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Sample records for diagnostic des lesions

  1. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  2. Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tatli, Ufuk; Erdoğan, Özgür; Uğuz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdemır, Yaşar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

  3. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  4. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  5. [Ultrasonographic elastography in alimentary tract lesions diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuńi, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Jałocha, Łukasz; Krzysztof, Kosik; Błaszak, Antoni; Wojtkowiak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    Technology development in data processing in ultrasonography let new imaging method feasible. New method of imaging is elastography (elastosonography, ultrasonographic elastography). It relays on the presumption that pathologically changed tissues have different elasticity and change their shape in different way than health tissue. Elastography is used in lesions in alimentary tract diagnostics. Sensitivity and specificity in malignant lesions differentiation is 85% and 90%. In elastography there is used conventional ultrasonography device that is equipped with additional transformator that is located in probe. Examination is performed with multiple pressing the organ. Imaging is acquired in real-time regime they are colour-coded and they are created during compression. As a result of computer analysis images are generated in two colours. On the basis of character of normal and increased rigidity images were classified in five point scale from one to five. Indication to elastography is suspicion of malignant lesions in traditional ultrasonography and monitoring of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. More trials are required to evaluate this method more reliably. Then it could be recommended for everyday clinical use.

  6. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  7. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology: a diagnostic aid for oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumir; Lata, Jeevan; Gandhi, Nitasha

    2011-06-01

    Oral lesions usually lead to a diagnostic dilemma. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic aid for making a preoperative diagnosis of oral lesions. It does not supplant histopathology but augments it. FNAC of oral lesions was undertaken in 45 patients, and all the lesions were subjected to histopathologic examination. Aspiration was performed with 23- to 25-gauge needles held in a Cameco syringe holder (Amar Udyog, Chandigarh, India). We diagnosed benign lesions in 22 cases, malignant lesions in 15, and inflammatory lesions in 7 by FNAC, whereas in 1 case the specimen was insufficient for diagnosis. One result was false negative, but there was no false-positive result. Specificity and sensitivity of FNAC were 95.45% and 93.75%, respectively. FNAC gave a diagnostic accuracy of 90.0% for benign lesions, 94.0% for malignant lesions, and 100% for inflammatory lesions. The procedure does not have any side effects or complications. Hence FNAC can be used as a reliable diagnostic aid for oral lesions because it is safe, accurate, convenient, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender

    2017-01-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs. PMID:28360448

  10. Rare cystic liver lesions: A diagnostic and managing challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Delis, Spiros; Triantopoulou, Charina; Dervenis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Cystic formations within the liver are a frequent finding among populations. Besides the common cystic lesions, like simple liver cysts, rare cystic liver lesions like cystadenocarcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of each entity’s nature and course are key elements to successful treatment. Detailed search in PubMed, Cochrane Database, and international published literature regarding rare cystic liver lesions was carried out. In our research are included not only primary rare lesions like cystadenoma, hydatid cyst, and polycystic liver disease, but also secondary ones like metastasis from gastrointestinal stromal tumors lesions. Up-to date knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of rare cystic liver lesions is provided. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is also proposed. The need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team including radiologists and surgeons familiar with liver cystic entities, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities is stressed. Patients with cystic liver lesions must be carefully evaluated by a multidisciplinary team, in order to receive the most appropriate treatment, since many cystic liver lesions have a malignant potential and evolution. PMID:24282350

  11. Shearwave Elastography Increases Diagnostic Accuracy in Characterization of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wei Lin; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Rozalli, Faizatul Izza; Mohd-Shah, Mohammad Nazri; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Westerhout, Caroline Judy; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of shearwave elastography (SWE) in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions. One hundred and fifty-nine lesions were assessed using B-mode ultrasound (US) and SWE parameters were recorded (Emax, Emean, Emin, Eratio, SD). SWE measurements were then correlated with histopathological diagnosis. The final sample contained 85 benign and 74 malignant lesions. The maximum stiffness (Emax) with a cutoff point of ≥ 56.0 kPa (based on ROC curves) provided sensitivity of 100.0%, specificity of 97.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in detecting malignant lesions. A cutoff of ≥80 kPa managed to downgrade 95.5% of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4a lesions to BI-RADS 3, negating the need for biopsy. Using a combination of BI-RADS and SWE, the authors managed to improve the PPV from 2.3% to 50% in BI-RADS 4a lesions. SWE of the breast provides highly specific and sensitive quantitative values that are beneficial in the characterization of breast lesions. Our results showed that Emax is the most accurate value for differentiating benign from malignant lesions. PMID:27015196

  12. Cytomorphology of male breast lesions: diagnostic pitfalls and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Marilin; Masood, Shahla

    2012-02-01

    Because lesions of the male breast have been exceeded in number by those of the female breast, marginal attention was given to these lesions in the past. Fortunately, this has changed over the years leading to an increased awareness about male breast cancer. Although male breast cancer constitutes only about 1% of all diagnosed breast cancer cases, an increased mortality is seen in this patient population. This is probably caused by late diagnosis as a consequence of low level of concern about breast cancer among male patients. However, the vast majority of lesions of the male breast are benign, gynecomastia being the number one cause of unilateral or bilateral breast mass. Since it is important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment without missing malignancy, accurate diagnostic tools are necessary in order to triage these patients. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has demonstrated excellent accuracy in the diagnosis and management of breast lesions in female patients. In addition, several authors have proven the value of this technique in the evaluation of lesions of the male breast. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy permits accurate diagnosis in many lesions arising in the male breast. It also allows gathering cytological material that can be used for ancillary studies which enhances the diagnostic value of this technique.

  13. Thermographic diagnostics to discriminate skin lesions: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringasci, Mirian Denise; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is responsible for about 13% of all causes of death in the world. Over 7 million people die annually of this disease. In most cases, the survival rates are greater when diagnosed in early stages. It is known that tumor lesions present a different temperature compared with the normal tissues. Some studies have been performed in an attempt to establish new diagnosis methods, targeting this temperature difference. In this study, we aim to investigate the use of a handheld thermographic camera to discriminate skin lesions. The patients presenting Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Actinic Keratosis, Pigmented Seborrheic Keratosis, Melanoma or Intradermal Nevus lesions have been investigated at the Skin Departament of Amaral Carvalho Hospital. Patients are selected by a dermatologist, and the lesion images are recorded using an infrared camera. The images are evaluated taken into account the temperature level, and differences into lesion areas, borders, and between altered and normal skin. The present results show that thermography may be an important tool for aiding in the clinical diagnostics of superficial skin lesions.

  14. Diagnostic criteria for mass lesions differentiating in electrical impedance mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Karpov; M, Korotkova

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the diagnostic criteria for differentiating volumetric lesions in the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography. The research was carried out utilizing the electrical impedance computer mammograph llMEIK v.5.6gg®, which enables to acquire images of 3-D conductivity distribution layers within mamma's tissues up to 5 cm depth. The weighted reciprocal projection method was employed to reconstruct the 3-D electric conductivity distribution of the examined organ. The results of 3,710 electrical impedance examinations were analyzed. The analysis of a volumetric lesion included assessment of its shape, contour, internal electrical structure and changes of the surrounding tissues. Moreover, mammary gland status was evaluated with the help of comparative and age-related electrical conductivity curves. The diagnostic chart is provided. Each criterion is measured in points. Using the numerical score for evaluation of mass and non-volumetric lesions within the mammary gland in electrical impedance mammography allowed comparing this information to BI-RADS categories developed by American College of Radiology experts. The article is illustrated with electrical impedance mammograms and tables.

  15. Orocutaneous Fistula or Traumatic Infectious Skin Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Vermani, Mayank; Kalia, Vimal; Singh, Sumita; Garg, Sunny; Aggarwal, Shweta; Khurana, Richa; Kalra, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistula (OCF) (of dental origin) is an uncommon but well-described condition in the literature. These are often misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists. Careful selection of investigating modality is important in case of diagnostically challenging cases. A 19-year-old female came with a complaint of a lesion on the chin reported with h/o trauma with the impact on chin presented as diagnostic dilemma because of unusual case history and clinical examination. Commonly used radiographic investigations like IOPA and orthopantomograph did not resolve the dilemma whereas advanced imaging modality like CT scan, 3D volume imaging, and contrast enhanced CT played an important role in the diagnosis of OCF and selecting the treatment plan. PMID:26618009

  16. The Diagnostic Dilemma of Dieulafoy’s Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rafay; Mahmad, Abdul; Gobrial, Mark; Onwochei, Francis; Shah, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Dieulafoy’s lesion (DL) is a relatively rare condition which carries a significantly high risk for mortality. A tortuous large arteriole in the wall of the stomach can result in significant gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage which can result in detrimental complications. Although it only accounts for about 1% of all GI bleeding, it has been considered to be one of the most underrecognized conditions. This train of thought may unfortunately be related to the difficulty in its diagnosis. After conducting a Medline search of the medical literature, with a focus on current PubMed articles, a thorough examination of updated diagnostic and treatment approaches was compared. Diagnostic techniques in the analysis and treatment of DLs continue to be limited to this day. Endoscopy remains as the main diagnostic and therapeutic tool; however, it continues to have its limitations. Other alternatives include but are not limited to angiography and surgical interventions which at times can be more successful. Diagnostic improvements and research for the detection of DL continue to advance; however, they remain limited in their capabilities. Further analysis and workup needs to be conducted in order to reduce hospital stay and improve survival. PMID:27785297

  17. Diagnostic yield of percutaneous biopsy for sclerotic bone lesions: Influence of mean Hounsfield units.

    PubMed

    Ní Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer; McMahon, Colm; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim

    2017-07-04

    To identify whether there was an association between Hounsfield units of sclerotic bone lesions and diagnostic yield of biopsy. All core needle biopsies of sclerotic bone lesion were identified from a database. Pathology reports were reviewed to determine whether the biopsy was diagnostic or non-diagnostic. 91 patients were included in the study group. The yield for lesions with mean HU≥500 was significantly lower than those with a mean HU≤500 (40% vs. 69.6%, p<0.05). Lesions with a mean HU>500 are more likely to have a non-diagnostic biopsy than a diagnostic biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does calcium burden impact culprit lesion morphology and clinical results? An ADAPT-DES IVUS substudy.

    PubMed

    Shan, Peiren; Mintz, Gary S; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Généreux, Philippe; Crowley, Aaron; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2017-12-01

    Increasing coronary lesion calcification is thought to be associated with adverse percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and clinical outcomes. We investigated the effects of calcium burden on culprit lesion morphology and clinical events after intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI in the ADAPT-DES study. ADAPT-DES was a prospective, multicenter registry of 8582 consecutive patients undergoing successful PCI using DES. A pre-specified virtual histology (VH)-IVUS substudy of 638 culprit lesions (638 patients) had both pre- and post-PCI VH-IVUS. We divided lesions into tertiles according to pre-PCI percent dense calcium volume (DCV%=dense calcium/plaque volume×100). Compared with low and intermediate DCV% tertiles, patients in the high DCV% tertile had the largest arc of superficial calcium, highest percentage of necrotic core volume, and smallest remodeling index; they were also more likely to have advanced lesion morphology such as attenuated plaque and VH thin-cap fibroatheromas. In the high DCV% tertile IVUS guidance was associated with a minimum stent area that was smaller than tertiles with less calcium (p=0.01), but acceptable range, and similar stent expansion (73.8±16.8% vs. 74.0±19.2% vs. 72.4±17.3%, p=0.62) after more frequent use of rotational atherectomy and higher maximum inflation pressure. There was no significant association between pre-PCI DCV% and 2-year target lesion revascularization or major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis). Increasing coronary artery calcification burden was associated with more advanced, complex VH-IVUS lesion morphology, but not with adverse clinical outcomes, perhaps due to more aggressive PCI techniques that optimized stent expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C S; Saturno, J L; de Sousa, S C O M; da Silveira, F R X

    2014-12-01

    Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic Performance of Filter Paper Lesion Impression PCR for Secondarily Infected Ulcers and Nonulcerative Lesions Caused by Cutaneous Leishmaniasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana Pilar; Valencia, Braulio Mark; Veland, Nicolas; Calderon, Flor; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We compared traditional cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnostic methods to filter paper lesion impression (FPLI) PCR for secondarily infected ulcers and nonulcerative lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of FPLI PCR for secondarily infected lesions (n = 8) were 100%. In primarily nonulcerative lesions (n = 15), the sensitivity of FPLI PCR was inferior to that of pooled-invasive-specimen PCR (72.7% versus 100%) (P = 0.10). FPLI PCR is sensitive, specific, and unlike invasive procedures, can be used in secondarily infected ulcers. Invasive specimen collection is superior in nonulcerative lesions. PMID:21177908

  1. Diagnostic Yield for Cancer and Diagnostic Accuracy of Computed Tomography-guided Core Needle Biopsy of Subsolid Pulmonary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Munir, Sohaib; Koppikar, Sahil; Hopman, Wilma M; Boag, Alexander H; Dhillon, Gurmohan; Salahudeen, Shafeequr Rahman; Nolan, Robert L; Flood, Justin

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine the diagnostic yield for cancer and diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy (CTNB) in subsolid pulmonary lesions. Fifty-two biopsies of 52 subsolid lesions in 51 patients were identified from a database of 912 lung biopsies and analyzed for the diagnostic yield for cancer and diagnostic accuracy of core CTNB diagnosis as well as complication rates. When indeterminate biopsy results were included in the analysis, the diagnostic yield for cancer was 80.8% and the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy was 84.6% (n=52). It was 85.7% and 91.7%, respectively, when indeterminate results were excluded (n=48) and 82.4% and 82.4%, respectively, for biopsies with surgical confirmation (n=17). Attenuation was statistically significant for diagnostic yield for cancer (P=0.028) and diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy (P=0.001) when the indeterminate results were excluded (n=48). Attenuation and size were not statistically significant for diagnostic yield for cancer and diagnostic accuracy of needle biopsy (n=52), and size was not statistically significant for either when the indeterminate results were excluded. These results were achieved without any major complications as per the Society of Interventional Radiology Standards of Practice. CTNB offers a high yield in establishing a histopathologic diagnosis of subsolid pulmonary lesions, with both ground-glass and solid-predominance. The pure ground-glass category of lesions requires further research to determine the true diagnostic yield and diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsies.

  2. Place de la bili-IRM dans le diagnostic etiologique des icteres cholestatiques à Dakar

    PubMed Central

    Badji, Nfally; Akpo, Geraud; Deme, Hamidou; Toure, Mouhamadou Hamine; Ly, Mamadou; Ndong, Boucar; Niang, El Hadji

    2016-01-01

    La Bili-IRM est une méthode diagnostique d’introduction relativement récente dans l’arsenal d’exploration de la pathologie bilio-pancréatique. Il s’agit d’une technique fiable reproductible et non invasive, permettant la visualisation directe des voies biliaires et pancréatiques. Le but de ce travail était d’étudier les aspects morphologiques des principales anomalies et d’évaluer la place de la bili-IRM dans le diagnostic étiologique des ictères cholestatiques. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 4 ans et six mois (Janvier 2008 à Juillet 2012) portant sur 17 patients colligés dans les services d’imagerie médicale du CHUN de Fann et de l’hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d’une IRM (1,5T) avec des protocoles adaptés en fonction de la pathologie explorée. Les dossiers retenus sont ceux dont le diagnostic a été établi à partir du bilan biologique et ayant bénéficié à la fois d’une bili-IRM et d’une exploration chirurgicale. Il s’agissait de 05 femmes et de 12 hommes soit un sexe ratio de 2.4. L’âge moyen des patients était de 58 ans avec des extrêmes de 35 et 81 ans. Les tumeurs de Klatskin étaient observées chez 07 patients avec une forme infiltrante dans 71% des cas et une forme exophytique dans 28% des cas. Les cancers de la vésicule biliaire étaient notés dans 28% des cas. Les cancers de la tête du pancréas représentaient 28% des cas. La lithiase de la voie biliaire principale était présente chez 05 patients avec un empierrement cholédocien dans 60% des cas et une lithiase unique dans 40% des cas. Toutes ces lésions étaient responsables d’une dilatation des VBIH. Un cas de dilatation des voies biliaires intra et extra hépatiques était retrouvé sans cause bilio-pancréatique. La bili-IRM est l’examen de choix dans l’exploration des ictères cholestatiques. Elle doit être demandée en première intention lorsqu’on suspecte une lithiase r

  3. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  4. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  5. [Ramp lesions : Tips and tricks in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Seil, R; Hoffmann, A; Scheffler, S; Theisen, D; Mouton, C; Pape, D

    2017-09-14

    There is an increasing biomechanical and anatomical understanding of the different types of meniscal lesions. Lesions of the posterior part of the medial meniscus in the meniscosynovial area have recently received increased attention. They generally occur in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. They are often missed ("hidden lesions") due to the fact that they cannot be seen by routine anterior arthroscopic inspection. Furthermore, meniscosynovial lesions play a role in anteroposterior knee laxity and, as such, they may be a cause of failure of ACL reconstruction or of postoperative persistent laxity. Little information is available regarding their cause with respect to injury mechanism, natural history, biomechanical implications, healing potential and treatment options. This article presents an overview of the currently available knowledge of these ramp lesions, their possible pathomechanism, classification, biomechanical relevance as well as repair techniques.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination of superior labrum anterior- posterior lesions.

    PubMed

    Michener, Lori A; Doukas, William C; Murphy, Kevin P; Walsworth, Matthew K

    2011-01-01

    Type I superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions involve degenerative fraying and probably are not the cause of shoulder pain. Type II to IV SLAP lesions are tears of the labrum. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of patient history and the active compression, anterior slide, and crank tests for type I and type II to IV SLAP lesions. Cohort study. Clinic. Fifty-five patients (47 men, 8 women; age = 40.6 ± 15.1 years) presenting with shoulder pain. For each patient, an orthopaedic surgeon conducted a clinical examination of history of trauma; sudden onset of symptoms; history of popping, clicking, or catching; age; and active compression, crank, and anterior slide tests. The reference standard was the intraoperative diagnosis. The operating surgeon was blinded to the results of the clinical examination. Diagnostic utility was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative likelihood ratio (-LR). Forward stepwise binary regression was used to determine a combination of tests for diagnosis. No history item or physical examination test had diagnostic accuracy for type I SLAP lesions (n = 13). The anterior slide test had utility (AUC = 0.70, +LR = 2.25, -LR = 0.44) to confirm and exclude type II to IV SLAP lesions (n = 10). The combination of a history of popping, clicking, or catching and the anterior slide test demonstrated diagnostic utility for confirming type II to IV SLAP lesions (+LR = 6.00). The anterior slide test had limited diagnostic utility for confirming and excluding type II to IV SLAP lesions; diagnostic values indicated only small shifts in probability. However, the combination of the anterior slide test with a history of popping, clicking, or catching had moderate diagnostic utility for confirming type II to IV SLAP lesions. No single item or combination of history items and physical examination tests had diagnostic utility

  7. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic thyroid lesions from thyroid neoplasia in bony fishes have long been debated by scientists. Confusion exists because the thyroid tissue in most teleosts is unencapsulated, is occasionally found in ectopic sites, and is frequently predispos...

  8. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic thyroid lesions from thyroid neoplasia in bony fishes have long been debated by scientists. Confusion exists because the thyroid tissue in most teleosts is unencapsulated, is occasionally found in ectopic sites, and is frequently predispos...

  9. Oral lichenoid lesions: clinico-pathological mimicry and its diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Santhosh Kumar S; Kale, Alka D; Charantimath, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Oral cavity is commonly affected by number of lichenoid lesions, whose clinical and histopathologic features overlap due to the presence of inflammatory cells in connective tissue. Segregation of these lichenoid lesions is mandatory as each may embody a distinct disease entity in terms of cause, diagnosis and prognosis. The literature discussed in the article is an attempt to segregate individual lichenoid lesions by defining clinical and histopathologic variations among each other, which avoids the diagnostic problem.

  10. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  11. Small Musculoskeletal Soft-Tissue Lesions: US-guided Core Needle Biopsy--Comparative Study of Diagnostic Yields according to Lesion Size.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Chung, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of ultrasonographically (US) guided core needle biopsy (CNB) for diagnosis of small musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions by demonstrating the noninferiority of the diagnostic yield with US-guided CNB in lesions measuring 2 cm or smaller to that for lesions larger than 2 cm. This retrospective study was institutional review board approved, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. Five hundred US-guided CNBs performed for diagnosis of musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions were included. Results of US-guided CNBs were divided into four categories, and the diagnostic yields were calculated on the basis of lesion size. A one-sided 97.5% confidence interval was calculated to determine the mean difference in diagnostic yields to test for noninferiority. In addition, the diagnostic yield with US-guided CNBs for lesions 1 cm or smaller was compared with that for lesions larger than 1 cm. A total of 500 technically successful US-guided CNBs in 494 patients with musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions who underwent subsequent surgical excision or at least 6 months of follow-up were included. The diagnostic yields with US-guided CNB were 87% for lesions larger than 2 cm and 88% for lesions 2 cm or smaller. The lower bound of the confidence interval was -0.07, thus the noninferiority of the diagnostic yield with CNB for lesions 2 cm or smaller to that for lesions larger than 2 cm was shown. On the other hand, the diagnostic yield with US-guided CNB for lesions 1 cm or smaller was inferior to that for lesions larger than 1 cm. US-guided CNB of musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions is effective for diagnosis and decision making, even in lesions measuring 2 cm or smaller. However, when a lesion is 1 cm or smaller, US-guided CNB is more frequently insufficient for histopathologic diagnosis. © RSNA, 2015.

  12. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  13. Diagnostic value of estrogen receptors in thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Olevson, Youlian; Habler, Liliana; Kessler, Alex; Zehavi, Sergei; Sandbank, Judith

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta in various thyroid lesions and to assess the practicality of this test. Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 296 thyroid tissue samples that consisted of 150 goiters, 90 papillary carcinomas, 19 follicular adenomas, 15 Hurtle cell adenomas, 6 Hashimoto thyroiditis, 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 2 Hurtle cell carcinomas, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Three variables were evaluated in each sample: The intensity of the staining both nuclear (1) and cytoplasmic (2), and the spread of the stain over the sample (3). None of the histologic samples showed immunoreactivity for ERalpha. Positive immunoreactivity results for ERbeta were found in tissue samples from all of the different groups of diagnoses, both benign and malignant lesions as well as in normal thyroid tissue. No significant difference was found between the various thyroid lesions. The study shows that ERbeta is the only ER detectable in thyroid tissue. However, ERbeta expression has no significant specifications for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid. ERalpha is undetectable in the thyroid. Further investigations are necessary mainly in the laboratory immunohistochemical workup.

  14. Jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth: A radiographic diagnostic guide

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    This review article aimed to introduce a category of jaw lesions associated with impacted tooth. General search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks were used to find relevant studies using keywords such as "jaw lesion", "jaw disease", "impacted tooth", and "unerupted tooth". More than 250 articles were found, of which approximately 80 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 47 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 lesions were identified as having a relationship with impacted tooth: dentigerous cysts, calcifying odontogenic cysts, unicystic (mural) ameloblastomas, ameloblastomas, ameloblastic fibromas, adenomatoid odontogenic tumors, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumors, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and odontomas. When clinicians encounter a lesion associated with an impacted tooth, they should first consider these entities in the differential diagnosis. This will help dental practitioners make more accurate diagnoses and develop better treatment plans based on patients' radiographs. PMID:27672610

  15. Mammotome biopsy under ultrasound control in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions - own experience.

    PubMed

    Kibil, Wojciech; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Mammotome biopsy is an effective, minimally invasive, novel technique used in the verification of breast lesions.The aim of the study was to assess the value of ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (mammotome biopsy) in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions, considering own data.Material and methods. Analysis comprised 1183 mammotome biopsies under ultrasound control performed in 1177 female patients during the period between 2000 and 2010, at the Regional Clinic for Early Diagnostics and Treatment of Breast Lesions, I Chair and Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum.Results. The average patient age amounted to 41.7 years. The size of the investigated lesions ranged between 4 and 65 mm (mean - 12 mm). The histopathological examination result was as follows: fibrocystic lesions (n=285), adenofibroma (n=477), adenosis sclerosans (n=188), hyperplasia without atypy (n=58), phyllode tumor (n=2), papilloma (n=14), hamartoma (n=1), atypical hyperplasia (n=25), in situ ductal carcinoma (n=4), in situ lobular carcinoma (n=5), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n=114), infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n=4), non-diagnostic result (n=6). The histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 99.5% of cases. Patients diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or cancer were qualified for surgery, according to accepted standards. The presence of a hematoma was the most common complication after the biopsy, observed in 16.5% of patients.Conclusions. The obtained results confirmed the high value of ultrasound-guided biopsies in the diagnostics of nodular breast lesions. The method is safe, minimally invasive, with few complications, providing a good cosmetic effect. In case of benign lesions with a diameter of less than 15 mm the mammotome biopsy enables to completely excise the lesions, being an alternative to open surgical biopsies. The mammotome biopsy should become the method of choice considering the diagnostics of nodular

  16. Development and Testing of a Field Diagnostic Assay for Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J; Fishbourne, E; Couacy-Hyman, E; Abubakar, M; Jones, B A; Frost, L; Herbert, R; Chibssa, T R; van't Klooster, G; Afzal, M; Ayebazibwe, C; Toye, P; Bashiruddin, J; Baron, M D

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) under field conditions. The diagnostic assay has been tested in the laboratory and also under field conditions in Ivory Coast, Pakistan, Ethiopia and Uganda. The test is carried out on a superficial swab sample (ocular or nasal) and showed a sensitivity of 84% relative to PCR. The specificity was 95% over all nasal and ocular samples. The test detected as little as 103 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of cell culture-grown virus, and detected virus isolates representing all four known genetic lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus. Virus could be detected in swabs from animals as early as 4 days post-infection, at a time when clinical signs were minimal. Feedback from field trials was uniformly positive, suggesting that this diagnostic tool may be useful for current efforts to control the spread of PPR. PMID:25073647

  17. Patient perspectives of diagnostic delay for suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Allen, K; Farah, C S

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate patient experiences regarding the discovery of and subsequent referral for suspicious oral mucosal pathology. The population under investigation were patients of an oral medicine clinic in Australia who had been referred for oral lesions suspected for malignancy. A self-completed questionnaire gathered information regarding patient experiences and beliefs leading up to diagnosis at their review appointments. Fifty-four per cent of participants knew about their mucosal pathology before referral. The highest proportion of delay occurred between self-discovery of a lesion and seeking help. Ninety-one per cent of self-aware participants had reason for seeking help in relation to their mucosal pathology. The three most common reasons for this was the desire for an explanation, being advised by a health care provider or presence of pain. Some patients were unaware of their own oral mucosal pathology and some seek help only when worried, in pain or following advice. Practitioners should examine the oral mucosa to detect suspicious oral mucosal pathology since patients may not be aware of its existence. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of History and Physical Examination of Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Lori A.; Doukas, William C.; Murphy, Kevin P.; Walsworth, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Type I superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions involve degenerative fraying and probably are not the cause of shoulder pain. Type II to IV SLAP lesions are tears of the labrum. Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of patient history and the active compression, anterior slide, and crank tests for type I and type II to IV SLAP lesions. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-five patients (47 men, 8 women; age = 40.6 ± 15.1 years) presenting with shoulder pain. Intervention(s): For each patient, an orthopaedic surgeon conducted a clinical examination of history of trauma; sudden onset of symptoms; history of popping, clicking, or catching; age; and active compression, crank, and anterior slide tests. The reference standard was the intraoperative diagnosis. The operating surgeon was blinded to the results of the clinical examination. Main Outcome Measure(s): Diagnostic utility was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative likelihood ratio (−LR). Forward stepwise binary regression was used to determine a combination of tests for diagnosis. Results: No history item or physical examination test had diagnostic accuracy for type I SLAP lesions (n = 13). The anterior slide test had utility (AUC = 0.70, +LR = 2.25, −LR = 0.44) to confirm and exclude type II to IV SLAP lesions (n = 10). The combination of a history of popping, clicking, or catching and the anterior slide test demonstrated diagnostic utility for confirming type II to IV SLAP lesions (+LR = 6.00). Conclusions: The anterior slide test had limited diagnostic utility for confirming and excluding type II to IV SLAP lesions; diagnostic values indicated only small shifts in probability. However, the combination of the anterior slide test with a history of popping, clicking, or catching had moderate diagnostic utility for

  19. Improving the diagnostic accuracy of dysplastic and melanoma lesions using the decision template combination method.

    PubMed

    Faal, Maryam; Miran Baygi, Mohammad Hossein; Kabir, Ehsanollah

    2013-02-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, and early detection of suspicious lesions can decrease the mortality rate of this cancer. In this article, we present a multi-classifier system for improving the diagnostic accuracy of melanoma and dysplastic lesions based on the decision template combination rule. First, the lesion is differentiated from the surrounding healthy skin in an image. Next, shape, colour and texture features are extracted from the lesion image. Different subsets of these features are fed to three different classifiers: k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The decision template method is used to combine the outputs of these classifiers. The proposed method has been evaluated on a set of 436 dermatoscopic images of benign, dysplastic and melanoma lesions. The final classifier ensemble delivers a total classification accuracy of 80.46%, with 67.73% of dysplastic lesions correctly classified and 83.53% of melanoma lesions correctly classified. The results show that the proposed method significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy of dysplastic and melanoma lesions compared with a single classifier. The total classification rate is also improved. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Application of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Cystic Pancreatic Lesions Using a Simplified Classification Diagnostic Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhihui; Yan, Kun; Wang, Yanjie; Qiu, Jianxing; Wu, Wei; Yang, Lei; Chen, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Classification diagnosis was performed for cystic pancreatic lesions using ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to explore the diagnostic value of CEUS by comparison with enhanced CT. Methods. Sixty-four cases with cystic pancreatic lesions were included in this study. The cystic lesions of pancreas were classified into four types by US, CEUS, and CT: type I unilocular cysts; type II microcystic lesions; type III macrocystic lesions; and type IV cystic lesions with solid components or irregular thickening of the cystic wall or septa. Results. Eighteen type I, 7 type II, 10 type III, and 29 type IV cases were diagnosed by CT. The classification results by US were as follows: 6 type I; 5 type II; 4 type III; and 49 type IV cases. Compared with the results by enhanced CT, the kappa value was 0.36. Using CEUS, 15, 6, 12, and 31 cases were diagnosed as types I–IV, respectively. The kappa value was 0.77. Conclusion. CEUS has obvious superiority over US in the classification diagnostic accuracy in cystic pancreatic lesions and CEUS results showed substantial agreement with enhanced CT. CEUS could contribute to the differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic diseases. PMID:26090467

  1. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  2. All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice.

  3. Comparison of diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Kanoksil, Wasana; Laungdamerongchai, Sarangrat

    2015-04-01

    There are many sampling techniques dedicated to radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guided flexible bronchoscopy (FB). However, data regarding the diagnostic performances among bronchoscopic sampling techniques is limited. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic yields among bronchoscopic sampling techniques in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). A prospective study was conducted on 112 patients who were diagnosed with PPLs and underwent R-EBUS-guided FB between Oct 2012 and Sep 2014. Sampling techniques-including transbronchial biopsy (TBB), brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed fluid of brushing, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-were evaluated for the diagnosis. The mean diameter of the PPLs was 23.5±9.5 mm. The final diagnoses included 76 malignancies and 36 benign lesions. The overall diagnostic yield of R-EBUS-guided bronchoscopy was 80.4%; TBB gave the highest yield among the 112 specimens: 70.5%, 34.8%, 62.5%, 50.0% and 42.0% for TBB, brushing cell block, brushing smear, rinsed brushing fluid, and BAL fluid (BALF), respectively (P<0.001). TBB provided high diagnostic yield irrespective of the size and etiology of the PPLs. The combination of TBB and brushing smear achieved the maximum diagnostic yield. Of 31 infectious PPLs, BALF culture gave additional microbiological information in 20 cases. TBB provided the highest diagnostic yield; however, to achieve the highest diagnostic performance, TBB, brushing smear and BAL techniques should be performed together.

  4. CT-Guided Biopsy of Small Liver Lesions: Visibility, Artifacts, and Corresponding Diagnostic Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Stattaus, Joerg Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Susanne; Schroeder, Tobias; Antoch, Gerald; Baba, Hideo A.; Barkhausen, Joerg; Forsting, Michael

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Our study aimed to determine the visibility of small liver lesions during CT-guided biopsy and to assess the influence of lesion visibility on biopsy results. Material and Methods. Fifty patients underwent CT-guided core biopsy of small focal liver lesions (maximum diameter, 3 cm); 38 biopsies were performed using noncontrast CT, and the remaining 12 were contrast-enhanced. Visibility of all lesions was graded on a 4-point-scale (0 = not visible, 1 = poorly visible, 2 = sufficiently visible, 3 = excellently visible) before and during biopsy (with the needle placed adjacent to and within the target lesion). Results. Forty-three biopsies (86%) yielded diagnostic results, and seven biopsies were false-negative. In noncontrast biopsies, the rate of insufficiently visualized lesions (grades 0-1) increased significantly during the procedure, from 10.5% to 44.7%, due to needle artifacts. This resulted in more (17.6%) false-negative biopsy results compared to lesions with good visualization (4.8%), although this difference lacks statistical significance. Visualization impairment appeared more often with an intercostal or subcostal vs. an epigastric access and with a subcapsular vs. a central lesion location, respectively. With contrast-enhanced biopsy the visibility of hepatic lesions was only temporarily improved, with a risk of complete obscuration in the late phase. Conclusion. In conclusion, visibility of small liver lesions diminished significantly during CT-guided biopsy due to needle artifacts, with a fourfold increased rate of insufficiently visualized lesions and of false-negative histological results. Contrast enhancement did not reveal better results.

  5. Diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Poillucci, Gabriele; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2016-08-01

    To assess the actual diagnostic impact of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography (CXR). A total of 237 patients (135 male, 102 female; age, 70.8 ± 10.4 years) with a known primary malignancy and suspected pulmonary lesion(s) on CXR and who underwent DTS were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists (experience, 10 and 15 years) analysed in consensus CXR and DTS images and proposed a diagnosis according to a confidence score: 1 or 2 = definitely or probably benign pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesion, or pseudolesion; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probably or definitely pulmonary lesion. DTS findings were proven by CT (n = 114 patients), CXR during follow-up (n = 105) or histology (n = 18). Final diagnoses included 77 pulmonary opacities, 26 pulmonary scars, 12 pleural lesions and 122 pulmonary pseudolesions. DTS vs CXR presented a higher (P < 0.05) sensitivity (92 vs 15 %), specificity (91 vs 9 %), overall accuracy (92 vs 12 %), and diagnostic confidence (area under ROC, 0.997 vs 0.619). Mean effective dose of CXR vs DTS was 0.06 vs 0.107 mSv (P < 0.05). DTS improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in comparison to CXR alone in oncologic patients with suspected pulmonary lesions on CXR with only a slight, though significant, increase in radiation dose. • Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) improves accuracy of chest radiography (CXR) in oncologic patients. • DTS improves confidence of CXR in oncologic patients. • DTS allowed avoidance of CT in about 50 % of oncologic patients.

  6. Diagnostic Pitfalls in Papillary Lesions of the Breast: Experience from a Single Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Basavaiah, Sridevi Hanaganahalli; Sreeram, Saraswathy; Suresh, Pooja Kundapur; Kini, Hema; Adiga, Deepa; Sahu, Kausalya Kumari; Pai, Radha R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Papillary neoplasms are a group of lesions that are characterized by presence of papillae supported by fibrovascular cores lined by epithelial cells with or without myoepithelial cell layer. These neoplasms may be benign, atypical or malignant. Aims This study was conducted to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics of papillary lesions of the breast. Materials and Methods A retrospective and prospective analysis of 34 cases of papillary lesions received over a period of 7 years from 2009 to 2015 was done. The patient’s clinical details were collected from medical archives and the histopathological findings were reviewed. The lesions were classified into benign, atypical and malignant categories. Results During the study period, there were 34 cases of papillary lesions of breast. The mean age was 58 years. The central quadrant was the most common location (66.6%). The most common presenting complaint was lump (76.5% cases). Papillary lesions presented more commonly as solitary lump (82.4%) rather than multifocal disease. Benign papillary lesions were more common than the atypical and malignant lesions. The most common papillary lesion accounting for 43% of the cases was intraductal papilloma. Malignant lesions accounted for 41.2% cases with intraductal papillary carcinoma and invasive papillary carcinoma constituting 14.7% cases each. Conclusion Diagnosis of papillary carcinoma is challenging and its classification includes different entities that have specific diagnostic criteria. Due to their heterozygosity in morphology with benign, atypical and malignant subtypes, morphological features such as type of fibrovascular core and continuity of myoepithelial layer along with immunohistochemical stains for myoepithelial cells should be considered for proper and accurate diagnosis. PMID:27656446

  7. Apport de l'imagerie dans le diagnostic des sacroiliites infectieuses : à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hanen; Chaabouni, Salim; Frikha, Faten; Toumi, Nozha; Souissi, Basma; Lahiani, Dorra; Bahloul, Zouhir; Ben Mahfoudh, Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Les sacro-iliites infectieuses méritent d’être mieux connues. Leur diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie trompeuse et des diffcultés d'exploration de l'articulation sacro-iliaque. Notre travail est basé sur une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas de SII, recueillis sur une période comprise entre 1997 et 2008 dans notre centre universitaire Sfax-Tunisie. Le diagnostic de sacro-iliite était retenu en présence d'arguments cliniques et radiologiques d'atteinte sacroiliaque. Nous rapportons dix neuf cas de sacroiliites infectieuses (10 hommes et 9 femmes), avec un âge moyen de 32 ans. L'atteinte était unilatérale dans tous les cas. Les radiographies standard faites dans tous les cas ont été suggestives dans 14 cas et normales dans les autres cas. La TDM faite dans 13 cas a montré, un abcès des parties molles dans 8 cas et un séquestre osseux dans 2 cas. L'IRM réalisée dans 8 cas, a objectivé une infiltration des parties molles dans tous les cas et un abcès dans 3 cas. Le germe a été identifié dans 9 cas (3 cas de tuberculose, 3 cas de brucellose, 2 sacro-iliites à pyogène et un cas de candidose). Cette identification était faite par biopsie dans 3 cas, hémocultures dans 2 cas, prélèvement au niveau de la porte d'entrée dans 1 cas et sérodiagnostic dans 3 cas. Pour les autres cas, l'origine pyogène a été retenue sur des arguments cliniques et biologiques. L'imagerie joue un rôle primordial dans le diagnostic précoce et l'orientation étiologique d'une sacroiliite infectieuse. PMID:25120884

  8. Development and testing of a field diagnostic assay for peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, J; Fishbourne, E; Couacy-Hyman, E; Abubakar, M; Jones, B A; Frost, L; Herbert, R; Chibssa, T R; Van't Klooster, G; Afzal, M; Ayebazibwe, C; Toye, P; Bashiruddin, J; Baron, M D

    2014-10-01

    We have developed an immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) under field conditions. The diagnostic assay has been tested in the laboratory and also under field conditions in Ivory Coast, Pakistan, Ethiopia and Uganda. The test is carried out on a superficial swab sample (ocular or nasal) and showed a sensitivity of 84% relative to PCR. The specificity was 95% over all nasal and ocular samples. The test detected as little as 10(3) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of cell culture-grown virus, and detected virus isolates representing all four known genetic lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus. Virus could be detected in swabs from animals as early as 4 days post-infection, at a time when clinical signs were minimal. Feedback from field trials was uniformly positive, suggesting that this diagnostic tool may be useful for current efforts to control the spread of PPR. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of SPECT/CT and MRI in Diagnosing Symptomatic Lesions in Ankle and Foot Pain Patients: Diagnostic Performance and Relation to Lesion Type

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seunggyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Yeon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Arya, Amitabh; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of SPECT/CT and MRI in patients with ankle and foot pain, with regard to the lesion types. Materials and Methods Fifty consecutive patients with ankle and foot pain, who underwent 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT and MRI, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Symptomatic lesions were determined based on clinical examination and response to treatment. On MRI and SPECT/CT, detected lesions were classified as bone, ligament/tendon, and joint lesions. Uptake on SPECT/CT was assessed using a 4-grade system. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SPECT/CT and MRI were evaluated in all detected lesions and each lesion type. Diagnostic value of uptake grade was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, and diagnostic performance was compared using Chi-square or McNemar tests. Results In overall lesions, the sensitivity, PPV and NPV of SPECT/CT for symptomatic lesions were 93%, 56%, 91%, and they were 98%, 48%, 95% for MRI. There was no significant difference between SPECT/CT and MRI. However, the specificity of SPECT/CT was significantly higher than that of MRI (48% versus 24%, P = 0.016). Uptake grade on SPECT/CT was significantly higher in symptomatic lesions (P < 0.001), and its area under curve on ROC analysis was 0.787. In the analysis of each lesion type, the specificity of SPECT/CT was poor in joint lesions compared with other lesion types and MRI (P < 0.001, respectively). MRI exhibited lower specificity than SPECT/CT in bone lesions (P = 0.004) and ligament/tendon lesions (P < 0.001). Conclusions SPECT/CT has MRI-comparable diagnostic performance for symptomatic lesions in ankle and foot pain patients. SPECT/CT and MRI exhibit different diagnostic specificity in different lesion types. SPECT/CT may be used as a complementary imaging method to MRI for enhancing diagnostic specificity. PMID:25668182

  11. Diagnostic value of Tzanck smear in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yaeen, Atiya; Ahmad, Qazi Masood; Farhana, Anjum; Shah, Parveen; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous cytology has long been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of several erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. The Tzanck smear although an old tool, still remains a simple, rapid, easily applied, and inexpensive test for these skin lesions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Tzanck smear by determining its sensitivity and specificity in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with erosive, vesicular, and/or bullous skin lesions were included in the study. Four groups of disorders were identified: infections, immunologic disorders, genodermatosis, and spongiotic dermatitis. All the study cases were evaluated by Tzanck smear. Definitive diagnosis was established by standard diagnostic techniques (including when appropriate, viral serology, bacterial culture, histopathology, direct immunoflourescence). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytologic findings was respectively 86.36% and 91.30% for viral infections; for bacterial infections, it was 85.7% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear was respectively 85.0% and 83.33% for pemphigus; for bullous pemhigoid it was 11.11% and 100.0%. Tzanck smear sensitivity in genodermatoses was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test in spongiotic dermatitis could not be calculated due to an insufficient number of patients. Conclusion: The Tzanck smear is a quick and reliable tool for the evaluation of various erosive and vesiculobullous skin lesions. PMID:26751561

  12. Diagnostic role of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration of gallbladder lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jun; Lee, Sung-Koo; Jang, Ji Woong; Kim, Tae Gyoon; Ryu, Choong Heon; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a well-established diagnostic technique for examining various organs of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, but little is known about its use in the diagnostic work-up of GB lesions. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of EUS-FNA of GB lesions. Twenty-eight patients who underwent EUS-FNA for evaluation of GB lesions were enrolled. The pathological results and complications were assessed. EUS-FNA of GB was performed in 13 patients and that of enlarged lymph nodes was done in 18. Of the 13 GB lesions sampled by EUS-FNA, 10 were diagnosed as malignant and 3 were negative for malignant cells. Of the latter 3, two were false negatives for malignancy. All 14 metastatic lymphadenopathy cases were diagnosed with EUS-FNA of lymph nodes. EUS-FNA could differentiate adenocarcinomas and other malignant diseases. Cholecystitis occurred in one patient after EUS-FNA of the GB. EUS-FNA is a feasible, safe and reliable method for obtaining samples from GB lesions. EUS-FNA of lymph nodes is complementary to EUS-FNA of the GB and provides nodal stage as well as histological diagnosis.

  13. Diagnostic and Treatment Reproducibility of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion and Factors Affecting the Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Arzu; Usubütün, Alp; Dolgun, Anıl; Mutter, George L; Salman, M Coşkun; Kurtulan, Olcay; Akyol, Aytekin; Özkan, Eylem Akar; Baykara, Sema; Bülbül, Dilek; Calay, Zerrin; Eren, Funda; Gümürdülü, Derya; Haberal, Nihan; Ilvan, Şennur; Karaveli, Şeyda; Koyuncuoğlu, Meral; Müezzinoğlu, Bahar; Müftüoğlu, Kamil Hakan; Özen, Özlem; Özdemir, Necmettin; Peştereli, Elif; Ulukuş, Çağnur; Zekioğlu, Osman

    2017-01-01

    Inter-observer differences in the diagnosis of HPV related cervical lesions are problematic and response of gynecologists to these diagnostic entities is non-standardized. This study evaluated the diagnostic reproducibility of "cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (CIN) and "squamous intraepithelial lesion" (SIL) diagnoses. 19 pathologists evaluated 66 cases once using H&E slides and once with immunohistochemical studies (p16, Ki-67 and Pro-ExC). Management response to diagnoses was evaluated amongst 12 gynecologists. Pathologists and gynecologists were also given a questionnaire about how additional information like smear results and age modify diagnosis and management. We show moderate interobserver diagnostic reproducibility amongst pathologists. The overall kappa value was 0.50 and 0.59 using the CIN and SIL classifications respectively. Impact of immunohistochemical evaluation on interpretation of cases differed and there was lack of statistically significant improvement of interobserver diagnostic reproducibility with the addition of immunohistochemistry. We saw that choice of treatment methods amongst gynecologists varied and overall concordance was only fair to moderate. The CIN2 diagnostic category was seen to have the lowest percentage agreement amongst both pathologists and gynecologists. We showed that pathologists had diagnostic "styles" and gynecologists had management "styles". In summary each pathologist had different diagnostic tendencies which were affected not only by histopathology and marker studies, but also by the patient management tendencies of the gynecologist that the pathologist worked with. The two-tiered modified Bethesda system improved diagnostic agreement. We concluded that immunohistochemistry should be used only to resolve problems in select cases and not for every case.

  14. Apport de l'orientation clinique dans le diagnostic des hypertensions arterielles endocriniennes

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Louda, Fatima; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    L'hypertension artérielle d'origine endocrinienne représente une cause curable d'hypertension artérielle (HTA), ce qui en justifie le dépistage. Une orientation clinique est souhaitable afin de prescrire les bilans adéquats, notamment dans les pays en voie de développement. L'objectif de notre étude est décrire les aspects cliniques des patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne diagnostiquée au CHU de Casablanca. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective de 2004 à 2011, incluant tout patient ayant une HTA endocrinienne (en dehors des dysthyroïdies) admis en Endocrinologie. Les données concernant les facteurs cliniques, paracliniques et thérapeutiques ont été colligées. Au cours de la période étudiée, 53 cas d'HTA endocrinienne ont été admis, avec une age moyen au diagnostic de 39,3 ans et un sex-ratio F/H de 3,9. Trente patients (56.6%) ont un age ont un âge inférieur à 40 ans. On ne retrouve pas d'hérédité tensionelle chez 88.7% des patients. Les étiologies sont le Syndrome de cushing (41.5%), le phéochromocytome (32%), les adénomes somatotropes (15%) et les hyperaldostéronismes primaire (7.5%). L'HTA est essentiellement de grade un ou deux (69.8%), avec un retentissement cardio-vasculaire chez 11 patients (20.7%). Les patients ayant un SC avaient tous des signes cutanés spécifiques. Il s'agissait de sujets jeunes avec plusieurs facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Nous avons retrouvé un amaigrissement chez 37.5% des patients ayant un phéochromocytome avec un indice de masse corporel moyen de 20 kg/m2. L'HTA était permanente dans 5 cas de phéochromocytomes. Il n'existait pas d'hypokaliémie chez 50% des patients ayant un hyperaldostéronisme. Les signes cliniques des patients ayant une acromégalie étaient francs, avec un age moyen plus élevé de 50 ans. Nous avons noté une régression de l'HTA chez 59% de ces patients après guérison de l'endocrinopathie en cause. Plusieurs signes cliniques peuvent nous

  15. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis versus Supplemental Diagnostic Mammographic Views for Evaluation of Noncalcified Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Ganott, Marie A.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Kelly, Amy E.; Catullo, Victor J.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Lu, Amy H.; Gur, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Materials and Methods: Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31–60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS–based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy–based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Average probability-of-malignancy–based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P < .001). With tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P < .01) for cases that were rated BI-RADS category 3 or higher and from 57% (663 of

  16. Digital breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental diagnostic mammographic views for evaluation of noncalcified breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Zuley, Margarita L; Bandos, Andriy I; Ganott, Marie A; Sumkin, Jules H; Kelly, Amy E; Catullo, Victor J; Rathfon, Grace Y; Lu, Amy H; Gur, David

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of breast tomosynthesis versus supplemental mammography views in classification of masses, distortions, and asymmetries. Eight radiologists who specialized in breast imaging retrospectively reviewed 217 consecutively accrued lesions by using protocols that were HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved in 182 patients aged 31-60 years (mean, 50 years) who underwent diagnostic mammography and tomosynthesis. The lesions in the cohort included 33% (72 of 217) cancers and 67% (145 of 217) benign lesions. Eighty-four percent (182 of 217) of the lesions were masses, 11% (25 of 217) were asymmetries, and 5% (10 of 217) were distortions that were initially detected at clinical examination in 8% (17 of 217), at mammography in 80% (173 of 217), at ultrasonography (US) in 11% (25 of 217), or at magnetic resonance imaging in 1% (2 of 217). Histopathologic examination established truth in 191 lesions, US revealed a cyst in 12 lesions, and 14 lesions had a normal follow-up. Each lesion was interpreted once with tomosynthesis and once with supplemental mammographic views; both modes included the mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal views in a fully crossed and balanced design by using a five-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and a probability-of-malignancy score. Differences between modes were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model for BI-RADS-based sensitivity and specificity and with modified Obuchowski-Rockette approach for probability-of-malignancy-based area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Average probability-of-malignancy-based area under the ROC curve was 0.87 for tomosynthesis versus 0.83 for supplemental views (P < .001). With tomosynthesis, the false-positive rate decreased from 85% (989 of 1160) to 74% (864 of 1160) (P < .01) for cases that were rated BI-RADS category 3 or higher and from 57% (663 of 1160) to 48% (559 of 1160) for cases rated BI

  17. Diagnostic value of Thallium-201 scintigraphy in differentiating malignant bone tumors from benign bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Inai, Ryota; Shinya, Takayoshi; Tada, Akihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Takeda, Ken; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of thallium-201 (201Tl) scintigraphy for differentiating malignant bone tumors from benign bone lesions. Between January 2006 and December 2012, 279 patients with bone lesions (51 malignant and 228 benign) underwent 201Tl scintigraphy before treatment. To evaluate 201Tl uptake, we investigated tumor-to-background contrast (TBC) as well as TBC washout rate (WR). The differences of TBC on early and delayed images and WR were estimated by the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine the cut-off TBC values for differentiating malignant bone tumors from benign bone lesions. There were statistically significant differences in median TBC between malignant tumors and benign lesions. These differences occurred for early imaging (1.57 vs. 0.09, p < 0.001) as well as for delayed imaging (0.83 vs. 0.07, p < 0.001). However, there was no statistical difference in WR between malignant tumors and benign lesions (44 vs. 43 %, NS). The chosen TBC cut-off value was 0.68 for early imaging and 0.38 for delayed imaging. Using these cut-off values, the prediction of malignancy had a 77 % sensitivity, 74 % specificity, and 75 % accuracy for early imaging and an 80 % sensitivity, 76 % specificity, and 77 % accuracy for delayed imaging. 201Tl scintigraphy may have the ability to distinguish malignant bone tumors from benign bone lesions.

  18. Neuroradiological viewpoint on the diagnostics of space-occupying brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Faehndrich, J; Weidauer, S; Pilatus, U; Oszvald, A; Zanella, F E; Hattingen, E

    2011-09-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of space-occupying lesions may answer most of the questions concerning the diagnosis and subsequent treatment strategies if patient age, clinical and paraclinical findings are considered as well. However, crucial and relevant differential diagnoses require additional MR methods, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In necrotic ring-enhancing lesions DWI may detect inflammatory processes, whereas characteristics of the peritumoral area may help to distinguish between metastases and glioblastomas. In solid tumors DWI, PWI and MRS may also aid the differentiation between low-grade gliomas and malignant tumors, such as gliomas WHO (World Health Organization) grade III and IV and lymphomas. This review briefly explains special MR methods with respect to brain tumors and illustrates the diagnostic pathways necessary for supplying a reliable diagnosis as well as optimal pre-operative imaging of space-occupying brain lesions.

  19. Diagnostic value of core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Eva; Gürtler, Nicolas; Arnoux, André; Kraft, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    Core needle biopsy (CNB) has gained acceptance as a minimally invasive procedure in the head and neck. Nevertheless, many concerns arise regarding the value and safety of this method in the assessment of salivary gland lesions. This prospective study comprises 111 patients with a salivary gland lesion. The results of ultrasound-guided CNB were compared with those of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the 103 histologically verified cases. CNB achieved a higher accuracy than FNA in identifying true neoplasms (98% vs 91%) and detecting malignancy (99% vs 87%), and was also superior to FNA providing a specific diagnosis (93% vs 74%). In both methods, no complications, such as bleeding, infection, nerve injury, or tumor-cell seeding, occurred. CNB is a simple, safe, and highly accurate procedure, which should be considered as an additional diagnostic tool in the assessment of salivary gland lesions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E346-E352, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diagnostic features of quantitative comb-push shear elastography for breast lesion differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Max; Gregory, Adriana; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Viksit; Meixner, Duane; Fazzio, Robert T.; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background Lesion stiffness measured by shear wave elastography has shown to effectively separate benign from malignant breast masses. The aim of this study was to evaluate different aspects of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) performance in differentiating breast masses. Methods With written signed informed consent, this HIPAA- compliant, IRB approved prospective study included patients from April 2014 through August 2016 with breast masses identified on conventional imaging. Data from 223 patients (19–85 years, mean 59.93±14.96 years) with 227 suspicious breast masses identifiable by ultrasound (mean size 1.83±2.45cm) were analyzed. CUSE was performed on all patients. Three regions of interest (ROI), 3 mm in diameter each, were selected inside the lesion on the B-mode ultrasound which also appeared in the corresponding shear wave map. Lesion elasticity values were measured in terms of the Young’s modulus. In correlation to pathology results, statistical analyses were performed. Results Pathology revealed 108 lesions as malignant and 115 lesions as benign. Additionally, 4 lesions (BI-RADS 2 and 3) were considered benign and were not biopsied. Average lesion stiffness measured by CUSE resulted in 84.26% sensitivity (91 of 108), 89.92% specificity (107 of 119), 85.6% positive predictive value, 89% negative predictive value and 0.91 area under the curve (P<0.0001). Stiffness maps showed spatial continuity such that maximum and average elasticity did not have significantly different results (P > 0.21). Conclusion CUSE was able to distinguish between benign and malignant breast masses with high sensitivity and specificity. Continuity of stiffness maps allowed for choosing multiple quantification ROIs which covered large areas of lesions and resulted in similar diagnostic performance based on average and maximum elasticity. The overall results of this study, highlights the clinical value of CUSE in differentiation of breast masses based on their

  1. Francisella tularensis infection without lesions in gray tree squirrels (Sciurus griseus): a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Danielle D; Haldorson, Gary J; Stanton, James B; Noh, Susan M; Bradway, Daniel S; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy V

    2014-03-01

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularensis infection (tularemia) were identified in western gray (Sciurus griseus) and eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington State, a geographical area with endemic tularemia in wildlife. Nine of the 15 squirrels with F. tularensis infection had gross (2/15) or microscopic (9/15) multifocal necrotizing lesions in the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, typical of tularemia. Special stains did not reliably identify intralesional bacteria microscopically. Six of the 15 squirrels infected with F. tularensis lacked gross and microscopic lesions typical of tularemia. All 15 squirrels with F. tularensis infection were identified by polymerase chain reaction tests on the spleen, liver, or lymph node (including all 6 squirrels without typical tularemia lesions); 8 out of 9 squirrels were positive by direct fluorescent antibody test of tissues, and 5 out of 15 squirrels were positive by culture of tissues. The findings underscore the importance of considering tularemia as a possible cause of death when no lesions of tularemia can be identified at necropsy. Furthermore, the findings suggest the possibility of subclinical infections in gray squirrels, and the importance of molecular diagnostics for definitive diagnosis of F. tularensis infection in wild squirrels.

  2. Diagnostic retrieval monitoring in patients with frontal lobe lesions: further exploration of the distinctiveness heuristic.

    PubMed

    Hwang, David Y; Gallo, David A; Ally, Brandon A; Black, Peter M; Schacter, Daniel L; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-06-18

    The distinctiveness heuristic is a diagnostic monitoring strategy whereby a subject expects a vivid recollection if a test item has been seen during the study session; the absence of a vivid recollection suggests the test item is novel. Consistent with the hypothesis that memory monitoring is dependent upon the frontal lobes, previous work using a repetition-lag paradigm found that patients with frontal lobe lesions were unable to use the distinctiveness heuristic. Evidence from recent neuroimaging studies, however, has suggested that use of the distinctiveness heuristic decreases the need for frontal processing. The present study used the criterial recollection task to revisit the question of whether patients with frontal lobe lesions are able to use a distinctiveness heuristic. Subjects studied black words paired with the same word in red font, a corresponding picture of the word, or both. They then took three memory tests designed to elicit false recognition of presented items. Both frontal lesion patients and matched control subjects showed intact ability to use the distinctiveness heuristic to reduce false recognition when tested on whether items were previously presented as pictures compared to red words. This use of the distinctiveness heuristic is evidence that patients with frontal lesions can use certain diagnostic monitoring strategies during recognition memory tasks when given guidance in coordinating their decision-making processes. This result suggests that the frontal lobes are necessary for self-initiation of this strategy during recognition memory tasks.

  3. Lesions of the rotator cuff footprint: diagnostic performance of MR arthrography compared with arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stoppino, L P; Ciuffreda, P; Rossi, M; Lelario, M; Bristogiannis, C; Vinci, R; Genovese, E A; Macarini, L

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MR-A) of the shoulder in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears involving the humeral insertion of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon (footprint), using arthroscopy as the reference standard. The study population included 90 consecutive patients with history and clinical diagnosis of instability of the shoulder, rotator cuff tear or posterosuperior glenoid impingement. A total of 108 MR arthrograms were performed, since 18 patients had undergone a bilateral procedure. Arthroscopy, which was performed within 45 days after MR-A, was used as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were then calculated. Magnetic resonance arthrography showed a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 78 % for the overall detection of tears involving the rotator cuff footprint. The diagnostic accuracy was 90 %, and the positive and negative predictive values were 95 and 64 %, respectively. Ten lesions were non-classifiable on surgery, of which eight were non-classifiable on MR-A also. Magnetic resonance arthrography is extremely accurate for the detection and classification of rotator cuff footprint tears. Most of these lesions are articular-sided (partial articular-sided supraspinatus tendon avulsion lesions) with predominance in younger patients and concealed type of tear (concealed interstitial delamination lesions).

  4. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  5. Diagnostically Challenging Epithelial Odontogenic Tumors: A Selective Review of 7 Jawbone Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Considerable variation in the clinicopathologic presentation of epithelial odontogenic tumors can sometimes be confusing and increase the chance of misdiagnosis. Seven diagnostically challenging jawbone lesions are described. There were 2 cases of mistaken identity in our ameloblastoma file. One unicystic type, initially diagnosed and treated as a lateral periodontal cyst, showed destructive recurrence 6 years postoperatively. The other globulomaxillary lesion was managed under the erroneous diagnosis of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor and recurred 4 times over an 11-year period. This tumor was found in retrospect to be consistent with an adenoid ameloblastoma with dentinoid. The diagnosis of cystic squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) occurring as a radicular lesion of an impacted lower third molar was one of exclusion. Of two unsuspected keratocystic odontogenic tumors, one depicted deceptive features of pericoronitis, while the other case has long been in our files with the diagnosis of globulomaxillary SOT. Two cases of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma appeared benign clinically and exhibited unexpected findings; an impacted third molar began to erupt in association with the growth of carcinoma and another periradicular carcinoma showed dentinoid formation. Cases selectively reviewed in this article present challenging problems which require clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:20596984

  6. Cost minimization analysis of ultrasound-guided diagnostic evaluation of probably benign breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Wells, Colin J; Bassett, Lawrence W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare direct health care costs for two competing diagnostic strategies for probably benign breast lesions detected by ultrasound in young women. We developed a decision analytic model and performed a cost minimization analysis comparing ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy and conservative short-term diagnostic ultrasound follow-up. Relative probabilities for diagnostic outcomes were derived from pooled analysis of the medical literature. Direct health care costs were estimated using United States national average figures from calendar year 2010. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted, as well as a first-order Monte Carlo simulation to confirm cost differences between the two strategies. The conservative short-term imaging follow-up strategy ($639.55 average cost per patient) was the most economical strategy compared to immediate vacuum-assisted core biopsy ($879.55 average cost per patient). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the preferred strategy is most dependent on the probabilities of detecting change in appearance on follow-up ultrasound, having a benign finding on immediate core biopsy, and finding cancer on a biopsy triggered by an interval change in ultrasound appearance. The model was also sensitive to the costs of vacuum-assisted core biopsy and diagnostic ultrasound. Conservative imaging follow-up of BIRADS 3 breast masses by ultrasound is cost saving compared to immediate vacuum-assisted core biopsy, with a potential of saving more than one-third of overall costs associated with the diagnostic work-up of such lesions. Watchful waiting with short-term interval follow-up ultrasounds will spare women from unnecessary procedures and spare the United States health care system from unnecessary direct health care costs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnostic validity of periapical radiography and CBCT for assessing periapical lesions that persist after endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Casper; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Reibel, Jesper; Wenzel, Ann; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2017-07-14

    Traditionally, healing after surgical endodontic retreatment (SER); i.e. apicectomy with or without a retrograde filling, is assessed in periapical radiographs (PR). Recently, the use of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) has increased within endodontics. Generally, CBCT detects more periapical lesions than PR, but basic research on the true nature of these lesions is missing. The objective was to assess the diagnostic validity of PR and CBCT for determining inflammation in SER-cases that were re-operated (SER-R) due to unsuccessful healing, using histology of the periapical lesion as reference for inflammation. Records from 149 patients, receiving SER 2004-10, were screened. In total 108 patients (119 teeth) were recalled for clinical follow-up examination, PR and CBCT, of which 74 patients (83 teeth) participated. Three observers assessed PR and CBCT as "successful healing" or "unsuccessful healing" using Rud and Molven´s criteria. SER-R was offered to all non-healed teeth with expected favorable prognosis for subsequent functional retention. During SER-R, biopsy was performed and histopathology verified whether or not inflammation was present. All re-operated cases were assessed non-healed in CBCT while 11 of these were assessed successfully healed in PR. Nineteen biopsies were examined. Histopathologic diagnosis revealed 42% (teeth=8) without periapical inflammation, 16% (teeth=3) with mild inflammation, and 42% (teeth=8) with moderate to intense inflammation. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 58% with CBCT (true positives) and 63% with PR (true positives+true negatives). Of the re-operated teeth, 42% had no periapical inflammatory lesion, and hence no benefit from SER-R. Not all lesions observed in CBCT represented periapical inflammatory lesions.

  8. Diagnostic Features of Common Oral Ulcerative Lesions: An Updated Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral ulcerative lesions might be quite challenging. This narrative review article aims to introduce an updated decision tree for diagnosing oral ulcerative lesions on the basis of their diagnostic features. Various general search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of MeSH keywords such as “oral ulcer,” “stomatitis,” and “mouth diseases.” Thereafter, English-language articles published since 1983 to 2015 in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analyses, original papers, and case reports were appraised. Upon compilation of the relevant data, oral ulcerative lesions were categorized into three major groups: acute, chronic, and recurrent ulcers and into five subgroups: solitary acute, multiple acute, solitary chronic, multiple chronic, and solitary/multiple recurrent, based on the number and duration of lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by stepwise progression. PMID:27781066

  9. Can we safely diagnose pigmented lesions from stored video images? A diagnostic comparison between clinical examination and stored video images of pigmented lesions removed for histology.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, V M; Harris, D W; Whittaker, S J

    2001-01-01

    Rapid expansion of communication technology has permitted the clinician to perform a consultation with a patient located at a different site. Assuming adequate diagnostic accuracy, it could theoretically be possible to use telemedical techniques as a triage tool. Images of pigmented lesions sent by the primary care physician could be viewed by the consultant dermatologist, and those with banal lesions spared from attending clinic. Previous studies assessing diagnostic accuracy of images of lesions have used 'face-to-face' diagnoses as the 'gold standard'. We set out to compare diagnostic accuracy of image examination compared with that of clinical examination, using histological examination as the diagnostic benchmark. We found that pigmented lesions may be diagnosed as accurately by stored video image evaluation as by conventional clinical examination. None of the malignant skin tumours was misdiagnosed as benign in either group. Whilst these results are encouraging in terms of the clinical safety of store-and-forward imaging, the inability to examine the whole patient or to palpate the lesions may limit the acceptability of the technique severely. Further evaluation of the cost : benefit ratio of such a system to the health care provider must be undertaken before considering this technique as a potential adjunct to managing outpatient referrals.

  10. Autofluorescence guided diagnostic evaluation of suspicious oral mucosal lesions: opportunities, limitations, and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2011-03-01

    Wide-filed autofluorescence examination is currently considered as a standard of care for screening and diagnostic evaluation of early neoplastic changes of the skin, cervix, lung, bladder, gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity. Naturally occurring fluorophores within the tissue absorb UV and visible light and can re-emit some of this light at longer wavelengths in the form of fluorescence. This non-invasive tissue autofluorescence imaging is used in optical diagnostics, especially in the early detection of cancer. Usually, malignant transformation is associated with thickening of the epithelium, enhanced cellular density due to increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio which may attenuate the excitation leading to a decrease in collagen autofluorescence. Hence, dysplastic and cancerous tissues often exhibit decreased blue-green autofluorescence and appear darker compared to uninvolved mucosa. Currently, there are three commercially available devices to examine tissue autofluorescence in the oral cavity. In this study we used the oral cancer screening device IdentafiTM 3000 to examine the tissue reflectance and autofluorescence of PML and confounding lesions of the oral cavity. Wide-field autofluorescence imaging enables rapid inspection of large mucosal surfaces, to aid in recognition of suspicious lesions and may also help in discriminate the PML (class 1) from some of the confounding lesions (class II). However, the presence of inflammation or pigments is also associated with loss of stromal autofluorescence, and may give rise to false-positive results with widefield fluorescence imaging. Clinicians who use these autofluorescence based oral cancer screening devices should be aware about the benign oral mucosal lesions that may give false positivity so that unnecessary patient's anxiety and the need for scalpel biopsy can be eliminated.

  11. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging for different types of subscapularis lesions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Hui; Xiao, Jian; He, Zhenming; Luo, Hao; Cheng, Xu; Ao, Yingfang; Cui, Guoqing

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the accuracy of preoperative 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpreted with standardized procedure for diagnosing subscapularis (SSC) tears identified by arthroscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI for different types of SSC lesions was also evaluated. Two-hundred and seventy-two consecutive patients with rotator cuff tears identified by arthroscopy were included into this study. All patients had preoperative MRI scans with 1.5 T strength. Totally, seven different signs of SSC tears were evaluated on MRI scans. The diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated, respectively, according to two classifications of SSC lesions. The definitive diagnosis for SSC lesions was based on the arthroscopic findings. Among the 272 patients in this study, 107 (39 %) had SSC tears confirmed by arthroscopy. The surgeons correctly diagnosed 88 of 107 patients with SSC tears. The overall sensitivity was 82.2 %. The sensitivity of MRI for types I, II, III, IV and V was 70, 82.4, 96, 100 and 100 %, respectively, based on the classification by Lafosse. The sensitivity of MRI for partial-thickness and partial-width, full-thickness and partial-width, full-thickness and full-width tear was 75.3, 96.2, 100 %, respectively, according to the classification by Kim. The sensitivity of MRI in predicting SSC tears preoperatively was improved with the current procedure. Understanding of certain MRI characteristics of SSC tears could increase the accuracy for diagnosing SSC lesions. 1.5 T MRI of the SSC was not reliable for predicting partial thickness and especially less than 1/3 width tears. III.

  12. Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

  13. Impact of lossy compression on diagnostic accuracy of radiographs for periapical lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eraso, Francisco E.; Analoui, Mostafa; Watson, Andrew B.; Rebeschini, Regina

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group compression for endodontic pretreatment digital radiographs. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty clinical charge-coupled device-based, digital radiographs depicting periapical areas were selected. Each image was compressed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, and 64 compression ratios. One root per image was marked for examination. Images were randomized and viewed by four clinical observers under standardized viewing conditions. Each observer read the image set three times, with at least two weeks between each reading. Three pre-selected sites per image (mesial, distal, apical) were scored on a five-scale score confidence scale. A panel of three examiners scored the uncompressed images, with a consensus score for each site. The consensus score was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of lossy compression on the diagnostic values of images. The mean absolute error between consensus and observer scores was computed for each observer, site, and reading session. RESULTS: Balanced one-way analysis of variance for all observers indicated that for compression ratios 48 and 64, there was significant difference between mean absolute error of uncompressed and compressed images (P <.05). After converting the five-scale score to two-level diagnostic values, the diagnostic accuracy was strongly correlated (R (2) = 0.91) with the compression ratio. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that high compression ratios can have a severe impact on the diagnostic quality of the digital radiographs for detection of periapical lesions.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Harry P; Luijsterburg, Pim A; Boks, Simone S; Heintjes, Edith M; Berger, Marjolein Y; Verhaar, Jan A; Koes, Bart W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M

    2010-09-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions in primary care. Cross-sectional diagnostic study. Primary care. Patients (N=134; age, 18-65y) who consulted their general practitioner (GP) within 5 weeks after injury. Not applicable. Index tests were obtained with a questionnaire and physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as the reference test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations with ACL lesions. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by calculating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values, and likelihood ratio (LR). MRI showed an ACL lesion in 28 of 134 included patients. "Effusion," "popping sensation," "giving way," and "anterior drawer test (ADT)" showed associations with an ACL lesion (P<.05). Popping sensation showed Se, Sp, positive predictive value (PPV), and positive LR (LR(+)) of .63, .73, .39, and 2.3, respectively. Combining determinants from history taking (2 of 3 positive results regarding effusion, popping sensation, and giving way) improved diagnostic accuracy (Se, .71; Sp, .71; PPV, .42; and LR(+), 2.5). The ADT added diagnostic accuracy to these combinations (Se, .63; Sp, .85; PPV, .52; and LR(+), 4.2). ACL lesions are seen frequently. Based on history taking (effusion, popping sensation, and/or giving way) and physical examination (ADT), GPs can screen for ACL lesions in primary care.

  15. Diagnostic validity of ICDAS and DIAGNOdent combined: an in vitro study in pre-cavitated lesions.

    PubMed

    Iranzo-Cortés, José Enrique; Terzic, Sofija; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In a continuous process such as caries, it is important to possess criteria or instruments that allow the lesions to be diagnosed at early stages so that preventive or interceptive treatments can be applied before cavitation takes place. The present study seeks to assess the diagnostic efficacy of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) criteria and the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence (LF) pen in occlusal caries lesions, using histological sections as the gold standard. Sixty-four permanent teeth were examined by two researchers who previously performed and calibrated both the ICDAS II criteria and the use of DIAGNOdent pen. The teeth were then cut into sections and observed under an optical microscope. The sensitivity values were 0.82 (ICDAS II) and 0.85 (LF). The specificity values were 1.00 (ICDAS II) and 0.53 (LF). The intraexaminer reproducibility was 0.892 for ICDAS II and 0.912 for the DIAGNOdent, so it was high for both diagnostic methods. However, the DIAGNOdent pen showed greater sensitivity and the ICDAS criteria more specificity. It was concluded that both methods are efficacious individually but combining the two is recommended to improve the diagnosis.

  16. Assembly and characterization of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for skin lesions diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Texiera Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis in biological tissues has been presented as a technique of a great potential for tissue characterization for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study is to assemble and characterize a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for diagnostic of clinically similar skin lesions in vivo. The fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (Becker & Hickl, Berlin, Germany) technique. Two lasers, one emitting at 378 nm and another at 445 nm, are used for excitation with 20, 50 and 80 MHz repetition rate. A bifurcated optical fiber probe conducts the excitation light to the sample, the collected light is transmitted through bandpass filters and delivered to a hybrid photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence spectra were obtained by using a portable spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB-2000-FLG) with the same excitation sources. An instrument response function of about 300 ps was obtained and the spectrum and fluorescence lifetime of a standard fluorescent molecule (Rhodamine 6G) was measured for the calibration of the system ((4.1 +/- 0.3) ns). The assembled system was considered robust, well calibrated and will be used for clinical measurements of skin lesions.

  17. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  18. Colonic lesions in patients undergoing small bowel capsule endoscopy: incidence, diagnostic and therapeutic impact.

    PubMed

    Juanmartiñena Fernández, José Francisco; Fernández-Urién Sainz, Iñaki; Zabalza Ollo, Beatriz; Borda Martín, Ana; Vila Costas, Juan José

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, capsule endoscopy is the first-line procedure to assess the small bowel. During small bowel procedures, other segments of the gastrointestinal tract may be visualized. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the incidence of colonic abnormalities in patients undergoing small bowel capsule and its impact on patient management. This study is a retrospective analysis of data from 526 consecutive capsule endoscopy procedures performed at a single tertiary-care centre between 2008 and 2011. Patients with incomplete procedures were excluded from the analysis. Patient baseline characteristics, colonic lesions, diagnosis and management before and after capsule endoscopy were recorded and a descriptive analysis was performed. Four hundred and sixty four patients were finally included in the analysis. Two hundred and ninety three patients were male (57.3%) and the mean age was 61.3 ± 20.03 years (18-86). Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (59%) and inflammatory bowel disease (19%) were the main indications for the procedure. Colonic abnormalities were detected by capsule endoscopy in 47 (9%) of 464 patients. The most common types of missed lesions were vascular lesions (34%) and colonic ulcers (32%). This information had a clinical or diagnostic impact of 7.55% and a therapeutic impact of 6.03%. All images of the colon should be evaluated during small bowel capsule endoscopy as they may provide relevant information that may result in changes in patient management.

  19. Diagnostic Value of CT Arthrography for Evaluation of Osteochondral Lesions at the Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Kirschke, Jan S.; Braun, Sepp; Baum, Thomas; Holwein, Christian; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background. To retrospectively determine the diagnostic value of computed tomography arthrography (CTA) of the ankle in the evaluation of (osteo)chondral lesions in comparison to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings. Methods. A total of N = 79 patients had CTAs and MRI of the ankle; in 17/79 cases surgical reports with statements on cartilage integrity were available. Cartilage lesions and bony defects at talus and tibia were scored according to defect depth and size by two radiologists. Statistical analysis included sensitivity analyses and Cohen's kappa calculations. Results. On CTA, 41/79 and 31/79 patients had full thickness cartilage defects at the talus and at the tibia, respectively. MRI was able to detect 54% of these defects. For the detection of full thickness cartilage lesions, interobserver agreement was substantial (0.72 ± 0.05) for CTA and moderate (0.55 ± 0.07) for MRI. In surgical reports, 88–92% and 46–62% of full thickness defects detected by CTA and MRI were described. CTA findings changed the further clinical management in 15.4% of cases. Conclusions. As compared to conventional MRI, CTA improves detection and visualization of cartilage defects at the ankle and is a relevant tool for treatment decisions in unclear cases. PMID:27891511

  20. Diagnostic criteria for proliferative hepatic lesions in brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blazer, V.S.; Fournie, J.W.; Wolf, J.C.; Wolfe, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is used as indicator species for contaminant effects at areas of concern (AOC) in the Great Lakes and other areas. One of the beneficial use impairments at numerous AOC is 'fish tumors and other deformities'. An impairment occurs when the prevalence of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds those at unimpacted or control sites or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver lesions in bullhead or white sucker Catostomus commersonii. Numerous surveys have been conducted over the years assessing neoplasia in these fishes, both liver and skin tumors. However, a major problem in comparing the results has been a lack of consistent criteria for evaluating histological changes in bullhead livers. As individual AOC develop and implement remedial action plans, realistic and attainable delisting targets need to be specified. For this to occur and be consistent from site to site there must be standardization of the criteria being used to evaluate specific impairments. In this report, specific diagnostic criteria are provided for both non-neoplastic and neoplastic proliferative hepatocellular and biliary lesions. These criteria should assist fish pathologists in describing and categorizing proliferative liver lesions from brown bullhead. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Diagnostic Value of Frozen Section in Patients with Non-Palpable Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abuoglu, Hacı Hasan; Günay, Emre; Sunamak, Oğuzhan; Yiğitbaşı, M Rafet

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed wire-marking, frozen section (FS) and surgical approach in malignancy-suspicious non-palpable lesions detected on mammography (MG) and ultrasonography (US) as breast mass, microcalcifications and distorsions. Material and Methods: A hundred patients in whom wiremarking and frozen section analysis was performed because of non-palpable, malignancy-suspected breast lesions at General Surgery Department, Goztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Seventy-six % of the cases was in BIRADS 4, 21% in BIRADS 3 and 3% BIRADS 5, according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification. There was a statistically significant correlation between paraffin block (PB) and frozen section analyses (kappa statistics: 0.872; p 0.01). In BIRADS 4 group of the patients, there was a significant correlation between PB and FS results (Correlation ratio was 85.3% and kappa statistics: 0.853; p 0.01). In early stage breast cancer wire-marking and resection method is an important diagnostic tool. In BIRADS 4 patients with non-palpable breast lesions, wire marking, resection under general anesthesia and FS can be used trustfully. In patients with early breast cancer, breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymphnode biopsy may avoid unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. Celsius.

  2. Advantage of Adding Diffusion Weighted Imaging to Routine MRI Examinations in the Diagnostics of Scrotal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed Mohamed; Tantawy, Hazim Ibrahim; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Darweesh, Adham

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study is to identify the diagnostic value of adding diffusion weighted images (DWI) to routine MRI examinations of the scrotum. Material/Methods The study included 100 testes of 50 patients with a unilateral testicular disease. Fifty normal contralateral testes were used as a control group. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI examinations of the scrotum. The results of MRI and DWI of the group of patients treated surgically were correlated with histopathological findings. The MRI and DWI results of non-surgical cases were correlated with the results of clinical, laboratory and other imaging studies. Comparison of the ADC value of normal and pathological tissues was carried out followed by a statistical analysis. Results There was a significant difference between ADC values of malignant testicular lesions and normal testicular tissues as well as benign testicular lesions (P=0.000). At a cut-off ADC value of ≤0.99, it had a sensitivity of 93.3%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% in the characterization of intratesticular masses. Conclusions Inclusion of DWI to routine MRI has a substantial value in improving diagnosis in patients with scrotal lesions and consequently can reduce unnecessary radical surgical procedures in these patients. PMID:26491491

  3. Diagnostic Yield and Complications of Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Lung Lesions. Results of the AQuIRE Registry.

    PubMed

    Ost, David E; Ernst, Armin; Lei, Xiudong; Kovitz, Kevin L; Benzaquen, Sadia; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Greenhill, Sara; Toth, Jennifer; Feller-Kopman, David; Puchalski, Jonathan; Baram, Daniel; Karunakara, Raj; Jimenez, Carlos A; Filner, Joshua J; Morice, Rodolfo C; Eapen, George A; Michaud, Gaetane C; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa M; Rafeq, Samaan; Grosu, Horiana B; Ray, Cynthia; Gilbert, Christopher R; Yarmus, Lonny B; Simoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Advanced bronchoscopy techniques such as electromagnetic navigation (EMN) have been studied in clinical trials, but there are no randomized studies comparing EMN with standard bronchoscopy. To measure and identify the determinants of diagnostic yield for bronchoscopy in patients with peripheral lung lesions. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic yield of different sampling techniques, complications, and practice pattern variations. We used the AQuIRE (ACCP Quality Improvement Registry, Evaluation, and Education) registry to conduct a multicenter study of consecutive patients who underwent transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) for evaluation of peripheral lesions. Fifteen centers with 22 physicians enrolled 581 patients. Of the 581 patients, 312 (53.7%) had a diagnostic bronchoscopy. Unadjusted for other factors, the diagnostic yield was 63.7% when no radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS) and no EMN were used, 57.0% with r-EBUS alone, 38.5% with EMN alone, and 47.1% with EMN combined with r-EBUS. In multivariate analysis, peripheral transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), larger lesion size, nonupper lobe location, and tobacco use were associated with increased diagnostic yield, whereas EMN was associated with lower diagnostic yield. Peripheral TBNA was used in 16.4% of cases. TBNA was diagnostic, whereas TBBx was nondiagnostic in 9.5% of cases in which both were performed. Complications occurred in 13 (2.2%) patients, and pneumothorax occurred in 10 (1.7%) patients. There were significant differences between centers and physicians in terms of case selection, sampling methods, and anesthesia. Medical center diagnostic yields ranged from 33 to 73% (P = 0.16). Peripheral TBNA improved diagnostic yield for peripheral lesions but was underused. The diagnostic yields of EMN and r-EBUS were lower than expected, even after adjustment.

  4. Improved diagnostic differentiation of renal cystic lesions with phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Peter B.; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander; Herzen, Julia; Münzel, Daniela; Hahn, Dieter; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-03-01

    The diagnostic quality of phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) is one the unexplored areas in medical imaging; at the same time, it seems to offer the opportunity as a fast and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. Conventional computed tomography (CT) has had an enormous impact on medicine, while it is limited in soft-tissue contrast. One example that portrays this challenge is the differentiation between benign and malignant renal cysts. In this work we report on a feasibility study to determine the usefulness of PCCT in differentiation of renal cysts. A renal phantom was imaged with a grating-based PCCT system consisting of a standard rotating anode x-ray tube (40 kV, 70 mA) and a Pilatus II photoncounting detector (pixel size: 172 μm). The phantom is composed of a renal equivalent soft-tissue and cystic lesions grouped in non-enhancing cyst and hemorrhage series and an iodine enhancing series. The acquired projection images (absorption and phase-contrast) are reconstructed with a standard filtered backprojection algorithm. For evaluation both reconstructions are compared in respect to contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and subjective image quality. We found that with PCCT a significantly improved differentiation between hemorrhage renal cysts from contrast enhancing malignant cysts is possible. If comparing PCCT and CT with respect to CNR and SNR, PCCT shows significant improvements. In conclusion, PCCT has the potential to improve the diagnostics and characterization of renal cysts without using any contrast agents. These results in combination with a non-synchrotron setup indicate a future paradigm shift in diagnostic computed tomography.

  5. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine-Needle Aspiration for Parotid and Submandibular Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Aaron J; Alonso, Jose; Yang, Sung-Eun; St John, Maie

    2016-09-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the parotid and submandibular glands. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral academic center. Retrospective analysis was performed for all parotid and submandibular gland FNAs from a single center from 2001 to 2014. There were 1283 FNAs performed for 1076 patients. Of these, 343 cases had surgical follow-up (parotid gland, n = 272; submandibular gland, n = 71). Cases were included where the patient had a preoperative FNA, followed by surgical excision. Correlation of preoperative FNA results to final surgical pathology was performed, with measures of diagnostic accuracy computed. Malignancy was identified in 29.0% of parotid tumors and 42.3% of submandibular tumors, based on final pathology. FNA was nondiagnostic due to insufficient cellularity for evaluation in 22 of 343 cases (6.4%) and indeterminate in 39 of 343 cases (11.4%). Diagnostic accuracy in the parotid and submandibular glands for distinguishing benign from malignant pathology was determined as follows, respectively: sensitivity, 75.0% and 91.3%; specificity, 95.1% and 94.1%; positive predictive value, 84.9% and 91.3%; and negative predictive value, 91.2% and 94.4%. FNA has high accuracy in identifying malignancy in parotid and submandibular gland lesions when performed at a high-volume center. Preoperative FNA results provide otolaryngologists with valuable diagnostic information that may influence the surgical management of salivary gland tumors. FNA, in conjunction with cross-sectional imaging, is useful in counseling patients for a complete informed consent. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  6. Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Soares, Jaqueline S; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Volynskaya, Zoya; Liu, Wendy; Klein, Nina; Plecha, Donna; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    2013-01-08

    Microcalcifications geographically target the location of abnormalities within the breast and are of critical importance in breast cancer diagnosis. However, despite stereotactic guidance, core needle biopsy fails to retrieve microcalcifications in up to 15% of patients. Here, we introduce an approach based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detection of microcalcifications that focuses on variations in optical absorption stemming from the calcified clusters and the associated cross-linking molecules. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra are acquired ex vivo from 203 sites in fresh biopsy tissue cores from 23 patients undergoing stereotactic breast needle biopsies. By correlating the spectra with the corresponding radiographic and histologic assessment, we have developed a support vector machine-derived decision algorithm, which shows high diagnostic power (positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 97% and 88%, respectively) for diagnosis of lesions with microcalcifications. We further show that these results are robust and not due to any spurious correlations. We attribute our findings to the presence of proteins (such as elastin), and desmosine and isodesmosine cross-linkers in the microcalcifications. It is important to note that the performance of the diffuse reflectance decision algorithm is comparable to one derived from the corresponding Raman spectra, and the considerably higher intensity of the reflectance signal enables the detection of the targeted lesions in a fraction of the spectral acquisition time. Our findings create a unique landscape for spectroscopic validation of breast core needle biopsy for detection of microcalcifications that can substantially improve the likelihood of an adequate, diagnostic biopsy in the first attempt.

  7. Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jaqueline S.; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Volynskaya, Zoya; Liu, Wendy; Klein, Nina; Plecha, Donna; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann

    2013-01-01

    Microcalcifications geographically target the location of abnormalities within the breast and are of critical importance in breast cancer diagnosis. However, despite stereotactic guidance, core needle biopsy fails to retrieve microcalcifications in up to 15% of patients. Here, we introduce an approach based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detection of microcalcifications that focuses on variations in optical absorption stemming from the calcified clusters and the associated cross-linking molecules. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra are acquired ex vivo from 203 sites in fresh biopsy tissue cores from 23 patients undergoing stereotactic breast needle biopsies. By correlating the spectra with the corresponding radiographic and histologic assessment, we have developed a support vector machine-derived decision algorithm, which shows high diagnostic power (positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 97% and 88%, respectively) for diagnosis of lesions with microcalcifications. We further show that these results are robust and not due to any spurious correlations. We attribute our findings to the presence of proteins (such as elastin), and desmosine and isodesmosine cross-linkers in the microcalcifications. It is important to note that the performance of the diffuse reflectance decision algorithm is comparable to one derived from the corresponding Raman spectra, and the considerably higher intensity of the reflectance signal enables the detection of the targeted lesions in a fraction of the spectral acquisition time. Our findings create a unique landscape for spectroscopic validation of breast core needle biopsy for detection of microcalcifications that can substantially improve the likelihood of an adequate, diagnostic biopsy in the first attempt. PMID:23267090

  8. Diagnostic performance of (18-)F-FDG-PET-CT in adrenal lesions using histopathology as reference standard.

    PubMed

    Altinmakas, Emre; Hobbs, Brian P; Ye, Hui; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Perrier, Nancy D; Prieto, Victor G; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ng, Chaan S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of PET-CT in differentiating benign and malignant adrenal lesions when evaluating PET parameters individually as well as in combination with CT parameters, using histopathology as the reference standard. (18)F-FDG-PET-CT scans of patients undertaken within 6 months prior to pathologic evaluation of their adrenal lesion(s) were evaluated. PET assessments consisted individually of maximum standardized uptake value of the adrenal lesion (A-SUVmax) and its ("normalized") ratio to the liver (R-SUVmax). The diagnostic performances of these two PET parameters were also assessed when combined with the Hounsfield density from the non-contrast CT component of the PET-CT (A-HU). Diagnostic performance was assessed by area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the individual and combined parameters. The study cohort consisted of 61 adrenal lesions (59 patients). Malignant lesions (n = 52) had significantly higher median PET and CT parameters than benign lesions: A-SUVmax (11.4 vs. 6.1), R-SUVmax (3.3 vs. 1.7), and A-HU (37 vs. 24) [all p < 0.023]. AUC for the PET parameters individually was almost identical: 0.75 for A-SUVmax and 0.74 for R-SUVmax. On univariate analysis, thresholds of A-SUVmax >3.47 and R-SUVmax >0.83 yielded maximum accuracy (both 87%). The combination of these PET parameters individually with A-HU improved both AUC and accuracy (0.81% and 93%, respectively). The individual PET parameters A-SUVmax and R-SUVmax have similar diagnostic performance for differentiating malignant and benign adrenal lesions; their performance and accuracy improve when combined with the CT component (A-HU).

  9. Imaging diagnostics: congenital malformations and acquired lesions of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Pont, Elena; Mazón, Miguel; Montesinos, Pau; Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Más-Estellés, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malformations and acquired lesions of the inner ear are characterised by small structural changes in this region. In recent decades, treatment options have improved considerably. At the same time, there has been a great advancement in diagnostic methods, obtaining high-resolution labyrinth images. Currently, we use a 64-multislice computed tomography scanner in spiral mode (Brilliance 64 Phillips, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), with an overlap of 0.66 mm and an interval of 0.33 mm, 120 KV and 300 mA. The magnetic resonance images were taken with Signa HDxt 1.5 and 3.0 T units (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA). We reviewed the radiological features of the lesions affecting the inner ear. They are classified as congenital (labyrinth malformation and statoacoustic nerve deficiencies) or acquired (otospongiosis, labyrinthitis, Ménière's disease, inner ear haemorrhage, intralabyrinthine schwannoma and endolymphatic sac tumour). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography play an essential role in diagnosing patients with inner ear pathology. The technique selected should be chosen depending on the clinical setting. In a generic way, tomography is the method of choice for the study of traumatic pathology or otospongiosis. When tumour or inflammatory pathology is suspected, magnetic resonance is superior. In cases of congenital malformation, both techniques are complementary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  10. CT-guided transthoracic core needle biopsy for small pulmonary lesions: diagnostic performance and adequacy for molecular testing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Panwen; Wang, Ye; Li, Lei; Zhou, Yongzhao; Luo, Wenxin

    2017-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic needle biopsy is a well-established, minimally invasive diagnostic tool for pulmonary lesions. Few large studies have been conducted on the diagnostic performance and adequacy for molecular testing of transthoracic core needle biopsy (TCNB) for small pulmonary lesions. Methods This study included CT-guided TCNB with 18-gauge cutting needles in 560 consecutive patients with small (≤3 cm) pulmonary lesions from January 2012 to January 2015. There were 323 males and 237 females, aged 51.8±12.7 years. The size of the pulmonary lesions was 1.8±0.6 cm. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and complications of the biopsies were investigated. The risk factors of diagnostic failure were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sample’s adequacy for molecular testing of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was analyzed. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of malignancy were 92.0% (311/338), 98.6% (219/222), and 94.6% (530/560), respectively. The incidence of bleeding complications was 22.9% (128/560), and the incidence of pneumothorax was 10.4% (58/560). Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for diagnostic failure were a lesion size ≤1 cm [odds ratio (OR), 3.95; P=0.007], lower lobe lesions (OR, 2.83; P=0.001), and pneumothorax (OR, 1.98; P=0.004). Genetic analysis was successfully performed on 95.45% (168/176) of specimens diagnosed as NSCLC. At least 96.8% of samples with two or more passes from a lesion were sufficient for molecular testing. Conclusions The diagnostic yield of small pulmonary lesions by CT-guided TCNB is high, and the procedure is relatively safe. A lesion size ≤1 cm, lower lobe lesions, and pneumothorax are independent risk factors for biopsy diagnostic failure. TCNB specimens could provide adequate tissues for molecular testing. PMID:28275482

  11. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  12. Ensemble des troubles causés par l'alcoolisation fœtale : lignes directrices canadiennes concernant le diagnostic

    PubMed Central

    Chudley, Albert E.; Conry, Julianne; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Loock, Christine; Rosales, Ted; LeBlanc, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Résumé LE DIAGNOSTIC DE L'ENSEMBLE DES TROUBLES CAUSÉS PAR L'ALCOOLISATION FÉTALE (ETCAF) est complexe et l'élaboration de lignes directrices concernant le diagnostic est justifiée. Un sous-comité du Comité consultatif national de l'Agence de santé publique du Canada sur l'Ensemble des troubles causés par l'alcoolisation fœtale a examiné, analysé et intégré les méthodes de diagnostic actuelles afin de parvenir à une méthode de diagnostic normalisée faisant le consensus au Canada. L'objet du présent document est d'examiner et de clarifier l'utilisation des systèmes de diagnostic actuels et de formuler des recommandations quant à leur application pour le diagnostic des déficiences liées à l'ETCAF chez des individus de tous les âges. Les lignes directrices sont fondées sur un vaste consensus de praticiens et d'autres intervenants spécialisés dans le domaine. Ces lignes directrices ont été organisées en sept catégories, soit le dépistage et l'orientation vers les spécialistes, l'examen physique et le diagnostic différentiel, l'évaluation du comportement neurologique, le traitement et le suivi, les antécédents de consommation d'alcool de la mère pendant la grossesse, les critères du diagnostic pour le syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale (SAF), SAF partiel et troubles neurologiques du développement liés à l'alcool, l'harmonisation de l'Institute of Medicine (IOM) et des approches du Code diagnostique à 4 chiffres. Le diagnostic exige une évaluation complète des antécédents, ainsi qu'un examen physique et du comportement neurologique, tout en recourant à une approche multidisciplinaire. Les présentes lignes directrices pour le diagnostic du syndrome d'alcoolisation fœtale et des déficiences qui y sont associées sont les premières à avoir été élaborées au Canada et elles sont fondées sur la consultation d'un grand éventail de spécialistes du diagnostic.

  13. Diagnostic Value of the Supine Napoleon Test for Subscapularis Tendon Lesions.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Fujii, Koji; Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Nakayama, Takashi; Sugiura, Kosuke

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the supine Napoleon test (a variation of the belly-press test that reduces compensatory motion) with other clinical tests for subscapularis tendon (SSC) tears. One hundred thirty consecutive patients who were scheduled for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were evaluated preoperatively with the lift-off test, Napoleon test, bear-hug test, and supine Napoleon test. The supine Napoleon test was performed by placing the patient's hand on their belly while they lay supine with an examiner holding their hand and shoulder to prevent compensatory motion. The patient was asked to move their elbow upward and the test was considered positive if they were unable to do so. During surgery, SSC lesions were classified with the Lafosse classification system. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were calculated for each test. The ability to detect partial SSC tears was compared among the clinical tests. Fifty-two of 130 patients (40%) had SSC tears confirmed arthroscopically. For diagnosis of these tears, the supine Napoleon test was the most sensitive (84%), followed by the bear-hug test (74%), and the bear-hug test was the most specific (97%), followed by the supine Napoleon test (96%). The LR+ was greatest for the bear-hug test (28.4) and next greatest for the supine Napoleon test (21.9). The LR- was lowest for the supine Napoleon test (0.16) and the bear-hug test was second (0.27). The sensitivity of the supine Napoleon test (65%) was highest for detecting partial tears. In comparison with other clinical tests for SSC tears, the supine Napoleon test had the greatest diagnostic value for full-thickness SSC tears and was most able to detect partial tears. Level III, diagnostic nonrandomized study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  15. Diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting trochlear ridge osteochondrosis lesions in the equine stifle.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Francesca; Chalmers, Heather J; Dante, Sara; Lotto, Eleonora; Pepe, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis lesions commonly occur on the femoral trochlear ridges in horses and radiography and ultrasonography are routinely used to diagnose these lesions. However, poor correlation has been found between radiographic and arthroscopic findings of affected trochlear ridges. Interobserver agreement for ultrasonographic diagnoses and correlation between ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings have not been previously described. Objectives of this study were to describe diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of radiography and ultrasonography for detecting and grading osteochondrosis lesions of the equine trochlear ridges, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Twenty-two horses were sampled. Two observers independently recorded radiographic and ultrasonographic findings without knowledge of arthroscopic findings. Imaging findings were compared between observers and with arthroscopic findings. Agreement between observers was moderate to excellent (κ 0.48-0.86) for detecting lesions using radiography and good to excellent (κ 0.74-0.87) for grading lesions using radiography. Agreement between observers was good to excellent (κ 0.78-0.94) for detecting lesions using ultrasonography and very good to excellent (κ 0.86-0.93) for grading lesions using ultrasonography. Diagnostic sensitivity was 84-88% for radiography and 100% for ultrasonography. Diagnostic specificity was 89-100% for radiography and 60-82% for ultrasonography. Agreement between radiography and arthroscopy was good (κ 0.64-0.78). Agreement between ultrasonography and arthroscopy was very good to excellent (κ 0.81-0.87). Findings from this study support ultrasound as a preferred method for predicting presence and severity of osteochondrosis lesions involving the femoral trochlear ridges in horses. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  16. Could ADC values be a promising diagnostic criterion for differentiating malignant and benign hepatic lesions in Asian populations

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Li, Jing-Jin; Li, Jiang; Li, He-Wen; Xu, Guo-Ping; Jia, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Xue-Ning; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Liver cancer exhibits geographic and ethnic differences in its prevalence and biology, which implies that it is impractical to develop universal guidelines for all patients. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to identify the accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for discriminating malignant from benign liver lesions in Asians. Methods: Eligible studies published in PubMed, Ovid, and Embase/Medline were updated onto October 2014. STATA 12.0 and Meta-Disc 1.4 were used to perform this meta-analysis. Results: Eight studies comprising 661 benign liver lesions and 598 malignant liver lesions fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.95), 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–0.97), 12.42 (95% CI 6.09–25.31), 0.13 (95% CI 0.06–0.29), and 95.58 (95% CI 35.29–258.89), respectively. Overall, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.98). Heterogeneity was found to originate potentially from the type of benign lesion. A subgroup analysis showed that differentiating between hemangiomas, cysts, and malignant liver lesions produced a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than that of solid liver lesions. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that ADC could be promising for characterizing liver lesions among Asians, indicating that the ADC value is a promising diagnostic criterion candidate. Meanwhile, the use of dual b values could be sufficient for liver lesion characterization. However, large-scale, high-quality trials should be conducted to identify specific standards, including cut-off values for further development of diffusion-weighted imaging as a routine clinical application among Asian populations. PMID:27902599

  17. The Influence of Lesion Location on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Adenosine-Free Coronary Pressure Wire Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuhei; Johnson, Nils P; Berry, Colin; De Bruyne, Bernard; Gould, K Lance; Jeremias, Allen; Oldroyd, Keith G; Pijls, Nico H J; Fearon, William F

    2016-12-12

    This work compares the diagnostic performance of adenosine-free coronary pressure wire indices based on lesion location. Several adenosine-free coronary pressure wire indices have been proposed to assess the functional significance of coronary artery lesions; however, there is a theoretical concern that lesion location and the mass of perfused myocardium may affect diagnostic performance. A total of 763 patients were prospectively enrolled from 12 institutions. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and contrast-based FFR (cFFR) were obtained during adenosine-induced maximal hyperemia and contrast-induced submaximal hyperemia respectively, whereas the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and distal pressure/aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) were obtained at rest. Using an FFR of ≤0.80 as a reference standard, the diagnostic accuracy of each index was compared based on lesion location (left main or proximal left anterior descending artery [LM/pLAD] compared with other lesion locations). The median FFR, cFFR, iFR, and Pd/Pa were 0.81 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.74 to 0.87), 0.86 (IQR: 0.79 to 0.91), 0.90 (IQR: 0.85 to 0.94), and 0.92 (IQR: 0.88 to 0.95), respectively. The cFFR, iFR, and Pd/Pa were less accurate in LM/pLAD compared with other lesion locations (cFFR: 80.3% vs. 87.8%; iFR: 73.3% vs. 81.8%; Pd/Pa: 71.4% vs. 81.1%, respectively). By receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, cFFR provided better diagnostic accuracy than resting indices regardless of lesion location (p ≤0.0001 vs. iFR and Pd/Pa for both groups). The cFFR, iFR, and Pd/Pa are less accurate in LM/pLAD compared with other lesion locations, likely related to the larger amount of myocardium supplied by LM/pLAD. Nevertheless, cFFR provides the best diagnostic accuracy among the adenosine-free indices, regardless of lesion location. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of classification methods as diagnostic system: A case study on skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Suhail M; Baareh, Abdel Karim Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Numerous classification methods are currently available, but most of them were performed on different datasets. In this paper, different classification techniques were used for a diagnostic system on different skin lesions for the same data, which gives consistency for the data to have more accurate and better results. Four classification methods were proposed, a classical method based on K-Nearest Neighbor with Sequential Scanning selection technique for feature selection, a classical method with complex technique KNN with Genetic Algorithm, a complex method based on Artificial Neural Networks with Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. From the results obtained we can say that the performance of KNN with optimization of genetic algorithm for the feature selection was the best with an accuracy rate of 94%. The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System result was also good with an accuracy rate of 92%, and the other techniques' results were also satisfactory. The improvement on the performance of the classifier depends on the feature selection methods. In addition, the diagnosis system as a decision support tool could be used to increase the performance of human experts to make a correct decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transbronchial Catheter Aspiration and Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnostic Workup of Peripheral Lung Lesions.

    PubMed

    Franke, Karl-Josef; Hein, Melanie; Domanski, Ulrike; Nilius, Georg; Schroeder, Maik; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Theegarten, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly frequent, it is clinically indicated to obtain tissue from a peripheral lung lesion (PLL) to yield a pathological diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) and transbronchial catheter aspiration (TBCA) in addition to transbronchial forceps biopsy (TBB) at conventional bronchoscopy. Eligible patients showing a PLL on computed tomography scans were included in the study. In all patients, following TBB, TBNA and TBCA were employed in randomised order under fluoroscopy. Fourty-eight patients were enrolled, of whom 46 patients with 46 PLLs were included in the analysis. The mean ± SD diameter of the PLL was 27.0 ± 13.3 mm. The overall sensitivity for all modalities was 69.6%; PLL ≤20 or >20 and ≤30 mm in diameter showed a sensitivity of 60.0 and 72.2%, respectively. For malignant PLL (n = 33), the combined sensitivity of TBNA + TBCA versus TBB was significantly higher (63.6 vs. 33.3%, p ≤ 0.05), and could not further be improved by TBB. For benign PLL, TBB was superior to TBNA + TBCA (76.9 vs. 38.5%). TBB, TBNA and TBCA are complementary to one another. Combining the three techniques, even allows transbronchial specimen collection of PLL <3 cm in diameter at conventional bronchoscopy.

  20. Diagnostic tests for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders in patients presenting with clinically evident lesions.

    PubMed

    Macey, Richard; Walsh, Tanya; Brocklehurst, Paul; Kerr, Alexander R; Liu, Joseph L Y; Lingen, Mark W; Ogden, Graham R; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Scully, Crispian

    2015-05-29

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of malignancy of the lip and oral cavity, often being proceeded by potentially malignant disorders (PMD). Early detection can reduce the malignant transformation of PMD and can improve the survival rate for oral cancer. The current standard of scalpel biopsy with histology is painful for patients and involves a delay whilst histology is completed; other tests are available that are unobtrusive and provide immediate results. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of index tests for the detection of oral cancer and PMD of the lip and oral cavity, in people presenting with clinically evident lesions. To estimate the relative accuracy of the different index tests. The electronic databases were searched on 30 April 2013. We searched MEDLINE (OVID) (1946 to April 2013) and four other electronic databases (the Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies Register, the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, EMBASE (OVID) and MEDION (Ovid)). There were no restrictions on language in the searches of the electronic databases. We conducted citation searches and screened reference lists of included studies for additional references. We selected studies that reported the diagnostic test accuracy of the following index tests when used as an adjunct to conventional oral examination in detecting PMD or oral squamous cell carcinoma of the lip or oral cavity: vital staining, oral cytology, light-based detection and oral spectroscopy, blood or saliva analysis (which test for the presence of biomarkers in blood or saliva). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. Eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by at least two authors, independently and in duplicate. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using QUADAS-2. Meta-analysis was used to combine the results of studies for each index test using the bivariate approach to estimate the expected values of

  1. Technical Note: Development of a combined molecular breast imaging/ultrasound system for diagnostic evaluation of MBI-detected lesions.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M; Tran, Thuy; Hruska, Carrie B; Conners, Amy L; Hunt, Katie N

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a pilot evaluation of an integrated molecular breast imaging/ultrasound (MBI/US) system designed to enable, in real-time, the registration of US to MBI and diagnostic evaluation of breast lesions detected on MBI. The MBI/US system was constructed by modifying an existing dual-head cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based MBI gamma camera. The upper MBI detector head was replaced with a mesh panel, which allowed an ultrasound probe to access the breast. An optical tracking system was used to monitor the location of the ultrasound transducer, referenced to the MBI detector. The lesion depth at which ultrasound was targeted was estimated from analysis of previously acquired dual-head MBI datasets. A software tool was developed to project the US field of view onto the current MBI image. Correlation of lesion location between both modalities with real-time MBI/US scanning was confirmed in a breast phantom model and assessed in 12 patients with a breast lesion detected on MBI. Combined MBI/US scanning allowed for registration of lesions detected on US and MBI as validated in phantom experiments. In patient studies, successful registration was achieved in 8 of 12 (67%) patients, with complete registration achieved in seven and partial registration achieved in one patient. In 4 of 12 (37%) patients, lesion registration was not achieved, partially attributed to uncertainty in lesion depth estimates from MBI. The MBI/US system enabled successful registration of US to MBI in over half of patients studied in this pilot evaluation. Future studies are needed to determine if real-time, registered US imaging of MBI-detected lesions may obviate the need to proceed to more expensive procedures such as contrast-enhanced breast MRI for diagnostic workup or biopsy of MBI findings. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Lesions of the biceps pulley: diagnostic accuracy of MR arthrography of the shoulder and evaluation of previously described and new diagnostic signs.

    PubMed

    Schaeffeler, Christoph; Waldt, Simone; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Jungmann, Pia M; Wolf, Petra; Stat, Dipl; Schröder, Michael; Rummeny, Ernst J; Imhoff, Andreas B; Woertler, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    To retrospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the shoulder in the evaluation of lesions of the biceps pulley and to evaluate previously described and new diagnostic signs. Institutional review board approval was obtained; the requirement for informed consent was waived. MR arthrograms of 80 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.2 years; 53 male, 27 female) with arthroscopically proved intact or torn pulley systems were assessed for the presence of a pulley lesion by three radiologists who were blinded to arthroscopic results. Criteria evaluated were displacement of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) relative to the subscapularis tendon on oblique sagittal images (displacement sign), medial subluxation of the LHBT on transverse images, nonvisibility or discontinuity of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL), presence of biceps tendinopathy, and rotator cuff tears adjacent to the rotator interval. There were 28 pulley lesions noted at arthroscopy. For observers 1, 2, and 3, respectively: MR arthrography showed a sensitivity of 89%, 86%, and 82% and a specificity of 96%, 98%, and 87% in the detection of pulley lesions. Nonvisibility or discontinuity of the SGHL was sensitive (79%, 89%, and 79%) and specific (83%, 79%, and 75%). With the displacement sign, sensitivity was 86%, 82%, and 75% and specificity was 96%, 98%, 90%. Tendinopathy of the LHBT on oblique sagittal images showed a sensitivity of 93%, 82%, 64%; specificity was 81%, 96%, and 85%. Subluxation of the LHBT was insensitive (36%, 50%, and 64%) but specific (100%, 98%, and 96%). MR arthrography is accurate in the detection of pulley lesions; the displacement sign, nonvisibility or discontinuity of the SGHL, and tendinopathy of the LHBT on oblique sagittal images are the most accurate criteria for the detection of pulley lesions.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique: a single center experience with 442 biopsies.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Çağlar; Akkaya, Zehra; Düşünceli Atman, Ebru; Üstüner, Evren; Peker, Elif; Gülpınar, Başak; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Ceyhan, Koray; Atasoy, Kayhan Çetin

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions with fine needle aspiration (FNA) using non-coaxial technique. We analyzed 442 patients who underwent CT-guided lung biopsy with FNA and non-coaxial technique to determine the diagnostic outcomes, complication rates, and independent risk factors for diagnostic failure and pneumothorax. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 97.6%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Age and >35 mm lesion size were significant risk factors for diagnostic failure. The rates of pneumothorax and chest tube placement were 19% and 2.9%, respectively. Middle and lower lobe location, lesion to pleura distance >7.5 mm, and >45° needle trajectory angle were significant risk factors for pneumothorax. CT-guided FNA of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique is a safe and reliable method with a relatively low pneumothorax rate and an acceptably high diagnostic accuracy.

  4. The diagnostic utility of CK5/6 and p63 in fine-needle aspiration of the breast lesions diagnosed as proliferative fibrocystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghraby, Hatem; Ghorab, Zeina; Khalbuss, Walid; Wong, John; Silverman, Jan F; Saad, Reda S

    2012-02-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy (FNAB) in the preoperative assessment of breast lesions has shown diagnostic limitations with false-positive and false-negative diagnoses. We investigated the diagnostic value of cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and p63 in a series of breast FNABs, diagnosed as proliferative breast lesions with or without atypia, to see whether these ancillary studies enhance the ability to make an accurate diagnosis by FNAB. Sixty-four breast FNABs were retrieved between January 2000 and December 2005 and included in the study as follows: 29/64 (45%) cases as proliferative with atypia and 35/64 (55%) without atypia. We also included 10 cases of fibroadenoma. All cases had histological follow-up available for correlation. Immunostaining for CK5/6 and p63 was performed on the cell block material in all cases. The percentage of staining cells in the specimen was graded as 0 (0-10%), 1 (11-25%), 2 (26-50%), and 3 (>50%). There were 9/29 (31%) cases in the atypical group that were found to be malignant on resection, compared with 6/35 (17%) in the cases without atypia. In histologically proven malignant cases, CK5/6 was negative in 11/15 (73%) or showed 1+ stain in 2/15 (13%) cases. In benign breast lesions, CK5/6 stained more than 25% of cell proliferation in 44/49 (90%). p63 showed characteristic staining for single naked bipolar nuclei in the background of the specimen (not appreciated by CK5/6) in all fibroadenoma cases. In conclusion, CK5/6 may enhance the ability to differentiate between benign and malignant epithelial proliferations in breast FNABs. In fibroepithelial lesions, p63 may be more useful than CK5/6. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diagnostic performance of direct traction MR arthrography of the hip: detection of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison.

    PubMed

    Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Kogler, Michael; Henninger, Benjamin; Forstner, Thomas; Reichkendler, Markus; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried

    2015-06-01

    To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. • The used traction technique was well tolerated by most patients. • The used traction technique almost consistently achieved separation of cartilage layers. • Traction MR arthrography enabled accurate detection of chondral and labral lesions.

  6. Various Tumor-Mimicking Lesions in the Musculoskeletal System: Causes and Diagnostic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue Yon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-mimicking lesions in the musculoskeletal system can be defined as lesions mistaken as tumors due to the presence of palpation upon physical examination or a tumor-like appearance upon radiological examination. Moreover, tumor-mimicking lesions show diverse etiologies and anatomic locations. We illustrated the various tumor-mimicking lesions involving bone and soft tissue. In this review, the tumor-mimicking lesions were classified into those based on clinical examination and those based on radiological examination in musculoskeletal radiology. Awareness of the various causes of tumor-mimicking lesions, correctly obtaining clinical information, and the proper selection of imaging modality are important for the differentiation of tumor-mimicking lesions from true neoplasms. PMID:21430940

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis for diagnostically challenging breast lesions in DCE-MRI based on image registration and integration of morphologic and dynamic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retter, Felix; Plant, Claudia; Burgeth, Bernhard; Botella, Guillermo; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostically challenging lesions comprise both foci (small lesions) and non-mass-like enhancing lesions and pose a challenge to current computer-aided diagnosis systems. Motion-based artifacts lead in dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance to diagnostic misinterpretation; therefore, motion compensation represents an important prerequisite to automatic lesion detection and diagnosis. In addition, the extraction of pertinent kinetic and morphologic features as lesion descriptors is an equally important task. In the present paper, we evaluate the performance of a computer-aided diagnosis system consisting of motion correction, lesion segmentation, and feature extraction and classification. We develop a new feature extractor, the radial Krawtchouk moment, which guarantees rotation invariance. Many novel feature extraction techniques are proposed and tested in conjunction with lesion detection. Our simulation results have shown that motion compensation combined with Minkowski functionals and Bayesian classifier can improve lesion detection and classification.

  8. Pre-diagnostic digital imaging prediction model to discriminate between malignant melanoma and benign pigmented skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Soerensen, Mads B T; Linghui, Zhong; Chen, Sun; Jensen, Morten O

    2010-02-01

    Malignant cutaneous melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an increasing incidence over the past decades. The final diagnosis provided is typically based on a biopsy of the skin lesion under consideration. To assist the naked-eye examination and decision on whether or not a biopsy is necessary, digital image processing techniques provide promising results. The hypothesis of this study was that a computer-aided assessment tool could assist the evaluation of a pigmented skin lesion. Hence, the overall aim was to discriminate between malignant and benign pigmented skin lesions using digital image processing. Discriminating algorithms utilizing novel well-established morphological operations and methods were constructed. The algorithms were implemented utilizing graphical programming (LabVIEW Vision). Verification was performed with reference to an image database consisting of 97 pigmented skin lesion pictures of various resolutions and light distributions. The outcome of the algorithms was analysed statistically with MATLAB and a prediction model was constructed. The prediction model evaluates pigmented skin lesions with regards to the overall shape, border and colour distribution with a total of nine different discriminating parameters. The prediction model outputs an index score, and by using the optimal threshold value, a diagnostic accuracy of 77% in discriminating between malignant and benign skin lesions was obtained. This is an improvement compared with the naked-eye analysis performed by professionals, rendering the system a significant assistance in detecting malignant cutaneous melanoma.

  9. The Added Diagnostic Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in Nonpalpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Merckel, Laura G.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Peters, Nicky H. G. M.; Mann, Ritse M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Storm, Remmert K.; Weits, Teun; Duvivier, Katya M.; van Dalen, Thijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. Materials and Methods We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3–5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. Results MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7%) patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3%) patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7%) invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. Conclusions 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer. PMID:24713637

  10. The added diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 3.0 T in nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Merckel, Laura G; Verkooijen, Helena M; Peters, Nicky H G M; Mann, Ritse M; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Storm, Remmert K; Weits, Teun; Duvivier, Katya M; van Dalen, Thijs; Mali, Willem P Th M; Peeters, Petra H M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the added diagnostic value of 3.0 Tesla breast MRI over conventional breast imaging in the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer and to explore the role of routine versus expert reading. We evaluated MRI scans of patients with nonpalpable BI-RADS 3-5 lesions who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 Tesla breast MRI. Initially, MRI scans were read by radiologists in a routine clinical setting. All histologically confirmed index lesions were re-evaluated by two dedicated breast radiologists. Sensitivity and specificity for the three MRI readings were determined, and the diagnostic value of breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging was assessed. Interobserver reliability between the three readings was evaluated. MRI examinations of 207 patients were analyzed. Seventy-eight of 207 (37.7%) patients had a malignant lesion, of which 33 (42.3%) patients had pure DCIS and 45 (57.7%) invasive breast cancer. Sensitivity of breast MRI was 66.7% during routine, and 89.3% and 94.7% during expert reading. Specificity was 77.5% in the routine setting, and 61.0% and 33.3% during expert reading. In the routine setting, MRI provided additional diagnostic information over clinical information and conventional imaging, as the Area Under the ROC Curve increased from 0.76 to 0.81. Expert MRI reading was associated with a stronger improvement of the AUC to 0.87. Interobserver reliability between the three MRI readings was fair and moderate. 3.0 T breast MRI of nonpalpable breast lesions is of added diagnostic value for the diagnosis of in situ and invasive breast cancer.

  11. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Umut; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Özkan, Gökhan; Kanlı, Aydan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC) and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU), can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and pre-molar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11), enamel caries (n=22) and dentin caries (n=27). Diagnostic performance of i) visual inspection, ii) radiography, iii) laser fluorescence (LF) and iv) micro-computed tomography (M-CT) caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05), (PRDU: 70.5%) and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU: 73.8%) for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05), (PRDU:73.8%) and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05), (PRDU:70.8%). IC and PRDU were

  12. [Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasonography in intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal lesions].

    PubMed

    Isern, A M; Fernández, C; Salamanca, M; Bianchi, G; González, H; Virgala, M D; Garnica, E; Vargas, F; Monserat, R; Fuentes, D

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of the fine needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasonography in the diagnosis of abdominal and retroperitoneal tumors. Transversal study of diagnostic standard-criterion test. Ultrasonographic Unity Digestive Disease Department. Hospital Oncológico Padre Machado. 98 patients with intraabdominal and retroperitoneal lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology guided by Ultrasonography. INDICE TEST: Laparoscopy and/or laparotomy. Estimation of sensibility (S), Specificity (E), Efficacy (Ef), positive predictive value (VPP), negative predictive value (VPN), measure of false positives (TFP) and measure of false negatives (TFN) by diagnosis method. VP: 81%; VN: 12%; FP: 1%; FN: 6%; S: 93%; E: 92.3%; Ef.: 97%; VPP: 98.7%; VPN: 66%; TFP: 1.25%; Benign lesions: 22.5%; Malignancy lesions: 65.5%; non lesions: 12%; complications: severe: 1%, non significance: 5%. Fine needle aspiration cytology guided by ultrasound has high sensibility, specificity, efficacy, with low value of false positive. However, it has high incidence of false negatives and negative predictive value. We recommend diagnostic procedures when the suspicion of tumor is high did the cytology is negative.

  13. Rim sign in breast lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Lipson, Jafi Alyssa; Planey, Katie RoseMary; Zackrisson, Sophia; Ikeda, Debra M; Kao, Jennifer; Pal, Sunita; Moran, Catherine J; Daniel, Bruce Lewis

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness of the rim sign in breast lesions observed in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 98 pathologically confirmed lesions (62 malignant and 36 benign) in 84 patients were included. Five breast radiologists were asked to independently review the breast MRI results, to grade the degree of high peripheral signal, the "rim sign," in the DWI, and to confirm the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmean ) values. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy and compared the consensus (when ≥ 4 of 5 independent reviewers agreed) results of the rim sign with the ADCmean values. Additionally, we evaluated the correlation between the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI morphologic appearance and DWI rim sign. According to the consensus results, the rim sign in DWI was observed on 59.7% of malignant lesions and 19.4% of benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) value for the rim sign in DWI were 59.7%, 80.6%, and 0.701, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC value for the ADCmean value (criteria ≤ 1.46 × 10(-3) mm(2) /sec) were 82.3%, 63.9%, and 0.731, respectively. Based on consensus, no correlation was observed between the DCE-MRI and DWI rim signs. In DWI, a high-signal rim is a valuable morphological feature for improving specificity in DWI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. General dentists', pediatric dentists', and endodontists' diagnostic assessment and treatment strategies for deep carious lesions: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Koopaeei, Mahshid Majlessi; Inglehart, Marita R; McDonald, Neville; Fontana, Margherita

    2017-02-01

    There is a large variation among clinicians when managing deep carious lesions (DCLs). The purpose of this study was to assess general dentists' (GDs), pediatric dentists' (PDs), and endodontists' (EDs) diagnostic methods, clinical decision-making considerations, treatment strategies, and knowledge, behavior, and attitudes related to the diagnosis and treatment of DCLs. A total of 175 GDs, 511 PDs, and 377 EDs responded to a nationwide Web-based survey. Most EDs (68%) and GDs (47%) practiced complete caries removal. PDs (31%) were more likely than GDs (12%) and EDs (4%) to remove carious tissues partially. Dentin hardness was the most important diagnostic criterion used during caries excavation (GDs, 90%; PDs, 72%; EDs, 88%). Only 30% of GDs, 17% of PDs, and 90% of EDs used diagnostic tests (for example, a cold test) when assessing pupal health. A substantial percentage of respondents considered endodontic treatment as a choice for treating DCLs in asymptomatic teeth in young patients (GDs, 40%; PDs, 30%; EDs, 40%). GDs rarely used a rubber dam when treating these lesions. Most respondents practiced complete caries removal until hard dentin was felt, using hardness as the primary excavation criterion, and did not use pulp diagnostic tests routinely before making decisions about treatment of teeth with DCLs. Efforts should be made to translate the growing body of evidence supporting the use of conservative caries removal criteria to preserve pulpal health and tooth structure integrity when managing DCLs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peste des petits ruminants diagnosis and diagnostic tools at a glance: perspectives on global control and eradication.

    PubMed

    Santhamani, Ramasamy; Singh, Rabindra Prasad; Njeumi, Felix

    2016-11-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of small ruminants, targeted for global eradication by the year 2030. The recent geographic surge in PPR virus distribution, economic implications, the success of the rinderpest eradication campaign, and ongoing national/regional efforts convinced the FAO and OIE to initiate a global PPR control and eradication strategy. Since its discovery, a series of diagnostic tools have been developed for detecting PPR virus and virus-specific antibodies. Furthermore, it is understood that diagnostic and vaccine-monitoring tools are inevitable components of the four-stage strategy of global PPR eradication from assessment to the post-eradication phase. However, these tools may not be suitable for all stages of PPR control and eradication. For instance, diagnostics such as ELISA could be used for mass screening of clinical and serum samples, whereas immunochromatographic tests can be used at the field level as a pen-side test. Yet, assays with higher sensitivity, such as RT-PCR, RT-PCR ELISA, real-time RT-PCR and LAMP are important for early diagnosis of PPR and also, theoretically, during the late stages of eradication or when sampling non-natural hosts. Moreover, during the later stages of any control program, suspected/doubtful outbreaks will have to be reconfirmed using multiple laboratory tests. Hence, diagnostics can and should be efficiently applied at different stages of the PPR control and eradication campaign based on available resources and the number of samples to be tested. This article provides an overview of the various PPR diagnostic tools and suggests where and how they should be logically applied during the different phases of global PPR control and eradication.

  16. Validation of diagnostic characteristics of needle based confocal laser endomicroscopy in differentiation of pancreatic cystic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Somashekar G.; Swanson, Benjamin; Hart, Phil A.; El-Dika, Samer; Walker, Jon P.; McCarthy, Sean T.; Malli, Ahmad; Shah, Zarine K.; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided needle-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (nCLE) characteristics of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) have been identified in studies where the gold standard surgical histopathology was available in a minority of patients. There are diverging reports of interobserver agreement (IOA) and paucity of intraobserver reliability (IOR). Thus, we sought to validate current EUS-nCLE criteria of PCLs in a larger consecutive series of surgical patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent EUS-nCLE at a single center was performed. For calculation of IOA (Fleiss’ kappa) and IOR (Cohen’s kappa), blinded nCLE-naïve observers (n = 6) reviewed nCLE videos of PCLs in two phases separated by a 2-week washout period. Results: EUS-nCLE was performed in 49 subjects, and a definitive diagnosis was available in 26 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing a mucinous PCL were 94 %, 82 %, and 89 %, respectively. The IOA for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous PCL was “substantial” (κ = 0.67, 95 %CI 0.57, 0.77). The mean (± standard deviation) IOR was “substantial” (κ = 0.78 ± 0.13) for diagnosing mucinous PCLs. Both the IOAs and mean IORs were “substantial” for detection of known nCLE image patterns of papillae/epithelial bands of mucinous PCLs (IOA κ = 0.63; IOR κ = 0.76 ± 0.11), bright particles on a dark background of pseudocysts (IOA κ = 0.71; IOR κ = 0.78 ± 0.12), and fern-pattern or superficial vascular network of serous cystadenomas (IOA κ = 0.62; IOR κ = 0.68 ± 0.20). Three (6.1 % of 49) patients developed post-fine needle aspiration (FNA) pancreatitis. Conclusion: Characteristic EUS-nCLE patterns can be consistently identified and improve the diagnostic accuracy of PCLs. These results support further investigations to optimize EUS-nCLE while minimizing adverse events

  17. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast MRI for detection of glenohumeral cartilage lesions: a prospective comparison to arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    VanBeek, Corinne; Loeffler, Bryan J; Narzikul, Alexa; Gordon, Victoria; Rasiej, Michael J; Kazam, Jonathan K; Abboud, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and to assess the accuracy of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting these defects compared with the "gold standard" of arthroscopy. Noncontrast MRI studies obtained in 84 consecutive patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff tendinopathy (mean age, 54.8 years; range, 17-82 years) were prospectively evaluated for glenohumeral cartilage lesions. Two fellowship-trained, experienced musculoskeletal radiologists were blinded from the arthroscopic findings and independently evaluated the glenoid and humeral head cartilage on 2 separate occasions. At arthroscopy, cartilage lesions of the humeral head were detected in 23 patients (frequency, 27.4%), and glenoid cartilage lesions were found in 20 patients (frequency, 23.8%). For detection of a humeral lesion on MRI, the radiologists' combined accuracy was 78%, sensitivity was 43%, and specificity was 91%. The combined accuracy for detection of glenoid lesions on MRI was 84%, sensitivity was 53%, and specificity was 93%. Combining the readers, low-grade lesions (International Cartilage Repair Society grades 1 and 2) of the glenoid and humerus were read as negative on MRI in 63% and 86% of cases, respectively. Overall accuracy of noncontrast MRI for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions is good; however, interpretation is reader dependent, and accuracy is significantly reduced for detection of low-grade lesions. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy undergoing arthroscopy be informed that the presence and severity of cartilage lesions may be underestimated on MRI. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Diagnostic value of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters and relative quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters in breast lesions with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI].

    PubMed

    Sun, T T; Liu, W H; Zhang, Y Q; Li, L H; Wang, R; Ye, Y Y

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To explore the differential between the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters and relative pharmacokinetic quantitative parameters in breast lesions. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 255 patients(262 breast lesions) who was obtained by clinical palpation , ultrasound or full-field digital mammography , and then all lessions were pathologically confirmed in Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University from May 2012 to May 2016. A 3.0 T MRI scanner was used to obtain the quantitative MR pharmacokinetic parameters: volume transfer constant (K(trans)), exchange rate constant (k(ep))and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V(e)). And measured the quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters of normal glands tissues which on the same side of the same level of the lesions; and then calculated the value of relative pharmacokinetic parameters: rK(rans)、rk(ep) and rV(e).To explore the diagnostic value of two pharmacokinetic parameters in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast lesions using receiver operating curves and model of logistic regression. Results: (1)There were significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in K(trans) and k(ep) (t=15.489, 15.022, respectively, P<0.05), there were no significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in V(e)(t=-2.346, P>0.05). The areas under the ROC curve(AUC)of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) between malignant and benign lesions were 0.933, 0.948 and 0.387, the sensitivity of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) were 77.1%, 85.0%, 51.0% , and the specificity of K(trans), k(ep) and V(e) were 96.3%, 93.6%, 60.8% for the differential diagnosis of breast lesions if taken the maximum Youden's index as cut-off. (2)There were significant differences between benign lesions and malignant lesions in rK(trans), rk(ep) and rV(e) (t=14.177, 11.726, 2.477, respectively, P<0.05). The AUC of rK(trans), rk(ep) and rV(e) between malignant and benign lesions

  20. Superior labral anterior posterior lesions of the shoulder: Current diagnostic and therapeutic standards

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Dominik; Schöffl, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Surgical treatment of superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) lesion becomes more and more frequent which is the consequence of evolving progress in both, imaging and surgical technique as well as implants. The first classification of SLAP lesions was described in 1990, a subdivision in four types existed. The rising comprehension of pathology and pathophysiology in SLAP lesions contributed to increase the types in SLAP classification to ten. Concerning the causative mechanism of SLAP lesions, acute trauma has to be differed from chronic degeneration. Overhead athletes tend to develop a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit which forms the basis for two controversial discussed potential mechanisms of pathophysiology in SLAP lesions: Internal impingement and peel-back mechanism. Clinical examination often remains unspecific whereas soft tissue imaging such as direct or indirect magnetic resonance arthrography has technically improved and is regarded to be indispensable in detection of SLAP lesions. Concomitant pathologies as Bankart lesions, rotator cuff tears or perilabral cysts should be taken into consideration when planning a personalized therapeutic strategy. In addition, normal variants such as sublabral recess, sublabral hole, Buford complex and other less common variants have to be distinguished. The most frequent SLAP type II needs a sophisticated approach when surgical teatment comes into consideration. While SLAP repair is considered to be the standard operative option, overhead athletes benefit from a biceps tenodesis because improved patient-reported satisfaction and higher rate of return to pre-injury level of sports has been reported. PMID:26495243

  1. [Lesions of the oral mucosa : Differential diagnostic approach from the maxillofacial surgeon's perspective].

    PubMed

    Steiner, C

    2016-10-01

    A detailed medical history and a careful clinical examination are the basis for developing a list of possible differential diagnoses in lesions of the oral mucosa. On this basis, it can be decided whether a lesion can be observed for 14 days after removal of possible causes or the start of a trial treatment, or whether a biopsy for histological examination must be taken immediately. An excisional biopsy is performed for small and presumably benign lesions, an incisional biopsy for large and presumably malignant lesions. If an autoimmune blistering disease is suspected, a second sample for examination by immunofluorescence is taken. Depending on the results of the histological examination further treatment steps are planned or regular appointments for follow-up are arranged.

  2. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

    2012-06-01

    A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted.

  3. Efficacy of labral repair, biceps tenodesis, and diagnostic arthroscopy for SLAP Lesions of the shoulder: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgery for type II SLAP (superior labral anterior posterior) lesions of the shoulder is a promising but unproven treatment. The procedures include labral repair or biceps tenodesis. Retrospective cohort studies have suggested that the benefits of tenodesis include pain relief and improved function, and higher patient satisfaction, which was reported in a prospective non-randomised study. There have been no completed randomised controlled trials of surgery for type II SLAP lesions. The aims of this participant and observer blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial are to compare the short-term (6 months) and long-term (2 years) efficacy of labral repair, biceps tenodesis, and placebo (diagnostic arthroscopy) for alleviating pain and improving function for type II SLAP lesions. Methods/Design A double-blind randomised controlled trial are performed using 120 patients, aged 18 to 60 years, with a history for type II SLAP lesions and clinical signs suggesting type II SLAP lesion, which were documented by MR arthrography and arthroscopy. Exclusion criteria include patients who have previously undergone operations for SLAP lesions or recurrent shoulder dislocations, and ruptures of the rotator cuff or biceps tendon. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months. Primary outcome measures will be the clinical Rowe Score (1988-version) and the Western Ontario Instability Index (WOSI) at six and 24 months. Secondary outcome measures will include the Shoulder Instability Questionnaire (SIQ), the generic EuroQol (EQ-5 D and EQ-VAS), return to work and previous sports activity, complications, and the number of reoperations. Discussion The results of this trial will be of international importance and the results will be translatable into clinical practice. Trial Registration [ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00586742] PMID:20929552

  4. Improving Diagnostic Accuracy of Dermoscopically Equivocal Pink Cutaneous Lesions with Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Telemedicine Settings: Double Reader Concordance Evaluation of 316 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Roterman-Konieczna, I.; Bassoli, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Solitary pink lesions in differential diagnosis with hypopigmented/amelanotic melanoma present a diagnostic challenge in daily practice and are regularly referred for second expert opinion. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal pink lesions. No studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of adding a second expert reader and automatic removal of lesions with discordant management recommendations and its potential effect on diagnostic sensitivity and final management of these lesions in retrospective or telemedicine settings. Objective To improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce potential mismanagement of dermoscopically equivocal pink cutaneous lesions by implementing double reader concordance evaluation of RCM images. Methods 316 dermoscopically equivocal pink lesions with dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated retrospectively. Accuracy of three readers was evaluated by single reader evaluation of dermoscopy only and dermoscopy-RCM image sets and finally by double reader evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets. Lesions with discordant diagnosis between two readers were automatically recommended for excision. Results Dermoscopy only evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.9% and specificity of 33.6%, with 1 of 12 amelanotic melanomas mismanaged. Dermoscopy-RCM image set single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and overall specificity of 54.2%, with 1 of 12 melanomas mismanaged. Dermoscopy-RCM image set double reader concordance evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 42.7%, with no amelanotic melanoma mismanagement. Conclusion Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of equivocal pink lesions by a single reader in telemedicine settings is limited by the potential for misdiagnosis of dangerous malignant lesions. Double reader concordance evaluation with automatic referral of lesions for removal in the

  5. Improving Diagnostic Accuracy of Dermoscopically Equivocal Pink Cutaneous Lesions with Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Telemedicine Settings: Double Reader Concordance Evaluation of 316 Cases.

    PubMed

    Łudzik, J; Witkowski, A M; Roterman-Konieczna, I; Bassoli, S; Farnetani, F; Pellacani, G

    2016-01-01

    Solitary pink lesions in differential diagnosis with hypopigmented/amelanotic melanoma present a diagnostic challenge in daily practice and are regularly referred for second expert opinion. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal pink lesions. No studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of adding a second expert reader and automatic removal of lesions with discordant management recommendations and its potential effect on diagnostic sensitivity and final management of these lesions in retrospective or telemedicine settings. To improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce potential mismanagement of dermoscopically equivocal pink cutaneous lesions by implementing double reader concordance evaluation of RCM images. 316 dermoscopically equivocal pink lesions with dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated retrospectively. Accuracy of three readers was evaluated by single reader evaluation of dermoscopy only and dermoscopy-RCM image sets and finally by double reader evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets. Lesions with discordant diagnosis between two readers were automatically recommended for excision. Dermoscopy only evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.9% and specificity of 33.6%, with 1 of 12 amelanotic melanomas mismanaged. Dermoscopy-RCM image set single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and overall specificity of 54.2%, with 1 of 12 melanomas mismanaged. Dermoscopy-RCM image set double reader concordance evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 42.7%, with no amelanotic melanoma mismanagement. Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of equivocal pink lesions by a single reader in telemedicine settings is limited by the potential for misdiagnosis of dangerous malignant lesions. Double reader concordance evaluation with automatic referral of lesions for removal in the case of discordant diagnosis improves the

  6. Carious lesions: diagnostic accuracy using pre-calibrated monitor in various ambient light levels: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Hellén-Halme, K; Lith, A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effect of different monitor calibration modes under various ambient lighting conditions on the ability of observers to recognize proximal carious lesions of varying depths. Methods: 7 observers evaluated 100 teeth for proximal carious lesions on standardized digital radiographs using 3 set-ups: (1) pre-calibrated monitor for high ambient light (higher than 1000 lux), (2) pre-calibrated monitor for low ambient light (less than 50 lux) and (3) Barten calibration (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) on the monitor in dimmed ambient light (less than 50 lux). Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all observations. The criterion standard was histological examination of the teeth. The effects of three conditions were compared using a paired t-test. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Results: No significant difference was found in diagnostic accuracy for the detection of any type of proximal carious lesions between the different calibration modes of the monitor according to different ambient light levels. Conclusions: There is no evidence that any difference between ambient light levels affects the ability to detect carious lesions in digital radiographs as long as the monitor was calibrated in accordance with the surrounding light level. PMID:23775926

  7. Analytical validation of a melanoma diagnostic gene signature using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Warf, M Bryan; Flake, Darl D; Adams, Doug; Gutin, Alexander; Kolquist, Kathryn A; Wenstrup, Richard J; Roa, Benjamin B

    2015-01-01

    These studies were to validate the analytical performance of a gene expression signature that differentiates melanoma and nevi, using RNA expression from 14 signature genes and nine normalization genes that generates a melanoma diagnostic score (MDS). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were evaluated in these studies. The overall SD of the assay was determined to be 0.69 MDS units. Individual amplicons within the signature had an average amplification efficiency of 92% and a SD less than 0.5 CT. The MDS was reproducible across a 2000-fold dilution range of input RNA. Melanin, an inhibitor of PCR, does not interfere with the signature. These studies indicate this signature is robust and reproducible and is analytically validated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

  8. Critical evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic technique in bone tumors and tumor-like lesions.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Datta, Alok Sobhan; Hira, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Though open surgical biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of bone tumors, many disadvantages are associated with this approach. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of bony tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be conducted in centers where facilities for surgical biopsies are inadequate. The study population consisted of 51 cases presenting with a skeletal mass. After clinical evaluation, radiological correlation was done to assess the nature and extent of each lesion. Fine needle aspiration was performed aseptically and smears were prepared. Patients subsequently underwent open surgical biopsy and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Standard statistical methods were applied for analysis of data. Adequate material was not obtained even after repeated aspiration in seven cases, six of which were benign. Among the remaining 44 cases, diagnosis of malignancy was correctly provided in 28 (93.3%) out of 30 cases and categorical diagnosis in 20 (66.67%). Interpretation of cytology was more difficult in cases of benign and tumor-like lesions, with a categorical opinion only possible in seven (50%) cases. Statistical analysis showed FNAC with malignant tumors to have high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (92.9%) and positive predictive value of 96.6%, whereas the negative predictive value was 86.7%. FNAC should be included in the diagnostic workup of a skeletal tumor because of its simplicity and reliability. However, a definitive pathologic diagnosis heavily depends on compatible clinical and radiologic features which can only be accomplished by teamwork. The cytological technique applied in this study could detect many bone tumors and tumor-like conditions and appears particularly suitable as a diagnostic technique for rural regions of India as other developing countries.

  9. Breast MRI in nonpalpable breast lesions: a randomized trial with diagnostic and therapeutic outcome – MONET – study

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nicky HGM; Borel Rinkes, Inne HM; Mali, Willem PTM; van den Bosch, Maurice AAJ; Storm, Remmert K; Plaisier, Peter W; de Boer, Erwin; van Overbeeke, Adriaan J; Peeters, Petra HM

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing interest in MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic modality for the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. The additional value of Breast MRI lies mainly in its capacity to detect multicentric and multifocal disease, to detect invasive components in ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and to depict the tumor in a 3-dimensional image. Breast MRI therefore has the potential to improve the diagnosis and provide better preoperative staging and possibly surgical care in patients with breast cancer. The aim of our study is to assess whether performing contrast enhanced Breast MRI can reduce the number of surgical procedures due to better preoperative staging and whether a subgroup of women with suspicious nonpalpable breast lesions can be identified in which the combination of mammography, ultrasound and state-of-the-art contrast-enhanced Breast MRI can provide a definite diagnosis. Methods/Design The MONET – study (MR mammography Of Nonpalpable BrEast Tumors) is a randomized controlled trial with diagnostic and therapeutic endpoints. We aim to include 500 patients with nonpalpable suspicious breast lesions who are referred for biopsy. With this number of patients, the expected 12% reduction in surgical procedures due to more accurate preoperative staging with Breast MRI can be detected with a high power (90%). The secondary outcome is the positive and negative predictive value of contrast enhanced Breast MRI. If the predictive values are deemed sufficiently close to those for large core biopsy then the latter, invasive, procedure could possibly be avoided in some women. The rationale, study design and the baseline characteristics of the first 100 included patients are described. Trial registration Study protocol number NCT00302120 PMID:18045470

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology in lesions of oral and maxillofacial region: Diagnostic pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sunita; Garg, Natasha; Gupta, Sumiti; Marwah, Nisha; Kalra, Rajneesh; Singh, Virender; Sen, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of oral and maxillofacial region has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to diversity of lesion types, heterogeneity of cell populations and difficulties in reaching and aspirating these lesions. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of tumor and tumor like lesions of oral and maxillofacial region. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of errors in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 50 patients of all age groups with various palpable lesions in the oromaxillofacial region. A comparison between cytological and histological diagnosis was done wherever biopsy material was available. Results: The rate of unsatisfactory FNA was 4%. There were six false negative cases but no false positive case. The sensitivity of our study ranged from 77.7 to 75% including and excluding the suspicious cases, respectively. Specificity and positive predictive value was 100%. Conclusion: FNAC is a minimally invasive, highly accurate and cost-effective procedure for the assessment of patients with oromaxillofacial lesions. When applied in a proper manner, FNAC can help avoid a surgical biopsy in many cases. PMID:21897540

  11. A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats were tested for rabies. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to appropriate handling of the brain, the head should be examined with attention paid to the sella turcica and the temporal bones for evidence of a pituitary abscess and otitis, respectively. Histologic examination should include multiple areas of the brain, including the brainstem, for lesions of encephalic listeriosis; the cerebral cortex, for lesions of polioencephalomalacia; and the hippocampus, for Negri bodies associated with Rabies virus infection. Consideration should be given to collecting samples of other tissues including, but not limited to, the spinal cord and liver for ancillary testing if warranted.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of diagnostically challenging lesions in breast MRI: a comparison between a radiomics and a feature-selective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Lobbes, Marc; Houben, Ivo; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Wengert, Georg; Burgeth, Bernhard; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostically challenging lesions pose a challenge both for the radiological reading and also for current CAD systems. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. Their strong phenotypic differences can be visualized by MRI. Radiomics represents a novel approach to achieve a detailed quantification of the tumour phenotypes by analyzing a large number of image descriptors. In this paper, we apply a quantitative radiomics approach based on shape, texture and kinetics tumor features and evaluate it in comparison to a reduced-order feature approach in a computer-aided diagnosis system applied to diagnostically challenging lesions.

  13. Indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: assessment of the additional diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the non-cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; De Paoli, Luca; Angileri, Roberta; Cabibbo, Biagio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2014-03-01

    To assess the additional diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterization of indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Fifty-five solid hepatic lesions (1-4 cm in diameter) in 46 non-cirrhotic patients (26 female, 20 male; age±SD, 55±10 years) underwent CEUS after being detected on contrast-enhanced CT which was considered as non-diagnostic after on-site analysis. Two blinded independent readers assessed CT and CEUS scans and were asked to classify retrospectively each lesion as a malignant or benign based on reference diagnostic criteria for the different hepatic lesion histotypes. Diagnostic accuracy and confidence (area--Az--under ROC curve) were assessed by using gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n=30 lesions), histology (n=7 lesions), or US follow-up (n=18 lesions) as the reference standards. Final diagnoses included 29 hemangiomas, 3 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 hepatocellular adenoma, and 22 metastases. The additional review of CEUS after CT images improved significantly (P<.05) the diagnostic accuracy (before vs after CEUS review=49% [20/55] vs 89% [49/55]--reader 1 and 43% [24/55] vs 92% [51/55]--reader 2) and confidence (Az, 95% Confidence Intervals before vs after CEUS review=.773 [.652-.895] vs .997 [.987-1]--reader 1 and .831 [.724-.938] vs .998 [.992-1]--reader 2). CEUS improved the characterization of indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT by identifying some specific contrast enhancement patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is detection of additional lesions in post-peptide receptor radionuclide therapy scans with respect to diagnostic imaging only due to different affinity of ligands?: a report of discordance between diagnostic and posttherapy imaging using the same ligand.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Fabio; Herberg, Astrid; Sindoni, Alessandro; Cardile, Davide; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Baldari, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    It is known that different affinity profiles for somatostatin receptor subtypes among different radiopharmaceuticals result in different organ and tumor uptakes and even in different sensitivities in the detection of lesions. Such differences are considered main factors explaining cases of detecting additional lesions in posttherapy scans with respect to diagnostic imaging. We show a posttherapy scan revealing more lesions--namely, a diffuse bone involvement with many small focal bony uptake areas--than the diagnostic scan using the same radiopharmaceutical (111In-pentetreotide) in a 71-year-old man with metastases from a well-differentiated ileal neuroendocrine tumor.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of biopsy in musculoskeletal lesions: a comparison of fine-needle aspiration, core, and open biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Schmidt, Robert L; Sangle, Nikhil; Crim, Julia R

    2014-06-01

    Selection of biopsy technique for musculoskeletal lesions is complex. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is uncommonly used due to concerns regarding accuracy. We compared diagnostic accuracy of FNA, core, and open biopsy in a series of musculoskeletal lesions. Records of the University of Utah were searched for biopsy and resection specimens of musculoskeletal lesions. Results of corresponding imaging studies were obtained. Biopsy and FNA diagnoses were correlated with resection diagnoses. For each technique, diagnostic accuracy, utility, and frequency of subsequent biopsy were calculated. Open biopsy had the highest diagnostic accuracy (89%) followed by FNA (82%) and core biopsy (78%). Clinically significant errors occurred with all methods. The likelihood of an open biopsy being performed was affected by prior performance of an FNA or core biopsy and by diagnostic imaging and FNA results. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The value of digital tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography: analysis of diagnostic accuracy and confidence.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Bregant, Paola; Cernic, Stefano; Cuttin, Roberto; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of digital tomosynthesis in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography. Two-hundred twenty-eight patients (133 men, 95 women; mean age, 70.8 ± 11.1 years) with suspected pulmonary lesions after initial analysis of chest radiography underwent digital tomosynthesis. Two independent readers (with 3 and 20 years of experience) prospectively analyzed the chest radiographic and digital tomosynthesis images on a picture archiving and communication system workstation and proposed a diagnostic confidence score for each lesion (1 or 2 = definitely or probably extrapulmonary lesion or pseudolesion, 3 = indeterminate, 4 or 5 = probably or definitely pulmonary lesion). Chest computed tomography was the reference standard examination. A total of 251 suspected pulmonary lesions were identified. In 71 patients, digital tomosynthesis and computed tomography did not confirm any lesion. In the remaining 157 patients, 180 lesions were identified, including 112 pulmonary and 68 extrapulmonary lesions. In 110 (reader 1) and 123 (reader 2) lesions, correct diagnoses were provided after analysis of the chest radiographs. All lesions were correctly classified after digital tomosynthesis except for 14 extrapulmonary lesions (both readers) that were misinterpreted as pulmonary and 10 (reader 1) and six (reader 2) pulmonary lesions that were misinterpreted as pleural. Digital radiography versus tomosynthesis differed in accuracy (reader 1, 43% vs 90%; reader 2, 49% vs 92%; P < .05) and confidence by area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (reader 1, 0.788 vs 0.944; reader 2, 0.840 vs 0.997; P < .05). Digital tomosynthesis improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence in the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary lesions on chest radiography. Copyright © 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diagnostic value of multiply biopsies and endocervical curettage on cervical lesions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Du, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Bin; Wang, Chun; Belinson, Jerome L; Wu, Ruifang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the value of multiply biopsies and endocervical curettage (ECC) on diagnosing cervical lesions. For the detection of cervical lesions, Shenzhen cervical cancer screening trial II (SHENCCAST II) program combined methods of HPV screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC), any positive indicators was then performed multiply biopsies and ECC under colopscopy. A total of 2,558 clear colposcopic images and pathological diagnoses were reviewed. To analyse the pathological results and primary screening results of the negative colopscopic images for discussing the value of multiply biopsies and ECC. Overall 2,558 women's colposcopic images and sampling results were completed and validated. 69.98% (1,790/2,558) women had normal colposcopy appearances. Among them, 2.23% (40/1,790) were diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II or worse (CIN II+). The odds ratio of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was 28.37 (P=0.000) and atypical squamous cell cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) was 15.07 (P=0.001). HPV types 16, 52, 58, 31, 33 and 18 were related to high-grade cervical lesion with the odds ratio of 3.11 (P=0.017). Hybrid capture II (HC-II) DNA test results shown that women with HPV positive were 3.58 times more risky than those of HPV negative, which was related to high-grade cervical lesion (P=0.025). Among the 2,558 women, CIN II+ detective rate from ECC were 40.7% (44/108) in older group (≥40 years) were higher than that of 19.2% (24/125) in younger group (<40 years; χ2=13.01, P=0.000). CIN II+ detective rate from multiply biopsies were 90.7% (98/108) in older group (≥40 years) were higher than that of 88.8% (111/125) in younger group (<40 years; χ2=0.24, P>0.05). The highest risky items of detecting CIN II+ were as follows: (1) HSIL or ASC-H; (2) HPV types 16, 18, 52 and 58 positive (either one); (3) HC-II HPV positive, at least 2 of the 3 items were included among 32 cases of the 40 CIN II+ with normal colposcopy appearances. The

  18. Automated metastatic brain lesion detection: a computer aided diagnostic and clinical research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, Jeremy; Sahgal, Arjun; Karam, Irene; Martel, Anne L.

    2016-03-01

    The accurate localization of brain metastases in magnetic resonance (MR) images is crucial for patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to ensure that all neoplastic foci are targeted. Computer automated tumor localization and analysis can improve both of these tasks by eliminating inter and intra-observer variations during the MR image reading process. Lesion localization is accomplished using adaptive thresholding to extract enhancing objects. Each enhancing object is represented as a vector of features which includes information on object size, symmetry, position, shape, and context. These vectors are then used to train a random forest classifier. We trained and tested the image analysis pipeline on 3D axial contrast-enhanced MR images with the intention of localizing the brain metastases. In our cross validation study and at the most effective algorithm operating point, we were able to identify 90% of the lesions at a precision rate of 60%.

  19. Concurrent bladder cancer in patients undergoing photodynamic diagnostic ureterorenoscopy: how many lesions do we miss under white light cystoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Zreik, Abdullah; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Chłosta, Piotr; Aboumarzouk, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an ongoing debate on panurothelial changes in the upper and lower urinary tract as multifocal presentation of urothelial cancer is well recognised. Concurrent bladder cancer impacts the outcome of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer treatment, while its detection still relies on the white light cystoscopy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent photodynamic diagnostic ureterorenoscopy, choosing those who had synchronous bladder biopsies. Each patient received 20 mg/kg body weight of oral 5-Aminolevulinic acid around 3–4 hours before endoscopy. All procedures were performed by a single endourologist experienced in photodynamic diagnosis and flexible ureterorenoscopy. Results Between July 2009 and June 2013, 69 patients underwent bladder biopsies at the time of photodynamic diagnostic endoscopic inspection of the upper urinary tract. In total, 43.5% (30/69) patients were found to have bladder lesions, of which 43.3% (13/30) were proven to be carcinoma in situ. White light inspection of the bladder missed bladder cancer in 16 (23.1%) patients, of which 12 were carcinoma in situ. There were 14 bladder cancer lesions missed under white light which were concomitant to the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. Twelve (17.4%) patients developed minor complications relevant to the photosensitizer. Conclusions The study raises a concern about missing small bladder cancer/carcinoma in situ lesions on the initial diagnosis or in surveillance of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. Higher than previously reported, the rate of concomitant bladder cancer may suggest utilisation of photodynamic diagnosis to ensure the cancer free status of the bladder, but this needs to be ratified in a multi-institutional randomised trial. PMID:28127447

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic lesions by fetal ultrasonography: diagnostic agreement between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Marchitelli, Giulia; Stirnemann, Julien; Acanfora, Marta Maddalena; Rousseau, Veronique; Salomon, Laurent J; Ville, Yves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic agreement between the prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic lesions made by ultrasound examination and the postnatal diagnosis. We reviewed all consecutive cases referred for an anechoic abdominal cyst from 2009 to 2013. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis was compared with postnatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis was defined as 'correct' if a specific prenatal diagnosis or one of the possible diagnoses was confirmed postnatally, as 'not confirmed' if the postnatal examination revealed no abnormalities and as 'incorrect' if the postnatal diagnosis was different from those suggested prenatally. Seventy-three cases were included, and prenatal diagnoses were made at a median gestational age of 27 weeks (range: 13-36). Correct diagnoses were made in 66 cases (90.4%), including four in which the lesion resolved spontaneously in utero; two diagnoses were 'not confirmed' postnatally, and one was incorrect (a prenatal diagnosis of intestinal duplication was in fact an anorectal malformation). Postnatal diagnosis was not achieved in four cases: None of them required surgery, and clinical follow-up was favorable. The abdominal cysts were isolated in 52 cases (71%) and associated with other anomalies in 21 cases (29%). Aneuploidies were diagnosed in three cases (all trisomy 21). Eight cases underwent termination of pregnancy; there were no fetal deaths and one neonatal death. Postnatal surgery was performed in 30 out of 65 liveborn infants (46.1%). Overall diagnostic agreement between prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of fetal intra-abdominal cystic lesions is high. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  2. Diagnostic Value of Hook Wire Localization Technique for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Demiral, Gokhan; Senol, Metin; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozturk, Hasan; Celik, Yahya; Boluk, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of hook wire localization biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions which were detected by ultrasonography (USG) or mammography (MMG). Methods In this retrospective study, USG or MMG-guided hook wire localization technique was performed on 83 patients who had non-palpable breast lesions. Then histopathological examination was performed on surgically removed specimens. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasonograms were categorized using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. Results Radiologically, 27 (32.53%) patients were classified as BI-RADS 3, 49 (59.04%) BI-RADS 4, one (1.2%) BIRADS 5 and six (7.23%) BI-RADS 0. Histopathological results were benign in 68 (81.9%) and malignant in 15 (18.1%) patients. Twenty-seven patients were classified as BI-RADS 3 and definitive diagnoses for all were benign. Besides, 49 patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 and histopathologically 14 of them were reported as malignant, and 35 as benign. Sensitivity of MMG was 93% and specificity was 55%. For USG, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 73%. Conclusion In early diagnosis of breast cancer, the validity of the imaging-guided hook wire localization biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions has been proved. The cooperation of surgeon, radiologist and pathologist increases the successfull results of hook wire localization technique. PMID:27081425

  3. Diagnostic imaging costs before and after digital tomosynthesis implementation in patient management after detection of suspected thoracic lesions on chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; Grisi, Guido; Baratella, Elisa; Cuttin, Roberto; Poillucci, Gabriele; Kus, Sara; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate diagnostic imaging costs before and after DTS implementation in patients with suspected thoracic lesions on CXR. Four hundred sixty-five patients (263 male, 202 female; age, 72.47 ± 11.33 years) with suspected thoracic lesion(s) after CXR underwent DTS. Each patient underwent CT when a pulmonary non-calcified lesion was identified by DTS while CT was not performed when a benign pulmonary or extrapulmonary lesion or pseudolesion was identified. The average per-patient imaging cost was calculated by normalising the costs before and after DTS implementation. In 229/465 patients who underwent DTS after suspicious CXR, DTS showed 193 pulmonary lesions and 36 pleural lesions, while in the remaining 236/465 patients, lesions were ruled out as pseudolesions of CXR. Chest CT examination was performed in 127/465 (27 %) patients while in the remaining 338/465 patients (73 %) CXR doubtful findings were resolved by DTS. The average per-patient costs of CXR, DTS and CT were 15.15, 41.55 and 113.66. DTS allowed an annual cost saving of 8,090.2 considering unenhanced CT and 19,298.12 considering contrast-enhanced CT. Considering a DTS reimbursement rate of 62.7 the break even point corresponds to 479 DTS examinations. Per-patient diagnostic imaging costs decreased after DTS implementation in patients with suspected thoracic lesions. • Digital tomosynthesis improves the diagnostic accuracy and confidence in chest radiography • Digital tomosynthesis reduces the need for CT for a suspected pulmonary lesion • Digital tomosynthesis requires a dose level equivalent to that of around two chest radiographies • Digital tomosynthesis produces a significant per-patient saving in diagnostic imaging costs.

  4. Immunohistochemical double stains against Ki67/MART1 and HMB45/MITF: promising diagnostic tools in melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Steiniche, Torben

    2011-06-01

    Distinction between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions may be difficult by today's methods, even for highly skilled dermatopathologists, emphasizing the need for improved diagnostic tools. We have studied the discriminative abilities of immunohistochemical (IHC) double stains using the IHC markers Ki67 combined with MART1, and HMB45 combined with MITF. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 50 melanomas and 78 benign nevi were stained using a simple simultaneous IHC double staining technique. Both simple semiquantitative estimates of the immunopositivity in the deepest third of the lesions and full-scale quantitative measurements of the Ki67 and HMB45 indices were performed, and scores for melanomas and nevi were compared. The differences between melanomas and nevi were significant (P < 0.0001) using either analysis or stain. The misclassification rates for melanomas and nevi were generally lower for Ki67/MART1 stains than for HMB45/MITF stains. In the simple semiquantitative Ki67/MART1 analysis, the misclassification rates were 6% (2%-17%) for melanomas and 12% (6%-21%) for nevi. In full-scale quantitative analysis the corresponding rates were 4% (1%-14%) and 8% (4%-16%), and by combining Ki67 and HMB45 indices, the misclassification rates were 0% (0%-7%) for melanomas and 13% (7%-22%) for nevi. We conclude that both semiscale and fullscale quantitative analyses of Ki67/MART1 stains are valuable diagnostic tools to distinguish melanomas and nevi with a large degree of certainty. The HMB45/MITF stains may serve as adjuncts to predict malignancy and the diagnostic potential of combining the HMB45 and Ki67 indices are promising. The IHC double stains may potentially reduce misinterpretations of melanomas in histopathology.

  5. Assessment of a Diagnostic Predictive Probability Model Provided by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis Device for Melanoma and Other High-risk Pigmented Lesions and its Impact on Biopsy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jane; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Risk prediction models for primary malignant melanoma thus far have relied on qualitative patient information. The authors propose a quantitative diagnostic predictive probability model using Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis for melanoma and other high-risk pigmented lesions and evaluate its effectiveness optimizing biopsy decisions by dermatologists. Design: Data from 1,632 pigmented lesions analyzed by a Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis device were used to perform a logistic regression analysis. This new quantitative melanoma or melanoma/atypical melanocytic hyperplasia/high-grade dysplastic nevus probability model was then evaluated to determine its impact on dermatologist decisions to biopsy pigmented lesions clinically suggestive of melanoma. Participants were given an electronic keypad and answered “yes” or “no” if they would biopsy each of 12 pigmented lesions when presented first with patient history, clinical images, and dermoscopic images and again when subsequently shown Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis data. Setting/participants: Study of 191 dermatologists at a medical conference. Measurements: Sensitivity, specificity, biopsy accuracy, overall biopsy rate, and percentage dermatologists biopsying all five melanomas. Results: Dermatologists were significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate while decreasing overall biopsy rates with Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information. Conclusion: Integration of Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis probability information in the biopsy evaluation and selection process of pigmented lesions has the potential to improve melanoma sensitivity of dermatologists without the concomitant costs associated with additional biopsies being performed. PMID:25584133

  6. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) for Lesions in the Minipig.

    PubMed

    Skydsgaard, Mikala

    2016-04-01

    The International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) is a global project establishing diagnostic criteria and nomenclature for both proliferative and nonproliferative changes in laboratory animals. Nonrodent working groups (NRWGs) have been established for the dog, nonhuman primate, minipig, and the rabbit. The Global Editorial and Steering Committee (GESC) oversees the activities of the INHAND projects and is composed of toxicologic pathologists from all of the participating societies. In 2012, INHAND GESC began a collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in adapting INHAND terminology for standardized nonclinical data submission to the FDA. The Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data is an implementation of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium Study Data Tabulation Model for nonclinical studies. The NRWG for the minipig consists of toxicologic and diagnostic pathologists from Japan, North America, and Europe, and the group has 15 members including a GESC representative. The NRWGs are reviewing the applicability of the rodent nomenclature for the species and providing terminology unique for the species as well as determining rodent terminology not appropriate for the species. This information will be published with representative illustrations and references.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of dental lesions: diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Uzunov, Tzonko; Penev, Dimitar; Genova, Tsanislava; Avramov, Latchezar

    2016-01-01

    The carious decay develops a tiny area of demineralization on the enamel, which could be detected by element analytic techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). That demineralization can quickly turn into a large lesion inside the tooth, it is often discovered too late to prevent the kind of decay that leads to cavities. The same optical LIBS detection approach could be used for monitoring of the caries removal using laser ablation or drilling techniques. For LIBS measurements we applied LIBS 2500Plus (Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, USA) system, which consists of seven spectrometric channels, covering spectral region from 200 to 980 nm, which optical resolution 0,05 nm, the spectrometers are connected with sample fiber bundle for 7-channels spectral system to the chamber for solid and liquid samples, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, at 1 064 nm, with energy per pulse - 40 mJ, which is applied to induce plasma in the samples. LIBS spectra were obtained after single shot of the laser in the region of pathology. Samples investigated by LIBS are extracted teeth from patients, with periodontal problems on different stage of carious lesions, and their LIBS spectra are compared with the LIBS signals obtained from normal enamel and dentine tissues to receive complete picture of the carious lesion development. The major line of our investigations is related to the development of a methodology for real-time optical feedback control during selective ablation of tooth tissues using LIBS. Tooth structures, with and without pathological changes, are compared and their LIBS element analysis is used to differentiate major changes, which occur during tooth carious process and growth.

  8. Activity-based cost analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) related to the diagnostic impact in focal liver lesion characterisation.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Arianna; Quaia, Emilio; Poillucci, Gabriele; Stacul, Fulvio; Grisi, Guido; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2015-08-01

    This study was done to assess the clinical-diagnostic impact and cost of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) versus computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the characterisation of focal liver lesions. CEUS with sulphur hexafluoride-filled microbubbles (SonoVue bolus 2.4 ml) was performed in 157 patients with 160 focal liver lesions identified by other diagnostic techniques. CEUS images were obtained during the arterial (15 to 35 s from contrast injection), portal venous (40 to 70 s) and late phase (up to 300 s from microbubble injection). Contrast-enhanced CT was performed with a 64-row multidetector CT. MRI was performed before and after administration of the liver-specific contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA). A patient-by-patient activity-based cost analysis was performed. CEUS led to a change in the diagnostic workup in 131/157 patients (83.4 %) and in the therapeutic workup in 93/157 patients (59.2 %). CEUS allowed for the final diagnosis to be established in 133/157 patients (84.7 %). The full cost of CEUS was lower than that of contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging. CEUS determined a change in the diagnostic and therapeutic workup in the characterisation of focal liver lesions and reduced the full costs of the diagnostic process. • CEUS allows a correct diagnosis in more than 80 % of focal liver lesions. • CEUS has a significant impact on the diagnosis of focal liver lesions. • CEUS examination of focal liver lesions reduces total costs. • Dynamic MR with hepato-specific contrast medium remains the reference standard for lesion characterisation. • CEUS is low-cost, versatile and accurate in the characterisation of focal liver lesions.

  9. Hidden Pictures of Kaposi's Sarcoma in Psoriatic Lesions: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jisook; Jo, Mingyul; Kim, Min-Soo; Choi, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hyang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal proliferative vascular tumor involving the skin and other organ and psoriasis is a chronic cutaneous disease with papules and plaques with white scale. Development of Kaposi's sarcoma in psoriasis patients has been reported rarely. A 71-year-old man presented with multiple brownish to violaceous plaques on both feet and arms which were found 4 months ago. The biopsy confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma. The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis vulgaris 10 years ago and Kaposi's sarcoma lesions developed between psoriatic plaques. We herein report a rare case of simultaneous occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma and psoriasis vulgaris which need quite different treatment. PMID:27904275

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of carious lesions in digital radiographs at a public dental clinic - can it be improved by optimizing viewing conditions and further education?.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Westerberg, Jane; Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of digital dental radiograpny for detecting carious lesions on approximal surfaces before and after optimization of the environ- ment, and after joint training on evaluation and review of x-rays. A further aim was to evaluate differences in diagnostic accuracy between general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental hygienists (DHs). One hundred extracted teeth (premolars and molars) underwent standardized radiography. Eleven participants (seven GDPs and four DHs) evaluated digital images for approximal carious lesions in three sessions: (1) at current conditions with no optimization or further training, (2) under optimized viewing conditions, and (3) under optimized viewing conditions after a short educational session. Receiver operating characteristic curves were,used to evaluate the results. Histological evaluation was made and served as a cri- terion standard for differentiating sound teeth and teeth with carious lesions. Kappa statistics evaluated intra-observer agreement. Diagnostic accuracy in the GDP group differed sig- nificantlyfor all types of carious lesions between the first and third evaluations (p=0.002), and also between the second and third (p=0.015). Diagnostic accuracy also differed significantly for carious lesions into the dentin between the first and third evaluations (p=0.010) and between the second and third (p=0.015). Most of the staff had optimized the environment when evaluating digital radiographs. A short educational session highlighting the difficulty of caries diagnostics in digital dental radiography can increase diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy in the detection of approximal carious lesions on digital radiographs did not differ between GDPs and DHs.

  11. Solid focal liver lesions indeterminate by contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging: the added diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    The main clinically recognized application of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) with microbubble contrast agents is the characterization of incidental focal liver lesions. CEUS with low transmit power insonation allows the real-time assessment of contrast enhancement in a focal liver lesion after microbubble contrast agent injection, during the arterial (10-25 s), portal venous (from 35 s up to 2 min) and late phase (4-6 min after microbubble injection). During the portal venous and late phase benign lesions appear hyper or iso-enhancing in comparison to the adjacent liver parenchyma, while malignant lesions prevalently present contrast washout with hypo-enhancing appearance. CEUS may provide an added diagnostic value in those incidental focal liver lesions in which contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging are not conclusive. In particular, CEUS may provide an added diagnostic value in those focal liver lesions appearing indeterminate on single-phase CT scan, or on CT scans performed by an incorrect delay time or also after injection of a low dose of iodinated contrast agent, or also in those focal liver lesions revealing equivocal enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging. CEUS may have an added diagnostic value also in hepatocellular nodules in a cirrhotic liver and can be considered a complementary imaging technique to CT.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique: a single center experience with 442 biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Çağlar; Akkaya, Zehra; Atman, Ebru Düşünceli; Üstüner, Evren; Peker, Elif; Gülpınar, Başak; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Ceyhan, Koray; Atasoy, Kayhan Çetin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions with fine needle aspiration (FNA) using non-coaxial technique. METHODS We analyzed 442 patients who underwent CT-guided lung biopsy with FNA and non-coaxial technique to determine the diagnostic outcomes, complication rates, and independent risk factors for diagnostic failure and pneumothorax. RESULTS Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 97.6%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Age and >35 mm lesion size were significant risk factors for diagnostic failure. The rates of pneumothorax and chest tube placement were 19% and 2.9%, respectively. Middle and lower lobe location, lesion to pleura distance >7.5 mm, and >45° needle trajectory angle were significant risk factors for pneumothorax. CONCLUSION CT-guided FNA of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique is a safe and reliable method with a relatively low pneumothorax rate and an acceptably high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28029638

  13. Endoscopic sonography of the liver--diagnostic application of the echolaparoscope to localize intrahepatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Mima, S; Tanabe, T; Haniu, T; Suzuki, Y; Hirata, K; Terada, S

    1984-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of ultrasonography and laparoscopy for abdominal diseases, the use of echolaparoscopy was investigated. The instruments used were the prototype echolaparoscope type 1-3 manufactured by Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan. The first prototype has the external diameter of 12 mm. It consists of an internal shaft connecting to a fixed transducer and a rotating mirror connected to the motor unit and a regular laparoscope to assess the position of the scanning head. The second and third prototypes were versions of the former and had an outer diameter of 10 mm to allow interchangeable use with a regular laparoscope. Transducers used were either of 10 or 7.5 MHz, 7 mm in diameter, and ultrasonic scanning was made by the mirror reflection method. A total of 67 cases with various abdominal diseases were examined on 73 occasions. The merit of the method is its ability to visualize occult lesions in the liver such as cysts and tumors. Differentiation between hepatic hemangioma and hepatocellular carcinoma could be mad without difficulty due to its increased resolution. Furthermore, this method was used as a guide to liver biopsy of occult tumors and decision making in cases of surgical resection of the hepatic lesions.

  14. Diagnostic problems in precancerous lesions and invasive carcinomas of the penis.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-05-01

    Penile precancerous and invasive lesions exhibit a variegated morphology. Although the diagnosis and classification of penile tumors is straightforward in most cases, a few entities are problematic, especially to pathologists from countries in which penile cancer is rarely encountered. The differential diagnosis of squamous hyperplasias from differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia or from extremely low-grade invasive neoplasms (eg, pseudohyperplastic and verrucous carcinomas) may be particularly difficult. Similarly, given the morphologic features shared by all verruciform tumors (ie, verrucous, warty, papillary, and cuniculatum carcinomas, along with giant condylomas), it is challenging at times to distinguish one from another. At the other end of the spectrum, because of their lack of differentiation, it is sometimes difficult to classify high-grade carcinomas, such as basaloid and sarcomatoid, which may have etiologic/prognostic implications. Penile mixed tumors, harboring more than 1 histologic subtype and grade, constitute a frequent finding in routine pathology. The recognition of distinctive morphologic patterns and histologic grades in these tumors is important because these features could be related to etiologic factors, such as human papillomavirus infection, or they could influence outcome. Penile tumors with glandular features (eg, adenosquamous and mucoepidermoid carcinomas), although rare, may be confused with the more common pseudoglandular (adenoid, acantholytic) variant of squamous cell carcinomas, their main mimicker. In this review we provide clues that may help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.

  15. Diagnostic performance of percutaneous lung biopsy using automated biopsy needles under CT-fluoroscopic guidance for ground-glass opacity lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, R; Miura, H; Yamada, K; Takahata, A; Matsumoto, T; Hasebe, T

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of percutaneous lung biopsy under CT-fluoroscopic guidance for ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions. Methods: 85 percutaneous needle lung biopsies were performed in 73 patients. Specimens were obtained by core biopsy utilising an automated cutting needle and were evaluated histologically. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Results: Rates of adequate specimens obtained and of precise diagnosis by needle biopsy were 92.9% (79/85) and 90.6% (77/85) of evaluated lung lesions, respectively. Precise diagnosis was achieved in 87.1% (27/31) of lesions ≤10 mm in diameter, 90.0% (36/40) of lesions >10 mm to ≤20 mm and 100.0% (14/14) of lesions >20 mm. Precision in diagnosing GGO lesions according to the GGO component was 73.9% (17/23) for pure GGO lesions and 96.8% (60/62) for part-solid GGO lesions. Obtaining a precise diagnosis did not differ significantly according to the lesion size (p=0.3840), but differences were significant according to the GGO component (p=0.0047). Malignancy was accurately diagnosed in 35 of 36 malignant lesions for which surgery was later performed. The specific cell type determined from specimens obtained by needle biopsy was exactly the same as the final histological diagnosis obtained after surgery in 20 lesions. Conclusion: Tissue-core lung biopsy under CT-fluoroscopic guidance for a GGO lesion provides a high degree of diagnostic accuracy but is less reliable for determining the specific cell type. Advances in knowledge: Percutaneous lung biopsy under CT-fluoroscopic guidance for GGO is useful in differentiating malignancy. PMID:23385998

  16. A Key and Diagnostic Compendium to the Species of the Genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 (Lesion Nematodes)

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Zafar Ahmad; Golden, A. Morgan

    1989-01-01

    An identification key to 63 species of Pratylenchus is given. A compendium of the most diagnostic characters to be used directly in identification of species is included as a practical alternative and supplement to the key. P. tenuis, P. similis, P. impar, P. ranjani, and P. neocapitatus are recognized as valid species on the basis of study of type specimens. P. hyderabadensis Singh &Gill, 1986 is synonymized with P. dasi Fortuner, 1985. P. hexincisus Taylor &Jenkins, 1957 is confirmed as occasionally having 4 -6 lines in lateral field (instead of 6 only). Comments on the status of some species and a list of species of the genus are given. PMID:19287599

  17. Hounsfield Unit inaccuracy in computed tomography lesion size and density, diagnostic quality vs attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepura, Katy; Thompson, John; Manning, David

    2017-03-01

    In computed tomography the Hounsfield Units (HU) are used as an indicator of the tissue type based on the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissue. HU accuracy is essential when this metric is used in any form to support diagnosis. In hybrid imaging, such as SPECT/CT and PET/CT, the information is used for attenuation correction (AC) of the emission images. This work investigates the HU accuracy of nodules of known size and HU, comparing diagnostic quality (DQ) images with images used for AC.

  18. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Ralf K W; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17″ cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P=0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insufficiency of bone scintigraphy in vertebral lesions of langerhans cell histiocytosis compared to f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and diagnostic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-02-05

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy.

  20. Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion (dSIL)-like changes in the epidermis overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi: A diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Michalova, Kvetoslava; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Michal, Michael; Hadravsky, Ladislav; Kacerovska, Denisa; Rychly, Boris; Miesbauerova, Marketa; Michal, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion (dSIL) is morphologically and immunohistochemically analogous in the whole anogenital region. dSIL is a premalignant lesion frequently misinterpreted histopathologically as a benign dermatosis. The authors describe a peculiar change in the basal cell layer of the epidermis/epithelium overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi that may histopathologically imitate dSIL. The aim of this study is to familiarize the pathologists with this pitfall to avoid its possible overdiagnosis as dysplasia. Further, we tried to explore the biological characteristics of the dSIL-like changes and to focus on the differential diagnostic aspects. Seventy cases of anogenital nevi were retrieved from our registry. All cases were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and reviewed. Cases in which the epidermis overlying nevi featured atypical appearing basal keratinocytes in otherwise fully differentiated epithelium, variable degrees of acanthosis and parakeratosis were selected for additional investigation. Thirty cases meeting the above described criteria were identified. The patients were 8 males and 22 females, with age at the time of diagnosis ranging from 4 to 68years. Follow-up data were available for 28 patients (range 0.5-19years, mean 5.1), and to date, no signs of epithelial malignancy have been recorded. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the epidermis overlying nevi showed insignificant positivity for p53 in all tested cases. Melanocytic markers (S-100 protein, SOX10, Melan A) and cytokeratin AE1/3 labeled melanocytes and keratinocytes, respectively, enabling their distinction, especially in nevi featuring a junctional component. Differentiated squamous intraepithelial lesion-like changes seem to occur relatively often in the epidermis overlying anogenital melanocytic nevi. Since morphologically they are virtually identical to the "true" dSIL, their distinction largely depends on p53 expression in basal keratinocytes with normal p53

  1. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of 2 core biopsy needles for EUS-guided tissue acquisition from solid pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Manu K; Paranandi, Bharat; Dawwas, Muhammad F; Leeds, John S; Darne, Antony; Haugk, Beate; Majumdar, Debasis; Ahmed, Muna M; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-05-01

    A new core biopsy needle with a novel tip, opposing bevel, and sheath design has recently been introduced for EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB). The diagnostic utility of this needle for differentiating solid pancreatic masses is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance and yield for tissue acquisition from solid pancreatic lesions of the opposing bevel needle with those of a reverse bevel EUS-FNB needle. Consecutive patients with solid pancreatic masses undergoing EUS-FNB using the opposing bevel (n = 101) and the reverse bevel (n = 100) core biopsy needles were included in the study. Final diagnosis was based on positive histology or at least 12 months of follow-up in cases with a negative biopsy. The primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of the 2 needles for malignant pancreatic masses. A secondary outcome was the diagnostic yield. Compared with the reverse bevel needle, using strict criteria the opposing bevel needle provided significantly higher sensitivity (71.1% vs 90.1%; P = .0006) and overall accuracy (74% vs 92%; I = 0.0006) for discriminating malignant from benign solid pancreatic masses. The proportion of samples classified as adequate for histologic analysis was 87% for the reverse bevel needle versus 99% for the opposing bevel needle (p = 0.002) Multivariate analysis controlling the needle gauge and site did not show any significant difference in accuracy and sensitivity between the 2 groups. There were no adverse events in either group. In this first, large, single-center preliminary cohort study, an EUS core biopsy needle with a novel tip, opposing bevel, and sheath design afforded substantially superior tissue yield and diagnostic performance compared with a reverse-bevel needle. If replicated by randomized controlled trials, our findings suggest that similarly designed needles could become the standard of care for EUS-guided tissue acquisition from solid pancreatic masses. Crown Copyright

  2. [Brachial plexus palsy in adults with radicular lesions, general concepts, diagnostic approach and results ].

    PubMed

    Oberlin, C

    2003-12-01

    In post-traumatic brachial plexus lesions in adults, early repair will necessitate a variety of nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures. In complete palsies, a graft is performed from a radicular stump, using intercostal nerve transfers, partial cross C7 transfer, and the distal spinal accessory nerve. This will provide elbow flexion and extension in 75% of cases, and shoulder abduction or rotation in 50% of cases. In the upper type palsies, ulnar-biceps transfer is the standard procedure. Grafting from a ruptured cervical root, when available, is performed to reanimate the shoulder. In C5 C6 and C7 palsies, extension of the wrist and fingers is provided by tendon transfers. In chronic palsies, elbow flexion and extension loss is treated by means of free muscle transfers, (latissimus dorsi or gracilis) combined with nerve transfers (intercostals or spinal accessory). Secondary procedures are routinely necessary following recovery of elbow flexion. For the shoulder-humeral shaft osteotomy or fusion, for the hand-cosmetic fusion of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint in the prone position, or palliative treatment in case of partial recovery. For such weak "plexic hands", we have developed a specific hierarchical functional scale, useful for surgical decisions.

  3. Squamous precursor lesions of the vulva: current classification and diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lien N.; Park, Kay J.; Soslow, Robert A.; Murali, Rajmohan

    2017-01-01

    Summary Growing evidence has established two major types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), which correspond to two distinct oncogenic pathways to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). While the incidence of VSCC has remained relatively stable over the last three decades, the incidence of VIN has increased. VIN of usual type (uVIN) is human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven, affects younger women and is a multicentric disease. In contrast, VIN of differentiated type (dVIN) occurs in post-menopausal women and develops independent of HPV infection. dVIN often arises in a background of lichen sclerosus and chronic inflammatory dermatoses. Although isolated dVIN is significantly less common than uVIN, dVIN bears a greater risk for malignant transformation to VSCC and progresses over a shorter time interval. On histological examination, uVIN displays conspicuous architectural and cytological abnormalities, while the morphological features that characterise dVIN are much more subtle and raise a wide differential diagnosis. On the molecular level, dVIN is characterised by a higher number of somatic mutations, particularly in TP53. Here we review the classification, epidemiology, clinical features, histomorphology, ancillary markers and molecular genetics of both types of VIN, and discuss the morphological challenges faced by pathologists in interpreting these lesions. PMID:27113549

  4. Disseminated Histoplasmosis: A Challenging Differential Diagnostic Consideration for Suspected Malignant Lesions in the Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Doleschal, Bernhard; Rödhammer, Therese; Tsybrovskyy, Oleksiy; Aichberger, Karl J.; Lang, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is well characterized as an endemic fungal disease restricted to certain areas of the USA. In Middle Europe, most patients present with acute pulmonary symptoms after travelling to endemic areas. Here, we want to illustrate the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with persistent oral ulcers, hoarseness, dysphagia, diarrhea, and weight loss to our Department of Otorhinolaryngology in December 2014. He was a retired construction worker and had a history of soil-disruptive activities in Africa and Middle and South America during employment. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed prominent hypermetabolic lesions in the cecum and the lung, pointing towards a malignant disease. Surprisingly, histological examination of colonic and oral biopsies revealed abundant intracellular fungal elements, highly suspicious of Histoplasma capsulatum. Diagnosis was finally confirmed by panfungal polymerase chain reaction. Upon treatment with liposomal amphotericin followed by itraconazole, the severely ill patient showed an impressive clinical response. This case describes a disseminated manifestation of H. capsulatum years after the first exposure in an otherwise immunocompetent patient descending from a nonendemic area. PMID:27920657

  5. New diagnostic approach to intracystic lesions of the breast by fiberoptic ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, D; Ueda, S; Senzaki, H; Shoji, T; Haijima, H; Gondo, H; Tanaka, K

    2001-01-01

    Intracystic tumors of the breast are uncommon and, at the time of ultrasonography and aspiration cytology, it is difficult to distinguish cancer from a benign tumor. The Fiberoptic Ductoscopy System (FDS) is an emerging technique allowing direct visual access to the ductal system of the breast. FDS was inserted through the cannulae into the cavity and we observed the intracystic tumors (3 intracystic papillomas and 2 intracytsic papillary carcinomas). The appearance of the malignant tumors was irregular, rough-shaped and they tended to bleed. On the contrary, benign tumors had smooth surfaces without bleeding. Cytological findings showed malignant cells in one out of two breast cancer patients. In addition, in the immunohistochemical study of resected tumor tissues from 5 patients, we observed positive reactions with anti-ErbB-2 antibody in 2 intracystic papillary carcinomas. In contrast, none of the histologically confirmed benign lesions (3 intracystic papillomas) gave positive results. In conclusion, the use of FDS as a non-invasive technique may provide valuable information.

  6. Diagnostic assessment of central and peripheral lesions by means of audiomotor reflex.

    PubMed

    Ljubin, C

    1989-01-01

    Audiomotor reflex is defined as an exteroceptive reflex evoked by a strong sound impulse, occurring on skeletal muscles, where it can be electromyographically registered. It is visually best noted on the facial and eyelid muscles. The physiological basis is the reflex arch consisted of receptor-cohlea, the afferent part, the primary reflex audiotory centre, the efferent part and the muscle-effector. The main physiological characteristic of the audiomotor reflex (AMR) in all healthy people is the symmetry of contractions of the same muscles on the left and the right side of the body. This symmetry occurs because of the crossed afferent connections. The symmetry of contraction was examined on the m.orbicularis oculi and also m.tibialis anterior utq. and it was found that the differences in the contraction of the pair of muscles (the same muscles on the left and on the right side of the body) are minimal and negligible. This fact makes us possible to propose the analysis of symmetry of the AMR contractions, measured on the same muscles on the left and right side of the body, as a diagnostic method for estimating the central and peripheral disorders. In order to evaluate the AMR method for the purpose, two investigations were conducted. The first investigation was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the diagnostic value of the AMR method at patients with central disorders. Eight hemiparetic children and nine healthy children were examined by means of routine stimulation (110 dB, 1 kHZ, 100 ms). The monitoring of the reflex contraction was on the m.tibialis anterior utq. It was evident that all parameters of the AMR m.tibialis anterior (amplitude, latency and duration of reflex contraction) in hemiparetic children were changed on the affected hemiparetic side, in terms of increased excitability of motoneurons. In order to evaluate the AMR method in peripheral disorders, i.e. paresis of the n.facialis, the examining of patients with paresis of n.facialis of varied

  7. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-07-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy.

  8. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy. PMID:25249833

  9. Simulated color: a diagnostic tool for skin lesions like port-wine stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2001-05-01

    A device independent method for skin color visualization has been developed. Colors reconstructed from a reflectance spectrum are presented on a computer screen by sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) color coordinates. The colors are presented as adjacent patches surrounded by a medium grey border. CIELAB color coordinates and CIE (International Commission on Illumination) color difference (Delta) E are computed. The change in skin color due to a change in average blood content or scattering properties in dermis is investigated. This is done by analytical simulations based on the diffusion approximation. It is found that an 11% change in average blood content and a 15% change in scattering properties will give a visible color change. A supposed visibility limit for (Delta) E is given. This value is based on experimental testing and the known properties of the human visual system. This limit value can be used as a tool to determine when to terminate laser treatment of port- wine stain due to low treatment response, i.e. low (Delta) E between treatments. The visualization method presented seems promising for medical applications as port-wine stain diagnostics. The method gives good possibilities for electronic transfer of data between clinics because it is device independent.

  10. Diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound as a replacement for a hand-held second-look ultrasound for breast lesions detected initially on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chae, Eun Young; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyun Ji; Yoo, Hyunkyung; Baek, Seunghee; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) after breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a replacement for hand-held second-look ultrasound (HH-SLUS), we evaluated 58 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had additional suspicious lesions on breast MRI. All patients underwent HH-SLUS and ABUS. Three breast radiologists evaluated the detectability, location, characteristics and conspicuity of lesions on ABUS. We also evaluated inter-observer variability and compared the results with HH-SLUS results. Eighty additional suspicious lesions were identified on breast MRI. Fifteen of the 80 lesions (19%) were not detected on HH-SLUS. Eight of the 15 lesions (53%) were detected on ABUS, whereas the remaining 7 were not detected on ABUS. Among the 65 lesions detected on HH-SLUS, only 3 lesions were not detected on ABUS. The intra-class correlation coefficients for lesion location and size all exceeded 0.70, indicating high reliability. Moderate to fair agreement was found for mass shape, orientation, margin and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment. Therefore, ABUS can reliably detect additional suspicious lesions identified on breast MRI and may help in the decision on biopsy guidance method (US vs. MRI) as a replacement tool for HH-SLUS. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography by combined qualitative and quantitative analysis in breast lesions: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Du, Jing; Li, Feng-Hua; Fang, Hua; Hua, Jia; Wan, Cai-Feng

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography for differentiation of breast lesions by combined qualitative and quantitative analyses in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-six patients with American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 to 5 breast lesions on conventional sonography were evaluated by contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI. A comparative analysis of diagnostic results between contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI was conducted in light of the pathologic findings. Pathologic analysis showed 26 benign and 30 malignant lesions. The predominant enhancement patterns of the benign lesions on contrast-enhanced sonography were homogeneous, centrifugal, and isoenhancement or hypoenhancement, whereas the patterns of the malignant lesions were mainly heterogeneous, centripetal, and hyperenhancement. The detection rates for perfusion defects and peripheral radial vessels in the malignant group were much higher than those in the benign group (P < .05). As to quantitative analysis, statistically significant differences were found in peak and time-to-peak values between the groups (P < .05). With pathologic findings as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI were 90.0%, 92.3%, 91.1% and 96.7%, 88.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. The two methods had a concordant rate of 87.5% (49 of 56), and the concordance test gave a value of κ = 0.75, indicating that there was high concordance in breast lesion assessment between the two diagnostic modalities. Contrast-enhanced sonography provided typical enhancement patterns and valuable quantitative parameters, which showed good agreement with MRI in diagnostic efficacy and may potentially improve characterization of breast lesions.

  12. An evaluation of the clinical diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound combined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography in space-occupying lesions of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen; Lu, Jianbo; Jiao, Dan; Cong, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    There are a variety of space-occupying lesions of the kidney, and the benign lesions may be difficult to differentiate from the malignant ones. Therefore, an accurate judgment of the benign and malignant nature of the space-occupying lesions of the kidney is of high importance for the treatment and prognosis of these patients. To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) combined with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in space-occupying lesions of the kidney. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients with space-occupying lesions of the kidney (378 lesions) were examined by CEUS and CECT, respectively, then, a combined diagnosis was made after the combination of CEUS and CECT by a multidisciplinary team. The diagnoses from the three methods were compared. The pathological results were taken as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were calculated for the three methods. Thus, the diagnostic value of the three methods was assessed. Of the 378 lesions examined, there were 301 malignant lesions and 77 benign lesions. The combined examination revealed 303 malignant lesions, with 9 benign lesions mistakenly diagnosed as malignant ones; thus, the misdiagnosis rate was 11.7%. By using the combined examination, 75 benign lesions were diagnosed, with the missed diagnosis of 7 malignant lesions, so the missed diagnosis rate was 2.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and area under the ROC curve with the combined examination of CEUS and CECT were 97.67% (0.950-0.989), 88.31% (0.785-0.942), 97.03% (0.942-0.985), 90.67% (0.811-0.958) and 0.930 (0.887-0.973), respectively. As compared with either CEUS or CECT alone, the difference in these indicators was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The combined examination greatly improved the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the diagnosis of

  13. Apport de la biopsie radioguidée dans le diagnostic histopathologique des tumeurs de l'enfant: expérience de l'Hôpital d'Enfant de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    El Ochi, Mohamed Réda; Bellarbi, Salma; Rouas, Lamiae; Lamalmi, Najat; Malihy, Abderrahmane; Alhamany, Zaitouna; Cherradi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    La biopsie radioguidée constitue une alternative à la biopsie chirurgicale invasive et à la cytologie pour le diagnostic des tumeurs pédiatriques. L'intérêt de notre étude est d’évaluer la valeur diagnostique des biopsies radioguidées examinées au laboratoire d'anatomopathologie de l'hôpital d'Enfants de Rabat (HER). L’étude a porté sur 78 biopsies radioguidées recueillies dans notre laboratoire entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2011. l’âge moyen des patients était de 5 ans et 10 mois avec une prédominance masculine (65,4%). La tumeur était abdominale dans 80% des cas, thoracique dans 15% cas, thoracique et abdominale dans 2,5% et sacrée dans 1,2%. Les biopsies étaient écho-guidées dans 90% des cas et scannoguidées dans 10% des cas. Le diagnostic histopathologique était posé dans 89% des cas. L'immuno-histochimie a été indiquée dans 35% des cas. Les diagnostics les plus fréquents étaient: tumeurs neuroblastiques (42 cas), lymphomes non hodgkiniens (10 cas), rhabdomyosarcomes (6 cas), autres (sarcome d'Ewing, néphroblastomes, tumeur myofibroblastique inflammatoire, maladies de Hodgkin, leucémie aiguë, hépatoblastome et ostéosarcome). Dans notre série, la biopsie radioguidée a permis un diagnostic histopathologique certain dans 89% des cas. Elle nécessite une étroite collaboration entre clinicien, radiologue et anatomopathologiste pour discuter son indication, afin de diminuer le nombre de biopsies peu ou non représentatives. PMID:26587165

  14. Reproducibility and diagnostic outcomes of two visual-tactile criteria used by dentists to assess caries lesion activity: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, S M; Feine, J S; Pustavoitava, N N; Allison, P J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and differences in diagnostic outcomes by practicing dental clinicians previously inexperienced in using the Nyvad criteria and the ICDAS II criteria with the Lesion Activity Assessment system (ICDAS II + LAA). Four volunteer dentists were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Both groups of dentists examined the same voluntary sample (n = 140) of caries active young adults using Nyvad and ICDAS II + LAA criteria in different sequences. The first group used the Nyvad criteria during period 1, followed by ICDAS II + LAA during period 2; the second group did the examinations in the opposite sequence. Before the period 1 and 2 examinations, dentists from both groups were trained with the Nyvad or ICDAS II + LAA criteria, depending on the group to which they were assigned. Intra-examiner agreement for lesion severity was high for both diagnostic instruments (weighted kappa 0.62-0.80). For lesion activity the intra-examiner unweighted kappa values ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 for ICDAS II + LAA and from 0.36 to 0.51 for Nyvad. The mean number of active non-cavitated caries lesions was significantly higher for ICDAS II + LAA (6.14 ± 5.4) than for Nyvad (3.90 ± 3.9) (p < 0.001). Active cavitated/dentinal caries lesions were significantly higher for ICDAS II + LAA (4.14 ± 4.1) than for Nyvad (2.13 ± 3.1) (p < 0.001). Both the Nyvad and ICDAS II + LAA diagnostic criteria showed high reproducibility for lesion severity assessment. The mean number of active caries lesions among high caries risk subjects was significantly higher using the ICDAS II + LAA criteria, which may subsequently lead to more caries treatment. ISRCTN65592532.

  15. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part I: The diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid, focal lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification. From January to July 2010, 375 ultrasound breast examinations were conducted. The study enrolled 80 women aged 17–83, with 99 solid, focal lesions present in breasts, which were qualified for pathomorphological verification on the basis of the ultrasound examination. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, ultrasound examination and sonoelastography. The ultrasound features of the lesions, their vascularization patterns in the Doppler examination as well as the adjacent tissues were determined. Next, the focal lesions were categorized according to the BIRADS-US classification. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 80 patients, 99 focal, solid lesions in breasts were visualized, including 39 neoplastic, malignant lesions (group I) and 60 lesions of benign nature (group II). The malignant lesions were often characterized by: greater size, irregular shape (34/39), prevalence of the anteroposterior dimension over the lateral-lateral dimension (22/39), acoustic shadowing (20/39), the margins not well-circumscribed (37/39), spiculated margins (16/39) and the presence of calcifications (14/39). The benign lesions were much more often hyper- and isoechogenic (14/60). In group I the lesions more often demonstrated the features of increased vascularization (29/39) and the presence of irregularly shaped vessels (23/29). This vascularization more often originated in the adjacent tissues. In the surroundings of the malignant neoplastic lesions, the presence of edema (16/39) and skin thickening (6/39) occurred more frequently and the abnormal axillary lymph nodes were more often diagnosed. The lesions of group I were assigned to the following BIRADS categories: BIRADS-US 4 (9 lesions) and BIRADS-US 5 (30 lesions). In group

  16. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part I: The diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid, focal lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification.

    PubMed

    Dobruch-Sobczak, Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasound B-mode imaging in the differentiation diagnostics of solid lesions in the breast in relation to the pathomorphological verification. From January to July 2010, 375 ultrasound breast examinations were conducted. The study enrolled 80 women aged 17-83, with 99 solid, focal lesions present in breasts, which were qualified for pathomorphological verification on the basis of the ultrasound examination. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, ultrasound examination and sonoelastography. The ultrasound features of the lesions, their vascularization patterns in the Doppler examination as well as the adjacent tissues were determined. Next, the focal lesions were categorized according to the BIRADS-US classification. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 80 patients, 99 focal, solid lesions in breasts were visualized, including 39 neoplastic, malignant lesions (group I) and 60 lesions of benign nature (group II). The malignant lesions were often characterized by: greater size, irregular shape (34/39), prevalence of the anteroposterior dimension over the lateral-lateral dimension (22/39), acoustic shadowing (20/39), the margins not well-circumscribed (37/39), spiculated margins (16/39) and the presence of calcifications (14/39). The benign lesions were much more often hyper- and isoechogenic (14/60). In group I the lesions more often demonstrated the features of increased vascularization (29/39) and the presence of irregularly shaped vessels (23/29). This vascularization more often originated in the adjacent tissues. In the surroundings of the malignant neoplastic lesions, the presence of edema (16/39) and skin thickening (6/39) occurred more frequently and the abnormal axillary lymph nodes were more often diagnosed. The lesions of group I were assigned to the following BIRADS categories: BIRADS-US 4 (9 lesions) and BIRADS-US 5 (30 lesions). In group

  17. Diagnostic value of single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography in relation to MRI on osteochondral lesions of the talus.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Cuneyt; Tamam, Muge O; Yildirim, Duzgun; Mulazimoglu, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) involves the separation of a fragment of articular cartilage, as defined by Kappis in 1922. MRI is the current standard for noninvasive diagnosis of OLT. Single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) provides both morphologic and functional information. The purpose of the study was to compare SPECT/CT with MRI for image interpretation and treatment decision making in talar osteochondral lesions. A total of 21 patients (four bilateral) were evaluated with MRI and SPECT/CT. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed to validate the indication by identifying unstable cartilage areas. Activation was assessed in nine regions of interest, as described by Elias and colleagues. SPECT/CT findings were assessed by the modified scoring system of Hart and colleagues, and MRI findings with the modified classification system of Hepple and colleagues. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated for SPECT/CT and MRI. A total of 25 lesions were identified. Seventeen lesions were located on the medial third of the talar dome, eight on the lateral third, and seven on the central third. Four patients revealed diffuse uptake on more than one zone on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT identified two subchondral lesions, which were not visualized on MRI. MRI is the current standard for OLT diagnosis. SPECT/CT allows a three-dimensional localization of scintigraphic osteoblastic activity in the area of interest, providing additional information about the involvement of the subchondral bone and the vitality of the osteochondral lesion and the location of multiple lesions. We recommend the use of SPECT/CT and MRI together for comprehensive diagnostic assessment of OLT.

  18. Value of the ViziLite Plus System as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Mojsa, Izabela; Kaczmarzyk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Malgorzata; Stypulkowska, Jadwiga; Zapala-Pospiech, Agnieszka; Sadecki, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of the chemiluminescent light and 1% tolonium chloride as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions. Thirty consecutive patients with 41 visually identified oral lesions suggestive of being premalignant underwent chemiluminescence and tolonium chloride examination followed by incisional biopsy with histopathologic evaluation. The biopsies of 34 lesions (82.92%) revealed no dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) revealed mild dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) demonstrated severe dysplasia, and 1 lesion (2.44%) was malignant (squamous cell carcinoma). The chemiluminescent examination improved the brightness (58.54% of the cases), sharpness (56.1% of the cases), texture (60.98% of the cases), and size of the lesion (53.66% of the cases). With references to serious pathologies, 7 cases (100.0%) were brighter, and size was more visualized in 6 cases (85.71%) when using chemiluminescence examination than under incandescent light. Twenty-five (73.53%) of nonserious pathology and 7 (100.0%) of serious pathology (6 dysplasias, 1 squamous cell carcinoma) were positively stained by toluidine blue. Three (8.82%) of nonserious pathology and 0 (0.0%) of serious pathology lesions were identified as true negatives when toluidine blue staining was used. The overall toluidine blue sensitivity and specificity were 81.8% and 37.5%, respectively. Chemiluminescent light demonstrates better visualization (brightness, size) of serious pathology lesions in comparison with conventional clinical oral examination under incandescent light. Toluidine blue demonstrates 100% sensitivity in staining serious pathology. The ViziLite Plus system may help the practitioner to visualize oral pathologies that are not readily detectable with conventional incandescent lighting.

  19. Papanicolau smear chances to be diagnostic for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) with or without detectable HPV DNA at in situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Sopracordevole, F; Cadorin, L; Muffato, G; De Benetti, L; Parin, A

    1993-01-01

    The Authors have correlated 39 cervical diagnostic biopsies for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) with correspective Papanicolau smears (PS), with relation to the presence or the absence of HPV of oncogenic type (HPV-one) detected by in situ hybridization (ISH). Agreement between cytological and histological diagnosis was present in 14 of 16 cases with detectable HPV-one and only in 12 of 23 cases without detectable HPV-one at ISH. The importance of the HPV type in the SILs with relation to the diagnostic accuracy of Papanicolaou smears has been discussed.

  20. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR may be a valuable diagnostic tool for determining the potential for malignant transformation of oral verrucous borderline lesions.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Umma; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Yanagawa-Matsuda, Aya; Hida, Kyoko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Ohiro, Yoichi; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2014-04-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a benign lesion without malignant features. However, pathologists are sometimes presented with borderline lesions and are indecisive as to diagnose them as benign or malignant. Thus, these lesions are tentatively termed oral verrucous lesions (OVLs). HuR is an ARE mRNA-binding protein, normally localized in the nucleus but cytoplasmic exportation is frequently observed in cancer cells. The present study aimed to elucidate whether expression of the HuR protein facilitates the diagnosis of true malignant lesions. Clinicopathological features were evaluated, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki67 and HuR proteins was performed in 48 cases of OVH, OVC and OVL, and the outcomes were correlated using appropriate statistical analysis. The association of these three proteins in relation to malignant transformation was analyzed after a 3-year follow-up of 25 OVL cases. The basal characteristics (age, gender and location) of all cases had no significant association with the types of lesions. Gingiva (39.4%) was the common site for all lesions. Distribution of the examined proteins had a significant association with the lesions. As compared with the OVLs, the number of immunostained-positive cells was significantly higher in the OVCs and lower in the OVH cases. During follow-up, 24% of the OVLs underwent malignant transformation for which high HuR expression and a diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium were observed. Taken together, the high degree of HuR expression with diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium may be an effective diagnostic tool that determines the potential of OVLs for malignant transformation.

  1. Cytoplasmic expression of HuR may be a valuable diagnostic tool for determining the potential for malignant transformation of oral verrucous borderline lesions

    PubMed Central

    HABIBA, UMMA; KITAMURA, TETSUYA; YANAGAWA-MATSUDA, AYA; HIDA, KYOKO; HIGASHINO, FUMIHIRO; OHIRO, YOICHI; TOTSUKA, YASUNORI; SHINDOH, MASANOBU

    2014-01-01

    Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is a low grade variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) is a benign lesion without malignant features. However, pathologists are sometimes presented with borderline lesions and are indecisive as to diagnose them as benign or malignant. Thus, these lesions are tentatively termed oral verrucous lesions (OVLs). HuR is an ARE mRNA-binding protein, normally localized in the nucleus but cytoplasmic exportation is frequently observed in cancer cells. The present study aimed to elucidate whether expression of the HuR protein facilitates the diagnosis of true malignant lesions. Clinicopathological features were evaluated, and immunohistochemical analysis for p53, Ki67 and HuR proteins was performed in 48 cases of OVH, OVC and OVL, and the outcomes were correlated using appropriate statistical analysis. The association of these three proteins in relation to malignant transformation was analyzed after a 3-year follow-up of 25 OVL cases. The basal characteristics (age, gender and location) of all cases had no significant association with the types of lesions. Gingiva (39.4%) was the common site for all lesions. Distribution of the examined proteins had a significant association with the lesions. As compared with the OVLs, the number of immunostained-positive cells was significantly higher in the OVCs and lower in the OVH cases. During follow-up, 24% of the OVLs underwent malignant transformation for which high HuR expression and a diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium were observed. Taken together, the high degree of HuR expression with diffuse staining pattern in the epithelium may be an effective diagnostic tool that determines the potential of OVLs for malignant transformation. PMID:24534848

  2. Characterization of Small (< 4 cm) Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectral Analysis Using Single-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy CT.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik N; Bibbey, Alex; Choudhury, Kingshuk R; Leder, Richard A; Nelson, Rendon C; Marin, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis improves the accuracy of diagnosis of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements. In this retrospective study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign and 33 malignant) underwent single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained, and an attenuation change of 15 HU or greater was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy spectral attenuation curves were generated for each lesion. The slope of each curve was measured between 40 and 50 keV (λHU40-50), 40 and 70 keV (λHU40-70), and 40 and 140 keV (λHU40-140). Mean lesion attenuation values and spectral attenuation curve parameters were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by use of the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed and validated using cross-validation analysis. With the use of cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions improved significantly when both λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 were used, compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103/111; 95% CI, 86-97%] vs 81% [90/111; 95% CI, 73-88%]) (p = 0.02). The sensitivity of λHU40-70 and λHU40-140 was also higher than that of conventional enhancement measurements, although it was not statistically significant. Single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis significantly improves the specificity for characterization of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of Advanced and Conventional Diagnostic Aids for Endodontic Management of Periapical Lesions, An in Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Arora, Saurabh; Sandhu, Amneet Kaur; Dhingra, Ravneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate efficacy of Colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG), direct digital radiography (DDR) and conventional radiography (CR) in diagnosis of periapical lesions and to clinically correlate treatment plan of periapical diseases. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients which were diagnosed with periapical lesions in anterior region by using both conventional and digital radiography were examined using colour doppler ultrasound imaging at the site of lesion. The images of each lesion were analysed by two endodontists and by an expert oral radiologist. A tentative differential diagnosis was agreed upon, based on certain principles discussed in article, then a diagnosis between cyst, granuloma and mixed lesions was made. Periapical lesions diagnosed as mixed lesions by colour doppler ultrasonography (CDUSG) were treated non-surgically whereas other periapical lesions were treated surgically. Tissues obtained during endodontic surgery were processed and examined for histopathological findings, and compared with the diagnosis made by ultrasound images. Statistical analysis was done with Chi-Square test and using one-way-Anova. Results: The periapical lesions which were diagnosed as granuloma by ultrasonographic findings, was confirmed by the results of histopathological examination in all 16 surgically treated cases. The lesions in rest of the 14 cases which showed vascularity and were diagnosed as mixed lesions by ultrasonography, were treated non-surgically and had a favourable prognosis. Conclusion: CR and DDR facilitate diagnosis of the presence of periapical disease, but do not provide and information of its nature. CDUSG imaging facilitates accurate information on the pathological nature of the lesion and hence can lead to predictable treatment planning. PMID:25738075

  4. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  5. Characterization of Small Focal Renal Lesions: Diagnostic Accuracy with Single-Phase Contrast-enhanced Dual-Energy CT with Material Attenuation Analysis Compared with Conventional Attenuation Measurements.

    PubMed

    Marin, Daniele; Davis, Drew; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Patel, Bhavik; Gupta, Rajan T; Mileto, Achille; Nelson, Rendon C

    2017-03-28

    Purpose To determine whether single-phase contrast material-enhanced dual-energy material attenuation analysis improves the characterization of small (1-4 cm) renal lesions compared with conventional attenuation measurements by using histopathologic analysis and follow-up imaging as the clinical reference standards. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign, 33 malignant) measuring 1-4 cm underwent single-energy unenhanced and contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen. For each renal lesion, attenuation measurements were obtained; attenuation change of greater than or equal to 15 HU was considered evidence of enhancement. Dual-energy attenuation measurements were also obtained by using iodine-water, water-iodine, calcium-water, and water-calcium material basis pairs. Mean lesion attenuation values and material densities were compared between benign and malignant renal lesions by using the two-sample t test. Diagnostic accuracy of attenuation measurements and dual-energy material densities was assessed and validated by using 10-fold cross-validation to limit the effect of optimistic bias. Results By using cross-validated optimal thresholds at 100% sensitivity, iodine-water material attenuation images significantly improved specificity for differentiating between benign and malignant renal lesions compared with conventional enhancement measurements (93% [103 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 86%, 97%; vs 81% [90 of 111]; 95% confidence interval: 73%, 88%) (P = .02). Sensitivity with iodine-water and calcium-water material attenuation images was also higher than that with conventional enhancement measurements, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT with material attenuation analysis improves specificity for

  6. Clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in improving diagnostic accuracy rate of transthoracic biopsy of anterior-medial mediastinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingjing; Yang, Wei; Wang, Song; Bai, Jing; Wu, Hao; Wang, Haiyue; Yan, Kun; Chen, Minhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in transthoracic biopsy of anterior-medial mediastinal lesions. Methods A total of 123 patients with anterior or middle mediastinum lesions required ultrasound guided transthoracic biopsy for pathological diagnosis. Among them, 72 patients received CEUS examinations before biopsy. After CEUS, 8 patients were excluded from biopsy and the rest 64 patients underwent biopsy (CEUS group). During the same period, 51 patients received biopsy without CEUS examination (US group). The ultrasonography characteristics, the number of biopsy puncture attempts, diagnostic accuracy rate and the incidence of complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results A large portion of necrosis area or superficial large vessels was found in 8 patients, so the biopsy was cancelled. The internal necrosis was demonstrated in 43.8% of the lesions in CEUS group and in 11.8% of US group (P>0.001). For thymic carcinoma, CEUS increased the detection rate of internal necrosis and pericardial effusion than conventional ultrasound (62.5% vs. 18.8%, P=0.012; 56.3% vs. 12.5%, P=0.023). The average number of punctures in CEUS group and US group was 2.36±0.70 and 2.21±0.51 times, respectively (P>0.05). The diagnostic accuracy rate of biopsy in CEUS group (96.9%, 62/64) was significantly higher than that in US group (84.3%, 43/51) (P=0.022). In US group, 2 patients suffered from mediastinal bleeding (3.9%), while no major complications occurred in CEUS group. Conclusions CEUS examination provided important information before transthoracic mediastinum biopsy and improved diagnostic accuracy rate in biopsy of anterior and middle mediastinum lesions than conventional ultrasound. PMID:28174490

  7. Differential diagnostic value of single-photon emission computed tomography/spiral computed tomography with Tc-99m-methylene diphosphonate in patients with spinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiu; Shi, Hongcheng; Gu, Yushen; Xiu, Yan; Li, Beilei; Zhu, Weimin; Chen, Shuguang; Yu, Haojun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic value obtained using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/spiral computed tomography (CT) with Tc-99m methylene-diphosphonate with that obtained using SPECT alone in patients with spinal lesions. This was a retrospective study of 56 patients who underwent planar whole-body scintigraphy because of bone pain or osseous lesions that had been detected by other imaging techniques, or for the investigation of bone metastasis in patients with extraskeletal malignancies. Only patients who had hot spots detected in their spine and who had undergone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging were included. One lesion from each patient was resected or biopsied for pathological diagnosis, and lesions for which a pathological diagnosis could be made were included in this study. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT/CT images were independently interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians who had not been involved in the selection of data for the study. The physicians were aware of patients' sex, age, history of histologically confirmed extraskeletal malignancy, and whole-body scintigraphy results, but were unaware of the results of other investigations, such as X-ray, MRI, and laboratory tests. SPECT images were analyzed first, followed by SPECT/CT images. Each lesion was graded on a 4-point diagnostic scale (1, benign; 2, likely benign; 3, likely malignant; 4, malignant), and the inter-reviewer agreement and the agreement of the SPECT and SPECT/CT diagnoses with the pathology results were evaluated by κ scores. The pathology results revealed 39 malignant bone tumors and 17 benign lesions. In the malignant cases, 20 were bone metastases and 19 were malignant tumors of another histological type. The reviewers rated 67.9% of lesions as equivocal (grade 2-3) by SPECT, but only 19.6% as equivocal by SPECT/CT. The κ scores for inter

  8. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; κ-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, κ-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vacuum-assisted core-needle biopsy as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in lesions radiologically suspicious of breast fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Połom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Adamczyk, Beata; Giles, Elizabeth; Fertsch, Sonia; Michalak, Michal; Murawa, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of breast fibroadenoma remains a subject of clinical discussion. Recommended methods include clinical observation or surgical excision of the lesion. The procedure involves hospitalisation and anaesthesia, leaving a scar on the breast. Aim The aim of this study was to present the Centre's experience in removing lesions radiologically suspicious of fibroadenoma by means of an ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core-needle biopsy as an alternative to a classical surgery. Materials and methods Between March 2007 and April 2010, 196 ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies were performed in the Mammotome Biopsy Laboratory of the 1st Surgical Oncology and General Surgery Department at the Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznań. The procedure was delivered to female patients aged 17–91 years (mean 40.8, median 39). Qualified for removal were ultrasound identified lesions described as fibroadenomas. Results The average size of excised lesions according to pre-biopsy ultrasound image was 13.53 ± 8.92 mm (median 11 mm, range 4–60 mm). In 184 cases (93.9%), benign lesions were found in the final histopathologic examination. Pre-cancer lesions were found in 10 cases, and invasive lesions in two cases. Overall, after follow-up ultrasound examination, four patients were qualified for subsequent surgical resection of lesions that had been left behind. Conclusion Vacuum core-needle biopsy is an effective tool enabling removal of breast fibroadenomas. It combines features of a lesion resection and histopathologic material collection providing an access with minimum invasiveness. PMID:24376952

  10. Diagnostic Utility of Splenial Lesions in a Case of Legionnaires' Disease due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 2.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yuji; Hoshino, Yasunobu; Sasaki, Fuyuko; Kurita, Naohide; Kawajiri, Sumihiro; Noda, Kazuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 49-year-old man with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with Legionnaires' disease due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. Past reports suggest that Legionella infection is frequent in cases of MERS-associated pneumonia. Obtaining an early diagnosis of legionella infection is a challenge, especially if a Legionella pneumophila serogroup other than serogroup 1 contains the causative agent. In this case, the splenial lesion played an important role in recognizing the legionella infection. We suggest that legionella infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of splenial lesions associated with pneumonia.

  11. Simulation study of the effect of golden-angle KWIC with generalized kinetic model analysis on diagnostic accuracy for lesion discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Melanie; Kim, Sungheon G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively evaluate temporal blurring of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data generated using a k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) image reconstruction technique with golden-angle view-ordering. Methods K-space data were simulated using golden-angle view-ordering and reconstructed using a KWIC algorithm with a Fibonacci number of views enforced for each annulus in k-space. Temporal blurring was evaluated by comparing pharmacokinetic model parameters estimated from the simulated data with the true values. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) and the area under the ROC curves (AUC). Results Estimation errors of pharmacokinetic model parameters were dependent on the true curve type and the lesion size. For 10 mm benign and malignant lesions, estimated AUC values using the true and estimate AIFs were consistent with the true AUC value. For 5 mm benign and 20 mm malignant lesions, estimated AUC values using the true and estimated AIFs were 0.906±0.020 and 0.905±0.021, respectively, as compared with the true AUC value of 0.896. Conclusions Although the investigated reconstruction algorithm does impose errors in pharmacokinetic model parameter estimation, they are not expected to significantly impact clinical studies of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25267703

  12. Focal hepatic lesions: diagnostic value of enhancement pattern approach with contrast-enhanced 3D gradient-echo MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Elsayes, Khaled M; Narra, Vamsidhar R; Yin, Yuming; Mukundan, Govind; Lammle, Markus; Brown, Jeffrey J

    2005-01-01

    Focal hepatic lesions constitute a daily challenge in the clinical setting. However, noninvasive methods can be useful in the detection and characterization of these lesions. The noninvasive diagnosis of liver lesions is usually achieved with contrast material-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Dynamic three-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo MR imaging provides dynamic contrast-enhanced thin-section images with fat saturation and a high signal-to-noise ratio and is excellent for the evaluation of various focal hepatic lesions. A comprehensive MR imaging examination in this setting includes T2-weighted and chemical shift T1-weighted imaging and demonstrates characteristic enhancement patterns that can be helpful in the diagnosis of most of these lesions. These enhancement patterns are seen during particular phases of contrast-enhanced imaging and include arterial phase enhancement, delayed phase enhancement, peripheral washout, ring enhancement, nodule-within-a-nodule enhancement, true central scar, pseudocentral scar, and pseudocapsule. Familiarity with these enhancement patterns can help in the identification of specific focal lesions of the liver.

  13. Label-Free Imaging of Female Genital Tract Melanocytic Lesions With Pump-Probe Microscopy: A Promising Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Francisco E.; Deb, Sanghamitra; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.; Selim, Maria Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Melanomas of the female genital tract present a unique clinical challenge. Not only are these lesions in an anatomically sensitive area, but also they tend to be multifocal and have high recurrence rates. Furthermore, several benign melanocytic proliferations resemble early-stage melanoma clinically and/or histopathologically. Thus, there is a significant need for additional tools that can help correctly diagnose and stage these lesions. Here, we quantitatively and nondestructively analyze the chemical composition of melanin in excised pigmented lesions of the female genital tract using pump-probe microscopy, a high-resolution optical imaging technique that is sensitive to many biochemical properties of melanin. Materials and Methods Thirty-one thin (~5 μm) tissue sections previously excised from female genital tract melanocytic lesions were imaged with pump-probe microscopy and analyzed. Results We find significant quantitative differences in melanin type and structure between melanoma and nonmalignant melanocytic proliferations. Our analysis also suggests a link between the molecular signatures of melanins and lesion-specific genetic mutations. Finally, significant differences are found between metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas. The limitations of this work include the fact that molecular information is restricted to melanin pigment and the sample size is relatively small. Conclusions Pump-probe microscopy provides unique information regarding the biochemical composition of genital tract melanocytic lesions, which can be used to improve the diagnosis and staging of vulvar melanomas. PMID:28157824

  14. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of a Modified Liquid-Based Cytology using OralCDx Brush in early detection of oral potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Delavarian, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Mosannen-Mozafari, Pegah; Pakfetrat, Atessa; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ghafoorian-Maddah, Rasoul

    2010-09-01

    To determine diagnostic value of modified Liquid Based Brush Biopsy technique. 26 oral premalignant and malignant lesions in 25 patients (12 females; 54.23+/-19.77 years and 13 males; 53.77+/-15.43 years) underwent Modified (Liquid Based) Brush Biopsy and scalpel biopsy simultaneously from the same area. There were 16 positive and 10 negative brush biopsy results, with no inadequate readings. Histological findings were compatible with oral leukoplakia (n=5) with dysplasia, Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reaction (n=7) (with or without dysplasia) oral squamous cell carcinoma (n=11),verrucous carcinoma (n=1) and granular cell tumors (n=2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR-) were 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 80%, infinity and 0.11 respectively (no false positive results). It is the first attempt to do LBC with a specialized oral brush. Our results show that modified technique is a useful tool for screening of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

  15. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization as a diagnostic tool in melanocytic lesions, using paraffin wax-embedded tissues and imprint-cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, A; Vargas, M T; Ríos-Martín, J J; Trigo, I; Arjona, A; González-Cámpora, R

    2012-12-01

    Accurate histopathological diagnosis of certain melanocytic skin lesions as benign or malignant can be notoriously difficult. Recently, four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has emerged as an important tool for classifying these lesions. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a melanoma FISH probe kit for accurate diagnosis of melanocytic tumours, and to validate its use with imprint-cytology specimens from the cut surface of tumours. In total, 50 melanocytic skin lesions (31 malignant melanomas, 10 benign melanocytic naevi, and 9 histologically challenging benign melanocytic skin lesions) were evaluated. The samples comprise 47 tissue specimens embedded in paraffin wax, and three imprint-cytology specimens from the cut surface of melanomas. FISH was performed using four locus-specific identifier probes [Ras responsive element binding protein (RREB)1, myeloblastosis viral oncogene homologue (MYB), cyclin (CCN)D1 and centromere of chromosome (CEP)6], and results were compared with the clinical long-term follow-up and histopathological diagnosis data. The melanoma FISH probe distinguished between naevi and melanomas with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.1%. The most sensitive criterion was a gain in 6p25 (RREB1), seen in 100% of cases, followed by CEP6-related MYB loss (48.1%), CCND1 gain (37%) and MYB gain (22.2%). More than three-quarters (77.8%) of melanomas were positive for two or more criteria. Positive FISH results were also obtained for the imprint-cytology specimens. FISH is a valuable diagnostic tool for differentiating between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions, providing a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The probes displayed exceptional discriminative capacity in difficult or ambiguous lesions. To our knowledge, his is the first reported use of imprint-cytology specimens for FISH diagnosis. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. CT-guided fine-needle biopsy of focal lung lesions as the method for reducing the number of invasive diagnostic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chodorowska, Anna; Rzechonek, Adam; Dyła, Tomasz; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Adamek, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: CT-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) of focal lung lesions is one of the possibilities of obtaining histopathological diagnosis in pulmonary diseases. Its place in the algorithm is determined by the invasiveness. In case of no diagnosis after bronchoscopy or endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) guided biopsy, CT-guided FNB can become an alternative for more invasive procedures, such as open lung biopsy – thoracotomy. Material/Methods: Since January 2009 until February 2010, we performed 37 CT-guided FNB in 34 patients aged 31 to 76 (mean age 60.9). Among them, there were 16 women and 18 men. All patients underwent a standard chest CT with contrast medium injection. They were diagnosed with focal lesions and they were rejected from surgery as the primary method of treatment. During biopsy, the patient was positioned prone or supine, depending on the location of lesions. After performing a scout image and initial slices, we marked the level of biopsy, using a metal marker. Next, the biopsy needle was introduced under local anesthesia. When the obtained position of the needle in the lesion was correct, the specimen was taken. After needle removal, the patient was controlled for the presence of complications (i.e. pneumothorax). Biopsy time ranged from 10 to 50 minutes. Results: In 94.6% of biopsies, the specimens for histopathological and cytological examinations were obtained. In 22 (64.7%) patients, histopathological diagnoses (in 14 cases this was the non-small cell cancer and in 8, inflammatory lesions) were established which allowed us to resign from invasive thoracotomy and to introduce an appropriate treatment. In the remaining 12 patients, no diagnosis was established. Complications in the form of a minor pneumothorax occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: Fine-needle biopsy of the focal lung lesions is an affective and a relatively safe method, which can replace the more invasive diagnostic thoracotomy in the majority of patients. PMID

  17. Dual-time-point [18F]-FDG PET/CT in the diagnostic evaluation of suspicious breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Caprio, M G; Cangiano, A; Imbriaco, M; Soscia, F; Di Martino, G; Farina, A; Avitabile, G; Pace, L; Forestieri, P; Salvatore, M

    2010-03-01

    The authors sought to evaluate whether the reacquisition of images 3 h after administration of radiotracer improves the sensitivity of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography ([(18)F]-FDG PET/CT) in patients with suspicious breast lesions. Forty-eight patients with 59 breast lesions underwent an [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT study in the prone position with a dual-time-point acquisition performed in the early phase 1 h after FDG administration (PET-1) and in the delayed phase 3 h after FDG administration (PET-2). Both examinations were evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively with calculation of the mean percentage variation of the standard uptake values (Delta% SUV(max)) between PET-1 and PET-2. All lesions with an SUV(max) >or=2.5 at PET-1 or a reduction in SUV between PET-1 and PET-2 were considered benign. The definitive histopathological diagnosis was available for all patients included in the study. The dual-time-point acquisition of [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT displayed an accuracy of 85% for lesions with an SUV(max) >or=2.5 and/or positive Delta% SUV(max), with sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 100% compared with 69%, 63% (both p<0.001) and 100% (p=n.s.), respectively, for the single-time-point acquisition. Malignant lesions showed an increase in FDG uptake between PET-1 and PET-2, with a Delta% SUV(max) of 10+/-7 (p<0.04). In contrast, benign lesions showed a decrease in SUV between PET-1 and PET-2, with a Delta% SUV(max) of -21+/-7 (p<0.001). The delayed repeat acquisition of PET images improves the accuracy of [(18)F]-FDG PET/CT in patients with suspicious breast lesions with respect to the single-time-point acquisition. In addition, malignant breast lesions displayed an increase in FDG uptake over time, whereas benign lesions showed a reduction. These variations in FDG uptake between PET-1 and PET-2 are a reliable parameter that can be used for differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions.

  18. Ultrasound mapping of pelvic endometriosis: does the location and number of lesions affect the diagnostic accuracy? A multicentre diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Holland, Tom K; Cutner, Alfred; Saridogan, Ertan; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Pateman, Kate; Jurkovic, Davor

    2013-10-29

    Endometriosis is a common condition which causes pain and reduced fertility. Treatment can be difficult, especially for severe disease, and an accurate preoperative assessment would greatly help in the managment of these patients. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of pre-operative transvaginal ultrasound scanning (TVS) in identifying the specific features of pelvic endometriosis and pelvic adhesions in comparison with laparoscopy. Consecutive women with clinically suspected or proven pelvic endometriosis, who were booked for laparoscopy, were invited to join the study. They all underwent a systematic transvaginal ultrasound examination in order to identify discrete endometriotic lesions and pelvic adhesions. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis was determined by comparing pre-operative ultrasound to laparoscopy findings. 198 women who underwent preoperative TVS and laparoscopy were included in the final analysis. At laparoscopy 126/198 (63.6%) women had evidence of pelvic endometriosis. 28/126 (22.8%) of them had endometriosis in a single location whilst the remaining 98/126 (77.2%) had endometriosis in two or more locations. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) for the ultrasound diagnosis of ovarian endometriomas, moderate or severe ovarian adhesions, pouch of Douglas adhesions, and bladder deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), recto-sigmoid colon DIE, rectovaginal DIE, uterovesical fold DIE and uterosacral ligament DIE were >10, whilst for pelvic side wall DIE and any ovarian adhesions the + LH was 8.421 and 9.81 respectively.The negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was: <0.1 for bladder DIE; 0.1-0.2 for ovarian endometriomas, moderate or severe ovarian adhesions, and pouch of Douglas adhesions; 0.5-1 for rectovaginal, uterovesical fold, pelvic side wall and uterosacral ligament DIE. The accuracy of TVS for the diagnosis of both total number of endometriotic lesions and DIE lesions significantly improved with increasing total number of lesions

  19. Ultrasound mapping of pelvic endometriosis: does the location and number of lesions affect the diagnostic accuracy? a multicentre diagnostic accuracy study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a common condition which causes pain and reduced fertility. Treatment can be difficult, especially for severe disease, and an accurate preoperative assessment would greatly help in the managment of these patients. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of pre-operative transvaginal ultrasound scanning (TVS) in identifying the specific features of pelvic endometriosis and pelvic adhesions in comparison with laparoscopy. Methods Consecutive women with clinically suspected or proven pelvic endometriosis, who were booked for laparoscopy, were invited to join the study. They all underwent a systematic transvaginal ultrasound examination in order to identify discrete endometriotic lesions and pelvic adhesions. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis was determined by comparing pre-operative ultrasound to laparoscopy findings. Results 198 women who underwent preoperative TVS and laparoscopy were included in the final analysis. At laparoscopy 126/198 (63.6%) women had evidence of pelvic endometriosis. 28/126 (22.8%) of them had endometriosis in a single location whilst the remaining 98/126 (77.2%) had endometriosis in two or more locations. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) for the ultrasound diagnosis of ovarian endometriomas, moderate or severe ovarian adhesions, pouch of Douglas adhesions, and bladder deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), recto-sigmoid colon DIE, rectovaginal DIE, uterovesical fold DIE and uterosacral ligament DIE were >10, whilst for pelvic side wall DIE and any ovarian adhesions the + LH was 8.421 and 9.81 respectively. The negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was: <0.1 for bladder DIE; 0.1-0.2 for ovarian endometriomas, moderate or severe ovarian adhesions, and pouch of Douglas adhesions; 0.5-1 for rectovaginal, uterovesical fold, pelvic side wall and uterosacral ligament DIE. The accuracy of TVS for the diagnosis of both total number of endometriotic lesions and DIE lesions significantly improved with

  20. Preparation and applications of the International Aquatic Animal Health Code and Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases of the Office International des Epizooties.

    PubMed

    Håstein, T

    1996-06-01

    The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) has recently prepared an International Aquatic Animal Health Code, based on the principles set out in the corresponding OIE International Animal Health Code for terrestrial animals. The principal aim of the Code and the companion Diagnostic Manual for Aquatic Animal Diseases is to harmonise health guarantees for international trade in aquatic animals (fish, molluscs, crustaceans) and aquatic animal products, and to guide state Veterinary Services and/or other competent authorities in the preparation of appropriate health certificates. The Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual provide detailed information on definitions, notifications, ethics in connection with certification, import risk analysis and import/export procedures. By these means, the preparation of international health certificates can be based on a uniform approach to health control in aquatic animal populations, using the standardised methods described in the Diagnostic Manual. In general, health certification under the Aquatic Animal Health Code is required only for diseases notifiable to the OIE. In addition to such notifiable diseases, however, the Code establishes a list of other significant diseases which need consideration. The listed diseases are recognised as serious transmissible diseases of socio-economic and/or public health importance, in relation to which the international trade of aquatic animals and their products poses a significant risk of transfer between countries. The current status of the Code and Manual is described in detail.

  1. High single-pass diagnostic yield of a new 25-gauge core biopsy needle for EUS-guided FNA biopsy in solid pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Takuji; Nakai, Yousuke; Samarasena, Jason B; Park, Do Hyun; Zhang, Zesong; Gu, Mai; Lee, John G; Chang, Kenneth J

    2013-06-01

    Current limitations of EUS-guided FNA include the need for multiple passes and on-site cytology assessment and lack of core specimen. Recently, a new 25-gauge core biopsy needle (PC25) was developed to overcome these limitations. To determine the diagnostic yield of EUS-guided FNA aspiration biopsy (FNAB) when using the PC25 needle among patients with solid pancreatic lesions. Retrospective analysis. Academic tertiary referral center. Fifty consecutive patients with a solid pancreatic lesion underwent EUS-guided FNAB with PC25. EUS-guided FNAB with PC25. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield in single and overall passes of EUS-guided FNAB when using the PC25 needle for pancreatic solid lesions. Cytologic analysis showed malignancy in 38 patients on the first pass, with a cumulative sensitivity of 83%, 91%, and 96% on passes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although visible core was reported in 46 patients (92%), histologic core was seen in 16 patients (32%). Histologic analysis showed malignancy in 29 patients on the first pass, with a cumulative sensitivity of 63% and 87% on pass 1 and passes 1 to 4, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in combined cytologic and histologic results were 85%, 100%, and 86% for single pass and 96%, 100%, and 96% on multiple passes, respectively. No complications were seen. A retrospective study design at a single center using a single arm. EUS-guided FNAB with the PC25 needle showed excellent single-pass and overall diagnostic yields. This needle appears to maintain a high cytologic yield, similar to standard 25-gauge FNA needles, while also providing some histologic core tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Malignancy rates and diagnostic performance of the Bosniak classification for the diagnosis of cystic renal lesions in computed tomography - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sevcenco, Sabina; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas H; Heinz, Gertraud; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klingler, Hans C; Rauchenwald, Michael; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-06-01

    To systematically review the literature on the Bosniak classification system in CT to determine its diagnostic performance to diagnose malignant cystic lesions and the prevalence of malignancy in Bosniak categories. A predefined database search was performed from 1 January 1986 to 18 January 2016. Two independent reviewers extracted data on malignancy rates in Bosniak categories and several covariates using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Meta-analysis included data pooling, subgroup analyses, meta-regression and investigation of publication bias. A total of 35 studies, which included 2,578 lesions, were investigated. Data on observer experience, inter-observer variation and technical CT standards were insufficiently reported. The pooled rate of malignancy increased from Bosniak I (3.2 %, 95 % CI 0-6.8, I(2) = 5 %) to Bosniak II (6 %, 95 % CI 2.7-9.3, I(2) = 32 %), IIF (6.7 %, 95 % CI 5-8.4, I(2) = 0 %), III (55.1 %, 95 % CI 45.7-64.5, I(2) = 89 %) and IV (91 %, 95 % CI 87.7-94.2, I(2) = 36). Several study design-related influences on malignancy rates and subsequent diagnostic performance indices were identified. The Bosniak classification is an accurate tool with which to stratify the risk of malignancy in renal cystic lesions. • The Bosniak classification can accurately rule out malignancy. • Specificity remains moderate at 74 % (95 % CI 64-82). • Follow-up examinations should be considered in Bosniak IIF and Bosniak II cysts. • Data on the influence of reader experience and inter-reader variability are insufficient. • Technical CT standards and publication year did not influence diagnostic performance.

  3. The diagnostic accuracy of a laser fluorescence device and digital radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Menem, R; Barngkgei, I; Beiruti, N; Al Haffar, I; Joury, Easter

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LFpen) device in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth, at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds, and compare it with that of digital bitewing radiography. Thirty patients (aged 18-37), who attended the Faculty of Dentistry at Damascus University for a dental examination, were consecutively screened. Ninety approximal surfaces of posterior permanent teeth without frank cavitations, enamel hypoplasia or restorations were selected and examined using the LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) and digital bitewing radiography. The reference standard was the visual-tactile inspection, after performing temporary tooth separation, using orthodontic rubber rings, placed for 7 days. The status of included approximal surfaces was recorded as intact/sound, with white/brown spots or cavitated. One trained examiner performed all examinations. There were statistically significant differences in LFpen readings between the three types of approximal surface status (P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off values for detecting approximal caries lesions in posterior permanent teeth were >16 and 8 at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (measured by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve) were 100, 85 and 95 and 92, 90 and 95% at the cavitation and non-cavitation thresholds respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient for intra-examiner reliability was 0.95. The diagnostic accuracy of the LFpen was significantly higher than that of digital bitewing radiography (P < 0.001). The LFpen's diagnostic performance was accurate and significantly better than digital bitewing radiography in detecting approximal caries lesions, in posterior permanent teeth.

  4. The usefulness of toluidine staining as a diagnostic tool for precancerous and cancerous oropharyngeal and oral cavity lesions

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, E; Lombardo, N; L. Puzzo; Garozzo, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Toluidine blue stain is used as a marker to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression in order to improve early diagnosis of oropharyngeal carcinomas. This study focused on 45 oral mucosal lesions in 32 patients (13 female, 19 male). In 9 cases, multiple biopsies were collected. Of the 45 lesions examined, 26 (57.0%) were defined clinically benign, while 19 (42.3%) were defined as suspected lesions (premalignant or malignant). According to the clinical examination, the sensitivity was 53% (16/30) and for toluidine blue staining 96.2% (26/27) (p = 0.0007). The specificity was 80% (12/15) for clinical examination and 77.7% (14/15) for toluidine blue staining (p = 0.79). In conclusion toluidine blue stain has been shown to be a reliable aid when clinical examination is unable to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression and then it improves early diagnosis for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:20161875

  5. Diagnostic value of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 scintimammography for differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions: Comparison of visual and semi-quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianqian; Xie, Qian; Zhao, Min; Chen, Bin; Gao, Shi; Zhang, Haishan; Xing, Hua; Ma, Qingjie

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of visual and semi-quantitative analysis of technetium-99m-poly-ethylene glycol, 4-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid ((99m)Tc-3PRGD2) scintimammography (SMG) for better differentiation of benign from malignant breast masses, and also investigate the incremental role of semi-quantitative index of SMG. A total of 72 patients with breast lesions were included in the study. Technetium-99m-3PRGD2 SMG was performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPET) at 60 min after intravenous injection of 749 ± 86MBq of the radiotracer. Images were evaluated by visual interpretation and semi-quantitative indices of tumor to non-tumor (T/N) ratios, which were compared with pathology results. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal visual grade, to calculate cut-off values of semi-quantitative indices, and to compare visual and semi-quantitative diagnostic values. Among the 72 patients, 89 lesions were confirmed by histopathology after fine needle aspiration biopsy or surgery, 48 malignant and 41 benign lesions. The mean T/N ratio of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SMG in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (P<0.05). When grade 2 of the disease was used as cut-off value for the detection of primary breast cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 81.3%, 70.7%, and 76.4%, respectively. When a T/N ratio of 2.01 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 79.2%, 75.6%, and 77.5%, respectively. According to ROC analysis, the area under the curve for semi-quantitative analysis was higher than that for visual analysis, but the statistical difference was not significant (P=0.372). Compared with visual analysis or semi-quantitative analysis alone, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of visual analysis combined with semi-quantitative analysis in diagnosing primary breast cancer were higher, being: 87.5%, 82.9%, and 85

  6. Keratin 17 in premalignant and malignant squamous lesions of the cervix: proteomic discovery and immunohistochemical validation as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Jiawen; Cavallo, Julie-Ann; Zhai, Haiyan; Burke, Stephanie; Koller, Antonius; Chen, Emily I; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Most previously described immunohistochemical markers of cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma may help to improve diagnostic accuracy but have a minimal prognostic value. The goals of the current study were to identify and validate novel candidate biomarkers that could potentially improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy for cervical HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. Microdissected tissue sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal ectocervical squamous mucosa, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma sections were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics for biomarker discovery. The diagnostic specificity of candidate biomarkers was subsequently evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays. Among 1750 proteins identified by proteomic analyses, keratin 4 (KRT4) and keratin 17 (KRT17) showed reciprocal patterns of expression in the spectrum of cases ranging from normal ectocervical squamous mucosa to squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that KRT4 expression was significantly decreased in squamous cell carcinoma compared with the other diagnostic categories. By contrast, KRT17 expression was significantly increased in HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal ectocervical squamous mucosa and LSIL. KRT17 was also highly expressed in immature squamous metaplasia and in endocervical reserve cells but was generally not detected in mature squamous metaplasia. Furthermore, high levels of KRT17 expression were significantly associated with poor survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients (Hazard ratio = 14.76, P = 0.01). In summary, both KRT4 and KRT17 expressions are related to the histopathology of the cervical squamous mucosa; KRT17 is highly overexpressed in immature squamous metaplasia, in HSIL, and in squamous cell carcinoma and the level of KRT17 in squamous cell carcinoma may help to identify

  7. Detection of BRAF mutation in the cytocentrifugation supernatant fluid from fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions may enhance the diagnostic yield

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ashley E.; Lim, Khin Sandar; Corpus, George; Hustek, Martha T.; Tran, Tien Anh N.; Chang, Chung-Che

    2017-01-01

    Objective: BRAF mutations using cellular DNA from fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens are commonly used to support the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The goal of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the diagnostic utility of detecting BRAF mutations in the routinely discarded FNA specimen supernatant fluid. Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight FNAs of thyroid lesions were evaluated for BRAF mutations using both cellular and supernatant DNA. BRAF mutation data were correlated with cytology and surgical pathology. Results: Of the 78 samples evaluated, 68 (87%) had amplifiable DNA in the supernatant with 2 (3%) positive for BRAF mutations. These two samples showed no mutations in the cellular counterpart. Among the 11 samples showing morphologic findings (FNA/surgical pathology) suspicious/diagnostic of PTC, 6 (55%) samples (one supernatant and five cellulars) were positive for BRAF mutations. This suggests that testing supernatant DNA in FNA specimens may increase the diagnostic yield by 1/11 (9%) in this setting. Conclusions: The vast majority of routinely discarded FNA supernatants contain amplifiable DNA. In addition, profiling the mutations of BRAF and other genes using supernatant DNA may provide valuable diagnostic information to assist the diagnosis of PTC in patients with clinical/morphologic findings suspicious for malignancies and cellular DNA showing no mutations. PMID:28331529

  8. Diagnostic cellular abnormalities in neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of the epidermis: a morphological and statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Saurabh; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Andres, Christian; Gui, Jiang; Elston, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cellular abnormalities in reactive and malignant lesions is challenging. We compared the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities in malignant/premalignant and benign epidermal lesions. Methods One hundred fifty-two biopsies representing 69 malignant/premalignant squamous lesions and 83 benign conditions were studied. Cytological features, including nuclear hyperchromasia, nuclear overlap (crowding), irregular nuclei, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, delicate inconspicuous nucleoli, clumped chromatin, pleomorphic parakeratosis, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and necrotic keratinocytes, were evaluated and graded. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Irregular nuclei, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous single prominent nucleoli, nuclear overlap (crowding), pleomorphic parakeratosis, nuclear hyperchromasia, necrotic keratinocytes, normal and abnormal mitotic figures and coarse chromatin were seen more frequently in malignant neoplasms (p < 0.05). Abnormal mitotic figures, although uncommon (20.3%), were only noted in the malignant/premalignant group. Certain cytological features were common among both malignant and benign lesions, suggesting that they are of little value. Conclusion In the setting of an atypical cutaneous squamous proliferation, nuclear irregularity, increased N/C ratio, conspicuous nucleoli, crowding and hyperchromasia are the most useful indicators of malignancy. In contrast, mitotic figures, necrotic cells and coarse chromatin are less useful. The presence of abnormal mitotic figures is very helpful when present; however, their overall rarity limits their utility. PMID:23398548

  9. Le diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par l'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH): à propos des premiers tests réalisés au Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Lamzouri, Afaf; Natiq, Abdelhafid; Tajir, Mariam; Sendid, Mohamed; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Le but de cette étude était de présenter les premiers résultats de diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique d'hybridation in situ en fluorescence (FISH) au Maroc et discuter son intérêt dans le diagnostic rapide de cette aneuploïdie. Méthodes Ce travail a été réalisé chez 23 femmes avec des grossesses à haut risque de trisomie 21. La moyenne d’âge des gestantes étaient de 37,43 ans avec des extrêmes de 21 et 43 ans. Toutes étaient musulmanes mariées, mariage légitimé par la Charia, dont trois mariages consanguins, sauf une originaire de la République Démocratique du Congo qui était chrétienne et concubine. La majorité des femmes étaient fonctionnaires et avaient un niveau de scolarisation moyen à élevé. Toutes les patientes ont bénéficié d'une consultation de génétique médicale au cours de laquelle il leur a été donné des informations sur la technique, son intérêt et ses limites. Il s'agit de femmes enceintes qui avaient soit un âge maternel élevé ou des signes d'appel échographiques et/ ou biochimiques. Une des patientes était porteuse d'une translocation robertsonienne t(14;21) équilibrée. Une amniocentèse a été réalisée chez toutes les gestantes et aucun avortement n'a était induit par ce geste invasif. L’âge gestationnel moyen à la première consultation était de 14 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) et à l'amniocentèse était de 16 SA et 5 jours. L'analyse FISH a été réalisée, après consentement des couples, sur des cellules non cultivées à partir des échantillons de liquides amniotiques, en utilisant des sondes spécifiques du chromosome 21. Résultats Parmi les 23 patientes qui ont bénéficiées d'un diagnostic anténatal de la trisomie 21 par la technique FISH, nous avons pu rassurer 21 d'entre elles, et nous avons détecté deux cas de trisomie 21 fœtal. Conclusion La technique FISH permet un diagnostic anténatal rapide, en moins de 48h, de la trisomie 21 sur

  10. Non traumatic vertebral lesions: incremental utility of PET-CT over MRI and FNAC in a suggested diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Meena, Rajesh; Aggarwal, Ashish; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Vivek; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Chhabra, Rajesh

    2017-03-10

    To prospectively compare positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC for diagnosis of non- traumatic vertebral lesions fracture in countries like India where tuberculosis is endemic. Fifty four patients with non-traumatic spontaneous vertebral lesions were prospectively studied. All patients underwent CEMRI focusing on the spinal lesions, whole-body PET-CT and FNAC.Results were then analysed and compared with final diagnosis obtained either by FNAC or clinical follow up. Out of total 54 patients, FNAC from the spinal lesion could establish diagnosis in 36 patients (26 TB, 1 Fungal and 9 tumors). Of the remaining 18 patients, diagnosis could be established in 7 utilizing FNAC from other sites as dictated by PET-CT. In the remanining11 patients, the diagnosis and management was decided on the concordance of MRI and PET-CT. All three investigations have their own advantages and pitfalls and they complement each other in reaching the final diagnosis. MRI has a better pick up rate (than PET-CT) for inflammatory lesions. PET-CT on the other hand has better sensitivity for malignant vertebral disease. Diagnosis was established if FNAC was conclusive. In cases where FNAC was inconclusive, an additional 38.9% patients' diagnosis could be established by FNAC from other sites of involvement as dictated by PET-CT. This was an incremental utility of PET-CT. When even this fails, there were two possible scenarios-MRI and PET-CT in concordance with each other. In such a scenario, the combined report of MRI and PET-CT was relied upon. The last sub group (where MRI and PET-CT were discordant and FNAC was inconclusive) still remains achilles' heel. Wide bore biopsy may help in establishing diagnosis in such group.

  11. Disseminated Acanthamoeba Infection Presenting With Cutaneous Lesions in an Immunocompromised Patient: A Case Report, Review of Histomorphologic Findings, and Potential Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Annie O; Morris, Robert; Shannon, Amie; Lauer, Scott R; Guarner, Jeannette; Kraft, Colleen S

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebas are exceedingly rare causes of cutaneous infections and present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We describe a case of disseminated acanthamoebiasis with cutaneous manifestations and summarize additional diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic highlights. A 58-year-old man with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia had several weeks of progressive, painful ulcerations on the forehead, arms, abdomen, and thighs. A biopsy was performed for histopathologic evaluation. The biopsy specimen showed inflammatory infiltrate with abscess formation involving the epidermis, dermis, and subcutis. Scattered cells showed nuclei with a prominent central karyosome, dispersed chromatin, and either abundant foamy basophilic cytoplasm or two well-demarcated cytoplasmic walls. Acanthamoeba species was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Cutaneous lesions from acanthamoebiasis are exceptionally rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in immunocompromised patients. Although infrequently encountered, pathologists need to be aware of the morphologic features of free-living amoebas. Immunohistochemical and molecular studies can confirm the diagnosis. Multiagent treatment regimens, when initiated empirically, have been more successful than single-agent regimens, but infections involving the central nervous system are almost universally fatal. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. International harmonization of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines: role of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE).

    PubMed

    Wright, P F

    1999-01-01

    The OIE is recognized as the world organization for animal health. Serving 145 member countries, the OIE provides current information on disease occurrence, coordinates studies on disease surveillance and control, and harmonizes regulations for trade in animals and animal products. This paper focuses on the role of one the OIE's specialist commissions, the Standards Commission. The Standards Commission works in close collaboration with the Scientific and Technical Department of the OIE's Central Bureau on the international harmonization of standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines. The Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, approved by the International Committee, defines the international standards for diagnostic tests and for the production of biological products as applied to mammals, birds, and bees. The Manual lists and details those tests which are prescribed for international trade and others which are suitable for bilateral trade agreements. The Manual represents one of the key scientific and technical references for harmonization of regulations for trade in animals and animal products. The commission coordinates the activities of a network of some 110 OIE reference laboratories and six collaborating centers. By creating and nurturing this network, international harmonization is promoted through the sharing of knowledge and the establishment of collaborative projects related to methods development and standardization, production and distribution of international reference standards, quality assurance, and assay validation. Through a series of guidelines provided to participants, the commission ensures the quality and focus of these projects. In matters of a scientific and technical nature concerning diagnostic tests and vaccines, the Standards Commission collaborates with other international organizations such as the FAO, WHO, IICA, and PAHO, thus promoting harmonization at the international program level. Underscoring the important role

  13. Can the Diagnostics of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Lesions Be Improved by MRI-Based Soft-Tissue Reconstruction? An Imaging-Based Workup and Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Hirschfeld, Ulrich; Strunz, Hendrik; Werner, Michael; Wolfskämpf, Thomas; Löffler, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) provides both mobility and stability of the radiocarpal joint. TFCC lesions are difficult to diagnose due to the complex anatomy. The standard treatment for TFCC lesions is arthroscopy, posing surgery-related risks onto the patients. This feasibility study aimed at developing a workup for soft-tissue reconstruction using clinical imaging, to verify these results in retrospective patient data. Methods. Microcomputed tomography (μ-CT), 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and plastination were used to visualize the TFCC in cadaveric specimens applying segmentation-based 3D reconstruction. This approach further trialed the MRI dataset of a patient with minor radiological TFCC alterations but persistent pain. Results. TFCC reconstruction was impossible using μ-CT only but feasible using MRI, resulting in an appreciation of its substructures, as seen in the plastinates. Applying this approach allowed for visualizing a Palmer 2C lesion in a patient, confirming ex postum the arthroscopy findings, being markedly different from MRI (Palmer 1B). Discussion. This preliminary study showed that image-based TFCC reconstruction may help to identify pathologies invisible in standard MRI. The combined approach of μ-CT, MRI, and plastination allowed for a three-dimensional appreciation of the TFCC. Image quality and time expenditure limit the approach's usefulness as a diagnostic tool. PMID:28246600

  14. Comparison of efficiency of photodynamic diagnostics with topical use of the 3% and 15% aminolevulinic acid in the detection of vulvar lesions.

    PubMed

    Maździarz, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Aleksandra; Alkhalayla, Habib; Spiewankiewicz, Beata

    2013-12-01

    The essence of the photodynamic diagnostic method is interaction between light and chemical compounds that form in reaction to light. In order to obtain fluorescence, tissue has to be exposed to energy in the form of light with the wavelength corresponding to the bandwidth of the photosensitizer absorption. The photodynamic method allows for the detection of even small lesions. This method facilitates the process of detecting vulvar cancer, especially in its early stages when it can develop on the foundation of overgrown epithelium. At that point the vulvoscopic image is difficult to interpret, in particular when multifocal growth occurs. The objective of the study was evaluating the efficiency of the photodynamic method PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) in the detection of vulvar lesions when two concentrations of the photosensitizer were used (3%- and 15%-aminolevulinic acid), as well as evaluating the efficiency of this method when compared to the efficiency of vulvoscopy, against the result of histological examination. Two concentrations of the 5-ALA cream (aminolevulinic acid) - 3% and 15% - were used in the PDD testing. The study group was divided into two subgroups A and B. In subgroup A the 15% eucerine-based cream was used. In subgroup B the 3% ALA gel with and addition of 2% DSMO was used. The photosensitizer was applied to the vulva 4-6h before the examination. In order to obtain fluorescence, energy in the form of light whose wavelength was approximately 405 nm, and whose source was a SLED diode, was transmitted to vulvar tissue. The positive result of the exam was obtaining tissue fluorescence. All patients underwent vulvoscopy and a histological examination of tissue samples was performed in all cases. The efficiency of the photodynamic testing in subgroups A and B was compared with the efficiency of vulvoscopy, against the result of histological examination. Sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of the PDD

  15. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (lymphoma-like lesion) of cervix: A diagnostically challenging case and a brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Menon, Santosh; Deodhar, Kedar; Shet, Tanuja

    2015-01-01

    Large lymphoid proliferations are usually regarded as synonymous with lymphomas. However, lymphoma-like lesions. (LLLs) of the cervix are amongst the exception. We report a 46-year-old woman who complained of irregular menses and was found to have superficial erosion in cervix, which on biopsy showed clusters of large atypical appearing lymphoid cells admixed with smaller reactive lymphoid cells. On immunohistochemistry, these large cells were strongly positive for CD20 and CD30 and the background cells were reactive to CD3. Based on the superficial nature of infiltrate and absence of a mass-forming lesion, a diagnosis of LLL of cervix was made. Despite a benign diagnosis, a hysterectomy was done on patient's insistence and only a focus of lymphoid cells similar to biopsy was seen on the operated specimen. Patient is free of disease on follow-up.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of combined intracoronary pressure and flow velocity information during baseline conditions: adenosine-free assessment of functional coronary lesion severity.

    PubMed

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Nolte, Froukje; Damman, Peter; Delewi, Ronak; Bax, Matthijs; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Voskuil, Michiel; Siebes, Maria; Tijssen, Jan G P; Spaan, Jos A E; Piek, Jan J; Meuwissen, Martijn

    2012-08-01

    The assessment of functional coronary lesion severity using intracoronary physiological parameters such as coronary flow velocity reserve and the more widely used fractional flow reserve relies critically on the establishment of maximal hyperemia. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the stenosis resistance index during nonhyperemic conditions, baseline stenosis resistance index, compared with established hyperemic intracoronary hemodynamic parameters, because achievement of hyperemia can be cumbersome in daily clinical practice. A total of 232 patients, including 299 lesions (mean stenosis diameter 55%±11%), underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for documentation of reversible perfusion defects. Distal coronary pressure and flow velocity were assessed with sensor-equipped guidewires during baseline and maximal hyperemia, induced by an intracoronary bolus of adenosine (20-40 µg). We determined stenosis resistance (SR) during baseline and hyperemic conditions as well as fractional flow reserve and coronary flow velocity reserve. The discriminative value for myocardial ischemia on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy of all parameters was compared using receiver-operating-characteristic curves. Baseline SR showed good agreement with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The diagnostic performance of baseline SR (area under the curve, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.83) was as accurate as fractional flow reserve and coronary flow velocity reserve (area under the curve, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.71-0.83 and area under the curve, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.81 respectively; P>0.05 compared with baseline SR for both). However, hyperemic SR, combining both pressure and flow velocity information during hyperemia, was superior to all other parameters (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76-0.87; P<0.05 compared with all other parameters). Combined pressure and flow velocity measurements during baseline conditions may provide a useful tool for functional lesion severity assessment without the

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Emily Hueywen; Chong, Wui Kheong; Kasoji, Sandeep Kumar; Fielding, Julia Rose; Altun, Ersan; Mullin, Lee B; Kim, Jung In; Fine, Jason Peter; Dayton, Paul Alexander; Rathmell, Wendy Kimryn

    2017-08-09

    Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of cystic kidney disease that requires imaging monitoring in many cases. However, these same patients often have contraindications to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This study evaluates the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), which is safe for patients with chronic kidney disease, for the characterization of kidney lesions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. We performed CEUS on 44 patients, both with and without chronic kidney disease, with indeterminate or suspicious kidney lesions (both cystic and solid). Two masked radiologists categorized lesions using CEUS images according to contrast-enhanced ultrasound adapted criteria. CEUS designation was compared to histology or follow-up imaging in cases without available tissue in all patients and the subset with chronic kidney disease to determine sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy. Across all patients, CEUS had a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI: 84%, 99%) and specificity of 50% (95% CI: 32%, 68%) for detecting malignancy. Among patients with chronic kidney disease, CEUS sensitivity was 90% (95% CI: 56%, 98%), and specificity was 55% (95% CI: 36%, 73%). CEUS has high sensitivity for identifying malignancy of kidney lesions. However, because specificity is low, modifications to the classification scheme for contrast-enhanced ultrasound could be considered as a way to improve contrast-enhanced ultrasound specificity and thus overall performance. Due to its sensitivity, among patients with chronic kidney disease or other contrast contraindications, CEUS has potential as an imaging test to rule out malignancy. This trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01751529 .

  18. Best practices in diagnostic immunohistochemistry: workup of cutaneous lymphoid lesions in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Rajan; Andea, Aleodor Alexandru; Guitart, Joan; Arber, Daniel A; Weiss, Lawrence M

    2015-03-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphoma is a common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These lesions share common features with their nodal counterparts, but also have differences in morphology, unique clinical presentations, and immunohistochemical features. To review the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) and 2005 consensus WHO-EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) classifications, and address the immunohistochemical findings in the most common primary cutaneous T- and B-cell lymphomas. Since clonality testing is commonly used as an ancillary test in the evaluation of cutaneous lymphoma, a brief section in the use and pitfalls of clonality testing is included. The WHO and EORTC classification publications and the relevant recent literature were used to compile appropriate and practical guidelines in this review. The practice of dermatopathology and hematopathology varies widely. Thus, while this review provides an overview and guideline for the workup of lymphoid lesions of the skin, the practitioner should understand the importance of clinical correlation as well as appropriate utility of available resources (such as clonality testing) in arriving at a diagnosis in cutaneous lymphoid lesions.

  19. How Concerns and Experiences with Medical Malpractice Affect Dermatopathologists’ Perceptions of Their Diagnostic Practices When Interpreting Cutaneous Melanocytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Frederick, Paul D.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Knezevich, Stevan; Piepkorn, Michael W.; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Elder, David E.; Chb, MB; Geller, Berta M.; Titus, Linda; Weinstock, Martin A.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with past malpractice lawsuits and how malpractice concerns may affect interpretive practices. Methods We surveyed 207 of 301 (68.8%) eligible dermatopathologists who interpret melanocytic skin lesions in ten states. The survey assessed dermatopathologists’ demographic and clinical practice characteristics, perceptions of how medical malpractice concerns could influence their interpretive practices, and past malpractice lawsuits. Results Thirty-three percent of dermatopathologists reported past malpractice experiences. Factors associated with being sued included older age (57 years vs. 48, p<0.001), lack of board certification or fellowship training in dermatopathology (76.5% vs. 53.2%, p=0.001), and greater number of years interpreting melanocytic lesions (>20 years: 52.9% vs. 20.1%, p<0.001). Sixty four percent of participants reported being moderately or extremely confident in their melanocytic interpretations. Although most dermatopathologists believed that malpractice concerns increased their likelihood of ordering specialized pathology tests, obtaining recuts, and seeking a second opinion, none of these practices were associated with past malpractice. Most dermatopathologists reported concerns about potential harms to patients that may result from their assessments of melanocytic lesions. Conclusions Most dermatopathologists reported apprehension about how malpractice affects their clinical practice and are concerned about patient safety irrespective of whether they had actually experienced a medical malpractice suit. PMID:26559597

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test of MRA versus MRI for detection superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions type II-VII.

    PubMed

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Boonard, Manusak; Chaijenkij, Kornkit; Pituckanotai, Kwanchai; Prommahachai, Akom; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2017-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions (type II-VII) of the shoulder. PubMed and Scopus search engines, an electronic search of articles was performed from inception to February 19, 2016. Diagnostic performance of index tests was compared by the summary area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). In all, 117 of 493 studies were eligible and 32 studies (2,013 shoulders) and 11 studies (1,498 shoulders) were evaluated with MRA and MRI. The summary sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (positive and negative) and AUROC were 0.87 (95 % confidence interval, CI: 0.82, 0.91), 0.92 (95 %CI: 0.85, 0.95), 10.28 (95 %CI: 5.84, 18.08), 0.14 (95 %CI: 0.10, 0.20) and 0.94 (95 %CI: 0.92, 0.96) respectively for MRA, and 0.76 (95 %CI: 0.61, 0.86), 0.87 (95 %CI: 0.71, 0.95), 5.89 (95 %CI: 2.5, 13.86), 0.28 (95 %CI: 0.17, 0.47) and 0.94 (95 %CI: 0.92, 0.96) respectively for MRI. The diagnostic performance of MRA was superior to MRI by both direct and indirect comparisons for the detection of SLAP lesions.

  1. How concerns and experiences with medical malpractice affect dermatopathologists' perceptions of their diagnostic practices when interpreting cutaneous melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Frederick, Paul D; Reisch, Lisa M; Knezevich, Stevan; Piepkorn, Michael W; Barnhill, Raymond L; Elder, David E; Geller, Berta M; Titus, Linda; Weinstock, Martin A; Nelson, Heidi D; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-02-01

    We sought to identify characteristics associated with past malpractice lawsuits and how malpractice concerns may affect interpretive practices. We surveyed 207 of 301 (68.8%) eligible dermatopathologists who interpret melanocytic skin lesions in 10 states. The survey assessed dermatopathologists' demographic and clinical practice characteristics, perceptions of how medical malpractice concerns could influence their interpretive practices, and past malpractice lawsuits. Of dermatopathologists, 33% reported past malpractice experiences. Factors associated with being sued included older age (57 vs 48 years, P < .001), lack of board certification or fellowship training in dermatopathology (76.5% vs 53.2%, P = .001), and greater number of years interpreting melanocytic lesions (>20 years: 52.9% vs 20.1%, P < .001). Of participants, 64% reported being moderately or extremely confident in their melanocytic interpretations. Although most dermatopathologists believed that malpractice concerns increased their likelihood of ordering specialized pathology tests, obtaining recuts, and seeking a second opinion, none of these practices were associated with past malpractice. Most dermatopathologists reported concerns about potential harms to patients that may result from their assessments of melanocytic lesions. Limitations of this study include lack of validation of and details about the malpractice suits experienced by participating dermatopathologists. In addition, the study assessed perceptions of practice rather than actual practices that might be associated with malpractice incidents. Most dermatopathologists reported apprehension about how malpractice affects their clinical practice and are concerned about patient safety irrespective of whether they had actually experienced a medical malpractice suit. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Modern principles of integrated diagnostics and rehabilitation of perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences].

    PubMed

    Nemkova, S A

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences in children. Reflects modern approaches to data classification conditions, taking into account ideas on the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, the clinical manifestations of the main syndromes (excitation and depression, hypertensive, convulsive, movement disorders) as the neonatal period, and in the formation of long-term effects (motor and mental delay and speech development, hyperkinetic syndrome, cerebral palsy and others). Considerable attention is paid to the modern principles of diagnosis (clinical, psychometric, instrumental) and comprehensive rehabilitation (medical, social and psycho-pedagogical) the effects of perinatal lesions of the nervous system. The results of the review of research on the use of the polypeptide and nootropic neurometabolic stimulator - cortexin - in the complex rehabilitation of perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences in children. It is shown that the use of cortexin in treatment of critical conditions in newborns reduced the duration of intensive care and the length of stay of patients in a intensive care unit, the average period of hospital treatment and the stage of the primary neurological rehabilitation 2.5-3 times, but also reduces the frequency of detection of syndromes movement disorders in 2 times, hypertension-hydrocephalic disorders 3 times, vegetative-visceral dysfunctions 5 times. Application cortexin in the rehabilitation of children of the first years of life with the consequences of perinatal CNS indicates a significant improvement in their motor and cognitive functions, as well as predrechevogo and speech development. Application cortexin significantly improved the forecast recovery of motor, cognitive, and neurological status in general, with full compensation by the end of 1 year of life in 90% of patients, and was accompanied by a decline in

  3. Nonenhancing peritumoral hyperintense lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging in glioblastoma: a novel diagnostic and specific prognostic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra B; Karlowee, Vega; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Amatya, Vishwa J; Takeshima, Yukio; Akiyama, Yuji; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki

    2017-03-31

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma differentials include intracranial tumors, like malignant lymphomas and metastatic brain tumors with indiscernible radiological characteristics. The purpose of this study was to identify a distinct radiological feature for the preoperative differentiation of glioblastoma from its differentials, which include malignant lymphomas and metastatic brain tumors. METHODS Preoperative MR images, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) studies (b = 1000 and 4000 sec/mm(2)), obtained in patients with newly diagnosed malignant tumor, were analyzed retrospectively after receiving approval from the institutional review board. Sixty-four patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma, 32 patients with malignant lymphoma, and 46 patients with brain metastases were included. The presence of a nonenhancing peritumoral DWI high lesion (NePDHL, i.e., hyperintense lesion in a nonenhancing peritumoral area on DWI) was confirmed in both DWI sequences. Gray matter lesions were excluded. Lesions were termed "definite" if present within 3 cm of the hyperintense tumor border with a signal intensity ratio ≥ 30% when compared with the contralateral normal white matter in both sequences. Discriminant analysis between the histological diagnosis and the presence of Definite-NePDHL was performed, as well as Kaplan-Meier survival analysis incorporating the existence of Definite-NePDHL. RESULTS In 25% of glioblastoma patients, Definite-NePDHL was present, while it was conspicuously absent in patients with malignant lymphoma and metastatic brain tumors. The specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. In the glioblastoma subset, a higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.0028), high recursive partitioning analysis class (p = 0.0006), and total surgical removal (p = 0.0012) were associated with better median overall survival. Patients with Definite-NePDHL had significantly early local (p = 0.0467) and distant/dissemination recurrence (p < 0

  4. Diagnostic value of breast ultrasound in mammography BI-RADS 0 and clinically indeterminate or suspicious of malignancy breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Dobrosavljević, Aleksandar; Rakić, Snezana; Nikoli, Branka; Raznatović, Svetlana Janković; Dikić, Svetlana Dragojević; Milosević, Zorica; Jurisić, Aleksandar; Skrobić, Milica

    2016-03-01

    Not only that ultrasound makes the difference between cystic and solid changes in breast tissue, as it was the case at the beginning of its use, but it also makes the differential diagnosis in terms of benign-malignant. The aim of this study was to assess the role of sonography in the diagnosis of palpable breast masses according to the American College of Radiology Ultrasonographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and to correlate the BI-RADS 4 and BI-RADS 5 category with pathohistological findings. A retrospective study was conducted with the breast sonograms of 30 women presented with palpable breast masses found to be mammography category BI-RADS 0 and ultrasonographic BI-RADS categories 4 and 5. The sonographic categories were correlated with pathohistological findings. Surgical biopsy in 30 masses revealed: malignancy (56.7%), fibroadenoma (26.7%), fibrocystic dysplasia with/without atypia (10/6), lipoma (3.3%) and intramammary lymph node (3.3%). Correlation between BI-RADS categories and pathohistological findings was found (P < 0.05). All BI-RADS 5 masses were malignant, while in BI-RADS 4A category fibroadenomas dominated. A total of 53.8% of all benign lesions were found in women 49 years of age or younger as compared with 35.3% of all malignancies in this group (p < 0.05). Ultrasonography BI-RADS improved classification of breast masses. The ultrasound BI-RADS 4 (A, B, C) and BI-RADS 5 lesions should be worked-up with biopsy.

  5. Diagnostic phase antibody response to the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 protein is associated with successful treatment of genital HPV lesions with systemic interferon alpha-2b.

    PubMed

    Stellato, G; Paavonen, J; Nieminen, P; Hibma, M; Vilja, P; Lehtinen, M

    1997-02-01

    Systemic interferon alpha-2b treatment reduces relapses of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions in some but not all females. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible predictive pretreatment factors for the outcome of therapy. HPV DNA status and HPV antibody response were evaluated in 100 randomized patients treated with laser ablation and systemic interferon alpha-2b or placebo, and followed up to 6 months. Overall, adjuvant therapy with systemic interferon-alpha did not differ from placebo. However, detectable diagnostic phase levels of serum antibodies to e.g. HPV16 open reading frame (ORF) E2 derived peptide 141EEASVTVVEGQVDYY155 predicted 10-fold difference in the risk of recurrence of HPV infection following adjuvant interferon alpha-2b therapy as compared with placebo (odds ratio, OR, 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1-2.3; OR, 4.6, 95% CI 0.5-41, respectively). This trend was statistically significant in the whole study population (2P < 0.05), and in patients with high viral load (2P < 0.01). Evaluation of the E2 antibody responses may help to identify women with genital HPV lesions who respond to systemic interferon alpha-2b treatment.

  6. Ante-mortem diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in persistently infected herds: influence of lesion type on the sensitivity of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Antonio J; Navarro, Jose A; Salinas, Jesus; McNair, Jim; de Juan, Lucia; Ortega, Nieves; Cámara, Paulina; Torreblanca, Pilar; Sanchez, Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    Caprine tuberculosis is a major health problem for goats, and an important zoonosis. Eradication programmes using the comparative skin test are being developed to aid in decreasing the prevalence of infection. However, persistent tuberculosis infections are found in herds subjected to eradication programmes. In the present study a commercial IFN-γ release assay and an experimental ELISA based on MPB70, were evaluated as potential ancillary tests to detect infection. The relationship between the three techniques (skin test, IFN-γ release and ELISA) and histopathological lesions was analyzed in 162 goats from herds with persistent tuberculosis infection. The presence of related pathogens (paratuberculosis and pseudotuberculosis) was also studied. The IFN-γ release assay and the ELISA had a higher sensitivity than the comparative skin test (65.3% and 66.3% vs 44.5%) using as a gold standard a combination of histopathological analysis and isolation. Used in combination, ELISA and the skin test detected 89.1% of goats with tuberculosis while a combination of IFN-γ assay and skin test detected 78.2%. The types of macroscopic and microscopic lesions reflected the results of diagnostic tests.

  7. Comparison of dermatoscopic diagnostic algorithms based on calculation: The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the seven-point checklist, the three-point checklist and the CASH algorithm in dermatoscopic evaluation of melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Ezgi; Akay, Bengu N; Erdem, Cengizhan

    2014-07-01

    Dermatoscopic analysis of melanocytic lesions using the CASH algorithm has rarely been described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the seven-point checklist, the three-point checklist, and the CASH algorithm in the diagnosis and dermatoscopic evaluation of melanocytic lesions on the hairy skin. One hundred and fifteen melanocytic lesions of 115 patients were examined retrospectively using dermatoscopic images and compared with the histopathologic diagnosis. Four dermatoscopic algorithms were carried out for all lesions. The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy showed sensitivity of 91.6%, specificity of 60.4%, and diagnostic accuracy of 66.9%. The seven-point checklist showed sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 87.5, 65.9, and 70.4%, respectively; the three-point checklist 79.1, 62.6, 66%; and the CASH algorithm 91.6, 64.8, and 70.4%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the three-point checklist, the seven-point checklist, and the CASH algorithm for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions on the hairy skin. In our study, the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and the CASH algorithm showed the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of melanoma.

  8. Autofluorescence endoscopy with "real-time" digital image processing in differential diagnostics of selected benign and malignant lesions in the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Latos, Wojciech; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Stanek, Agata; Ziaja, Damian; Bugaj, Andrzej M; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2012-03-01

    Oesophageal papilloma and Barrett's oesophagus are benign lesions known as risk factors of carcinoma in the oesophagus. Therefore, it is important to diagnose these early changes before neoplastic transformation. Autofluorescence endoscopy is a fast and non-invasive method of imaging of tissues based on the natural fluorescence of endogenous fluorophores. The aim of this study was to prove the diagnostic utility of autofluorescence endoscopy with digital image processing in histological diagnosis of endoscopic findings in the upper digestive tract, primarily in the imaging of oesophageal papilloma. During the retrospective analysis of about 200 endoscopic procedures in the upper digestive tract, 67 cases of benign, precancerous or cancerous changes were found. White light endoscopy (WLE) image, single-channel (red or green) autofluorescence images, as well as green and red fluorescence intensities in two modal fluorescence image and red-to-green (R/G) ratio (Numerical Colour Value, NCV) were correlated with histopathologic results. The NCV analysis in autofluorescence imaging (AFI) showed increased R/G ratio in cancerous changes in 96% vs. 85% in WLE. Simultaneous analysis with digital image processing allowed us to diagnose suspicious tissue as cancerous in all of cases. Barrett's metaplasia was confirmed in 90% vs. 79% (AFI vs. WLE), and 98% in imaging with digital image processing. In benign lesions, WLE allowed us to exclude tissue as malignant in 85%. Using autofluorescence endoscopy R/G ratio was increased in only 10% of benign changes causing the picture to be interpreted as suspicious, but when both methods were used together, 97.5% were cases excluded as malignancies. Mean R/G ratios were estimated to be 2.5 in cancers, 1.25 in Barrett's metaplasia and 0.75 in benign changes and were statistically significant (p=0.04). Autofluorescence imaging is a sensitive method to diagnose precancerous and cancerous early stages of the diseases located in oesophagus

  9. [Diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Wanhua; Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rui; Li, Fengfang; Peng, Chengyu

    2014-06-17

    To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of decline rate of signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient with different b values for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions on diffusion-weighted 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 152 patients with 162 confirmed histopathologically breast lesions (85 malignant and 77 benign) underwent 3.0 T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four b values (0, 400, 800 and 1 000 s/mm²) were used. The signal intensity and ADC values of breast lesions were measured respectively. The signal intensity decline rate (SIDR) and apparent diffusion coefficient decline rate (ADCDR) were calculated respectively. SIDR = (signal intensity of lesions with low b value-signal intensity of lesions with high b value)/signal intensity of lesions with low b value, ADCDR = (ADC value of lesions with low b value-ADC value of lesions with high b value) /ADC value of lesions with low b value. The independent sample t-test was employed for statistical analyses and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluating the diagnosis efficiency of SIDR and ADCDR values. Significant differences were observed in SIDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 0-400, 400-800 and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SIDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.2%, 68.2% and 67.1%, the specificities 74.0%, 85.7% and 67.5%, the diagnosis accordance rates 67.3%, 76.5% and 67.3%, the positive predictive values 72.2%, 84.1% and 69.5% and the negative predictive values 63.3%, 71.0% and 65.0% respectively. Significant differences were observed in ADCDR between benign and malignant breast lesions with b values of 400-800 s/mm² and 800-1 000 s/mm². The sensitivities of SDR for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 80.0% and 65.9%, the specificities 72.7% and 65.0%, the diagnostic accordance rates 76.5% and 65.4%, the positive predictive values 76.4% and 67

  10. Accuracy in contouring of small and low contrast lesions: Comparison between diagnostic quality computed tomography scanner and computed tomography simulation scanner-A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Yick Wing; Wong, Wing Kei Rebecca; Yu, Siu Ki; Lam, Wai Wang; Geng Hui

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy in detection of small and low-contrast regions using a high-definition diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner compared with a radiotherapy CT simulation scanner. A custom-made phantom with cylindrical holes of diameters ranging from 2-9 mm was filled with 9 different concentrations of contrast solution. The phantom was scanned using a 16-slice multidetector CT simulation scanner (LightSpeed RT16, General Electric Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) and a 64-slice high-definition diagnostic CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, General Electric Healthcare). The low-contrast regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated automatically upon their full width at half maximum of the CT number profile in Hounsfield units on a treatment planning workstation. Two conformal indexes, CI{sub in}, and CI{sub out}, were calculated to represent the percentage errors of underestimation and overestimation in the automated contours compared with their actual sizes. Summarizing the conformal indexes of different sizes and contrast concentration, the means of CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} for the CT simulation scanner were 33.7% and 60.9%, respectively, and 10.5% and 41.5% were found for the diagnostic CT scanner. The mean differences between the 2 scanners' CI{sub in} and CI{sub out} were shown to be significant with p < 0.001. A descending trend of the index values was observed as the ROI size increases for both scanners, which indicates an improved accuracy when the ROI size increases, whereas no observable trend was found in the contouring accuracy with respect to the contrast levels in this study. Images acquired by the diagnostic CT scanner allow higher accuracy on size estimation compared with the CT simulation scanner in this study. We recommend using a diagnostic CT scanner to scan patients with small lesions (<1 cm in diameter) for radiotherapy treatment planning, especially for those pending for stereotactic radiosurgery in which accurate delineation of small

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Five Different Fecal Markers for the Detection of Precancerous and Cancerous Lesions of the Colorectum

    PubMed Central

    Rutka, Mariann; Bor, Renáta; Milassin, Ágnes; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Szűcs, Mónika; Tiszlavicz, László; Molnár, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest malignancy worldwide. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different fecal markers in the detection of colorectal adenomas and cancer. Methods. Stool samples of patients referred to colonoscopy were collected for the analysis of tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (M2PK), human hemoglobin (Hb), hemoglobin/haptoglobin (Hb/Hp) complex, fecal calprotectin (FC), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Results. Sensitivity and specificity of M2PK for adenomas sized > 1 cm were 60% and 67.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 67.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of iFOBT for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 72.5% and for CRC were 94.7% and 72.5%. Sensitivity and specificity of Hb/Hp complex for adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm were 80% and 52.9% and for CRC were 100% and 52.9%. Sensitivity of FC and MMP-9 for CRC was 77.8% and 72.2%. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 47.5% for the detection of adenomas sized ≥ 1 cm. Discussion. In CRC, sensitivity of M2PK, iFOBT, and Hb/Hp complex proved to be high. Combined use of M2PK, iFOBT, and FC may be valuable in the detection of large adenomas. PMID:27413251

  12. Maladie des vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, les symptômes, le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la maladie des vibrations, une maladie professionnelle importante et courante au Canada. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée sur MEDLINE afin de relever les recherches et comptes rendus portant sur la maladie des vibrations. Une recherche a été effectuée sur Google dans le but d’obtenir la littérature grise qui convient au contexte canadien. D’autres références ont été tirées des articles relevés. Message principal La maladie des vibrations est une maladie professionnelle répandue touchant les travailleurs de diverses industries qui utilisent des outils vibrants. La maladie est cependant sous-diagnostiquée au Canada. Elle compte 3 éléments : vasculaire, sous la forme d’un phénomène de Raynaud secondaire; neurosensoriel; et musculosquelettique. Aux stades les plus avancés, la maladie des vibrations entraîne une invalidité importante et une piètre qualité de vie. Son diagnostic exige une anamnèse minutieuse, en particulier des antécédents professionnels, un examen physique, des analyses de laboratoire afin d’éliminer les autres diagnostics, et la recommandation en médecine du travail aux fins d’investigations plus poussées. La prise en charge consiste à réduire l’exposition aux vibrations, éviter les températures froides, abandonner le tabac et administrer des médicaments. Conclusion Pour assurer un diagnostic rapide de la maladie des vibrations et améliorer le pronostic et la qualité de vie, les médecins de famille devraient connaître cette maladie professionnelle courante, et pouvoir obtenir les détails pertinents durant l’anamnèse, recommander les patients aux cliniques de médecine du travail et débuter les demandes d’indemnisation de manière appropriée. PMID:28292812

  13. Diagnostic value of peritumoral minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme from solitary metastatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ja; terBrugge, Karel; Mikulis, David; Choi, Dae Seob; Bae, Jong Myon; Lee, Seon Kyu; Moon, Soon Young

    2011-01-01

    In glioblastoma multiforme, the peritumoral region may be infiltrated with malignant cells in addition to vasogenic edema, whereas in a metastatic deposit, the peritumoral areas comprise predominantly vasogenic edema. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be used to differentiate glioblastoma from solitary metastasis on the basis of cellularity levels in the enhancing tumor and in the peritumoral region. Seventy-three patients underwent conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before undergoing treatment. The minimum ADC was measured in the enhancing tumor, peritumoral region, and contralateral normal white matter. To determine whether there was a statistical difference between metastasis and glioblastoma, we analyzed patient age and sex, minimum ADC value, and ADC ratio of the two groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing between glioblastoma and metastasis. The mean minimum ADC values and mean ADC ratios in the peritumoral regions of glioblastomas were significantly higher than those in metastases. However, the mean minimum ADC values and mean ADC ratios in enhancing tumors showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. According to ROC curve analysis, a cutoff value of 1.302 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the minimum peritumoral ADC value generated the best combination of sensitivity (82.9%) and specificity (78.9%) for distinguishing between glioblastoma and metastasis. Although the characteristics of solitary metastasis and glioblastoma multiforme may be similar on conventional MRI, DWI can offer diagnostic information to distinguish between the tumors.

  14. P16 and Ki-67 expression improves the diagnostic accuracy of cervical lesions but not predict persistent high risk human papillomavirus infection with CIN1

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Pingping; Li, Jifeng; Gu, Yiqun; Liu, Yu; Wang, Aichun; Sun, Yunfei; Lu, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between the expression of p16 and Ki-67 and cervical lesions, and to evaluate the role of p16 and Ki-67 as prognostic markers for persistent high risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection. Methods: Totally 1,154 cases of cervical biopsies were enrolled, 331 cases with negative for dysplasia (NEG), 462 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 176 with CIN2, 163 with CIN3 and 22 with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, 283 women with CIN1 were recruited into 12-month follow-up, and HPV specific gene detection by polymerase chain reaction was used to detect hr-HPV of cervical secretions at 6-month-interval for 12-month follow-up period. 40 women were infected with persistent hr-HPV, 182 with transient infection and 61 unfected with hr-HPV. The expression of p16 and Ki-67 were evaluated by immunohistochemical method. The immunostaining results of p16 and Ki-67 were classified into four categories: negative, 1+, 2+ and 3+. Results: There was significant increase in the expression of p16 (P < 0.001) and Ki-67 (P < 0.001) from NEG to SCC. The expression of Ki-67 (P < 0.001) but not p16 (P = 0.254) significantly increased in CIN2, CIN3. Ratio of p16 (P = 0.215) and Ki-67 (P = 0.495) positivity were not correlated with persistent hr-HPV infection. Conclusion: P16 and Ki-67 can improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical lesions but can not predict persistent hr-HPV infection with CIN1. PMID:26045807

  15. P16 and Ki-67 expression improves the diagnostic accuracy of cervical lesions but not predict persistent high risk human papillomavirus infection with CIN1.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Pingping; Li, Jifeng; Gu, Yiqun; Liu, Yu; Wang, Aichun; Sun, Yunfei; Lu, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between the expression of p16 and Ki-67 and cervical lesions, and to evaluate the role of p16 and Ki-67 as prognostic markers for persistent high risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection. Totally 1,154 cases of cervical biopsies were enrolled, 331 cases with negative for dysplasia (NEG), 462 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 176 with CIN2, 163 with CIN3 and 22 with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, 283 women with CIN1 were recruited into 12-month follow-up, and HPV specific gene detection by polymerase chain reaction was used to detect hr-HPV of cervical secretions at 6-month-interval for 12-month follow-up period. 40 women were infected with persistent hr-HPV, 182 with transient infection and 61 unfected with hr-HPV. The expression of p16 and Ki-67 were evaluated by immunohistochemical method. The immunostaining results of p16 and Ki-67 were classified into four categories: negative, 1+, 2+ and 3+. There was significant increase in the expression of p16 (P<0.001) and Ki-67 (P<0.001) from NEG to SCC. The expression of Ki-67 (P<0.001) but not p16 (P=0.254) significantly increased in CIN2, CIN3. Ratio of p16 (P=0.215) and Ki-67 (P=0.495) positivity were not correlated with persistent hr-HPV infection. P16 and Ki-67 can improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical lesions but can not predict persistent hr-HPV infection with CIN1.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of a short-duration 3 Tesla magnetic resonance protocol for diagnosing stifle joint lesions in dogs with non-traumatic cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred diagnostic tool to evaluate internal disorders of many joints in humans; however, the usefulness of MR imaging in the context of osteoarthritis, and joint disease in general, has yet to be characterized in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of short-duration 3 Tesla MR imaging for the evaluation of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament, meniscal and cartilage damage, as well as the degree of osteoarthritis, in dogs affected by non-traumatic, naturally-occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Diagnoses made from MR images were compared to those made during surgical exploration. Twenty-one client-owned dogs were included in this study, and one experienced evaluator assessed all images. Results All cranial cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as ruptured. With one exception, all caudal cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as intact. High sensitivities and specificities were obtained when diagnosing meniscal rupture. MR images revealed additional subclinical lesions in both the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and in the menisci. There was a “clear” statistical (kappa) agreement between the MR and the surgical findings for both cartilage damage and degree of osteoarthritis. However, the large 95% confidence intervals indicated that evaluation of cartilage damage and of degree of osteoarthritis is not clinically satisfactory. Conclusions The presence of cruciate ligament damage and meniscal tears could be accurately assessed using the MR images obtained with our protocol. However, in the case of meniscal evaluation, occasional misdiagnosis did occur. The presence of cartilage damage and the degree of osteoarthritis could not be properly evaluated. PMID:23448526

  17. Cone-beam computed tomography versus digital periapical radiography in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions: A pilot study of the diagnostic accuracy of endodontists using both techniques

    PubMed Central

    Campello, Andrea Fagundes; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of previously trained endodontists in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography (DPR). Materials and Methods An ex vivo model using dry skulls was used, in which simulated apical lesions were created and then progressively enlarged using #1/2, #2, #4, and #6 round burs. A total of 11 teeth were included in the study, and 110 images were obtained with CBCT and with an intraoral digital periapical radiographic sensor (Instrumentarium dental, Tuusula, Finland) initially and after each bur was used. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated. All images were evaluated by 10 previously trained, certified endodontists. Agreement was calculated using the kappa coefficient. The accuracy of each method in detecting apical lesions was calculated using the chi-square test. Results The kappa coefficient between examiners showed low agreement (range, 0.17-0.64). No statistical difference was found between CBCT and DPR in teeth without apical lesions (P=.15). The accuracy for CBCT was significantly higher than for DPR in all corresponding simulated lesions (P<.001). The correct diagnostic rate for CBCT ranged between 56.9% and 73.6%. The greatest difference between CBCT and DPR was seen in the maxillary teeth (CBCT, 71.4%; DPR, 28.6%; P<.01) and multi-rooted teeth (CBCT, 83.3%; DPR, 33.3%; P<.01). Conclusion CBCT allowed higher accuracy than DPR in detecting simulated lesions for all simulated lesions tested. Endodontists need to be properly trained in interpreting CBCT scans to achieve higher diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28361026

  18. Diagnostic accuracies of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration with distinct negative pressure suction techniques in solid lesions: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ronghua; Wang, Jinlin; Li, Yawen; Duan, Yaqi; Wu, Xiaoli; Cheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is highly accurate in obtaining specific diagnoses for various diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yields, accuracies and sampling adequacies, of slow-pull, 5 ml suction and 10 ml suction techniques in EUS-FNA of solid lesions. The present study was a retrospective comparative study, which was performed in tertiary academic centers, recognized for their expertise in EUS and EUS-guided FNA. The present study involved 149 patients who underwent EUS-FNA of solid masses. A total of 34 (22.8%), 37 (24.8%) and 78 (52.4%) patients underwent EUS-FNA with slow-pull, 5 ml suction and 10 ml suction techniques, respectively. The EUS-FNA cytology and histology results were compared with those from the gold standard of surgical histopathology [hematoxylin-eosin staining; immunohistochemical test of cluster of differentiation (CD) 79a, CD20 and flow cytometry test] or long-term clinical follow-up. The present retrospective comparative study demonstrated that the diagnostic yields and accuracies of EUS-FNA with slow-pull (86.1%) were significantly superior to those achieved with 5 ml suction (83.3%) or 10 ml suction (69.9%; P<0.0001; χ2 test). Consistently, 86.5% (32/37) of the samples obtained from the 5 ml suction group were adequate for histological diagnosis. By contrast, 70.6 (24/34) and 85.9% (67/78) of samples from the slow-pull and 10 ml suction groups were adequate for histological diagnosis, respectively. The samples obtained using 10 ml suction contained more blood compared with those obtained via slow-pull and 5 ml suction (P=0.0056; χ2 test). No complications were noted in any of the three groups. The samples that were obtained for histopathological diagnosis using 5 ml suction were superior to those obtained using slow-pull or 10 ml suction. Additional multi-central prospective studies in which EUS-FNA is performed with variable negative pressures are required to improve

  19. Erythema multiforme-like lesions in primary cutaneous aggressive cytotoxic epidermotropic CD8+ T-cell lymphoma: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, Carlo; Novelli, Mauro; Fanoni, Daniele; Berti, Emilio F

    2017-10-01

    Primary cutaneous aggressive cytotoxic epidermotropic CD8+ T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare, rapidly progressing, cutaneous lymphoma, with frequent systemic involvement and poor prognosis, that still represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially in the early stage. Herein, we report a case of an elderly woman with a fulminant course, who at onset presented with clinical and pathological features mimicking erythema multiforme (EM) and treated with cyclosporine that led to rapid deterioration with fatal outcome 6 months after disease onset. Histopathology showed a lichenoid, epidermotropic and nodular, angiocentric, dermal and subcutaneous infiltrate of sF1, CD8+, CD45RA+ small to medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells, which strongly expressed cytotoxic markers. Monoclonal T-cell-γ receptor was clonally rearranged and array-CGH showed numerous chromosomal imbalances. This case evidences the clinical, pathological and therapeutic challenges involved in this tumor. The first biopsy showed an interface dermatitis-like pattern, revealing the deceptive features that early cutaneous infiltrates of this aggressive lymphoma may have. A high suspicion for aggressive CTCL and a low threshold for repeat biopsies should be maintained when faced with rapidly progressing and/or ulcerative EM-like lesions, especially if immunomodulatory therapy is being considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impact of chronic statin therapy on clinical presentation and underlying lesion morphology in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention: an ADAPT-DES IVUS substudy.

    PubMed

    Kadohira, Tadayuki; Mintz, Gary S; Souza, Cristiano F; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, D Christopher; Rinaldi, Michael J; Mazzaferri, Ernest L; Duffy, Peter L; Weisz, Giora; Stuckey, Thomas D; Brodie, Bruce R; Crowley, Aaron; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2017-05-01

    Previous intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) studies have not established a relationship between chronic statin use and plaque morphology and composition in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to use pre-PCI grayscale and virtual histology (VH)-IVUS to assess plaque morphology and composition in patients treated with chronic statin therapy compared with patients who were not taking statins before admission and PCI. In a prespecified substudy of the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents study, pre-PCI grayscale and VH-IVUS were performed in 780 patients with 916 culprit and 765 nonculprit lesions. Overall, 338 patients were treated with chronic statin therapy before admission. Statin-treated patients were older and had a higher prevalence of coronary risk factors. Statin-treated patients were more likely to present with stable angina, whereas non-statin-treated patients more frequently presented with acute myocardial infarction. Grayscale and VH-IVUS findings showed that lesions in statin-treated patients had a smaller plaque burden, but more dense calcium. Statin-treated patients had more calcified thick-cap fibroatheromas (9.2 vs. 3.7%, P=0.0007), but fewer VH-defined thin-cap fibroatheromas (45.2 vs. 56.1%, P=0.001) or plaque ruptures (26.6 vs. 38.4%, P=0.0001). In a propensity-matched population (n=249 in each group), similar results were obtained as regards clinical presentation and grayscale and VH-IVUS findings. Chronic statin use in patients with coronary artery disease was associated with more stable clinical presentation and IVUS findings consistent with greater lesion stability (fewer VH-thin-cap fibroatheromas and plaque ruptures and more calcified thick-cap fibroatheromas).

  1. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  2. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of three dermoscopic algorithmic methods in the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic lesions: the importance of light brown structureless areas in differentiating atypical melanocytic nevi from thin melanomas.

    PubMed

    Annessi, Giorgio; Bono, Riccardo; Sampogna, Francesca; Faraggiana, Tullio; Abeni, Damiano

    2007-05-01

    Over the past decade numerous epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) criteria and algorithmic methods have been developed to improve the diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Our purpose was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 3 algorithmic methods (pattern analysis, ABCD rule of dermoscopy, and the 7-point checklist) on a series of highly atypical melanocytic lesions. We also determined the diagnostic value of distinct ELM structures by evaluating their frequency in these lesions. A total of 198 consecutive atypical macular melanocytic lesions were studied. ELM assessment was based on the presence or absence of 23 dermoscopic features. Two ELM-experienced dermatologists classified each lesion as benign or malignant using the pattern analysis, the ABCD rule of dermoscopy, and the 7-point checklist method. After surgical excision, 102 lesions were histologically diagnosed as Clark's nevi and 96 as thin melanomas (TMs) (mean tumor thickness, 0.3 mm). ELM and histologic diagnoses were then compared to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy as well as positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) for TMs of the 3 algorithmic methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine which ELM criteria were most strongly associated with TM. Of the melanocytic lesions studied, 82.3% were correctly diagnosed by using pattern analysis (85.4% sensitivity, 79.4% specificity, 79.6% PPV, and 70.8% diagnostic accuracy), compared with correct diagnosis of 79.3% (84.4% sensitivity, 74.5% specificity, 75.7% PPV, and 67.8% diagnostic accuracy) and 71.2% (78.1% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity, 67.6% PPV, and 57.7% diagnostic accuracy) with the ABCD and the 7-point checklist methods, respectively. The 7-point checklist yielded the highest number of false-negative results (21.8%) with respect to the ABCD rule (15.6%) and pattern analysis (14.6%). Univariate analysis showed that an atypical

  3. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Differentiation of Breast Lesions, Histpathologic Subgroups and Correlatıon with Prognostıc Factors using 3.0 Tesla MR.

    PubMed

    Akın, Yasin; Uğurlu, M Ümit; Kaya, Handan; Arıbal, Erkin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions, histopathologic subtypes of breast tumors, and to find a correlation with prognostic factors using 3T MR. A total of 165 patients aged between 16 and 78 years with 181 histopathologically-verifed breast lesions were enrolled in this study. A 3T MR system and bilateral phased array breast coil was used. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with spin echo "echo planar" with "b" values: 50, 400, and 800 seconds/mm(2). ADC values were calculated for normal fibroglandular tissue and breast lesions. ADC values of independent groups were compared using Student's t-test. ROC analysis was used to find a threshold ADC value in the differentiation of lesions. The mean ADC values were 1.35±0.16 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for normal fibroglandular tissue, 1.41±0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for benign breast lesions and 0.83±0.19 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for malignant breast lesions. The AUC with ROC analysis was 0.945 and the threshold for ADC was 1.08 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 92%, respectively. The threshold value for ADC ratio was 0.9 with 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The mean ADC of malignant breast lesions was statistically lower for benign lesions (p<0.01). We found no correlation between the mean ADC values and ER-PR receptor, Her2, and Ki-67 values. Diffusion-weighted imaging has high diagnostic value with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant and benign breast lesions.

  4. Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-weighted Imaging and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in the Differentiation of Breast Lesions, Histpathologic Subgroups and Correlatıon with Prognostıc Factors using 3.0 Tesla MR

    PubMed Central

    Akın, Yasin; Uğurlu, M. Ümit; Kaya, Handan; Arıbal, Erkin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions, histopathologic subtypes of breast tumors, and to find a correlation with prognostic factors using 3T MR. Materials and Methods A total of 165 patients aged between 16 and 78 years with 181 histopathologically-verifed breast lesions were enrolled in this study. A 3T MR system and bilateral phased array breast coil was used. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with spin echo “echo planar” with “b” values: 50, 400, and 800 seconds/mm2. ADC values were calculated for normal fibroglandular tissue and breast lesions. ADC values of independent groups were compared using Student’s t-test. ROC analysis was used to find a threshold ADC value in the differentiation of lesions. Results The mean ADC values were 1.35±0.16 × 10−3 mm2/s for normal fibroglandular tissue, 1.41±0.24 × 10−3 mm2/s for benign breast lesions and 0.83±0.19 × 10−3 mm2/s for malignant breast lesions. The AUC with ROC analysis was 0.945 and the threshold for ADC was 1.08 × 10−3 mm2/s with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 92%, respectively. The threshold value for ADC ratio was 0.9 with 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The mean ADC of malignant breast lesions was statistically lower for benign lesions (p<0.01). We found no correlation between the mean ADC values and ER-PR receptor, Her2, and Ki-67 values. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging has high diagnostic value with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating malignant and benign breast lesions.

  5. Detection of interleukins-6 and 8 in saliva as potential biomarkers of oral pre-malignant lesion and oral carcinoma: A breakthrough in salivary diagnostics in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khyani, Iqbal A Muhammad; Qureshi, Masood A; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, M Umar

    2017-05-01

    Oral cancer is at rise in our population due to increasing use of areca nut (Betel nut) with or without tobacco. It is the second frequent malignant tumour for both the gender in Pakistan. This non-interventional case control study was carried out with the aim to explore saliva as diagnostic medium for detecting interleukins (IL) 6 and 8 as biomarkers of pre-malignant lesions (PML) and oral carcinoma. Total 105 subjects were recruited and were divided into three groups "A", "B" and "C" each comprising of 35 subjects. Group "A" comprised of cases with strong clinical evidence of oral PML. Group "B" constitute clinical and histologically proven OSCC and group "C" include disease free subjects as controls. Saliva from all the recruited subjects was procured by drooling method and stored at-200C before further process. All the collected samples were centrifuged at 4500 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. Supernatant fluid was used in ELISA for detection and quantification of IL-6 & IL-8. Data was analysed by using Chi-square test and multivariate analysis was done by non-parametric test. P-value of 0.05 was taken as standard reference. Significant co-relation was found for qualitative salivary detection of IL-6 and IL-8 among the groups (P<0.001 and <0.0001 respectively). Regarding quantitative salivary concentration of leukotrienes, no significant co-relation was found in levels of IL-6 among the groups while there was significant association of IL-8 levels between the groups (P<0.0001).On post Hoc multiple comparison, significant co-relation was found among oral PML group and controls (P=0.001) and OSCC group and control (P=<0.0001). In conclusion salivary detection of IL-6 & IL-8 could be used as probable biomarker for early detection of oral PML & OSCC in etiologically distinct population of Pakistan.

  6. The differentiation of the character of solid lesions in the breast in the compression sonoelastography. Part II: Diagnostic value of BIRADS-US classification, Tsukuba score and FLR ratio

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sonoelastography is a dynamically developing method of ultrasound examination used to differentiate the character of focal lesions in the breasts. The aim of the Part II of the study is to determine the usefulness of sonoelastography in the differentiation diagnosis of focal breast lesions including the evaluation of the diagnostic value of Tsukuba score and FLR ratio in characterizing solid lesions in the breasts. Furthermore, the paper provides a comparison of classic B-mode imaging and sonoelastography. Material and methods From January to July 2010 in the Ultrasound Department of the Cancer Centre, The Institute of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, 375 breast ultrasound examinations were conducted. The examined group included patients who in B-mode examinations presented indications for pathological verification. They were 80 women aged between 17 and 83 (mean age was 50) with 99 solid focal lesions in the breasts. All patients underwent: the interview, physical examination, B-mode ultrasound examination and elastography of the mammary glands and axillary fossae. The visualized lesions were evaluated according to BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score as well as FLR ratio was calculated. In all cases, the histopathological and/or cytological verification of the tested lesions was obtained. Results In the group of 80 patients, the examination revealed 39 malignant neoplastic lesions and 60 benign ones. The mean age of women with malignant neoplasms was 55.07 (SD = 10.54), and with benign lesions – 46.9 (SD = 15.47). In order to identify threshold values that distinguish benign lesions from malignant ones, a comparative analysis of statistical models based on BIRADS-US classification and Tsukuba score was conducted and the cut-off value for FLR was assumed. The sensitivity and specificity values for BIRADS-US 4/5 were 76.92% and 96.67% and for Tsukuba 3/4 – 64.1% and 98.33% respectively. The assumed FLR threshold value to differentiate between benign and malignant

  7. Detection of ischaemic myocardial lesions with coronary CT angiography and adenosine-stress dynamic perfusion imaging using a 128-slice dual-source CT: diagnostic performance in comparison with cardiac MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S M; Choi, J-H; Chang, S-A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the diagnostic performance of adenosine-stress dynamic CT perfusion (ASDCTP) imaging and coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for the detection of ischaemic myocardial lesions using 128-slice dual-source CT compared with that of 1.5 T cardiac MRI. Methods: This prospective study included 33 patients (61±8 years, 82% male) with suspected coronary artery diseases who underwent ASDCTP imaging and adenosine-stress cardiac MRI. Two investigators independently evaluated ASDCTP images in correlation with significant coronary stenosis on CCTA using two different thresholds of 50% and 70% diameter stenosis. Hypoattenuated myocardial lesions on ASDCTP associated with significant coronary stenoses on CCTA were regarded as true perfusion defects. All estimates of diagnostic performance were calculated and compared with those of cardiac MRI. Results: With use of a threshold of 50% diameter stenosis on CCTA, the diagnostic estimates per-myocardial segment were as follows: sensitivity, 81% [95% confidence interval (CI): 70–92%]; specificity, 94% (95% CI: 92–96%); and accuracy 93% (95% CI: 91–95%). With use of a threshold of 70%, the diagnostic estimates were as follows: sensitivity, 48% (95% CI: 34–62%); specificity, 99% (95% CI: 98–100%); and accuracy, 94% (95% CI: 92–96%). Conclusion: Dynamic CTP using 128-slice dual-source CT enables the assessment of the physiological significance of coronary artery lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically suspected coronary artery disease. Advances in knowledge: Combined CCTA and ASDCTP yielded high accuracy in the detection of perfusion defects regardless of the threshold of significant coronary stenosis. PMID:24096592

  8. Influence of years of professional experience in relation to the diagnostic skill of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in identifying oral cancer and precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, P; Camacho-Alonso, F; Martinez-Beneyto, Y; Seoane-Leston, J

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate skill in diagnosing cancer and oral precancerous lesions among general dentists in the Autonomous Community of Murcia (Spain). Twenty randomly distributed clinical images were used, of which 45% corresponded to benign lesions, 35% to oral precancerous lesions, and 20% to oral cancer. Each case was accompanied by a summarised clinical history. The study sample comprised 150 general dentists divided into two groups: group I (60 recently graduated dentists without professional experience) and group II (90 dentists with established professional activity). In group I, the sensitivity of oral cancer diagnosis was 61.3% versus 85.5% in group II (p < 0.001), while the sensitivity of precancerous lesion diagnosis was 71.7% in group I versus 80.7% in group II (p = 0.004). The results obtained show that junior dentists and general dentists with public or private practice need more training and more experience in diagnosing cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

  9. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  10. The Effects of Strong Shock Waves on Mortality Rates and Percentages of Pulmonary Lesions in Rats as a Function of the Number of Exposures (Etude des effets des ondes de choc fortes sur les taux de letalite et les pourcente ages de lesions pulmoneires chea le rat en fonotior du nombre d’expositions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    This study of pulmonary lesions and mortality rates caused in rats by exposure to strong shock waves of constant duration revealed that with regard... mortality rates , it revealed that halving the overpressure of the wave crest is offset by a 20-fold increase in the number of exposures.

  11. Chronic cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marchell, Richard M; Judson, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis involvement of the skin is common. The skin lesions of sarcoidosis may be nonspecific, showing a nondiagnostic inflammatory reaction pattern on histologic evaluation. Nonspecific skin lesions are often associated with an acute presentation of sarcoidosis and, in general, portend a good prognosis. Specific sarcoidosis skin lesions reveal typical sarcoid granulomas on histologic examination. These lesions tend to be chronic and require therapy for resolution. This article will review the epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and description of the various chronic skin lesions of sarcoidosis. Various images of these skin lesions will be demonstrated.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions at 3.0T: Comparison with routine MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Fei; Yan, Zhiping; Li, Huili; Feng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T1 WI and T2 WI), diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), and DCE-MRI (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) at 3.0T for differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions. A cohort of 75 cervical cancer patients, 26 cervical leiomyoma patients, 22 patients with cervical polyps consecutively underwent pelvic MRI scanning on a 3T MR unit. Two radiologists independently evaluated images at three imaging settings; routine MRI alone, DWI combined with routine MRI (DWI+routine MRI), and DCE-MRI. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from b 0, 600 s/mm(2) and b 0, 1000 s/mm(2). DWI+routine MRI was significantly better than routine MRI and obtained high accuracy (0.95); the diagnostic performance was not significantly different between DWI+routine MRI and DCE-MRI. Reader agreement was excellent for both DWI+routine MRI (κ, 0.90) and DCE-MRI (κ, 0.92). The ADCs of cervical cancer were significantly lower than those of benign cervical lesions at both ADC maps (P = 0.0001). The diagnostic accuracy was not different at both ADC maps (P = 0.375). For differentiation of cervical cancer and benign cervical lesions, unenhanced MRI with combined diffusion-weighted and routine MRI (DWI+routine MRI) at 3T can provide accurate information and may be preferable to DCE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Combination of two-dimensional shear wave elastography with ultrasound breast imaging reporting and data system in the diagnosis of breast lesions: a new method to increase the diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Dan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new method of combined two-dimensional shear wave elastography (i.e. virtual touch imaging quantification, VTIQ) and ultrasound (US) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. From September 2014 to December 2014, 276 patients with 296 pathologically proven breast lesions were enrolled in this study. The conventional US images were interpreted by two independent readers. The diagnosis performances of BI-RADS and combined BI-RADS and VTIQ were evaluated, including the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity and specificity. Observer consistency was also evaluated. Pathologically, 212 breast lesions were benign and 84 were malignant. Compared with BI-RADS alone, the AUROCs and specificities of the combined method for both readers increased significantly (AUROC: 0.862 vs. 0.693 in reader 1, 0.861 vs. 0.730 in reader 2; specificity: 91.5 % vs. 38.7 % in reader 1, 94.8 % vs. 47.2 % in reader 2; all P < .05). The Kappa value between the two readers for BI-RADS assessment was 0.614, and 0.796 for the combined method. The combined VTIQ and BI-RADS had a better diagnostic performance in the diagnosis of breast lesions in comparison with BI-RADS alone. • Combination of conventional ultrasound and elastography distinguishes breast cancers more effectively. • Combination of conventional ultrasound and elastography increases observer consistency. • BI-RADS weights more than the 2D-SWE with an increase in malignancy probability.

  14. Detection of Crohn disease lesions of the small and large bowel in pediatric patients: diagnostic value of MR enterography versus reference examinations.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Francesca; Al Ansari, Najwa; Mazzamurro, Fabrizio; Civitelli, Fortunata; Viola, Franca; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Catalano, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to prospectively determine the accuracy of MR enterography in detecting Crohn disease lesions from the jejunum to the anorectal region in pediatric patients, in comparison with main reference investigations. Fifty consecutive children with known Crohn disease underwent MR enterography with oral contrast agent and gadolinium-chelate intravenous injection. Two radiologists detected and localized lesions by dividing the bowel into nine segments (450 analyzed segments in 50 patients). Ileocolonoscopy, barium studies, intestinal ultrasound, and capsule endoscopy were considered as first- and second-level reference examinations and were performed within 15 days of MR enterography. MR enterography detected lesions in 164 of 450 segments, with 155 true-positive and nine false-positive findings; overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for small- and large-bowel lesions were 94.5%, 97%, 94.5%, and 97%, respectively (ĸ = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97). Sensitivity and specificity values were 88% and 97%, respectively, for the jejunum, 100% and 97% for the proximal-to-mid ileum, 100% and 100% for the distal ileum, 93% and 100% for the cecum, 70% and 97% for the ascending colon, 80% and 100% for the transverse colon, 100% and 92% for the descending colon, 96% and 90% for the sigmoid colon, and 96% and 88% for the rectum. From jejunum to rectum, the AUC value ranged between 0.916 (jejunum) and 1.00 (distal ileum). Perianal fistulas were diagnosed in 15 patients, and other complications were found in 13 patients. MR enterography showed an accuracy comparable to that of reference investigations, for both small- and large-bowel lesions. Because MR enterography is safer and more comprehensive than the reference examinations, it should be considered the primary examination for detecting Crohn disease lesions in children.

  15. The production and evaluation of a standard diagnostic peste des petits ruminants (PPR) hyperimmune serum prepared from the Egyptian antigen (Egypt 87).

    PubMed

    Nahed, A Kamel; Hanan, S Abdel-Raouf; Hanan, M S el-Zawahry; Laila, A Sedeek; Fatma, S Mahmoud

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a specific hyperimmune serum for diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Based on good laboratory practices and standard operating procedures, we produced this reagent in goats using attenuated local strain of PPRV. The quality was assured to meet the internationally required levels of potency and sterility. The titer of the product was 1024 as evaluated by virus neutralization (VN) and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests. In its final form, it is a sterile disc of a lyophilized material with a pale yellow colour, placed into an evacuated, tightly capped and capsulated vial. Local availability of such a product could be of great benefit at the time of need.

  16. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  17. Pre-surgical radiologic identification of peri-prosthetic osteolytic lesions around TKRs: a pre-clinical investigation of diagnostic accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Kurmis, Timothy P; Kurmis, Andrew P; Campbell, David G; Slavotinek, John P

    2008-01-01

    Background Emerging longitudinal data appear to demonstrate an alarming trend towards an increasing prevalence of osteolysis-induced mechanical failure, following total knee replacement (TKR). Even with high-quality multi-plane X-rays, accurate pre-surgical evaluation of osteolytic lesions is often difficult. This is likely to have an impact on surgical management and provides reasonable indication for the development of a model allowing more reliable lesion assessment. The aim of this study, using a simulated cadaver model, was to explore the accuracy of rapid spiral computed tomography (CT) examination in the non-invasive evaluation of peri-prosthetic osteolytic lesions, secondary to TKR, and to compare this to conventional X-ray standards. Methods A series of nine volume-occupying defects, simulating osteolytic lesions, were introduced into three human cadaveric knees, adjacent to the TKR implant components. With implants in situ, each knee was imaged using a two-stage conventional plain X-ray series and rapid-acquisition spiral CT. A beam-hardening artefact removal algorithm was employed to improve CT image quality. After random image sorting, 12 radiologists were independently shown the series of plain X-ray images and asked to note the presence, anatomic location and 'size' of osteolytic lesions observed. The same process was repeated separately for review of the CT images. The corresponding X-ray and CT responses were directly compared to elicit any difference in the ability to demonstrate the presence and size of osteolytic lesions. Results Access to CT images significantly improved the accuracy of recognition of peri-prosthetic osteolytic lesions when compared to AP and lateral projections alone (P = 0.008) and with the addition of bi-planar oblique X-rays (P = 0.03). No advantage was obtained in accuracy of identification of such lesions through the introduction of the oblique images when compared with the AP and lateral projections alone (P = 0

  18. Diagnostic clinique et paraclinique des infections ostéoarticulaires digitales dans les brûlures thermiques de la main

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, A.; Mahdhi, N.; Ben Maitigue, M.; Maaref, K.; Jemni, S.; Bouaziz, M.A.; Regaieg, H.; Dakkem, M.; Zine El Abidine, M.; Ben Fredj, M.; Khachnaoui, F.; Rejeb, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Les infections ostéo-articulaires digitales de la main brûlée sont particulières car longtemps méconnu. Leur diagnostic n’a pratiquement jamais été abordé dans la littérature. On distingue d’une part les ostéoarthrites survenant à la phase aiguë de la brûlure chez le patient grand brûlé, sédaté où le diagnostic est difficile en réanimation car la clinique n’est pas parlante et d’autre part les ostéoarthrites découvertes à la phase de rééducation, où douleur, tuméfaction, raideur et signes radiologiques sont nets. Le diagnostic de ces infections doit être précoce à fin de préserver la fonction de la main. PMID:24133401

  19. Assessment of Functional Differences in Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions and Improvement of Diagnostic Accuracy by Using US-guided Diffuse Optical Tomography in Conjunction with Conventional US.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Quing; Ricci, Andrew; Hegde, Poornima; Kane, Mark; Cronin, Edward; Merkulov, Alex; Xu, Yan; Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Tannenbaum, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate ultrasonography (US)-guided diffuse optical tomography to distinguish the functional differences of hemoglobin concentrations in a wide range of malignant and benign breast lesions and to improve breast cancer diagnosis in conjunction with conventional US. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards and was HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Patients (288 women; mean age, 50 years; range, 17-94 years) who underwent US-guided biopsy were imaged with a handheld US and optical probe. The US-imaged lesion was used to guide reconstruction of light absorption maps at four wavelengths, and total hemoglobin (tHb), oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb), and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) were computed from the absorption maps. A threshold (80 μmol/L) was chosen on the basis of this study population. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated US images on the basis of the US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon, and a lesion was considered malignant when a score of 4C or 5 was given or a lesion had tHb greater than 80 μmol/L. A two-sample t test was used to calculate significance between groups, and Spearman ρ was computed between hemoglobin parameters and tumor pathologic grades. Results Three tumors were Tis, 37 were T1, 19 were T2-T4 carcinomas, and 233 were benign lesions. The mean maximum tHb, oxyHb, and deoxyHb of Tis-T1 and T2-T4 groups were 89.3 μmol/L ± 20.2 (standard deviation), 65.0 μmol/L ± 20.8, and 33.5 μmol/L ± 11.3, respectively, and 84.7 μmol/L ± 32.8, 57.1 μmol/L ± 19.8, and 34.7 μmol/L ± 18.9, respectively. The corresponding values of benign lesions were 54.1 μmol/L ± 23.5, 38.0 μmol/L ± 17.4, and 25.2 μmol/L ± 13.8, respectively. The mean maximum tHb, oxyHb, and deoxyHb were significantly higher in the malignant groups than the benign group (P <.001, <.001, and .041, respectively). For malignant lesions, the mean maximum t

  20. Diagnostic optique de la température dans des moteurs-fusée à l'aide de techniques Raman cohérentes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, Frédéric; Michaut, Xavier; Saint-Loup, Robert; Berger, Hubert; Bouchardy, Paul; Grisch, Frédéric

    2004-03-01

    This article reviews the study of Raman line shapes of molecular species involved in reactive media, such flames or engines, at high temperature and high pressure. This study is of interest from a fundamental as well as from a practical point of view with regards to the CARS temperature diagnostic of GH 2-LOX combustion systems. We will particularly draw attention to recent investigations by means of Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (SRS) in H 2-H 2O mixtures at temperature up to 1800 K. Whereas H 2-X systems usually exhibit large inhomogeneous effects, due to the speed dependence of the collisional parameters, the absence of such apparent inhomogeneous signatures in the H 2-H 2O system allowed us to model the broadening coefficients with simple polynomial laws. These laws permit extrapolations with a narrow confidence interval, as required for temperature measurements. The applications of these results to the temperature diagnostic on the small-scale facility MASCOTTE at ONERA will be described. To cite this article: F. Chaussard et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  1. Interventions et techniques de diagnostic prénatal visant l'obtention d'un prélèvement fœtal à des fins diagnostiques : Risques et avantages pour la mère et le fœtus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June

    2016-12-01

    Offrir aux fournisseurs de soins de maternité et à leurs patientes des lignes directrices factuelles contemporaines en ce qui concerne les services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels propres à la tenue des interventions diagnostiques prénatales orientées par échographie (et/ou des techniques permettant l'établissement d'un diagnostic génétique) nécessaires dans les cas où il a été établi pendant la période prénatale que la grossesse serait exposée à des risques, ainsi qu'en ce qui concerne la prise de décisions subséquentes quant à la prise en charge de la grossesse (questions abordant des aspects tels que le niveau du fournisseur de soins obstétricaux, la surveillance prénatale, le lieu où devraient se dérouler les soins et l'accouchement, et la décision de poursuivre ou d'interrompre la grossesse). La présente directive clinique se limite aux services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels, et aux décisions en matière de prise en charge de la grossesse pour les femmes qui nécessitent (ou qui envisagent) la mise en œuvre d'une intervention ou d'une technique effractive orientée par échographie aux fins de l'établissement d'un diagnostic prénatal. Femmes enceintes identifiées, à la suite de la mise en œuvre de protocoles établis de dépistage prénatal (taux sériques maternels ± imagerie, résultats d'analyse de l'ADN acellulaire indiquant des risques élevés, résultats anormaux au moment de l'imagerie fœtale diagnostique ou antécédents familiaux de troubles héréditaires), comme étant exposées à un risque accru d'anomalie génétique fœtale. Ces femmes pourraient nécessiter ou demander des services de counseling au sujet des risques et des avantages pour la grossesse de la tenue d'une intervention effractive orientée par échographie visant à déterminer l'étiologie, le diagnostic, et/ou la pathologie de possibles anomalies fœtales. RéSULTATS: La litt

  2. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  3. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  4. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  5. Study protocol for a prospective, non-controlled, multicentre clinical study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a stepwise two-photon excited melanin fluorescence in pigmented lesions suspicious for melanoma (FLIMMA study)

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christine; Hofmann, Maja; Jagoda, Agata; Spaenkuch, Iris; Forschner, Andrea; Tampouri, Ioanna; Lomberg, Diana; Leupold, Dieter; Garbe, Claus; Haenssle, Holger A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive, nanosecond, stepwise two-photon laser excitation of skin tissue was shown to induce melanin fluorescence spectra that allow for the differentiation of melanocytic nevi from cutaneous melanoma. Methods and analysis This prospective, non-controlled, multicentre clinical study is performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the stepwise two-photon excited melanin fluorescence in the detection of cutaneous melanoma. The comparator will be the histopathological diagnosis. A total of 620 pigmented skin lesions suspicious for melanoma and intended for excision will be enrolled. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by the local ethics committees of the medical faculties of the University of Tuebingen, Heidelberg and Berlin. Study registration The FLIMMA study NCT02425475. PMID:27993903

  6. Do short-time SPECT images of bone scintigraphy improve the diagnostic value in the evaluation of solitary lesions in the thoracic spine in patients with extraskeletal malignancies?

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kana; Okuyama, Chio; Kubota, Takao; Nakai, Takako; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-10-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images provide many details of the anatomical structure. Also about bone scintigraphy, there are many reports of the improvement of diagnosis by SPECT images. Although SPECT is useful, it requires much time. So to perform SPECT for all cases is difficult in the clinical situation. Recently, due to technical improvements in gamma cameras, we can get SPECT images in a short time. We examined diagnosis of solitary hot spots of thoracic spine in cancer patients using short-time SPECT. And we considered whether short-time SPECT contributes to the precise diagnosis of the lesion. We performed bone scintigraphy image acquisition and both planar and short-time SPECT of the chest. Short-time SPECT was acquired in 6 minutes. We selected 36 cases with malignancy, whose bone scintigraphy demonstrated a solitary accumulation hot spot in the thoracic spine. Three experienced radiologists in nuclear medicine and 4 beginners diagnosed the images. They interpreted planar, short-time SPECT and maximum intensity projection (MIP) view of the chest of each case. The observers' response data were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Of the three types of images, the Az (the area under ROC curve) values of short-time SPECT were the highest in all the observers except for only one beginner. Compared with experienced observers, beginners scored lower Az values of short-time SPECT. MIP images were constructed using SPECT data, but the Az values of MIP images were not higher than those of planar images. As to diagnosis, beginners tended to interprete most of the accumulations as metastatic lesions. Short-time SPECT can be helpful to some degree, but to provide greater benefit, the observers require considerable exercise and experience.

  7. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  8. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Bardia Vadiati; Nemati, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Meisam; Javanmard, Afrooz

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of alveolar bone level in periodontitis is very important in determining prognosis and treatment plan. Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic tool used to screen patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of digital panoramic radiography in angular bony defects with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars. In this cross-sectional study, ninety angular bony defects in mandibular molars teeth with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth were selected in sixty patients with the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. Before surgery, bone probing was performed. During the surgery, the vertical distance from cementoenamel junction to the most apical part of bony defect was measured using a Williams probe and this measurements were employed as gold standard. This distance was measured on the panoramic radiographs by a Digital Calliper and Digital Ruler. All data were compare dusing independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. No significant difference was found between the results of bone probing and intra-surgical measurements (P = 0.377). The mean defect depth determined by Digital Caliper and Digital Ruler on panoramic radiographs was significantly less than surgical measurements (P < 0.001). The correlation between bone probing and surgical measurements in determining the defect depth was strong (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). Radiographic measurements made by Digital Ruler (r = 0.86), comparing to Digital Caliper (r = 0.79), showed a higher degree of correlation with surgical measurements. Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited.

  9. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Bardia Vadiati; Nemati, Somayeh; Malekzadeh, Meisam; Javanmard, Afrooz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Assessment of alveolar bone level in periodontitis is very important in determining prognosis and treatment plan. Panoramic radiography is a diagnostic tool used to screen patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of digital panoramic radiography in angular bony defects with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety angular bony defects in mandibular molars teeth with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth were selected in sixty patients with the diagnosis of chronic periodontitis. Before surgery, bone probing was performed. During the surgery, the vertical distance from cementoenamel junction to the most apical part of bony defect was measured using a Williams probe and this measurements were employed as gold standard. This distance was measured on the panoramic radiographs by a Digital Calliper and Digital Ruler. All data were compare dusing independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: No significant difference was found between the results of bone probing and intra-surgical measurements (P = 0.377). The mean defect depth determined by Digital Caliper and Digital Ruler on panoramic radiographs was significantly less than surgical measurements (P < 0.001). The correlation between bone probing and surgical measurements in determining the defect depth was strong (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). Radiographic measurements made by Digital Ruler (r = 0.86), comparing to Digital Caliper (r = 0.79), showed a higher degree of correlation with surgical measurements. Conclusion: Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited. PMID:28348615

  10. Establishment of an on-site diagnostic procedure for detection of orf virus from oral lesions of Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    INOSHIMA, Yasuo; TAKASU, Masaki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    Orf virus infection has been prevalent continuously in the population of wild Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus), goat-like grazing cloven-hoofed mammal species that live mainly in mountainous areas of Japan. Currently, definitive diagnosis of infection requires time-consuming laboratory work. To diagnose rapidly on-site, we developed a field-friendly procedure for the detection of orf virus from oral cavity lesions. DNA was extracted from goat saliva spiked with orf virus as a proxy for Japanese serows by a commercial kit without the use of electricity, and the quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Extracted DNA was amenable to DNA amplification, the same as when extracted in a laboratory. Next, to find optimal conditions for DNA amplification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), Bst and Csa DNA polymerases and 3 colorimetric indicators for visual diagnosis, hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB), malachite green and D-QUICK, were compared using a portable cordless incubator. The combination of Bst or Csa DNA polymerase with HNB was found to be easiest for visual diagnosis by the naked eye, and viral DNA was successfully amplified from all orf virus strains used. These results suggest that the procedure established here can work completely on-site and can be useful for definitive diagnosis and differentiation of orf virus infection in Japanese serows in remote mountainous areas. PMID:27628591

  11. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Characteristics of In-Stent Restenosis After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Femoropopliteal Lesions and 1-Year Prognosis After Repeat Endovascular Therapy for These Lesions.

    PubMed

    Iida, Osamu; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Hirano, Keisuke; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Zen, Kan; Kawasaki, Daizo; Nanto, Shinsuke; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2016-04-25

    This study sought to investigate the characteristics of in-stent restenosis (ISR) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation for femoropopliteal (FP) lesions, and to examine 1-year prognosis after repeat endovascular therapy (re-EVT) for these DES-ISR. The morphology of DES-ISR and its association with clinical outcomes after re-EVT have not been well examined. This was a subanalysis of the ZEPHYR (Zilver PTX for the femoral artery and proximal popliteal artery) study. The current study included 210 cases with loss of patency confirmed 1 year after DES implantation. Morphology of DES-ISR was classified into the following subgroups: class I, focal lesions (≤50 mm in length), class II, diffuse lesions (>50 mm in length), and class III, totally occluded ISR. One-year prognosis after re-EVT for DES-ISR was assessed by restenosis and major adverse limb events (MALE). Classes I, II, and III accounted for 50%, 25%, and 25% of DES-ISR, respectively. Factors associated with the morphology of DES-ISR were the presence of chronic total occlusion and the size of the external elastic membrane area before DES implantation (p = 0.009 and 0.017). Compared with the class I restenotic lesion, the class II and III lesions had a significantly higher risk of restenosis (74% and 78% vs. 53%: p = 0.048 and 0.019, respectively) and MALE (56% and 56% versus 32%: p = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively) 1 year after re-EVT. We evaluated the characteristics of ISR after DES implantation for FP lesions and 1-year prognosis of re-EVT for DES-ISR. The morphology of DES-ISR had a significant association with 1-year prognosis after re-EVT. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  15. Benign breast lesions that mimic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Torous, Vanda F; Schnitt, Stuart J; Collins, Laura C

    2017-02-01

    Many benign and reactive lesions of the breast show morphological overlap with malignant lesions. These benign mimics of malignancy often present diagnostic challenges to even the most experienced pathologists. This review focuses on several benign lesions of the breast that mimic malignant entities. For each of these lesions, we describe the key morphological and immunohistochemical features, potential diagnostic pitfalls, and our approach to arriving at the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  17. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  18. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  19. [Galeazzi lesion in children and adults: the undiagnosed lesion].

    PubMed

    Maman, Eran; Dekel, Shmuel; Steinberg, Ely

    2002-07-01

    Unrecognized Galeazzi fracture dislocation of the wrist (distal radius fracture with radioulnar joint disruption) may lead to a high incidence of permanent functional disability and chronic pain. A high index of suspicion, early recognition, and acute treatment of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability will avoid chronic problems. This review examines the clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, management and prognosis in children and in adults for this type of lesion.

  20. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  1. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed.

  2. Placental hypoxia: the lesions of maternal malperfusion.

    PubMed

    Parks, W Tony

    2015-02-01

    The placental lesions classically ascribed to placental hypoxia, here denoted maternal malperfusion (MMP), are among the more significant that a placental pathologist may encounter. Yet the appearance of these lesions may be subtle, and the clinical implication of their diagnosis is frequently unclear. The aim of this review is to provide a more nuanced perspective on the clinical utility of placental pathology for the detection of MMP. The review will first detail MMP lesions in the placenta and discuss their associations with pregnancy complications. The review will then delve into the diagnostic and interpretive difficulties of these lesions. Finally, recent research findings that may aid in the development of better diagnostic tools will be briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat.

  4. Role of Arrival Time Difference Between Lesions and Lung Tissue on Contrast-Enhanced Sonography in the Differential Diagnosis of Subpleural Pulmonary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing; Yang, Wei; Wang, Song; Guan, Rui-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Wei; Yan, Kun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of the arrival time difference between lesions and surrounding lung tissue on contrast-enhanced sonography of subpleural pulmonary lesions. A total of 110 patients with subpleural pulmonary lesions who underwent both conventional and contrast-enhanced sonography and had a definite diagnosis were enrolled. After contrast agent injection, the arrival times in the lesion, lung, and chest wall were recorded. The arrival time differences between various tissues were also calculated. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the lesion arrival time, the arrival time difference between the lesion and lung, and the arrival time difference between the chest wall and lesion (all P < .001) for benign and malignant lesions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal diagnostic criterion was the arrival time difference between the lesion and lung, and that the best cutoff point was 2.5 seconds (later arrival signified malignancy). This new diagnostic criterion showed superior diagnostic accuracy (97.1%) compared to conventional diagnostic criteria. The individualized diagnostic method based on an arrival time comparison using contrast-enhanced sonography had high diagnostic accuracy (97.1%) with good feasibility and could provide useful diagnostic information for subpleural pulmonary lesions.

  5. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  6. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  7. Taxonomy, morphology and phylogenetics of coffee-associated root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: Although lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) can reduce coffee yield worldwide, methods for their identification are often difficult to implement. This review summarizes the diagnostic morphological features for distinguishing the eight previously described lesion nematode sp...

  8. Drug-eluting technologies in femoral artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Deloose, K; Lauwers, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Bosiers, M

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of femoropopliteal lesions has known an important evolution in the last years. An important limitation of current endovascular therapy remains the occurrence of restenosis. In order to minimize restenosis rates, drug eluting technologies are evolving. The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) in coronary arteries shows beneficial results, leading to investigation of DES in femoropopliteal arteries. In this article, we give an overview of current available data on treatment with drug eluting technologies in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). This paper summarizes also the current available data of the use of drug-coated balloons (DCB) in the femoropopliteal tract. Currently, no data are available on the use of DCB in long lesions. A drug eluting bioresorbable scaffold seems to be very promising in coronary arteries. The transfer to the peripheral area is nowadays ongoing. Which technique and device for which lesion and patient requires further investigation to build up a real evidence based SFA treatment strategy.

  9. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  10. [Benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Pickhard, A; Reiter, R

    2013-05-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are grouped in lesions arising from the epithelium like papillomas, lesions affecting the Reinke's space (nodules, polyps, cysts, Reinkes's edema as a form of chronic laryngitis) and lesions affecting the arytenoid (granulomas). A multifactorial genesis is assumed. Main symptoms are dysphonia and hyperfunctional vocal behavior that might also be a cause of these lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Adrenal imaging (Part 1): Imaging techniques and primary cortical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Dhamija, Ekta; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal glands can be affected by a variety of lesions. Adrenal lesions can either be primary, of adrenal origin, or secondary to other pathologies. Primary adrenal lesions can further be either of cortical or medullary origin. Functioning adrenal lesions can also give clues to the histologic diagnosis and direct workup. Over the years, various imaging techniques have been developed that have increased diagnostic accuracy and helped in better characterization of adrenal lesions non-invasively. In the first part of the two part series, we review adrenal imaging techniques and adrenal cortical tumors such as adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, adrenal hyperplasia and oncocytomas. PMID:25593820

  12. Is the morphology and activity of the occlusal carious lesion related to the lesion progression stage?

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Vargas, Daniel Otero Amaral; Santos, Thais Maria Pires; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between degree of dentin demineralization with both lesion activity and morphology of the occlusal carious cavity. Occlusal sites (n=138) were identified by visual examination (Nyvad's scores 0-6) in 67 extracted teeth which were scanned in a high energy micro-CT. After 3D reconstruction, each stack was resliced in the mesio-distal direction and tooth mineral density (MD) was measured along a path from enamel to the deepest part of dentin in the slice showing the most severe carious involvement. Each site was classified in "open" or "closed" (if cavitated) depending on the morphology of the surrounding enamel walls as measured using micro-CT and as active or inactive in enamel or dentin by a clinical scoring system. Lesions showing dentin cavitation presented higher demineralization degree compared to non-cavitated, or enamel cavitated lesions. Inactive lesions presented lower demineralization degree compared to active lesions, although with a low effect size. According to the morphological aspect of the carious cavity, open enamel lesions showed lower dentin demineralization degree than closed lesion environments. Active lesions showed higher dentin demineralization degree than inactive ones, while lesions showing closed cavitation resulted in higher dentin demineralization degree only for enamel lesions. Including those parameters in treatment decisions may help to improve prognosis and increase effectiveness of the caries diagnostic systems in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  14. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection with the ...

  15. Fractal analysis of tumoral lesions in brain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Landrove, Miguel; Pereira, Demian; Caldeira, María E; Itriago, Salvador; Juliac, María

    2007-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a method for supervised characterization and classification of tumoral lesions in brain, based on the analysis of irregularities at the lesion contour on T2-weighted MR images. After the choice of a specific image, a segmentation procedure with a threshold selected from the histogram of intensity levels is applied to isolate the lesion, the contour is detected through the application of a gradient operator followed by a conversion to a "time series" using a chain code procedure. The correlation dimension is calculated and analyzed to discriminate between normal or malignant structures. The results found showed that it is possible to detect a differentiation between benign (cysts) and malignant (gliomas) lesions suggesting the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool.

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  18. Le syndrome des brides amniotiques et ses difficultés diagnostiques et de prise en charge au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Badiel, Roger; Kouéta, Fla; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome des brides amniotiques est une embryo-foetopathie rare, d’étiopathogénie encore inconnue, caractérisé par des malformations crânio-faciales, thoraco-abdominales, des membres et des extrémités. Afin de discuter des difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques du syndrome des brides amniotiques, nous rapportons cinq cas de ce syndrome. Ces cas représentaient autant de phénotypes de la maladie mais avec quelques singularités. Les deux premiers étaient des cas de maladie des brides amniotiques caractérisés l'un par une amputation d'un membre inférieur associée à des lésions cutanées et à une surdité, l'autre par des strictions avec amputation des doigts associées à une fente labio-palatine, une cataracte congénitale et un strabisme. Les trois autres cas correspondaient à des formes létales du Limb Body Wall Complex dont deux avec attache placento-crânienne et un avec attache placento-abdominale. Le renforcement du diagnostic anténatal, l'instauration du conseil génétique et la mise en place d'un registre national des malformations devraient permettre d'améliorer la prise en charge des cas du syndrome des brides amniotiques. PMID:26113939

  19. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation.

  20. Comparison of Full Lesion Coverage versus Spot Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation for Coronary Artery Stenoses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seunghwan; Yun, Kyeong Ho; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of the spot drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation strategy, which is used to minimize implanted stent length and the number of stents, versus full lesion coverage for treatment of coronary artery stenoses. Materials and Methods We evaluated 1-year clinical outcomes of 1619 patients with stent implantation for a single coronary lesion. They were divided into two groups: those treated by full lesion coverage (n=1200) and those treated with the spot stenting strategy (n=419). The combined occurrence of 1-year target vessel failure (TVF), including cardiac death, target-vessel related myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization was evaluated. Results The spot DES implantation group had a shorter stent length (23.14±9.70 mm vs. 25.44±13.24 mm, respectively; p<0.001) and a fewer number of stents (1.09±0.30 vs. 1.16±0.41, respectively; p<0.001), even though the average lesion length was similar to the full lesion coverage group (21.36±10.30 mm vs. 20.58±10.97 mm, respectively; p=0.206). Spot DES implantation was superior to full DES coverage with respect to 1-year TVF (1.4% vs. 3.3%, p=0.044). Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that the risk for 1-year TVF was almost 60% lower among patients who received spot DESs compared to those who received full DES coverage after adjustment for other risk factors (HR=0.40, 95% confidence interval=0.17-0.98; p=0.046). Conclusion Minimizing stent length and the number of stents with overlapping by spot DES implantation may result in reduced rates of 1-year TVF, compared with full DES coverage. PMID:24719123

  1. Quantification des besoins en intrants antipaludiques: contribution à l'actualisation des hypothèses pour la quantification des intrants de prise en charge des cas de paludisme grave en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Likwela, Joris Losimba; Otokoye, John Otshudiema

    2015-01-01

    Les formes graves de paludisme à Plasmodium falciparum sont une cause majeure de décès des enfants de moins de 5 ans en Afrique Sub-saharienne. Un traitement rapide dépend de la disponibilité de médicaments appropriés au niveau des points de prestation de service. La fréquence des ruptures de stock des commodités antipaludiques, en particuliers celles utilisées pour le paludisme grave, avait nécessité une mise à jour des hypothèses de quantification. Les données issues de la collecte de routine du PNLP de 2007 à 2012 ont été comparées à celles rapportés par d'autres pays africains et utilisées pour orienter les discussions au cours d'un atelier organisé par le PNLP et ses partenaires techniques et financiers afin de dégager un consensus national. La proportion des cas de paludisme rapportés comme grave en RDC est resté autour d'une médiane de 7% avec un domaine de variation de 6 à 9%. Hormis la proportion rapportée au Kenya (2%), les pays africains ont rapporté une proportion de cas grave variant entre 5 et 7%. Il apparaît que la proportion de 1% précédemment utilisée pour la quantification en RDC a été sous-estimée dans le contexte de la gestion des cas graves sur terrain. Un consensus s'est dégagé autour de la proportion de 5% étant entendu que des efforts de renforcement des capacités seraient déployés afin d'améliorer le diagnostic au niveau des points de prestation des services. PMID:26213595

  2. Cartographie des disques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Two techniques are frequently used to produce images of the accretion disc in an eclipsing binary: eclipse mapping and Doppler tomography. From the light curve, one can deduce the radial distribution of the effective temperature, assuming axial symmetry. On the other hand, from the variation of the line profile one can reconstruct an image in the velocity space, which can be converted into a real image if one knows the kinematics of the system. Deux techniques sont couramment utilisées pour obtenir des images des disques dans les systèmes binaires à éclipses. En utilisant la courbe de lumière, on peut remonter à la distribution radiale de la brillance de surface, en supposant que celle-ci a une symètrie axiale. D'autre part, les profils de raies renseignent sur la distribution de vitesse des régions émissives leur variation temporelle permet de réaliser une image dans l'espace des vitesses, que l'on peut ensuite transformer en carte dans l'espace (x,y) si on connaît la cinématique du système.

  3. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  4. Proliferative Lesions of Parathyroid Glands: An Update for Practicing Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Shaheera; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Pathological lesions of parathyroid glands encompass a wide range of lesions ranging from developmental anomalies to inflammatory disorders to neoplastic processes. Proliferative lesions of parathyroid glands represent the commonest causes of hyperparathyroidism in clinical practice. However, the parathyroid specimens represent only a tiny fraction of the workload received in a non-specialist histopathology laboratory. As a result, the familiarity of the pathologists with the spectrum of parathyroid lesions is generally limited. An accurate diagnosis of the parathyroid lesions is challenging and a daunting task for both the clinicians and the pathologists. The traditional morphological approaches have limitations. Ancillary techniques of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology are being increasingly employed to resolve the diagnostic dilemmas. This review briefly describes the proliferative pathological lesions affecting the parathyroid glands and provides some useful tips on accurately diagnosing these lesions.

  5. Ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Christo Naveen; Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Sivaraj, S.; Ali, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the diagnostic capability of real-time ultrasound imaging, together with the application of color power Doppler in the identification and differential diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with periapical lesions of pulpal origin, diagnosed with clinical and conventional radiographic examination, were examined further using ultrasonography. The results from the biopsies of the lesions were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The differential diagnosis between periapical granulomas and cystic lesions, which were based on the ultrasonographic findings, were confirmed by the results of the histopathologic examination in 13 (86.7%) of 15 cases, one being granuloma and 14 being cystic lesion. Interpretation and Conclusion: Ultrasound real-time imaging is a technique that may help make a differential diagnosis between cysts and granulomas by revealing the nature of the content of a bony lesion. This technique may have further applications in the study of other lesions of the jaws. PMID:23066292

  6. Ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Prince, Christo Naveen; Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Sivaraj, S; Ali, I M

    2012-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic capability of real-time ultrasound imaging, together with the application of color power Doppler in the identification and differential diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesions of pulpal origin, diagnosed with clinical and conventional radiographic examination, were examined further using ultrasonography. The results from the biopsies of the lesions were compared and statistically analyzed. The differential diagnosis between periapical granulomas and cystic lesions, which were based on the ultrasonographic findings, were confirmed by the results of the histopathologic examination in 13 (86.7%) of 15 cases, one being granuloma and 14 being cystic lesion. Ultrasound real-time imaging is a technique that may help make a differential diagnosis between cysts and granulomas by revealing the nature of the content of a bony lesion. This technique may have further applications in the study of other lesions of the jaws.

  7. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Ross; Welk, Aaron B; Battaglia, Patrick J; Scali, Frank; Nunez, Mero; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the use of diagnostic ultrasound to diagnose a Stener lesion in a patient who presented for conservative care of thumb pain following a fall on an outstretched hand. Conventional radiographic images demonstrated an avulsion fracture at the ulnar aspect of the base of the first proximal phalanx. Diagnostic ultrasound revealed a torn ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb that was displaced proximal to the adductor aponeurosis, consistent with a Stener lesion. Dynamic imaging with ultrasound confirmed displacement of the fully torn ligament. Surgical repair followed the diagnosis. Diagnostic ultrasound in this case provided an accurate diagnosis obviating further imaging. This allowed an optimal outcome due to early intervention.

  8. Diagnostic et prise en charge du psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Whan B.; Jerome, Dana; Yeung, Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens en soins primaires un aperçu pratique et à jour du diagnostic et de la prise en charge du psoriasis. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans les bases de données de PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE et Cochrane pour trouver des méta-analyses, des études randomisées contrôlées, des revues systématiques et des études observationnelles pertinentes portant sur le diagnostic et la prise en charge du psoriasis. Message principal Le psoriasis est une maladie inflammatoire chronique et multisystémique qui affecte principalement la peau et les articulations. En plus des dimensions physiques de la maladie, le psoriasis a des répercussions émotionnelles et psychosociales considérables sur les patients, et nuit au fonctionnement social et aux relations interpersonnelles. En tant que maladie inflammatoire systémique, le psoriasis est associé à de multiples comorbidités, dont les maladies cardiovasculaires et les cancers. Le diagnostic est principalement d’ordre clinique et une biopsie de la peau est rarement nécessaire. Selon la sévérité de la maladie, un traitement approprié peut être amorcé. Pour les cas de légers à modérés, le traitement de première intention comporte des thérapies topiques, dont les corticostéroïdes, les analogues de la vitamine D3 et des produits combinés. Ces traitements topiques sont efficaces et peuvent être initiés et prescrits en toute sécurité par des médecins de soins primaires. Les patients dont les symptômes sont plus graves et réfractaires pourraient devoir être envoyés en consultation auprès d’un dermatologue pour une évaluation plus approfondie et une thérapie systémique. Conclusion De nombreux patients atteints de psoriasis consultent leur médecin de soins primaires pour une évaluation initiale et pour recevoir un traitement. La reconnaissance du psoriasis, de même que des comorbidités médicales et psychiatriques qui lui sont associ

  9. Diagnostic modalities.

    PubMed

    Elstob, Alison; Gonsalves, Michael; Patel, Uday

    2016-12-01

    The incidental detection of small renal masses on imaging undertaken to evaluate unrelated symptoms or conditions is an increasingly common occurrence. Accurate imaging characterisation is fundamental to determining optimum patient management. The goals of imaging small renal masses include determining whether a lesion is solid or cystic, if there are signs of biological aggressiveness and whether the lesion is likely benign or malignant. The current imaging practices and the evidence supporting the use of different imaging modalities for the characterisation of small renal masses are discussed. CT remains the primary imaging modality and is able to classify most masses into surgical or non-surgical lesions. MRI and contrast enhanced ultrasound are most often employed to problem solve in lesions deemed indeterminate on contrast enhanced CT or for patients in which CECT is contraindicated. Percutaneous biopsy should be considered in lesions that remain indeterminate after initial imaging investigations. Given the central role of imaging in the management of small renal masses, all multidisciplinary team members involved in renal cancer care should have an understanding of the performance of the different imaging modalities.

  10. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, O.R.; Rajshekhar, V.; White, A.C.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Nash, T.E.; Takayanagui, O.M.; Schantz, P.M.; Evans, C.A.W.; Flisser, A.; Correa, D.; Botero, D.; Allan, J.C.; Sart̀i, E.; Gonzalez, A.E.; Gilman, R.H.; García, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the CNS but its diagnosis remains difficult. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, most neuroimaging findings are not pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity and specificity. The authors provide diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis based on objective clinical, imaging, immunologic, and epidemiologic data. These include four categories of criteria stratified on the basis of their diagnostic strength, including the following: 1) absolute—histologic demonstration of the parasite from biopsy of a brain or spinal cord lesion, cystic lesions showing the scolex on CT or MRI, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by funduscopic examination; 2) major—lesions highly suggestive of neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after therapy with albendazole or praziquantel, and spontaneous resolution of small single enhancing lesions; 3) minor—lesions compatible with neurocysticercosis on neuroimaging studies, clinical manifestations suggestive of neurocysticercosis, positive CSF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the CNS; and 4) epidemiologic—evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in an area where cysticercosis is endemic, and history of frequent travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: 1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion; and 2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiologic criterion, and in those who

  11. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  12. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy? A laparoscope is a telescope designed for medical use. It is connected to ... just below the ribs. A laparoscope (a tiny telescope) connected to a special camera is inserted through ...

  13. Beamlet diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Theys, M.

    1994-05-06

    Beamlet is a high power laser currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as a proof of concept for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Beamlet is testing several areas of laser advancements, such as a 37cm Pockels cell, square amplifier, and propagation of a square beam. The diagnostics on beamlet tell the operators how much energy the beam has in different locations, the pulse shape, the energy distribution, and other important information regarding the beam. This information is being used to evaluate new amplifier designs, and extrapolate performance to the NIF laser. In my term at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory I have designed and built a diagnostic, calibrated instruments used on diagnostics, setup instruments, hooked up communication lines to the instruments, and setup computers to control specific diagnostics.

  14. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  15. Aetiology of abfraction lesions.

    PubMed

    Lyons, K

    2001-09-01

    The aetiology of abfraction lesions is complex. Most evidence indicates that physical loading forces are a major contributing factor, although they are unlikely to be entirely responsible. Intraoral chemical influences and toothbrush abrasion, combined with the dynamics of inter-occlusal activity such as chewing, swallowing, and parafunction, lead to stress corrosion and may contribute to abfraction lesions. The multifactorial aetiology that operates in the initiation and progression of these lesions has made investigation difficult. Various theories have been proposed and numerous surveys and studies conducted, but the primary causal factor has yet to be definitively determined. This review concludes that occlusal loading is the initiating factor in the development of abfraction lesions.

  16. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  17. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  18. Texture feature based liver lesion classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  19. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  20. The frequency and cancer risk associated with the atypical cytologic diagnostic category in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimens of solid pancreatic lesions: a meta-analysis and argument for a Bethesda System for Reporting Cytopathology of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawwad, Mohammad S; Alston, Evan; Eltoum, Isam A

    2013-11-01

    The atypical cytologic diagnostic category is ambiguous and presents a management problem for pathologists and clinicians. This meta-analysis reviewed the frequency and cancer risk associated with atypical diagnoses in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) specimens of solid pancreatic lesions. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the keywords "EUS-FNA" and "pancreas." Articles were screened focusing on studies of solid lesions. Studies with information regarding the frequency and outcomes of atypical diagnoses were included; the "suspicious" category was excluded from the analysis. The frequency of atypical diagnoses and the associated risk were calculated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. The authors assessed whether the following factors explained the heterogeneity of the studies: rapid on-site interpretation; type of reference standard; the study type, size, and site; and the frequency of inadequate, atypical, and positive categories. A total of 23 studies with complete data regarding atypical diagnoses were identified, 12 of which had complete data available regarding outcomes. The frequency of the atypical category ranged from 1% to 14% (mean, 5.3%; 95% confidence interval, 4.1%-6.9%). The risk of malignancy associated with an atypical diagnosis ranged from 25% to 100% (mean, 58%; 95% confidence interval, 47%-69%). There was significant heterogeneity noted among the studies (I-squared, 62%; P = .0004). The frequency of the atypical category and its associated risk were found to be correlated only with the frequency of the specimens being positive for malignancy. The rate of atypical diagnoses of the pancreas is similar to that of the thyroid but the risk of malignancy is higher. Significant heterogeneity exists among the studies reporting atypical diagnoses. There is a need for standardization of the reporting and management of atypical diagnoses in EUS-FNA specimens from the pancreas. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  1. [MR neurography for lesion localization in the peripheral nervous system. Why, when and how?].

    PubMed

    Pham, M

    2014-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are frequent disorders which are often challenging in the diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic difficulties first and foremost arise with regard to lesion localization and the precise definition of spatial lesion patterns. Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography as a diagnostic imaging tool directly visualizes nerve lesions thereby facilitating lesion localization not only in traumatic nerve lesions but also in the large and heterogeneous group of intrinsic, spontaneously occurring non-focal neuropathies. The major diagnostic sign for lesion detection and localization is the T2 lesion which can be evaluated with high spatial resolution at the anatomical level of nerve fascicles. Lesion detection at the fascicular level by MR neurography advances the diagnostic work-up in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), because fascicular and partial nerve lesions of spontaneously occurring intrinsic neuropathies and polyneuropathies present a classical diagnostic pitfall for traditional localization by means of physical findings and electrophysiology. With the appropriate techniques and strategies MR neurography can now cover large anatomical areas of the PNS in a single examination session.

  2. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  3. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  4. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  5. Diagnostic thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T C

    1999-11-01

    Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that provides access to the thoracic cavity for evaluation of intrathoracic pathology without surgical intervention. Intrathoracic structures can be visualized better with thoracoscopy than with an open thoracotomy. Indications for thoracoscopy include pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, intrathoracic masses, pneumothorax, primary pulmonary disease, and trauma. Thoracoscopy is technically similar to laparoscopy, using the same basic instrumentation and principles, but is easier to perform than laparoscopy. Patient preparation, anesthesia, and patient positioning are essentially the same for thoracoscopy as for a standard open thoracotomy. Thoracoscopy provides minimally invasive access to important diagnostic information with a very low incidence of complications.

  6. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  7. La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

  8. Initial experience with the novel BioMime 60mm-long sirolimus-eluting tapered stent system in long coronary lesions.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ernesto; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Miñana, Gema; García-Blas, Sergio; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Moyano, Patricia; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-09-05

    To describe our initial experience with the novel BioMime™ 60mm-long sirolimus-eluting tapered coronary stent system in patients with long coronary lesions. We included 50 consecutive patients in whom a 60mm-long drug- eluting stent (DES) implantation was attempted due to the presence of coronary lesions longer than 48mm. The 60mm-long DES was successfully implanted in 46 (92%) patients. In 4 patients stent deployment failed due to the impossibility of crossing completely the lesions. During a median follow-up of 275 days [IQR (166-386)], no clinical adverse events (death, myocardial infarction or target lesion revascularization) were observed. The use of the novel BioMime™ 60mm-long DES for the treatment of long coronary lesions exhibits promising results in a relatively short-intermediate follow-up.

  9. Diagnostic riddles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Greiner, E.C.

    1993-01-01

    A bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillata) was captured in a mist net on the island of Saipan and transported to the island of Guam for an experimental study. Beginning on day three, it was immunosuppressed by intramuscular injections of dexamethasone. It was unexpectedly found dead on day 20, at which time it had lost 0.9 g (12.9% of initial body weight). Gross Pathology: Despite the weight loss, the white-eye was in good flesh, with abundant subcutaneous and visceral fat. The spleen was 3 x 11 mm, about 5 times normal size. The striatum of the forebrain was congested. There were no other lesions. Histopathology: There were microscopic abnormalities in skeletal muscle, brain, and gizzard (Figs. 1 and 2; Figure 2 is from a different white-eye which had virtually identical gizzard lesions).

  10. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  11. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  12. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-09-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations.

  13. Incidental vertebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P

    2011-12-01

    Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.

  14. Bilateral lacrimal caruncle lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Yuta; Takai, Yoshiko; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a lesion on the medial lacrimal canthus of both eyes. He had a history of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, i.e., pANCA-positive interstitial pneumonia. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging excluded space occupying lesions, and laboratory testing excluded thyroid-related diseases. The masses were excised, and histopathological examinations showed sebaceous gland hyperplasia and inflammatory changes around the gland. In addition, the specimen from the left eye showed a retention cyst possibly caused by an infection. It was also possible that the use of steroid was involved in the development of the lesions. A relationship between the ANCA and the lesions was not completely eliminated. PMID:28303065

  15. Talar Dome Lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the talus. During this period of immobilization, nonweightbearing range-of-motion exercises may be recommended. Oral medications. Nonsteroidal anti- ... in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy. Range-of-motion and strengthening exercises are beneficial once the lesion ...

  16. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  17. La participation des enfants et des adolescents à la boxe

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Laura K; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Des milliers de garçons et de filles de moins de 19 ans font de la boxe en Amérique du Nord. Même si la boxe comporte des avantages pour ceux qui y participent, y compris l’exercice, l’autodiscipline et la confiance en soi, le sport lui-même favorise et récompense des coups délibérés à la tête et au visage. Les personnes qui font de la boxe risquent de subir des blessures à la tête, au visage et au cou, y compris des traumatismes neurologiques chroniques et même fatals. Les commotions cérébrales sont l’une des principales blessures causées par la boxe. En raison du risque de blessures crâniennes et faciales, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie et l’American Academy of Pediatrics s’opposent vigoureusement à la boxe comme activité sportive pour les enfants et les adolescents. Ces organismes recommandent que les médecins s’élèvent contre la boxe auprès des jeunes et les encouragent à participer à d’autres activités dans lesquelles les coups intentionnels à la tête ne constituent pas un élément essentiel du sport.

  18. Efficacy of drug-eluting stents for treating in-stent restenosis of drug-eluting stents (from the Korean DES ISR multicenter registry study [KISS]).

    PubMed

    Ko, Young-Guk; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jeon, Dong Woon; Yang, Joo-Young; Ahn, Young Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yu, Cheol Woong; Yun, Kyeong-Ho; Lim, Do-Sun; Jang, Yangsoo

    2012-03-01

    There is currently no established standard treatment for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of DES versus balloon angioplasty (BA) for the treatment of DES ISR in a multicenter registry cohort. After matching propensity scores of 805 patients with DES ISR treated with either DES (n = 422) or BA (n = 383), 268 matched pairs were selected and analyzed for major adverse cardiac events, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularization, as the primary end point. Baseline clinical and lesion characteristics of the matched pairs were similar. Survival free of major adverse cardiac events at 2 years was higher with DES compared to BA (88.9% vs 78.7%, p <0.001), mainly because of higher TVR-free survival (92.4% vs 81.0%, p <0.001). Among various baseline variables, BA (hazard ratio 2.546, 95% confidence interval 1.412 to 4.593, p = 0.002) was the most important independent risk factor for recurrent target vessel revascularization, followed by acute coronary syndromes as the clinical presentation of DES ISR, and previous implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent. Survival free of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis did not differ between the 2 groups. Whereas there was no significant difference in survival free of target vessel revascularization between DES and BA for focal ISR lesions, DES was superior to BA in diffuse ISR lesions (94.3% vs 75.2% at 2 years, p <0.001). In conclusion, compared to BA, the implantation of DES was safe and more effective in the treatment of DES ISR.

  19. Unusual lesions that distend the knee joint: pictorial essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Luana T. Barros; de Albuquerque Filho, Eolo Santana; Batista, Laecio Leitão; de Moraes, Talita Peixoto; Pereira, Bruno Perez Guedes

    2016-01-01

    The high number of knee imaging exams at radiology clinics, together with the wide variety of knee disorders, calls for expanding the knowledge about the less common lesions seen in routine diagnostic practice. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate unusual lesions that distend the knee joint, selected by relevance and evaluated with multiple imaging modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature. PMID:27818547

  20. Diagnostic immunofluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, William B.; Reimer, Charles B.

    1973-01-01

    The standardization of diagnostic immunofluorescence is a complex problem because diagnostic results are greatly influenced by interacting factors, such as the equipment, materials, and techniques for expressing and recording fluorescence. Furthermore, the characteristics of immunofluorescence reagents depend on how they are manufactured and used. The adoption of stable reference preparations of such reagents appears to be the only practicable way of standardizing laboratory test results. Several professional and regulatory organizations are actively promoting this objective. Consensus evaluation may be the best method of introducing proposed standards. Basic and applied research must provide the information needed to improve reagents and tests. Material fluorescent standards are proving helpful in standardizing fluorescence emission, but the most promising development is the use of insolubilized antigens to provide standards for more relevant immunological-fluorescence comparisons. Several important direct and indirect diagnostic immunofluorescence tests and reagents currently used in microbiological, histological, and pathological examinations require standardization. The medical profession should insist that commercial reagents be adequately characterized and that manufacturers supply the data necessary for their safe and informed use. PMID:4594319

  1. Diagnostic imaging of lower urinary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Silke

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is routinely performed in small animals with lower urinary tract disease. Survey radiographs allow identification of radiopaque calculi, gas within the urinary tract, and lymph node or bone metastases. Cystography and urethrography remain useful in the evaluation of bladder or urethral rupture, abnormal communication with other organs, and lesions of the pelvic or penile urethra. Ultrasonography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of most disorders. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in evaluating the ureterovesical junction and intrapelvic lesions, monitoring the size of lesions, and evaluating lymph nodes and osseous structures for metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  3. Les Applications Therapeutiques Des Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetaud, J. M.; Mordon, S.; Bourez, J.; Mosquet, L.; Moschetto, Y.

    1984-03-01

    C'est de tres loin le mecanisme predominant dans les applications therapeutiques du laser. En concentrant le flux lumineux sur une surface redui-te, le laser chauffe localement les tissus qui se retractent (coagulation) pour etre elimines ensuite (detersion) ; si on chauffe plus intensement, les tissus peuvent etre volatilises. La coagulation est utilisee soit pour detruire de petits phenomenes tumoraux qui seront elimines lors du processus de detersion, soit pour arreter une hemorragie (hemo-stase) ; dans ce cas la retraction thermique des tissus va provoquer la fermeture de la lumiere des vaisseaux qui seront secondairement obliteres par des caillots formes sur place (thrombose). Par volatilisation it est possible de detruire des phenomenes tumoraux plus importants que ceux at-teints lors d'une simple coagulation. Si la zone volatilisee est tres etroite (de 0,1 a 1 mm) on obtient un effet de coupe avec une excellente hemostase au niveau des berges. Certes ces deux processus - coagulation et volatilisation - peuvent etre obtenus par d'autres procedes : echauffement par contact (sonde thermique) ou effet Joule (courant electrique haute frequence). Le laser a l'avantage de ne necessiter aucun contact mecanique entre le vecteur d'energie et les tissus ; on peut alors predire correctement la repartition d'energie au niveau des tissus et les effets sont tres repro-ductibles. Par ailleurs, l'absorption tissulaire variant considerablement avec la longueur d'onde on peut choisir la source laser en fonction des effets desires.

  4. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  5. Évaluation échographique des complications au premier trimestre de grossesse.

    PubMed

    Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-10-01

    RéSULTATS: SOURCES DE DONNéES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE et un examen de la bibliographie des articles recensés. Le Comité d'imagerie diagnostique de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada a passé en revue les données probantes recueillies. Les recommandations reposent sur les lignes directrices élaborées par le Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (tableau 1). AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: Les femmes qui présentent des saignements durant le premier trimestre peuvent recevoir un diagnostic incorrect d'avortement manqué. En outre, on risque de ne pas détecter une grossesse ectopique ou de les rassurer à tort sur la viabilité de l'embryon. L'amélioration de la détection des repères échographiques du développement embryonnaire normal et de la connaissance des facteurs de risque liés à l'échec de grossesse sur le plan échographique pourrait donner lieu à l'élaboration de stratégies de prise en charge mieux adaptées à chaque cas. Le diagnostic d'une grossesse ectopique suspectée repose souvent sur l'évaluation de marqueurs hormonaux et de caractéristiques échographiques. Par ailleurs, le diagnostic précoce de grossesse ectopique peut réduire la morbidité et la mortalité maternelles. RECOMMANDATIONS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infections fongiques des brûlé : revue

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, JF.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Les infections fongiques locales ou générales sont souvent d’une extrême gravité chez les brûlés. Les brûlés combinent de nombreux facteurs de risque à une immunodépression induite par la brûlure. Les infections de plaies sont le fait des genres Candida, Aspergillus et des agents de mucormycoses. Ces deux derniers cas sont à l’origine de lésions particulièrement sévères. Leur diagnostic repose sur la biopsie cutanée avec examens mycologique et anatomopathologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical, associé à une antibiothérapie adaptée. Les septicémies sont le fait de levures, essentiellement du genre Candida. Le diagnostic en est difficile dans le contexte des brûlés et repose souvent sur une forte suspicion clinique. Leur traitement repose sur les échinocandines et plus secondairement sur le fluconazole. PMID:26668558

  7. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T.; Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K.

    1994-02-01

    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  8. Gross lesions of alimentary disease in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Njaa, Bradley L; Panciera, Roger J; Clark, Edward G; Lamm, Catherine G

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the gross necropsy examination of the gastrointestinal tract is to recognize the presence of lesions, thus requiring a basic understanding of its normal appearance and anatomy. This article highlights gross changes to the gastrointestinal tract of adult cattle that help place the disease processes into broad categories. Although few gross lesions reach the zenith of pathognomonic, there are numerous lesions that, when considered in aggregate with history (eg, number of animals affected, environment, duration of signs, time of onset relative to management changes, previous management) and clinical signs, can help narrow the spectrum of causes, provide a basis for a strong presumptive diagnosis, and focus diagnostic test selection.

  9. Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis and Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Meredith C; Cameron, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions are rare consequences of central nervous system (CNS) idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions pose a diagnostic challenge because they can mimic tumors and abscesses and because they can be caused by a heterogeneous range of disorders. This article reviews the recent literature on the clinical presentation; radiographic features; prognosis; and management of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and the rare variants of multiple sclerosis including Schilder's disease, Marburg acute multiple sclerosis, and Balo's concentric sclerosis.

  10. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  11. Diagnostic compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.

    1981-07-28

    The invention discloses diagnostic compositions for use in obtaining images of a patient's lungs. The basic components of the composition of the invention are sodium pertechnetate which is radioactive and ethanol. This composition may be combusted and the resulting products cooled or alternatively the composition may be inserted into a pressure vessel with an aerosol. In both cases a gas like mixture results. A particular advantage is that a patient is able to breath the mixture of the invention in a normal way and does not need to undergo any training in inhalation.

  12. Pulmonary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Donn, Steven M; Sinha, Sunil K

    2017-08-01

    Term infants with respiratory distress may have extremely varied etiologies of their illnesses. These range from anatomical malformations to infectious or inflammatory conditions to genetic, metabolic, or neurological abnormalities. This article reviews the present array of diagnostic studies available to the clinician, including the physical examination, imaging (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and nuclear scanning techniques), lung mechanics and function testing, evaluation of gas exchange (blood gases, pulse oximetry, transcutaneous monitoring, and end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements), and anatomical studies (bronchoscopy and lung biopsy). These tests and procedures are reviewed and a stepwise approach recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions. PMID:27744661

  14. Proposed Clinico-Pathological Classification for Oral Exophytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Doryck; Laxminarayana, Kumaraswamy Kikeri

    2015-01-01

    Oral exophytic lesions often have proven to be diagnostically challenging due to the varied clinical presentation. The exophytic growth of the oral lesions is due to the type of pathology and histological changes. Careful clinical interpretation with a better histological understanding of exophytic lesions may ease the diagnosis from the differential diagnosis panel. The purpose of proposing classification system is to categorize the exophytic lesions of interest under specific clinical and/or histological explanation; and this will eventually lead to better understanding of the pathological condition that is described. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such classification system available for oral exophytic lesions and hence proposal of classification system is attempted in this study. Further, proposing a new classification system is not just to influence the academic contribution, but also to assist at greatest extent for diagnosis during clinical practice. PMID:26501030

  15. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  16. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  17. Differential diagnosis of integumentary and mucous membrane lesions. Neoplasia or inflammation?

    PubMed

    Cooley, A J

    1990-09-01

    Lesions occurring on the skin and mucous membranes of domestic animals often present both diagnostic challenges and diagnostic confusion. One of the most common causes of confusion is inflammatory lesions that can be mistaken for neoplasia and vice versa. This confusion may emanate from intrinsic biologic variability, histopathologic interpretation, secondary alterations subsequent to inflammation or necrosis, or sampling errors and omission of pertinent information by the clinician. Some diagnostic problems associated with diagnoses of granulomatous inflammation, mesenchymal neoplasia, mast cell tumors, and squamous cell carcinomas are presented, and selected specific differential diagnoses associated with diagnostic problems are discussed.

  18. Cancer du sein au Maroc: profil phénotypique des tumeurs

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Ahmadaye Ibrahim; Bendahhou, Karima; Mestaghanmi, Houriya; Saile, Rachid; Benider, Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le plus fréquent chez la femme et figure parmi les principales causes de mortalité liées au cancer. La curabilité de ce type tumoral est en augmentation, grâce aux programmes de dépistage et aux progrès thérapeutiques, qui ont certes augmenté la survie des patients. Mais des défis restent à relever en rapport avec l’instabilité phénotypique des cellules cancéreuses. L’objectif de ce travail est d’étudier le profil phénotypique du cancer du sein chez les patients pris en charge au Centre Mohammed VI pour le traitement des Cancers, durant les années 2013-2014. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale sur deux années, incluant les cas du cancer du sein pris en charge au Centre. Le recueil des données était fait à partir des dossiers des patients et analysés par le logiciel Epi Info. 1277 patients ont été pris en charge au sein de notre centre. 99,5% des cas de sexe féminin, l’âge moyen était 50,20 ± 11,34 ans. Le type histologique le plus fréquent était le carcinome canalaire infiltrant (80,7% des cas). Le stade diagnostic était précoce (56,9%). Le phénotype moléculaire le plus fréquent était le luminal A (41,4% des cas). Le luminal B, le HER2 et les triples négatifs étaient dans respectivement 10,4%, 6,3%, 11,2% des cas. L’étude du phénotype tumoral des patients atteints du cancer du sein permet l’orientation du clinicien dans le choix du traitement, et des décideurs dans la planification de programmes de lutte contre cette pathologie. PMID:28292037

  19. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  20. Moyamoya disease: diagnostic accuracy of MRI.

    PubMed

    Yamada, I; Suzuki, S; Matsushima, Y

    1995-07-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in moyamoya disease. We studied 30 patients with this disease, comparing MRI and angiographic findings. The diagnostic value of MRI was evaluated for occlusive lesions, collateral vessels, and parenchymal lesions. In all patients bilateral occlusion or stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and proximal anterior and middle cerebral arteries was clearly shown by MRI, and staging of the extent of occlusion agreed with angiographic staging in 44 (73%) of 60 arteries. MRI, particularly coronal images, clearly showed basal cerebral moyamoya vessels in 54 hemispheres, and 45 of a total of 71 large leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels were identified. MRI also showed parenchymal lesions in 48 (80%) hemispheres, and the extent of occlusion in the anterior and posterior circulations respectively correlated with white matter and cortical and/or subcortical infarcts.

  1. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  2. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions*

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F.; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25741090

  3. Lesion border detection in dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V

    2009-03-01

    Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in sets of images with a variety of diagnoses.

  4. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, M. Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Stoecker, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in sets of images with a variety of diagnoses. PMID:19121917

  5. [Differential diagnosis of ulcerated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    Llorens, P; Atlschiller, H; Pisano, R; Moya, P

    1986-01-01

    The semiological characteristics of the ulcerated gastric lesions, benign and malignant, are on study. Its frequency and location is analysed in 32,829 subjects of 40 or more years of age, apparently in good health, finding gastric ulcers in 2.98% been unique in 2.3% and multiple in 0.68%. A symptomatic group of 8,765 people of 40 or more years, showed gastric ulcer in 7.11% been unique in 5.18% and multiple in 1.93%. It is also reported the frequency of gastric cancer in both studied groups, which leads to permanently propose the differential diagnostic with benign lesions, underlying by its frequency those of ulcerated type. The value of the gastric biopsy in differential diagnosis represents finally an aid of major importance because its high yield.

  6. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    PubMed

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  7. Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsies After Computer-Aided Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising over the past century. With 37% of patients presenting to their primary care physician with at least 1 skin problem, primary care physicians and other nondermatologist practitioners have substantial opportunity to make an impact at the forefront of the disease process. New diagnostic aids have been developed to augment physician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). To determine the effects of computer-aided multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) on dermatologists' and nondermatologist clinicians' decisions to biopsy suspicious PSLs after clinical and dermatoscopic evaluation. Participants were shown 6 images of PSLs. For each PSL, participants were asked 3 times if they would biopsy the lesion: first after reviewing a clinical image of the PSL, again after reviewing a high-resolution dermatoscopic image, and again after reviewing MSDSLA probability findings. An answer was right if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy. An answer was wrong if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was selected for biopsy. Clinicians' decisions to biopsy were evaluated using χ² analysis for proportions. Data were analyzed from a total of 212 participants, 177 of whom were dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity of clinical image review was 63%; dermatoscopic image review, 5%; and MSDSLA, 83%. Specificity of clinical image review was 59%; dermatoscopic image review, 40%; and MSDSLA, 76%. Biopsy decision accuracy was 61% after review of clinical images, 52% after review of dermatoscopic images, and 80% after review of MSDSLA findings. The number of lesions participants indicated that they would biopsy increased significantly, from 52% after reviewing clinical images to 63% after reviewing dermatoscopic images (P<.001). However, the overall number of specimens that participants indicated they would biopsy did

  8. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  9. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  10. Distinction of seropositive NMO spectrum disorder and MS brain lesion distribution

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Rita; Jenkinson, Mark; Küker, Wilhelm; Luppe, Sebastian; Leite, Maria Isabel; Giorgio, Antonio; De Stefano, Nicola; Robertson, Neil; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Evangelou, Nikos; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can present similarly to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Using a quantitative lesion mapping approach, this research aimed to identify differences in MRI brain lesion distribution between aquaporin-4 antibody–positive NMOSD and RRMS, and to test their diagnostic potential. Methods: Clinical brain MRI sequences for 44 patients with aquaporin-4 antibody–positive NMOSD and 50 patients with RRMS were examined for the distribution and morphology of brain lesions. T2 lesion maps were created for each subject allowing the quantitative comparison of the 2 conditions with lesion probability and voxel-wise analysis. Results: Sixty-three percent of patients with NMOSD had brain lesions and of these 27% were diagnostic of multiple sclerosis. Patients with RRMS were significantly more likely to have lesions adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle than patients with NMOSD. Direct comparison of the probability distributions and the morphologic attributes of the lesions in each group identified criteria of “at least 1 lesion adjacent to the body of the lateral ventricle and in the inferior temporal lobe; or the presence of a subcortical U-fiber lesion; or a Dawson's finger-type lesion,” which could distinguish patients with multiple sclerosis from those with NMOSD with 92% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 98% positive predictive value, and 86% negative predictive value. Conclusion: Careful inspection of the distribution and morphology of MRI brain lesions can distinguish RRMS and NMOSD. PMID:23486868

  11. [Current perspectives on endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic periapical lesions].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    The author study in this article histopathological aspects of periapical lesions, intra-granulomatous epithelial proliferation phenomenon as pathogenic mechanism of microscopic cystic cavities formation, diagnostic problems of them all, as well as the most actual therapeutic perspectives.

  12. The significance of reflectance confocal microscopy in the assessment of solitary pink skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Braga, Juliana Casagrande Tavoloni; Scope, Alon; Klaz, Itay; Mecca, Patricia; González, Salvador; Rabinovitz, Harold; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2009-08-01

    Solitary pink lesions often manifest nondescript clinical and dermatoscopic primary morphologic features. The differential diagnosis for pink lesions tends, therefore, to be broad, ranging from inflammatory processes to malignancy. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help in the evaluation of pink lesions. We sought to demonstrate the use of RCM as an adjunct to the bedside diagnosis of pink lesions. We describe a series of patients with clinically and dermatoscopically equivocal pink lesions for which RCM examination allowed for a rapid and accurate diagnosis. All lesions were excised for histopathologic evaluation. Integrating the findings in the case series with a literature review, we present RCM diagnostic criteria for pink lesions. Lesions included basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma, and inflamed seborrheic keratosis. RCM shows distinctive findings for each diagnostic entity when stratified by anatomic level into suprabasal epidermis, dermoepidermal junction, and papillary dermis. In the cases presented RCM allowed for a rapid and accurate noninvasive diagnosis. The study is descriptive and does not test accuracy of RCM criteria in a prospective series of pink lesions. RCM may add useful diagnostic features to the clinical evaluation of solitary pink lesions.

  13. Glaucoma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Geimer, Sabina Andersson

    2013-02-01

    This thesis addresses several aspects of glaucoma diagnostics from both a clinical and a screening perspective. New instruments for diagnosing glaucoma have been developed over the past years, but little information is available regarding their performance as screening methods and their usefulness in ordinary clinical practice. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH UNDERLYING THIS THESIS:  The objectives of this research were as follows: to compare the accuracy of results of analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) achieved by computerized imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) and by subjective assessment performed by physicians with different degrees of experience of glaucoma (paper III); to evaluate the effect of a continuous medical education (CME) lecture on subjective assessment of the ONH for diagnosis of glaucoma (paper II); to investigate subjective assessment of perimetric test results by physicians with varying knowledge of glaucoma with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) and to compare the certainty of the classifications (paper IV); and to compare the diagnostic performance of time-domain Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of spectral-domain Cirrus OCT (paper I), frequency doubling technology (FDT) screening perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry with the GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) in a random population-based sample and in patients with glaucoma of varying disease severity.   In evaluation of the ONH, use of the HRT statistical tools, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) was compared with subjective assessment performed by 45 physicians. Optic nerve head images and photographs from 138 healthy and 97 glaucoma subjects were included. The sensitivity of MRA was higher (87-94%) than that of the average physician (62-82%), considerably greater than that of ophthalmologists with subspecialties other than glaucoma (53-77%) and non-significantly better than that of glaucoma

  14. Differential diagnosis of CT-hypodense cranial lesions with indium-111-oxine-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotti, C.; Aragno, M.G.; Medina, M.; Viglietti, A.L.; Oliveri, G.; Ettorre, F.; Barrale, S.; Camuzzini, G.

    1986-05-01

    Scintigraphy using indium-111-oxine-labeled white blood cells was used as a complementary diagnostic study in the differential diagnosis of 20 intracerebral cystic lesions for which computerized tomography scanning did not exclude abscess. To lower the rate of false-positive findings with scintiscanning, three criteria of positivity were tested in the 20 lesions. The most stringent criterion yielded 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 96% diagnostic accuracy. The clinical and surgical implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  16. Cytology of bone lesions by intraoperative sampling during fracture treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinias, Ioannis S; Rammou-Kinia, Rea

    2002-03-01

    Cytology was performed on 314 patients who were treated by surgery for hip joint fracture, to determine and evaluate the role, accuracy, and perspective of intraoperative bone sampling. Specimens were collected from bone lesions during surgery by imprints or driller washing in normal saline. The results were compared with those of subsequent biopsies or clinical follow-up. All 13 neoplastic cases (malignant or benign) were identified by cytology. An accuracy rate of 69.2% was achieved by this method when the type and origin of the neoplasms were to be conclusive. There were no false-positive diagnoses, and all benign conditions showed negative results on cytology (specificity and sensitivity of 100%). Cytology can play a valuable role in the diagnosis of bone lesions. The morphologic diagnostic criteria allow for a high level of diagnostic accuracy of cytologic assessments in most cases of bone lesions, no matter the sampling technique.

  17. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography of solid pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Ang, Tiing Leong; Seo, Dong Wan; Imazu, Hiroo

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography is the best modality for pancreatic lesion evaluation as its superior spatial resolution allows small lesions to be identified and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology performed under ultrasound-guidance. Despite this, differentiating benign from malignant lesions remains a challenge as conventional ultrasound imaging is unable to differentiate lesions accurately and tissue yield is poorly diagnostic or limited in patients with the chronic inflammation. Contrast-harmonic technology uses a wide-band transducer capable of inducing sufficient acoustic energy to create harmonic microbubble oscillations of the newer second-generation ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). These microbubbles are more stable, remaining within the intravascular component longer and emit significantly more harmonic content than surrounding tissue, thus allowing pancreatic parenchymal differentiation and microvascular architecture visualization. The use of UCAs is generally safe, but should be especially avoided in patients with unstable ischemic heart disease. During CH endosonography, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is commonly seen as an inhomogenous hypoenhancing lesion, focal pancreatitis as a hypo- or iso-enhancing lesion and neuroendocrine tumor as a hyperenhancing lesion. The presence of hyperenhancement is a strong predictor of non-adenocarcinoma etiology. Furthermore, in patients with the chronic pancreatitis or biliary stents that may obscure pancreatic inspection, the addition of contrast-harmonic endosonography to guide FNA cytology improves its diagnostic yield and accuracy. Quantitative analysis of perfusion through the time intensity curve is promising as an objective and accurate method to differentiate pancreatic lesions. Furthermore, studies are required to fully determine the role of contrast harmonic endosonography in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions.

  18. Giant intraosseous cyst-like lesions in rheumatoid arthritis report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Anne; Carbillet, Jean-Pierre; Onimus, Michel; Stevenel, Françoise; Toussirot, Eric; Wendling, Daniel

    2003-02-01

    The term "intraosseous synovial cyst" is used to designate both the epiphyseal cyst-like lesions seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and mucoid cysts, which occur in a different setting. We report the case of a patient in whom a 4-cm cyst-like lesion developed in the left tibia 18 years after onset of RA and 6 years after osmic acid synovectomy of the left knee. Positive contrast arthrography and magnetic resonance imaging visualized a communication between the lesion and the joint space. Preexisting bone and joint lesions and increased intraarticular pressure play a major role in the genesis of cyst-like lesions in RA. In our patient, the osmic acid synovectomy may have contributed to the development of the lesion. "Synovial cyst" is a misnomer for these giant lesions, which are geodes rather than cysts. Despite their low incidence, these lesions deserve attention because they raise diagnostic and therapeutic problems.

  19. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    PubMed

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  20. Tumorous lesions of the hand.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Kilgore, E; Newmeyer, W

    1985-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of 543 tumorous lesions of the hand seen in a busy office practice for a 5-year period from April 1976 to April 1981. The lesions were grouped as benign lesions, of either the soft tissue or skeletal type, or as malignant lesions. The overall chance that a hand tumor was malignant was 2% (11 of 543). There was significant association of palmar radial ganglion and carpal tunnel syndrome (15%). Ganglions recur more often after aspiration than after surgery. Certain lesions, particularly a mucous cyst, have a high postoperative complication rate. A few of these unique lesions are described.

  1. A teledermatological approach to enhance diagnostic accuracy in dermatohistopathology.

    PubMed

    Schiener, R; Pillekamp, H; Weber, L; Hartmann, K; Peter, R U

    2003-01-01

    We determined whether digital photographs of skin lesions could enhance diagnostic accuracy in dermatohistological evaluations. Two dermatohistopathologists examined 375 unsorted consecutive cases. On a standardized questionnaire they recorded whether the final diagnostic interpretation would be improved by the availability of digital images of the skin lesions. In 101 cases (27%) they said that digital photographs would be helpful. Subsequently, 30 histological analyses were performed with and without digital photographs of the skin lesions. Presentation of digital photographs reduced the number of differential diagnoses significantly, from a median of 3 to 2. Ratings of ability to make a single definitive diagnosis increased significantly with the presentation of digital photographs. Enhancement of information given by the digital images was scored a median of 6 (on a scale of 0-10, with higher scores reflecting greater enhancement). Digital photographs of skin lesions are likely to refine diagnostic accuracy in histopathology.

  2. Psychological distress surrounding diagnosis of malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions at a pigmented lesion clinic.

    PubMed

    Al-Shakhli, H; Harcourt, D; Kenealy, J

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed prospectively to investigate psychological distress throughout the diagnostic process in an outpatient pigmented lesion clinic (PLC). Psychological distress was measured at pre clinical diagnosis, post clinical diagnosis, pre histological diagnosis (including a benign follow-up) and post histological diagnosis stages using standard anxiety measurement scales and a study specific measure of satisfaction with care. In total 324 patients undergoing investigation of a suspicious skin lesion consented to take part out of a cohort of 463 patients who attended the PLC in a 6 month period. Using recognised cut-off scores, 27% of women on clinic arrival reported clinically high levels of anxiety, in comparison with 10% of men (p < 0.0001). Patients given an immediate benign post clinical diagnosis reported a reduction in anxiety (p < 0.0001) but patients requiring a biopsy reported elevated levels of anxiety. Approximately, 30% of these biopsy patients reported clinically high levels of anxiety both before and after diagnosis. Patients who received a post histological diagnosis of malignant melanoma also reported the pre histological stage at the clinic as more distressing than waiting for and receiving results (p < 0.01). Patient's quality of life prior to diagnosis was excellent, but emotional functioning (p < 0.05), insomnia (pdiagnostic process for those patients who were finally diagnosed as having malignant melanoma. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with clinic attendance and treatment, regardless of diagnosis but a need for further information was identified. This study has implications for all healthcare professionals involved in the provision of care through Pigmented Lesion Clinics in UK. The diagnostic process of a suspicious lesion is evidently a 'critical' stage requiring appropriate provision of care to meet patients' psychosocial and information needs

  3. Tips and tricks in the dermoscopy of pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Kaminska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2012-08-24

    Dermoscopy is a useful, widely used tool for examining pigmented lesions, especially helpful in cases of an uncertain nature. Nevertheless, doctors may experience diagnostic difficulties while using this method. An example of this may be found in the examination of subcorneal hematoma, dark nevi with black lamella or lesions of acral volar skin. In such cases, a few diagnostic tricks have proven to be helpful in achieving diagnostic accuracy. This paper reviews various methods of performing dermoscopy, suggesting a number of simple, yet helpful tests. These include the adhesive tape test, the skin scraping test and the ink furrow test. The adhesive tape test is helpful in differentiating between dark melanocytic nevi and melanoma. Hematoma may be more easily differentiated with the use of the so-called skin scraping test. The confirmation of benign and melanocytic lesions of acral volar skin, on the other hand, is more accurate when using the ink furrow test. These methods have been discussed here based upon a series of literature reviews, the authors' own experience and, also, iconography. The present article describes novel methods used in dermoscopy, helping to bring about a faster, more accurate diagnostics of those lesions which have proven to be more difficult to recognize. Helpful tricks, such as have been known to professional literature, as well as the authors' own experience (for instance, applying urea cream to hyperkeratotic lesions or using photographs of skin lesions taken with the aid of a mobile phone camera--all prior to surgery) will surely be considered beneficial to the practitioner, be it dermatologist or any other physician.

  4. Tips and tricks in the dermoscopy of pigmented lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dermoscopy is a useful, widely used tool for examining pigmented lesions, especially helpful in cases of an uncertain nature. Nevertheless, doctors may experience diagnostic difficulties while using this method. An example of this may be found in the examination of subcorneal hematoma, dark nevi with black lamella or lesions of acral volar skin. In such cases, a few diagnostic tricks have proven to be helpful in achieving diagnostic accuracy. This paper reviews various methods of performing dermoscopy, suggesting a number of simple, yet helpful tests. These include the adhesive tape test, the skin scraping test and the ink furrow test. The adhesive tape test is helpful in differentiating between dark melanocytic nevi and melanoma. Hematoma may be more easily differentiated with the use of the so-called skin scraping test. The confirmation of benign and melanocytic lesions of acral volar skin, on the other hand, is more accurate when using the ink furrow test. These methods have been discussed here based upon a series of literature reviews, the authors’ own experience and, also, iconography. The present article describes novel methods used in dermoscopy, helping to bring about a faster, more accurate diagnostics of those lesions which have proven to be more difficult to recognize. Helpful tricks, such as have been known to professional literature, as well as the authors’ own experience (for instance, applying urea cream to hyperkeratotic lesions or using photographs of skin lesions taken with the aid of a mobile phone camera – all prior to surgery) will surely be considered beneficial to the practitioner, be it dermatologist or any other physician. PMID:22916721

  5. Skin lesions in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Goodfield, M

    1994-05-01

    Psoriatic skin disease is common; it occurs at all ages and co-exists with joint disease in approximately 10% of cases. All areas of skin, scalp and nails may be involved. In the typical case, the skin lesions are easy to recognize. Atypical forms of skin involvement and lesions at unusual sites are less easily diagnosed by non-specialists. The cause is unknown, but there is a clear genetic element, with external factors being important in precipitation and exacerbations of the condition. Topical treatment is successful in most patients, but in resistant cases combinations of systemic therapy and ultraviolet radiation usually give good control. Although there is no cure, the majority of sufferers live normal lives and, with the exception of severe erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis, there is no mortality. Morbidity, particularly social and occupational, is more of a problem than is often acknowledged.

  6. Performance and Clinical Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastrointestinal Intramural Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hea Jung; Park, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Jin; Lim, Chul Hyun; Kim, Jin Su; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Kyu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the performance, clinical role, and diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in gastrointestinal intramural lesions. Methods Procedural and pathologic data were reviewed from consecutive patients undergoing EUS-FNA for intramural lesions. Final diagnoses were determined by surgical histopathologic conformation and the diagnosis of malignancy, including clinical follow-up with repeat imaging. Results Forty-six patients (mean age, 47 years; 24 males) underwent EUS-FNA. Lesions were located in the stomach (n=31), esophagus (n=5), and duodenum (n=10). The median lesion size was 2 cm (range, 1 to 20.6). Final diagnoses were obtained in 22 patients (48%). EUS-FNA was diagnostic in 40 patients (87%). The diagnostic accuracy of cytology for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions was 82%; diagnostic error occurred in three patients (6%). The cytologic results influenced clinical judgment in 78% cases. The primary reasons for negative or no clinical impact were false-negative results, misdirected patient management, and inconclusive cytology. Conclusions EUS-FNA exhibited an 87% diagnostic yield for gastrointestinal intramural lesions; the accuracy of cytology for differentiating malignancy was 82%. The limitations of EUS-FNA were primarily because of nondiagnostic sampling (9%) and probable diagnostic error (6%); these factors may influence the clinical role of EUS-FNA. PMID:24340255

  7. Modélisation des profils de raie dans les plasmas : PPP nouvelle version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Mossé, C.

    2006-12-01

    Le code de calcul de profils de raie PPP a été développé à l'origine avec l'objectif de synthétiser les raies spectrales émises par les plasmas et ce pour n'importe quel émetteur et n'importe quelles conditions de plasmas. Les motivations de ce travail ont été d'une part le diagnostic et d'autre part les études de la dynamique non linéaire des charges dans les plasmas. Le code numérique basé sur des modèles originaux met en jeu des algorithmes qui réalisent le meilleur compromis entre précision et rapidité. En particulier, le mouvement des charges perturbatrices est pris en compte par le Modèle de Fluctuation de Fréquences qui transforme le profil statique en profil dynamique. Ce code a été sans cesse amélioré au cours des dix dernières années avec l'aide d'une technique de simulation numérique basée sur la méthode de dynamique moléculaire qui fournit des profils dits de référence.

  8. Angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénal bénin: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bagayogo, Tidiani; Othmane, Yddoussalah; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Les angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénaux (AMLeR) sont des tumeurs rares (identifiées chez moins de 0,1 patients pour 1000 habitants) et représentent 8% des angiomyolipomes (AML) opérés. Il a longtemps été considérécomme un hamartome mais plusieurs articles récents font penser qu'il s'agir d'une tumeur dérivant de cellules épithélioïdespérivasculaires. L'angiomyolipome épithélioïde est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, composé decellules épithélioïdes posant des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules rénales. L'immunohistochimie,en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioïdes au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Les auteursrapportent l'aspect tomodensitométrique et histologique d'angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes chez deux patientes. PMID:26953738

  9. Acute periodontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  10. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Skin lesion gram stain Images Viral lesion culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Profil épidémiologique des uvéites: à propos de 105 cas

    PubMed Central

    Souley, Abdoul Salam Youssoufou; Abdellah, Hamed Ould Mohamed; Khmamouche, Mehdi; Naji, Alwan Alsubari; Elasri, El Ouatassi Narjis Fouad; Reda, Karim; Oubaaz, Abdelbarre

    2016-01-01

    La difficulté du diagnostic des uvéites réside dans la multiplicité des étiologies. La détermination des facteurs épidémiologiques des uvéites permettent une meilleure orientation diagnostique et facilitent leur prise en charge thérapeutique. C'une étude rétrospective s’étalant sur 4 ans de janvier 2012 à décembre 2015. Nous avons colligé 105 dossiers d'uvéite et étudié les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et étiologiques. L’âge moyen était de 42 ans, la tranche d’âge la plus touchée était de 40-50ans. Les hommes étaient plus atteints (57,14%) que les femmes (42,86%). L'uvéite était unilatérale dans 60,95% des cas. Nous avons noté une uvéite antérieure dans 35,24%, une uvéite intermédiaire dans 5,71%, une uvéite postérieure dans 10,48% et une panuvéite dans 48,57%. Les étiologies étaient dominées par la maladie de Behçet, la sarcoïdose, et la maladie de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. L'origine restait indéterminée dans 43,81% des cas. L’évolution était variable. Les uvéites sont des inflammations intraoculaires qui peuvent représenter une réelle menace pour la vision. La démarche permettant de découvrir la cause doit être codifiée et repose sur plusieurs étapes. Nos résultats sont relativement proches de ceux de la littérature. Les uvéites constituent une entité clinique où ophtalmologie et médecine interne se rejoignent. Le champ des causes et des investigations permettant le diagnostic est vaste voire illimité. Cette étude a permis de mettre en évidence les difficultés cliniques et de souligner les limites de notre formation sanitaire dans la prise en charge des uvéites. PMID:27642436

  12. [Vascular injuries associated with osteoarticular lesions of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Fiève, G; Brice, M; Cazaigne, J

    1984-01-01

    The authors report 38 observations of vascular traumatisms associated to osteo-articular lesions of lower members cured by restorative treatment. The authors define a diagnostic and therapeutic line of conduct. They insisted upon the necessity of early diagnosis of vascular lesion, based on ultrasonic exploration of vessels as soon as the patient was admitted to hospital. Restoration must be considered from a global point of view in taking into account the state of integuments , the type of selected osseous restoration, the vascular approach and the possible necessity of aponeurotomy . The importance of vascular lesion and the slowness of circulation restoration induced the results of the treatment, the major risks of which were infection and metabolic lesion of the kidney. In 18% of the cases amputation was necessary.

  13. Tuberculosis diagnostics in Fiji: how reliable is culture?

    PubMed

    Reddy, M; Gounder, S; Reid, S A

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : L'examen microscopique de crachats à la recherche de bacilles acido-alcoolo résistants (AFB) et la culture de Mycobacterium tuberculosis sont des examens de première intention dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose (TB). La contamination des cultures de TB réduit la fiabilité du diagnostic.Objectif: Examiner les facteurs associés à la contamination des cultures de TB aux Fidji et les performances relatives de la culture et de l'AFB.Méthodes : Tous les examens réalisés au Laboratoire de Référence des Mycobacterium de Daulakao aux Fidji de 2010 à 2012 ont été inclus. Les variables comprenaient les résultats de l'AFB et de la culture, l'âge et le type de spécimen, le centre d'examen ayant envoyé l'échantillon et l'âge du patient.Résultats: Des 5708 spécimens enregistrés, 70% comprenaient à la fois les résultats du frottis AFB et de la culture. Une contamination est survenue dans 421 spécimens et 2,7% d'entre eux étaient soit dégradés, soit sans résultats. L'accord entre les deux tests était modéré (κ = 0,577). La culture avait plus de chances d'être positive quand le score du frottis AFB était plus élevé. La contamination de la culture était associée à la distance par rapport au laboratoire de référence, à l'âge de l'échantillon et à des facteurs liés à l'opérateur.Conclusion : Une plus grande rapidité de transmission des échantillons de crachats depuis le centre d'examens anti-tuberculeux ou l'adjonction de conservateurs aux spécimens de crachats pourrait amener une diminution du taux de contamination des cultures. L'introduction de techniques de cultures liquides combinée à la culture sur milieu Ogawa augmentera la sensibilité du diagnostic de la TB aux Fidji.

  14. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  15. Classification of 17 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, D.; Martini, P.; Lewis, G. F.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R. G.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Carnero, A.; King, A.; Lidman, C.; Webb, S.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  16. Classification of 17 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukrishna, D.; Sharp, R. G.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Asorey, J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Mould, J.; Macaulay, E.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Parkinson, D.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2017-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  17. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  18. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  19. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  20. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  1. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  2. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  3. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  4. Classification of 17 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, J. K.; Asorey, J.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Yuan, F.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  5. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  6. Classification of 11 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R.; Zhang, B.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Asorey, J.; Mould, J.; Smith, M.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Carollo, D.; Moller, A.; Yuan, F.; Hinton, S.; Muthukrishna, D.; Parkinson, D.; Lewis, G. F.; Uddin, S.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2017-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  8. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the diagnosis of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine.

    PubMed

    Douis, H; Davies, A M; Jeys, L; Sian, P

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the role of chemical shift MRI in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine as benign or malignant. Fifty-five patients (mean age 54.7 years) with 57 indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine were included in this retrospective study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3 T which included at least sagittal T1WI and T2WI/STIR sequences, patients underwent chemical shift MRI. A cut-off value with a signal drop-out of 20 % was used to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions (signal drop-out <20 % being malignant). There were 45 benign lesions and 12 malignant lesions. Chemical shift imaging correctly diagnosed 33 of 45 lesions as benign and 11 of 12 lesions as malignant. In contrast, there were 12 false positive cases and 1 false negative case based on chemical shift MRI. This yielded a sensitivity of 91.7 %, a specificity of 73.3 %, a negative predictive value of 97.1 %, a positive predictive value of 47.8 % and a diagnostic accuracy of 82.5 %. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine in view of its high sensitivity in diagnosing malignant lesions. Chemical shift MRI can potentially avoid biopsy in a considerable percentage of patients with benign skeletal lesions of the spine. • Differentiating benign from malignant skeletal lesions of the spine can be challenging. • Utility of chemical shift MRI in characterising indeterminate spinal lesion is unreported. • This study demonstrates sensitivity 91.7 %, specificity 73.3 %, diagnostic accuracy 82.5 % for CSI. • CSI is useful in differentiating benign from malignant skeletal spine lesions. • Biopsy can potentially be avoided in some patients with benign skeletal lesions.

  9. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may appear. A diagnostic classification is proposed to establish the stage of the lesion, and determine the best treatment option accordingly. The following stages are distinguished: acute apical periimplantitis (non-suppurated and suppurated) and subcacute (or suppurated-fistulized) apical periimplantitis. The most adequate treatment of this pathology in the acute stage and in the subacute stage if there is no loss of implant stability is apical surgery. In the subacute stage, if there is implant mobility, the extraction of the implant is necessary. Key words:Implant periapical lesion, apical periimplantitis, retrograde periimplantitis. PMID:22926472

  10. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, M. P.; Marudanayagam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature. PMID:22811587

  11. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  12. Jaw expansive lesions: population incidence and CT dentalscan role

    PubMed Central

    FIASCHETTI, V.; FANUCCI, E.; RASCIONI, M.; OTTRIA, L.; BARLATTANI, A.; SIMONETTI, G.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence of different expansive lesions and the advantages of the clinical employment of Dentalscan to study bones lesions and to establish a common diagnostic path. Materials and methods Since January 2005 to November 2009, 3200 patients, not selected for sex or age, have undergone a CT “Dentalscan” in the department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tor Vergata University Hospital (PTV), a suspect bone pathology was found in 704 of them through the XR-orthopantomograpy (OPT). CT images were obtained with General Electric CT Light Speed multislice. Images were saved in the Advantage Workstation (GE) supported by the “Dentascan” dedicated software and by the 3D software (3D SSD). The protocol was : Slice thickness 1,25 mm, gap 0, matrix 512 × 512, 140 KV and 70 mA. All the lesions were also studied with the dedicated three-dimensional reconstructor 3D SSD. Biopsy for diagnosis was performed on all the lesions, except one (false positive with digital OPT). The technique sensitivity was assessed for two important classes: benign and malignant lesions. Results Through CT Dentascan a detailed evaluation of the jaws lesions and their extension was obtained. 656 patients (93.1 %) out of 704 examined for a suspicious lesion on the orthopantomography had a benign lesion: (127 follicular cysts (18.2 %), 181 radicular cysts (25.1%), 93 non odontogenic cysts (13.2%), 29 fibroma (4.2%), 198 odontomes (28.2%), 24 ameloblastoma (3.6%), 4 brown tumors (0.7%), 47 (6.9%) had malignant lesions: (12 carcinoma (1.7%), 29 metastasis (4.3%), 6 sarcoma (0.8%), 1 Dentascan CT resulted to be negative (1 false positive of digital OPT). The sensitivity of the technique for both groups was 99% for benign lesions and 98% for malign lesions. Conclusions CT Dentascan characteristics suggest to consider these techniques as the gold standard for the evaluation of jaw expansive lesions and the support of surgical planning. PMID:23285385

  13. Automatic Classification of Specific Melanocytic Lesions Using Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna; Kłeczek, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Different computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed to increase the specificity and sensitivity of melanoma detection. Although such computer programs are developed for different diagnostic algorithms, to the best of our knowledge, a system to classify different melanocytic lesions has not been proposed yet. Method. In this research we present a new approach to the classification of melanocytic lesions. This work is focused not only on categorization of skin lesions as benign or malignant but also on specifying the exact type of a skin lesion including melanoma, Clark nevus, Spitz/Reed nevus, and blue nevus. The proposed automatic algorithm contains the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, feature extraction, and selection as well as classification. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 300 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed approach classified most of the melanocytic lesions correctly. Conclusions. A proposed system can not only help to precisely diagnose the type of the skin mole but also decrease the amount of biopsies and reduce the morbidity related to skin lesion excision. PMID:26885520

  14. Evaluation of breast lesions by contrast enhanced ultrasound: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Caifeng; Du, Jing; Fang, Hua; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Lin

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis for characterization of breast lesions in contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), with histological results used as the reference standard. Ninety-one patients with 91 breast lesions BI-RADS 3-5 at US or mammography underwent CEUS. All lesions underwent qualitative and quantitative enhancement evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different analytical method for discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions. Histopathologic analysis of the 91 lesions revealed 44 benign and 47 malignant. For qualitative analysis, benign and malignant lesions differ significantly in enhancement patterns (p<0.05). Malignant lesions more often showed heterogeneous and centripetal enhancement, whereas benign lesions mainly showed homogeneous and centrifugal enhancement. The detectable rate of peripheral radial or penetrating vessels was significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones (p<0.001). For quantitative analysis, malignant lesions showed significantly higher (p=0.031) and faster enhancement (p=0.025) than benign ones, and its time to peak was significantly shorter (p=0.002). The areas under the ROC curve for qualitative, quantitative and combined analysis were 0.910 (A(z1)), 0.768 (A(z2)) and 0.926(A(z3)) respectively. The values of A(z1) and A(z3) were significantly higher than that for A(z2) (p=0.024 and p=0.008, respectively). But there was no significant difference between the values of A(z1) and A(z3) (p=0.625). The diagnostic performance of qualitative and combined analysis was significantly higher than that for quantitative analysis. Although quantitative analysis has the potential to differentiate benign from malignant lesions, it has not yet improved the final diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    PubMed

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated.

  16. Bullous lesions in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Rencic, Adrienne; Goyal, Supriya; Mofid, Mona; Wigley, Frederick; Nousari, H Carlos

    2002-06-01

    The occurrence of bullous lesions in localized or systemic scleroderma is rare. Three histologic patterns have been reported: lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like, lymphangiectatic blisters and autoimmune blistering diseases. To investigate the frequency, clinical, and immunopathologic features of patients with scleroderma and bullous eruptions and to review the literature regarding this rare condition. A retrospective study of 53 cases of scleroderma (localized, generalized, and systemic) in the dermatology and rheumatology clinics at one institution over an 8-year span. Clinical, serologic, and immunopathologic findings were analyzed in four cases. Four of 53 patients exhibited bullous lesions in association with scleroderma. The first case illustrates lymphangioma-like clinical and pathologic presentation. The second case demonstrates bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like pattern. The other two cases exemplify a superimposed autoimmune skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and penicillamine induced pemphigus foliaceus after treatment for systemic scleroderma. Of the 53 original patients, we have described four cases of bullous scleroderma (7.5%) Illustrating several pathogenetic mechanisms of bulla formation. inflammatory (lichen sclerosus et atrophicus), fibrotic/obstructive (lymphangiomatous), autoimmune (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita), and pemphigus foliaceus. The final case illustrates bullae as a complication of therapy for the underlying scleroderma.

  17. Melanocytic aggregation in the skin: diagnostic clues from lentigines to melanoma.

    PubMed

    de Giorgi, Vincenzo; Sestini, Serena; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello

    2007-07-01

    Pigmented skin lesions are among the most common skin lesions. Among them, melanocytic proliferations are morphologically diverse and their behavior may be difficult to discern with certainty. Researchers must be able to distinguish melanocytic from nonmelanocytic pigmented skin lesions and, in particular, benign from malignant lesions. The majority of these lesions can be diagnosed with ease; however, a minority of cases is difficult and have potential for error. The authors have systematically analyzed the clinical and dermoscopic features of melanocytic skin lesions, so as to increase in vivo diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Latina Voices of Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. Dawn

    This dissertation examines the lives of Hispanic women living in Des Moines and includes their views of problems and opportunities involved in living in that city. Interviews were conducted with 24 Latino women over the age of 17 who had been in the area for over 2 years. Findings indicate that learning to speak English was the single most…

  19. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  20. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  1. Proteomics for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Pagni, F; Mainini, V; Garancini, M; Bono, F; Vanzati, A; Giardini, V; Scardilli, M; Goffredo, P; Smith, A J; Galli, M; De Sio, G; Magni, F

    2015-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a unique proteomic technology that explores the spatial distribution of biomolecules directly in situ, thus integrating molecular and morphological information. The possibility of correlating distribution maps of multiple analyses with cytological features makes it an ideal research tool for discovering new diagnostic markers. A previous study showed that MALDI-IMS could help discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); the present feasibility study on ex vivo fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears describes its potential in detecting new proteomic targets of other thyroid lesions (follicular lesions, medullary carcinoma). MALDI-IMS was conducted on ex vivo FNAs obtained from surgical specimens and corresponding in vivo samples. Differences between proteomic profiles of different thyroid lesions were compared. Comparing the protein profiles of hyperplastic nodules obtained from three different patients with each other, and with a new PTC, showed a high degree of concordance, indicating good reproducibility of the IMS technology on cytological samples, suggesting its potential as a tool for biomarker discovery. Furthermore, comparison of the average proteomic profiles of hyperplastic nodules with a Hürthle cell adenoma revealed significant differences, underlying the capability of MALDI-IMS to distinguish between different thyroid lesions. Finally, the proteomic profile of medullary thyroid carcinoma was also characterized. Our results confirmed the possible role of MALDI-IMS in the search for diagnostic targets of PTC and follicular lesions, which could be applied in larger trials aimed at the identification of proteins, convertible to cost-effective diagnostic tools such as immunohistochemistry. These tests could be used to analyse in vivo cytological smears, improving the preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid

  2. Similar but Different: How Reflectance Confocal Microscopy May Help in the Diagnosis of Pink Lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federica; Bassoli, Sara; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Longo, Caterina

    2017-06-29

    Among skin neoplasms, solitary pink tumors represent challenging lesions in clinical practice since they can mimic melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions or even inflammatory ones. In this case series we described dermoscopic and confocal features of 2 couples of similar lesions in order to achieve the correct diagnosis and the best therapeutic approach. During clinical routine practice, 2 couples of clinically and dermoscopically similar lesions were examined by means of confocal microscopy. All lesions revealed no clear-cut diagnostic features on dermoscopy. However, confocal microscopy revealed tumor islands with palisading cells and a dark clefting at the periphery in basal cell carcinomas. In the other "false twin" lesions, atypical cells and elongated junctional nests were observed and the diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas was rendered. In the current case series, the combined use of dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy was an optimal workup for difficult-to-diagnose lesions such as pink tumors. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. La trochantérite tuberculeuse, un diagnostic souvent difficile

    PubMed Central

    Mhammdi, Younes; Boufettal, Moncef; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Lahlou, Abdou; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh

    2016-01-01

    La trochantérite tuberculeuse est une affection rare (<2% des tuberculoses ostéo-articulaires), même en pays à forte endémie, elle est caractérisée par une symptomatologie insidieuse rendant souvent son diagnostic tardif. Les auteurs rapportent une série de 9 cas, le diagnostic a été posé sur des études bactériologiques et histologiques après un bilan d'imagerie (échographie, IRM, TDM). Le traitement de cette affection est médical (antibiothérapie antituberculeuse), et la chirurgie ne trouve sa place qu'en cas de complications et permet d'améliorer l’évolution. PMID:27279938

  4. Lignes directrices sur la prise en charge en soins primaires des céphalées chez l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Accroître l’utilisation d’approches éclairées par des données probantes pour diagnostiquer, investiguer et traiter en soins primaires les céphalées des patients. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire exhaustive a été effectuée pour trouver des lignes directrices et des révisions systématiques publiées entre janvier 2000 et mai 2011. La grille d’évaluation de la qualité des recommandations pour la pratique clinique AGREE a servi à l’analyse critique des lignes directrices. Les 6 guides de pratique clinique de la plus grande qualité ont servi de base dans le processus d’adaptation. Message principal Un groupe d’élaboration multidisciplinaire de professionnels des soins primaires ont formulé 91 recommandations précises à l’aide d’un processus consensuel. Les recommandations portent sur le diagnostic, l’investigation et la prise en charge de la migraine, de la céphalée de tension, de la céphalée due à une surmédication et de la céphalée vasculaire de Horton. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique adapté au contexte des soins de santé au Canada a été produit en suivant un processus d’adaptation de lignes directrices dans le but d’aider les professionnels de toutes les disciplines des soins primaires à dispenser des soins éclairés par des données probantes aux patients souffrant de céphalées.

  5. Five-Year Clinical Outcomes After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Following Rotational Atherectomy for Heavily Calcified Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki; Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Hiromasa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yohei; Takeji, Yasuaki; Miura, Mizuki; Masuda, Hisaki; Matsumura, Yukiko; Yamaji, Yuhei; Sakakura, Kenichi; Domei, Takenori; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Hyodo, Makoto; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji

    2017-09-09

    Percutaneous coronary intervention for heavily calcified lesions requires rotational atherectomy (RA). Long-term clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation following (RA) for heavily calcified lesions remain unclear. We assessed 5-year clinical outcomes after DES implantation following RA.Methods and Results:Between March 2006 and September 2011, 219 consecutive patients with 219 lesions treated with DES following RA, were retrospectively enrolled. The cumulative 5-year incidence of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) and definite stent thrombosis (ST) were assessed. The cumulative incidence of TLR within (≤) the first year was 18.6%. Late TLR beyond (>) 1 year continued to occur at 1.9% per year without a decrease in the rate (5-year incidence, 26.0%). The cumulative incidence of definite ST at 30 days, 1 and 5 years was 0.9%, 2.3% and 2.9%, respectively. The annual rate of definite ST beyond 1 year was 0.15%. On multivariate analysis, the significant predictor of TLR within 1 year was use of first-generation DES (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10-4.03, P=0.02) and that of TLR beyond 1 year was hemodialysis (HR, 3.29; 95% CI: 1.06-10.55, P=0.04). Late TLR beyond 1 year continued to occur up to 5 years at a constant annual incidence, whereas very late ST was rare. Careful long-term clinical follow-up is continually needed in patients who have already received DES following RA for heavily calcified lesions.

  6. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  7. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  8. Diagnostic Sensitivity of Indocyanine Green Angiography for Birdshot Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashvini K; Gonzalez, Marco A; Henry, Christopher R; Yeh, Steven; Sobrin, Lucia; Albini, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    To describe a cohort of patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy who did not manifest birdshot lesions on clinical examination but had retinal vasculitis, low-grade to moderate vitritis, and hypocyanescent lesions on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Case series of 3 patients with mild to moderate vitritis and retinal vasculitis without definite birdshot lesions on clinical examination evaluated from January 2007 to December 2014 at 4 academic ophthalmology centers. All patients' results were positive for human leukocyte antigen-A29. All cases had hypocyanescent lesions visible on ICGA but not detectable on fluorescein angiography. Patients with retinal vasculitis and low-grade vitritis with or without macular edema may have birdshot chorioretinopathy evident on ICGA before lesions are visible on clinical examination or fluorescein angiography. Expanding birdshot chorioretinopathy diagnostic criteria to include the presence of hypocyanescent lesions on ICGA could improve the sensitivity of diagnosis.

  9. Automated Dermoscopy Image Analysis of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Alfonso; Quartulli, Marco; Murace, Raffaele; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Manganaro, Mario; Guerra, Oscar; Bizzi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for the in vivo observation of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), allowing a better visualization of surface and subsurface structures (from the epidermis to the papillary dermis). This diagnostic tool permits the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye, thus opening a new dimension in the analysis of the clinical morphologic features of PSLs. In order to reduce the learning-curve of non-expert clinicians and to mitigate problems inherent in the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria used in pattern analysis, several indicative methods based on diagnostic algorithms have been introduced in the last few years. Recently, numerous systems designed to provide computer-aided analysis of digital images obtained by dermoscopy have been reported in the literature. The goal of this article is to review these systems, focusing on the most recent approaches based on content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR). PMID:24281070

  10. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography to detect osteochondrosis lesions in the tarsocrural joint: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Relave, F; Meulyzer, M; Alexander, K; Beauchamp, G; Marcoux, M

    2009-01-01

    Lesions located on the medial malleolus of the tarsocrural joint can be difficult to image radiographically. Ultrasonography allows evaluation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. To compare dorso30 degrees lateral-plantaromedial-oblique (DL-PIMO) and dorso45 degrees views to detect lesions on the medial malleolus, to validate the use of ultrasonography to show lesions in the tarsocrural joint and to compare its sensitivity to radiography. Tarsocrural joints (n=111) with osteochondrosis were evaluated ultrasonographically and radiographically prior to arthroscopic lesion debridement. A complete radiographic examination was made and the best view to detect each lesion recorded. Longitudinal and transverse ultrasonography of the dorsal aspect of the joint was performed and the best scan plane to image each lesion recorded. There were 94 joints with lesions on the distal intermediate ridge of tibia, 24 with lesions on the medial malleolus, and 4 with lesions on the lateral trochlear ridge. The sensitivity of radiography to detect lesions on the medial malleolus and distal intermediate ridge of tibia was 71 and 96%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of lesions on the medial malleolus were better imaged on dorso30 degrees view. The sensitivity of ultrasonography to detect lesions on the medial malleolus and distal intermediate ridge of tibia was 83 and 98%, respectively. Ultrasonography was significantly more sensitive than radiography to detect lesions on the medial malleolus and distal intermediate ridge of tibia. Dorso30 degrees lateral-plantaromedial-oblique view was the best to image lesions on the medial malleolus. Ultrasonography was a valuable diagnostic tool to diagnose lesions in the tarsocrural joint and was more sensitive than radiography for lesions located on the medial malleolus and distal intermediate ridge of tibia. Radiographic examination should include a dorso30 degrees view for detection of lesions on the medial malleolus and ultrasonography

  11. Aspects cliniques des cancers bronchopulmonaires primitifs au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Refeno, Valéry; Hasiniatsy, Nomeharisoa Rodrigue Emile; Andrianandrasana, Ny Ony Tiana Florence; Ramahandrisoa, Andriatsihoarana Voahary Nasandratriniavo; Rakotonarivo, Jean Marc; Maevazaka, Joée Larissa; Rakotovao, Hanitrala Jean Louis; Rafaramino, Florine

    2015-01-01

    Le retard de diagnostic des cancers broncho-pulmonaires est l'une des sources du retard de leur prise en charge dans les pays en développement. A notre connaissance, l'aspect clinique des cancers broncho-pulmonaires au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo-Hôpital Universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (CHUA-HUJRA) n'a jamais été étudié. L'objectif était de décrire les aspects cliniques des cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs dans le plus grand centre de cancérologie de Madagascar. C'est une étude rétrospective et descriptive des patients atteints de cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs vus au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013. Nous avons recensé 101 patients (80 hommes et 21 femmes). Les circonstances de découverte sont principalement la toux chronique (n = 29), la dyspnée (n = 16) et l'association d'une hémoptysie à la toux chronique (n = 12). Soixante et onze patients avaient un index de performans status ≥ à 2 au moment du diagnostic. On a retrouvé des bacilles de Koch actives dans le crachat de deux patients. Le délai moyen entre l'apparition des premiers signes et la première consultation était de 11 mois. Le délai moyen entre la première consultation et le diagnostic anatomopathologique était de 3 mois. Le cancer broncho-pulmonaire peut avoir des manifestations cliniques non spécifiques parfois trompeuses qui peuvent retarder leur prise en charge. De ce fait, il doit être recherché devant tout signe respiratoire persistant. Par ailleurs, le délai de prise en charge pré-hospitalière et hospitalière de ces cancers doit être amélioré. PMID:26958134

  12. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  13. Multistatic Surveillance and Reconnaissance: Sensor, Signals and Data Fusion (Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs, des signaux et des donnees)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    capteurs , des signaux et des données) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France RTO-EN-SET-133...Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Lecture Series under the...Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données (RTO-EN-SET-133) Synthèse Les systèmes radar

  14. The most common mistakes on dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kamińska-Winciorek, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Dermatoscopy is a method of in vivo evaluation of the structures within the epidermis and dermis. Currently, it may be the most precise pre-surgical method of diagnosing melanocytic lesions. Diagnostic errors may result in unnecessary removal of benign lesions or what is even worse, they can cause early and very early melanomas to be overlooked. Errors in assessment of dermatoscopy can be divided into those arising from failure to maintain proper test procedures (procedural and technical errors) and knowledge based mistakes related to the lack of sufficient familiarity and experience in dermatoscopy. The article discusses the most common mistakes made by beginner or inexperienced dermatoscopists. PMID:25821425

  15. Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Differentiating Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt Bostan, Tuğba; Koç, Gonca; Sezgin, Gülten; Altay, Canan; Fazıl Gelal, M.; Oyar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a diagnostic and problem solving method for the breast examinations in addition to conventional breast examination methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) adds valuable information to conventional MRI. Aims: Our aim was to show the impact of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired with DWI to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Forty-six women with 58 breast masses (35 malignant, 23 benign) were examined on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. The morphologic characteristics of the lesions on conventional MRI sequences and contrast uptake pattern were assessed. ADC values of both lesions and normal breast parenchyma were measured. The ADC values obtained were statistically compared with the histopathologic results using Paired Samples t-Test. Results: Multiple lesions were detected in 12 (26%) of the patients, while only one lesion was detected in 34 (74%). Overall, 35 lesions out of 58 were histopathologically proven to be malignant. In the dynamic contrast-enhanced series, 5 of the malignant lesions were type 1, while 8 benign lesions revealed either type 2 or 3 time signal intensity curves (85% sensitivity, 56% spesifity). Mean ADC values were significantly different in malignant vs. benign lesions. (1.04±0.29×10−3 cm2/sec vs. 1.61±0.50×10−3 cm2/sec for the malignant and benign lesions, respectively, p=0.03). A cut-off value of 1.30×10−3 mm2/sec for ADC detected with receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded 89.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusion: ADC values improve the diagnostic accuracy of solid breast lesions when evaluated with the conventional MRI sequences. Therefore, DWI should be incorporated to routine breast MRI protocol. PMID:27308073

  16. Scintigraphic diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma: its role in the management of hepatic mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Moinuddin, M.; Allison, J.R.; Montgomery, J.H.; Rockett, J.F.; McMurray, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are benign tumors of the liver that are often an incidental finding. They are usually asymptomatic but may cause symptoms when traumatized, may bleed spontaneously, or may produce pain by virtue of their large size and mass effect. A retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation, liver function tests, and diagnostic imaging procedures in 20 patients with hepatic hemangiomas is presented and the literature is reviewed. The 20 patients had 27 mass lesions as seen on liver scintigraphy, computed tomography, or sonography. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell flow studies and blood pool scintigrams showed delayed filling of the mass lesions, diagnostic of hemangiomas. This finding was not encountered in any other type of lesion. A new diagnostic algorithm is proposed in which flood-flow and blood-pool scintigraphy play a more prominent role in the diagnostic workup.

  17. The Depression Screener for Teenagers (DesTeen): a valid instrument for early detection of adolescent depression in mental health care.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Krick, Kathrin; Saravo, Barbara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Diagnosis of comorbid depressive disorder is challenging, even in mental health care. Screening instruments could be economic tools in indicating depression. For the first time, the current study investigates the validity of the newly developed Depression Screener for Teenagers (DesTeen) and its abbreviated five-item form DesTeen-a in a mental health setting. A total of 88 patients aged 13-16 years were recruited in institutions specialized in child and adolescent psychiatry, psychotherapy or psychosomatic medicine. DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of major depression or dysthymia based on a structured diagnostic interview served as the gold standard for validation. For assessing the criterion validity of the DesTeen and the DesTeen-a, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Specificity and sensitivity were computed for optimal cut-off scores according to the Youden Index. Point prevalence of depression was 27.3%. Diagnostic accuracy of the DesTeen was high (AUC=.94). Using a cut-off score of ≥ 18, sensitivity was .96 and specificity was .86. The DesTeen-a showed no loss in validity (AUC=.94). At a cut-off point of ≥ 6, sensitivity remained excellent (.96), while specificity was slightly lower (.80). The limited representativeness and the small sample size restrict the generalizability of the findings. The DesTeen and its abbreviated version are valid instruments to screen for adolescent depression in mental health care. Since structured interviews to diagnose comorbid mental disorders are rarely applied, the DesTeen and the DesTeen-a can support mental health specialists in making the diagnostic process more efficient, thus facilitating effective treatment planning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers.

  19. Drug-Eluting Balloons in the Treatment of Coronary De Novo Lesions: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Richelsen, Rasmus Kapalu Broge; Overvad, Thure Filskov; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2016-12-01

    Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as a new application in percutaneous coronary intervention. DEBs have proven successful in the treatment of in-stent restenosis, but their role in de novo lesions is less clear. This paper provides a review of the current studies where DEBs have been used in coronary de novo lesions, either as part of a DEB-only strategy or in combination with another device, mainly a bare metal stent (BMS). By searching Pubmed and Embase we were able to identify 52 relevant studies, differing in design, intervention, and clinical setting, including patients with small vessel disease, bifurcation lesions, complex long lesions, acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and elderly. In 23 studies, a DEB was combined with a BMS, 25 studies used a DEB-only strategy with only provisional BMS implantation, and four studies combined a DEB with a drug-eluting stent (DES). In the vast majority of studies, DEB in combination with BMS does not seem to improve clinical or angiographic outcome compared with DES, whereas a DEB-only strategy seems promising, especially when predilatation and geographical mismatch are taken into account. A lower risk of recurrent thrombosis with DEB compared with DES is not evident from the current studies. In conclusion, the main indication for DEB seems to be small vessel disease, especially in clinical scenarios in which a contraindication to dual antiplatelet therapy exists. The main approach should be a DEB-only strategy with only provisional bailout stenting, which has shown interesting results in different clinical scenarios. In general, larger randomized controlled studies with prolonged follow-up comparing DEB with best in class DES are warranted. Technical developments of DEBs including the use of different drugs might potentially improve the efficacy of such treatment.

  20. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ=1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ=1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  1. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-28

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ =1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ =1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  2. Defining the diagnostic algorithm in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Horwhat, John David; Gress, Frank G

    2004-07-01

    Most patients with pancreatic cancer present with a mass on radiologic studies, however, not every pancreatic mass is cancer. Since radiological studies alone are insufficient to establish the diagnosis of a pancreatic mass and patient management depends on a definitive diagnosis; confirmatory cytology or histology is usually required. As a minimally invasive procedure, EUS and EUS FNA avoid the risk of cutaneous or peritoneal contamination that may occur with CT or US-guided investigations and is less invasive than surgical interventions. As a result, EUS FNA of pancreatic masses is becoming the standard for obtaining cytological diagnosis. This chapter presents an EUS-based diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of pancreatic lesions and is based upon a review of the pertinent literature in the field of pancreatic endosonography that has been the most influential in helping to guide this evolving field. Realizing there is much overlap among the EUS characteristics of various pancreatic lesions, for the sake of simplicity we have structured our discussion in broad terms of solid versus cystic lesions and discuss various pancreatic lesions within this framework. The additional contributors to this round table discussion have been asked to provide a more dedicated, focused discussion of the various subcategories of pancreatic lesions in greater detail than we could hope to achieve here. We provide this final contribution to the round table as a means of bringing the discussion back to the big picture of pancreatic lesions, rather than trying to hone in on the fine details of any one subclass.

  3. Characterization of lesions in dense breasts: Does tomosynthesis help?

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjay; Srivastava, Anurag; Parshad, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Mammography in dense breasts is challenging due to lesion obscuration by tissue overlap. Does tomosynthesis offers a solution? To study the impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in characterizing