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Sample records for diagnostic probe system

  1. Ion beam probe diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickok, R. L.; Jennings, W. C.; Woo, J. T.; Connor, K. A.

    1980-07-01

    Tokomak plasmas suitable for diagnostic development were produced in RENTOR following technological improvements in the vacuum chamber and discharge cleaning systems. Secondary ion signals were obtained from the heavy ion beam probe on RENTOR leading to initial estimates of the plasma space potential, which appears to vary by several hundred volts during the plasma pulse. The principle of measuring space potential in a minimum-B geometry was established using an ion gun mounted at the center of the ALEX baseball coil. The neutral beam probe was installed for measuring the space potential using actual secondary ion signals from a hollow cathode arc in ALEX and preliminary tests have begun. The ion beam test stand was significantly altered to allow more flexibility in testing energy analyzers, ion guns, and ion focusing concepts.

  2. Evaluation of the NDP (neutron diagnostic probe) system

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaleri, E.A.; Eisen, Y.Y.

    1990-12-01

    The neutron diagnostic probe (NDP), an explosive detection system developed by Consolidated Controls Corporation and based on the associated-alpha-particle technique, was evaluated. Although many problems were found with the prototype system that make it useless for most practical applications, the NDP system may be considered a successful proof-of-principle for the basic explosive detection system design. In addition to evaluating the design and performance of the present system, models were developed to estimate the performance that might reasonably be expected from full scale systems of different conceptual design. Specific examples involved various types of bulk and sheet explosives contained in a suitcase and a large crate. Also considered were the effects of innocuous materials surrounding explosives in different scenarios, including the deliberate use of shielding materials as a countermeasure to detection. 11 refs., 46 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  4. Development of simple designs of multitip probe diagnostic systems for RF plasma characterization.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Shukrullah, S; Ghaffar, A; Rehman, N U

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.

  5. Development of Simple Designs of Multitip Probe Diagnostic Systems for RF Plasma Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Shukrullah, S.; Ghaffar, A.; Rehman, N. U.

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  6. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  7. Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanjers, G. G.; Galambos, J. P.; Bohnet, M. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Christiansen, W. H.; Wurden, G. A.; Wright, B. L.; Smith, R. J.

    1992-10-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas. In the TIP scheme, a probe is fired, using a two-stage light gas gun, through a hot plasma at velocities up to 5 km/s, and makes direct, local measurements of the internal magnetic field structure. The data are relayed to the laboratory optical detection system using an incident laser that is directed through a Faraday rotator payload acting as a magneto-optic sensor. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing the probe size, limiting the time that the probe is in the hot plasma, and encasing the probe with a diamond cladding. The degree to which the diamond probe cladding is susceptible to ablative effects will determine the plasma density and temperature regime in which the TIP diagnostic can be used. If the TIP suffers significant ablation it is an indication that the diagnostic is not usable on this hot and dense of a plasma (or that greater velocity must be imparted to the probe to further minimize the time that it is in the plasma). A quantitative experimental study of the ablation rates of diamond is planned as part of the TIP development. The integrated TIP system will be functional in 1992 and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Tech. 15, 9 (1989)] at the University of Washington.

  8. An ion thruster internal discharge chamber electrostatic probe diagnostic technique using a high-speed probe positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Daniel A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2008-01-15

    Extensive resources have been allocated to diagnose and minimize lifetime-limiting factors in gridded ion thrusters. While most of this effort has focused on grid erosion, results from wear tests indicate that discharge cathode erosion may also play an important role in limiting the lifetime of ring-cusp ion thrusters proposed for future large flagship missions. The detailed characterization of the near-cathode discharge plasma is essential for mitigating discharge cathode erosion. However, severe difficulty is encountered when attempting to measure internal discharge plasma parameters during thruster operation with conventional probing techniques. These difficulties stem from the high-voltage, high-density discharge cathode plume, which is a hostile environment for probes. A method for interrogating the discharge chamber plasma of a working ion thruster over a two-dimensional grid is demonstrated. The high-speed axial reciprocating probe positioning system is used to minimize thruster perturbation during probe insertion and to reduce heating of the probe. Electrostatic probe measurements from a symmetric double Langmuir probe are presented over a two-dimensional spatial array in the near-discharge cathode assembly region of a 30-cm-diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Electron temperatures, 2-5 eV, and number density contours, with a maximum of 8x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} on centerline, are measured. These data provide detailed electron temperature and number density contours which, when combined with plasma potential measurements, may shed light on discharge cathode erosion processes and the effect of thruster operating conditions on erosion rates.

  9. Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberry, Phillip A.

    1991-01-01

    The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

  10. The development of a universal diagnostic probe system for Tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R.; Manos, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the largest such facility in the U.S., is discussed with respect to instrumentation in general and mechanisms in particular. The design philosophy and detailed implementation of a universal probe mechanism for TFTR is discussed.

  11. A calorimetric probe for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, Marc; Trottenberg, Thomas; Kersten, Holger

    2010-02-15

    A calorimetric probe for plasma diagnostics is presented, which allows measurements of the power taken by a test substrate. The substrate can be biased and used as an electric probe in order to obtain information about the composition of the total heating power. A new calibration technique for calorimetric probes, which uses monoenergetic electrons at low pressure, has been developed for an improved accuracy. The use of the probe is exemplified with an experiment where both energetic neutral atoms and ions heat the test substrate.

  12. Daily Fill Factor Variation as a Diagnostic Probe of Multijunction Concentrator Systems During Outdoor Operation

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Emery, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here is for GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells, but the conclusions are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells. Optimizing a concentrator system which uses multijunction solar cells is challenging because: (a) the conditions are variable, so the solar cells rarely operate under optimal conditions and (b) the conditions are not controlled, so any design problems are difficult to characterize. Any change in the spectral content of direct-beam sunlight as it passes through the concentrator optics is of particular interest, as it can reduce the performance of multijunction cells and is difficult to characterize.

  13. Universal microbial diagnostics using random DNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Amirali; Lin, Adam Y.; Sheikh, Mona A.; Chen, Allen L.; Atkins, Lisa M.; Johnson, Coreen L.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of pathogens is essential for limiting development of therapy-resistant pathogens and mitigating infectious disease outbreaks. Most bacterial detection schemes use target-specific probes to differentiate pathogen species, creating time and cost inefficiencies in identifying newly discovered organisms. We present a novel universal microbial diagnostics (UMD) platform to screen for microbial organisms in an infectious sample, using a small number of random DNA probes that are agnostic to the target DNA sequences. Our platform leverages the theory of sparse signal recovery (compressive sensing) to identify the composition of a microbial sample that potentially contains novel or mutant species. We validated the UMD platform in vitro using five random probes to recover 11 pathogenic bacteria. We further demonstrated in silico that UMD can be generalized to screen for common human pathogens in different taxonomy levels. UMD’s unorthodox sensing approach opens the door to more efficient and universal molecular diagnostics. PMID:27704040

  14. Materials analysis and particle probe: A compact diagnostic system for in situ analysis of plasma-facing components (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C. N.; Heim, B.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.; Yang, Z.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C. H.; Ellis, R. A.

    2012-10-15

    The objective of the materials analysis particle probe (MAPP) in NSTX is to enable prompt and direct analysis of plasma-facing components exposed to plasma discharges. MAPP allows multiple samples to be introduced to the level of the plasma-facing surface without breaking vacuum and analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ion-scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) immediately following the plasma discharge. MAPP is designed to operate as a diagnostic within the {approx}12 min NSTX minimum between-shot time window to reveal fundamental plasma-surface interactions. Initial calibration demonstrates MAPP's XPS and TDS capabilities.

  15. Comparative analyses of plasma probe diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Godyak, V. A.; Alexandrovich, B. M.

    2015-12-21

    The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by double differentiation of the probe characteristic. We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir procedure can be subjected to significant inaccuracy due to the non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential, and the arbitrariness of the ion current approximation. The plasma densities derived from the ion part of the probe characteristics diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated according to Langmuir procedure or calculated as corresponding integral of the measured EEDF. The electron temperature extracted from the ion part is always subjected to uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to modification of the EEDF for fast electrons due to inelastic electron collisions, and to deficiencies in the existing ion current theories; i.e., unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and discounting deformation of the one-dimensional structure of the region perturbed by the probe. We concluded that EEDF measurement is the single reliable probe diagnostics for the basic research and industrial applications of highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas. Examples of EEDF measurements point up importance of examining the probe current derivatives in real time and reiterate significance of the equipment technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  16. Comparative analyses of plasma probe diagnostics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, V. A.; Alexandrovich, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by double differentiation of the probe characteristic. We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir procedure can be subjected to significant inaccuracy due to the non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential, and the arbitrariness of the ion current approximation. The plasma densities derived from the ion part of the probe characteristics diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated according to Langmuir procedure or calculated as corresponding integral of the measured EEDF. The electron temperature extracted from the ion part is always subjected to uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to modification of the EEDF for fast electrons due to inelastic electron collisions, and to deficiencies in the existing ion current theories; i.e., unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and discounting deformation of the one-dimensional structure of the region perturbed by the probe. We concluded that EEDF measurement is the single reliable probe diagnostics for the basic research and industrial applications of highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas. Examples of EEDF measurements point up importance of examining the probe current derivatives in real time and reiterate significance of the equipment technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  17. Chemiluminescent DNA probes: a comparison of the acridinium ester and dioxetane detection systems and their use in clinical diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Nelson, N C; Kacian, D L

    1990-12-17

    Nucleic acid hybridization has the potential to markedly improve the diagnosis of infectious and genetic diseases. Recently, chemiluminescent hybridization assays using acridinium esters and stabilized dioxetanes have been described with sensitivities comparable to those obtained with radioactive labels. Acridinium esters are used as direct labels that are attached to the probe throughout the hybridization reaction. Methods have been developed for labeling DNA probes with acridinium esters at high specific activity and for stabilizing the label under the relatively harsh conditions of hybridization reactions. The label does not affect the kinetics of the hybridization reaction or the stability of the resulting hybrid. The label emits light upon exposure to alkaline peroxide; thus, the assay format can be an extremely simple one. The acridinium ester labels are stable in storage and exhibit extremely rapid light-off kinetics which permit reading large numbers of samples within a brief period as well as limiting the contribution of background signal. A special property of acridinium esters allows chemical destruction of the label when it is present on unhybridized probe, whereas the label is stable to this process when the probe is hybridized. This behavior forms the basis of techniques to minimize assay background signals and allows a homogeneous assay format which does not require physical separation of hybridized and unhybridized probe. The adamantyl-stabilized 1,2-dioxetanes have been used to produce high-sensitivity detection systems for clinical assays. The probe is labeled with enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase or beta-D-galactosidase that hydrolyze the dioxetane derivative to produce a chemiluminescent molecule. As with other enzyme-based labeling systems, the signal increases with time, allowing greater sensitivity to be achieved with longer incubations. The amount of light generated is sufficient to expose sensitive photographic film with extended

  18. A comparative study of electrical probe techniques for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques for using electrical probes for plasma diagnostics are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to the simple Langmuir probe, the symmetric double probe of Johnson and Malter, the variable-area probe of Fetz and Oeschsner, and a floating probe technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  19. Ion beam probe diagnostic system. Technical progress report, 1 January 1979-30 June 1980. RPDL report No. 80-17

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L; Jennings, W C; Woo, J T; Connor, K A

    1980-07-01

    Tokomak plasmas suitable for diagnostic development were produced during this period in RENTOR following technological improvements in the vacuum chamber and discharge cleaning systems. Secondary ion signals were obtained from the heavy ion beam probe on RENTOR leading to initial estimates of the plasma space potential, which appears to vary by several hundred volts during the plasma pulse. The principle of measuring space potential in a minimum-B geometry was established using an ion gun mounted at the center of the ALEX baseball coil. The neutral beam probe was installed for measuring the space potential using actual secondary ion signals from a hollow cathode arc in ALEX and preliminary tests have begun. The ion beam test stand was significantly altered to allow more flexibility in testing energy analyzers, ion guns, and ion focusing concepts.

  20. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  1. Sweep Langmuir Probe and Triple Probe Diagnostics for Transient Plasma Produced by Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Enling; Xiang, Shenghai; Yang, Minghai; Li, Lexin

    2012-08-01

    Two techniques are applied to diagnose characteristic parameters of plasma created by hypervelocity impact, such as electron temperature and electron density. The first technique is a sweep Langmuir probe (SLP), which is a new apparatus based on a dual channel circuit that can compensate for stray capacitance and obtain a good synchronicity, so that electrostatic turbulence with a good temporal resolution can be acquired. The second technique is a triple Langmuir probe (TLP), which is an electrostatic triple Langmuir probe diagnostic system, in which no voltage and frequency sweep is required. This technique allows to measure electron temperature, electron density as a function of time. Moreover, the triple Langmuir probe diagnostic system allows the direct display of electron temperature and semidirect display of electron density by an appropriate display system, the system permits us to eliminate almost all data processing procedures. SLP and TLP were applied to obtain fluctuations of the characteristic parameters of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact. As an example of their application to time-dependent plasma measurement, the electron temperature and electron density of plasmas were acquired in hypervelocity impact experiments. Characteristic parameters of plasma generated by hypervelocity impact were compared by the two kinds of diagnostic techniques mentioned above.

  2. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  3. Test of a new tip material for Langmuir probe diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, M. Y.; Shukrullah, S.; Ghaffar, A.; Rehman, N. U.; Khan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is to test a nickel-chrome alloy as a probe tip material for characterization of discharge plasmas. In order to meet the objective, a symmetric triple Langmuir probe diagnostic system and an associated driving circuit are designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma generated by a 13.56-MHz radio frequency source coupled with an automated impedance match network. This probe is used to measure the electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current as functions of the input power of the radio frequency source and the filling gas pressure. An increasing trend is noticed in the electron temperature and electron number density with an increase in the input power, whilst a decreasing trend is evident in these parameters with an increase in the nitrogen gas pressure. The overall inaccuracies in electron temperature and electron number density measurements are 5-12% and 3-13%, respectively.

  4. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Haberberger, D; Boni, R; Ivancic, S; Brown, R; Froula, D H

    2014-11-01

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry. PMID:25430357

  5. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, A. Haberberger, D.; Boni, R.; Ivancic, S.; Brown, R.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-11-15

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry.

  6. Note: Refined possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Masherov, P E; Riaby, V A; Abgaryan, V K

    2016-08-01

    In an earlier publication, the ion mass determination technique was proposed using the Langmuir probe measurement results for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas and their analysis, based on the Bohm effect and the Child-Boguslavsky-Langmuir (CBL) probe sheath model, allowing for probe sheath thickness and ion mass evaluations after the Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes had been determined. In the present study, the step-front sheath model, being physically closer to the reality of gas discharge plasmas, was considered in order to correct the CBL sheath model results. At this stage, more real Bohm coefficient (CBCyl ≈ 1.23) for cylindrical probes was found to provide a more reliable method of probe sheath thickness and ion mass determination. PMID:27587177

  7. Note: Refined possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masherov, P. E.; Riaby, V. A.; Abgaryan, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    In an earlier publication, the ion mass determination technique was proposed using the Langmuir probe measurement results for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas and their analysis, based on the Bohm effect and the Child-Boguslavsky-Langmuir (CBL) probe sheath model, allowing for probe sheath thickness and ion mass evaluations after the Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes had been determined. In the present study, the step-front sheath model, being physically closer to the reality of gas discharge plasmas, was considered in order to correct the CBL sheath model results. At this stage, more real Bohm coefficient (CBCyl ≈ 1.23) for cylindrical probes was found to provide a more reliable method of probe sheath thickness and ion mass determination.

  8. Note: Refined possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Masherov, P E; Riaby, V A; Abgaryan, V K

    2016-08-01

    In an earlier publication, the ion mass determination technique was proposed using the Langmuir probe measurement results for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas and their analysis, based on the Bohm effect and the Child-Boguslavsky-Langmuir (CBL) probe sheath model, allowing for probe sheath thickness and ion mass evaluations after the Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes had been determined. In the present study, the step-front sheath model, being physically closer to the reality of gas discharge plasmas, was considered in order to correct the CBL sheath model results. At this stage, more real Bohm coefficient (CBCyl ≈ 1.23) for cylindrical probes was found to provide a more reliable method of probe sheath thickness and ion mass determination.

  9. SERS gene probe for DNA diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, David L.; Allain, Leonardo R.; Isola, Narayana R.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-07-01

    We describe the development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering gene (SERGen) probe technology for rapid screening for diseases and pathogens through DNA hybridization assays. The technology combines the use of gene probes labeled with SERS-active markers, and nanostructured metallic platforms for inducing the SERS effect. As a result, SERGen-based methods can offer the spectral selectivity and sensitivity of SERS as well as the molecular specificity of DNA sequence hybridization. Furthermore, these new probe s preclude the use of radioactive labels. As illustrated herein, SERGen probes have been used as primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of specific DNA sequences, hence further boosting the sensitivity of the technology. We also describe several approaches to developing SERS-active DNA assay platforms, addressing the challenges of making the SERGen technology accessible and practical for clinical settings. The usefulness of the SERGen approach has been demonstrated in the detection of HIV, BRCA1 breast cancer, and BAX genes. There is great potential for the use of numerous SERGen probes for multiplexed detection of multiple biological targets.

  10. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Devicea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Nishizawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (˜20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  11. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  12. PDX diagnostic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Mika, R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-base diagnostic control system operating on the PDX Tokamak. The prime function of the system is to control mechanical positioning devices associated with various diagnostics including Thomson Scattering, X-Ray Pulse Height Analyzer, Rotating Scanning Monochromator, Fast Ion Detection Experiment, Bolometers and Plasma Limiters. The diagnostic control system consists of a PDP-11/34 computer, a CAMAC system partitioned between the PDX control room and the PDX machine area, and special electronic control modules developed at PPL. The special modules include a digital closed loop motor controller and user interface control panel for control and status display. A standard control panel was developed for interfacing each system user with the PDP-11/34 computer, through specially developed CAMAC modules.

  13. New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  14. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  15. Probing the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  16. Plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies in a Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-08-19

    A plasma diagnostic method using intermodulation frequencies is developed. When dual-frequency (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) voltage signals are applied to a probe, the intermodulation frequencies (ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1}, ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) between the signals are generated due to the nonlinearity of the sheath. From the analysis of the intermodulation frequencies, the plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the plasma density, can be obtained. The measured plasma parameters from this method are compared to the results from the measured electron energy distribution function, and they are in good agreement. Because the intermodulation currents originated from the plasma not from the stray component of the measurement system, an accurate measurement of the plasma parameters is achievable.

  17. Optoacoustic probe for prostate cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Valeriy G.; Karabutov, Alexander A.; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    The optoacoustic probe for prostate cancer detection was developed and tested. The 10-ns pulses of the YAG:Nd laser were delivered by an optical fiber with a turning mirror at its tip. A fiber tip was placed above an ultrasonic array which was employed for the detection of acoustic transients excited inside prostate tissue. The increased infrared light absorption inside prostate tumors resulted in acoustic pulses with enhanced peak pressure providing 200%-300% optoacoustic contrast. The transducer array and the optical fiber were wrapped inside a 20-mm diameter thin cylindrical shell filled with ultrasonic gel transparent for infrared radiation. Each acoustic transducer was made of 0.05-mm thick PVDF film with dimensions of 1 mm x12 mm. The frequency bandwidth of transducer array provided 0.3-mm axial in-depth resolution. The lateral resolution is defined by the array length and was estimated as 0.8-mm for 32-element array with 1-mm gap between transducers. Transducer sensitivity of 0.05 mV/Pa allowed the detection of 2-mm tumor located at 50 mm depth. The optoacoustic probe performance was evaluated via the acquisition of two-dimensional optoacoustic images of small absorbing spheres in prostate-tissue phantoms. [Work supported by NIH and FIRCA grants.

  18. Application of cylindrical Langmuir probes to streaming plasma diagnostics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, S. B.; Koopman, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of cylindrical probes in a high velocity collisionless plasma flow have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The plasma was generated by a focused laser pulse incident on a metallic target in vacuum. An analysis, developed from a stationary plasma analog to the flowing case, demonstrated a failure of plasma shielding of probe potential in the electron attracting region. Modifications of relatively simple previous treatments were found to be valid for computing electron current to a probe. The electron characteristics derived from the present analysis agree well with experimental results. The ion and electron portions of the characteristics are consistent with each other and with independent diagnostic measurements.

  19. Process Diagnostics and Monitoring Using the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harhausen, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Lapke, M.; Musch, T.; Mussenbrock, T.; Oberrath, J.; Ohl, A.; Rolfes, I.; Schulz, Ch.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.

    2011-10-01

    In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. In this contribution we present the application of the MRP in an industrial plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) chamber (Leybold optics SYRUS-pro). The MRP is a novel plasma diagnostic which is suitable for an industrial environment - which means that the proposed method is robust, calibration free, and economical, and can be used for ideal and reactive plasmas alike. In order to employ the MRP as process diagnostics we mounted the probe on a manipulator to obtain spatially resolved information on the electron density and temperature. As monitoring tool the MRP is installed at a fixed position. Even during the deposition process it provides stable measurement results while other diagnostic methods, e.g. the Langmuir probe, may suffer from dielectric coatings. Funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 13N10462).

  20. Langmuir probe diagnostic suite in the C-2 field-reversed configuration.

    PubMed

    Roche, T; Sun, X; Armstrong, S; Knapp, K; Slepchenkov, M

    2014-11-01

    Several in situ probes have been designed and implemented into the diagnostic array of the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy [M. Tuszewski et al. (the TAE Team), Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)]. The probes are all variations on the traditional Langmuir probe. They include linear arrays of triple probes, linear arrays of single-tipped swept probes, a multi-faced Gundestrup probe, and an ion-sensitive probe. The probes vary from 5 to 7 mm diameter in size to minimize plasma perturbations. They also have boron nitride outer casings that prevent unwanted electrical breakdown and reduce the introduction of impurities. The probes are mounted on motorized linear-actuators allowing for programmatic scans of the various plasma parameters over the course of several shots. Each probe has a custom set of electronics that allows for measurement of the desired signals. High frequency ( > 5MHz) analog optical-isolators ensure that plasma parameters can be measured at sub-microsecond time scales while providing electrical isolation between machine and data acquisition systems. With these probes time-resolved plasma parameters (temperature, density, spatial potential, flow, and electric field) can be directly/locally measured in the FRC jet and edge/scrape-off layer.

  1. Langmuir probe diagnostic suite in the C-2 field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, T. Armstrong, S.; Knapp, K.; Slepchenkov, M.; Sun, X.

    2014-11-15

    Several in situ probes have been designed and implemented into the diagnostic array of the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy [M. Tuszewski et al. (the TAE Team), Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)]. The probes are all variations on the traditional Langmuir probe. They include linear arrays of triple probes, linear arrays of single-tipped swept probes, a multi-faced Gundestrup probe, and an ion-sensitive probe. The probes vary from 5 to 7 mm diameter in size to minimize plasma perturbations. They also have boron nitride outer casings that prevent unwanted electrical breakdown and reduce the introduction of impurities. The probes are mounted on motorized linear-actuators allowing for programmatic scans of the various plasma parameters over the course of several shots. Each probe has a custom set of electronics that allows for measurement of the desired signals. High frequency ( > 5MHz) analog optical-isolators ensure that plasma parameters can be measured at sub-microsecond time scales while providing electrical isolation between machine and data acquisition systems. With these probes time-resolved plasma parameters (temperature, density, spatial potential, flow, and electric field) can be directly/locally measured in the FRC jet and edge/scrape-off layer.

  2. Analyses of Different Techniques for the Plasma Probe Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery; Alexandrovich, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    The subject of this publication is comparison of the plasma parameters inferred from classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured EEDF using double differentiation of the probe characteristic We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred by the classical Langmuir procedure are subjected to significant inaccuracy due to non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential and arbitrariness in approximation of the ion current. The plasma density inferred from the ion part of the probe characteristic was found to diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated as the EEDF integral, while the electron temperature is derived with significant uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to deficiencies in the ion current theories, i.e. unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian-shaped EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and some others. We concluded that for highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas at low gas pressure the probe measurements based on EEDF diagnostics is single reliable tool of for the basic research and industrial applications. Examples of EEDF measurements reiterate significance of the instrument technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range and importance of displaying the probe current derivatives in real time.

  3. Micro-Particles as Electrostatic Probes for Plasma Sheath Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, Matthias; Haass, Moritz; Ockenga, Taalke; Kersten, Holger; Blazec, Joseph; Basner, Ralf

    2008-09-07

    An interesting aspect in the research of complex (dusty) plasmas is the experimental study of the interaction of micro-particles of different sizes with the surrounding plasma for diagnostic purpose. In the plasma micro-disperse particles are negatively charged and confined in the sheath. The particles are trapped by an equilibrium of gravity, electric field force and ion drag force. From the behavior, local electric fields can be determined, e.g. particles are used as electrostatic probes. In combination with additional measurements of the plasma parameters with Langmuir probes and thermal probes as well as by comparison with an analytical sheath model, the structure of the sheath can be described. In the present work we focus on the behavior of micro-particles of different sizes and several plasma parameters e.g. the gas pressure and the rf-power.

  4. Traversing probe system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  5. Diagnostics for slapper detonator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.

    1989-03-28

    This report discusses diagnostics which have been used to evaluate CDU characteristics and performance, slapper characteristics and performance and the response of a HE detonator output pellet to a slapper stimulus. Many of the diagnostics discussed are appropriate for development and production testing. These include CVR current measurements, voltage probe measurements, time-of-flight measurements, threshold measurements, function time measurements, use of steel witness plates and determination of design margin. Some of the more-sophisticated, expensive diagnostics discussed have yielded very useful information, but are not required for development and production testing. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  7. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  8. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  9. Flush-mounted probe diagnostics for argon glow discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Du, Yinchang; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Pi; Zhang, Jin; Li, Xiao; Qin, Yongqiang; Zhao, Liang

    2014-09-01

    A comparison is made between plasma parameters measured by a flush-mounted probe (FP) and a cylindrical probe (CP) in argon glow discharge plasma. Parameters compared include the space potential, the plasma density, and the effective electron temperature. It is found that the ion density determined by the FP agrees well with the electron density determined by the CP in the quasi-neutral plasma to better than 10%. Moreover, the space potential and effective electron temperature calculated from electron energy distribution function measured by the FP is consistent with that measured by the CP over the operated discharge current and pressure ranges. These results present the FP can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool in the stable laboratory plasma and also be anticipated to be applied in other complicated plasmas, such as tokamaks, the region of boundary-layer, and so on.

  10. Flush-mounted probe diagnostics for argon glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liang Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Du, Yinchang; Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Pi; Zhang, Jin; Li, Xiao; Qin, Yongqiang; Zhao, Liang

    2014-09-15

    A comparison is made between plasma parameters measured by a flush-mounted probe (FP) and a cylindrical probe (CP) in argon glow discharge plasma. Parameters compared include the space potential, the plasma density, and the effective electron temperature. It is found that the ion density determined by the FP agrees well with the electron density determined by the CP in the quasi-neutral plasma to better than 10%. Moreover, the space potential and effective electron temperature calculated from electron energy distribution function measured by the FP is consistent with that measured by the CP over the operated discharge current and pressure ranges. These results present the FP can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool in the stable laboratory plasma and also be anticipated to be applied in other complicated plasmas, such as tokamaks, the region of boundary-layer, and so on.

  11. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Patil, D. S.; Mittal, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10-4-10-3 mbar and 400-1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 1010 cm-3 to 3.8 × 1011 cm-3 and 4-14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  12. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2013-07-15

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar and 400–1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 3.8 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and 4–14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  13. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Kewlani, H; Mishra, L; Patil, D S; Mittal, K C

    2013-07-01

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10(-4)-10(-3) mbar and 400-1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 3.8 × 10(11) cm(-3) and 4-14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  14. New diagnostic systems on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. T.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Xiao, W. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Yan, L. W.; Hong, W. Y.; Yang, Q. W.

    2006-10-15

    Three new diagnostic systems have been presented in this article: (1) the pulse molecular beam injection as a modulated particle source and microwave reflectometry for investigation of the particle transport, (2) a new three-step electrostatic probe array for zonal flow studying, and (3) eight-channel laser interferometer with 6 m HCN laser for electron density profile measurement with good spatial resolution. The main experimental results have also been shown briefly.

  15. Tissue classification and diagnostics using a fiber probe for combined Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Anand, Suresh; Crisci, Alfonso; Giordano, Flavio; Rossari, Susanna; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Maio, Vincenza; Massi, Daniela; Nesi, Gabriella; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-07-01

    Two different optical fiber probes for combined Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were designed, developed and used for tissue diagnostics. Two visible laser diodes were used for fluorescence spectroscopy, whereas a laser diode emitting in the NIR was used for Raman spectroscopy. The two probes were based on fiber bundles with a central multimode optical fiber, used for delivering light to the tissue, and 24 surrounding optical fibers for signal collection. Both fluorescence and Raman spectra were acquired using the same detection unit, based on a cooled CCD camera, connected to a spectrograph. The two probes were successfully employed for diagnostic purposes on various tissues in a good agreement with common routine histology. This study included skin, brain and bladder tissues and in particular the classification of: malignant melanoma against melanocytic lesions and healthy skin; urothelial carcinoma against healthy bladder mucosa; brain tumor against dysplastic brain tissue. The diagnostic capabilities were determined using a cross-validation method with a leave-one-out approach, finding very high sensitivity and specificity for all the examined tissues. The obtained results demonstrated that the multimodal approach is crucial for improving diagnostic capabilities. The system presented here can improve diagnostic capabilities on a broad range of tissues and has the potential of being used for endoscopic inspections in the near future.

  16. The Huygens Probe System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, K. C.; Hassan, H.; Verdant, M.; Couzin, P.; Huttin, G.; Brisson, M.; Sollazzo, C.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2002-07-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its largest moon Titan. Huygens is an entry probe designed to enter Titan's atmosphere and descend under parachute down to the surface. The Probe is carried to Titan on board the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Huygens is dormant for 7.2 years, during the interplanetary journey and during the first 6 months around Saturn. It is activated about every 6 months for an in-flight checkout to verify and monitor its health and to perform a periodic maintenance and calibration of the payload instruments. The Probe will be targeted to Titan and released from the Orbiter about 3 weeks before the Titan encounter on the third Orbit around Saturn. During the 3-week coast phase the Probe is ‘OFF’, except a timer unit that has the task to awaken Huygens before it enters Titan's atmosphere. The Probe's aeroshell will decelerate it in less than 2 minutes from the entry speed of about 6 km s-1 to 400 m s-1 (Mach 1.5) at an altitude of 150 180 km. From that point onwards, a pre-programmed sequence will trigger the parachute deployment and the heat-shield ejection. The main part of the scientific mission will then start, lasting for a descent of 2 21/2 hours. The Orbiter will listen to the Probe for a total duration of at least 3 hours, which includes time to receive data from the surface, should the Probe continue to transmit data after touchdown. Huygens' transmissions are received and stored aboard the Orbiter for later retransmission to the Earth. This paper presents a technical description of the elements of the Huygens Probe System. The reader is invited to refer to the companion paper (Lebreton and Matson, 2002) for further background information about the Huygens mission, and the payload. The early in-flight performance of the Probe is briefly discussed. During in-flight testing in 2000, a technical anomaly was found with the Probe-to-Orbiter telecommunication system that

  17. Studies Probe Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the two recent studies of interest to the library community: (1) an A. D. Little analysis of past and present systems for dissemination of scientific technical information, and (2) Fritz Machlup's economic profile of key disseminators of scholarly, scientific, and intellectual knowledge. (FM)

  18. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  19. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Young, Jack P.

    1998-01-01

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferrably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0.degree., an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head.

  20. Influence of the bias signal amplitude and frequency on the harmonic probe measurements in plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yu-jing; Lu, Wen-qi; Li, Jian-quan; Xu, Jun; Wang, You-nian

    2016-08-01

    The harmonic probe technique may be used for the diagnostics of the plasma in insulative film deposition circumstances where the conventional Langmuir probe cannot work. In this study, we investigated the influence of the bias signal amplitude V0 and frequency f of the harmonic probe on the diagnostic results. While the measured electron temperature Te and ion density ni change little with f within the frequency range of 1-10 kHz, both of them show a considerable increase with V0 . The reasons for the results were analyzed, and based on the understanding, an improved harmonic probe technique was proposed. The validity of the improved technique was verified by comparing its results with those of a conventional Langmuir probe in Ar plasmas. The improved harmonic probe technique was applied in diagnostics of the plasma circumstance for microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition of SiNx films.

  1. Monoclonals and DNA probes in diagnostic and preventative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.C.; Della Povta, G.; Albertini, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 24 selections. Some of the titles are: Use of DNA Probes for Prenatal and Carrier Diagnosis of Hemophilia and Fragile X Mental Retardation; The Application of DNA Probes to Diagnosis and Research of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Clinical Trial, New Probes and Deletion Mapping; Molecular Genetics of the Human Collagens; Molecular Genetics of Human Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Genes; Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA and Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA: Implications in Diagnosis and Pathogenesis; and DNA Probes to Evaluate the Possible Association of Papovaviruses with Human Tumors.

  2. Note: The expansion of possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masherov, P. E.; Riaby, V. A.; Abgaryan, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The determination of ion mass for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas has been proposed. It can be done using Langmuir probe measurements and the Bohm formula for the ion current density to a floating probe, due to this formula's reliance on ion mass. This goal was achieved by accurate measurements of xenon plasma parameters in the inductive discharge at pressure p = 2 ṡ 10-3 Torr using the Plasma Sensors VGPS-12 probe station with the cylindrical Langmuir probes. The analysis of measurement data showed that in these conditions, the Bohm effect was valid with engineering-level precision, resulting in the experimental Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes.

  3. Note: The expansion of possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Masherov, P E; Riaby, V A; Abgaryan, V K

    2016-05-01

    The determination of ion mass for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas has been proposed. It can be done using Langmuir probe measurements and the Bohm formula for the ion current density to a floating probe, due to this formula's reliance on ion mass. This goal was achieved by accurate measurements of xenon plasma parameters in the inductive discharge at pressure p = 2 ⋅ 10(-3) Torr using the Plasma Sensors VGPS-12 probe station with the cylindrical Langmuir probes. The analysis of measurement data showed that in these conditions, the Bohm effect was valid with engineering-level precision, resulting in the experimental Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes. PMID:27250479

  4. Note: The expansion of possibilities for plasma probe diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Masherov, P E; Riaby, V A; Abgaryan, V K

    2016-05-01

    The determination of ion mass for low-pressure Maxwellian plasmas has been proposed. It can be done using Langmuir probe measurements and the Bohm formula for the ion current density to a floating probe, due to this formula's reliance on ion mass. This goal was achieved by accurate measurements of xenon plasma parameters in the inductive discharge at pressure p = 2 ⋅ 10(-3) Torr using the Plasma Sensors VGPS-12 probe station with the cylindrical Langmuir probes. The analysis of measurement data showed that in these conditions, the Bohm effect was valid with engineering-level precision, resulting in the experimental Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13 for cylindrical probes.

  5. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Goerz, D.A.; Thomas, S.R.

    1981-10-21

    This paper describes the current design status of the plasma diagnostic system for MFTF-B. In this paper we describe the system requirement changes which have occurred as a result of the funded rescoping of the original MFTF facility into MFTF-B. We outline the diagnostic instruments which are currently planned, and present an overview of the diagnostic system.

  6. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  7. Application of dust grains and Langmuir probe for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ussenov, Y. A.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of the experimentally measured width of the dust-free region around a single electric probe in a dusty plasma of glow discharge. The experimental results were compared with the data of a theoretical study on the basis of the balance equation of the dust particles thermal energy and their electrostatic interaction energy with the probe. An alternative method for the determination of the buffer plasma parameters was developed by measuring the dust-free region area around the probe. Using this method the temperature and the concentration of electrons in an argon glow discharge plasma in the pressure range from P= 0.6 to P= 0.8\\ \\text{torr} were determined.

  8. Compact endocavity diagnostic probes for nuclear radiation detection

    DOEpatents

    Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph; Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2014-08-26

    This invention relates to the field of radiation imaging. In particular, the invention relates to an apparatus and a method for imaging tissue or an inanimate object using a novel probe that has an integrated solid-state semiconductor detector and complete readout electronics circuitry.

  9. Potential measurements with heavy ion beam probe system on LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Ido, T.; Toi, K.; Nakamura, S.

    2010-10-15

    The heavy ion beam probe system in the Large Helical Device (LHD) was improved as follows. At first, the additional new sweeper was installed into the diagnostic port to extend the observable region. By using this sweeper, the potential profile was measured in a wider minor radius range than in previous experiments, in the case of outward shifted magnetic configuration of LHD. Next, the real time control system was installed to control the probe beam orbit for measuring the potential in plasma with large plasma current. In this system, a digital signal processor was used to control the probe beam in real time. The system worked well in the fixed position observation mode. In the sweeping mode for profile measurement, this control system became unstable. The details of this system and the experimental results are reported in this article.

  10. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  11. Chapter 8: The Diagnostic Systems in the FTU

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, O.; Apruzzese, G.M.; Buratti, P.; Cantarini, L.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cocilovo, V.; Angelis, R. de; Benedetti, M. de; Esposito, B.; Gabellieri, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, L.A.; Grosso, G.; Innocente, P.; Kroegler, H.; Leigheb, M.; Monari, G.; Pacella, D.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Podda, S.; Puiatti, M.E.; Rocchi, G.; Sibio, A.; Simonetto, A.; Smeulders, P.; Tartari, U.; Tartoni, N.; Tilia, B.; Valisa, M.; Zanza, V.; Zerbini, M.

    2004-05-15

    The design of diagnostics for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is challenging because of the compactness of the machine (8-cm-wide ports) and the low operating temperatures requiring the presence of a cryostat. Nevertheless, a rather complete diagnostic system has been progressively installed. The basic systems include a set of magnetic probes, various visible and ultraviolet spectrometers, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) for electron temperature profiles measurements and electron tails monitoring, far-infrared and CO{sub 2} interferometry, X-ray (soft and hard) measurements, a multichord neutron diagnostics (with different type detectors), and a Thomson scattering system. Some diagnostics specific to the FTU physics program have been used such as microwave reflectometry for turbulence studies, edge-scanning Langmuir probes for radio-frequency coupling assessment, oblique ECE, and a fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) camera for lower hybrid current drive-induced fast electron tails.These systems are briefly reviewed in this paper. Further developments including a scanning CO{sub 2} laser two-color interferometer, two FEB cameras for tomographic analysis, a motional Stark effect system, and a collective Thomson scattering system are also described.

  12. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  13. Development of Optical Diagnostics to Probe Post-Detonation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangilinan, G. I.

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments have spurred a need to recognize processes that occur after the detonation of energetic materials. Understanding enhanced explosive effects whereby substantial energy releasing steps happen nanoseconds to milliseconds after a detonation is a critical need. Optical diagnostic methods are promising because they can meet stringent requirements inherent in detonation events. Optical sensors can monitor fast events and can be remotely placed to be immune from the heat and pressure inherent in a detonation. They thus complement electrical gauges currently in use. We have applied time-resolved emission spectroscopy in monitoring the transient chemical processes in several detonating formulations. Gauges using refractive index to measure pressure have also been developed. Optical fibers have also been tremendously useful in determining shock velocities. These measurements of transient chemistry, pressure and particle flow are essential in unraveling these complex post detonation processes. Other optical techniques in development will be discussed. The scope of applications for these gauges and their limitations will be presented.

  14. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles as targeted probes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenjie; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-08-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attractive for medical diagnostics and therapeutics due to their unique magnetic properties and their ability to interact with various biomolecules of interest. The solution phase based chemical synthesis provides a near precise control on NP size, and monodisperse magnetic NPs with standard deviation in diameter of less than 10% are now routinely available. Upon controlled surface functionalization and coupling with fragments of DNA strands, proteins, peptides or antibodies, these NPs can be well-dispersed in biological solutions and used for drug delivery, magnetic separation, magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. This Perspective reviews the common syntheses and controlled surface functionalization of monodisperse Fe(3)O(4)-based superparamagnetic NPs. It further outlines the exciting application potentials of these NPs in magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. PMID:20449070

  15. Novel optical spectroscopy system for breast cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia; Turchin, Ilya; Kamensky, Vladislav; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Golubyatnikov, German; Da Silva, Luiz; Kasthuri, Usha; Pavlycheva, Irina; Smetanina, Svetlana; Artifeksova, Anna; Belkov, Sergey; Kochemasov, Gennady

    2007-02-01

    We report on development of minimally invasive system for immediate diagnostics of breast cancer and on the results of its pilot clinical testing. The system designed by BioTelligent Inc is based on analysis of optical diffusion spectra (ODS) measured by a probe inserted into breast tissue during standard punch biopsy. Analysis of scattered spectra aimed to distinction of benign tumors from malignant ones is done by original procedure of data processing. Clinical testing of the created diagnostic system has been performed by classification of spectra collected from 146 patients with previously detected mammary neoplasms. The data of ODS study in each patient have been compared to the results of histology. The proposed technique has to date demonstrated sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 80% and diagnostic accuracy of 88%. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data processing is employed.

  16. ATA diagnostic data handling system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, F.W.; Kallman, J.; McDonald, J.; Slominski, M.

    1984-06-14

    The functions to be performed by the ATA diagnostic data handling system are discussed. The capabilities of the present data acquisition system (System 0) are presented. The goals for the next generation acquisition system (System 1), currently under design, are discussed. Facilities on the Octopus system for data handling are reviewed. Finally, we discuss what has been learned about diagnostics and computer based data handling during the past year.

  17. Microwave probe diagnostic for the lower hybrid multijunction antenna on TdeV

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, P.; Demers, Y.; Chaudron, G.A.; Glaude, V.; Cote, A.; Dube, A.; Mireault, R.; Robert, A.; Vachon, L.

    1997-02-01

    On the TdeV tokamak a microwave probe diagnostic enables direct measurement of the electromagnetic fields in ten reduced waveguides of the lower hybrid current drive multijunction antenna. In each instrumented reduced waveguide, the local field is measured at two different locations by probes through coupling holes located in the narrow wall of the waveguides. The amplitude and phase of the signals are measured with a multichannel heterodyne circuit and are used to calculate the incident and reflected fields at the antenna mouth. The probes are under vacuum and they are bakeable up to the maximum operating temperature of the antenna ({ital T}=350{degree}C). They are calibrated at room temperature but the evolution of their characteristic with temperature is taken into account in the data analysis. Typical accuracies of the field measurements at the grill mouth are: {plus_minus}9{percent} for the amplitude and {plus_minus}6{degree} for the phase. The probe diagnostic has been operating reliably for the last two years and the probes do not appear to perturb the operation of the antenna nor to reduce its power handling capability. Comparisons of the probe measurements with calculations from the multijunction antenna modeling code SWAN show that the code is accurate for low rf power densities at the antenna mouth. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Diagnostics principle of microwave cut-off probe for measuring absolute electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyun-Su

    2014-08-15

    A generalized diagnostics principle of microwave cut-off probe is presented with a full analytical solution. In previous studies on the microwave cut-off measurement of weakly ionized plasmas, the cut-off frequency ω{sub c} of a given electron density is assumed to be equal to the plasma frequency ω{sub p} and is predicted using electromagnetic simulation or electric circuit model analysis. However, for specific plasma conditions such as highly collisional plasma and a very narrow probe tip gap, it has been found that ω{sub c} and ω{sub p} are not equal. To resolve this problem, a generalized diagnostics principle is proposed by analytically solving the microwave cut-off condition Re[ε{sub r,eff}(ω = ω{sub c})] = 0. In addition, characteristics of the microwave cut-off condition are theoretically tested for correct measurement of the absolute electron density.

  19. A recommender system for medical imaging diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Eriksson; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2015-01-01

    The large volume of data captured daily in healthcare institutions is opening new and great perspectives about the best ways to use it towards improving clinical practice. In this paper we present a context-based recommender system to support medical imaging diagnostic. The system relies on data mining and context-based retrieval techniques to automatically lookup for relevant information that may help physicians in the diagnostic decision.

  20. Matched dipole probe for magnetized low electron density laboratory plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, a diagnostic method for magnetized and unmagnetized laboratory plasma is proposed, based on impedance measurements of a short matched dipole. The range of the measured electron densities is limited to low density plasmas (10{sup 12}–10{sup 15 }m{sup −3}), where other diagnostic methods have strong limitations on the magnetic field strength and topology, plasma dimensions, and boundary conditions. The method is designed for use in both large- and small-dimension plasma (<10 cm) without or with strong non-homogeneous magnetic field, which can be undefined within the probe size. The design of a matched dipole probe allows to suppress the sheath resonance effects and to reach high sensitivity at relatively small probe dimensions. Validation experiments are conducted in both magnetized (B ∼ 170 G) and unmagnetized (B = 0) low density (7 × 10{sup 12 }m{sup −3}–7 × 10{sup 13 }m{sup −3}) low pressure (1 mTorr) 10 cm scale plasmas. The experimentally measured data show very good agreement with an analytical theory both for a non-magnetized and a magnetized case. The electron density measured by the matched dipole and Langmuir probes in the range of 7 × 10{sup 12 }m{sup −3}–7 × 10{sup 13 }m{sup −3} show less than 30% difference. An experimentally measured tolerance/uncertainty of the dipole probe method is estimated to ±1% for plasma densities above 2 × 10{sup 13 }m{sup −3}. A spatial resolution is estimated from the experiments to be about 3d, where d is the dipole diameter. The diagnostic method is also validated by comparing the measured plasma impedance curves with results of analytical modelling.

  1. Matched dipole probe for magnetized low electron density laboratory plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a diagnostic method for magnetized and unmagnetized laboratory plasma is proposed, based on impedance measurements of a short matched dipole. The range of the measured electron densities is limited to low density plasmas (1012-1015 m-3), where other diagnostic methods have strong limitations on the magnetic field strength and topology, plasma dimensions, and boundary conditions. The method is designed for use in both large- and small-dimension plasma (<10 cm) without or with strong non-homogeneous magnetic field, which can be undefined within the probe size. The design of a matched dipole probe allows to suppress the sheath resonance effects and to reach high sensitivity at relatively small probe dimensions. Validation experiments are conducted in both magnetized (B ˜ 170 G) and unmagnetized (B = 0) low density (7 × 1012 m-3-7 × 1013 m-3) low pressure (1 mTorr) 10 cm scale plasmas. The experimentally measured data show very good agreement with an analytical theory both for a non-magnetized and a magnetized case. The electron density measured by the matched dipole and Langmuir probes in the range of 7 × 1012 m-3-7 × 1013 m-3 show less than 30% difference. An experimentally measured tolerance/uncertainty of the dipole probe method is estimated to ±1% for plasma densities above 2 × 1013 m-3. A spatial resolution is estimated from the experiments to be about 3d, where d is the dipole diameter. The diagnostic method is also validated by comparing the measured plasma impedance curves with results of analytical modelling.

  2. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    SciTech Connect

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  3. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  4. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  5. SSME Post Test Diagnostic System: Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test firing or flight firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project - the SSME Post Test Diagnostic System (PTDS) - is to develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This report primarily covers work on the Systems Section of the PTDS, which automates the analyses performed by the systems/performance group at the Propulsion Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This group is responsible for assessing the overall health and performance of the engine, and detecting and diagnosing anomalies which involve multiple components (other groups are responsible for analyzing the behavior of specific components). The PTDS utilizes several advanced software technologies to perform its analyses. Raw test data is analyzed using signal processing routines which detect features in the data, such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts. Component analyses are performed by expert systems, which use 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with the MSFC data analysts to detect and diagnose anomalies. The systems analysis is performed using case-based reasoning. Results of all analyses are stored in a relational database and displayed via an X-window-based graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  6. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. C.; Wang, L.; Xu, G. S.; Luo, G. N.; Yao, D. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, H. Q.; Jia, M. N.; Feng, W.; Deng, G. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. W.; Guo, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability.

  7. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Xu, J C; Wang, L; Xu, G S; Luo, G N; Yao, D M; Li, Q; Cao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, W; Liu, S C; Wang, H Q; Jia, M N; Feng, W; Deng, G Z; Hu, L Q; Wan, B N; Li, J; Sun, Y W; Guo, H Y

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability. PMID:27587120

  8. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Xu, J C; Wang, L; Xu, G S; Luo, G N; Yao, D M; Li, Q; Cao, L; Chen, L; Zhang, W; Liu, S C; Wang, H Q; Jia, M N; Feng, W; Deng, G Z; Hu, L Q; Wan, B N; Li, J; Sun, Y W; Guo, H Y

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability.

  9. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K.

    2014-08-21

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  10. First mirrors for diagnostic systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Costley, A.; Donné, A. J. H.; SWG on First Mirrors of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    2007-08-01

    The majority of optical diagnostics presently foreseen for ITER will implement in-vessel metallic mirrors as plasma-viewing components. Mirrors are used for the observation of the plasma radiation in a very wide wavelength range: from about 1 nm up to a few mm. In the hostile ITER environment, mirrors are subject to erosion, deposition, particle implantation and other adverse effects which will change their optical properties, affecting the entire performance of the respective diagnostic systems. The Specialists Working Group (SWG) on first mirrors was established under the wings of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics to coordinate and guide the investigations on diagnostic mirrors towards the development of optimal, robust and durable solutions for ITER diagnostic systems. The results of tests of various ITER-candidate mirror materials, performed in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10, TRIAM-1M and LHD under various plasma conditions, as well as an overview of laboratory investigations of mirror performance and mirror cleaning techniques are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R&D of diagnostic mirrors will be addressed.

  11. Probing Temperatures in the Extreme Colliding-Wind Binary Eta Carinae using Iron-Line Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyder, Jean-Christophe; Eta Carinae Team

    2013-04-01

    Eta Carinae, one of the most peculiar objects in our Galaxy, was the second brightest object in the sky during its eruption in 1843. The large quantities of matter that were ejected at that time are now forming an extended nebula, while Eta Car is still ejecting matter through energetic stellar winds. Eta Car is a colliding-wind binary system: the dense stellar wind coming from the massive luminous blue variable primary star collides with the higher-velocity, lower-density wind from the hotter and luminous (and otherwise unseen) companion star in a highly eccentric orbit. Monitoring observations in the radio, UV, optical, and X-ray domains all indicate an orbital period of 5.5 years. X-ray observations of a colliding-wind binary system such as Eta Carinae provide numerous clues as to the shock physics and mechanisms responsible for particle acceleration and emission in the hydrodynamical shocks that form between the stellar winds. Furthermore, Eta Carinae's long period and high eccentricity provides varying physical conditions, and allow to probe a large parameter space of densities and wind speeds, especially when observing periastron passages where strong variations occur over a short timescale. In my talk, I will present a set of 24 high-resolution X-ray spectra of Eta Carinae obtained by the Chandra satellite, with a particularly detailed coverage around the X-ray minima of 2003.5 and 2009. I will mostly focus on the variations and peculiarities observed in the Fe K line region. Indeed, at energies around 7 keV, absorption becomes much less important, and the temperatures probed are much higher than what can be done using fir triplet around 1 keV. The relative intensities of the Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines provide a very useful diagnostic of the temperature in the apex of the shock, one of the best approaches to obtain observational constraints . They appear to vary along the orbital phase with a repeatable pattern, and I will suggest a likely interpretation

  12. The Multiple Resonance Probe: A Novel Device for Industry Compatible Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Storch, Robert; Lapke, Martin; Oberrath, Jens; Schulz, Christian; Styrnoll, Tim; Zietz, Christian; Awakowicz, Peter; Musch, Thomas; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Rolfes, Ilona

    2012-10-01

    To be useful for the supervision or control of technical plasmas, a diagnostic method must be i) robust and stable, ii) insensitive to perturbation by the process, iii) itself not perturbing the process, iv) clearly and easily interpretable without the need for calibration, v) compliant with the requirements of process integration, and, last but not least, vi) economical in terms of investment, footprint, and maintenance. Plasma resonance spectroscopy, exploiting the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency, provides a good basis for such an ``industry compatible'' plasma diagnostics. The contribution will describe the general idea of active plasma resonance spectroscopy and introduce a mathematical formalism for its analysis. It will then focus on the novel multipole resonance probe (MRP), where the excited resonances can be classified explicitly and the connection between the probe response and the desired electron density can be cast as a simple formula. The current state of the MRP project will be described, including the experimental characterization of a prototype in comparison with Langmuir probes, and the development of a specialized measurement circuit.

  13. Low-cost laser diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, T. J.; Lim, D. R.; Lingenfelter, A. C.

    1985-10-01

    The principal feature of a new laser diagnostic system is real-time display of beam energy profile. This ensures on-line verification of beam mode and stability with capability for computer storage of this information for later analysis. This system provides low-cost control and repeatability, essential in precision metalworking operations.

  14. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  15. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  16. Bay integrated power system control and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Beierl, O.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents new concepts for control and diagnostic systems for high voltage switchgear (123-kV and above). Air insulated and gas insulated (SF6) switchgear is considered. The new aspect is the integration of monitoring and diagnostic concepts in digital control and protection systems. Communication concepts for sensors and actuators with digital process busses at bay level are discussed. The paper covers integration concepts for circuit breaker monitoring (AIS, GIS) and for GIS the integration of on-line partial discharge measurement, on-line arc detection and on-line monitoring of the gas conditions. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and the applicability of integrated diagnostic and control concepts are discussed by means of technical and commercial aspects.

  17. Wall current probe: A non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Baude, R.; Gaboriau, F.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  18. Wall current probe: a non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement.

    PubMed

    Baude, R; Gaboriau, F; Hagelaar, G J M

    2013-08-01

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  19. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  20. Magnesium plasma diagnostics by heated probe and characterization of the Mg thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca Balan, Virginia; Prodan, Gabriel; Kudrna, Pavel; Tichý, Milan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on magnesium plasma diagnostics and to investigate the properties of thin Mg films deposited on Si and glass substrates by using thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technology. TVA is an original deposition method using a combination of anodic arc and powerful electron gun system (up to 600 W) for the growth of thin films from solid precursors under a vacuum of 10-6Torr. Due to the comparatively high deposition rate as well as comparatively high plasma potential—around 0.5 kV—plasma diagnostics were carried out by a heated probe that prevents layer deposition on the probe surface. The estimated value of electron density was in the order of 1.0  ×  1016m-3 and the electron temperature varied between 4  ×  104 and 1.2  ×  105 K (corresponding to two different discharge conditions). The thin Mg films were investigated using SEM images and TEM analyses provided with HR-TEM and SAED facilities. According to the SAED patterns the structure of the films can be indexed as two forms: hexagonal structure for Mg and cubic structure for MgO; the peak value of grain size distribution was 91.29 nm in diameter for Mg TVA/Si and 61.06 nm for Mg TVA/Gl.

  1. Multimodal optical biopsy probe to improve the safety and diagnostic yield of brain needle biopsies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desroches, Joannie; Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée.; Jermyn, Michael; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Brain needle biopsy (BNB) is performed to collect tissue when precise neuropathological diagnosis is required to provide information about tumor type, grade, and growth patterns. The principal risks associated with this procedure are intracranial hemorrhage (due to clipping blood vessels during tissue extraction), incorrect tumor typing/grading due to non-representative or non-diagnostic samples (e.g. necrotic tissue), and missing the lesion. We present an innovative device using sub-diffuse optical tomography to detect blood vessels and Raman spectroscopy to detect molecular differences between tissue types, in order to reduce the risks of misdiagnosis, incorrect tumour grading, and non-diagnostic samples. The needle probe integrates optical fibers directly onto the external cannula of a commercial BNB needle, and can perform measurements for both optical techniques through the same fibers. This integrated optical spectroscopy system uses diffuse reflectance signals to perform a 360-degree reconstruction of the tissue adjacent to the biopsy needle, based on the optical contrast associated with hemoglobin light absorption, thereby localizing blood vessels. Raman spectra measurements are also performed interstitially for tissue characterization. A detailed sensitivity of the system is presented to demonstrate that it can detect absorbers with diameters <300 µm located up to ˜2 mm from the biopsy needle core, for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. Results from animal experiments are presented to validate blood vessel detection and Raman spectrum measurement without disruption of the surgical workflow. We also present phantom measurements of Raman spectra with the needle probe and a comparison with a clinically validated Raman spectroscopy probe.

  2. The EMMA Accelerator, a Diagnostic Systems Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, A.; Berg, J.; Bliss, N. Cox, G.; Dufau, M.; Gallagher, A.; Hill, C.; Jones, J.; Ma, L.; McIntosh, P.; Muratori, B.; Oates, A.; Shepherd B.; Smith, R.; Hock, K.; Holder, D.; Ibison, M., Kirkman I.; Borrell, R.; Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.

    2011-09-04

    The 'EMMA' Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (ns-FFAG) international project is currently being commissioned at Daresbury Laboratory, UK. This accelerator has been equipped with a number of diagnostic systems to facilitate this. These systems include a novel time-domain-multiplexing BPM system, moveable screen systems, a time-of-flight instrument, Faraday cups, and injection/extraction tomography sections to analyze the single bunch beams. An upgrade still to implement includes the installation of wall current monitors. This paper gives an overview of these systems and shows some data and results from the diagnostics that have contributed to the successful demonstration of a serpentine acceleration by this novel accelerator.

  3. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  4. Development of burner flame diagnostic system for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, F. ); Watanabe, N.; Misono, K.Y. ); Miyamae, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Tagami, I. )

    1990-01-01

    The combustion monitoring system in utility boilers generally consists of equipment for analyzing O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust in flue gas at the boiler exit. The burner flame diagnostic system developed in this research is comprised of optical probes, optical fibers connecting the burners to a multispectrometer through an optical scanner for multiple burners of the boiler and computer for evaluating flame behavior, so as to serve precise spectroscopic analysis. This research began with a small size test furnace in order to derive combustion evaluation indices, thus successfully leading to theoretical expression in application to a large scale utility boiler. A ploto-type system was mounted on a 350 MW boiler with test result that clearly demonstrate this system to be effective for precise evaluation of individual burners of the boiler.

  5. Building Systems Diagnostics and Predictive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Pratt, Robert G.; Braun, J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of methods and tools for automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of building systems and components in the 1990s. This chapter, written for the CRC Handbook for HVAC&R Engineering, will describe the status of these methods and and methodologies as applied to HVAC&R and building systems and present certain illustrative case studies.

  6. FIDEX: An expert system for satellite diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkin, John; Tallo, Donald; Petrik, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    A Fault Isolation and Diagnostic Expert system (FIDEX) was developed for communication satellite diagnostics. It was designed specifically for the 30/20 GHz satellite transponder. The expert system was designed with a generic structure and features that make it applicable to other types of space systems. FIDEX is a frame based system that enjoys many of the inherent frame base features, such as hierarchy that describes the transponder's components, with other hierarchies that provide structural and fault information about the transponder. This architecture provides a flexible diagnostic structure and enhances maintenance of the system. FIDEX also includes an inexact reasoning technique and a primitive learning ability. Inexact reasoning was an important feature for this system due to the sparse number of sensors available to provide information on the transponder's performance. FIDEX can determine the most likely faulted component under the constraint of limited information. FIDEX learns about the most likely faults in the transponder by keeping a record of past established faults. FIDEX also has the ability to detect anomalies in the sensors that provide information on the transponders performance.

  7. Optical Diagnostic System for the TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Perng, S. Y.; Tsai, Z. D.; Ueng, T. S.; Hsueh, H. P.; Chen, J. R.

    2007-01-19

    The Taiwan light source (TLS) uses a photon beam intensity system (Io monitor) to index the electron beam stability. This index combines the information of the fluctuations of electron beam position and size. For understanding the impact of these fluctuations to the electron beam instability, a set of the optical diagnostic system was installed in the TLS BL10 diagnostics beamline. This system includes the photon beam position monitor (PBPM), the beam size monitor (BSM) and the Io monitor. From the result, we concluded that about one-third impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam position and about two-thirds impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam size. The hardware configuration is described in this paper.

  8. Probing System Characteristics in Coordinate Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Salah H. R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the effect of the dynamic errors on surface measurements using three different types of touch trigger probes attached to a bridge-type-CMM. Unforeseeable dynamic root errors of a ductile touch trigger probing system have been characterized theoretically and experimentally as well. The results were employed in validating a developed analytical two-dimensional-model (2DM) of stylus tip to be developed to demonstrate the capability of such approaches of emphasizing the root error concept, and to evaluate the accuracy of the CMM measurements. A set of experiments was conducted; the results were analyzed in order to investigate the effect of the dynamic root errors in the light of probe scanning speed at different stylus tip radii. Variations in the mass and geometry of the stylus have their consequent effects on its inherent intrinsic dynamic characteristics that in turn would cause relevant systematic root errors in the resulting measurements. 3D bore cylindrical surface form undulations were measured by employing a probe on the trajectory of internal surface diameter for the standard reference test gauge ring. Regression analysis was applied on the results of measurement density distribution; uncertainty of measurement repeatability was then evaluated and graphically presented. The results were investigated and optimum strategic measurement parameters could thus have been derived to ensure foreseeable accurate and precise results.

  9. Probing biological systems with terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Sun, Yiwen; Parrott, Edward P. J.

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is able to probe several aspects of biological systems. Most well known is its sensitivity to water due to the strong water absorptions at terahertz frequencies. However an increasing number of studies have shown that it is not just water content that terahertz is sensitive to and that other factors such as tissue structure, molecular arrangement or even temperature can also affect the signal. Examples ranging from breast cancer spectroscopy to antibody protein spectroscopy will be presented and discussed.

  10. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swets, John A.

    1988-06-01

    Diagnostic systems of several kinds are used to distinguish between two classes of events, essentially ``signals'' and ``noise.'' For then, analysis in terms of the ``relative operating characteristic'' of signal detection theory provides a precise and valid measure of diagnostic accuracy. It is the only measure available that is uninfluenced by decision biases and prior probabilities, and it places the performances of diverse systems on a common, easily interpreted scale. Representative values of this measure are reported here for systems in medical imaging, materials testing, weather forecasting, information retrieval, polygraph lie detection, and aptitude testing. Though the measure itself is sound, the values obtained from tests of diagnostic systems often require qualification because the test data on which they are based are of unsure quality. A common set of problems in testing is faced in all fields. How well these problems are handled, or can be handled in a given field, determines the degree of confidence that can be placed in a measured value of accuracy. Some fields fare much better than others.

  11. Experience report with the Alignment Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, Georg; /SLAC

    2011-03-03

    Since 2009 an Alignment Diagnostic System (ADS) has been operating at the undulator of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The undulator spans a distance of 132 meters and is structured into 33 segments. Each segment is equipped with four hydrostatic leveling sensors and four wire position monitors. This report describes the set up and reflects the experience gained with the ADS.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  13. A Self-Diagnostic System for the M6 Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, Patrick M.; Lekki, John

    2001-01-01

    The design of a Self-Diagnostic (SD) accelerometer system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine is presented. This retrofit system connects diagnostic electronic hardware and software to the current M6 accelerometer system. This paper discusses the general operation of the M6 accelerometer SD system and procedures for developing and evaluating the SD system. Signal processing techniques using M6 accelerometer diagnostic data are explained. Test results include diagnostic data responding to changing ambient temperature, mounting torque and base mounting impedance.

  14. Diagnostics of Fast Electrons within Castor Tokamak by Means of a Modified Cherenkov-Type Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, L.; Sadowski, M. J.; Malinowski, K.; Jakubowski, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Stockel, J.; Peterka, M.

    2008-03-19

    The paper reports on experimental studies performed within the CASTOR tokamak, which was operated at IPP in Prague, Czech Republic, during the last experimental campaign carried out in autumn 2006. The main aim was to implement a new diagnostic technique for measurements of energetic (>80 keV) electrons within the tokamak edge plasma region. The technique was based on the use of a Cherenkov-type probe similar to the first prototype detector, which was tested during the previous experiments with the CASTOR device. In particular, the distributions of fast electrons in a standard scenario at different values of plasma current I{sub p}, and toroidal magnetic field B{sub T} are determined.

  15. A heavy ion beam probe system for investigation of a modified Penning discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kambic, G. X.; Krawczonek, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    An ion beam probe diagnostic system can measure time- and space-resolved profiles of plasma space potential and electron density. In combination with a computer iterative technique, the ion beam probe can determine both the space potential profile in plasmas containing strong electric fields and potentials comparable in magnitude to the energy of the probing ion beam. During ion beam probing of a modified Penning discharge, several groups of secondary ions were observed coming from the plasma with a fixed primary beam energy and momentum. The energies of these ions were within 10 percent of the values predicted by a computer-generated model of the potential profile in the plasma. The mechanical and electronic components of the system are described, with particular emphasis on those features required to probe plasma potentials comparable in magnitude to the ion beam energy.

  16. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 4: Common Saturn/Uranus probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Results are summarized of a common scientific probe study to explore the atmospheres of Saturn and Uranus. This was a three-month follow-on effort to the Outer Planet Entry Probe System study. The report presents: (1) a summary, conclusions and recommendations of this study, (2) parametric analysis conducted to support the two system definitions, (3) common Saturn/Uranus probe system definition using the Science Advisory Group's exploratory payload and, (4) common Saturn/Uranus probe system definition using an expanded science complement. Each of the probe system definitions consists of detailed discussions of the mission, science, system and subsystems including telecommunications, data handling, power, pyrotechnics, attitude control, structures, propulsion, thermal control and probe-to-spacecraft integration. References are made to the contents of the first three volumes where it is feasible to do so.

  17. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-21

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  18. The upgraded heavy ion beam probe diagnostics on the T-10 tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabinskii, M. A.; Khabanov, P. O.; Melnikov, A. V.; Krupnik, L. I.; Kozachek, A. S.; Komarov, A. D.; Zhezhera, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    The upgraded Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostics on the T-10 tokamak (National Research Center ‘Kurchatov Institute’) is presented. HIBP is a powerful tool to study electric potential in the core and edge plasmas along with broadband turbulence and quasicoherent modes such as Geodesic Acoustic Mode (GAM) and Alfven Eigenmode (AE). To study broadband turbulence and AEs, which can be driven by fast electrons in regimes with auxiliary Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating the frequency range of about several hundred kHz is needed. The upgrade is focused on the extension of the frequency range of HIBP signals up to 500 kHz, and on increasing of density operating limit up to 5-1019 m-3. It becomes possible due to a newly designed emitter-extractor unit of HIBP accelerator aiming to provide the primary beam with the current of 300 pA at the energy of 300 keV and diameter of 7-10 mm. The new in-vessel elements of a primary beamline - wire sensor and Faraday cup - were upgraded accordingly to be able to deliver the probing beam with advanced parameters to the plasma.

  19. Characterization of a theta-pinch plasma using triple probe diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.; Suria, V; Andruczyk, D; Ruzic, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma diagnostics were carried out in a theta-pinch device to investigate the applicability for plasma-material interaction under fusion-like conditions. A series of triple probe diagnostics show that the plasma is sustained for approximately 80 {micro}s at each pulse, with 3.0 (10){sup 21} m{sup -3} plasma density and up to 40 eV electron temperature when a 32 {micro}F main capacitor is discharged at 20 kV. In order to increase plasma density and temperature, an RF antenna is installed near one end of a Pyrex tube and a 50 {micro}F preionization capacitor is connected to an electrode placed at the same end as the antenna. In this configuration, several time delays between the main and preionization capacitors are tested. When the preionization capacitor was triggered 45 {micro}s before the main bank discharge, it resulted in high energetic plasma being obtained with a few density spikes at 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} and electron temperature around 100 eV.

  20. Diagnostic Systems for the Ignitor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombarda, F.; Giammanco, F.; Ignir International Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of the Ignitor experiment (R0 ≅ 1 . 32 m , a × b ≅ 0 . 47 × 0 . 83m2 ,BT <= 13 T ,Ip <= 11 MA) is that of establishing the reactor physics in regimes close to ignition (Te ≅Ti ≅ 11 keV ,n0 ≅1021m-3). The pulse evolution at the maximum machine parameters is characterized by a ramp-up phase of the plasma current of 4 s and 4 s of flat-top, which allow to reach fully relaxed current profiles. The set of baseline diagnostic systems includes, among others, the advanced neutron spectrometer originally proposed for Ignitor and later adopted on JET, Thomson Scattering, ECE, High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer. A Dispersion-Interferometer operating at 1 μm instead of the conventional Two-color Interferometer at 10 μm is being considered for plasma density measurements. The high plasma density and temperature, together with the use of tritium, impose some limitations on diagnostic systems based on NB injection, escaping particles or in direct connection with the high vacumm of the plasma chamber. The high neutron flux is also expected to challenge the systems more directly exposed to it, although the low fluences do not pose particular concerns on material survival. The conceptual design of the main diagnostic systems has been carried out and the present lay-out around the machine is shown. Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  1. Design, construction, and calibration of a three-axis, high-frequency magnetic probe (B-dot probe) as a diagnostic for exploding plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, E. T.; Pribyl, P.; Constantin, C. G.; Zylstra, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.

    2009-11-15

    A three-axis, 2.5 mm overall diameter differential magnetic probe (also known as B-dot probe) is discussed in detail from its design and construction to its calibration and use as diagnostic of fast transient effects in exploding plasmas. A design and construction method is presented as a means to reduce stray pickup, eliminate electrostatic pickup, reduce physical size, and increase magnetic signals while maintaining a high bandwidth. The probe's frequency response is measured in detail from 10 kHz to 50 MHz using the presented calibration method and compared to theory. The effect of the probe's self-induction as a first order correction in frequency, O({omega}), on experimental signals and magnetic field calculations is discussed. The probe's viability as a diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring the magnetic field compression and diamagnetism of a sub-Alfvenic ({approx}500 km/s,M{sub A}{approx}0.36) flow created from the explosion of a high-density energetic laser plasma through a cooler, low-density, magnetized ambient plasma.

  2. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  3. Efficient Probabilistic Diagnostics for Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole J.; Chavira, Mark; Cascio, Keith; Poll, Scott; Darwiche, Adnan; Uckun, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    We consider in this work the probabilistic approach to model-based diagnosis when applied to electrical power systems (EPSs). Our probabilistic approach is formally well-founded, as it based on Bayesian networks and arithmetic circuits. We investigate the diagnostic task known as fault isolation, and pay special attention to meeting two of the main challenges . model development and real-time reasoning . often associated with real-world application of model-based diagnosis technologies. To address the challenge of model development, we develop a systematic approach to representing electrical power systems as Bayesian networks, supported by an easy-to-use speci.cation language. To address the real-time reasoning challenge, we compile Bayesian networks into arithmetic circuits. Arithmetic circuit evaluation supports real-time diagnosis by being predictable and fast. In essence, we introduce a high-level EPS speci.cation language from which Bayesian networks that can diagnose multiple simultaneous failures are auto-generated, and we illustrate the feasibility of using arithmetic circuits, compiled from Bayesian networks, for real-time diagnosis on real-world EPSs of interest to NASA. The experimental system is a real-world EPS, namely the Advanced Diagnostic and Prognostic Testbed (ADAPT) located at the NASA Ames Research Center. In experiments with the ADAPT Bayesian network, which currently contains 503 discrete nodes and 579 edges, we .nd high diagnostic accuracy in scenarios where one to three faults, both in components and sensors, were inserted. The time taken to compute the most probable explanation using arithmetic circuits has a small mean of 0.2625 milliseconds and standard deviation of 0.2028 milliseconds. In experiments with data from ADAPT we also show that arithmetic circuit evaluation substantially outperforms joint tree propagation and variable elimination, two alternative algorithms for diagnosis using Bayesian network inference.

  4. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  5. The fast reciprocating magnetic probe system on the J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuming; Chen, Zhipeng; Zhuang, Ge; Liu, Hai; Zhu, Lizhi

    2016-11-01

    The fast reciprocating magnetic probe (FRMP) system is newly developed on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) to measure the local magnetic fluctuations at the plasma edge. The magnetic probe array in the FRMP consists of four 2-dimensional magnetic probes arranged at different radial locations to detect local poloidal and radial magnetic fields. These probes are protected by a graphite and boron nitride casing to improve the frequency response of each probe; they are mounted on the head of a movable rod, which is oriented along radial direction at the top of the torus. In the experiments, multiple core diagnostics show that the insertion of the FRMP has little impact on the equilibrium of the plasma. Local magnetic fluctuations inside the last closed flux surface are successfully measured by the FRMP.

  6. Diagnostic Testing System: A Complete Diagnostic Multiple-Choice Test Package for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David; And Others

    The Diagnostic Testing System (DX) is an integral system for developing and administering tests. The system can be utilized for testing in any subject matter, or any number of subject matters, at any level on scholastic or cognitive continuums. The major purpose of DX is to provide diagnostic data about the level at which a given student (or group…

  7. An inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.; Brewster, Larry T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of an inference engine for embedded diagnostic systems is described. The system consists of two distinct parts. The first is an off-line compiler which accepts a propositional logical statement of the relationship between facts and conclusions and produces data structures required by the on-line inference engine. The second part consists of the inference engine and interface routines which accept assertions of fact and return the conclusions which necessarily follow. Given a set of assertions, it will generate exactly the conclusions which logically follow. At the same time, it will detect any inconsistencies which may propagate from an inconsistent set of assertions or a poorly formulated set of rules. The memory requirements are fixed and the worst case execution times are bounded at compile time. The data structures and inference algorithms are very simple and well understood. The data structures and algorithms are described in detail. The system has been implemented on Lisp, Pascal, and Modula-2.

  8. Gravity Probe B data system description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B data system, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, included flight and ground command, control, and communications software. The development was greatly facilitated, conceptually and by the transfer of key personnel, through Lockheed’s earlier flight and ground test software development for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Key design challenges included the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), the need to tune the system once on-orbit, and limited 2 Kbps real-time data rates and ground asset availability. The result was a completely integrated space vehicle and Stanford mission operations center, which successfully collected and archived 97% of the ‘guide star valid’ data to support the science analysis. Lessons learned and incorporated from the HST flight software development and on-orbit support experience, and Lockheed’s independent research and development effort, will be discussed.

  9. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  10. Note: Neutron bang time diagnostic system on Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qi; Chen, Jiabin; Liu, Zhongjie; Zhan, Xiayu; Song, Zifeng

    2014-04-15

    A neutron bang time (NBT) diagnostic system has been implemented on Shenguang-III prototype. The bang time diagnostic system is based on a sensitive fusion neutron detector, which consists of a plastic scintillator and a micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (PMT). An optical fiber bundle is used to couple the scintillator and the PMT. The bang time system is able to measure bang time above a neutron yield of 10{sup 7}. Bang times and start time of laser were related by probing x-ray pulses produced by 200 ps laser irradiating golden targets. Timing accuracy of the NBT is better than 60 ps.

  11. Exploring the Hybridization Thermodynamics of Spherical Nucleic Acids to Tailor Probes for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Pratik Shailesh

    Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), three-dimensional nanoparticle conjugates composed of densely packed and highly oriented oligonucleotides around organic or inorganic nanoparticles, are an emergent class of nanostructures that show promise as single-entity agents for intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and gene regulation. SNAs exhibit superior biocompatibility and biological properties compared to linear oligonucleotides, enabling them to overcome many of the limitations of linear oligonucleotides for use in biomedical applications. However, the origins of these biologically attractive properties are not well understood. In this dissertation, the chemistry underlying one such property is studied in detail, and the findings are applied towards the rational design of more effective SNAs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Chapter 1 introduces the synthesis of SNAs, the unique properties that make them superior to linear nucleic acids for biomedicine, and previously studied applications of these structures. Chapter 2 focuses on quantitatively studying the impact of the chemical structure of the SNA on its ability to hybridize multiple complementary nucleic acids. This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding the factors that govern SNA hybridization thermodynamics and how to tailor SNAs to increase their binding affinity to target mRNA strands. Chapters 3 and 4 capitalize on this knowledge to engineer probes for intracellular mRNA detection and gene regulation applications. Chapter 3 reports the development of an SNA-based probe that can simultaneously report the expression level of two different mRNA transcripts in live cells and differentiate diseased cells from non-diseased cells. Chapter 4 investigates the use of topically-applied SNAs to down-regulate a critical mediator of impaired wound healing in diabetic mice to accelerate wound closure. This study represents the first topical therapeutic application of SNA nanotechnology to treat open

  12. Spectroscopic, imaging, and probe diagnostics of laser plasma plumes expanding between confining surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, P.; Kennedy, E. T.

    2010-11-15

    Laser plasma plumes were generated in aluminum rectangular cavities of fixed depth (6 mm) and varying height (2.0, 1.5, and 1.0 mm). Space and time resolved visible emission spectroscopy, gated intensified visible imaging, and Langmuir probe diagnostics were utilized to diagnose the evolution of the confined plasma plumes in comparison to freely expanding plasma plume generated from ablation of a planar target. The constrained plasma behavior displayed a multiphase history. Early stage interactions (t<100 ns) resulted in enhanced continuum and line emission, shockwave formation and plasma plume rebound. Later phase, long duration plasma-surface interactions (t>160 ns) resulted in sustained 'decay', i.e., a rapid termination of continuum emission, in concert with decreases in peak electron density (N{sub e}) and plasma temperature (T). This later phase originates from loss mechanisms which bleed the plasma plume of thermal energy and charged particles. These loss mechanisms increase in magnitude as the duration of the plasma-surface interaction increases. The transition from enhancement phase, originating from hydrodynamic containment, and plasma-surface collisions, to decay phase is described and occurs for each cavity at a different point in the space time history.

  13. Thomson scattering diagnostic systems in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassan, M.; Andrew, P.; Kurskiev, G.; Mukhin, E.; Hatae, T.; Vayakis, G.; Yatsuka, E.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) is a proven diagnostic technique that will be implemented in ITER in three independent systems. The Edge TS will measure electron temperature Te and electron density ne profiles at high resolution in the region with r/a>0.8 (with a the minor radius). The Core TS will cover the region r/a<0.85 and shall be able to measure electron temperatures up to 40 keV . The Divertor TS will observe a segment of the divertor plasma more than 700 mm long and is designed to detect Te as low as 0.3 eV . The Edge and Core systems are primary contributors to Te and ne profiles. Both are installed in equatorial port 10 and very close together with the toroidal distance between the two laser beams of less than 600 mm at the first wall (~ 6° toroidal separation), a characteristic that should allow to reliably match the two profiles in the region 0.8systems installed, therefore substantial experience has been accumulated worldwide on practical methods for the optimization of the technique. However the ITER environment is imposing specific loads (e.g. gamma and neutron radiation, temperatures, disruption-induced stresses) and also access and reliability constraints that require new designs for many of the sub-systems. The challenges and the proposed solutions for all three TS systems are presented.

  14. System control module diagnostic Expert Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, Luis M.; Hansen, Roger F.

    1990-01-01

    The Orbiter EXperiments (OEX) Program was established by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to accomplish the precise data collection necessary to support a complete and accurate assessment of Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter performance during all phases of a mission. During a mission, data generated by the various experiments are conveyed to the OEX System Control Module (SCM) which arranges for and monitors storage of the data on the OEX tape recorder. The SCM Diagnostic Expert Assistant (DEA) is an expert system which provides on demand advice to technicians performing repairs of a malfunctioning SCM. The DEA is a self-contained, data-driven knowledge-based system written in the 'C' Language Production System (CLIPS) for a portable micro-computer of the IBM PC/XT class. The DEA reasons about SCM hardware faults at multiple levels; the most detailed layer of encoded knowledge of the SCM is a representation of individual components and layouts of the custom-designed component boards.

  15. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease. PMID:27635183

  16. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease.

  17. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-10-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease. PMID:27635183

  18. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-15

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas.

  19. Radio frequency-compensated Langmuir probe with auxiliary double probes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Jin; Oh, Seung-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-09-01

    A radio frequency (rf) compensation design using auxiliary double probes connected in parallel with a main measurement probe was developed for Langmuir probe diagnostics. This probe structure can reduce the sheath impedance of the main probe. In our probe design, the sheath capacitance of the probe can be increased and its sheath resistance can be decreased with increasing dc bias differential voltage between the auxiliary double probes. The I-V characteristic curve and electron energy distribution functions measured by our probe system had sufficient rf compensation performance in inductively coupled plasmas.

  20. Non-invasive probe diagnostic method for electron temperature and ion current density in atmospheric pressure plasma jet source

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Yu-Sin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Moon, Jun-Hyeon; Chung, Chin-Wook; Kim, Yunjung; Cho, Guangsup

    2015-08-15

    The electrical probe diagnostics are very hard to be applied to atmospheric plasmas due to severe perturbation by the electrical probes. To overcome this, the probe for measuring electron temperature and ion current density is indirectly contacted with an atmospheric jet source. The plasma parameters are obtained by using floating harmonic analysis. The probe is mounted on the quartz tube that surrounds plasma. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied to a probe contacting on a quartz tube, the electrons near the sheath at dielectric tube are collected and the probe current has harmonic components due to probe sheath nonlinearity. From the relation of the harmonic currents and amplitude of the sheath voltage, the electron temperature near the wall can be obtained with collisional sheath model. The electron temperatures and ion current densities measured at the discharge region are in the ranges of 2.7–3.4 eV and 1.7–5.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at various flow rates and input powers.

  1. System of polarization phasometry of polycrystalline blood plasma networks in mammary gland pathology diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Oliinychenko, Bogdan P.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia K.; Shcherba, Olga K.

    2015-09-01

    The polarizing phase meter system of polycrystalline networks of human blood plasma which is used for the mammary gland pathology diagnostics was proposed in this paper. Increasing the accuracy of the phase value determination was achieved using a combination of low coherent source of radiation and circularly polarized probing of biological object. Thus, high informativity of polarizing phase meter system for the diagnosis of breast pathology using the phase mapping of the human blood plasma films were determined, thereafter statistical, correlational, fractal structure analysis of the obtained phase maps was carried out and the quantitative criterias of the phase diagnostics and differentiation of the breast pathological conditions were determined too.

  2. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR systems....112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant.... This section does not apply for SCR systems using the engine's fuel as the reductant. (a)...

  3. A Langmuir Probe Diagnostic for Use in Inhomogeneous, Time-Varying Plasmas Produced by High-Energy Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-05-01

    Langmuir probes (LP) are used extensively to characterize plasma environments produced by radio frequency, pulsed plasma thrusters, and laser ablation. We discuss here the development of a LP diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{micro}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  4. A Langmuir probe diagnostic for time-of-flight measurements of transient plasmas produced by high-energy laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J. R.; Emig, J. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Jenkins, P. P.; Trautz, K. M.; Seiler, S. W.; Davis, J. F.

    2012-10-15

    We discuss here the development of a Langmuir probe (LP) diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/{mu}s, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  5. A Langmuir probe diagnostic for time-of-flight measurements of transient plasmas produced by high-energy laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J R; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B; Jenkins, P P; Trautz, K M; Seiler, S W; Davis, J F

    2012-10-01

    We discuss here the development of a Langmuir probe (LP) diagnostic to examine high-density, high-temperature inhomogeneous plasmas such as those that can be created at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics OMEGA facility. We have configured our diagnostic to examine the velocity of the plasma expanding from the target. We observe velocities of approximately 16-17 cm/μs, with individual LP currents displaying complex structures, perhaps due to the multiple atomic species and ionization states that exist.

  6. Embedding CLIPS in a database-oriented diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Tim

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of C Language Production Systems (CLIPS) into a powerful portable maintenance aid (PMA) system used for flightline diagnostics. The current diagnostic target of the system is the Garrett GTCP85-180L, a gas turbine engine used as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) on some C-130 military transport aircraft. This project is a database oriented approach to a generic diagnostic system. CLIPS is used for 'many-to-many' pattern matching within the diagnostics process. Patterns are stored in database format, and CLIPS code is generated by a 'compilation' process on the database. Multiple CLIPS rule sets and working memories (in sequence) are supported and communication between the rule sets is achieved via the export and import commands. Work is continuing on using CLIPS in other portions of the diagnostic system and in re-implementing the diagnostic system in the Ada language.

  7. Wireless wafer-type probe system for measurement of two-dimensional plasma parameters and spatial uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Cheol; Choi, Ik-Jin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-09-01

    A wireless wafer-type probe system was developed to measure two-dimensional plasma parameters and uniformity. The apparatus uses double probe theory with a harmonic detection method. The plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature, ion density and ion flux, are derived by using the amplitudes of the first and third harmonic currents. The experiment was conducted in an inductively coupled plasma. The measurements of the wireless wafer-type probe were compared with a floating-type Langmuir probe and a similar trend was observed. As the inner and outer antenna current ratio changes, the wireless wafer-type probe was able to measure the evolution of the two-dimensional ion density profiles. Since the wireless wafer-type probe system was electrically isolated and designed to operate stand-alone in the chamber, it can be installed in plasma chambers without any external controllers. This plasma diagnostic system shows promise for processing plasmas.

  8. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundesmann, C.; Tartz, M.; Scholze, F.; Leiter, H. J.; Scortecci, F.; Gnizdor, R. Y.; Neumann, H.

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1.

  9. Note: An advanced in situ diagnostic system for characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources.

    PubMed

    Bundesmann, C; Tartz, M; Scholze, F; Leiter, H J; Scortecci, F; Gnizdor, R Y; Neumann, H

    2010-04-01

    We present an advanced diagnostic system for in situ characterization of electric propulsion thrusters and ion beam sources. The system uses a high-precision five-axis positioning system with a modular setup and the following diagnostic tools: a telemicroscopy head for optical imaging, a triangular laser head for surface profile scanning, a pyrometer for temperature scanning, a Faraday probe for current density mapping, and an energy-selective mass spectrometer for beam characterization (energy and mass distribution, composition). The capabilities of our diagnostic system are demonstrated with a Hall effect thruster SPT-100D EM1. PMID:20441379

  10. New diagnostic method for monitoring plasma reactor walls: Multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared surface probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Anna R.; Ullal, Saurabh J.; Braly, Linda B.; Edelberg, Erik A.; Vahedi, Vahid; Aydil, Eray S.

    2001-08-01

    Films and adsorbates that deposit on reactor walls during plasma etching and deposition affect the discharge properties such as the charged particle and reactive radical concentrations. A systematic study of this plasma-wall interaction is made difficult by a lack of diagnostic methods that enable one to monitor the chemical nature of the reactor wall surface. A new diagnostic technique based on multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (MTIR-FTIR) spectroscopy was developed to monitor films and adsorbates on plasma etching and deposition reactor walls with monolayer sensitivity. Applications of this MTIR-FTIR probe are demonstrated. Specifically, we use this probe to (i) detect etch products and films that deposit on the reactor walls during Cl2 plasma etching of Si, (ii) determine the efficacy of a SF6 plasma to clean films deposited on reactor walls during Cl2/O2 etching of Si, and (iii) monitor wafer-to-wafer etching reproducibility.

  11. Study of new systems concepts for a Titan atmospheric probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Doug; Citron, Todd; Drean, Robert; Lewis, Scott; Lo, Martin; Mccarthy, John; Soderblom, Robert; Steffy, Dave; Vargas, Tina; Wolff, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Results of a systems concepts study for a Titan Probe were examined. The key tradeoffs performed are described in detail. Mass breakdown of each Probe subsystem or major element were given. The mission analysis performed to determine compliance with the high altitude sampling and descent time requirements are described. The baseline Descent Module design was derived. The element of the Probe System left on the Carrier after separation were described.

  12. Installation of the advanced heavy ion beam probing diagnostic on the TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, I. S.; Chmyga, A. A.; Dreval, N. B.; Khrebtov, S. M.; Komarov, A. D.; Kozachok, A. S.; Krupnik, L. I.; Melnikov, A. V.; Yudina, O. A.; Coelho, P.; Cunha, M.; Goncalves, B.; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Varandas, C. F. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Garcia-Cortes, I.

    2000-12-01

    An advanced heavy ion beam diagnostic has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator based on the simultaneous utilisation of two different detection systems for the secondary ions: a multiple cell array detector and a 30° Proca-Green electrostatic energy analyser. This innovative design aims at enlarging the HIBD capabilities to allow the instanteneous measurements of electron density and plasma potential profiles together with their respective fluctuations. This paper presents the detailed description of the main parts of HIBD and their characteristics obtained during the first operation on TJ-II. Special attention is paid to the control and data acquisition system built on two VME controllers. The results of the diagnostic beam propagating through the magnetic structure of TJ-II into electrostatic energy analyser are presented and compared with the trajectory calculations. The operation and calibration of a 30° electrostatic energy analyser free of guard rings and with a new biased split detector are described. High intensities of the caesium and thallium ions was obtained from thermionic source using new stable and long-time special operation regimes.

  13. E-probe Diagnostic Nucleic acid Analysis (EDNA): A theoretical approach for handling of next generation sequencing data for diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many plant pathogen-specific diagnostic assays, based on PCR and immune-detection. However, the ability to test for large numbers of pathogens simultaneously is lacking. Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows one to detect all organisms within a given sample, but has computational limitat...

  14. Study of ablation and implosion stages in wire arrays using coupled ultraviolet and X-ray probing diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Wiewior, P. P.; Chalyy, O.

    2015-11-01

    Star and cylindrical wire arrays were studied using laser probing and X-ray radiography at the 1-MA Zebra pulse power generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Leopard laser provided backlighting, producing a laser plasma from a Si target which emitted an X-ray probing pulse at the wavelength of 6.65 Å. A spherically bent quartz crystal imaged the backlit wires onto X-ray film. Laser probing diagnostics at the wavelength of 266 nm included a 3-channel polarimeter for Faraday rotation diagnostic and two-frame laser interferometry with two shearing interferometers to study the evolution of the plasma electron density at the ablation and implosion stages. Dynamics of the plasma density profile in Al wire arrays at the ablation stage were directly studied with interferometry, and expansion of wire cores was measured with X-ray radiography. The magnetic field in the imploding plasma was measured with the Faraday rotation diagnostic, and current was reconstructed.

  15. Study of ablation and implosion stages in wire arrays using coupled ultraviolet and X-ray probing diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Wiewior, P. P.; Chalyy, O.; Papp, D.

    2015-11-15

    Star and cylindrical wire arrays were studied using laser probing and X-ray radiography at the 1-MA Zebra pulse power generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Leopard laser provided backlighting, producing a laser plasma from a Si target which emitted an X-ray probing pulse at the wavelength of 6.65 Å. A spherically bent quartz crystal imaged the backlit wires onto X-ray film. Laser probing diagnostics at the wavelength of 266 nm included a 3-channel polarimeter for Faraday rotation diagnostic and two-frame laser interferometry with two shearing interferometers to study the evolution of the plasma electron density at the ablation and implosion stages. Dynamics of the plasma density profile in Al wire arrays at the ablation stage were directly studied with interferometry, and expansion of wire cores was measured with X-ray radiography. The magnetic field in the imploding plasma was measured with the Faraday rotation diagnostic, and current was reconstructed.

  16. A new classification system for lesbians: the Dyke Diagnostic Manual.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long-standing need for a diagnostic manual that documents the unique pathological behaviors of lesbians. The Dyke Diagnostic Manual (DDM) is meant to supplement mainstream classification systems used to identify problematic behaviors in heterosexuals. This article presents thirteen uniquely lesbian conditions that are nowhere to be found in heterosexist diagnostic systems. The DDM may help to reduce the pain and suffering found in many lesbian relationships where one or both partners are afflicted. PMID:20661801

  17. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouny, Mona; Feghali, Mireille; Nasr, Assaad; Abou-Samra, Philippe; Saleh, Nadine; Bourgeois, Denis; Farge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P < 0.001). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. PMID:25401161

  18. Measuring the Accuracy of Diagnostic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relative operating characteristic analysis of signal detection theory as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Reports representative values of this measure in several fields. Compares how problems in these fields are handled. (CW)

  19. Systematic Benchmarking of Diagnostic Technologies for an Electrical Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Jensen, David; Poll, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Automated health management is a critical functionality for complex aerospace systems. A wide variety of diagnostic algorithms have been developed to address this technical challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of support to perform large-scale V&V (verification and validation) of diagnostic technologies continues to create barriers to effective development and deployment of such algorithms for aerospace vehicles. In this paper, we describe a formal framework developed for benchmarking of diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), a real-world electrical power system (EPS), developed and maintained at the NASA Ames Research Center. The benchmarking approach provides a systematic, empirical basis to the testing of diagnostic software and is used to provide performance assessment for different diagnostic algorithms.

  20. REDEX: The ranging equipment diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczak, Edward C.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Zillig, David J.

    1989-01-01

    REDEX, an advanced prototype expert system that diagnoses hardware failures in the Ranging Equipment (RE) at NASA's Ground Network tracking stations is described. REDEX will help the RE technician identify faulty circuit cards or modules that must be replaced, and thereby reduce troubleshooting time. It features a highly graphical user interface that uses color block diagrams and layout diagrams to illustrate the location of a fault. A semantic network knowledge representation technique was used to model the design structure of the RE. A catalog of generic troubleshooting rules was compiled to represent heuristics that are applied in diagnosing electronic equipment. Specific troubleshooting rules were identified to represent additional diagnostic knowledge that is unique to the RE. Over 50 generic and 250 specific troubleshooting rules have been derived. REDEX is implemented in Prolog on an IBM PC AT-compatible workstation. Block diagram graphics displays are color-coded to identify signals that have been monitored or inferred to have nominal values, signals that are out of tolerance, and circuit cards and functions that are diagnosed as faulty. A hypertext-like scheme is used to allow the user to easily navigate through the space of diagrams and tables. Over 50 graphic and tabular displays have been implemented. REDEX is currently being evaluated in a stand-alone mode using simulated RE fault scenarios. It will soon be interfaced to the RE and tested in an online environment. When completed and fielded, REDEX will be a concrete example of the application of expert systems technology to the problem of improving performance and reducing the lifecycle costs of operating NASA's communications networks in the 1990's.

  1. Beyond Sedna: Probing the Distant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.

    This thesis presents studies in observational planetary astronomy probing the structure of the Kuiper belt and beyond. The discovery of Sedna on a highly eccentric orbit beyond Neptune challenges our understanding of the solar system and suggests the presence of a population of icy bodies residing past the Kuiper belt. With a perihelion of 76 AU, Sedna is well beyond the reach of the gas-giants and could not be scattered onto its highly eccentric orbit from interactions with Neptune alone. Sedna's aphelion at ˜1000 AU is too far from the edge of the solar system to feel the perturbing effects of passing stars or galactic tides in the present-day solar neighborhood. Sedna must have been emplaced in its orbit at an earlier time when massive unknown bodies were present in or near the solar system. The orbits of distant Sedna-like bodies are dynamically frozen and serve as the relics of their formation process. We have performed two surveys to search for additional members of the Sedna population. In order to find the largest and brightest Sedna-like bodies we have searched ˜12,000 deg² within +/-30 degrees of the ecliptic to a limiting R magnitude of 21.3 using the QUEST camera on the 1.2m Samuel Oschin Telescope. To search for the fainter, more common members of this distant class of solar system bodies, we have performed an deep survey using the Subaru Prime Focus Camera on the 8.2m Subaru telescope covering 43 deg² to a limiting R magnitude of 25.3. Searching over a two-night baseline, we were sensitive to motions out to distances of approximately 1000 AU. We present the results of these surveys. We discuss the implications for a distant Sedna-like population beyond the Kuiper belt and discuss future prospects for detecting and studying these distant bodies, focusing in particular on the constraints we can place on the embedded stellar cluster environment the early Sun may have been born in, where the location and distribution of Sedna-like orbits sculpted by

  2. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  3. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  4. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  5. 40 CFR 1033.112 - Emission diagnostics for SCR systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.112 Emission diagnostics for SCR systems. Engines equipped with SCR systems using separate reductant... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission diagnostics for SCR...

  6. An instrument for probe diagnostic of ionospheric plasma with compensation for spacecraft-charge effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanitskii, A.S.; Kashirin, A.I.; Chasovitin, Yu.K.; Chkalov, V.G.

    1994-10-01

    A device to probe ionospheric plasma that includes a simple circuit to eliminate the spacecraft-charge effect on the probe potential is described. It can record the current-voltage curves of the probe at particle currents of 15 nA-60 {mu}A over voltages of -2.5...+3.5 V when the voltage on the spacecraft surface with respect to the ambient potential is -3.5...+2.5 V.

  7. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  8. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L. Even, Wesley; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Wong, Tsing-Wai

    2014-04-15

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10 MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  9. Flexible temperature probe for biological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, P. J.; Winget, C.; Beljan, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Probe is sufficiently flexible so that it can be worn comfortably for long periods of time, but relatively rigid to permit easy insertion. Body and electrical leads of small thermistor are imbedded in flexible fluorosilicone matrix contained in vinyl plastic tubing.

  10. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations. The traditional approach to climate model evaluation, which compares a single parameter at a time, identifies symptomatic model biases and errors but fails to diagnose the model problems. The model diagnosis process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. To address these challenges, we are developing a parallel, distributed web-service system that enables the physics-based multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks (i.e., Flask, Gunicorn, and Tornado). The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation and (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, and (4) the calculation of difference between two variables. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use

  11. A Compact Fiber Optic Eye Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Dubin, Stephen; Zigler, J. Samuel, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe development for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of the eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately a few mu W) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like material in the vitreous humor. For a clinical use, the probe is mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  12. A compact fiber optic eye diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dubin, Stephen; Della Vecchia, Michael A.

    1996-03-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of an eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (˜few μW) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like material in the vitreous humor. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using a Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to ``dissolve'' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  13. A compact fiber optic eye diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dubin, Stephen; Dellavecchia, Michael A.

    1995-11-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluid experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of an eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately few microW) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like materials in the vitreous humor. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using a Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  14. A Compact Fiber Optic Eye Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dubin, Stephen; Dellavecchia, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluid experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to study different parts of an eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power (approximately few microW) light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like materials in the vitreous humor. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a standard slit-lamp apparatus simply using a Hruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and cortical, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before the surgery becomes necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber and their complications, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment and diabetic retinopathy.

  15. Numerical experiment to estimate the validity of negative ion diagnostic using photo-detachment combined with Langmuir probing

    SciTech Connect

    Oudini, N.; Sirse, N.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Benallal, R.; Taccogna, F.; Bendib, A.

    2015-07-15

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the theory of photo-detachment diagnostic method used to probe the negative ion density and electronegativity α = n{sub -}/n{sub e}. In this method, a laser pulse is used to photo-detach all negative ions located within the electropositive channel (laser spot region). The negative ion density is estimated based on the assumption that the increase of the current collected by an electrostatic probe biased positively to the plasma is a result of only the creation of photo-detached electrons. In parallel, the background electron density and temperature are considered as constants during this diagnostics. While the numerical experiments performed here show that the background electron density and temperature increase due to the formation of an electrostatic potential barrier around the electropositive channel. The time scale of potential barrier rise is about 2 ns, which is comparable to the time required to completely photo-detach the negative ions in the electropositive channel (∼3 ns). We find that neglecting the effect of the potential barrier on the background plasma leads to an erroneous determination of the negative ion density. Moreover, the background electron velocity distribution function within the electropositive channel is not Maxwellian. This is due to the acceleration of these electrons through the electrostatic potential barrier. In this work, the validity of the photo-detachment diagnostic assumptions is questioned and our results illustrate the weakness of these assumptions.

  16. Numerical experiment to estimate the validity of negative ion diagnostic using photo-detachment combined with Langmuir probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudini, N.; Sirse, N.; Benallal, R.; Taccogna, F.; Aanesland, A.; Bendib, A.; Ellingboe, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a critical assessment of the theory of photo-detachment diagnostic method used to probe the negative ion density and electronegativity α = n-/ne. In this method, a laser pulse is used to photo-detach all negative ions located within the electropositive channel (laser spot region). The negative ion density is estimated based on the assumption that the increase of the current collected by an electrostatic probe biased positively to the plasma is a result of only the creation of photo-detached electrons. In parallel, the background electron density and temperature are considered as constants during this diagnostics. While the numerical experiments performed here show that the background electron density and temperature increase due to the formation of an electrostatic potential barrier around the electropositive channel. The time scale of potential barrier rise is about 2 ns, which is comparable to the time required to completely photo-detach the negative ions in the electropositive channel (˜3 ns). We find that neglecting the effect of the potential barrier on the background plasma leads to an erroneous determination of the negative ion density. Moreover, the background electron velocity distribution function within the electropositive channel is not Maxwellian. This is due to the acceleration of these electrons through the electrostatic potential barrier. In this work, the validity of the photo-detachment diagnostic assumptions is questioned and our results illustrate the weakness of these assumptions.

  17. A Systems Approach to Diagnostic Prescriptive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Robert B.; And Others

    This five-part document presents three approaches to research on instructional improvement, with the final two sections concentrating on problems and implications for diagnostic prescriptive instruction. Part 1 reviews comparative instructional effectiveness studies. Part 2 discusses the Trait-Treatment Interaction Approach (TTI) which is…

  18. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  19. Characterizing Water Quenching Systems with a Quench Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, B. Lynn; Li, Zhichao; Freborg, Andrew M.

    2014-12-01

    Quench probes have been used effectively to characterize the quality of quenchants for many years. For this purpose, a variety of commercial probes, as well as the necessary data acquisition system for determining the time-temperature data for a set of standardized test conditions, are available for purchase. The type of information obtained from such probes provides a good basis for comparing media, characterizing general cooling capabilities, and checking media condition over time. However, these data do not adequately characterize the actual production quenching process in terms of heat transfer behavior in many cases, especially when high temperature gradients are present. Faced with the need to characterize water quenching practices, including conventional and intensive practices, a quench probe was developed. This paper describes that probe, the data collection system, the data gathered for both intensive quenching and conventional water quenching, and the heat transfer coefficients determined for these processes. Process sensitivities are investigated and highlight some intricacies of quenching.

  20. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-07-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  1. Adaptation and validation of E-probe diagnostic nucleic acid analysis for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in metagenomic data of complex food matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens are an increasing problem threatening the US food supply. The need for rapid sensitive diagnostic tools that can address multiple types and taxonomic classes of foodbourne pathogens is growing. This paper describes the adaptation of E-probe Diagnostic Nucleic acid Analysis (EDNA)...

  2. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  3. A Universal Spring-Probe System for Reliable Probing of Electrochemical Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Keun; Lee, Tae Jae; Choi, Ho Woon; Shin, Su Jeong; Park, Jung Youn; Lee, Seok Jae

    2014-01-01

    For achieve sensitivity in lab-on-a-chip electrochemical detection, more reliable probing methods are required, especially for repeated measurements. Spring-probes are a promising candidate method which can replace needle-like probes and alligator clips that usually produce scratches on the surface of gold electrodes due to the strong physical contacts needed for electrochemical measurements. The superior reliability of amperometric measurements by a spring-probe system was compared with results by conventional probing methods. We demonstrated that a universal spring-probe system would be potentially suitable to achieve high performance in lab-on-a-chip devices using electrochemical detection. PMID:24406857

  4. Advances in associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe diagnostics for substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; Frey, M.

    1995-07-01

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) shows potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. Generally no collimators or radiation shielding are needed. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Most recently, inspection applications have been investigated for radioactive waste characterization, presence of cocaine in propane tanks, and uranium and plutonium smuggling. Based on lessons learned with the present APSTNG system, an advanced APSTNG tube (along with improved high voltage supply and control units) is being designed and fabricated that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  5. Invader probes: Harnessing the energy of intercalation to facilitate recognition of chromosomal DNA for diagnostic applications†

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Dale C.; Anderson, Grace H.; Karmakar, Saswata; Anderson, Brooke A.; Didion, Bradley A.; Guo, Wei; Verstegen, John P.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probes capable of recognizing specific regions of chromosomal DNA has been a long-standing goal for chemical biologists. Current strategies such as PNA, triplex-forming oligonucleotides, and polyamides are subject to target choice limitations and/or necessitate non-physiological conditions, leaving a need for alternative approaches. Toward this end, we have recently introduced double-stranded oligonucleotide probes that are energetically activated for DNA recognition through modification with +1 interstrand zippers of intercalator-functionalized nucleotide monomers. Here, probes with different chemistries and architectures – varying in the position, number, and distance between the intercalator zippers – are studied with respect to hybridization energetics and DNA-targeting properties. Experiments with model DNA targets demonstrate that optimized probes enable efficient (C50 < 1 μM), fast (t50 < 3h), kinetically stable (> 24h), and single nucleotide specific recognition of DNA targets at physiologically relevant ionic strengths. Optimized probes were used in non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments for detection of gender-specific mixed-sequence chromosomal DNA target regions. These probes present themselves as a promising strategy for recognition of chromosomal DNA, which will enable development of new tools for applications in molecular biology, genomic engineering and nanotechnology. PMID:26240741

  6. Qualitative model-based diagnostics for rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Jankovsky, Amy; Fulton, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic software package is currently being developed at NASA LeRC that utilizes qualitative model-based reasoning techniques. These techniques can provide diagnostic information about the operational condition of the modeled rocket engine system or subsystem. The diagnostic package combines a qualitative model solver with a constraint suspension algorithm. The constraint suspension algorithm directs the solver's operation to provide valuable fault isolation information about the modeled system. A qualitative model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's oxidizer supply components was generated. A diagnostic application based on this qualitative model was constructed to process four test cases: three numerical simulations and one actual test firing. The diagnostic tool's fault isolation output compared favorably with the input fault condition.

  7. Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roy E; Henricks, Walter H; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J

    2016-03-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of molecular test reporting, and nuances related to the dissemination of molecular pathology test reports. By satisfactorily addressing these needs in molecular test data management, a laboratory information system designed for the unique needs of molecular diagnostics presents a compelling reason to migrate away from the current paper and spreadsheet information management that many molecular laboratories currently use. This paper reviews the issues and challenges of information management in the molecular diagnostics laboratory.

  8. Langmuir probe system for dusty plasmas under microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Klindworth, M.; Arp, O.; Piel, A.

    2007-03-15

    This article describes a fully automated 2D-scanning Langmuir probe system for dusty plasmas under microgravity. The design combines necessary features such as random sampling, radio frequency compensation, and a compact mechanical design. The various aspects of the probe implementation and the contamination problem in the dusty plasma environment are discussed and the functionality of the system is demonstrated by measurements performed on parabolic flights.

  9. Complex interferometry potential in case of sufficiently stable diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, M.

    2016-06-01

    Classical interferometry is one of the key methods among active optical diagnostics. Its more advanced version, which allows recording and subsequent reconstruction of up to three sets of data using just one data object —a complex interferogram—was developed in the past and became known as complex interferometry. Employing this diagnostics, not only the usual phase shift, but also the amplitude of the probing beam as well as the fringe contrast (leading directly to the phase shift time derivative) can be reconstructed simultaneously from such a complex interferogram. In this paper it will be demonstrated that even in the case of a not particularly good diagnostic beam quality these three quantities can be reconstructed with a high degree of accuracy provided both the diagnostic beam as well as the corresponding optical line feature a reasonable stability. Such stability requirement is important as in an ideal case four shots need to be gradually recorded (one by one): the signal complex interferogram, the reference interferogram as well as the intensity structures of the signal and reference part of the diagnostic beam. Two examples of complex interferograms obtained in experiments will be analyzed: the laser produced plasma (spark in the air) and the high pressure gas jet. A general ray-tracing based iterative algorithm will be outlined in order to increase a precision of the index of refraction spatial profile taking into account refraction effects (omitted in the Abel inversion) and employing the original reconstructed phase shift and amplitude.

  10. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O'Brien, D W

    2010-05-12

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  11. Systems vaccinology: probing humanity's diverse immune systems with vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pulendran, Bali

    2014-08-26

    Homo sapiens are genetically diverse, but dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes during the past century have created further diversification with respect to age, nutritional status, and the incidence of associated chronic inflammatory disorders and chronic infections. These shifting demographics pose new challenges for vaccination, as emerging evidence suggests that age, the metabolic state, and chronic infections can exert major influences on the immune system. Thus, a key public health challenge is learning how to reprogram suboptimal immune systems to induce effective vaccine immunity. Recent advances have applied systems biological analysis to define molecular signatures induced early after vaccination that correlate with and predict the later adaptive immune responses in humans. Such "systems vaccinology" approaches offer an integrated picture of the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the immune system. Here we discuss the promise of systems vaccinology in probing humanity's diverse immune systems, and in delineating the impact of genes, the environment, and the microbiome on protective immunity induced by vaccination. Such insights will be critical in reengineering suboptimal immune systems in immunocompromised populations. PMID:25136102

  12. Diagnostic for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Etch Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    concentration, temperature, ion energy distribution, and electron number density. A wide variety of diagnostic techniques are under development through this consortium grant to measure these parameters. including molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, broadband ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy, a compensated Langmuir probe. Additional diagnostics. Such as microwave interferometry and microwave absorption for measurements of plasma density and radical concentrations are also planned.

  13. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2013-08-15

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 μs), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (≃10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  14. Boronate probes as diagnostic tools for real time monitoring of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jacek; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Joseph, Joy; Dranka, Brian P.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2012-01-01

    Boronates, a group of organic compounds, are emerging as one of the most effective probes for detecting and quantifying peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Boronates react with peroxynitrite nearly a million times faster than with hydrogen peroxide. Boronate-containing fluorogenic compounds have been used to monitor real time generation of peroxynitrite in cells and for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living animals. This Perspective highlights potential applications of boronates and other fluorescent probes to high-throughput analyses of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides in toxicological studies. PMID:22731669

  15. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  16. Computational characterization of cutoff probe system for the measurement of electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Byung-Keun; Kim, Dae-Woong; Kwon, Jun-Hyuk; Chang, Hong-Young; Kim, Jung-Hyung; You, Shin-Jae

    2012-05-15

    The wave cutoff probe, a precise measurement method for measuring the electron density, was recently proposed. To characterize the cutoff probe system, in this paper, the microwave simulations of a cutoff probe system were performed at various configurations of the cutoff probe system. The influence of the cutoff probe spectrum stemming from numerous parametric elements such as the probe tip length, probe tip distance, probe tip plane orientation, chamber volume/geometry, and coaxial cable length is presented and discussed. This article is expected to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into cutoff probe systems and its optimization process.

  17. Ophthalmic Diagnostics Using a New Dynamic Light Scattering Fiber Optic Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.; Dellavecchia, Michael A.; Dubin, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe is developed to study different parts of the eye. The probe positioned in front of an eye, delivers a low power light from a laser diode into the eye and guides the light which is back scattered by different components (aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor) of the eye through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions in the eye lens and the gel-like material in the vitreous humor. We report alpha-crystalline size distributions, as a function of penetration depth, inside the lens and hyaluronic acid molecular size distribution in the vitreous body. In a clinical setting, the probe can be mounted on a slit-lamp apparatus simply by using a H-ruby lens holder. The capability of detecting cataracts, both nuclear and peripheral, in their early stages of formation, in a non invasive and quantitative fashion, has the potential in patient monitoring and in developing and testing new drugs or diet therapies to 'dissolve' or slow down the cataract formation before surgery is necessary. The ability to detect biochemical and macromolecular changes in the vitreous structure can be very useful in identifying certain diseases of the posterior chamber, e.g., posterior vitreous detachment.

  18. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Sam; Mihalusova, Mariana; Valles, Jim

    2003-01-01

    At Brown University, we are developing the use of magnetic body forces as a means to simulate variable gravity body forces on biological systems. This tool promises new means to probe gravi-sensing and the gravi-response of biological systems. It also has the potential as a technique for screening future systems for space flight experiments.

  19. Langmuir probe diagnostics of an atmospheric pressure, vortex-stabilized nitrogen plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. R.; Kelly, H.

    2012-09-15

    Langmuir probe measurements in an atmospheric pressure direct current (dc) plasma jet are reported. Sweeping probes were used. The experiment was carried out using a dc non-transferred arc torch with a rod-type cathode and an anode of 5 mm diameter. The torch was operated at a nominal power level of 15 kW with a nitrogen flow rate of 25 Nl min{sup -1}. A flat ion saturation region was found in the current-voltage curve of the probe. The ion saturation current to a cylindrical probe in a high-pressure non local thermal equilibrium (LTE) plasma was modeled. Thermal effects and ionization/recombination processes inside the probe perturbed region were taken into account. Averaged radial profiles of the electron and heavy particle temperatures as well as the electron density were obtained. An electron temperature around 11 000 K, a heavy particle temperature around 9500 K and an electron density of about 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, were found at the jet centre at 3.5 mm downstream from the torch exit. Large deviations from kinetic equilibrium were found throughout the plasma jet. The electron and heavy particle temperature profiles showed good agreement with those reported in the literature by using spectroscopic techniques. It was also found that the temperature radial profile based on LTE was very close to that of the electrons. The calculations have shown that this method is particularly useful for studying spraying-type plasma jets characterized by electron temperatures in the range 9000-14 000 K.

  20. An ultrafast reciprocating probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Tan, Yi; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe

    2016-11-01

    For tokamak plasma diagnostics, an ultrafast reciprocating probe system driven by magnetic field coils, achieving a maximum velocity of 21 m/s, is introduced. The probes are attached with a driving hoop made of carbon steel and accelerated by three acceleration coils in series, then decelerated by two deceleration coils and buffer springs and return slowly. The coils with a current of about 1 kA generate a magnetic field of about 1 T. This probe system has been tested on the SUNIST (Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak) spherical tokamak. Radial profiles of the floating potential and other plasma parameters measured by this probe system are given.

  1. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  2. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  3. Benchmarking Diagnostic Algorithms on an Electrical Power System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Wright, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic algorithms (DAs) are key to enabling automated health management. These algorithms are designed to detect and isolate anomalies of either a component or the whole system based on observations received from sensors. In recent years a wide range of algorithms, both model-based and data-driven, have been developed to increase autonomy and improve system reliability and affordability. However, the lack of support to perform systematic benchmarking of these algorithms continues to create barriers for effective development and deployment of diagnostic technologies. In this paper, we present our efforts to benchmark a set of DAs on a common platform using a framework that was developed to evaluate and compare various performance metrics for diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is an electrical power system, namely the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) developed and located at the NASA Ames Research Center. The paper presents the fundamentals of the benchmarking framework, the ADAPT system, description of faults and data sets, the metrics used for evaluation, and an in-depth analysis of benchmarking results obtained from testing ten diagnostic algorithms on the ADAPT electrical power system testbed.

  4. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  5. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  6. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future. PMID:26937373

  7. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  8. Design of a multi-needle Langmuir probe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekkeng, T. A.; Jacobsen, K. S.; Bekkeng, J. K.; Pedersen, A.; Lindem, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Moen, J. I.

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this work was to develop a Langmuir probe instrument for sounding rockets capable of performing high-speed absolute electron density measurements, and thereby be able to detect sub-meter ionospheric plasma density structures. The system comprises four cylindrical probes with a diameter of 0.51 mm and a length of 25 mm, each operated at a different fixed bias voltage in the electron saturation region. The probe diameter was chosen significantly less than the Debye shielding length to avoid complex sheath effects but large enough to ensure a probe area sufficiently large to accurately measure the electron currents drawn by the probes (in the range 1 nA to 1 µA). The crucial feature of the University of Oslo's multi-needle Langmuir probe (m-NLP) is that it is possible to determine the electron density without the need to know the spacecraft potential and the electron temperature Te. The m-NLP instrument covers a density range from ne = 109 m-3 to 1012 m-3, with sampling rates up to 9 kHz. The m-NLP instrument was successfully tested on the ICI-2 (Investigation of Cusp Irregularities) sounding rocket flight from Svalbard on 5 December 2008.

  9. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter diagnostic systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2009-09-29

    A system that diagnoses regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a grid module that diagnoses a fault of the grid based on at least one of a current signal and a voltage signal. A diagnostic module at least one of sets a fault status and generates a warning signal based on the fault of the grid.

  11. SA-SVM based automated diagnostic system for skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of skin cancer is one of the greatest challenges due to lack of experience of general practitioners (GPs). This paper presents a clinical decision support system aimed to save time and resources in the diagnostic process. Segmentation, feature extraction, pattern recognition, and lesion classification are the important steps in the proposed decision support system. The system analyses the images to extract the affected area using a novel proposed segmentation method H-FCM-LS. The underlying features which indicate the difference between melanoma and benign lesions are obtained through intensity, spatial/frequency and texture based methods. For classification purpose, self-advising SVM is adapted which showed improved classification rate as compared to standard SVM. The presented work also considers analyzed performance of linear and kernel based SVM on the specific skin lesion diagnostic problem and discussed corresponding findings. The best diagnostic rates obtained through the proposed method are around 90.5 %.

  12. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  13. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M. ); Humenik, K.E. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  15. Probing CPT violation in B systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Anirban; Patra, Sunando Kumar; Nandi, Soumitra

    2010-04-01

    We discuss how a possible violation of the combined symmetry CPT in the B meson system can be investigated at the LHC. We show how a tagged and an untagged analysis of the decay modes of both B{sub d} and B{sub s} mesons can lead not only to a possible detection of a CPT-violating new physics but also to an understanding of its precise nature. The implication of CPT violation to a large mixing phase in the B{sub s} system is also discussed.

  16. [SCAN system--semi-structured interview based on diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Kiejna, Andrzej; Hadryś, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of contemporary diagnostic systems which are implemented into the SCAN--modern and semi-structured diagnostic interview. The concepts of further development of the classifications, rationale for operationalized diagnostic criteria and for the divisional approach to mental diagnoses will be in focus. The structure and components of SCAN ver. 2.1 (WHO), i.e. Present State Examination--10th edition, Item Group Checklist, Clinical History Schedule, Glossary of Definitions and computer software with the diagnostic algorithm: I-Shell, as well as rules for a reliable use of diagnostic rating scales, will be discussed within the scope of this paper. The materials and training sets necessary for the learning of proper use of the SCAN, especially training sets for SCAN Training Centers and the Reference Manual--a form of guidebook for SCAN shall be introduced. Finally the paper will present evidence that SCAN is an instrument feasible in different cultural settings. Reliability and validity data of SCAN will also be dealt with indicating that SCAN could be widely used in research studies as well as in everyday clinical practice facilitating more detailed diagnostic approach to a patient. PMID:17068947

  17. [SCAN system--semi-structured interview based on diagnostic criteria].

    PubMed

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Kiejna, Andrzej; Hadryś, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the main features of contemporary diagnostic systems which are implemented into the SCAN--modern and semi-structured diagnostic interview. The concepts of further development of the classifications, rationale for operationalized diagnostic criteria and for the divisional approach to mental diagnoses will be in focus. The structure and components of SCAN ver. 2.1 (WHO), i.e. Present State Examination--10th edition, Item Group Checklist, Clinical History Schedule, Glossary of Definitions and computer software with the diagnostic algorithm: I-Shell, as well as rules for a reliable use of diagnostic rating scales, will be discussed within the scope of this paper. The materials and training sets necessary for the learning of proper use of the SCAN, especially training sets for SCAN Training Centers and the Reference Manual--a form of guidebook for SCAN shall be introduced. Finally the paper will present evidence that SCAN is an instrument feasible in different cultural settings. Reliability and validity data of SCAN will also be dealt with indicating that SCAN could be widely used in research studies as well as in everyday clinical practice facilitating more detailed diagnostic approach to a patient.

  18. Optical sensor of a probing system for inspection of PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae H.; Cho, Hyungsuck; Kim, Sang-Ho

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a highly responsible probing system for inspection of electrical properties of assembled PCBs. However, as the duration of the impact occurring between a probe and a solder joint on PCB is very short, it is very difficult to control the harmful peak impact force and the slip motion of the probe to sufficient level only by its force feedback control with high gains. To overcome these disadvantages of the prototype, it needs to obtain some information of the solder joint in advance before the contact. In addition, to guarantee the reliability of the probing task, the probing system is required to measure several points around the probable target point at high sped. Therefore, to meet such requirements, we propose a new non-contact sensor capable of detecting simultaneously position and normal vectors of the multiple points around the probable target point in real time. By using this information, we can prepare a control strategy for stable contact motion on impact. In this paper, we described measuring principle, design, and development of the sensor. The effectiveness of the proposed sensor is verified through a series of experiments.

  19. Mechanical system diagnostics using vibration testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, Catherine D.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The 'Cepstrum' technique of vibration-path identification allows the recovery of the transfer function of a system with little knowledge as to its excitation force, by means of a mathematical manipulation of the system output in conjunction with subtraction of part of the output and suitable signal processing. An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of this technique in the cases of simple, cantilever-beam and free-free plate structures as well as in that of a complex mechanical system. On the basis of the transfer functions thus recovered, it was possible to evaluate the shifts in the resonance frequencies of a structure due to the presence of defects.

  20. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  1. The oral-systemic connection: role of salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Utilizing saliva instead of blood for diagnosis of both local and systemic health is a rapidly emerging field. Recognition of oral-systemic interrelationships for many diseases has fostered collaborations between medicine and dentistry, and many of these collaborations rely on salivary diagnostics. The oral cavity is easily accessed and contains most of the analytes present in blood. Saliva and mucosal transudate are generally utilized for oral diagnostics, but gingival crevicular fluid, buccal swabs, dental plaque and volatiles may also be useful depending on the analyte being studied. Examples of point-of-care devices capable of detecting HIV, TB, and Malaria targets are being developed and discussed in this overview.

  2. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  3. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  4. Yet another plasma diagnostic with He-like triplet: Probing energetic electrons behind SNR shocks with ASTRO-H SXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Makoto; Kaastra, Jelle

    We present a new X-ray line diagnostic to probe energetic electrons behind SNR shocks. SNR shocks are believed to be acceleration sites of the Galactic cosmic rays up to knee energy. In the early stage of acceleration, particles must have sufficient energies to cross the shock to enter diffusive shock acceleration. This requires supra-thermal energies for electrons, however, we currently do not know how electrons depart from the thermal pool to attain such energies. Hence observational constraints on the amount and energy distribution of supra-thermal electrons are awaited. Here we propose a new X-ray line diagnostic using the He-like triplet to detect and characterise the energy distribution of supra-thermal electrons. We simulate X-ray spectra of SNR plasma interacting with energetic electrons and find that the forbidden line of the He-like triplet is enhanced via inner-shell ionisation process of Li-like ions. Such an effect can be precisely measured by high-resolution spectroscopy with the coming ASTRO-H SXS instrument.

  5. STATUS OF VARIOUS SNS DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Purcell, J David; Patton, Jeff; Pelaia II, Tom; Sundaram, Madhan; Pennisi, Terry R

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems are ramping up to deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. Enhancements or additions have been made to several instrument systems to support the ramp up in intensity, improve reliability, and/or add functionality. The Beam Current Monitors now support increased rep rates, the Harp system now includes charge density calculations for the target, and a new system has been created to collect data for the beam accounting and present the data over the web and to the operator consoles. The majority of the SNS beam instruments are PC-based and their configuration files are now managed through the Oracle relational database. A new version for the wire scanner software was developed to add features to correlate the scan with beam loss, parking in the beam, and measuring the longitudinal beam current. This software is currently being tested. This paper also includes data from the selected instruments.

  6. Filterscope diagnostic system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Gao, W.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, C. R.; Zhang, L.; Huang, J.; Chang, J. F.; Yao, X. J.; Gao, W.; Zhang, P. F.; Jin, Z.; Hou, Y. M.; Guo, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    A filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission from plasma on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak during the 2014 campaign. By this diagnostic system, multiple wavelengths including Dα (656.1 nm), Dγ (433.9 nm), He ii (468.5 nm), Li i (670.8 nm), Li ii (548.3 nm), C iii (465.0 nm), O ii (441.5 nm), Mo i (386.4 nm), W i (400.9 nm), and visible bremsstrahlung radiation (538.0 nm) are monitored with corresponding wavelength filters. All these multi-channel signals are digitized at up to 200 kHz simultaneously. This diagnostic plays a crucial role in studying edge localized modes and H-mode plasmas, due to the high temporal resolution and spatial resolution that have been designed into it.

  7. Preliminary consideration of CFETR ITER-like case diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. S.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. M.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, E. H.; Liu, Y. K.; Yang, W. J.; Li, G. Q.; Hu, Q. S.; Gao, X.

    2016-11-01

    Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed in China, which aims at bridging the gap between ITER and DEMO, where DEMO is a tokamak demonstration fusion reactor. Two diagnostic cases, ITER-like case and towards DEMO case, have been considered for CFETR early and later operating phases, respectively. In this paper, some preliminary consideration of ITER-like case will be presented. Based on ITER diagnostic system, three versions of increased complexity and coverage of the ITER-like case diagnostic system have been developed with different goals and functions. Version A aims only machine protection and basic control. Both of version B and version C are mainly for machine protection, basic and advanced control, but version C has an increased level of redundancy necessary for improved measurements capability. The performance of these versions and needed R&D work are outlined.

  8. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  9. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-02-15

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive.

  10. Design study for electronic system for Jupiter Orbit Probe (JOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elero, B. P., Jr.; Carignan, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Jupiter probe spectrometer is presented. Block and circuit diagrams are presented along with tabulated parts lists. Problem areas are considered to be (1) the schedule, (2) weight limitations for the electronic systems, and (3) radiation hardness of the electronic devices.

  11. Method and system for diagnostics of apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a method, implemented in software, for estimating fault state of an apparatus outfitted with sensors. At each execution period the method processes sensor data from the apparatus to obtain a set of parity parameters, which are further used for estimating fault state. The estimation method formulates a convex optimization problem for each fault hypothesis and employs a convex solver to compute fault parameter estimates and fault likelihoods for each fault hypothesis. The highest likelihoods and corresponding parameter estimates are transmitted to a display device or an automated decision and control system. The obtained accurate estimate of fault state can be used to improve safety, performance, or maintenance processes for the apparatus.

  12. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  13. Alignment and diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E S; Boege, S J; Boyd, B; Demaret, R D; Feldman, M; Gates, A J; Holdener, F R; Hollis, J; Knopp, C F; McCarville, T J; Miller-Kamm; Rivera, W E; Salmon, J T; Severyn, J R; Thompson, C E; V J; Wang, D Y; Zacharias, R A

    1999-07-01

    The NIF laser system will be capable of delivering 1.8MJ of 351nm energy in 192 beams. Diagnostics instruments must measure beam energy, power vs. time, wavefront quality, and beam intensity profile to characterize laser performance. Alignment and beam diagnostics are also used to set the laser up for the high power shots and to isolate problems when performance is less than expected. Alignment and beam diagnostics are multiplexed to keep the costs under control. At the front-end the beam is aligned and diagnosed in an input sensor package. The output 1053nm beam is sampled by collecting a 0.1% reflection from an output beam sampler and directing it to the output sensor package (OSP). The OSP also gets samples from final focus lens reflection and samples from the transport spatial filter pinhole plane. The output 351nm energy is measured by a calorimeter collecting the signal from an off-axis diffractive beam-sampler. Detailed information on the focused beam in the high-energy target focal plane region is gathered in the precision diagnostics. This paper describes the design of the alignment and diagnostics on the NIF laser system.

  14. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems.

  15. Diagnostic system with database application for laryngological and dermatological disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Kuls, Michal; Tarapata, Grzegorz

    2006-03-01

    This article describes the design and construction of a diagnostic system for laryngological and dermatological disorders. Searching for both solutions based on a dew point hygrometer with a semiconductor structure introduced. Some constructional solutions like the framework of a computer application for both systems are similar but the measurement approach is different. The major emphasis is put on the database applications dedicated for medical doctors. The database application which is a common part in both systems and also measurement devices together, create a diagnostic system which has been designed and constructed. Both systems have been tested in a hospital with the assistance of doctors specialized in this subjects. In the near future, the system will enable the analysis between achieved data and different disorders.

  16. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alex M; Gülder, Ömer L

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  17. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alex M; Gülder, Ömer L

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame. PMID:27250464

  18. A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L.

    2016-05-01

    Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.

  19. [Diagnostic imaging of central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Vasculitis involving the central nervous system presents with infarction and hemorrhage, which are often nonspecific findings. Laboratory examinations are essential for diagnosis of vasculitis in addition to comprehensive and systematic review of the clinical course. Although most findings tend to be nonspecific, enhancement and thickening of the vascular wall indicate vasculitis. Visualization of the vascular wall requires selection of the appropriate imaging modality and mode of image acquisition. Contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and FDG-PET are useful for visualizing large vessel vasculitis, while CT, MRI, and angiography are effective for medium vessel vasculitis. The use of ultrasound is limited to evaluating vessels on the body surface. Although relatively thick vessels can be demonstrated by angiography, complete survey of small vessels is difficult. Here, we summarize the characteristics of each imaging modality and imaging findings of typical vasculitides-Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, Behçet's disease, primary angiitis of the CNS, and vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Differential diagnoses are also shown, including infective endocarditis, tuberculous meningitis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. PMID:25846439

  20. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  1. Dynamic Force Sensing Using an Optically Trapped Probing System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanan; Cheng, Peng; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an adaptive observer that is implemented to enable real-time dynamic force sensing and parameter estimation in an optically trapped probing system. According to the principle of separation of estimation and control, the design of this observer is independent of that of the feedback controller when operating within the linear range of the optical trap. Dynamic force sensing, probe steering/clamping, and Brownian motion control can, therefore, be developed separately and activated simultaneously. The adaptive observer utilizes the measured motion of the trapped probe and input control effort to recursively estimate the probe–sample interaction force in real time, along with the estimation of the probing system’s trapping bandwidth. This capability is very important to achieving accurate dynamic force sensing in a time-varying process, wherein the trapping dynamics is nonstationary due to local variations of the surrounding medium. The adaptive estimator utilizes the Kalman filter algorithm to compute the time-varying gain in real time and minimize the estimation error for force probing. A series of experiments are conducted to validate the design of and assess the performance of the adaptive observer. PMID:24382944

  2. Integration of probe systems in a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Buechner, Hans-Joachim; Gruenwald, Rainer; Fussl, Roland

    2005-02-01

    The paper describes the design of a high-precision three-dimensional nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM-Machine). The NPM-Machine has been developed by the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universität Ilmenau and manufactured by the SIOS Mežtechnik GmbH Ilmenau. The machine was successfully tested and continually improved in the last few years. The NPM-Machine has a resolution of less than 0,1 nm over the entire positioning and measuring range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm. An Abbe offset-free design and the application of a new concept for compensating systematic errors resulting from mechanical bearings provide extraordinary accuracy. An important part of the NPM-Machine is constituted by a mirror corner. The integration of several probe systems and Nanotools makes the NPM-Machine suitable for various tasks, such as large-area scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanostructuring, biotechnology as well as measuring mechanical precision workpieces a.s.o. Various probe systems have been integrated into the NPM-Machines. The machines are operating successfully in several German and foreign institutes including the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The article gives basic information on the NPM-Machine and describes the mode of operation and the measurements by means of probe systems.

  3. The Feasibility of a Diagnostic Media Test System Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Alfred V.

    Research investigated the feasibility of a diagnostic media test system. Two distinct tests were developed for sixth grade and university populations, each having: 1) a main phase with three specific teaching sequences, one for each media form; 2) test items for each teaching sequence; and 3) a validation phase with one teaching sequence…

  4. Investigating Reading Disabilities Using the Rauding Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Susan W.; Carver, Ronald P.

    1998-01-01

    Three studies investigated the effectiveness of the Computer Assisted Reading Diagnosis, a diagnostic system based on "rauding" theory (a collection of theories, constructs, and equations developed to describe, explain, predict and control the ability to comprehend relatively easy sentences) and a causal model of reading achievement. Results…

  5. Mechanical considerations for MFTF-B plasma-diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Wells, C.W.

    1981-10-19

    The reconfiguration of MFTF to a tandem mirror machine with thermal barriers has caused a significant expansion in the physical scope of plasma diagnostics. From a mechanical perspective, it complicates the plasma access, system interfaces, growth and environmental considerations. Conceptual designs characterize the general scope of the design and fabrication which remains to be done.

  6. Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paulo; Kallemeijn, Wouter W.; Strijland, Anneke; Scheij, Saskia; Van Eijk, Marco; Aten, Jan; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Balreira, Andrea; Zunke, Friederike; Schwake, Michael; Sá Miranda, Clara; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GBA gene. While GD is characterized by the presence of glucosylceramide-laden macrophages, AMRF patients do not show these. We studied the fate of GBA in relation to LIMP2 deficiency by employing recently designed activity-based probes labeling active GBA molecules. We demonstrate that GBA is almost absent in lysosomes of AMRF fibroblasts. However, white blood cells contain considerable amounts of residual enzyme. Consequently, AMRF patients do not acquire lipid-laden macrophages and do not show increased plasma levels of macrophage markers, such as chitotriosidase, in contrast to GD patients. We next investigated the consequences of LIMP2 deficiency with respect to plasma glycosphingolipid levels. Plasma glucosylceramide concentration was normal in the AMRF patients investigated as well as in LIMP2-deficient mice. However, a marked increase in the sphingoid base, glucosylsphingosine, was observed in AMRF patients and LIMP2-deficient mice. Our results suggest that combined measurements of chitotriosidase and glucosylsphingosine can be used for convenient differential laboratory diagnosis of GD and AMRF. PMID:24212238

  7. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.

    2016-11-01

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H- production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  9. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to address unrelated

  10. SERS diagnostic platforms, methods and systems microarrays, biosensors and biochips

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2007-09-11

    A Raman integrated sensor system for the detection of targets including biotargets includes at least one sampling platform, at least one receptor probe disposed on the sampling platform, and an integrated circuit detector system communicably connected to the receptor. The sampling platform is preferably a Raman active surface-enhanced scattering (SERS) platform, wherein the Raman sensor is a SERS sensor. The receptors can include at least one protein receptor and at least one nucleic acid receptor.

  11. Probing suitable therapeutic nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery and diagnostic reproductive health biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rakhi; Jha, Pradeep K; Gupta, Santosh; Bhuvaneshwaran, S P; Hossain, Maidul; Guha, Sujoy K

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterial mediated drug delivery represents a highly promising technique while its selectivity for reproductive healthcare application still remains a challenge. Since the delicate structure and functional role of reproductive tissue and gametes require the use of biocompatible nanomedicine/devices that do not affect fertility or the development of resulting offspring, this paper reports an intercomparative study of human spermatozoa interaction with three different nanoparticles (NPs) namely; iron oxide (Fe3O4), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene platelet nanopowder (GPN) to probe their suitability for drug delivery carrier and biomarker development purposes. ATR-FTIR results revealed that the sperm cell interaction with GPN had maximum amide I absorption for cell proteins and CO stretching of the peptide backbone at the band around 1657 cm(-1) followed by iron oxide NPs whereas MWCNT had no absorption. These results showed that GPN followed by iron oxide NPs got maximally entrapped by cell membrane protein with maximum disruption but MWCNT exhibited less entrapment but significantly higher internalization which was further validated by morphological analysis of these cell NP interaction by SEM, HRTEM and fluorescence microscopy. The uptake kinetics and penetration mechanism of NPs were examined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Interestingly, ITC results confirmed ATR-FTIR and morphological observations that the binding of GPN and Fe3O4 NPs with cell was exothermic and their bindings were favored by both negative enthalpy and positive entropy whereas in the case of MWCNT it was endothermic supported by unfavorable positive enthalpy and a favorable entropy change. Hence, it was evident that MWCNT had better internalization efficiency without disrupting the sperm lipid membrane compared to Fe3O4 and GPN NPs. Therefore, this work proposes CNT as promising means. PMID:26838846

  12. Probing suitable therapeutic nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery and diagnostic reproductive health biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rakhi; Jha, Pradeep K; Gupta, Santosh; Bhuvaneshwaran, S P; Hossain, Maidul; Guha, Sujoy K

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterial mediated drug delivery represents a highly promising technique while its selectivity for reproductive healthcare application still remains a challenge. Since the delicate structure and functional role of reproductive tissue and gametes require the use of biocompatible nanomedicine/devices that do not affect fertility or the development of resulting offspring, this paper reports an intercomparative study of human spermatozoa interaction with three different nanoparticles (NPs) namely; iron oxide (Fe3O4), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene platelet nanopowder (GPN) to probe their suitability for drug delivery carrier and biomarker development purposes. ATR-FTIR results revealed that the sperm cell interaction with GPN had maximum amide I absorption for cell proteins and CO stretching of the peptide backbone at the band around 1657 cm(-1) followed by iron oxide NPs whereas MWCNT had no absorption. These results showed that GPN followed by iron oxide NPs got maximally entrapped by cell membrane protein with maximum disruption but MWCNT exhibited less entrapment but significantly higher internalization which was further validated by morphological analysis of these cell NP interaction by SEM, HRTEM and fluorescence microscopy. The uptake kinetics and penetration mechanism of NPs were examined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Interestingly, ITC results confirmed ATR-FTIR and morphological observations that the binding of GPN and Fe3O4 NPs with cell was exothermic and their bindings were favored by both negative enthalpy and positive entropy whereas in the case of MWCNT it was endothermic supported by unfavorable positive enthalpy and a favorable entropy change. Hence, it was evident that MWCNT had better internalization efficiency without disrupting the sperm lipid membrane compared to Fe3O4 and GPN NPs. Therefore, this work proposes CNT as promising means.

  13. Remote network control plasma diagnostic system for Tokamak T-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troynov, V. I.; Zimin, A. M.; Krupin, V. A.; Notkin, G. E.; Nurgaliev, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    The parameters of molecular plasma in closed magnetic trap is studied in this paper. Using the system of molecular diagnostics, which was designed by the authors on the «Tokamak T-10» facility, the radiation of hydrogen isotopes at the plasma edge is investigated. The scheme of optical radiation registration within visible spectrum is described. For visualization, identification and processing of registered molecular spectra a new software is developed using MatLab environment. The software also includes electronic atlas of electronic-vibrational-rotational transitions for molecules of protium and deuterium. To register radiation from limiter cross-section a network control system is designed using the means of the Internet/Intranet. Remote control system diagram and methods are given. The examples of web-interfaces for working out equipment control scenarios and viewing of results are provided. After test run in Intranet, the remote diagnostic system will be accessible through Internet.

  14. Detection of bovine trichomoniasis with a specific DNA probe and PCR amplification system.

    PubMed

    Ho, M S; Conrad, P A; Conrad, P J; LeFebvre, R B; Perez, E; BonDurant, R H

    1994-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a widespread, economically important venereal disease of cattle which causes infertility and abortion. Effective control of trichomoniasis has been impeded by the insensitivity of traditional diagnostic procedures, which require the isolation and cultivation of the parasite, Tritrichomonas foetus, from infected cattle. We developed a 0.85-kb T. foetus DNA probe by identifying conserved sequences in DNAs from T. foetus that were isolated from cattle in California, Idaho, Nevada, and Costa Rica. The probe hybridized specifically to DNAs of T. foetus isolates from different geographic areas but not to DNA preparations of Trichomonas vaginalis, bovine cells, or a variety of bacteria from cattle. The probe detected DNA from a minimum of 10(5) T. foetus organisms. To improve sensitivity, a partial sequence of the probe was used to identify oligonucleotide primers (TF1 and TF2) which could be used to amplify a 162-bp product from T. foetus DNAs by PCR. A chemiluminescent internal T. foetus sequence probe was hybridized to Southern blots of the amplification product. This system detected as few as one T. foetus organism in culture media or 10 parasites in samples containing bovine preputial smegma. Analysis of 52 clinical samples showed that 47 (90.4%) of the 52 samples were correctly identified, with no false-positive reactions. In comparison, the traditional cultivation method detected 44 (84.6%) of the 52 samples from T. foetus-infected and uninfected bulls. These results indicate that the PCR-based amplification system could be a useful alternative method for the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis.

  15. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  16. Adaptation and Validation of E-Probe Diagnostic Nucleic Acid Analysis for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Metagenomic Data from Complex Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Blagden, Trenna; Schneider, William; Melcher, Ulrich; Daniels, Jon; Fletcher, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently emphasized the need for enhanced technologies to use in investigations of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. To address this need, e-probe diagnostic nucleic acid analysis (EDNA) was adapted and validated as a tool for the rapid, effective identification and characterization of multiple pathogens in a food matrix. In EDNA, unassembled next generation sequencing data sets from food sample metagenomes are queried using pathogen-specific sequences known as electronic probes (e-probes). In this study, the query of mock sequence databases demonstrated the potential of EDNA for the detection of foodborne pathogens. The method was then validated using next generation sequencing data sets created by sequencing the metagenome of alfalfa sprouts inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Nonspecific hits in the negative control sample indicated the need for additional filtration of the e-probes to enhance specificity. There was no significant difference in the ability of an e-probe to detect the target pathogen based upon the length of the probe set oligonucleotides. The results from the queries of the sample database using E. coli e-probe sets were significantly different from those obtained using random decoy probe sets and exhibited 100% precision. The results support the use of EDNA as a rapid response methodology in foodborne outbreaks and investigations for establishing comprehensive microbial profiles of complex food samples. PMID:27052861

  17. Multi-function diamond film fiberoptic probe and measuring system employing same

    DOEpatents

    Young, Jack P.

    1998-01-01

    A fused fiberoptic probe having a protective cover, a fiberoptic probe system, and embodiments thereof for conducting electromagnetic spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferrably silica, with a protective cover disposed over at least a portion of the probe tip. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0.degree., an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head.

  18. Multi-function diamond film fiber optic probe and measuring system employing same

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.P.

    1998-11-24

    A fused fiber optic probe having a protective cover, a fiber optic probe system, and embodiments thereof for conducting electromagnetic spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiber optic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica, with a protective cover disposed over at least a portion of the probe tip. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 9 figs.

  19. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  20. Optical diagnostics integrated with laser spark delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-09-02

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  1. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  2. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases. PMID:27475558

  3. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  4. Diagnostics monitor of the braking efficiency in the on board diagnostics system for the motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The article presents diagnostics monitor for control of the efficiency of brakes in various road conditions in cars equipped with pressure sensor in brake (ESP) system. Now the brake efficiency of the vehicles is estimated periodically in the stand conditions on the base of brake forces measurement or in the road conditions on the base of the brake deceleration. The presented method allows to complete the stand - periodical tests of the brakes by current on board diagnostics system OBD for brakes. First part of the article presents theoretical dependences between deceleration of the vehicle and brake pressure. The influence of the vehicle mass, initial speed of braking, temperature of brakes, aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, engine resistance, state of the road surface, angle of the road sloping on the deceleration have been analysed. The manner of the appointed of these parameters has been analysed. The results of the initial investigation have been presented. At the end of the article the strategy of the estimation and signalization of the irregular value of the deceleration are presented.

  5. Needs assessment for diagnostic decision support systems (DDSS).

    PubMed Central

    Berner, E. S.; Shugerman, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic decision support systems are often developed without a clear idea of how well the system will meet the needs of its users. The present study was designed to assess the information needs of clinicians. A set of questions submitted to an information service by family physicians was used to determine how much need there was for diagnostic decision support, the types of support needed, and the general content areas of their questions. Results showed that less than half of the questions were related to diagnosis and that most of those were requests for general information about a given condition. In addition, the fewest diagnosis questions were for conditions that were seen frequently in ambulatory care in a survey of family practitioners. PMID:1807674

  6. Programmable bio-nano-chip system for saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W.; McRae, Michael P.; Wong, Jorge; Kosten, Thomas R.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; McDevitt, John

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) approach that serves as miniaturized assay platform designed for the rapid detection and quantitation of multiple analytes in biological fluids along with the specific applications in salivary diagnostics intended for the point of need (PON). Included here are oral fluid-based tests for local periodontal disease, systemic cardiac disease and multiplexed tests for drugs of abuse.

  7. Development of a portable multiphoton photo-acoustic spectroscopy system for tumor diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, Nirmala; Kiser, John B.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a novel fiber optic probe for subsurface tumor diagnostics, based on non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS). In this technique, endogenous biomarkers present in tissues are irradiated in the near infrared, using a tunable high-power laser. The resulting multiphoton excitation events are detected as an acoustic (i.e. ultrasonic) signal, using an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer. The signal from the piezoelectric transducer is then corrected for laser power fluctuations by normalizing the NMPPAS signal at each wavelength with the laser intensity recorded, from an optical diode. By scanning the laser excitation over the appropriate wavelength range for the tissue of interest, absorption differences between normal and tumor tissues can be measured and analyzed. The fiber optic probe was characterized and optimized for transmission efficiency as well as its time dependent response to high power laser pulses. The focusing optics were optimized and a piezoelectric transducer film detector chosen based on its sensitivity in the ultrasonic frequency range of interest. Using this probe system NMPPAS measurements were performed on several common fluorescent dyes including rhodamine 6G as well as well-characterized biomarkers like tryptophan. Furthermore, the technique was further successfully applied to the differentiation of tumorous and healthy human brain tissues.

  8. Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics systems on the EAST tokamak (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Xie, J. L.; Yu, C. X.; Zhao, Z. L.; Gao, B. X.; Chen, D. X.; Liu, W. D.; Liao, W.; Qu, C. M.; Luo, C.; Hu, X.; Spear, A. G.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Chen, M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.

    2016-11-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging diagnostics, with large poloidal span and wide radial range, have been developed on the EAST tokamak for visualization of 2D electron temperature and density fluctuations. A 384 channel (24 poloidal × 16 radial) Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in F-band (90-140 GHz) was installed on the EAST tokamak in 2012 to provide 2D electron temperature fluctuation images with high spatial and temporal resolution. A co-located Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) will be installed for imaging of density fluctuations by December 2016. This "4th generation" MIR system has eight independent frequency illumination beams in W-band (75-110 GHz) driven by fast tuning synthesizers and active multipliers. Both of these advanced millimeter-wave imaging diagnostic systems have applied the latest techniques. A novel design philosophy "general optics structure" has been employed for the design of the ECEI and MIR receiver optics with large aperture. The extended radial and poloidal coverage of ECEI on EAST is made possible by innovations in the design of front-end optics. The front-end optical structures of the two imaging diagnostics, ECEI and MIR, have been integrated into a compact system, including the ECEI receiver and MIR transmitter and receiver. Two imaging systems share the same mid-plane port for simultaneous, co-located 2D fluctuation measurements of electron density and temperature. An intelligent remote-control is utilized in the MIR electronics systems to maintain focusing at the desired radial region even with density variations by remotely tuning the probe frequencies in about 200 μs. A similar intelligent technique has also been applied on the ECEI IF system, with remote configuration of the attenuations for each channel.

  9. A high speed imaging system for nuclear diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eyer, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    A high speed imaging system based on state-of-the-art photosensor arrays was designed for use in nuclear diagnostics. The system is comprised of a front end rapid scan solid state camera, a high speed digitizer, and a PCM line driver in a downhole package and a memory buffer system in an uphole trailer. The downhole camera takes a snapshot of a nuclear device created flux stream, digitizes the image and transmits it to the uphole memory system before being destroyed. The memory system performs two functions: it retains the data for local display and processing by a microprocessor, and it buffers the data for retransmission at slower rates to a computational facility. In the talk, the impetus for such a system as well as its operation was discussed, along with systems under development which incorporate higher data rates and more resolution.

  10. The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Attitude Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.; Ericsson, Aprille J.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission is designed to produce a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an Inertial Reference Unit, two Autonomous Star Trackers, a Digital Sun Sensor, twelve Coarse Sun Sensors, three Reaction Wheel Assemblies, and a propulsion system. This paper describes the design of the attitude control system that carries out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  11. Expert system applications in support of system diagnostics and prognostics at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, W.K.; Gross, K.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems have been developed to aid in the monitoring and diagnostics of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Systems have been developed for failed fuel surveillance and diagnostics and reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostics. A third project is being done jointly by ANL-W and EG G Idaho to develop a transient analysis system to enhance overall plant diagnostic and prognostic capability. The failed fuel surveillance and diagnosis system monitors, processes, and interprets information from nine key plant sensors. It displays to the reactor operator diagnostic information needed to make proper decisions regarding technical specification conformance during reactor operation with failed fuel. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size ({sigma}{sub x} {approx} 150 {mu}m, {sigma}{sub y} {approx} 50 {mu}m), current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at {approximately} 6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening ({sigma} {approx} 30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  13. Commissioning results of the APS storage ring diagnostics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.

    1997-01-01

    Initial commissionings of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) 7-GeV storage ring and its diagnostics systems have been done. Early studies involved single-bunch measurements for beam transverse size (σx≈150 μm, σy≈50 μm,) current, injection losses, and bunch length. The diagnostics have been used in studies related to the detection of an extra contribution to beam jitter at ˜6.5 Hz frequency; observation of bunch lengthening (σ≈30 to 60 ps) with single-bunch current; observation of an induced vertical, head-tail instability; and detection of a small orbit change with insertion device gap position. More recently, operations at 100-mA stored-beam current, the baseline design goal, have been achieved with the support of beam characterizations.

  14. Design of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinan; Gao, Li; Huang, Jiefeng; Qiu, Qingshuang; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-11-01

    An infrared multi-channel Thomson scattering diagnostic system is designed from the viewpoint of development of the proposed system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). A 3 J/50 Hz Nd:YAG laser, which is injected vertically into plasma in the direction from top to bottom, serves as the power source of the system. The scattering light is then collected horizontally and is transmitted to an interference-filter avalanche photodiode based polychromater for spectrum analysis. The system covers the half plasma cross section, providing 14 spatial points with 2 cm resolution. The proposed system can thus satisfy the requirements of the J-TEXT at present and in the near future. A detailed description of the system design is presented in this paper.

  15. Portable Knowledge-Based Diagnostic And Maintenance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, John; Olson, Noreen S.

    1989-03-01

    It is difficult to diagnose faults and maintain weapon systems because (1) they are highly complex pieces of equipment composed of multiple mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic assemblies, and (2) talented maintenance personnel are continuously being lost through the attrition process. To solve this problem, we developed a portable diagnostic and maintenance aid that uses a knowledge-based expert system. This aid incorporates diagnostics, operational procedures, repair and replacement procedures, and regularly scheduled maintenance into one compact, 18-pound graphics workstation. Drawings and schematics can be pulled up from the CD-ROM to assist the operator in answering the expert system's questions. Work for this aid began with the development of the initial knowledge-based expert system in a fast prototyping environment using a LISP machine. The second phase saw the development of a personal computer-based system that used videodisc technology to pictorially assist the operator. The current version of the aid eliminates the high expenses associated with videodisc preparation by scanning in the art work already in the manuals. A number of generic software tools have been developed that streamlined the construction of each iteration of the aid; these tools will be applied to the development of future systems.

  16. Optical real-time defect-enhancement diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, C J; Mitchell, P V; Pepper, D M

    1992-12-15

    We have demonstrated an all-optical diagnostic system that enhances the observation of defects in periodic structures. This real-time technique employs a spatial light modulator as a smart-pixel array for information processing in the Fourier transform plane of a lens. The system also includes a phase-conjugate mirror for autoalignment and for correction of optical wave-front aberrations that are imparted on the object light by the smart-pixel processor and its associated optical train. PMID:19798320

  17. Spatial Expansion and Automation of the Pegasus Thomson Scattering Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic system has recently undergone modifications to increase the spatial range of the diagnostic and automate the Thomson data collection process. Two multichannel spectrometers have been added to the original configuration, providing a total of 24 data channels to view the plasma volume. The new system configuration allows for observation of three distinct regions of the plasma: the local helicity injection (LHI) source (R ~ 67-73.8 cm), the plasma edge (R ~ 51.5-57.6 cm), and the plasma core (R ~ 35-41.1 cm). Each spectrometer utilizes a volume-phase holographic (VPH) grating and a gated-intensified CCD camera. The edge and the LHI spectrometers have been fitted with low-temperature VPH gratings to cover Te = 10 - 100 eV, while the core spectrometer has been fitted with a high-temperature VPH grating to cover Te = 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 keV. The additional spectrometers have been calibrated to account for detector flatness, detector linearity, and vignetting. Operation of the Thomson system has been overhauled to utilize LabVIEW software to synchronize the major components of the Thomson system with the Pegasus shot cycle and to provide intra-shot beam alignment. Multi-point Thomson scattering measurements will be obtained in the aforementioned regions of LHI and Ohmic discharges and will be compared to Langmuir probe measurements. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  18. ORION OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS Construction and commissioning progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. B. A.; Drew, D.; Fyrth, J.; Hill, M. P.; Kemshall, P.; Oades, K.; Harvey, E.; Gumbrell, E. T.

    2012-10-01

    The Orion facility provides a unique combined long- and short-pulse laser capability. We report on the progress in constructing a comprehensive plasma optical diagnostic suite for the facility, developed for a range of warm dense matter and other materials' properties experiments. The first VISAR imaging line for the suite is due to be commissioned in 2012 and its progress will be reported. The system consists of configurable optical elements mounted on a TIM, relay optics to an optical table, optics to direct the light through a VISAR bed onto an optical streak camera and the infrastructure systems to provide remote control and services. Due to the operational model of Orion the diagnostic must have comprehensive remote control for its set up and alignment. This makes the system design more complicated than otherwise. The sub-systems required to give the degree of remote control required will be described. A modified version of the suite's ASBO imaging line was used in 2011 to support the commissioning of Orion's long- and short-pulse laser beam lines by imaging optical emission from laser targets. The set up of this system and the data it recorded with an optical streak camera during a short pulse experiment will be presented.

  19. Model-Based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Foygel, Michael; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    The loading of spacecraft propellants is a complex, risky operation. Therefore, diagnostic solutions are necessary to quickly identify when a fault occurs, so that recovery actions can be taken or an abort procedure can be initiated. Model-based diagnosis solutions, established using an in-depth analysis and understanding of the underlying physical processes, offer the advanced capability to quickly detect and isolate faults, identify their severity, and predict their effects on system performance. We develop a physics-based model of a cryogenic propellant loading system, which describes the complex dynamics of liquid hydrogen filling from a storage tank to an external vehicle tank, as well as the influence of different faults on this process. The model takes into account the main physical processes such as highly nonequilibrium condensation and evaporation of the hydrogen vapor, pressurization, and also the dynamics of liquid hydrogen and vapor flows inside the system in the presence of helium gas. Since the model incorporates multiple faults in the system, it provides a suitable framework for model-based diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. Using this model, we analyze the effects of faults on the system, derive symbolic fault signatures for the purposes of fault isolation, and perform fault identification using a particle filter approach. We demonstrate the detection, isolation, and identification of a number of faults using simulation-based experiments.

  20. The Impact of a Line Probe Assay Based Diagnostic Algorithm on Time to Treatment Initiation and Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Eliseev, Platon; Balantcev, Grigory; Nikishova, Elena; Gaida, Anastasia; Bogdanova, Elena; Enarson, Donald; Ornstein, Tara; Detjen, Anne; Dacombe, Russell; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Mann, Gillian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Mariandyshev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Arkhangelsk region of Northern Russia, multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) rates in new cases are amongst the highest in the world. In 2014, MDR-TB rates reached 31.7% among new cases and 56.9% among retreatment cases. The development of new diagnostic tools allows for faster detection of both TB and MDR-TB and should lead to reduced transmission by earlier initiation of anti-TB therapy. Study Aim The PROVE-IT (Policy Relevant Outcomes from Validating Evidence on Impact) Russia study aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of line probe assay (LPA) as part of an LPA-based diagnostic algorithm for patients with presumptive MDR-TB focusing on time to treatment initiation with time from first-care seeking visit to the initiation of MDR-TB treatment rather than diagnostic accuracy as the primary outcome, and to assess treatment outcomes. We hypothesized that the implementation of LPA would result in faster time to treatment initiation and better treatment outcomes. Methods A culture-based diagnostic algorithm used prior to LPA implementation was compared to an LPA-based algorithm that replaced BacTAlert and Löwenstein Jensen (LJ) for drug sensitivity testing. A total of 295 MDR-TB patients were included in the study, 163 diagnosed with the culture-based algorithm, 132 with the LPA-based algorithm. Results Among smear positive patients, the implementation of the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 50 and 66 days compared to the culture-based algorithm (BacTAlert and LJ respectively, p<0.001). In smear negative patients, the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 78 days when compared to the culture-based algorithm (LJ, p<0.001). However, several weeks were still needed for treatment initiation in LPA-based algorithm, 24 days in smear positive, and 62 days in smear negative patients. Overall treatment outcomes

  1. How to Use the DX SYSTEM of Diagnostic Testing. Methodology Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, David; Cabello, Beverly

    The DX SYSTEM of Diagnostic Testing is an easy-to-use computerized system for developing and administering diagnostic tests. A diagnostic test measures a student's mastery of a specific domain (skill or content area). It examines the necessary subskills hierarchically from the most to the least complex. The DX SYSTEM features tailored testing with…

  2. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  3. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  4. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  5. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  6. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  7. Optical Diagnostic System for Solar Sails: Phase 1 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Blandino, Joseph R.; Caldwell, Douglas W.; Carroll, Joseph A.; Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Pollock, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion program recently selected AEC-ABLE Engineering and L'Garde, Inc. to develop scale-model solar sail hardware and demonstrate its functionality on the ground. Both are square sail designs with lightweight diagonal booms (<100 g/m) and ultra-thin membranes (<10 g/sq m). To support this technology, the authors are developing an integrated diagnostics instrumentation package for monitoring solar sail structures such as these in a near-term flight experiment. We refer to this activity as the "Optical Diagnostic System (ODS) for Solar Sails" project. The approach uses lightweight optics and photogrammetric techniques to measure solar sail membrane and boom shape and dynamics, thermography to map temperature, and non-optical sensors including MEMS accelerometers and load cells. The diagnostics package must measure key structural characteristics including deployment dynamics, sail support tension, boom and sail deflection, boom and sail natural frequencies, sail temperature, and sail integrity. This report summarizes work in the initial 6-month Phase I period (conceptual design phase) and complements the final presentation given in Huntsville, AL on January 14, 2004.

  8. Probing new physics using high-intensity laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Ilderton, Anton; Lundin, Joakim

    2011-06-01

    Current high-intensity laser sources offer a multitude of research, experiment and application possibilities, ranging from e.g. ionisation studies of atomic and molecular systems to particle acceleration for medical purposes. Planned upgrades of existing laser sources will further increase the deliverable intensities and make certain lowintensity (as compared to the Schwinger field) tests of quantum electrodynamics viable. Moreover, secondary sources of radiation, and planned future facilities, offer several-orders-of-magnitude increases in intensities. Thus, it is highly relevant to ask what kind of physics that may be probed using future light sources.

  9. Assembly and characterization of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for skin lesions diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Texiera Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis in biological tissues has been presented as a technique of a great potential for tissue characterization for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study is to assemble and characterize a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for diagnostic of clinically similar skin lesions in vivo. The fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (Becker & Hickl, Berlin, Germany) technique. Two lasers, one emitting at 378 nm and another at 445 nm, are used for excitation with 20, 50 and 80 MHz repetition rate. A bifurcated optical fiber probe conducts the excitation light to the sample, the collected light is transmitted through bandpass filters and delivered to a hybrid photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence spectra were obtained by using a portable spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB-2000-FLG) with the same excitation sources. An instrument response function of about 300 ps was obtained and the spectrum and fluorescence lifetime of a standard fluorescent molecule (Rhodamine 6G) was measured for the calibration of the system ((4.1 +/- 0.3) ns). The assembled system was considered robust, well calibrated and will be used for clinical measurements of skin lesions.

  10. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  11. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Skin Disease Diagnosis Expert System

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Arabkermany, Zahra; Gilasi, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation is a necessary measure to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of all systems, including expert systems. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of expert system for diagnosis of complex skin diseases. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2015 to determine the diagnostic value of an expert system. The study population included patients who were referred to Razi Specialized Hospital, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The control group was selected from patients without the selected skin diseases. Data collection tool was a checklist of clinical signs of diseases including pemphigus vulgaris, lichen planus, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and scabies. The sample size formula estimated 400 patients with skin diseases selected by experts and 200 patients without the selected skin diseases. Patient selection was undertaken with randomized stratified sampling and their sign and symptoms were logged into the system. Physician’s diagnosis was determined as the gold standard and was compared with the diagnosis of expert system by SPSS software version 16 and STATA. Kappa statistics, indicators of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and confidence intervals were calculated for each disease. An accuracy of 90% was considered appropriate. Results: Comparing the results of expert system and physician’s diagnosis at the evaluation stage showed an accuracy of 97.1%, sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 96.5% The Kappa test indicated a high agreement of 93.6%. Conclusion: The expert system can diagnose complex skin diseases. Development of such systems is recommended to identify all skin diseases. PMID:27046943

  13. Probing TRAPPIST-1-like Systems with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier; Alibert, Yann; Gillen, Ed; Gillon, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The search for small planets orbiting late M dwarfs holds the promise of detecting Earth-size planets for which their atmospheres could be characterized within the next decade. The recent discovery of TRAPPIST-1 entertains hope that these systems are common around hosts located at the bottom of the main sequence. In this Letter, we investigate the ability of the repurposed Kepler mission (K2) to probe planetary systems similar to TRAPPIST-1. We perform a consistent data analysis of 189 spectroscopically confirmed M5.5 to M9 late M dwarfs from Campaigns 1–6 to search for planet candidates and inject transit signals with properties matching TRAPPIST-1b and c. We find no transiting planet candidates across our K2 sample. Our injection tests show that K2 is able to recover both TRAPPIST-1 planets for 10% of the sample only, mainly because of the inefficient throughput at red wavelengths resulting in Poisson-limited performance for these targets. Increasing injected planetary radii to match GJ 1214b’s size yields a recovery rate of 70%. The strength of K2 is its ability to probe a large number of cool hosts across the different campaigns, out of which the recovery rate of 10% may turn into bona fide detections of TRAPPIST-1-like systems within the next two years.

  14. Process diagnostics and monitoring using the multipole resonance probe in an inhomogeneous plasma for ion-assisted deposition of optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styrnoll, T.; Harhausen, J.; Lapke, M.; Storch, R.; Brinkmann, R. P.; Foest, R.; Ohl, A.; Awakowicz, P.

    2013-08-01

    The application of a multipole resonance probe (MRP) for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in a plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) process is reported. Recently, the MRP was proposed as an economical and industry compatible plasma diagnostic device (Lapke et al 2011 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20 042001). The major advantages of the MRP are its robustness against dielectric coating and its high sensitivity to measure the electron density. The PIAD process investigated is driven by the advanced plasma source (APS), which generates an ion beam in the deposition chamber for the production of high performance optical coatings. With a background neutral pressure of p0 ˜ 20 mPa the plasma expands from the source region into the recipient, leading to an inhomogeneous spatial distribution. Electron density and electron temperature vary over the distance from substrate (ne ˜ 109 cm-3 and Te,eff ˜ 2 eV) to the APS (ne ≳ 1012 cm-3 and Te,eff ˜ 20 eV) (Harhausen et al 2012 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 035012). This huge variation of the plasma parameters represents a big challenge for plasma diagnostics to operate precisely for all plasma conditions. The results obtained by the MRP are compared to those from a Langmuir probe chosen as reference diagnostics. It is demonstrated that the MRP is suited for the characterization of the PIAD plasma as well as for electron density monitoring. The latter aspect offers the possibility to develop new control schemes for complex industrial plasma environments.

  15. Monitoring and diagnostics systems for nuclear power plant operating regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Abagyan, A.A.; Dmitriev, V.M.; Klebanov, L.A.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Larin, E.P.; Morozov, S.K.

    1988-05-01

    The development of new monitoring and diagnostics systems for Soviet reactors is discussed. An experimental test station is described where industrial operation of new experimental systems can be conducted for purposes of bringing their performance to the level of standard Soviet systems for monitoring reactor operation regimes and equipment resources. The requirements and parameters of the systems are described on a unit-by-unit basis, including the sensor reading monitoring unit, the vibroacoustic monitoring unit, the noise monitoring unit, the accident regime identification unit, and the nonstationary regime monitoring unit. Computer hardware and software requirements are discussed. The results of calculational and experimental research on two complex nonstationary regimes of reactor operation are given. The accident regimes identification unit for the VVER-1000 is analyzed in detail.

  16. Flight Test of Propulsion Monitoring and Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabel, Steve; Elgersma, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this program was to perform flight tests of the propulsion monitoring and diagnostic system (PMDS) technology concept developed by Honeywell under the NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) program. The PMDS concept is intended to independently monitor the performance of the engine, providing continuous status to the pilot along with warnings if necessary as well as making the data available to ground maintenance personnel via a special interface. These flight tests were intended to demonstrate the ability of the PMDS concept to detect a class of selected sensor hardware failures, and the ability to successfully model the engine for the purpose of engine diagnosis.

  17. F100 engine diagnostic system status to date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyless, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An engine diagnostic system, proposed for the F100 engine, was tested in five specially modified Tactical Air Command F-15 aircraft during a 16-month flight evaluation. After more than 3300 engine operating hours encompassing almost 900 flights during the flight evaluation, these aircraft provided a data base, still being analyzed, that has shown successful demonstration of the original functional characteristics. Four general design requirements, recording engine operating time/low cycle fatigue event detection, engine trim, and trend and performance data collection were demonstrated. Also, validation of maintenance actions taken and indicated needed maintenance were successfully demonstrated.

  18. Laboratory plasma probe studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.

  19. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  20. Intelligent approach to prognostic enhancements of diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, George; Wang, Peng; Khiripet, Noppadon; Thakker, Ash; Galie, Thomas R.

    2001-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology to prognostics based on a dynamic wavelet neural network construct and notions from the virtual sensor area. This research has been motivated and supported by the U.S. Navy's active interest in integrating advanced diagnostic and prognostic algorithms in existing Naval digital control and monitoring systems. A rudimentary diagnostic platform is assumed to be available providing timely information about incipient or impending failure conditions. We focus on the development of a prognostic algorithm capable of predicting accurately and reliably the remaining useful lifetime of a failing machine or component. The prognostic module consists of a virtual sensor and a dynamic wavelet neural network as the predictor. The virtual sensor employs process data to map real measurements into difficult to monitor fault quantities. The prognosticator uses a dynamic wavelet neural network as a nonlinear predictor. Means to manage uncertainty and performance metrics are suggested for comparison purposes. An interface to an available shipboard Integrated Condition Assessment System is described and applications to shipboard equipment are discussed. Typical results from pump failures are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology.

  1. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Ochoukov, R; Bobkov, V; Faugel, H; Fünfgelder, H; Noterdaeme, J-M

    2015-11-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k(//)) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k(tor)). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k(//) as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k(tor) trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k(//), as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue.

  2. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-11-01

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k//) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (ktor). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k// as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the ktor trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k//, as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue.

  3. Spectroscopic diagnostics of active screen plasma nitriding processes: on the interplay of active screen and model probe plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-09-01

    .e. the intensity of the \\text{N}2+ -(0-0) band of the first negative system, increases strongly in relation to the intensity of the neutral component, represented by the N2-(0-0) band of the second positive system. In addition, the behavior of the emission of the plasma at the model probe has been studied during the off phase of the plasma of the active screen leading to a direct comparison of the emission characteristics of both plasma sources.

  4. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  5. Eutectic Solder Bonding for Highly Manufacturable Microelectromechanical Systems Probe Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bonghwan

    2011-06-01

    We developed eutectic solder bonding for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) probe card. We tested various eutectic solder materials, such as Sn, AgSn, and AuSn, and investigated the bonding ability of Sn-based multi-element alloys and their resistance to chemical solutions. The Sn-based alloys were formed by sputtering, electroplating, and the use of solder paste. According to our experimental results, Sn-rich solders, such as Ag3.5Sn, Ag3.5Sn96Cu0.5, and Sn, were severely damaged by silicon wet etchant such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). On the other hand Au80Sn20 was resistant to those chemicals. In order to verify the joint bondability of the solders, we used a cantilever probe beam, and bump which were made of nickel and nickel alloy. After flip-chip bonding of the cantilever beam and the bump with Au80Sn20 solder paste, we measured the contact force to verify the mechanical strength. We then re-inspected it with X-rays and found no voids in the joint.

  6. Synthetic fluorescent probes for studying copper in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Aron, Allegra T.; Ramos-Torres, Karla M.; Chang, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The potent redox activity of copper is required for sustaining life. Mismanagement of its cellular pools, however, can result in oxidative stress and damage connected to aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, copper homeostasis is tightly regulated by cells and tissues. Whereas copper and other transition metal ions are commonly thought of as static cofactors buried within protein active sites, emerging data points to the presence of additional loosely bound, labile pools that can participate in dynamic signalling pathways. Against this backdrop, we review advances in sensing labile copper pools and understanding their functions using synthetic fluorescent indicators. Following brief introductions to cellular copper homeostasis and considerations in sensor design, we survey available fluorescent copper probes and evaluate their properties in the context of their utility as effective biological screening tools. We emphasize the need for combined chemical and biological evaluation of these reagents, as well as the value of complementing probe data with other techniques for characterizing the different pools of metal ions in biological systems. This holistic approach will maximize the exciting opportunities for these and related chemical technologies in the study and discovery of novel biology of metals. PMID:25692243

  7. Mach-Zehnder Recording Systems for Pulsed Power Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E K; McKenna, I; Macrum, G; Baker, D; Tran, V; Rodriguez, E; Kaufman, M I; Tibbits, A; Silbernagel, C T; Waltman, T B; Herrmann, H W; Kim, Y H; Mack, J M; Young, C S; Caldwell, S E; Evans, S C; Sedillo, T J; Stoeffl, W; Grafil, E; Liebman, J; Beeman, B; Watts, P; Carpenter, A; Horsfied, C J; Rubery, M S; Chandler, G A; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M

    2012-10-01

    Fiber-optic transmission and recording systems, based on Mach-Zehnder modulators, have been developed and installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and are being developed for other pulsed-power facilities such as Z-R at Sandia, with different requirements. We present the design and performance characteristics for the mature analog links, based on the system developed for the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at OMEGA and NIF. For a single detector channel, two Mach-Zehnders are used to provide high dynamic range at the full recording bandwidth with no gaps in the coverage. We present laboratory and shot data to estimate upper limits on the radiation effects as they impact recorded data quality. Finally, we will assess the technology readiness level for mature and developing implementations of Mach-Zehnder links for these environments.

  8. Materials issues in diagnostic systems for BPX and ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Farnum, E.H. ); Griscom, D.L. ); Mattas, R.F. ); Medley, S.S.; Young, K. M. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Wiffen, F.W. ); Wojtowicz, S.S. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (Unit

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic systems in advanced D-T-burning fusion devices will be subjected to intense fluxes and fluences of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. Materials used in these systems may suffer significant degradation of structural, optical, and electrical properties, either promptly upon irradiation or after accumulation of structural damage. Of particular concern are windows, optical fibers, reflectors, and insulators. Many materials currently specified for these components are known to degrade under anticipated operating conditions. However, careful materials selection and modification based on an appropriate irradiation testing program, when combined with optimization of design-sensitive factors such as location, shielding, and ease of replacement, should help to alleviate these materials problems. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  10. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  11. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  12. System Modeling and Diagnostics for Liquefying-Fuel Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott; Iverson, David; Ou, Jeremy; Sanderfer, Dwight; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Combustion Facility (HCF) was recently built at NASA Ames Research Center to study the combustion properties of a new fuel formulation that burns approximately three times faster than conventional hybrid fuels. Researchers at Ames working in the area of Integrated Vehicle Health Management recognized a good opportunity to apply IVHM techniques to a candidate technology for next generation launch systems. Five tools were selected to examine various IVHM techniques for the HCF. Three of the tools, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), L2 (Livingstone2), and RODON, are model-based reasoning (or diagnostic) systems. Two other tools in this study, ICS (Interval Constraint Simulator) and IMS (Inductive Monitoring System) do not attempt to isolate the cause of the failure but may be used for fault detection. Models of varying scope and completeness were created, both qualitative and quantitative. In each of the models, the structure and behavior of the physical system are captured. In the qualitative models, the temporal aspects of the system behavior and the abstraction of sensor data are handled outside of the model and require the development of additional code. In the quantitative model, less extensive processing code is also necessary. Examples of fault diagnoses are given.

  13. Multi-hole pressure probes to air data system for subsonic small-scale air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. M.; Berezin, D. R.; Puzirev, L. N.; Tarasov, A. Z.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Shmakov, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    A brief review of research performed to develop multi-hole probes to measure of aerodynamic angles, dynamic head, and static pressure of a flying vehicle. The basis of these works is the application a well-known classical multi-hole pressure probe technique of measuring of a 3D flow to use in the air data system. Two multi-hole pressure probes with spherical and hemispherical head to air-data system for subsonic small-scale vehicles have been developed. A simple analytical probe model with separation of variables is proposed. The probes were calibrated in the wind tunnel, one of them is in-flight tested.

  14. UAS-Systems Integration, Validation, and Diagnostics Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Catherine W.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Phase 1 efforts of NASA's UAS-in-the-NAS Project a task was initiated to explore the merits of developing a system simulation capability for UAS to address airworthiness certification requirements. The core of the capability would be a software representation of an unmanned vehicle, including all of the relevant avionics and flight control system components. The specific system elements could be replaced with hardware representations to provide Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWITL) test and evaluation capability. The UAS Systems Integration and Validation Laboratory (UAS-SIVL) was created to provide a UAS-systems integration, validation, and diagnostics hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability. This paper discusses how SIVL provides a robust and flexible simulation framework that permits the study of failure modes, effects, propagation paths, criticality, and mitigation strategies to help develop safety, reliability, and design data that can assist with the development of certification standards, means of compliance, and design best practices for civil UAS.

  15. A new beam diagnostic system for the MASHA setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motycak, S.; Rodin, A. M.; Novoselov, A. S.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Vedeneyev, V. Yu.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kliman, J.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Yuchimchuk, S. A.; Komarov, A. B.; Kamas, D.

    2016-09-01

    A new beam diagnostic system based on the PXI standard was developed, tested, and used in the MASHA setup experiment. The beam energy and beam current measurements were carried out using several methods. The online time-of-flight energy measurements were carried out using three pick-up detectors. We used two electronic systems to measure the time between the pick-ups. The first system was based on fast Agilent digitizers (2-channel, 4-GHz sampling rate), and the second one was based on a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) connected to a time-to-digital converter (TDC, 5-ps resolution). A new graphical interface to monitor the electronic devices and to perform the online calculations of energy was developed using MFC C++. The second system based on microchannel plate (time-of-flight) and silicon detectors for the determination of beam energy and the type of accelerated particles was also used. The beam current measurements were carried out with two different sensors. The first sensor is a rotating Faraday cup placed in front of the target, and the second one is an emission detector installed at the rear of the target. This system is now used in experiments for the synthesis of superheavy elements at the U400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR).

  16. The Gravity Probe B electrostatic gyroscope suspension system (GSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, W. J.; Brumley, R. W.; Eglington, M. L.; Hipkins, D. N.; Holmes, T. J.; Parkinson, B. W.; Ohshima, Y.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    2015-11-01

    A spaceflight electrostatic suspension system was developed for the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Relativity Mission’s cryogenic electrostatic vacuum gyroscopes which serve as an indicator of the local inertial frame about Earth. The Gyroscope Suspension System (GSS) regulates the translational position of the gyroscope rotors within their housings, while (1) minimizing classical electrostatic torques on the gyroscope to preserve the instrument’s sensitivity to effects of General Relativity, (2) handling the effects of external forces on the space vehicle, (3) providing a means of precisely aligning the spin axis of the gyroscopes after spin-up, and (4) acting as an accelerometer as part of the spacecraft’s drag-free control system. The flight design was tested using an innovative, precision gyroscope simulator Testbed that could faithfully mimic the behavior of a physical gyroscope under all operational conditions, from ground test to science data collection. Four GSS systems were built, tested, and operated successfully aboard the GP-B spacecraft from launch in 2004 to the end of the mission in 2008.

  17. Filter-fluorescer diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.W.; Kauffman, R.L.; Celeste, J.R.; Rhodes, M.A.; Lee, F.D.; Suter, L.J.; Lee, A.P.; Foster, J.M.; Slark, G.

    2004-10-01

    An early filter-fluorescer diagnostic system is being fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to measure the amount of hard x rays (20

  18. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T.; Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D.; Conn, R.

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  19. Validation of break-apart and fusion MYC probes using a digital fluorescence in situ hybridization capture and imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Michael; Rowe, Leslie; Clement, Parker W.; Miles, Rodney R.; Salama, Mohamed E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Detection of MYC translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is important in the evaluation of lymphomas, in particular, Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our aim was to validate a digital FISH capture and imaging system for the detection of MYC 8q24 translocations using LSI-MYC (a break-apart probe) and MYC 8;14 translocation using IGH-MYC (a fusion probe). Materials and Methods: LSI-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from 35 patients. IGH-MYC probe was evaluated using tissue sections from forty patients. Sections were processed for FISH and analyzed using traditional methods. FISH slides were then analyzed using the GenASIs capture and analysis system. Results: Results for LSI-MYC had a high degree of correlation between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Results for IGH-MYC had a 100% concordance between traditional method of FISH analysis and digital FISH analysis. Conclusion: Annotated whole slide images of H and E and FISH sections can be digitally aligned, so that areas of tumor within a section can be matched and evaluated with a greater degree of accuracy. Images can be archived permanently, providing a means for examining the results retrospectively. Digital FISH imaging of the MYC translocations provides a better diagnostic tool compared to traditional methods for evaluating lymphomas. PMID:27217970

  20. Design and characterization of a novel multimodal fiber-optic probe and spectroscopy system for skin cancer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manu; Marple, Eric; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-08-01

    The design and characterization of an instrument combining Raman, fluorescence, and reflectance spectroscopic modalities is presented. Instrument development has targeted skin cancer applications as a novel fiber-optic probe has been specially designed to interrogate cutaneous lesions. The instrument is modular and both its software and hardware components are described in depth. Characterization of the fiber-optic probe is also presented, which details the probe's ability to measure diagnostically important parameters such as intrinsic fluorescence and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients along with critical performance metrics such as high Raman signal-to-noise ratios at clinically practical exposure times. Validation results using liquid phantoms show that the probe and system can extract absorption and scattering coefficients with less than 10% error. As the goal is to use the instrument for the clinical early detection of skin cancer, preliminary clinical data are also presented, which indicates our system's ability to measure physiological quantities such as relative collagen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentration, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, and mean vessel diameter.

  1. Design and characterization of a novel multimodal fiber-optic probe and spectroscopy system for skin cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manu; Marple, Eric; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W

    2014-08-01

    The design and characterization of an instrument combining Raman, fluorescence, and reflectance spectroscopic modalities is presented. Instrument development has targeted skin cancer applications as a novel fiber-optic probe has been specially designed to interrogate cutaneous lesions. The instrument is modular and both its software and hardware components are described in depth. Characterization of the fiber-optic probe is also presented, which details the probe's ability to measure diagnostically important parameters such as intrinsic fluorescence and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients along with critical performance metrics such as high Raman signal-to-noise ratios at clinically practical exposure times. Validation results using liquid phantoms show that the probe and system can extract absorption and scattering coefficients with less than 10% error. As the goal is to use the instrument for the clinical early detection of skin cancer, preliminary clinical data are also presented, which indicates our system's ability to measure physiological quantities such as relative collagen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentration, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, and mean vessel diameter. PMID:25173240

  2. Design and characterization of a novel multimodal fiber-optic probe and spectroscopy system for skin cancer applications

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manu; Marple, Eric; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The design and characterization of an instrument combining Raman, fluorescence, and reflectance spectroscopic modalities is presented. Instrument development has targeted skin cancer applications as a novel fiber-optic probe has been specially designed to interrogate cutaneous lesions. The instrument is modular and both its software and hardware components are described in depth. Characterization of the fiber-optic probe is also presented, which details the probe's ability to measure diagnostically important parameters such as intrinsic fluorescence and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients along with critical performance metrics such as high Raman signal-to-noise ratios at clinically practical exposure times. Validation results using liquid phantoms show that the probe and system can extract absorption and scattering coefficients with less than 10% error. As the goal is to use the instrument for the clinical early detection of skin cancer, preliminary clinical data are also presented, which indicates our system's ability to measure physiological quantities such as relative collagen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentration, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, and mean vessel diameter. PMID:25173240

  3. Mission Evaluation Room Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Falgout, Jane; Barcio, Joseph; Shnurer, Steve; Wadsworth, David; Flores, Louis

    1994-01-01

    The role of Mission Evaluation Room (MER) engineers is to provide engineering support during Space Shuttle missions, for Space Shuttle systems. These engineers are concerned with ensuring that the systems for which they are responsible function reliably, and as intended. The MER is a central facility from which engineers may work, in fulfilling this obligation. Engineers participate in real-time monitoring of shuttle telemetry data and provide a variety of analyses associated with the operation of the shuttle. The Johnson Space Center's Automation and Robotics Division is working to transfer advances in intelligent systems technology to NASA's operational environment. Specifically, the MER Intelligent Diagnostic and Analysis System (MIDAS) project provides MER engineers with software to assist them with monitoring, filtering and analyzing Shuttle telemetry data, during and after Shuttle missions. MIDAS off-loads to computers and software, the tasks of data gathering, filtering, and analysis, and provides the engineers with information which is in a more concise and usable form needed to support decision making and engineering evaluation. Engineers are then able to concentrate on more difficult problems as they arise. This paper describes some, but not all of the applications that have been developed for MER engineers, under the MIDAS Project. The sampling described herewith was selected to show the range of tasks that engineers must perform for mission support, and to show the various levels of automation that have been applied to assist their efforts.

  4. MFTF-B plasma-diagnostics-system instrumentation and data-acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.; Lau, N.H.C.; Mead, J.E.; Throop, A.L.

    1981-10-21

    The change of scope for MFTF from a simple mirror to a tandem mirror configuration utilizing thermal barriers has expanded the range of plasma parameters and increased the requirements of the plasma diagnostics system. The instrument set that is needed for start-up operation has been identified and conceptual design work is proceeding. This paper describes the diagnostic instrumentation as presently envisioned for start-up operation, with a summary of the detectors and data channels. Also presented is an overview of the current conceptual design for the Local Control and Data Acquisition System and the Data Processing and Display system. As more detailed design is done, the exact number and nature of instruments may change, but overall, the system described here is one expected to satisfy the requirements for start-up and be expandable to the basic set of diagnostics.

  5. The analysis of diagnostics possibilities of the Dual- Drive electric power steering system using diagnostics scanner and computer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Dobaj, K.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of diagnostics possibilities of electric power steering system using computer diagnostics scanner. Several testing attempts were performed. There were analyzed the changes of torque moment exerted on steering wheel by the driver and the changes of the angle of rotation steering wheel accompanying them. The tests were conducted in variable conditions comprising wheel load and the friction coefficient of tyre road interaction. Obtained results enabled the analysis of the influence of changeable operations conditions, possible to acquire in diagnostics scanners of chosen parameters of electric power steering system. Moreover, simulation model of operation, electric drive power steering system with the use of the Matlab simulation software was created. The results of the measurements obtained in road conditions served to verify this model. Subsequently, model response to inputs change of the device was analyzed and its reaction to various constructional and exploitative parameters was checked. The entirety of conducted work constitutes a step to create a diagnostic monitor possible to use in self-diagnosis of electric power steering system.

  6. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  7. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  8. Miniature magnetic resonance system for robust and portable diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Changwook; Issadore, David; Chung, Jaehoon; Shao, Huilin; Liong, Monty; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2012-02-01

    We have recently developed a new diagnostic platform, microNMR(μNMR), specifically designed for clinical applications This new μNMR system performs rapid, accurate, and robust measurements of cells, proteins and small molecules in point-of-care settings. The system utilizes magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to amplify the analytical signals in NMR detection. When molecularly-specific MNPs identify their targets, the particles induce large, amplified changes in the transverse relaxation of water protons by producing local magnetic fields. A major challenge in achieving reliable NMR detection is the fluctuation of NMR frequency (f0) with temperature, which originates from the the temperature-dependent drift of the magnetic field. To overcome the challenge, we have implemented a new, automated feedback controller that keeps track of f0 and reconfigures measurement settings. The mechanism enables robust μNMR measurements in realistic clinical environments (4-50 ^oC). Moreover, the μNMR interfaces with mobile devices for its operation, maximizing the portability of μNMR. The clinical utility of the new μNMR system is demonstrated by detecting and molecularly profiling cancer cells from patient samples.

  9. SEALED COMBUSTION SYSTEM WITH DIAGNOSTIC SELF-TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2004-09-30

    This task grew out of a proposal to develop a ''concept'' oil-fired heating system that would incorporate advanced technologies available and suitable for a residential system. Discussions among the program and project personnel resulted in the identification of a sealed combustion system as of programmatic interest and the objective was to develop an approach to a sealed system with diagnostic self-tuning. The major conclusion with regard to the specific objective for this task is that a measurement of the static pressure in the input pipe can be used to provide a measure of the excess air for a limit control. Its implementation would require a suitable pressure sensor, and a circuit to combine its output signal, at the appropriate time in the operating cycle, to the burner control. The sensor and control combination will also have to be tested successfully under all conceivable contingencies that can cause the airflow to decrease. It could also be implemented, possibly even more reliably, if a mass flow sensor, such as is used in automobile engines and hence may be cheap, could be used. The pressure measurements reported here, both steady and transient, represent only the subset of a much larger set that gave a useful answer to meet the objective. These measurements suggest that they can provide useful insights into both the combustion and gas flow performance of the system. Of course, this could be extended to other types of heating systems, such as those with natural draft, those with different burners, burners with different atomization schemes (air atomization etc.), blue flame burners etc.

  10. Overview of Radiation Belt Storm Probes fault management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fretz, K.; Kirby, K.; Marsh, D.; Stratton, J.

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission is part of NASA's Living With a Star Program, and launched August 30, 2012. The fundamental goal of the mission is to provide an understanding, ideally to the point of predictability, of how populations of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in space form or change in response to variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The mission consists of two nearly-identical observatories launched into highly-elliptical Earth orbits, as well as the ground and data systems necessary to return and distribute science and housekeeping data and provide command and control of the space systems. The two observatories launched aboard a single Atlas V 401 launch vehicle, and were placed in orbits that cause one observatory to lap the other approximately four times per year. This mission design enables an investigation of both spatial and temporal effects within the radiation belts using only two observatories, and the two year science mission allows an investigation of all local time positions and interaction regions. Each Observatory contains a suite of instruments to study ions, electrons and the local magnetic and electric fields. An overview of the RBSP mission is presented with an emphasis on the fault management system design. The goal of the RBSP fault management system is to be as simple as possible while 1) ensuring that the observatory is capable of detecting, correcting, and recovering from any single, recoverable anomaly that affects the health and safety of the observatory and 2) the observatory meets the overall mission concept and mission goals. Five high-level requirements that define the fault management redundancy, modes/safing, and ground intervention concepts will be presented to demonstrate that despite using a relatively simple architecture, the RBSP fault management system allows for mission goals to be met.

  11. Advances in Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function in magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Tsv K.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Kovačič, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Pedrosa, M. A.; López-Bruna, D.; Hidalgo, C.

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Langmuir probe techniques for evaluating the plasma potential and electron-energy distribution function (EEDF) in magnetized plasma are reviewed. It is shown that when the magnetic field applied is very weak and the electrons reach the probe without collisions in the probe sheath the second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula can be used for EEDF evaluation. At low values of the magnetic field, an extended second-derivative Druyvesteyn formula yields reliable results, while at higher values of the magnetic field, the first-derivative probe technique is applicable for precise evaluation of the plasma potential and the EEDF. There is an interval of intermediate values of the magnetic field when both techniques—the extended second-derivative and the first-derivative one—can be used. Experimental results from probe measurements in different ranges of magnetic field are reviewed and discussed: low-pressure argon gas discharges in the presence of a magnetic field in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 T, probe measurements in circular hydrogen plasmas for high-temperature fusion (magnetic fields from 0.45 T to 1.3 T) in small ISTTOK and CASTOR tokamaks, D-shape COMPASS tokamak plasmas, as well as in the TJ-II stellarator. In the vicinity of the last closed flux surface (LCFS) in tokamaks and in the TJ-II stellarator, the EEDF obtained is found to be bi-Maxwellian, while close to the tokamak chamber wall it is Maxwellian. The mechanism of the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is discussed. Comparison of the results from probe measurements with those obtained from calculations using the ASTRA and EIRENE codes shows that the main reason for the appearance of a bi-Maxwellian EEDF in the vicinity of the LCFS is the ionization of the neutral atoms.

  12. Restoring Redundancy to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Davis, Gary T.; Ward, David K.

    2004-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer. Attitude control system engineers discovered sixteen months before launch that configuration changes after the critical design review had resulted in a significant migration of the spacecraft's center of mass. As a result, the spacecraft no longer had a viable backup control mode in the event of a failure of the negative pitch-axis thruster. A tiger team was formed and identified potential solutions to this problem, such as adding thruster-plume shields to redirect thruster torque, adding or removing mass from the spacecraft, adding an additional thruster, moving thrusters, bending thruster nozzles or propellant tubing, or accepting the loss of redundancy. The project considered the impacts on mass, cost, fuel budget, and schedule for each solution, and decided to bend the propellant tubing of the two roll-control thrusters to allow the pair to be used for backup control in the negative pitch axis. This paper discusses the problem and the potential solutions, and documents the hardware and software changes and verification performed. Flight data are presented to show the on-orbit performance of the propulsion system and lessons learned are described.

  13. The Attitude Control System for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Andrews, Stephen F.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe mission produces a map of the cosmic microwave background radiation over the entire celestial sphere by executing a fast spin and a slow precession of its spin axis about the Sun line to obtain a highly interconnected set of measurements. The spacecraft attitude is sensed and controlled using an inertial reference unit, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, twelve coarse sun sensors, three reaction wheel assemblies, and a propulsion system. Sufficient attitude knowledge is provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation (l sigma) of 1.3 arc-minutes per axis. In addition, the spacecraft acquires and holds the sunline at initial acquisition and in the event of a failure, and slews to the proper orbit adjust orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. This paper presents an overview of the design of the attitude control system to carry out this mission and presents some early flight experience.

  14. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  15. Electrokinetic characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticle-aptamer conjugates: design of new highly specific probes for miniaturized molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Marie; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Varenne, Anne

    2014-02-01

    With the view of designing new nanoparticle (NP)-aptamer conjugates and proving their suitability as biorecognition tools for miniaturized molecular diagnostics, new maghemite-silica core-shell NP-aptamer conjugates were characterized for the first time in terms of grafting rate and colloidal stability under electrophoretic conditions using capillary electrophoresis. After the grafting rate (on the order of six to 50) of the lysozyme-binding aptamer had been estimated, the electrophoretic stability and peak dispersion of the resulting oligonucleotide-NP conjugates were estimated so as to determine the optimal separation conditions in terms of buffer pH, ionic strength and nature, as well as temperature and electric field strength. The effective surface charge density of the NPs was close to zero for pH lower than 5, which led to some aggregation. The NPs were stable in the pH range from 5 to 9, and an increase in electrophoretic mobility was evidenced with increasing pH. Colloidal stability was preserved at physiological pH for both non-grafted NPs and grafted NPs in the 10-100 mM ionic strength range and in the 15-60 °C temperature range. A strong influence of the nature of the buffer counterion on NP electrophoretic mobility and peak dispersion was evidenced, thus indicating some interactions between buffer components and NP-aptamer conjugates. Whereas an electric field effect (50-900 V cm(-1)) on NP electrophoretic mobility was evidenced, probably linked to counterion dissociation, temperature seems to have an appreciable effect on the zeta potential and aptamer configuration as well. This information is crucial for estimating the potentialities of such biorecognition tools in electrophoretic systems.

  16. TROUBLE 3: A fault diagnostic expert system for Space Station Freedom's power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Designing Space Station Freedom has given NASA many opportunities to develop expert systems that automate onboard operations of space based systems. One such development, TROUBLE 3, an expert system that was designed to automate the fault diagnostics of Space Station Freedom's electric power system is described. TROUBLE 3's design is complicated by the fact that Space Station Freedom's power system is evolving and changing. TROUBLE 3 has to be made flexible enough to handle changes with minimal changes to the program. Three types of expert systems were studied: rule-based, set-covering, and model-based. A set-covering approach was selected for TROUBLE 3 because if offered the needed flexibility that was missing from the other approaches. With this flexibility, TROUBLE 3 is not limited to Space Station Freedom applications, it can easily be adapted to handle any diagnostic system.

  17. A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoukov, R.; Bobkov, V.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-11-15

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k{sub //}) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k{sub tor}). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k{sub //} as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k{sub tor} trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k{sub //}, as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas’ operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to

  18. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R.; Conn, R.; Bohorfoush, A.

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  19. SSME HPOTP post-test diagnostic system enhancement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickmore, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment of engine and component health is routinely made after each test or flight firing of a space shuttle main engine (SSME). Currently, this health assessment is done by teams of engineers who manually review sensor data, performance data, and engine and component operating histories. Based on review of information from these various sources, an evaluation is made as to the health of each component of the SSME and the preparedness of the engine for another test or flight. The objective of this project is to further develop a computer program which automates the analysis of test data from the SSME high-pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) in order to detect and diagnose anomalies. This program fits into a larger system, the SSME Post-Test Diagnostic System (PTDS), which will eventually be extended to assess the health and status of most SSME components on the basis of test data analysis. The HPOTP module is an expert system, which uses 'rules-of-thumb' obtained from interviews with experts from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to detect and diagnose anomalies. Analyses of the raw test data are first performed using pattern recognition techniques which result in features such as spikes, shifts, peaks, and drifts being detected and written to a database. The HPOTP module then looks for combination of these features which are indicative of known anomalies, using the rules gathered from the turbomachinery experts. Results of this analysis are then displayed via a graphical user interface which provides ranked lists of anomalies and observations by engine component, along with supporting data plots for each.

  20. Imaging system for hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic on NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorf, L. A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C. M.; Wang, Zhehui

    2006-10-01

    The novel hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic will facilitate our understanding of basic aspects of dust-plasma interaction and magnetic field topology in fusion plasma devices, by observing "comet tails" associated with the injected micron-size dust particles. A single projection of the tail onto an image plane will not provide sufficient information; therefore, we plan to use two views, with intensified DiCam-Pro cameras on two NSTX ports. Each camera can furnish up to five overlaying sequential images with gate times greater than 3ns and 1280×1024pixel resolution. A coherent fiber bundle with 1500×1200 fibers will relay the image from an imaging lens installed directly on the port to the camera optics. The lens receives light from the outer portion of the NSTX cross section and focuses a 1cm tail onto at least 60 fibers for adequate resolution. The estimated number of photons received by the camera indicates signal-to-noise ratios of 102-104, with the use of a 10nm bandwidth filter. The imaging system with one camera was successfully tested on NSTX in 2005. Photographing lithium pellets yielded bright and distinctive pictures of the tails nearly aligned with B lines. We also observed that the bright "filaments"—plasma cords with high density and temperature—are present in both top and bottom portions of the machine.

  1. Probe based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the pancreatobiliary system

    PubMed Central

    Almadi, Majid A; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review applications of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in pancreatobiliary lesions and studies that assessed training and interpretation of images. METHODS: A computerized literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and the ISI Web of Knowledge from 1980 to October 2014. We also searched abstracts from major meetings that included the Digestive Disease Week, Canadian Digestive Disease Week and the United European Gastroenterology Week using a combination of controlled vocabulary and text words related to pCLE, confocal, endomicroscopy, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, and bile duct to identify reports of trials. In addition, recursive searches and cross-referencing was performed, and manual searches of articles identified after the initial search was also completed. We included fully published articles and those in abstract form. Given the relatively recent introduction of CLE we included randomized trials and cohort studies. RESULTS: In the evaluation of indeterminate pancreatobiliary strictures CLE with ERCP compared to ERCP alone can increase the detection of cancerous strictures with a sensitivity of (98% vs 45%) and has a negative predictive value (97% vs 69%), but decreased the specificity (67% vs 100%) and the positive predictive value (71% vs 100%) when compared to index pathology. Modifications in the classification systems in indeterminate biliary strictures have increased the specificity of pCLE from 67% to 73%. In pancreatic cystic lesions there is a need to develop similar systems to interpret and characterize lesions based on CLE images obtained. The presence of superficial vascular network predicts serous cystadenomas accurately. Also training in acquiring and interpretation of images is feasible in those without any prior knowledge in CLE in a relatively simple manner and computer-aided diagnosis software is a promising innovation. CONCLUSION: The role of pCLE in the evaluation of

  2. Development of a high-speed, reciprocating electrostatic probe system for Hall thruster interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, James M.; Gallimore, Alec D.; McFall, Keith; Spanjers, Greg

    2000-11-01

    The use of electrostatic probes to measure local plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a Hall thruster presents significant difficulties. The high-temperature, dense plasma, and Hall current in the accelerating channel heat the probe rapidly causing ablation of probe material, which perturbs thruster operation and reduces probe lifetime. Results are presented which show the extent of perturbation to discharge current, cathode potential, and thrust for the case where probe material is ablated. A simple thermal model of probe material heating is developed and ablation times for a typical probe configuration are presented. Using the results of the thermal model, a high-speed axial reciprocating probe (HARP) system was developed to enable probe survival and reduce thruster perturbations during interrogation of the discharge chamber of a Hall thruster. Results using the HARP system are presented showing a significant reduction in thruster perturbation. The results also indicate that a mechanism other than material ablation is contributing to perturbation of the thruster. Based on emissive probe data, the tungsten conductor appears to provide a low impedance path between magnetic field lines, enhancing electron transport to the anode.

  3. Performance Assessment of a New Variable Stiffness Probing System for Micro-CMMs.

    PubMed

    Alblalaihid, Khalid; Kinnell, Peter; Lawes, Simon; Desgaches, Dorian; Leach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    When designing micro-scale tactile probes, a design trade-off must be made between the stiffness and flexibility of the probing element. The probe must be flexible enough to ensure sensitive parts are not damaged during contact, but it must be stiff enough to overcome attractive surface forces, ensure it is not excessively fragile, easily damaged or sensitive to inertial loads. To address the need for a probing element that is both flexible and stiff, a novel micro-scale tactile probe has been designed and tested that makes use of an active suspension structure. The suspension structure is used to modulate the probe stiffness as required to ensure optimal stiffness conditions for each phase of the measurement process. In this paper, a novel control system is presented that monitors and controls stiffness, allowing two probe stiffness values ("stiff" and "flexible") to be defined and switched between. During switching, the stylus tip undergoes a displacement of approximately 18 µm, however, the control system is able ensure a consistent flexible mode tip deflection to within 12 nm in the vertical axis. The overall uncertainty for three-dimensional displacement measurements using the probing system is estimated to be 58 nm, which demonstrates the potential of this innovative variable stiffness micro-scale probe system. PMID:27070611

  4. Performance Assessment of a New Variable Stiffness Probing System for Micro-CMMs

    PubMed Central

    Alblalaihid, Khalid; Kinnell, Peter; Lawes, Simon; Desgaches, Dorian; Leach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    When designing micro-scale tactile probes, a design trade-off must be made between the stiffness and flexibility of the probing element. The probe must be flexible enough to ensure sensitive parts are not damaged during contact, but it must be stiff enough to overcome attractive surface forces, ensure it is not excessively fragile, easily damaged or sensitive to inertial loads. To address the need for a probing element that is both flexible and stiff, a novel micro-scale tactile probe has been designed and tested that makes use of an active suspension structure. The suspension structure is used to modulate the probe stiffness as required to ensure optimal stiffness conditions for each phase of the measurement process. In this paper, a novel control system is presented that monitors and controls stiffness, allowing two probe stiffness values (“stiff” and “flexible”) to be defined and switched between. During switching, the stylus tip undergoes a displacement of approximately 18 µm, however, the control system is able ensure a consistent flexible mode tip deflection to within 12 nm in the vertical axis. The overall uncertainty for three-dimensional displacement measurements using the probing system is estimated to be 58 nm, which demonstrates the potential of this innovative variable stiffness micro-scale probe system. PMID:27070611

  5. Development of a novel nanoindentation technique by utilizing a dual-probe AFM system

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Ferat; Yablon, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel instrumentation approach to nanoindentation is described that exhibits improved resolution and depth sensing. The approach is based on a multi-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tool that utilizes tuning-fork based probes for both indentation and depth sensing. Unlike nanoindentation experiments performed with conventional AFM systems using beam-bounce technology, this technique incorporates a second probe system with an ultra-high resolution for depth sensing. The additional second probe measures only the vertical movement of the straight indenter attached to a tuning-fork probe with a high spring constant and it can also be used for AFM scanning to obtain an accurate profiling. Nanoindentation results are demonstrated on silicon, fused silica, and Corning Eagle Glass. The results show that this new approach is viable in terms of accurately characterizing mechanical properties of materials through nanoindentation with high accuracy, and it opens doors to many other exciting applications in the field of nanomechanical characterization. PMID:26665072

  6. Evolving a Diagnostic Assessment System for Formative Use by Senior School System Executives in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Diagnostic Executive Competency Analysis System (DECAS) developed by researchers at the University of Texas (Austin). Applies assessment center methods conventionally used for selection and screening purposes to formative needs-based professional development activities. Presents DECAS within the framework of the U.S. Multi-Site…

  7. Development of a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System Based on an Enhanced Concept--Effect Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjaburees, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuedoung, Meechoke; Triampo, Darapond

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in computer technology during recent years, researchers have demonstrated the pivotal influences of computer-assisted diagnostic systems on student learning performance improvement. This research aims to develop a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System (DRLS) for an algebra course in a Thai lower secondary school context…

  8. Development of radially movable multichannel Reynolds stress probe system for a cylindrical laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Takuma; Takase, Yuichi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Kamakaki, Kunihiro; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fujisawa, Akihide; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Shinohara, Shunjiro; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2011-03-15

    A new radially movable multichannel azimuthal probe system has been developed for measuring azimuthal and radial profiles of electrostatic Reynolds stress (RS) per mass density of microscale fluctuations for a cylindrical laboratory plasma. The system is composed of 16 probe units arranged azimuthally. Each probe unit has six electrodes to simultaneously measure azimuthal and radial electric fields for obtaining RS. The advantage of the system is that each probe unit is radially movable to measure azimuthal RS profiles at arbitrary radial locations as well as two-dimensional structures of fluctuations. The first result from temporal observation of fluctuation azimuthal profile presents that a low-frequency fluctuation (1-2 kHz) synchronizes oscillating Reynolds stress. In addition, radial scanning of the probe system simultaneously demonstrates two-dimensional patterns of mode structure and nonlinear forces with frequency f= 1.5 kHz and azimuthal mode number m= 1.

  9. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  10. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  11. Molecular imaging of biothiols and in vitro diagnostics based on an organic chromophore bearing a terbium hybrid probe.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Wang, Qianming; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Gao, Jinwei

    2016-04-25

    In this research, a novel terbium-based luminescent hybrid inorganic/organic probe was designed and synthesized. Mesoporous silica nanospheres dispersed in water were used as the appropriate host for the covalently linked lanthanide-containing organic structures. The lanthanide structure was linked to a sulfonate ester unit, which, in the presence of biothiols, was cleaved to result in terbium emission. The hybrid probe exhibited the capabilities of quantitative determination and detection limits for biothiols were presented (36.8 nM for Cys, 32.5 nM for GSH, and 34.7 nM for Hcy). Evaluation of luminescence changes in cell culture demonstrated that this smart probe is cell membrane permeable and selectively lights up in the presence of cysteine and glutathione in human embryonic kidney cells and human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This variation in the presence of biothiols can be controlled by the treatment with N-methylmaleimide. The narrow line-like bands and long-lived excited states of this terbium luminescent sensor allows the discrimination of scattering signals and interfering fluorescence derived from biological tissues.

  12. Molecular imaging of biothiols and in vitro diagnostics based on an organic chromophore bearing a terbium hybrid probe.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhan; Wang, Qianming; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Gao, Jinwei

    2016-04-25

    In this research, a novel terbium-based luminescent hybrid inorganic/organic probe was designed and synthesized. Mesoporous silica nanospheres dispersed in water were used as the appropriate host for the covalently linked lanthanide-containing organic structures. The lanthanide structure was linked to a sulfonate ester unit, which, in the presence of biothiols, was cleaved to result in terbium emission. The hybrid probe exhibited the capabilities of quantitative determination and detection limits for biothiols were presented (36.8 nM for Cys, 32.5 nM for GSH, and 34.7 nM for Hcy). Evaluation of luminescence changes in cell culture demonstrated that this smart probe is cell membrane permeable and selectively lights up in the presence of cysteine and glutathione in human embryonic kidney cells and human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This variation in the presence of biothiols can be controlled by the treatment with N-methylmaleimide. The narrow line-like bands and long-lived excited states of this terbium luminescent sensor allows the discrimination of scattering signals and interfering fluorescence derived from biological tissues. PMID:27041001

  13. Autonomous power expert fault diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom electrical power system testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Walters, Jerry L.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Quinn, Todd M.; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) testbed being developed and demonstrated at NASA Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, to craft knowledge-based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces for power systems, and to interface and integrate knowledge-based systems with conventional controllers. The Autonomous Power EXpert (APEX) portion of the APS program will integrate a knowledge-based fault diagnostic system and a power resource planner-scheduler. Then APEX will interface on-line with the SSF/EPS testbed and its Power Management Controller (PMC). The key tasks include establishing knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation analysis, on-line information accessing through PMC, enhanced data management, and multiple-level, object-oriented operator displays. The first prototype of the diagnostic expert system for fault detection and isolation has been developed. The knowledge bases and the rule-based model that were developed for the Power Distribution Control Unit subsystem of the SSF/EPS testbed are described. A corresponding troubleshooting technique is also described.

  14. Saturn Uranus atmospheric entry probe mission spacecraft system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The modifications required of the Pioneer F/G spacecraft design for it to deliver an atmospheric entry probe to the planets Saturn and Uranus are investigated. It is concluded that it is feasible to conduct such a mission within the constraints and interfaces defined. The spacecraft required to perform the mission is derived from the Pioneer F/G design, and the modifications required are generally routinely conceived and executed. The entry probe is necessarily a new design, although it draws on the technology of past, present, and imminent programs of planetary atmospheric investigations.

  15. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 2: Supporting technical studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The environment, science investigations, and general mission analysis considerations are given first. These data are followed by discussions of the studies pertaining to the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Except for Neptune, each planet discussion is divided into two parts: (1) parametric activities and (2) probe definition for that planet, or the application of a given probe for that planet. The Neptune discussion is limited to parametrics in the area of science and mission analysis. Each of the probe system definitions consists of system and subsystem details including telecommunications, data handling, power pyrotechnics, attitude control, structures, propulsion, thermal control, and probe to spacecraft integration. The first configuration is discussed in detail and the subsequent configuration discussions are limited to the differences. Finally, the hardware availability to support a probe system and commonality of science, missions, and subsystems for use at the various planets are considered.

  16. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-15

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  17. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-01

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma;results from a high burden country

    PubMed Central

    Shazlee, Muhammad Kashif; Ali, Muhammad; SaadAhmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Ammad; Hameed, Kamran; Lutfi, Irfan Amjad; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma. Methods: A total of 61 patients with 63 ocular injuries were assessed during July 2013 to January 2014. All patients were referred to the department of Radiology from Emergency Room since adequate clinical assessment of the fundus was impossible because of the presence of opaque ocular media. Based on radiological diagnosis, the patients were provided treatment (surgical or medical). Clinical diagnosis was confirmed during surgical procedures or clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 63 ocular injuries were examined in 61 patients. The overall sensitivity was 91.5%, Specificity was 98.87%, Positive predictive value was 87.62 and Negative predictive value was 99%. Conclusion: Ultrasound B-scan is a sensitive, non invasive and rapid way of assessing intraocular damage caused by blunt or penetrating eye injuries. PMID:27182245

  19. Systems-level study of a nonsurvivable Jupiter turbopause probe. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltshire, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a space probe to explore the atmosphere of the planet Jupiter is discussed. Five major areas were considered: (1) definition of science requirements, (2) mission evaluation, (3) definition of probe system, (4) definition of spacecraft support requirements, and (5) nonequilibrium flow field analysis for communications blackout evaluation. The overall mission and system design are emphasized. The integration of the various technologies into complete systems designs is described. Results showed that a nonsurvivable turbopause probe mission to Jupiter with adequate data return to meet the science objectives is feasible and practical.

  20. Guidelines for the Development of an Effective Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreau, Lanny; And Others

    Described is the diagnostic teaching model developed by the Illinois Regional Resource Center to provide assessment and programing for children with unexplained handicaps. The model is explained to involve a multidisciplinary approach and to include six basic components: referals, information gathering, diagnosis, prescription, consultation, and…

  1. Psychoacoustic Assessment of Speech Communication Systems. The Diagnostic Discrimination Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Craig Blaine

    The present report traces the rationale, development and experimental evaluation of the Diagnostic Discrimination Test (DDT). The DDT is a three-choice test of consonant discriminability of the perceptual/acoustic dimensions of consonant phonemes within specific vowel contexts. The DDT was created and developed in an attempt to provide a…

  2. Teacher's Psycho-Diagnostic Activities in School Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minakhmetova, Albina Z.; Pyanova, Ekaterina N.; Akhmetshina, Enze M.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem stated in the article stems from the fact that in modern conditions the study of the psycho-diagnostic component of the teacher's activities is relevant in practical terms, since the functions of these activities affect the efficiency of pedagogical activity and the educational process itself, including the effectiveness…

  3. Ultrasonic probe system for the bore-side inspection of tubes and welds therein

    DOEpatents

    Cook, K. Von; Koerner, Dan W.; Cunningham, Jr., Robert A.; Murrin, Jr., Horace T.

    1977-07-26

    A probe system is provided for the bore-side inspection of tube-to-header welds and the like for small diameter tubes. The probe head of the system includes an ultrasonic transmitter-receiver transducer, a separate ultrasonic receiver, a reflector associated with the transducer to properly orient the ultrasonic signal with respect to a tube wall, a baffle to isolate the receiver from the transducer, and means for maintaining the probe head against the tube wall under investigation. Since the probe head must rotate to inspect along a helical path, special ultrasonic signal connections are employed. Through the use of the probe, flaws at either the inner or outer surfaces may be detected.

  4. Evaluation of Diagnostic Systems: The Selection of Students at Risk of Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic tools can help schools more consistently and fairly match instructional resources to the needs of their students. To ensure the best educational outcome for each child, diagnostic decision-making systems seek to balance time, clarity, and accuracy. However, recent research notes that many educational decisions tend to be made using…

  5. Detection of early stages of dental caries by optical PNC diagnostics: comparison with visual inspection, dental probe, and x-ray methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Sokolovsky, Alexander A.; Kesler, Gaby

    2000-11-01

    In this research results of approbation of the optical PNC-method in dental clinic are presented. The PNC-method was used for diagnostics stages of caries (initial, moderate and deep). The variant of the PNC-method adapted for dental diagnosis is based on simultaneous analyses the following parameters by special algorithms: probing radiation, stimulated backscattering and autofluorescence of caries induced batteries. Analyze of informational signals show good correlation with tooth morphological structure and concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. Investigation was performed in vivo on 101 tooth in conditions of typical dental clinic. Comparison of the PNC-methods with visual inspection, dental probe and X-ray ones, which are widely used in clinical practice was made. Preliminary results showed high potential of usage of the PNC-method in clinical practice and more high probability of initial caries detection (up to 100%) in comparison with X-ray method (approximately 75%). In cases when X-ray diagnosed absence of initial caries, more sensitive the PNC-method detected initial caries in stage white lesion.

  6. Basic Questions About the Solar System: The Need for Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2005-01-01

    Probes are an essential element in the scientific study of planets with atmospheres. In-situ measurements provide the most accurate determination of composition, winds, temperatures, clouds, and radiative fluxes. They address fundamental NASA objectives concerning volatile compounds, climate, and the origin of life. Probes also deliver landers and aerobots that help in the study of planetary surfaces. This talk focuses on Venus, Titan, and the giant planets. I review the basic science questions and discuss the recommended missions. I stress the need for a balanced program that includes an array of missions that increase in size by factors of two. Gaps in this array lead to failures and cancellations that are harmful to the program and to scientific exploration.

  7. Study of a high-resolution PET system using a silicon detector probe.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, K; Oliver, J F; Gillam, J; Rafecas, M

    2014-10-21

    A high-resolution silicon detector probe, in coincidence with a conventional PET scanner, is expected to provide images of higher quality than those achievable using the scanner alone. Spatial resolution should improve due to the finer pixelization of the probe detector, while increased sensitivity in the probe vicinity is expected to decrease noise. A PET-probe prototype is being developed utilizing this principle. The system includes a probe consisting of ten layers of silicon detectors, each a 80 × 52 array of 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3) pixels, to be operated in coincidence with a modern clinical PET scanner. Detailed simulation studies of this system have been performed to assess the effect of the additional probe information on the quality of the reconstructed images. A grid of point sources was simulated to study the contribution of the probe to the system resolution at different locations over the field of view (FOV). A resolution phantom was used to demonstrate the effect on image resolution for two probe positions. A homogeneous source distribution with hot and cold regions was used to demonstrate that the localized improvement in resolution does not come at the expense of the overall quality of the image. Since the improvement is constrained to an area close to the probe, breast imaging is proposed as a potential application for the novel geometry. In this sense, a simplified breast phantom, adjacent to heart and torso compartments, was simulated and the effect of the probe on lesion detectability, through measurements of the local contrast recovery coefficient-to-noise ratio (CNR), was observed. The list-mode ML-EM algorithm was used for image reconstruction in all cases. As expected, the point spread function of the PET-probe system was found to be non-isotropic and vary with position, offering improvement in specific regions. Increase in resolution, of factors of up to 2, was observed in the region close to the probe. Images of the resolution phantom

  8. Study of a high-resolution PET system using a Silicon detector probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeziński, K.; Oliver, J. F.; Gillam, J.; Rafecas, M.

    2014-10-01

    A high-resolution silicon detector probe, in coincidence with a conventional PET scanner, is expected to provide images of higher quality than those achievable using the scanner alone. Spatial resolution should improve due to the finer pixelization of the probe detector, while increased sensitivity in the probe vicinity is expected to decrease noise. A PET-probe prototype is being developed utilizing this principle. The system includes a probe consisting of ten layers of silicon detectors, each a 80 × 52 array of 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 pixels, to be operated in coincidence with a modern clinical PET scanner. Detailed simulation studies of this system have been performed to assess the effect of the additional probe information on the quality of the reconstructed images. A grid of point sources was simulated to study the contribution of the probe to the system resolution at different locations over the field of view (FOV). A resolution phantom was used to demonstrate the effect on image resolution for two probe positions. A homogeneous source distribution with hot and cold regions was used to demonstrate that the localized improvement in resolution does not come at the expense of the overall quality of the image. Since the improvement is constrained to an area close to the probe, breast imaging is proposed as a potential application for the novel geometry. In this sense, a simplified breast phantom, adjacent to heart and torso compartments, was simulated and the effect of the probe on lesion detectability, through measurements of the local contrast recovery coefficient-to-noise ratio (CNR), was observed. The list-mode ML-EM algorithm was used for image reconstruction in all cases. As expected, the point spread function of the PET-probe system was found to be non-isotropic and vary with position, offering improvement in specific regions. Increase in resolution, of factors of up to 2, was observed in the region close to the probe. Images of the resolution phantom showed

  9. Medical diagnostic decision support systems--past, present, and future: a threaded bibliography and brief commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A

    1994-01-01

    Articles about medical diagnostic decision support (MDDS) systems often begin with a disclaimer such as, "despite many years of research and millions of dollars of expenditures on medical diagnostic systems, none is in widespread use at the present time." While this statement remains true in the sense that no single diagnostic system is in widespread use, it is misleading with regard to the state of the art of these systems. Diagnostic systems, many simple and some complex, are now ubiquitous, and research on MDDS systems is growing. The nature of MDDS systems has diversified over time. The prospects for adoption of large-scale diagnostic systems are better now than ever before, due to enthusiasm for implementation of the electronic medical record in academic, commercial, and primary care settings. Diagnostic decision support systems have become an established component of medical technology. This paper provides a review and a threaded bibliography for some of the important work on MDDS systems over the years from 1954 to 1993. PMID:7719792

  10. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  11. Diagnostic values of dual focus narrow band imaging and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in FAP-related duodenal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Pittayanon, Rapat; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Imraporn, Boonlert; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is associated with an increased risk of development of periampullary and nonampullary adenoma. Either routine biopsy or endoscopic removal of the lesion is generally required to identify the presence of adenoma. Because the risk of tissue sampling from the ampulla is high and nonampullary polyps are sometimes numerous, resection of all the lesions is time-consuming. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of duodenal adenoma by dual focus NBI (dNBI) and probe-based confocal endomicroscopy (pCLE) in FAP patients. Patients and methods: The authors conducted a diagnostic study in a single tertiary-care referral center. Surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy with dNBI and pCLE was performed on 26 patients with FAP for real-time adenoma diagnosis by two different endoscopists; one used dNBI and the other pCLE. Histology from the matched lesion was used as the gold standard. Results: A total of 55 matched biopsies (25 ampullas, 30 nonampullas) were performed. The sensitivity, specificity, post predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of dNBI vs. pCLE from all duodenal lesions were 96.9 % vs. 93.8 %, 78.3 % vs. 81 %, 86.1 % vs. 88.2 %, 94.7 vs. 89.5 %, and 92.4 % vs. 88.6 %, respectively. Conclusions: For surveillance of periampullary and nonampullary adenoma in patients with FAP, the real-time readings provided a high degree of diagnostic value when histology was used as the gold standard. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT02162173). PMID:26528500

  12. Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our

  13. Fault Diagnostics for Electrically Operated Pitch Systems in Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teja Kandukuri, Surya; Khang Huynh, Van; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the electrically operated pitch systems of offshore wind turbines for online condition monitoring and health assessment. The current signature based fault diagnostics is developed for electrically operated pitch systems using model-based approach. The electrical motor faults are firstly modelled based on modified winding function theory and then, current signature analysis is performed to detect the faults. Further, in order to verify the fault diagnostics capabilities in realistic conditions, the operating profiles are obtained from FAST simulation of offshore wind turbines in various wind conditions. In this way, the applicability of current signature analysis for fault diagnostics in offshore wind turbine pitch systems is demonstrated.

  14. Identification of one-electron reductases that activate both the hypoxia prodrug SN30000 and diagnostic probe EF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingli; Guise, Chris P; Dachs, Gabi U; Phung, Yen; Hsu, Annie Huai-Ling; Lambie, Neil K; Patterson, Adam V; Wilson, William R

    2014-10-15

    SN30000 is a second-generation benzotriazine-N-oxide hypoxia-activated prodrug scheduled for clinical trial. Previously we showed that covalent binding of the hypoxia probe EF5 predicts metabolic activation of SN30000 in a panel of cancer cell lines under anoxia, suggesting that they are activated by the same reductases. However the identity of these reductases is unknown. Here, we test whether forced expression of nine oxidoreductases with known or suspected roles in bioreductive prodrug metabolism (AKR1C3, CYB5R3, FDXR, MTRR, NDOR1, NOS2A, NQO1, NQO2 and POR) enhances oxic or anoxic reduction of SN30000 and EF5 by HCT116 cells. Covalent binding of (14)C-EF5 and reduction of SN30000 to its 1-oxide and nor-oxide metabolites was highly selective for anoxia in all lines, with significantly elevated anoxic metabolism of both compounds in lines over-expressing POR, MTRR, NOS2A or NDOR1. There was a strong correlation between EF5 binding and SN30000 metabolism under anoxia across the cell lines (R(2)=0.84, p=0.0001). Antiproliferative potency of SN30000 under anoxia was increased most strongly by overexpression of MTRR and POR. Transcript abundance in human tumours, evaluated using public domain mRNA expression data, was highest for MTRR, followed by POR, NOS2A and NDOR1, with little variation between tumour types. Immunostaining of tissue microarrays demonstrated variable MTRR protein expression across 517 human cancers with most displaying low expression. In conclusion, we have identified four diflavin reductases (POR, MTRR, NOS2A and NDOR1) capable of reducing both SN30000 and EF5, further supporting use of 2-nitroimidazole probes to predict the ability of hypoxic cells to activate SN30000. PMID:25130546

  15. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 2: Calculations and derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the final report on the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) details all calculations, derivations, and computer programs that support the information presented in the first volume.

  16. Channel direction information probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang; Villardi, Gabriel Porto; Kojima, Fumihide; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the problem of channel direction information (CDI) probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system. The CDI of the channel from the secondary transmitter (ST) to primary receiver (PR) is elementary information in designing the beamforming at the ST for mitigating the interference to the PR. However, lacking the explicit cooperation between primary and secondary systems, the CDI has to be acquired by probing at the ST, which is challenging. To solve this, we consider the line of sight (LoS) channel between the ST and the PR, and propose one CDI probing scheme for the ST. Specifically, the ST sends two types of probing signals by beamforming towards an interested region where both the secondary receiver (SR) and the PR are located and then actively learns the hidden feedback information from the primary system to acquire the CDI. The proposed scheme has a closed-form solution, and avoids the iteration between the probing and acquisition, which is desirable for practical system. Moreover, we show that the proposed probing scheme can be extended for primary systems working under multi-access channel and broadcasting channel. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of the acquired CDI at the ST in cognitive ratio system remarkably.

  17. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R; Lagin, L; Nelson, J

    2011-07-25

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  18. Target diagnostic control system implementation for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R. T.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Lagin, L. J.; Nelson, J. R.; O'Brien, D. W.

    2010-10-15

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser is observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A diagnostic control system (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost WINDOWS XP processor and JAVA application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The JAVA framework provides data management, control services, and operator graphical user interface generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in extensible markup language. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  19. Ultra-light flexible temperature and liquid level sensing probe for cryogenic propellant mass gauging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberbusch, Mark S.

    2002-05-01

    The Cryo-Tracker™, a patent pending, ultra-light, flexible sensing probe for measuring fluid temperature gradients and liquid level has been created for launch vehicle mass gauging systems for cryogenic propellant tanks. The unique one-piece, polyimide mechanically-flexible sensing probe integrates multiple dual-use silicon diode sensing elements within the probe substrate. The Cryo-Tracker has several features including: flexibility, lightweight, high strength, solderless connections, and one-piece construction. The easy-to-install flexible sensing probe measures temperature between 576 °R (320 °K) down to 2.5 °R (1.4 °K). The Cryo-Tracker™ can be integrated into existing standard tank designs or into vehicles that have irregular shaped tank geometries that conform to the aerodynamic shape of the vehicle. The Cryo-Tracker™ probe technology was selected by the NASA 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program to provide accurate stratified propellant mass gauging on future launch vehicles that utilize densified cryogenic propellants. Prototype probes were constructed with one and two sensing elements per probe and tested in liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen. Several Cryo-Tracker test programs are in progress including a liquid hydrogen test and a high-pressure liquid oxygen test. The objective of this paper is to report test results demonstrating the capabilities of the new probe technology and to provide an update on the current test programs.

  20. Diagnostic system design for the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System /IAPS/ - Flight test of two 8 cm mercury ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, E. B.; Thomas, G. Z.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental design of a Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) as part of an Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) to be flown on P80-1 spacecraft in May 1983, is discussed. The DSS is composed of several detectors measuring thruster efflux, material deposition and spacecraft potential relative to the local space plasma in the vicinity of two 8 cm mercury ion thrusters. The detectors consist of two QCM units measuring frequency in the range of two to 65 KHz. Nine solar cell arrays have the capability of measuring current and voltage from 0-600 mA and 0-0.9 V. Seven ion collectors can measure ion currents with bias voltages of 0, 25, 55 and 96 V. The potential probe can measure current at 16 different commandible levels varying from one to 5 K microamperes within a voltage range of -25 to 175 V. The analysis of the ground-based data indicates that the hardware is qualified for flight, with the detectors and electronic units having passed all functional and environmental tests. Block diagrams are given and the functional parameters of the different design configurations are described.

  1. Probing Gravitational Sensitivity in Biological Systems Using Magnetic Body Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James; Guevorkian, Karine; Wurzel, Samuel; Mihalusova, Mariana

    2003-03-01

    We have commissioned a superconducting solenoid based apparatus designed to exert strong magnetic body forces on biological specimens and other organic materials in ambient environmental conditions for extended periods. In its room temperature bore, it can produce a maximum magnetic field-field gradient product of 16 T^2-cm-1 which is sufficient to levitate frog embryos Xenopus Laevis[1]. We will discuss how we are applying these magnetic body forces to probe the known influences of gravitational forces on frog embryos and the swimming behavior of Paramecium Caudatum. In the process, we will describe a novel method for measuring the diamagnetic susceptibilities of specimens such as paramecia.

  2. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  3. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.

  4. Shifting Diagnostic Systems for Defining Intellectual Disability in Death Penalty Cases: Hall vs. Florida.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems. PMID:25663625

  5. Volmer-Weber growth stages of polycrystalline metal films probed by in situ and real-time optical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadias, G.; Simonot, L.; Colin, J. J.; Michel, A.; Camelio, S.; Babonneau, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Volmer-Weber growth of high-mobility metal films is associated with the development of a complex compressive-tensile-compressive stress behavior as the film deposition proceeds through nucleation of islands, coalescence, and formation of a continuous layer. The tensile force maximum has been attributed to the end of the islands coalescence stage, based on ex situ morphological observations. However, microstructural rearrangements are likely to occur in such films during post-deposition, somewhat biasing interpretations solely based on ex situ analysis. Here, by combining two simultaneous in situ and real-time optical sensing techniques, based on surface differential reflectance spectroscopy (SDRS) and change in wafer curvature probed by multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS), we provide direct evidence that film continuity does coincide with tensile stress maximum during sputter deposition of a series of metal (Ag, Au, and Pd) films on amorphous SiOx. Stress relaxation after growth interruption was testified from MOSS, whose magnitude scaled with adatom mobility, while no change in SDRS signal could be revealed, ruling out possible changes of the surface roughness at the micron scale.

  6. A Bootstrap Method for Statistical Power System Mode Estimation and Probing Signal Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2006-06-30

    Near real-time measurement-based electromechanical-mode estimation offers considerable potential for many future power-system operation and control strategies. Recent research has investigated the use of low-level Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) probing signals injected into power systems to estimate the low-frequency electromechanical modes. Because of the random na-ture of a power system, estimating the modes from a single prob-ing experiment is very difficult. Ideally, one would use a Monte-Carlo approach with multiple independent probing experiments resulting in a mode estimation distribution. Then, one could state that the mode is within a region of the complex plane. Unfortu-nately, conducting multiple probing experiments is prohibitive for most power-system applications. This paper presents a method-ology for estimating the mode distribution based on one probing test using a Bootstrap algorithm. The proposed method is applied to both simulation data and actual-system measurement data to illustrate its performance and application. It is demonstrated that the method can provide valuable information to PRN tests and guide future PRN probing signal design and selection.

  7. Combining neural network models for automated diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2006-12-01

    This paper illustrates the use of combined neural network (CNN) models to guide model selection for diagnosis of internal carotid arterial (ICA) disorders. The ICA Doppler signals were decomposed into time-frequency representations using discrete wavelet transform and statistical features were calculated to depict their distribution. The first level networks were implemented for the diagnosis of ICA disorders using the statistical features as inputs. To improve diagnostic accuracy, the second level network was trained using the outputs of the first level networks as input data. The CNN models achieved accuracy rates which were higher than that of the stand-alone neural network models. PMID:17233161

  8. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. L.; Shen, B.; Sun, Y.; Qian, J. P. Wang, Y.; Xiao, B. J.; Granetz, R. S.

    2015-10-15

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  9. Halo current diagnostic system of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Chen, D L; Shen, B; Granetz, R S; Sun, Y; Qian, J P; Wang, Y; Xiao, B J

    2015-10-01

    The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.

  10. Optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe diagnostics of CH{sub 3}F/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas, Erdinc; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-06-07

    A CH{sub 3}F:O{sub 2} (50%:50%) inductively coupled discharge, sustained in a compact plasma reactor, was investigated as a function of power (20-400 W) and pressure (9-30 mTorr), using optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements. The electron density increased linearly with power but only weakly with pressure. The effective electron temperature was nearly independent of power and pressure. The gas temperature, obtained from the rotational structure of N{sub 2} (C {yields} B) optical emission, increased from 400 to 900 K as a function of inductive mode power between 75 and 400 W at 10 mTorr. For constant feed gas flow, the absolute H, F, and O atom densities, estimated by optical emission rare gas actinometry, increased linearly with power. The absolute number density ratios H/Ar, F/Ar, and O/Ar, increased, decreased, and remained constant, respectively, with pressure. The H-atom density was estimated to be 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} at 400 W and 10 mTorr (gas temperature = 900 K), implying a high degree of dissociation of the CH{sub 3}F feedstock gas. The F and O atom number densities were much lower (8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and 5.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, respectively) for the same conditions, suggesting that most of the fluorine and oxygen is contained in reaction products HF, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and OH. The relative number densities of HF, CO, and CO{sub 2} were observed to first rapidly increase with power, and then reach a plateau or decay slightly at higher power. Reaction mechanisms were proposed to explain the observed behavior of the number density of F and HF vs. power and pressure.

  11. Optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe diagnostics of CH3F/O2 inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Erdinc; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-06-01

    A CH3F:O2 (50%:50%) inductively coupled discharge, sustained in a compact plasma reactor, was investigated as a function of power (20-400 W) and pressure (9-30 mTorr), using optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements. The electron density increased linearly with power but only weakly with pressure. The effective electron temperature was nearly independent of power and pressure. The gas temperature, obtained from the rotational structure of N2 (C → B) optical emission, increased from 400 to 900 K as a function of inductive mode power between 75 and 400 W at 10 mTorr. For constant feed gas flow, the absolute H, F, and O atom densities, estimated by optical emission rare gas actinometry, increased linearly with power. The absolute number density ratios H/Ar, F/Ar, and O/Ar, increased, decreased, and remained constant, respectively, with pressure. The H-atom density was estimated to be 5.4 × 1013 cm-3 at 400 W and 10 mTorr (gas temperature = 900 K), implying a high degree of dissociation of the CH3F feedstock gas. The F and O atom number densities were much lower (8.3 × 1012 cm-3 and 5.9 × 1012 cm-3, respectively) for the same conditions, suggesting that most of the fluorine and oxygen is contained in reaction products HF, CO, CO2, H2O, and OH. The relative number densities of HF, CO, and CO2 were observed to first rapidly increase with power, and then reach a plateau or decay slightly at higher power. Reaction mechanisms were proposed to explain the observed behavior of the number density of F and HF vs. power and pressure.

  12. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D. M.; Counsell, G.; Johnson, D.; Vasu, P.; Zvonkov, A.

    2010-10-15

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale ({approx}1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  13. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Counsell, G; Johnson, D; Vasu, P; Zvonkov, A

    2010-10-01

    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (∼1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  14. Common-path optical coherence tomography using a microelectromechanical-system-based endoscopic probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donglin; Duan, Can; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Yun, Zhao; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a common-path (CP) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system based on a special endoscopic probe design with an in-line internal reflection as the reference and a two-axis electrothermal microelectromechanical system mirror for image scanning. The rear surface of a gradient reflective index (GRIN) lens inside the probe is set as the reference reflection plane. The length of the GRIN lens is optimized to eliminate the artifacts in SSOCT images successfully. Doppler OCT is also demonstrated based on the CP endoscopic probe. The diameter of the probe is only 2.5 mm, so it can be easily inserted into the biopsy channel of traditional endoscopes to access human internal organs for in vivo diagnoses. PMID:27607267

  15. Compact probing system using remote imaging for industrial plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, F.; Nishimura, A.

    2014-03-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and endoscope observation were combined to design a remote probing device. We use this probing device to inspect a crack of the inner wall of the heat exchanger. Crack inspection requires speed at first, and then it requires accuracy. Once Eddy Current Testing (ECT) finds a crack with a certain signal level, another method should confirm it visually. We are proposing Magnetic particle Testing (MT) using specially fabricated the Magnetic Particle Micro Capsule (MPMC). For LIBS, a multichannel spectrometer and a Q-switch YAG laser were used. Irradiation area is 270 μm, and the pulse energy was 2 mJ. This pulse energy corresponds to 5-2.2 MW/cm2. A composite-type optical fiber was used to deliver both laser energy and optical image. Samples were prepared to heat a zirconium alloy plate by underwater arc welding in order to demonstrate severe accidents of nuclear power plants. A black oxide layer covered the weld surface and white particles floated on water surface. Laser induced breakdown plasma emission was taken into the spectroscope using this optical fiber combined with telescopic optics. As a result, we were able to simultaneously perform spectroscopic measurement and observation. For MT, the MPMC which gathered in the defective area is observed with this fiber. The MPMC emits light by the illumination of UV light from this optical fiber. The size of a defect is estimated with this amount of emission. Such technology will be useful for inspection repair of reactor pipe.

  16. Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) and Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS): A maintenance and diagnostic system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toms, David; Hadden, George D.; Harrington, Jim

    1990-01-01

    The Maintenance and Diagnostic System (MDS) that is being developed at Honeywell to enhance the Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery system (FDIR) for the Attitude Determination and Control System on Space Station Freedom is described. The MDS demonstrates ways that AI-based techniques can be used to improve the maintainability and safety of the Station by helping to resolve fault anomalies that cannot be fully determined by built-in-test, by providing predictive maintenance capabilities, and by providing expert maintenance assistance. The MDS will address the problems associated with reasoning about dynamic, continuous information versus only about static data, the concerns of porting software based on AI techniques to embedded targets, and the difficulties associated with real-time response. An initial prototype was built of the MDS. The prototype executes on Sun and IBM PS/2 hardware and is implemented in the Common Lisp; further work will evaluate its functionality and develop mechanisms to port the code to Ada.

  17. Thermal characteristics of sapphire contact probe delivery systems for laser angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ashley, S; Brooks, S G; Gehani, A A; Kester, R C; Rees, M R

    1990-01-01

    Contact probes made from synthetic sapphire crystal, designed for general laser surgery, are currently being evaluated for use in laser angioplasty. Their mode of action and safety in the context of arterial recanalisation is unknown, particularly with respect to the degree of probe and catheter heating. Infrared thermal imaging was used to investigate the surface temperature rise of various rounded sapphire probes during emission of continuous wave Nd-YAG (1,064 nm) laser energy. Catheter safety was addressed by analyzing the temperature of the metal interface between the optical fiber and sapphire, as well as the catheter proximal to this junction. Transmission of Nd-YAG energy through each probe was also measured. Five rounded probes of 1.8-3.0 mm diameter (three supplied by Surgical Laser Technologies [SLT], two by Living Technology [LT]), along with their respective optical catheters, were compared. There was a large temperature gradient between the front and rim of the probes. The maximum surface temperature rise of the sapphire (at 20 W, 5-second exposure) was 314-339 degrees C (SLT) and 90-108 degrees C (LT) [P less than 0.001, 3-way ANOVA]. The reason for this difference may be related to "crazing" of the front surface of the SLT sapphires. At all energy levels sapphire temperatures were considerably lower than attained by metal laser thermal angioplasty probes. Forward transmission was slightly higher in the SLT probes (75-85%) than the LT sapphires (54-69%). With fiber perfusion at 2 ml/minute, a minor degree of heating of the metal sapphire holders was recorded (maximum rise 35 degrees C), but heating of the catheter proximal to this was negligible. Therefore, it would appear that the risk of tip detachment or arterial injury due to heating of the connecting metal interface is extremely low. Without perfusion, however, there was a greater degree of interface heating in the LT delivery system suggestive of more laser backscattering by these sapphires

  18. Thermal characteristics of sapphire contact probe delivery systems for laser angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ashley, S; Brooks, S G; Gehani, A A; Kester, R C; Rees, M R

    1990-01-01

    Contact probes made from synthetic sapphire crystal, designed for general laser surgery, are currently being evaluated for use in laser angioplasty. Their mode of action and safety in the context of arterial recanalisation is unknown, particularly with respect to the degree of probe and catheter heating. Infrared thermal imaging was used to investigate the surface temperature rise of various rounded sapphire probes during emission of continuous wave Nd-YAG (1,064 nm) laser energy. Catheter safety was addressed by analyzing the temperature of the metal interface between the optical fiber and sapphire, as well as the catheter proximal to this junction. Transmission of Nd-YAG energy through each probe was also measured. Five rounded probes of 1.8-3.0 mm diameter (three supplied by Surgical Laser Technologies [SLT], two by Living Technology [LT]), along with their respective optical catheters, were compared. There was a large temperature gradient between the front and rim of the probes. The maximum surface temperature rise of the sapphire (at 20 W, 5-second exposure) was 314-339 degrees C (SLT) and 90-108 degrees C (LT) [P less than 0.001, 3-way ANOVA]. The reason for this difference may be related to "crazing" of the front surface of the SLT sapphires. At all energy levels sapphire temperatures were considerably lower than attained by metal laser thermal angioplasty probes. Forward transmission was slightly higher in the SLT probes (75-85%) than the LT sapphires (54-69%). With fiber perfusion at 2 ml/minute, a minor degree of heating of the metal sapphire holders was recorded (maximum rise 35 degrees C), but heating of the catheter proximal to this was negligible. Therefore, it would appear that the risk of tip detachment or arterial injury due to heating of the connecting metal interface is extremely low. Without perfusion, however, there was a greater degree of interface heating in the LT delivery system suggestive of more laser backscattering by these sapphires

  19. A vibroacoustic diagnostic system as an element improving road transport safety.

    PubMed

    Komorska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical defects of a vehicle driving system can be dangerous on the road. Diagnostic systems, which monitor operations of electric and electronic elements and devices of vehicles, are continuously developed and improved, while defects of mechanical systems are still not managed properly. This article proposes supplementing existing on-board diagnostics with a system of diagnosing selected defects to minimize their impact. It presents a method of diagnosing mechanical defects of the engine, gearbox and other elements of the driving system on the basis of a model of the vibration signal obtained adaptively. This method is suitable for engine valves, engine head gasket, main gearbox, joints, etc.

  20. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  1. High repetition rate laser systems: targets, diagnostics and radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Clark, Eugene; Neely, David; Tolley, Martin; Roso, Luis

    2010-02-02

    Accessing the high repetition regime of ultra intense laser-target interactions at small or moderate laser energies is now possible at a large number of facilities worldwide. New projects such as HiPER and ELI promise to extend this regime to the high energy realm at the multi-kJ level. This opportunity raises several issues on how best to approach this new regime of operation in a safe and efficient way. At the same time, a new class of experiments or a new generation of secondary sources of particles and radiation may become accessible, provided that target fabrication and diagnostics are capable of handling this rep-rated regime. In this paper, we explore this scenario and analyse existing and perspective techniques that promise to address some of the above issues.

  2. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, Phase 1. Volume 2: Diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The MIDAS System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughout. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the over-all program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating 2 x 105 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. Diagnostic programs used to test MIDAS' operations are presented.

  3. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1993-01-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures.

  4. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, D.P.; Zakrajsek, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures. 4 refs.

  5. The study of dual camera 3D coordinate vision measurement system using a special probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shugui; Peng, Kai; Zhang, Xuefei; Zhang, Haifeng; Huang, Fengshan

    2006-11-01

    Due to high precision and convenient operation, the vision coordinate measurement machine with one probe has become the research focus in visual industry. In general such a visual system can be setup conveniently with just one CCD camera and probe. However, the price of the system will surge up too high to accept while the top performance hardware, such as CCD camera, image captured card and etc, have to be applied in the system to obtain the high axis-oriented measurement precision. In this paper, a new dual CCD camera vision coordinate measurement system based on redundancy principle is proposed to achieve high precision by moderate price. Since two CCD cameras are placed with the angle of camera axis like about 90 degrees to build the system, two sub-systems can be built by each CCD camera and the probe. With the help of the probe the inner and outer parameters of camera are first calibrated, the system by use of redundancy technique is set up now. When axis-oriented error is eliminated within the two sub-systems, which is so large and always exits in the single camera system, the high precision measurement is obtained by the system. The result of experiment compared to that from CMM shows that the system proposed is more excellent in stableness and precision with the uncertainty beyond +/-0.1 mm in xyz orient within the distance of 2m using two common CCD cameras.

  6. A pulsed-laser calibration system for the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, P; Sorce, C; Froula, D H; Rekow, V; Loughman, K; Knight, R; Glenzer, S H; Bahr, R; Seka, W

    2009-10-09

    A calibration system has been developed that allows a direct determination of the sensitivity of the laser backscatter diagnostics at the Omega laser. A motorized mirror at the target location redirects individual pulses of a mJ-class laser onto the diagnostic to allow the in-situ measurement of the local point response of the backscatter diagnostics. Featuring dual wavelength capability at the 2nd and 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser, both spectral channels of the backscatter diagnostics can be directly calibrated. In addition, channel cross-talk and polarization sensitivity can be determined. The calibration system has been employed repeatedly over the last two years and has enabled precise backscatter measurements of both stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering in gas-filled hohlraum targets that emulate conditions relevant to those in inertial confinement fusion targets.

  7. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  8. An evidence-based diagnostic classification system for low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Vining, Robert; Potocki, Eric; Seidman, Michael; Morgenthal, A. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: While clinicians generally accept that musculoskeletal low back pain (LBP) can arise from specific tissues, it remains difficult to confirm specific sources. Methods: Based on evidence supported by diagnostic utility studies, doctors of chiropractic functioning as members of a research clinic created a diagnostic classification system, corresponding exam and checklist based on strength of evidence, and in-office efficiency. Results: The diagnostic classification system contains one screening category, two pain categories: Nociceptive, Neuropathic, one functional evaluation category, and one category for unknown or poorly defined diagnoses. Nociceptive and neuropathic pain categories are each divided into 4 subcategories. Conclusion: This article describes and discusses the strength of evidence surrounding diagnostic categories for an in-office, clinical exam and checklist tool for LBP diagnosis. The use of a standardized tool for diagnosing low back pain in clinical and research settings is encouraged. PMID:23997245

  9. RECON - A new system for probing the outer solar system with stellar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, M. W.; Keller, J. M.; Wasserman, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network (RECON) is a new system for coordinated occultation observations of outer solar system objects. Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited duration of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations too small to be resolved directly. Our system takes the new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from the International Occultation Timing Association. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We have successfully completed our first TNO observation which is presented in the compainion paper by G. Rossi et al (this conference).

  10. Dichroic beamsplitter for high energy laser diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    LaFortune, Kai N; Hurd, Randall; Fochs, Scott N; Rotter, Mark D; Hackel, Lloyd

    2011-08-30

    Wavefront control techniques are provided for the alignment and performance optimization of optical devices. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used to measure the wavefront distortion and a control system generates feedback error signal to optics inside the device to correct the wavefront. The system can be calibrated with a low-average-power probe laser. An optical element is provided to couple the optical device to a diagnostic/control package in a way that optimizes both the output power of the optical device and the coupling of the probe light into the diagnostics.

  11. Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random ±20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

  12. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  13. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  14. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  15. Design of a three-dimensional probe system for measuring oil tube thread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xing-Hua; Lu, Boyin; Jin, Zhuanzhi; Zhou, Sheng; Qi, Chen-Ming; Chen, Jun

    1996-05-01

    The thesis introduces one kind of three dimensional scanning probe system for measuring oil tube threads, discourses on measuring theory, mechanical structure, analog and control circuitry and the software system of the system. It has resolved the problem of measuring the threads in high precision with a common coordination machine for the user. The thesis describes the classification and development of 3D coordination probes. In view of the practical problem of the user, the thesis offers an original scheme of adopting a special 3D scanning probe. According to the measuring principle, we carry out mechanical design, fulfill the designing of sensor analog circuit, probe control circuit and communication system, and program corresponding software. The probe adopts an improved three stories form so that it is closely arranged and has complete function; it adopts high precision sensors, an electric and magnetic zero fixing system and a unique spring force-testing drive system. The fine designing has made an on analog circuitry and control system in order to ensure the property and accuracy. The total probe system simultaneously has the principal function of a micro-metrical probe and the special function of the thread measuring. The description of this article is divided into several sections for the system. Except the contents of the article, in the designing of mechanical structure, we also carry out the designing of Z direction self-weight balance and damping structure, force-testing drive and precision zeroing structure, precision positioning and releasing structure and safety protection structure. Those structures adopt a unique version for decreasing volume and enhancing the precision. We design the sensor and oscillatory circuits, phase detecting and impulse trigger circuits. The distinctive features are that the fore- amplifier is mounted in the probe and the total system adopts the suitable chips with high accuracy and reliability. The control and

  16. A CLIPS based personal computer hardware diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Often the person designated to repair personal computers has little or no knowledge of how to repair a computer. Described here is a simple expert system to aid these inexperienced repair people. The first component of the system leads the repair person through a number of simple system checks such as making sure that all cables are tight and that the dip switches are set correctly. The second component of the system assists the repair person in evaluating error codes generated by the computer. The final component of the system applies a large knowledge base to attempt to identify the component of the personal computer that is malfunctioning. We have implemented and tested our design with a full system to diagnose problems for an IBM compatible system based on the 8088 chip. In our tests, the inexperienced repair people found the system very useful in diagnosing hardware problems.

  17. Evaluation Of Vibration-Monitoring Gear-Diagnostic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experimental evaluation of commercial electronic system designed to monitor vibration signal from accelerometer on gear-box to detect vibrations indicative of damage to gears. System includes signal-conditioning subsystem and personal computer in which analog-to-digital converter installed. Results show system fairly effective in detecting surface fatigue pits on spur-gear teeth.

  18. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Kross, Brian J.; Zorn, Carl J.; Majewski, Lukasz A.

    1996-01-01

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray.RTM. (RGX.RTM.) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging.

  19. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1996-10-22

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

  20. Spacecraft-level verification of the Van Allen Probes' RF communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowne, M. J.; Srinivasan, D.; Royster, D.; Weaver, G.; Matlin, D.; Mosavi, N.

    This paper presents the verification process, lessons learned, and selected test results of the radio frequency (RF) communication system of the Van Allen Probes, formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP). The Van Allen Probes mission is investigating the doughnut-shaped regions of space known as the Van Allen radiation belts where the Sun interacts with charged particles trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Understanding this dynamic area that surrounds our planet is important to improving our ability to design spacecraft and missions for reliability and astronaut safety. The Van Allen Probes mission features two nearly identical spacecraft designed, built, and operated by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The RF communication system features the JHU/APL Frontier Radio. The Frontier Radio is a software-defined radio (SDR) designed for spaceborne communications, navigation, radio science, and sensor applications. This mission marks the first spaceflight usage of the Frontier Radio. RF ground support equipment (RF GSE) was developed using a ground station receiver similar to what will be used in flight and whose capabilities provided clarity into RF system performance that was previously not obtained until compatibility testing with the ground segments. The Van Allen Probes underwent EMC, acoustic, vibration, and thermal vacuum testing at the environmental test facilities at APL. During this time the RF communication system was rigorously tested to ensure optimal performance, including system-level testing down to threshold power levels. Compatibility tests were performed with the JHU/APL Satellite Communication Facility (SCF), the Universal Space Network (USN), and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Successful completion of this program as described in this paper validated the design of the system and demonstrated that it will be able to me

  1. A Scalable, Out-of-Band Diagnostics Architecture for International Space Station Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Daryl P.; Alena, Rick; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The computational infrastructure of the International Space Station (ISS) is a dynamic system that supports multiple vehicle subsystems such as Caution and Warning, Electrical Power Systems and Command and Data Handling (C&DH), as well as scientific payloads of varying size and complexity. The dynamic nature of the ISS configuration coupled with the increased demand for payload support places a significant burden on the inherently resource constrained computational infrastructure of the ISS. Onboard system diagnostics applications are hosted on computers that are elements of the avionics network while ground-based diagnostic applications receive only a subset of available telemetry, down-linked via S-band communications. In this paper we propose a scalable, out-of-band diagnostics architecture for ISS systems support that uses a read-only connection for C&DH data acquisition, which provides a lower cost of deployment and maintenance (versus a higher criticality readwrite connection). The diagnostics processing burden is off-loaded from the avionics network to elements of the on-board LAN that have a lower overall cost of operation and increased computational capacity. A superset of diagnostic data, richer in content than the configured telemetry, is made available to Advanced Diagnostic System (ADS) clients running on wireless handheld devices, affording the crew greater mobility for troubleshooting and providing improved insight into vehicle state. The superset of diagnostic data is made available to the ground in near real-time via an out-of band downlink, providing a high level of fidelity between vehicle state and test, training and operational facilities on the ground.

  2. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-10-08

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics.

  3. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  4. A handheld point-of-care genomic diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Henrikson, Richard H; Bone, Jennifer M; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    , and source code for the µBAR instrument with the goal of spurring further innovation toward low-cost genetic diagnostics. PMID:23936402

  5. A Handheld Point-of-Care Genomic Diagnostic System

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Frank B.; Henrikson, Richard H.; Bone, Jennifer; Lee, Luke P.

    2013-01-01

    , and source code for the µBAR instrument with the goal of spurring further innovation toward low-cost genetic diagnostics. PMID:23936402

  6. A balanced diagnostic system compatible with a barotropic prognostic model. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.; Shkoller, B.; Yangarber, V.

    1977-01-01

    A system of diagnostic equations for the velocity field, or wind laws, for a barotropic primitive-equation model of large-scale atmospheric flow is derived. Attention is given to the classical balance equation and its ellipticity condition. Numerical solutions of the diagnostic system are presented, including examples of cases of the mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type and cases with non-zero divergence. Procedures for implementing such a system are outlined, along with a review of factors in using the technique for operational numerical weather prediction.

  7. Production diagnostics of geothermal wells by means of a computerized expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, Victor M.; Iglesias, Eduardo R.

    1992-01-01

    Diagnostic of production problems in geothermal wells is a complex inferential task, which requires considerable knowledge of its possible causes, careful assessment of (sometimes bewildering) multidisciplinary evidence, and, of course, enough experience. These characteristics make this task a good candidate for a computerized expert system. On this conviction, we have developed the first version of WELL-DR, an expert system for geothermal-well production diagnostics. Though still in a rapid stage of evolution, this expert system already provides a convenient and useful tool for geothermal field development, operation and management.

  8. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  9. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-15

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  10. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  11. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method.

  12. Probe diagnostics in the far scrape-off layer plasma of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak using a sideband harmonic method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Suk-Ho; Park, Il-Seo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    Plasma characteristics in the far scrape-off layer region of tokamak play a crucial role in the stable plasma operation and its sustainability. Due to the huge facility, electrical diagnostic systems to measure plasma properties have extremely long cable length resulting in large stray current. To overcome this problem, a sideband harmonic method was applied to the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak plasma. The sideband method allows the measurement of the electron temperature and the plasma density without the effect of the stray current. The measured plasma densities are compared with those from the interferometer, and the results show reliability of the method. PMID:26724028

  13. Development of a photoreactive probe-based system for detecting heparin.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Tomio; Hosoda-Yabe, Ritsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    We previously identified a peptide heparin-associated peptide Y (HappY) that binds specifically to heparin. In this article, we report a novel heparin detection system using chemically modified HappY as a probe. The photoreactive HappY probe was serially diluted and dispensed into a 96-well plate coated with biotinylated heparin. After ultraviolet irradiation, the HappY probe crosslinked to the heparin on the plate was detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated streptavidin. Furthermore, the photoreactive HappY probe was used to stain cutaneous tissue sections obtained from dermatitis-affected or mastocytoma-affected cats and dogs. The photoreactive HappY probe stained limited resident mast cells in the connective tissue of skin compared with the anti-heparan sulfate monoclonal antibody 10E4, suggesting that the probe can be used to distinguish the structure of heparin in tissues. The interactions between glycosaminoglycans and proteins in vivo tend to be weak. Therefore, our method for enhancing such weak interactions may be a promising tool for intermolecular interaction studies in glycobiology research.

  14. Endo-TOFPET-US: A multimodal ultrasonic probe featuring time of flight PET in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, T. C.; Endo-Tofpet-Us Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    This work outlines the functionality of a new medical instrument and describes the research and development work aiming at new and higher performance imaging techniques with Time of Flight-PET capability in endoscopy and surgical oncology. It focuses on the associated scientific and technological challenges to be met in fields such as scintillating crystallography, ultra-fast photo-detection, highly integrated electronics, and system integration. This will highlight possible answers and solutions that derive from techniques and instrumentation prominent in high energy physics. Special emphasis is put on new developments of scintillators and diffractive optics to increase light output, and fast and compact photodetectors such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with the option of single SPAD readout. In view of the targeted coincidence time of flight performance of 200 ps FWHM equivalent to 30 mm along the line of response (LOR), tests using cerium-calcium-co-doped LSO crystals of 10 mm length and commercial SiPMs from Hamamatsu already produced a coincidence time resolution (CTR) of better than 170 ps FWHM.

  15. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  16. Diagnostic Assessment of Troubleshooting Skill in an Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitomer, Drew H.; And Others

    This paper lays out the rationale and implementation of student modeling and updating in the HYDRIVE intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for aircraft hydraulic systems. An epistemic level of modeling concerns the plans and goals students are using to guide their problem solving, as inferred from specific actions in specific contexts. These results…

  17. Interactive Error Diagnostics for an Instructional Programming System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan; And Others

    The development of an interactive error analysis system for a highly interactive programing language compiler is explored. A project is underway at the University of Illinois to automate the teaching of elementary computer science programing language courses by utilizing the PLATO IV interactive computer system. One goal of the project is to…

  18. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  19. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  20. Diagnostic Solution Assistant cornerstone for intelligent system monitoring, management, analysis and administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaseng, Gordon; Holland, Courtney; Nelson, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides diagnostics for space hardware and subsystems. Advanced Honewell `smart' model-based technology performs the real-time fault detection, isolation and diagnostics. This model-based technology provides 24-hour access to the operational knowledge of the system experts. The complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) and other manned space vehicles requires that a full staff of ground based system diagnosis experts be trained and available at all times. Response to critical situations must be immediate no matter what time of the day or night. Installation of new systems plus normal staff turnover cause personnel to be in training constantly. Domain knowledge lost due to staff attrition may also never be regained. All of these factors lead to higher cost ground based flight system monitoring stations and sub-optimal efficiency. The Diagnostic Solution Assistant (DSA) provides a solution to these issues. The DSA can be deployed into the ISS Mission Control Center to enhance Flight Controller awareness and decision making. DSA can be utilized onboard the vehicle to enhance crew awareness and potentially offload the crew in time- or safety-critical situations. The DSA can be used to isolate and diagnose faults during flight preparation, thus reducing the overall vehicle turn-around time. In addition to having diagnostic capability, DSA is a tremendous requirements and operations knowledge capture tool that could streamline training for the flight controller and crew, and facilitate the rapid location of important information. .

  1. Data mining based full ceramic bearing fault diagnostic system using AE sensors.

    PubMed

    He, David; Li, Ruoyu; Zhu, Junda; Zade, Mikhail

    2011-12-01

    Full ceramic bearings are considered the first step toward full ceramic, oil-free engines in the future. No research on full ceramic bearing fault diagnostics using acoustic emission (AE) sensors has been reported. Unlike their steel counterparts, signal processing methods to extract effective AE fault characteristic features and fault diagnostic systems for full ceramic bearings have not been developed. In this paper, a data mining based full ceramic bearing diagnostic system using AE based condition indicators (CIs) is presented. The system utilizes a new signal processing method based on Hilbert Huang transform to extract AE fault features for the computation of CIs. These CIs are used to build a data mining based fault classifier using a k-nearest neighbor algorithm. Seeded fault tests on full ceramic bearing outer race, inner race, balls, and cage are conducted on a bearing diagnostic test rig and AE burst data are collected. The effectiveness of the developed fault diagnostic system is validated using real full ceramic bearing seeded fault test data.

  2. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR FEL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Steven Moore; Albert Grippo; Kevin Jordan

    2006-10-24

    An Ethernet based embedded system has been developed to upgrade the Beam Viewer and Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems within the free-electron laser (FEL) project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded microcontroller was mounted on the front-end I/O cards with software packages such as Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) running as an Input/Output Controller (IOC). By cross compiling with the EPICS, the RTEMS kernel, IOC device supports, and databases all of these can be downloaded into the microcontroller. The first version of the BPM electronics based on the embedded controller was built and is currently running in our FEL system. The new version of BPM that will use a Single Board IOC (SBIOC), which integrates with an Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) and a ColdFire embedded microcontroller, is presently under development. The new system has the features of a low cost IOC, an open source real-time operating system, plug&play-like ease of installation and flexibility, and provides a much more localized solution.

  3. Simultaneous Sensor and Process Fault Diagnostics for Propellant Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, J.; Kwan, C.; Figueroa, F.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to extract fault features from sensor faults and process faults by using advanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms. A tank system that has some common characteristics to a NASA testbed at Stennis Space Center was used to verify our proposed algorithms. First, a generic tank system was modeled. Second, a mathematical model suitable for FDI has been derived for the tank system. Third, a new and general FDI procedure has been designed to distinguish process faults and sensor faults. Extensive simulations clearly demonstrated the advantages of the new design.

  4. A lidar system for remote probing of the lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, C. D.; Bartz, R.; Olsson, L. E.; Hewson, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a lidar system for atmospheric measurements are discussed. The lidar system employs a Q-switched ruby laser that radiates an intense pulse of light into the atmosphere to illuminate aerosol particles in the laser beam. Light backscattered from the particles is received by a Cassegrain telescope equipped with a sensitive photomultiplier tube. The output signal of the photomultiplier tube is displayed on an oscilloscope and recorded on polaroid film.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction-gene probe detection system specific for pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A; Liesack, W; Stackebrandt, E

    1992-08-01

    The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to develop a rapid diagnostic assay for detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. The assay targeted a stretch of 163 bp of the yst gene and could be applied to both pure cultures and crude DNA extracted from feces. The defined primer pair amplified the targeted sequence from only pathogenic strains and fecal samples seeded with the serotype O:3 strain of Y. enterocolitica, whereas neither nonpathogenic strains nor normal stools yielded any amplified fragments. Of the other Yersinia species and non-Yersinia species tested, only two strains of Y. kristensenii yielded the same amplified product. A 20-mer oligonucleotide probe specifically hybridized within the amplified yst fragment of Y. enterocolitica but did not hybridize with the amplified yst fragment of Y. kristensenii by Southern and dot blot hybridizations. This confirms the reliability of this diagnostic assay in both clinical and epidemiological studies. The availability of the extracted DNA for the polymerase chain reaction was checked by simultaneous amplification of a part of the 16S rDNA and the yst gene. The entire diagnostic assay, including a simplified technique for DNA extraction, the amplification process, and gel electrophoresis, could be completed within 1 working day, which is better than the time required for the time-consuming traditional techniques used in clinical laboratories.

  6. Expert diagnostic system for moving-coil loudspeakers using nonlinear modeling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Huang, Chau-Min

    2009-02-01

    This work aims at the development of an expert diagnostic system for moving-coil loudspeakers. Special emphasis is placed on the defects resulting from loudspeaker nonlinearities. As a loudspeaker operates in the large signal domain, nonlinear distortions may arise and impair sound quality. Analysis of nonlinear responses can shed light on potential design faults of a loudspeaker. By exploiting this fact, this expert diagnostic system enables classification of design faults using a defect database alongside an intelligent fault inference module. Six types of defects are investigated in this paper. A large signal model based on electromechanical analogous circuits is employed for generating the defect database, through which a neural-fuzzy network is utilized for inferring the defect types. Numerical simulations and experimental investigations were undertaken for validating the loudspeaker diagnostic system.

  7. Design predictions and diagnostic test methods for hydronic heating systems in ASHRAE standard 152P

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    A new method of test for residential thermal distribution efficiency is currently being developed under the auspices of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial version of this test method is expected to have two main approaches, or ``pathways,`` designated Design and Diagnostic. The Design Pathway will use builder`s information to predict thermal distribution efficiency in new construction. The Diagnostic Pathway will use simple tests to evaluate thermal distribution efficiency in a completed house. Both forced-air and hydronic systems are included in the test method. This report describes an approach to predicting and measuring thermal distribution efficiency for residential hydronic heating systems for use in the Design and Diagnostic Pathways of the test method. As written, it is designed for single-loop systems with any type of passive radiation/convection (baseboard or radiators). Multiloop capability may be added later.

  8. Combined medical diagnostic system with separated laser-Doppler and reflectance oximeter channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzina, M. V.; Micheev, A. A.; Rogatkin, D. A.; Sidorov, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of studying of opportunities of Reflectance Tissues Oximetry (RTO) as well as on the basis of RTO and Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) comparative data, received in Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute "MONIKI" while patients with the peripheral blood microcirculation disorders were under examination, it was offered to unite the RTO and LDF techniques in a single diagnostic system. The new two-channel diagnostic system will contain the first LDF channel to measure the blood microcirculation parameters and the second RTO channel to register an average peripheral blood oxygenation. In the report the features of the new system design and a number of experimental data on correlation of RTO and LDF results are considered. The prospects of amalgamation of these two different techniques in a single diagnostic device are shown as well.

  9. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  10. PERFORMACE OF MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CAROTHERS KD; BOOMER KD; ANDA VS; DAHL MM; EDGEMON GL

    2010-01-14

    Between 2007 and 2009, several different multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems were designed and installed in high-level nuclear waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in WaShington State. The probe systems are being monitored to ensure waste tanks operate in regions that minimize localized corrosion (i.e., pitting) and stress corrosion cracking. The corrosion monitoring systems have been installed in wastes with different chemistry types. An ongoing effort during the same time period has generated non-radioactive simulants that are tested in the laboratory to establish baseline corrosion monitoring system performance and characterize data to allow interpretation of readings from the multiple corrosion monitoring systems. Data collection from these monitoring systems has reached the point where the results allow comparison with the laboratory testing. This paper presents analytical results from the corrosion monitoring system development program.

  11. Probe Scanning Support System by a Parallel Mechanism for Robotic Echography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kenta; Oyamada, Masami; Takachi, Yuuki; Masuda, Kohji

    We propose a probe scanning support system based on force/visual servoing control for robotic echography. First, we have designed and formulated its inverse kinematics the construction of mechanism. Next, we have developed a scanning method of the ultrasound probe on body surface to construct visual servo system based on acquired echogram by the standalone medical robot to move the ultrasound probe on patient abdomen in three-dimension. The visual servo system detects local change of brightness in time series echogram, which is stabilized the position of the probe by conventional force servo system in the robot, to compensate not only periodical respiration motion but also body motion. Then we integrated control method of the visual servo with the force servo as a hybrid control in both of position and force. To confirm the ability to apply for actual abdomen, we experimented the total system to follow the gallbladder as a moving target to keep its position in the echogram by minimizing variation of reaction force on abdomen. As the result, the system has a potential to be applied to automatic detection of human internal organ.

  12. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  13. Bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis system for microproteinuria diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Strzelak, Kamil; Misztal, Jagoda; Tymecki, Łukasz; Koncki, Robert

    2016-02-01

    In this work a bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system for determination of microproteinuria is presented. The developed MCFA system is based on two dedicated optoelectronic flow-through detectors which allow estimation of urinary protein creatinine ratio. For total protein determination, turbidimetric Exton's method was used, whereas creatinine was determined by the photometric Jaffe reaction. The developed analytical system is fully-mechanized, easy to operate, economic in reagent consumption and characterized by satisfactory analytical parameters. It allows protein determination in the range 36-300 mg L(-1) with 33 mg L(-1) detection limit and simultaneous determination of creatinine in the range 0.045-2.50 mmol L(-1) with 0.025 mmol L(-1) detection limit. The measurement procedure for the presented MCFA system offers performing 30 peaks per hour for both analytes. To prove the analytical usefulness of the system, real human urine samples have been analyzed. The correlation and agreement between results offered by the developed system and clinical analyzers are fully acceptable.

  14. Probing other solar systems with current and future adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Marois, C; Phillion, D; Poyneer, L; Graham, J; Zuckerman, B; Gavel, D; Veran, J; Wilhelmsen-Evans, J; Mellis, C

    2008-09-08

    Over the past decade, the study of extrasolar planets through indirect techniques--primarily Doppler measurements--has revolutionized our understanding of other solar systems. The next major step in this field will be the direct detection and characterization, via imaging and spectroscopy, of the planets themselves. To achieve this, we must separate the light from the faint planet from the extensive glare of its parent star. We pursued this goal using the current generation of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large ground-based telescopes, using infrared imaging to search for the thermal emission from young planets and developing image processing techniques to distinguish planets from telescope-induced artifacts. Our new Angular Differential Imaging (ADI) technique, which uses the sidereal rotation of the Earth and telescope, is now standard for ground-based high-contrast imaging. Although no young planets were found in our surveys, we placed the strongest limits yet on giant planets in wide orbits (>30 AU) around young stars and characterized planetary companion candidates. The imaging of planetary companions on solar-system-like scales (5-30 AU) will require a new generation of advanced AO systems that are an order of magnitude more powerful than the LLNL-built Keck AO system. We worked to develop and test the key technologies needed for these systems, including a spatially-filtered wavefront sensor, efficient and accurate wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and precision AO wavefront control at the sub-nm level. LLNL has now been selected by the Gemini Observatory to lead the construction of the Gemini Planet Imager, a $24M instrument that will be the most advanced AO system in the world.

  15. Probing Interactions in Complex Molecular Systems through Ordered Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    De Yoreo, J J; Bartelt, M C; Orme, C A; Villacampa, A; Weeks, B L; Miller, A E

    2002-01-31

    Emerging from the machinery of epitaxial science and chemical synthesis, is a growing emphasis on development of self-organized systems of complex molecular species. The nature of self-organization in these systems spans the continuum from simple crystallization of large molecules such as dendrimers and proteins, to assembly into large organized networks of nanometer-scale structures such as quantum dots or nanoparticles. In truth, self-organization in complex molecular systems has always been a central feature of many scientific disciplines including fields as diverse as structural biology, polymer science and geochemistry. But over the past decade, changes in those fields have often been marked by the degree to which researchers are using molecular-scale approaches to understand the hierarchy of structures and processes driven by this ordered assembly. At the same time, physical scientists have begun to use their knowledge of simple atomic and molecular systems to fabricate synthetic self-organized systems. This increasing activity in the field of self-organization is testament to the success of the physical and chemical sciences in building a detailed understanding of crystallization and epitaxy in simple atomic and molecular systems, one that is soundly rooted in thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. One of the fundamental challenges of chemistry and materials science in the coming decades is to develop a similarly well-founded physical understanding of assembly processes in complex molecular systems. Over the past five years, we have successfully used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the physical controls on single crystal epitaxy from solutions for a wide range of molecular species. More recently, we have combined this method with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and kinetic Monte Carlo modeling in order to relate morphology to surface atomic structure and processes. The purpose of this proposal was to extend this approach to assemblies

  16. Multiphoton microscopy system with a compact fiber-based femtosecond-pulse laser and handheld probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Kieu, Khanh; Wise, Frank W; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system that integrates a compact and robust fiber laser with a miniature probe. The all normal dispersion fiber femtosecond laser has a central wavelength of 1.06 μm, pulse width of 125 fs and average power of more than 1 W. A double cladding photonic crystal fiber was used to deliver the excitation beam and to collect the two-photon signal. The hand-held probe included galvanometer-based mirror scanners, relay lenses and a focusing lens. The packaged probe had a diameter of 16 mm. Second harmonic generation (SHG) images and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) images of biological tissues were demonstrated using the system. PMID:20635426

  17. Megahertz pulse-burst alexandrite laser diagnostic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luff, Jon David

    Megahertz pulse-burst laser systems coupled with megahertz-rate framing cameras have proven (over the last ten years) to be very robust in imaging of high-speed reacting and nonreacting supersonic flows. These Nd:YAG systems produce 20--30 pulses (at variable rates from 500 kHz to 1 MHz) with 50--100 mJ/pulse (lambda = 1064nm) and have been used with narrow, spectral-linewidth, iodine, atomic filters to image turbulence in supersonic boundary layers with great success (when operating at lambda = 532nm). To extend this pulse-burst capability at other wavelengths (wavelengths outside of the 5--30 GHz tuning range of Nd:YAG: lambda = 1064 nm fundamental, and lambda = 532 nm second harmonic), two unique, tunable, megahertz-rate alexandrite laser systems were designed and built. This dissertation documents these two systems and discusses the potential for tunable, megahertz, pulse-burst systems that have more tuning range than Nd:YAG. These tunable alexandrite systems substantially extend the wavelength range of pulse-burst laser technology, but, to date, have pulse-energy limitations. Tunable from 710 nm to 800 nm (in the fundamental), these lasers provide researchers one laser to reach multiple molecular or atomic resonances with variable pulse-burst pulse separations. The molecular and atomic species of interest in reacting and nonreacting flows are presented in Chapter 1, providing a road-map for the development of these tunable lasers. This dissertation presents the design and development of these systems, including mode control, Herriott cell design for pulse separation, and the megahertz-tuning ringmaster-oscillator. Chapter 2 covers the physics of alexandrite as a solid-state, lamp-pumped, tunable medium and compares it to the tunability of Ti:sapphire. Chapter 3 and 4 present the pulse-burst alexandrite systems. The first system, built in Princeton's Applied Physics group (PAPG) (Chapter 3), produced 1-5 mJ total pulse-packet energy of 20--30 pulses, or

  18. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  19. Probing infinity in bounded two-dimensional electrostatic systems.

    PubMed

    Abutalib, M; Batle, J; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-07-01

    The total electrostatic energy of systems of identical particles of equal charge is studied in configurations bounded in space, but divergent in the number of charges. This approach shall guide us to unveil a non-linear, functional form specifying the divergent nature of system energy. We consider fractals to be physical entities, with charges located in their vertices or nodes. This description is interesting since features, such as the corresponding fractal dimension, can characterize the total energy EN. Finally, at local length scales, we describe how energy diverges at charge accumulation points in the fractal, that is, almost everywhere by definition. PMID:27475073

  20. Probing infinity in bounded two-dimensional electrostatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abutalib, M.; Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2016-07-01

    The total electrostatic energy of systems of identical particles of equal charge is studied in configurations bounded in space, but divergent in the number of charges. This approach shall guide us to unveil a non-linear, functional form specifying the divergent nature of system energy. We consider fractals to be physical entities, with charges located in their vertices or nodes. This description is interesting since features, such as the corresponding fractal dimension, can characterize the total energy EN. Finally, at local length scales, we describe how energy diverges at charge accumulation points in the fractal, that is, almost everywhere by definition.

  1. Development and Testing of Proboscis Heat Flow Probe with Gas-Enhanced Drilling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasho, J.; Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Avanesyan, A.; Mellerowicz, B.; Makai, T.; Szwarc, T.; Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Milam, M.

    2011-12-01

    Our heat-flow probe (HFP) directly addresses the goal of the Lunar Geophysical Network, which is to understand the interior structure and composition of the Moon. A key challenge for a heat flow measurement is to install the thermal sensors deep enough (depth > ~3 m) so that they are not influenced by the diurnal, annual, or long-term thermal fluctuations. In addition, once deployed, the heat flow probe should cause little disturbance to the thermal regime of the surrounding regolith. We developed a heat-flow probe system which has two novel features: 1) it utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach to excavate a hole by lofting the lunar soil out of this opening; and 2) deploys the heat flow probe, which utilizes a coiled up tape as a thermal probe, to reach our target depth. The system is unique for small lunar landers as it exhibits extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment. Thus far we have successfully demonstrated this approach to the maximum possible depth with our present hardware (~50 cm): 1.) under atmospheric condition in compacted lunar soil simulant; 2.) in Mauna Kea volcanic tephra; and 3.) in a vacuum chamber, in compacted lunar soil simulant. Our next step is to fabricate a mass optimized HFP for a 3 m depth.

  2. Real-time Optical Alignment and Diagnostic System (ROADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ultimate and most frequent usage of ROADS will be the alignment of subassemblies (collector and collimator) prior to their installation in a chamber. The system as designed has inherent associated capabilities well applied to acceptance testing of the No. 4 mirror, prediction of in-chamber performance, generation of a catalog of test results and other data, providing data for the plotting of isointensity lines, and other applications which are discussed. The ROADS system will collect, process, display, analyze, and retain data as required for components, partial subassemblies, complete subassemblies, complete modules, and multimodular arrays.

  3. Autonomous Control and Diagnostics of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Xu, X.; Perillo, S.R.P.; Na, M.G.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes three key features of the development of an autonomous control strategy for space reactor systems. These include the development of a reactor simulation model for transient analysis, development of model-predictive control as part of the autonomous control strategy, and a fault detection and isolation module. The latter is interfaced with the control supervisor as part of a hierarchical control system. The approach has been applied to the nodal model of the SP-100 reactor with a thermo-electric generator. The results of application demonstrate the effectiveness of the control approach and its ability to reconfigure the control mode under fault conditions. (authors)

  4. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to Probe Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    The large number of multiple transiting planet systems (MTPS) uncovered with Kepler suggest a population of well-aligned planetary systems. Previously, the distribution of transit duration ratios in MTPSs has been used to place constraints on the distributions of mutual orbital inclinations and orbital eccentricities in these systems. However, degeneracies with the underlying number of planets in these systems pose added challenges and make explicit likelihood functions intractable. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) offers an intriguing path forward. In its simplest form, ABC proposes from a prior on the population parameters to produce synthetic datasets via a physically-motivated model. Samples are accepted or rejected based on how close they come to reproducing the actual observed dataset to some tolerance. The accepted samples then form a robust and useful approximation of the true posterior distribution of the underlying population parameters. We will demonstrate the utility of ABC in exoplanet populations by presenting new constraints on the mutual inclination and eccentricity distributions in the Kepler MTPSs. We will also introduce Simple-ABC, a new open-source Python package designed for ease of use and rapid specification of general models, suitable for use in a wide variety of applications in both exoplanet science and astrophysics as a whole.

  5. Experimental Assessment of the Effects of the Probe System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This paper is concerned with objectives-based evaluation and alternative ways in which a system of objectives and test items might contribute to school programs. In the first study, teachers, parents, and students were involved in the needs assessment phase of educational evaluation with the use of behavioral objectives. All three were first asked…

  6. Strategic Explanations for a Diagnostic Consultation System. Technical Report #8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasling, Diane Warner; And Others

    This paper examines the problem of automatic explanation of reasoning, or the ability of a program to discuss what it is doing in some understandable way, particularly as part of an expert system. An introduction presents a general framework in which to view explanation and reviews some of the research in this area. This is followed by a…

  7. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  8. A Statistical Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of MEDAS-The Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System

    PubMed Central

    Georgakis, D. Christine; Trace, David A.; Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Evens, Martha

    1990-01-01

    Medical expert systems require comprehensive evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy. The usefulness of these systems is limited without established evaluation methods. We propose a new methodology for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy and the predictive capacity of a medical expert system. We have adapted to the medical domain measures that have been used in the social sciences to examine the performance of human experts in the decision making process. Thus, in addition to the standard summary measures, we use measures of agreement and disagreement, and Goodman and Kruskal's λ and τ measures of predictive association. This methodology is illustrated by a detailed retrospective evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the MEDAS system. In a study using 270 patients admitted to the North Chicago Veterans Administration Hospital, diagnoses produced by MEDAS are compared with the discharge diagnoses of the attending physicians. The results of the analysis confirm the high diagnostic accuracy and predictive capacity of the MEDAS system. Overall, the agreement of the MEDAS system with the “gold standard” diagnosis of the attending physician has reached a 90% level.

  9. Prodiag--a hybrid artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system for process faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Vitela, J.E.; Applequist, C. A.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), project to perform feasibility studies on a novel approach to Artificial Intelligence (Al) based diagnostics for component faults in nuclear power plants. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a first-principles physics-based plant level process diagnostic expert system (ES) and the identification of component-level fault patterns through operating component characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The purpose of the proof-of-concept project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use thermal hydraulic (T-H) signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance.To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. A full-scope operator training simulator representing the Commonwealth Edison Braidwood nuclear power plant is being used both as the source of development data and as the means to evaluate the advantages of the proposed diagnostic system. This is an ongoing multi-year project and this paper presents the results to date of the CRADA phase.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Diagnostic Documentation Support System using Knowledge Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Kyoko; Hayakawa, Rumi; Terai, Koichi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we will introduce a system which supports creating diagnostic reports. Diagnostic reports are documents by doctors of radiology describing the existence and nonexistence of abnormalities from the inspection images, such as CT and MRI, and summarize a patient's state and disease. Our system indicates insufficiencies in these reports created by younger doctors, by using knowledge processing based on a medical knowledge dictionary. These indications are not only clerical errors, but the system also analyzes the purpose of the inspection and determines whether a comparison with a former inspection is required, or whether there is any shortage in description. We verified our system by using actual data of 2,233 report pairs, a pair comprised of a report written by a younger doctor and a check result of the report by an experienced doctor. The results of the verification showed that the rules of string analysis for detecting clerical errors and sentence wordiness obtained a recall of over 90% and a precision of over 75%. Moreover, the rules based on a medical knowledge dictionary for detecting the lack of required comparison with a former inspection and the shortage in description for the inspection purpose obtained a recall of over 70%. From these results, we confirmed that our system contributes to the quality improvement of diagnostic reports. We expect that our system can comprehensively support diagnostic documentations by cooperating with the interface which refers to inspection images or past reports.

  11. Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-05-21

    The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures.

  12. Absolute calibration of a laser system for atmospheric probing.

    PubMed

    Hall, F F; Ageno, H Y

    1970-08-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the backscatter function from laser irradiance backscattered from the atmosphere, the ratio of power transmitted to power received must be accurately known. No absolute measurements of power, optical system transmittance, detector quantum efficiency, or electronic gain are necessarily required. The technique of measuring the power ratio by irradiating a smoked or painted target of known diffuse reflectance at a fixed range is used to calibrate a complete lidar system. The relative area of the output power pulse is monitored by a fast response photodiode, and the relative area of the returned pulse is also recorded after passing through a filter of known high optical density. It is essential to control the temperatures of the laser rod and receiver interference prefilter to ensure proper spectral matching. Field experience gained using this technique is described, and examples of calibration measurements and backscatter functions for smog and cirrus clouds are presented.

  13. Probing quantum frustrated systems via factorization of the ground state.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-05-21

    The existence of definite orders in frustrated quantum systems is related rigorously to the occurrence of fully factorized ground states below a threshold value of the frustration. Ground-state separability thus provides a natural measure of frustration: strongly frustrated systems are those that cannot accommodate for classical-like solutions. The exact form of the factorized ground states and the critical frustration are determined for various classes of nonexactly solvable spin models with different spatial ranges of the interactions. For weak frustration, the existence of disentangling transitions determines the range of applicability of mean-field descriptions in biological and physical problems such as stochastic gene expression and the stability of long-period modulated structures. PMID:20867055

  14. New plasma measurements with a multichannel millimeter-wave fluctuation diagnostic system in the DIII-D tokamak (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Carter, T. A.; White, A. E.

    2010-10-15

    A novel multichannel, tunable Doppler backscattering (DBS)/reflectometry system has recently been developed and applied to a variety of DIII-D plasmas. Either DBS or reflectometry can be easily configured for use in a wide range of plasma conditions using a flexible quasi-optical antenna system. The multiple closely spaced channels, when combined with other fluctuation diagnostic systems, have opened up new measurements of plasma properties. For example, the toroidal and fine-scale radial structure of coherent plasma oscillations, such as geodesic acoustic modes, have been probed simultaneously in the core of high temperature plasmas by applying correlation analysis between two toroidally separated DBS systems, as well as within the multichannel array. When configured as a reflectometer, cross-correlation with electron cyclotron emission radiometry has uncovered detailed information regarding the crossphase relationship between density and temperature fluctuations. The density-temperature crossphase measurement yields insight into the physics of tokamak turbulence at a fundamental level that can be directly compared with predictions from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations.

  15. Development of a BPM Lock-In Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Dickson

    2003-05-12

    A system has been developed for the acquisition and analysis of high rate, time coherent BPM data across the Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This system will allow the acquisition of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) position and intensity information at a rate in excess 7 KHz for approximately 200 BPMs in a time synchronous manner. By inducing minute sinusoidal transverse beam motion in the CEBAF injector, with known phase relative to the synchronized BPM acquisition, it is possible to derive several types of useful information. Analysis of the BPM intensity data, which is proportional to beam current, by beating the signal with an in-phase sinusoidal representation of the transverse kick can localize beam scraping to a particular BPM. Similarly, real-time optics information may be deduced with an analysis of BPM position data. This paper will detail the frequency lock-in technique applied and present status.

  16. Combined pulse-oximeter-NIRS system for biotissue diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    2005-08-01

    Multi-wavelength (670, 805, 848 and 905 nm), multi-detector device for non-invasive measurement of biochemical components concentration in human or animal tissues, combining the methods of conventional pulse-oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy, is developed. The portable and clinically applicable system allows to measure heart pulse rate, oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin (pulse-oximetry method) and local absolute concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and oxidized cytochrome aa3 or other IR absorbed compounds (NIRS method). The system can be applied in monitoring of oxygen availability and utilization by the brain in neonatal and adults, neuro- traumatology, intensive care medicine, transplantation and plastic surgery, in sport, high-altitude and aviation medicine.

  17. Design Considerations for an Integrated Solar Sail Diagnostics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Christopher H. M.; Gough, Aaron R.; Pappa, Richard S.; Carroll, Joe; Blandino, Joseph R.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Rakoczy, John

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are continuing under NASA support to improve the readiness level of solar sail technology. Solar sails have one of the best chances to be the next gossamer spacecraft flown in space. In the gossamer spacecraft community thus far, solar sails have always been considered a "low precision" application compared with, say, radar or optical devices. However, as this paper shows, even low precision gossamer applications put extraordinary demands on structural measurement systems if they are to be traceable to use in space.

  18. Beam Diagnostics Based on AC Modulation of System Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tiefenback

    2004-11-10

    To improve the performance of operating accelerators, quantities such as lattice functions, beam transfer functions, betatron frequencies, etc, can be measured turn by turn with beam position monitors or from difference measurements using step changes in system parameters. Spectral measurements in closed orbit machines provide accurate values for some properties. But for open-ended systems and some measurements in closed-orbit machines, periodic modulation can be very useful for obtaining information about the beam line. Using examples from existing machines, we compare and contrast beam based modulation techniques and step function or passive measurements. For example, large amplitude dipole modulation in rings can be used in dedicated exploration of nonlinear optical properties without beam degradation, even allowing for tune spread effects. Low-level modulation can provide real-time system monitoring with no adverse effect on beam users. Examples considered include fully resonant dipole modulation in storage rings such as RHIC (hadrons) and PEP-II (electrons), and the continuous low-level modulation used in the CEBAF recirculating electron linac for real-time feedback to improve availability.

  19. [Lab-on-a-chip systems in the point-of-care diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Barnabás; Borbíró, András; Fürjes, Péter

    2015-12-27

    The need in modern medicine for near-patient diagnostics being able to accelerate therapeutic decisions and possibly replacing laboratory measurements is significantly growing. Reliable and cost-effective bioanalytical measurement systems are required which - acting as a micro-laboratory - contain integrated biomolecular recognition, sensing, signal processing and complex microfluidic sample preparation modules. These micro- and nanofabricated Lab-on-a-chip systems open new perspectives in the diagnostic supply chain, since they are able even for quantitative, high-precision and immediate analysis of special disease specific molecular markers or their combinations from a single drop of sample. Accordingly, crucial requirements regarding the instruments and the analytical methods are the high selectivity, extremely low detection limit, short response time and integrability into the healthcare information networks. All these features can make the hierarchical examination chain shorten, and revolutionize laboratory diagnostics, evolving a brand new situation in therapeutic intervention. PMID:26686745

  20. [Content-based image-retrieval system - development, usefulness and perspectives of diagnostic assistant robot].

    PubMed

    Endo, Masahiro; Aramaki, Takeshi; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sawada, Akihiro; Asakura, Koiku; Bekku, Emima; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, diagnostic imaging modalities have proliferated from standard X-ray to CT, MRI and PET, and the working environments of radiologists have changed greatly with the popular spread of the PACS system. Radiologists are now facing enormous duties due to the dramatic increase in the volume of images from various modalities, and the shortage of radiologists in Japan has reached near-crisis levels. Furthermore, it is difficult to gain the knowledge needed to interpret diagnostic imaging and modalities under the growing, increasingly diverse and complex modalities and methods, for general physicians and trainees. On the other hand, there are some computer-aided diagnosis and detection systems that support radiologists. Here, we introduce a new diagnostic assistant robot that automatically retrieves cases on record that are similar to new cases, helps in making diagnoses, and can create CT reports semi-automatically, using an existing past CT database of pulmonary nodules with a structured report. PMID:22790038

  1. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD) with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice. PMID:23286319

  2. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts.

  3. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts. PMID:27619194

  4. Study on Unified Chaotic System-Based Wind Turbine Blade Fault Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ying-Che; Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Li, Yu-Chung

    At present, vibration signals are processed and analyzed mostly in the frequency domain. The spectrum clearly shows the signal structure and the specific characteristic frequency band is analyzed, but the number of calculations required is huge, resulting in delays. Therefore, this study uses the characteristics of a nonlinear system to load the complete vibration signal to the unified chaotic system, applying the dynamic error to analyze the wind turbine vibration signal, and adopting extenics theory for artificial intelligent fault diagnosis of the analysis signal. Hence, a fault diagnostor has been developed for wind turbine rotating blades. This study simulates three wind turbine blade states, namely stress rupture, screw loosening and blade loss, and validates the methods. The experimental results prove that the unified chaotic system used in this paper has a significant effect on vibration signal analysis. Thus, the operating conditions of wind turbines can be quickly known from this fault diagnostic system, and the maintenance schedule can be arranged before the faults worsen, making the management and implementation of wind turbines smoother, so as to reduce many unnecessary costs.

  5. TANK 241-AN-102 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM PROJECT LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect

    TAYLOR T; HAGENSEN A; KIRCH NW

    2008-07-07

    During 2007 and 2008, a new Multi-Probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) was designed and fabricated for use in double-shell tank 241-AN-102. The system was successfully installed in the tank on May 1, 2008. The 241-AN-102 MPCMS consists of one 'fixed' in-tank probe containing primary and secondary reference electrodes, tank material electrodes, Electrical Resistance (ER) sensors, and stressed and unstressed corrosion coupons. In addition to the fixed probe, the 241-AN-102 MPCMS also contains four standalone coupon racks, or 'removable' probes. Each rack contains stressed and unstressed coupons made of American Society of Testing and Materials A537 CL1 steel, heat-treated to closely match the chemical and mechanical characteristics of the 241-AN-102 tank wall. These coupon racks can be removed periodically to facilitate examination of the attached coupons for corrosion damage. Along the way to successful system deployment and operation, the system design, fabrication, and testing activities presented a number of challenges. This document discusses these challenges and lessons learned, which when applied to future efforts, should improve overall project efficiency.

  6. Fluid flow volume measurements using a capacitance/conductance probe system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.; Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    A probe system has been developed to measure the flow volume of a single fluid passing through an orifice or flow line. The system employs both capacitance and a conductance probe at the orifice, together with phase detection and data acquisition circuitry to measure flow volume and salinity under low or zero gravity conditions. A wide variety of frequencies can be used for the radio frequency (RF) signal source which is chosen primarily by the capacitance of the orifice probe and the fluid passing through the orifice. Rapid measurements are made using the reflected signal from the orifice probe to determine the 'instantaneous' permittivity of the fluid/gas mixture passing through. The 'instantaneous' measurements are integrated over time to determine flow volume. Analysis reveals that a narrow orifice helps to reduce non-linearities caused by differing flow rates. The geometry of 'deflectors' and 'directors' for the flowing fluid are important in obtaining linearity. Measured data shows that a volume measurement accuracy of approximately four percent can be consistently achieved. The prototype hardware system and associated software have been optimized and are available for further applications. The system has immediate application in low or zero gravity environments for measurements of urine or other liquid volumes.

  7. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe Systems (MEPS), a space vehicle designed to observe the planet Mars in preparation for manned missions. The options considered for each major element are presented as a trade analysis, and the final vehicle design is defined.

  8. Probing disorders of the nervous system using reprogramming approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ichida, Justin K; Kiskinis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    The groundbreaking technologies of induced pluripotency and lineage conversion have generated a genuine opportunity to address fundamental aspects of the diseases that affect the nervous system. These approaches have granted us unrestricted access to the brain and spinal cord of patients and have allowed for the study of disease in the context of human cells, expressing physiological levels of proteins and under each patient's unique genetic constellation. Along with this unprecedented opportunity have come significant challenges, particularly in relation to patient variability, experimental design and data interpretation. Nevertheless, significant progress has been achieved over the past few years both in our ability to create the various neural subtypes that comprise the nervous system and in our efforts to develop cellular models of disease that recapitulate clinical findings identified in patients. In this Review, we present tables listing the various human neural cell types that can be generated and the neurological disease modeling studies that have been reported, describe the current state of the field, highlight important breakthroughs and discuss the next steps and future challenges. PMID:25925386

  9. Probing Potential Energy Surface Exploration Strategies for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    N'Tsouaglo, Gawonou Kokou; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2015-04-14

    The efficiency of minimum-energy configuration searching algorithms is closely linked to the energy landscape structure of complex systems, yet these algorithms often include a number of steps of which the effect is not always clear. Decoupling these steps and their impacts can allow us to better understand both their role and the nature of complex energy landscape. Here, we consider a family of minimum-energy algorithms based, directly or indirectly, on the well-known Bell-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principle. Comparing trajectories generated with BEP-based algorithms to kinetically correct off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo schemes allow us to confirm that the BEP principle does not hold for complex systems since forward and reverse energy barriers are completely uncorrelated. As would be expected, following the lowest available energy barrier leads to rapid trapping. This is why BEP-based methods require also a direct handling of visited basins or barriers. Comparing the efficiency of these methods with a thermodynamical handling of low-energy barriers, we show that most of the efficiency of the BEP-like methods lie first and foremost in the basin management rather than in the BEP-like step. PMID:26574398

  10. Probing Potential Energy Surface Exploration Strategies for Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    N'Tsouaglo, Gawonou Kokou; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-François; Brommer, Peter; Mousseau, Normand; Pochet, Pascal

    2015-04-14

    The efficiency of minimum-energy configuration searching algorithms is closely linked to the energy landscape structure of complex systems, yet these algorithms often include a number of steps of which the effect is not always clear. Decoupling these steps and their impacts can allow us to better understand both their role and the nature of complex energy landscape. Here, we consider a family of minimum-energy algorithms based, directly or indirectly, on the well-known Bell-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principle. Comparing trajectories generated with BEP-based algorithms to kinetically correct off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo schemes allow us to confirm that the BEP principle does not hold for complex systems since forward and reverse energy barriers are completely uncorrelated. As would be expected, following the lowest available energy barrier leads to rapid trapping. This is why BEP-based methods require also a direct handling of visited basins or barriers. Comparing the efficiency of these methods with a thermodynamical handling of low-energy barriers, we show that most of the efficiency of the BEP-like methods lie first and foremost in the basin management rather than in the BEP-like step.

  11. Development of dosimetry using detectors of diagnostic digital radiography systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ariga, Eiji; Ito, Shigeki; Deji, Shizuhiko; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2007-01-15

    Dosimetry using an imaging plate (IP) of computed radiography (CR) systems was developed for quality control of output of the x-ray equipment. Sensitivity index, or the S number, of the CR systems was used for estimating exposure dose under the routine condition: exposure dose from 1.0 to 1.0x10{sup 2} {mu}C kg{sup -1}, tube voltages from 50 to 120 kV, and added filtration from 0 to 4.0 mm Al. The IP was calibrated by using a 6 cc ionization chamber having traceability to the National Standard Ionization Chamber. The uncertainty concerning the fading effect was suppressed less than 1.9% by reading the latent image 4 min{+-}5 s after irradiation at the room temperature 25.9{+-}1.0 degree sign C. The S number decreased linearly on the logarithmic graph regardless of the beam quality as exposure dose increased. The relationship between the exposure dose (E) and the S number was fitted by the equation E=a{sup '}xS{sup -b}. The coefficient a{sup '} decreased when the added filtration and the tube voltage were increased. The coefficient b was 0.977{+-}0.007 in all beam qualities. The dosimetry using the IP and the equation can estimate the exposure dose in a range from 9.0x10{sup -2} to 5.0 {mu}C kg{sup -1} within an uncertainty of {+-}5% required by the Japanese Industry Standard. This dose range partially included the doses under routine condition. The doses between 1.0 and 1.0x10{sup 2} {mu}C kg{sup -1} under the routine condition can be shifted to the 5% region by using an absorber. The IP dosimetry is applicable to the quality control of the CR systems.

  12. Microcomputerized electric field meter diagnostic and calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, L. D.; Mason, J. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A computerized field meter calibration system which includes an apparatus for testing the calibration of field meters normally utilized for measuring electromagnetic field potentials is described. A reference voltage is applied to the field meter for causing signals to be produced on the output terminals thereof. A bank of relays is provided for selectively connecting output terminals of the field meter to a multiplexer by means of a digital voltmeter and an oscilloscope. A frequency-shift-keyed receiver is also connected to one of the terminals of the field meter for transmitting and converting a frequency shift keyed signal to a digital signal which is, subsequently, applied to the multiplexer.

  13. Fragmentation in isotopic and isobaric systems as probe of density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Gautam, Sakshi; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2016-11-01

    We probe the density-dependent behavior of symmetry energy using the yield of various fragments in central collisions of various isotopic and isobaric colliding pairs. We calculate the yields of free nucleons, light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments in neutron-rich colliding systems as well as the ratio of relative yields of above fragments and free nucleons. Our findings reveal that the ratio of relative yield of light charged particles poses better candidate to probe the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy.

  14. Real-time expert system diagnostics and monitoring for the High Resolution Microwave Survey Targeted Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macalou, A.; Glass, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    An automated monitoring and diagnostics system (MDS) using virtual real-time software was developed for NASA's High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Targeted Search System (TSS). The four main tasks required of the MDS were monitoring and recording system health, alerting operators of problems, diagnosing poor system performance, and performing an emergency system shutdown. The MDS was implemented using commercial expert system software tools in addition to interface hardware and software developed on site. The expert system used objects, rules, and schematics in its TSS knowledge representation. The MDS was successfully integrated into the HRMS computer environment, and its performance met or exceeded its requirements.

  15. Probing Nearby Planetary Systems by Debris Disk Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Many main-sequence stars possess tenuous circumstellar dust clouds believed to trace extrasolar analogs of the Sun's asteroidand Kuiper Belts. While most of these "debris disks" are known only from far-infrared photometry, a growing number of them are now spatially resolved. In this talk, I'll review what is currently known about the structure of debris disks. Using images from the Hubble, Spitzer, and Herschel Space Telescopes, I will show how modeling of these resolved systems can place strong constraints on dust particle properties in the disks. Some of the disks show disturbed structures suggestive of planetary perturbations: specific cases will be discussed where directly-imaged exoplanets are clearly affecting debris disk structure. I'll conclude with thoughts on the future of high contrast exoplanet imaging.

  16. SPIN POLARIZED PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AS A PROBE OF MAGNETIC SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, P.D.; GUNTHERODT, G.

    2006-11-01

    Spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this chapter, we examine the methodology of the technique and its recent application to a number of different problems. We first examine the photoemission process itself followed by a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements. We review studies of spin polarized surface states, interface states and quantum well states followed by studies of the technologically important oxide systems including half-metallic transition metal oxides, ferromagnet/oxide interfaces and the antiferromagnetic cuprates that exhibit high Tc Superconductivity. We also discuss the application of high-resolution photoemission with spin resolving capabilities to the study of spin dependent self energy effects.

  17. The Introduction of a Diagnostic Decision Support System (DXplain™) into the workflow of a teaching hospital service can decrease the cost of service for diagnostically challenging Diagnostic Related Groups (DRG)s

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Peter L.; Liebow, Mark; Bauer, Brent A.; Chaliki, Swarna; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind; Bundrick, John; Lee, Mark; Brown, Steven H.; Froehling, David; Bailey, Kent; Famiglietti, Kathleen; Kim, Richard; Hoffer, Ed; Feldman, Mitchell; Barnett, G. Octo

    2010-01-01

    Background In an era of short inpatient stays, residents may overlook relevant elements of the differential diagnosis as they try to evaluate and treat patients. However, if a resident’s first principal diagnosis is wrong, the patient’s appropriate evaluation and treatment may take longer, cost more, and lead to worse outcomes. A diagnostic decision support system may lead to the generation of a broader differential diagnosis that more often includes the correct diagnosis, permitting a shorter, more effective, and less costly hospital stay. Methods We provided residents on General Medicine services access to DXplain, an established computer-based diagnostic decision support system, for 6 months. We compared charges and cost of service for diagnostically challenging cases seen during the fourth through sixth month of access to DXplain (intervention period) to control cases seen in the six months before the system was made available. Results 564 cases were identified as diagnostically challenging by our criteria during the intervention period along with 1173 cases during the control period. Total charges were $1281 lower (P=.006), Medicare Part A charges $1032 lower (p=.006) and cost of service $990 lower (P=.001) per admission in the intervention cases than in control cases. Conclusions Using DXplain on all diagnostically challenging cases might save our medical center over $2,000,000 a year on the General Medicine Services alone. Using clinical diagnostic decision support systems may improve quality and decrease cost substantially at teaching hospitals. PMID:20951080

  18. Spatial Four Wave Mixing, Probe Images, and Fluorescence Signals in Dressed Three-Level System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Huayan; Sun, Jia; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the spatial images of the probe, generated four wave mixing (FWM) signal and the accompanying fluorescence spectrum signal simultaneously in FWM process in a cascade three-level atomic system for the first time. We experimentally observe and theoretically investigate the three spectrum signals versus the probe field as well as the dressing field frequency detunings. Utilizing the experimental results of spectrum signals, the cross phase modulation and the relative position between the weak and strong beams, we analyze the characteristics indicated in the spatial images of probe transmission and FWM, such as focusing or defocusing, shift and splitting in detail. Such studies can be used in all-optical controlled spatial signal transmission.

  19. [Systemic sarcoidosis: a diagnostic challenge in pediatrics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Díaz Angarita, Tomás; Morales Camacho, William; Lozano Neira, Laura; Plata Ortiz, Jessica; Zárate Taborda, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, evidenced most often in young adults, which can compromise several organs, mainly lung, lymph nodes, eyes and skin. The presence of the disease in pediatric population is rare. Denomination in pediatrics is made based on age and clinical manifestations of the patient. The aim of this report is to present a case of systemic sarcoidosis in a pediatric patient without lung involvement with severe extrapulmonary manifestations. Fifteen year old patient who debuted with nonspecific symptoms (emesis, weight loss). Radiographic studies without lung involvement but with findings suggestive of Langerhans cell histiocytosis; however, histopathological report (bone and lymph) showed the presence of chronic granulomatous nonnecrotizing disease, sarcoidosis type. Childhood sarcoidosis is a rare and difficult entity to diagnose, mainly by the lack of specific biomarkers for diagnosis. PMID:27606655

  20. A telemetric measurement system for flow diagnostic after bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacheja, J; Bach, T

    2002-01-01

    In medical applications minimal invasive techniques become more and more important. This paper is focused on the results of vascular flow measurements based on micromachined acceleration sensors. A telemetry circuit will be designed to transmit energy to the system and transmit data from it. The sensors were placed outside on artificial blood vessels. With special prepared measuring equipment we have varied the flow through elastic flexible tubes. The tubes were narrowed to different levels to simulate different states of a stenosis. The duty cycled output signals of the acceleration sensors modulates the amplitude of an analogue carrier frequency. The demodulator in the receiving module rebuilds the transferred sensor signals which are evaluated by a microcontroller. PMID:12451859