peroxidation and antioxidant factors. 40 patients with essential hypertension were studied to ascertain the effects of a selective b1-blocker (acebutolol, 400 mg/day) on serum lipids, antioxidant status, antioxidant enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBC), and membrane fatty acids composition. Each subject was screened by physical examination, ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory tests. The period of observation was 24 weeks, and the data were tested by 2-way ANOVA followed by Bartlett's least significant difference test. At 12 weeks, serum triacylglycerol was more elevated (+26%). At 24 weeks, apolipoprotein A-1 levels remained more elevated (+41%) in hypertensive subjects compared to controls. In hypertensive patients, total antioxidant status and total plasma antioxidant capability were lower at 12 weeks than controls, and increased after 24 weeks of treatment. At 12 weeks, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in erythrocytes remained lower in hypertensive subjects compared to controls (-32%, -40% and -24%, respectively). At 24 weeks, these values were increased compared to those obtained at 12 weeks (+26%, +36% and +37%, respectively). At 12 and 24-weeks, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were decreased by 26%, 18% and 29%, 25%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the beneficial influence of a beta1-blocker (acebutolol) at 24 weeks by its action on serum lipids, antioxidant status and RBC antioxidant enzyme activities.

  5. Transient elastography versus hepatic venous pressure gradient for diagnosing portal hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gaeun; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Transient elastography (TE) has been proposed as a promising noninvasive alternative to hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) for detecting portal hypertension (PH). However, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We gathered evidence from literature on the clinical usefulness of TE versus HVPG for assessing PH. Methods We conducted a systematic review by searching databases for relevant literature evaluating the clinical usefulness of non-invasive TE for assessing PH in patients with cirrhosis. A literature search in Ovid Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed for all studies published prior to December 30, 2015. Results Eight studies (1,356 patients) met our inclusion criteria. For the detection of PH (HVPG ≥6 mmHg), the summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.90) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81), respectively. Regarding clinically significant PH (HVPG ≥10 mmHg), the summary sensitivity and specificity were 0.85 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.50-0.93), respectively. The overall correlation estimate of TE and HVPG was large (0.75, 95% CI: 0.65; 0.82, P<0.0001). Conclusions TE showed high accuracy and correlation for detecting the severity of PH. Therefore, TE shows promise as a reliable and non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of PH that should be integrated into clinical practice. PMID:28263953

  6. Higher cost sharing for visiting general hospitals and the changing trend in the first-visited healthcare organization among newly diagnosed hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Unnecessary use of high-quality resources in general hospitals hinders treatment of patients with urgent and complicated conditions. Thus, the Korean Government has sought to reduce general hospital visiting of patients with 52 mild diseases, including hypertension. The higher cost sharing for medical expenses and medications from general hospitals were enacted in 2009 and 2011, respectively.We determined whether these regulations were effective through evaluating changing trends in first-visited healthcare organizations and defined the first visiting healthcare organization level (primary clinics, hospital, and general hospital) as an outcome measure.Data of 32,830 mild hypertension patients from 2004 to 2013 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information.Mutinomial logistic regression were performed for the first visiting to different health organizations, compared to the first visiting to primary clinics.Patients in 2012 and 2013 had significantly lower odds ("2012": 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-0.81/"2013": 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.81) of first visiting general hospitals compared with those in 2008, although decreased tendencies (albeit nonsignificant) were already evident in 2010 and 2011.Thus, government health policies for cost-containment seem effective in decreasing first visiting of general hospitals among patients with mild essential hypertension. These policies have since extended to Medical Aid beneficiaries; thus, it is needed to continue monitor their results carefully.

  7. Higher cost sharing for visiting general hospitals and the changing trend in the first-visited healthcare organization among newly diagnosed hypertension patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Unnecessary use of high-quality resources in general hospitals hinders treatment of patients with urgent and complicated conditions. Thus, the Korean Government has sought to reduce general hospital visiting of patients with 52 mild diseases, including hypertension. The higher cost sharing for medical expenses and medications from general hospitals were enacted in 2009 and 2011, respectively. We determined whether these regulations were effective through evaluating changing trends in first-visited healthcare organizations and defined the first visiting healthcare organization level (primary clinics, hospital, and general hospital) as an outcome measure. Data of 32,830 mild hypertension patients from 2004 to 2013 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort. This was a retrospective study involving a large national cohort with patient samples (representing 2% of the total Korean population) stratified on the basis of sociodemographic information. Mutinomial logistic regression were performed for the first visiting to different health organizations, compared to the first visiting to primary clinics. Patients in 2012 and 2013 had significantly lower odds (“2012”: 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.81/“2013”: 0.66, 95% CI 0.54–0.81) of first visiting general hospitals compared with those in 2008, although decreased tendencies (albeit nonsignificant) were already evident in 2010 and 2011. Thus, government health policies for cost-containment seem effective in decreasing first visiting of general hospitals among patients with mild essential hypertension. These policies have since extended to Medical Aid beneficiaries; thus, it is needed to continue monitor their results carefully. PMID:27749543

  8. The mitochondrial tRNA(Gln) T4353C mutation may not be associated with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing; Pei, Hui; Lan, Chao

    2016-09-01

    We reported here the possible role of a mitochondrial tRNA mutation: T4353C in clinical expression of essential hypertension in Chinese population. The human mammalian mitochondrial tRNA database was used to analyze the conservation index of this mutation between different species. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that the T4353C mutation belonged to human mitochondrial haplogroup HV, a West Eurasian haplogroup found throughout Western Asia and Eastern European but was infrequent in China. In addition, structural prediction of the T4353C mutation indicated that this transition did not alter the secondary structure of tRNA(Gln). Together, our data indicated that the T4353C mutation occurred infrequent and may not be associated with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population.

  9. The effect of melatonin on circadian blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Możdżan, Michał; Chałubiński, Maciej; Wojdan, Katarzyna; Broncel, Marlena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension receiving medical treatment and with type 2 diabetes in good metabolic control. Material and methods The study lasted 8 weeks. Patients were equipped with a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitor and took melatonin (3 mg a day in the evening) for 4 weeks. The patients were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 32) including dippers, group 2 (n = 34) non-dippers treated with melatonin; and two control groups: group 3 (n = 28) including dippers and group 4 (n = 30) non-dippers treated without melatonin. After 4 weeks patients took melatonin for the next 4 weeks (5 mg a day). In each visit were analyzed: systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in both day and night time. Results We observed that 29.5% non-dippers (n = 10) treated with melatonin in a dose of 3 mg/day achieved features of dippers compared to control group (p < 0.05). Five mg of melatonin per day restored normal diurnal blood pressure rhythm in 32.4% non-dippers (n = 11, p < 0.05). In non-dippers treated with melatonin significant decreases of diastolic, systolic and mean night blood pressure values (p < 0.05) were observed. Conclusions More than 30% of non-dippers with type 2 diabetes treated with melatonin were restored to the normal circadian rhythm of blood pressure. The effect of melatonin in both doses (3 mg and 5 mg) was significant for non-dippers only and included nocturnal systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. PMID:25276149

  10. Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation in Elderly Han Chinese Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Jie; Jiang, Min-Hui; Zheng, Jin-Guo; Gao, Shu-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence indicating a strong association between inflammation and the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine, functions as a mediator of inflammatory response, and has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the −634C/G polymorphism of the IL-6 gene with AF in elderly Han Chinese patients with essential hypertension (EH). A total of 169 elderly patients with EH were eligible for this study. Patients with AF (n=75) were allocated to the AF group, and 94 subjects without AF to the control group. The polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to assess the genotype frequencies. The distribution of the IL-6 −634C/G genotypes (CC, CG, and GG) was 67.02%, 30.85%, and 2.13% in the controls, and 50.67%, 40.00%, and 9.33% in AF subjects, respectively (P=0.0312). The frequency of the G allele in the AF group was significantly higher than that in the control group (29.33% vs. 17.55%, P=0.0103). Compared with the CC and CG genotypes, the GG homozygote had a 4.7353-fold increased risk of AF [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9537–23.5116, P=0.0382]. These findings suggest that the IL-6 −634C/G polymorphism is associated with AF, and the G allele has increased risk of AF in elderly Han Chinese patients with EH. PMID:22924939

  11. Association of AGTR1 Promoter Methylation Levels with Essential Hypertension Risk: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Mao, Shuqi; Zhong, Fade; Gong, Minli; Yin, Fengying; Hao, Lingmei; Zhang, Lina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether methylation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) promoter contributed to the risk of essential hypertension (EH). A total of 96 EH cases and 96 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Methylation of 8 CpG dinucleotides (CpG1-8) in the AGTR1 promoter was examined using the bisulphite pyrosequencing technology. Three CpG dinucleotides (CpG6-8) could not be well sequenced, therefore only the remaining 5 CpG sites were analysed. A significantly lower CpG1 methylation level was identified in EH cases than in controls (cases vs. 6.74 ± 4.32% vs. 9.66 ± 5.45%, p = 0.007), and no significant association was observed in the remaining analyses. In addition, significantly lower CpG1 (p = 0.028) and higher CpG2 (p = 0.032) methylation levels were observed in males than in females. In the breakdown association test by gender, a higher CpG1 methylation level was also identified in EH in both males (p = 0.034) and females (p = 0.020). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that CpG1 methylation was a significant predictor of EH. Furthermore, CpG1 methylation was inversely correlated with uric acid levels in controls. The present study suggests that CpG1 hypomethylation in the AGTR1 promoter is likely associated with the risk of EH in the population assessed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effect of carvedilol and nebivolol on oxidative stress-related parameters and endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Ramiro J; Castillo, Rodrigo; Rodrigo, Ramón; Prieto, Juan C; Aramburu, Ivonne; Brugere, Solange; Galdames, Katia; Noriega, Viviana; Miranda, Hugo F

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction have been associated with essential hypertension (EH) mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carvedilol and nebivolol on the oxidative stress-related parameters and endothelial function in patients with EH. The studied population included 57 patients, either sex, between 30 and 75 years of age, with mild-to-moderate EH complications. Participants were randomized to receive either carvedilol (12.5 mg) (n = 23) or nebivolol (5 mg) (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Measurements included; 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP), flow-mediated dilatation, levels of nitric oxide estimated as nitrite - a nitric oxide metabolite ( NO₂) - in plasma, and oxidative stress-related parameters in plasma and erythrocyte. EH patients who were treated with nebivolol or carvedilol showed systolic BP reductions of 17.4 and 19.9 mmHg, respectively, compared with baseline values (p < 0.01). Diastolic BP was reduced by 13.7 and 12.8 mmHg after the treatment with ebivolol and carvedilol, respectively (p < 0.01) (fig. 2B). Nebivolol and carvedilol showed 7.3% and 8.1% higher endothelium-dependent dilatation in relation to baseline values (p < 0.05). Ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSSH) ratio showed 31.5% and 29.6% higher levels in the carvedilol group compared with basal values; however, nebivolol-treated patients did not show significant differences after treatment. On the other hand, the NO₂ plasma concentration was not modified by the administration of carvedilol. However, nebivolol enhanced these levels in 62.1% after the treatment. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antihypertensive effect of both beta-blockers. However, carvedilol could mediate these effects by an increase in antioxidant capacity and nebivolol through the raise in NO₂ concentration. Further studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanism of these effects.

  13. Effect of antihypertensive treatment with lercanidipine on endothelial progenitor cells and inflammation in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Rossini, Claudia; Tincani, Angela; Airò, Paolo; Scarsi, Mirco; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Caimi, Luigi; Ricotta, Doris; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano

    2016-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) number reflects the endogenous vascular repair ability, with the EPCs pool declining in presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Several drugs, including dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, have been reported to elicit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as to improve vascular remodeling and dysfunction. However, no data are available about the effects of lercanidipine on EPCs. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of short-term treatment with lercanidipine on circulating EPCs, as well as on indices of inflammation and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine 20 mg per day orally. Investigations were performed in basal condition, after appropriate wash out of previous treatments, and after 4 weeks of lercanidipine treatment. Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were assessed by ELISA technique. Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/VEGFR-2 + and Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/VEGFR-2 + cells were identified by flow cytometry and considered as EPCs. EPCs cells were expressed as number of cells per million Lin-mononuclear cells. Circulating EPCs were significantly increased after lercanidipine treatment (CD34+/CD133+/VEGFR-2 + cells: 78.3 ± 64.5 vs 46.6 ± 32.8; CD34+/VEGFR-2+: 87996 ± 165116 vs 1026 ± 1559, respectively, p < 0.05). A modest reduction in circulating indices of inflammation was also observed. In conclusion, lercanidipine is able to increase the number of circulating EPCs, possibly through a reduction of low-grade inflammation.

  14. Comparison of lercanidipine plus hydrochlorothiazide vs. lercanidipine plus enalapril on micro and macrocirculation in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Salvetti, Massimo; Paini, Anna; Rossini, Claudia; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Duse, Sarah; Caletti, Stefano; Coschignano, Maria Antonietta; Semeraro, Francesco; Trapletti, Valentina; Bertacchini, Fabio; Brami, Valeria; Petelca, Alina; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Claudia

    2017-06-24

    Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers may possess antioxidant properties, and might improve micro and macrovascular structure and function. Combination treatment with an ACE inhibitor may have additional advantages, compared with a thiazide diuretic. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of a short-term treatment with lercanidipine, and to compare two combination treatments: lercanidipine + enalapril vs. lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide on structural alterations in retinal arterioles, on skin capillary density and on large artery distensibility. Thirty essential hypertension patients are included in the study, and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine 20 mg per day orally. Then, they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril (n = 15) or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide (n = 15) combinations. Investigations were performed on basal condition, after appropriate wash out of previous treatments, after 4 weeks of lercanidipine monotherapy treatment, and at the end of the combination treatment. Non-invasive measurements of wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) and other morphological parameters of retinal arterioles were performed using either scanning laser Doppler flowmetry or adaptive optics. Capillary density was evaluated by capillaroscopy, while pulse wave velocity was measured, and central blood pressures were assessed by pressure waveform analysis. A significant improvement of WLR and other indices of retinal artery structure is observed with both technical approaches after treatment with lercanidipine alone, with a further improvement after treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril, while after treatment with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide, the improvement is partially blunted. Central systolic and diastolic blood pressures are similarly reduced by both therapeutic strategies. Capillary density is increased only after treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril. In conclusion, lercanidipine both in

  15. Effect of environmental exposure to cigarette smoke on blood pressure in 24‑hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Mazur, Grzegorz; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and blood pressure has not been well‑established. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of environmental exposure to cigarette smoke on blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension. The study involved 39 nonsmoking patients with essential hypertension treated with hypotensive agents and environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (group 1) and 39 nonsmoking patients with essential hypertension treated with hypotensive agents and not exposed to cigarette smoke (group 2). The following variables of 24‑hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were measured: systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) during 24‑hour ABPM, and, separately, for the period of daily activity and night rest. In group 1, the mean values of 24‑hour SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP, daytime SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP, and nighttime SBP, MAP, and PP were significantly higher than those in group 2. Statistically significant positive linear correlations were demonstrated between the mean time of daily exposure (expressed in hours) to cigarette smoke and 24‑hour MAP and PP (r = 0.52 and r = 0.48, respectively, P <0.05). Advanced age, higher low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose concentrations, and environmental exposure to cigarette smoke were independent factors of elevated 24‑hour PP in the study group. In patients with essential hypertension, environmental exposure to cigarette smoke may result in elevated BP values in 24‑hour ABPM.

  16. Urinary catecholamines in essential hypertension: results of 24-hour urine catecholamine analyses from patients in the Medical Research Council trial for mild hypertension and from matched controls.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Causon, R C; Barnes, V F; Brennan, P; Barnes, G; Greenberg, G

    1985-10-01

    Four consecutive 24-h urine samples were collected from 134 male and 134 female placebo-treated patients in the Medical Research Council Trial for Mild Hypertension. Similar samples were collected from age and sex-matched normotensive controls. On the fourth day noradrenaline excretion was 22.05 +/- 1.01 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensives compared with 22.22 +/- 1.16 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. Adrenaline excretion on the same day was 6.13 +/- 0.33 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensive subjects compared with 6.32 +/- 0.38 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. There was no significant difference for either catecholamine between the two groups. However, in the control group there was a highly significant correlation between excretion of adrenaline and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.218, p = 0.0004) and between noradrenaline excretion and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.200, p = 0.001). Catecholamine excretion and blood pressure were not significantly correlated in the hypertensive patients. There were no significant correlations in either group between catecholamine excretion and heart rate, caffeine intake, nicotine consumption or the Bortner self-assessment score of personality type. This study has found no evidence of elevated sympathoadrenal activity in mild hypertensives. The correlations in the control group may reflect the role of sympathoadrenal activity in acute fluctuations in blood pressure or may suggest that the level of blood pressure within the 'normal' range depends in part on the level of sympathoadrenal activity.

  17. Clinical usefulness of a timed overnight (8 hours) Urine Albumin (microalbumin) excretion in monitor-ing treatment in benign essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oluwatowoju, I O; Ajuluchukwu, J N A; Afonja, O A

    2014-06-01

    This research aims to establish the usefulness of timed over- night (8 hours) Urine Albumin(microalbumin) Excretion (UAE), in monitoring therapy in Nigerian patients with benign essential hypertension. The study population comprised 40 normotensives/controls, (23 males and 17 females) aged between 20-70 years, with a mean blood pressure 116/75mmHg, 30 well-controlled hypertensive patients, diastolic BP <100mmHg or MAP (mean arterial pressure) = 110mmHg and 30 poorly controlled hypertensive patients, diastolic blood pressure > 100mmHg or MAP >110mmHg.Urine albumin(microalbumin) was determined on the 8 hours overnight urine samples by ELISA method using kit from Randox Laboratories Limited, N.Ireland Cat No. MA 1410. UAE was calculated from the urine albumin concentration, urine volume and collection time. The intra assay precision was determined by running 20 replicates of two kit controls in a single batch. The coefficient of variation was 6.6% at 10.70mg/L and 4.3% at 51.20mg/L. The average UAE in the three groups were as follows: 12:22 +/-4.65ug/ min, 21.50 +/- 10.5ug/min and 30.10 +/- 24.25 ug/min in the control, well controlled and poorly controlled groups respectively, 12.5% of normotensive subjects, 40% of well controlled and 56.7% of poorly controlled patients were found to have microalbuminuria.The UAE increased significantly with the severity of hypertension (r = 0.32, p<0.001 for control) r = 0.38, p<00.05 for controlled and r = 0.49 p<0.05 for poorly controlled. A timed overnight (8 hours) Urinary UAE is a preferred alternative to cumbersome 24 hours urine collection for monitoring response to treatment in Nigerian patients with benign essential hypertension.

  18. Impact of individual components and their combinations within a family history of hypertension on the incidence of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Risa; Fujihara, Kazuya; Heianza, Yoriko; Ishizawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Satoru; Saito, Kazumi; Hara, Shigeko; Hanyu, Osamu; Honda, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although a family history (FH) of hypertension is a risk factor for the development of hypertension, only a few studies have investigated in detail the impact of individual components of an FH on incident hypertension. We investigated the impact of individual components and their combinations on the presence or development of hypertension considering obesity, smoking habits, physical activity, and other metabolic parameters. Studied were 12,222 Japanese individuals without hypertension (n = 9,766) and with hypertension (n = 2,456) at the baseline examination. The presence or incidence of hypertension during 5 years after a baseline examination was assessed by the presence of systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or a self-reported history of clinician-diagnosed hypertension. In this prospective study, the odds ratio for incident hypertension was 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22, 1.59) for individuals with any FH of hypertension compared with those without such an FH. Individuals with an FH of hypertension in both parents and one or more grandparents had an odds ratio of 3.05 (95% CI 1.74, 5.36) for hypertension compared with those without an FH of hypertension. FH was associated with incident hypertension independently of other modifiable risk factors such as obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. A parental history of hypertension was an essential component within an FH for incident hypertension. FH of hypertension over two generations with both parents affected was the most important risk factor for incident hypertension. Although an FH is not a modifiable risk factor, modifying other risk factors could contribute to reducing the risk of hypertension even among individuals with a family history of hypertension. PMID:27661014

  19. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension - a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Carina N; Strandhave, Charlotte; Skov, Charlotte M; Svensson, My; Schmidt, Erik B; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2017-02-28

    Marine long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized for their cardio-protective effects, including potential lowering of blood pressure. We hypothesized that higher habitual fish intake and n-3 PUFA plasma levels were associated with lower blood pressure and being less likely to receive antihypertensive medication after one-year follow-up. In this prospective study of 115 patients, we assessed 24 h ambulatory and central blood pressure, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition using gas chromatography and participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, including fish-eating habits. All measurements were repeated at one-year follow-up. At baseline, patients consuming fish ≥2 times per month for dinner had significantly higher plasma levels of total marine n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as significantly lower central blood pressure and a trend towards lower peripheral blood pressure. At follow-up, 21 patients (18%) without antihypertensive medication had significantly higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as a higher, but still acceptable 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (137/85 mmHg) compared to subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. The untreated group was more prone to take fish oil capsules and increased their plasma levels of n-3 PUFA compared to baseline. In patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension, regular fish consumption was accompanied by lower blood pressure. After one year, patients without antihypertensive medication were characterized by a significant increase and higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA. This supports a blood pressure-lowering effect and suggests an increase in marine n-3 PUFA intake as part of non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  20. Blood pressure (BP) control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care clinic in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Oluwaseun S.; Malomo, Sunday O.; Sogunle, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nonadherence to therapeutic plans has been reported among hypertensive patients. Researchers have also shown that adherence to therapeutic plans improves if motivation in the form of social support is provided. There is a dearth of local studies that explore the influence of family support on treatment outcomes of hypertensive patients. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care setting in Western Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Subjects and Methods: Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting 360 hypertensive respondents between April and July 2013. Data were collected through a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized tool, Perceived Social Support Family Scale, which measured the respondents’ level of perceived family support. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 was used to analyze data. Results: The majority of the respondents were middle-aged (61.1%) and female (59.4%). Blood pressure (BP) was controlled in 46.4% of the respondents. Most of the respondents (79.4%) had “strong” perceived family support. Strong perceived family support (odds ratio [OR] 4.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.569–8.887) and female gender (OR 1.838, 95% CI = 1.177–2.869) were independent predictors of controlled BP. Conclusions: The proportion of hypertensive patients with optimal BP control is low in this practice setting. The positive association between BP control and perceived family support emphasizes the need for physicians to reflect on the available family support when managing hypertensive patients. PMID:28217585

  1. Blood pressure (BP) control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care clinic in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Oluwaseun S; Malomo, Sunday O; Sogunle, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence to therapeutic plans has been reported among hypertensive patients. Researchers have also shown that adherence to therapeutic plans improves if motivation in the form of social support is provided. There is a dearth of local studies that explore the influence of family support on treatment outcomes of hypertensive patients. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between BP control and perceived family support in patients with essential hypertension seen at a primary care setting in Western Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study. Systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting 360 hypertensive respondents between April and July 2013. Data were collected through a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standardized tool, Perceived Social Support Family Scale, which measured the respondents' level of perceived family support. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 was used to analyze data. The majority of the respondents were middle-aged (61.1%) and female (59.4%). Blood pressure (BP) was controlled in 46.4% of the respondents. Most of the respondents (79.4%) had "strong" perceived family support. Strong perceived family support (odds ratio [OR] 4.778, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.569-8.887) and female gender (OR 1.838, 95% CI = 1.177-2.869) were independent predictors of controlled BP. The proportion of hypertensive patients with optimal BP control is low in this practice setting. The positive association between BP control and perceived family support emphasizes the need for physicians to reflect on the available family support when managing hypertensive patients.

  2. Haemodynamic and hormonal effects of prazosin on head-up tilt in essential hypertensive patients: comparison with those of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Kida, O; Morotomi, Y; Higa, T; Kodama, K; Someya, N; Tanaka, K

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the haemodynamic and hormonal effects of prazosin, head-up tilt was performed in 10 essential hypertensive patients, and these effects of prazosin on the tilt were compared with those of propranolol. The tilts were performed in control phase and the last days of treatment for two weeks with propranolol (90 mg/day) or prazosin (3-6 mg/day). Each drug significantly lowered the mean blood pressure at rest, and also suppressed its rise on the tilt. Heart rates were significantly increased by the tilt in the control phase, in the propranolol phase and in the prazosin phase. Cardiac index was significantly reduced by the tilt from 2.66 (s.e.m. = 0.22) 1/min per m2 to 2.08 (s.e.m. = 0.20) in the propranolol phase. However, there were not significant changes in other phases. Total peripheral resistance indices were significantly increased by the tilt in all three phases. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone were significantly increased by the tilt from 2.14 (s.e.m. = 0.47) ng/ml per h to 2.46 (s.e.m. = 0.54) and from 50.6 (s.e.m. = 12.9) pg/ml to 74.9 (s.e.m. = 14.9) respectively, in the control phase. And they were also significantly increased from 1.06 (s.e.m. = 0.29) to 1.65 (s.e.m. = 0.45) and from 41.4 (s.e.m. = 16.3) to 54.0 (s.e.m. = 17.4) in the prazosin phase. There were no significant increases during the administration of propranolol. We observed that prazosin did not alter heart rate and cardiac index, but suppressed the renin-angiotensin system at rest. It is suggested that prazosin did not influence haemodynamic and hormonal responses to the tilt.

  3. Free versus Fixed Combination Antihypertensive Therapy for Essential Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Tamara; Akl, Elie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a free drug combination, each Blood pressure (BP)-lowering drug is administered as a separate pill, while in a fixed drug combination several BP-lowering agents are combined in a single pill. Using a single pill may enhance compliance and simplify treatment, which would translate into better clinical outcomes. The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the effects of using a fixed combination versus free combination of BP-lowering agents in the management of patients with essential hypertension. Methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) addressing the objective of the review and assessing at least one of the following outcomes: BP-lowering efficacy, rapidity in achieving BP target, compliance, incidence of side effects, mortality, and morbidity. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias of included trials. The primary meta-analyses used a random-effects model. Results We identified seven RCTs with a total of 397 participants. Meta-analysis of efficacy in controlling BP showed a non-significant reduction of mean systolic BP of 0.81 mmHg (95% CI -3.25, 1.64) favoring the fixed combination group. As for adverse events, results showed a non-significant 13% risk reduction favoring the free combination (risk ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.85, 1.5). Low quality of evidence was noted for both outcomes. Rapidity in achieving BP target was assessed in only one trial, and the results favored the fixed combination. Adherence to treatment was assessed in three trials, no pooled analysis was possible for this outcome. None of the included trials assessed mortality and morbidity. Conclusion The available low quality evidence does not confirm or rule out a substantive difference between fixed combination and free combination therapy in the management of HTN. Well designed RCTs with a long duration of follow-up and assessment of morbidity and mortality

  4. Correlation between propranolol in plasma and urine, renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, O L; Andreasen, F; Bjerregaard, P

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension, and a fixed elevation of diastolic blood pressure, were randomly allocated to three groups and treated with propranolol 40 mg x 4 (Group 1), 80 mg x 4 (group 2) and 160 mg x 4 (Group 3). Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), total plasma propranolol (tPP), free plasma propranolol (fPP), and 24 h urinary propranolol excretion (UP) were determined at the end of four consecutive periods: (A) after four weeks without any treatment; (B) after two to three weeks during which the propranolol dose was gradually increased to the intended level; (C) after four weeks, and (D) after eight weeks of unchanged treatment. The maximum reduction in diastolic BP occurred after period B, and in systolic BP after Period C, for Groups 2 and 3, and for all groups together; for Group 1, however, the maximum diastolic BP reduction was first seen after period C. PR was reduced to the same level in all groups after period B. After period B, PRA an PAC fell in all groups, and remained reduced during C and D Group 1. After periods C and D, PRA and PAC in Groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly from the levels after period A; tPP, fPP and UP were significantly correlated with the propranolol dose, and were lowest in Group 1 and highest in Group 3; UP was negatively correlated with systolic but not diastolic BP in Periods B, C and D. In contrast neither fPP nor tPP were correlated with systolic or diastolic BP. There was no significant correlation between PRA, PAC and changes in PRA or PAC on the one hand and tPP, fPP, UP, BP or changes in BP on the other. It was concluded that propranolol effectively reduced BP, but diastolic BP reduction was most rapidly obtained at 320 and 640 mg daily, that the activity of the renin -aldosterone system was initially suppressed in all group, but for unknown reasons it increased towards the control level after seven to eleven

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of once-daily barnidipine in the clinical management of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Spieker, C

    1998-01-01

    Four multicentre trials have investigated the efficacy and tolerability of treatment with once-daily, modified-release capsules of barnidipine, a long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. In two of these trials, the clinical profile of barnidipine was compared with those of amlodipine and nitrendipine, which belong to the same class of drug as barnidipine, in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group manner. In one study, 37 patients received amlodipine and 79 patients received barnidipine. In a second study, 46 patients received nitrendipine and 96 received barnidipine. In each trial, a 4-week placebo run-in phase was followed by a 12-week comparative phase. Changes in sitting and standing diastolic and systolic blood pressures were assessed, and adverse events were recorded. Both studies demonstrated that the antihypertensive efficacy of barnidipine was equivalent to each comparator agent, but barnidipine tended to produce fewer class I adverse reactions. The long-term efficacy and safety of barnidipine were demonstrated in an open-label study. In total, 106 patients were followed for the first year of the study, during which time they received barnidipine at a dose titrated to achieve a sitting diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg; if necessary, another antihypertensive agent was added to achieve normalization of blood pressure. Seventy-nine of these patients, most of whom were maintained on barnidipine monotherapy, were followed for a second year, and 32 patients, all of whom received barnidipine monotherapy throughout the study period, were followed for a third year. Blood pressure normalization after 1 year of follow-up was achieved in 91% of patients, and was maintained for the second and third years in 91% and 81% of patients, respectively. The incidence of adverse events, possibly or probably attributable to barnidipine, was 22%, 14% and 3%, respectively, during each successive year

  6. Influence of Using Different Databases and ‘Look Back’ Intervals to Define Comorbidity Profiles for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Hypertension: Implications for Health Services Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanmin; Lix, Lisa; Tu, Karen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Campbell, Norm R. C.; McAlister, Finlay A.; Quan, Hude

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the data sources and ‘look back’ intervals to define comorbidities. Data Sources Hospital discharge abstracts database (DAD), physician claims, population registry and death registry from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Study Design Newly-diagnosed hypertension cases from 1997 to 2008 fiscal years were identified and followed up to 12 years. We defined comorbidities using data sources and duration of retrospective observation